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Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Spring 2001
Copyright Date: 1997
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
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Volume ID: VID00033
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Volume 28 No. 1


Spring 200

The INA Quarterl

Volume 28 No. 1 Spring 2001

3 The First Black Sea Shipwreck Excavation:
Kiten, Bulgaria
Kroum N. Batchvarov

10 A Cargo of Knowledge
J. Richard Steffy

13 New Hunting Grounds:
Searching for Shipwrecks in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba
Mark Feulner

17 Neptune 2K: The Underwater Archaeology of D-Day
Brett A. Phaneufand James S. Schmidt

22 Underwater Survey of Malta
AyXe D. Atauz and John McManamon

29 Denbigh Revisited
Ashley Porter and Chris Dechillo

30 Deep Wrecks and Research in the Gulf of Mexico
Brett A. Phaneuf

31 Just Released
Iron and Steamship Archaeology

32 News and Notes

33 In Memoriam: Richard W. Swete

34 In Memoriam: Sylvia Thomas Baird

35 In Memorium: Frank Darden

On the cover: Timbers from the first Black Sea shipwreck ever to be scientifically excavated. Photo: K. Dimitrov
March 2001 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. All rights reserved.
INA welcomes requests to reprint INA Quarterly articles and illustrations. Articles for publication should be submitted in hard copy and on a 3.25
diskette (Macintosh, DOS, or Windows format acceptable) along with all artwork Please address all requests and submissions to the Editor, INA
Quarterly, P.O. Drawer HG, College Station, TX 77841-5137; tel (979) 845-6694, fax (979) 847-9260, e-mail
The Home Page for INA is at
The Institute of Nautical Archaeology is a non-profit scientific and educational organization, incorporated in 1972. Since 1976, INA has
been affiliated with Texas A&M University, where INAfaculty teach in the Nautical Archaeology Program of the Department of Anthro-
pology. The opinions expressed in Quarterly articles are those of the authors, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Institute.

The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newusletter (vols. 1-18).

Editor: Christine A. Powell

The First Black Sea Shipwreck Excavation:

Kiten, Bulgaria

Kroum N. Batchvarov, INA Research Associate

"Breakers off the starboard bow!" The cry of the lookout was immediately followed by "Breakers
off the larboard bow!" Now that the ship approached the Bay of Urdoviza, the surf beating on the two
Marmaliata shoals was clearly visible even from the quarterdeck. Somewhere dead ahead there was a
narrow passage between the reefs-barely 300 paces. Running under foresail, the ship would pass
through the gap, with some luck, and ride out the vicious storm protected by Cape Urdoviza. The vessel
raced between the reefs, rounded up, and dropped anchor in the lee of the cape. The crew did not have the
time to congratulate themselves for their delivery before the cable parted. The wind and waves grabbed
the vessel and mercilessly drove it into the shallows off the beach. The ship struck stern first and swung
out of control, bow pointing to the north. The waves started making a clear break across the deck.
Beating on a sand bar, the hull opened up and the shipfilled with water and sank.

The above paragraph is, of course, just one scenar-
io, but it is likely to be close to what happened to this Black
Sea trader which now lies under the formidable Cape Ur-
doviza. For generations, it had been lost and forgotten, until
the 1980s when the wreck was discovered by archaeolo-
gists from the Center for Underwater Archaeology (CUA),
Sozopol, Bulgaria. Some work was done then, but it was
found that the shipwreck lies on top of a Bronze Age set-
tlement. Consequently, the excavation shifted to the inun-
dated settlement. During the summer of 2000, a joint INA /
CUA expedition was in the Bay of Kiten, under Cape Ur-
doviza, to relocate the wreck and carry out the first com-
plete shipwreck excavation in the Black Sea.
On the first dive of the season, Dr. Kalin Porozha-
nov, Director of the Institute of Thracology, Bulgarian
Academy of Sciences, and I relocated the wreck within ten
minutes. The rigid metal pipe squares used in the 1980s

were still in place on the bottom, though partially buried
in the sand.
The wreck lies under the imposing height of Cape
Urdoviza at a depth of between eight and eight-and-a-half
meters. This proved a great booster to our productivity,
for we could spend almost unlimited time underwater. In
the end, practicality limited bottom time to about five hours
per person, per day. The main limiting factor was the small
number of air tanks-all of them provided by our Bulgar-
ian colleagues.
The Black Sea has the undeserved reputation of be-
ing dark with poor visibility. The black in the name, how-
ever, is not derived from the color of the water, which is
green. The worst visibility that we had to deal with this
summer was still more than two meters, while on better
days it was more than seven meters. From the surface, it
was possible to see the tags of the control points used for

INA Quarterly 28.1

Drawings: K. Batchvarov
Fig. 1. The Bay of Kiten, sheltered by Cape Urdoviza on the Bulgarian coast, was the site of the first scientific excavation of a Black
Sea shipwreck.

the recording of the site. The Bulgarian archaeologists as-
sured us that August is about the worst time for underwa-
ter work, as the weather is most unsettled, increasing
chances for storms that destroy visibility. Their extensive
experience (the average length of a season when they ex-
cavated the flooded settlements was about eight months)
shows that the best period for work starts about the first
week of September. Visibility in the fall and early winter
months is usually about ten meters, with greatly lessened
wave effects.
The temperature of the water hovered around twen-
ty-two degrees Celsius (72' F.) and proved comfortable for
extended dives. Experience has shown that one can expect
warm water until the beginning of December. As the wreck
lies in the surf zone, surge was present on the bottom after
heavy waves. This was not strong enough to make work
impossible, but frequently limited us in what we could do
on the dives.
The Bay of Kiten is closed to the north and north-
east by Cape Urdoviza and is one of the best anchorages
south of Cape Maslen Nos. Sailors have used it for shelter
since time immemorial. Indirect evidence from the inun-
dated settlement shows that seafaring was part of people's
lives in the area as early as the mid-third millennium BCE.
As occupation of the cape continued throughout the cen-
turies, cultural remains were deposited in the shallow wa-
ters. Dr. Porozhanov and Dr. Hristina Angelova, the
Director of CUA, warned us of large quantities of intru-
sive pottery. Sure enough! The associated ceramic frag-
ments would have suggested a date in the Early Bronze
Age for the ship. Sherds of that period easily dominated
our early findings-sometimes deeper into the hull than
logic would dictate. Fragments of amphoras of the Classi-
cal period, the Middle Ages, and the Ottoman
period were scattered around and within the
ship. Troy Nowak-a fellow graduate student '-"'
in the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas
A&M University-and I deduced the origin of
these sherds over our first dinner in the excel-
lent restaurant at the Marina. The blame for this
mixture of styles and dates can be laid squarely
on the surge caused by the storms. Even while
we worked on our trenches changes in the dis-
tribution of artifacts occurred between dives. Ce-
ramics were constantly deposited on top of our
excavation. This mixing of cultural levels, the
large number of wrecks (at least seven are known
to the joint CUA/INA team so far), and the stack-
ing of sites on top of each other have been en-
countered by INA on previous projects, such as
Tantura Lagoon, Israel.
Considering the depth at which we were
going to work and the available funds and time, Fig. 2.
Dr. Angelova, Kalin Dimitrov (an archaeologist drofoil i

with CUA), and I decided to build waterdredges. They have
been successfully used on a wide range of sites, including
the Lake Champlain vessels excavated by Dr. Kevin
Crisman, the Dominican "Pipe Wreck" of Dr. Jerome Lynn
Hall, and Jon Adams' Sea Venture in Bermuda. They were
recommended also by Dr. Frederick Hocker of the Danish
Maritime Museum, who generously provided the design.
All the credit for the building of the dredges goes to Kalin
Dimitrov, who proved to be the technical genius and
Guardian Angel of the expedition, in addition to his con-
siderable archaeological talents. All the underwater pho-
tographs are also his doing. Although we would liked to
have had three or four dredges, budgetary restraints Lim-
ited us to two. We found them to be good, reliable tools,
though sensitive and needing proper adjustment before
becoming operational. With the help of Dr. Hocker, Kalin
solved this problem, too,

The Excavation
When the wreck was relocated for this excavation,
only small portions of the frames were visible. There was
no indication of the position of these fragments, relative to
the rest of the hull. Considering the short time we had, we
decided to drive a trench perpendicular to the visible
frames. This, the reasoning went, would give us the most
information for the least expenditure of time and money.
It would also indicate how much of the hull survived (we
believed it was only the bottom), what breadth was still
extant, and possibly the original beam measurement. If
enough was left, it might also provide some artifacts and
hints as to the construction. The theory behind the deci-
sion was perfectly sound. The practice... well, we shall
come to that further on. The trench, itself divided into four

Photo: K. 1atchvarov
The team's advance headquarters were located under a retired hy-
n Kiten.

rNA Quarterly 28.1

three-by-three-meter squares, was designated "F"
and the squares were numbered from 3 to 6. Very
early in the campaign, it became necessary to mod-
ify our original plan. We found the bow of the
ship and needed to open one additional three-by-
three-meter square. For the time being, it has no
designation other than "the bow square."
The whole purpose of the exercise was to
map the surviving hull structure. To this end,
we decided to use the proven Direct Survey
Measurement (DSM) system, so successfully
used by INA at Bozburun. As our colleagues had
less experience in shipwreck excavation than we
did, the recording was left completely to the INA
workers. I have always found it convenient to
delegate duties, so the actual task of mapping
fell mainly on Troy Nowak's shoulders. DSM
was used to produce the site plan. For hull con-
struction, we employed local recording. Fig. 3.
A total of seventeen people participated operation
in this expedition. On the INA side, these were
Assistant Director Troy Nowak, Diving Safety Officer John
McManamon, Mark Polzer, and myself as Co-director. Dr.
Hocker, a dear friend, was good enough to give a whole
week from his busy schedule and come to our assistance.
His help with the dredges, and the advice he provided,
are largely to be credited for our successes. The Bulgarian
team consisted of Co-director Dr. Porozhanov (who had
been one of the main driving forces behind the investigation
of the wreck in the 1980s), Dr. Angelova, Kalin Dimitrov,
three Macedonian archaeology students, and five Bulgarian
students from New Bulgarian University. Dr. Nikolai

Fig. 4. Velina remained anchored over the site throughout the day
pumps working on her deck.

Photo: K. Batchvarov
Velina, captained by Petar Petrov, carried the team to each day's

Ovcharov from the Bulgarian Institute of Archaeology visit-
ed the expedition for three days.
During the excavation, the crew was housed in the
CUA base, just outside of Sozopol. The rooms had their
own showers, a convenience that made life much more
pleasant than on the typical excavation. Each morning af-
ter breakfast, we made our way to Kiten, about thirty kilo-
meters farther south, to start a new day of work. Our
headquarters there were located under an old passenger
hydrofoil whose steaming days were over (fig. 2). It was a
major attraction for the tourist crowds that flooded Kiten.
There we stored our equipment. Each morning,
the water pumps powering the dredges were
loaded on Velina, CUA's research vessel (fig. 3).
Captain Petar Petrov proved to be not just an ex-
ceptionally competent seaman, but a hard work-
ing and talented archaeologist as well.
Throughout the day, the boat would be anchored
on top of the site and the pumps would be work-
ing on her deck (fig. 4). Normally, Dr. Angelova
and her intrepid crew of students were on the first
dive and they ran the dredges for hours on end
under her archaeological tutelage. Next, the re-
cording crew dived. These--more often than
not-were the INA team, who measured and
mapped the trench and its adjacent areas. Once
we decided to start the new square in the bow
area, it was up to John McMana.mon and me to
do it. We received active help from Captain Pete.
Unfortunately, the advancing date and the be-
itchvarov ginning of the school year tore John from us. De-
Swith the prived of his company, I was left alone on "our"
bow. The afternoon usually saw another set of

INA Quarterly 28.1

dives. After filling the tanks late in the evening, we head-
ed back to Sozopol, dinner, and hot showers. The crew went
to bed, Troy to the archaic machine that passed as our com-
puter, and Dr. Angelova and I to a council of war that of-
ten lasted hours.
Any vessel entering the Bay of Urdoviza has to run
the gauntlet between two shoals parallel to the shore that
leave a gap of no more than a hundred meters. In heavy
weather, the sight of the breaking waves is both impressive
and horrifying. If you are a sailor trying to run between them,
it is only horrifying. While the bay usually offers some mea-
sure of protection from the prevailing winds, it dearly proved
insufficient to save this ship. Having sunk into the bottom,
the wreck patiently waited for centuries until archaeologists
could uncover her secrets. Once we started excavating the
timbers, the sea itself helped us. In the first week, wave ac-
tion uncovered many of the frames.
We decided to run our trench perpendicularly to the
visible frames. Very Little was protruding from the bottom,
so it was impossible to determine where the trench was
along the length of the vessel. In fact, we quickly found
that we had started work far aft, where the side of the ship
curved towards the stem. Consequently, our trench crossed
the centerline at an angle. As the square grid was not used
for recording, but only for orientation, the angle did not
cause any inconvenience.
In the 1980s, archaeologists had estimated the length
of the ship at about twenty-two meters (although they did
not find the bow), with about seven meters of breadth ex-
tant. This is consistent with our findings: eighteen meters
of existing length were measured and recorded this sum-
mer, but we did not reach the stem, as the earlier team
had. From the shape in the stem area where we opened
our trench, it is reasonable to conclude that there might be
about three meters more to reach the stempost.

Ship Construction
The first impression that the wreck made on us was
of a very heavily built ship. Some of the stringers (ongitudi-
nal strengthening members) and planking were visible al-
most immediately after we started work. The scantlings were
impressive for such a relatively small vessel The hull structure-
frames, stringers, and planking-are believed to be oak.
Earlier in the article, I mentioned that our theory
and the reality differed. We believed it was improbable to
find a well-preserved hull. Our wreck was in a surf zone.
Even in quiet water, archaeologists are used to seeing
wrecks heavily damaged or destroyed by marine borers
(such as teredo worms). Consequently, we expected the
trench to provide few constructional details of the ship. If
we were lucky, we might find the keelson and floors, and
perhaps a maststep, ceiling, or interior planking.
However, once the trench was opened and Dr. An-
gelova began the excavation in F3 and F4, we ran into a

Photo: K. Dimitrov
Fig. 5. Frames and collapsed deck structure in square F3 of the

jumble of timber. For awhile it was not clear what we were
seeing. We continued finding pieces of timber, roughly
oriented along the centerline of the ship, without reach-
ing the bottom. It began to dawn on us that we were look-
ing at a very well preserved hull. Mark and Troy ran into
knees, which are normally associated with the deck struc-
ture. Dr. Angelova discovered a heavy plank to which eye-
bolts were still attached. These are generally associated
with the rigging, so this was additional evidence that we
were looking at remains of the deck structure (figs. 5 and
6). By the end of the season, the trench had reached a depth
of about seventy-five to eighty centimeters, but had not
reached the bottom of the ship. Instead, we were still work-
ing on the starboard side.
The bow provided additional information (fig. 7).
When we found the top of the stem barely visible above
the sand, we assumed it was only a few centimeters above
the keel. However, the level of the bow square was taken
down as much as in the stern area without reaching the
keel or keelson. A number of interesting constructional fea-
tures were uncovered.
The bow of a ship has always been hard to frame
because the extreme curvature of the planking requires
additional support. Beginning in the eighteenth century,
this was provided by cant frames mounted to the keel at a
less than ninety degree angle, perpendicular to the plank-
ing. Our vessel used Y-frames, an older system. We found
that the visible Y-frame was lying on top of the stem and
not on the keel. To starboard, the frames were sandwiched
between two heavy longitudinal timbers, notched around
them. Matching fastening holes indicated that the timbers
were through-bolted, providing massive longitudinal sup-
port to the hull. Our working theory is that these are a wale
and stringer. The stringer may prove to be the beam clamp
that supported the deck. Next season should give a defi-
nite answer. From the plan, one can see that to starboard

INA Quarterly 28.1

Fig. 6. Trench F plan. The position of the collapsed timbers will allow future reconstruction of the Kiten vessel's design.

the planking of the board is still
in situ, even though it has fallen
out of the stem rabbet. These
planking strakes suggest that the
ship survives to about deck lev-
el. The stem is buried deeper than
the bow, so more of the hull prob-
ably survives there than forward.
As of now, we have no def-
inite date for the vessel. Wood
samples have been sent to Dr. Pe-
ter Kuniholm at Comell Univer-
sity for dating. The artifact
assemblages recovered in the
1980s and in August 2000 imply
that the ship was built, operated,
and lost in the Ottoman period,
probably after the early seven-
teenth century. Nothing more
definite can yet be said. As this is
the first Black Sea ship ever exca-
vated by archaeologists, we have
little comparable material, which
makes dating more difficult.

0 50 m I m
Drawing: K. Batchvarov

Fig. 7. The bow provided valuable information about the ship's construction.

INA Quarterly 28.1

Photo: K. Dimitrov
Fig. 8. This wooden block, from the bow square, was just one of
the many rigging elements unearthed during the excavation.

The Artifacts
Complete Y-frames and knees are rare finds and nat-
urally were of great interest to us. However, these were
not the only finds that came from the site. The bow square
did not provide us with any personal effects or household
goods, but two important and interesting finds more than
compensated us. Under the stem, I found an intact wood-
en block lying on the remains of the rope that probably
ran through it (fig. 8). After the complete excavation of the
wreck, the location of the block may assist us in recon-
structing the rig. The second find was a large sheave, found
among the upper-side planking to starboard.

The trench provided a wider range of artifacts. Be-
sides the large number of pottery sherds from the last
four and a half millennia, we found items that may very
well have been associated with the wreck (fig. 9). The
previous expedition found two bronze ink-pots, Chris-
tian decorative elements, pottery, a large number of rig-
ging elements, copper cooking pots, and a pig's skin. The
designs and swine hide suggest Christian ownership of
the vessel, while the writing implements suggest that
someone on board was literate. We found additional
support for this hypothesis: a small wooden piece with
incised decoration that may have been a penholder. A

Figs. 9 and 10. Artifacts (left) recovered in the 1980s are similar to those found during the 2000 excavation season. A number of
interesting pipes (right)from the Ottoman period were uncovered. Photos: K. Dimitrov

INA Quarterly 28.1

small, almost intact, glazed bowl was discovered by
Troy while Mark found large quantities of rope under
the timbers. A belt buckle and a rhomboidal piece of
leather were probably part of a crewman's attire. From
the location in the stem, they may have belonged to an
officer. In the same area was the rim of another copper
pan, as well as an applique with a floral design that may
have graced the handle of a knife. Dr. Angelova and the
students working under her direction found a number of
interesting pipes of the Ottoman period (fig. 10). In F6, Petar
uncovered two small pieces of woman's jewelry-a small
earring and a ring.

Future Work
We had a very short time in which to do our work.
Due to budgetary constraints, our crew of just seventeen
people had only a month on site. Just short of a third of
this time was lost to bad weather. Nevertheless, we
achieved a number of very important objectives. First, INA
was a partner in the first excavation of a shipwreck in the
Black Sea. This season confirmed the excellent preserva-
tion to be found in Bulgarian waters. We also established
that the lower cost of living and working in Bulgaria allow
the efficient use of INA's finite resources.

Second, an excellent working partnership was estab-
lished between INA and CUA. This paves the way for fur-
ther work in this promising region. We made important
contacts and obtained leads on further shipwrecks. Besides
the seven wrecks in the Bay of Kiten, we have been told of a
wreck-possibly Hellenistic-in the Bay of Sozopol, and a
post-medieval armed ship sunk off Cape Talassacra. A wreck
further north has been discovered, but not excavated, by Bul-
garian archaeologists. The director of that survey confirmed
extensive hull preservation and, on the basis of the ampho-
ras, has dated the site to the fifth century BCE. A wreck of
the Roman period is known off Shabla. This summer, I saw
a video of another two well preserved ships. Following the
example of INA in Turkey, we are developing contacts
among coastal fishermen. Many of them are willing to tell us
where they find amphoras and old pieces of timber. The po-
tential for nautical archaeology in Bulgaria is tremendous
and we can look forward to great accomplishments.
For the 2001 season, the team hopes to finish exca-
vating the post-medieval wreck under Cape Urdoviza. We
hope to uncover the rest of the hull, reaching the bottom
and stem of the ship. The 2000 season in Bulgaria was ex-
tremely successful, and there is no doubt that the next one
will be even more so.

Acknowledgments: First and foremost, I would like to thank Dr. Kevin Crisman. Without his support, this project would
never have materialized. Our thanks go also to the magnificent faculty of the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas
A&M University. The success of their students is their success.
I am personally indebted to Dr. Hristina Angelova, a co-director of the project, for making it happen. This expe-
dition has cost her enormous labor. I thank her for her friendship and patience in putting it together. Without her, there
would not have been an expedition. I would also like to thank Dr. Kalin Porozhanov for giving us the chance to work
on this exciting ship and for all he did to help.
My thanks also go to Dr. Hocker, Dr. McManamon, Mr. Nowak, and Mr. Polzer. They constituted a dream team:
patient, understanding, hard working and-above all else-exceptional people. A large part of the credit for the suc-
cess of the expedition is due to them. I do not know what would we have done without Petar Petrov and Kalin Dim-
itrov. The Bulgarian and Macedonian students were magnificent.
Last, but not least, I would like to thank Mr. and Mrs. Ron Factor for their generous financial support.

Suggested Readings

Anderson, R.C.
1952 Naval Wars in the Levant, 1559-1853. Liverpool:
Liverpool University Press.

Ovcharov, Nikolai
1992 Ships and Shipping in the Black Sea, 14th-19th cen-
turies. Sofia: St. Clement of Ochrida.

Porozhanov, Kalin
1991 "Le Site Submerge D"Ordoviza," Thracia Pontica, vol.
4. Sozopol: Center for Underwater Archaeology.

Porozhanov, Kalin,
n Press The Sunken Ship at Urdoviza-Preliminary
Notes. Sozopol: Bourgas Museum.

Prins, A. H. J.,
1992 "Mediterranean Ships and Shipping, 1650-1850,"
The Heyday of Sail: The Merchant Sailing Ship 1650-
1830, Chapter 4: 77-104. London: Conway Mari-
time Press.

INA Quarterly 28.1

A Cargo of Knowledge

J. Richard Steffy

Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus

When wooden merchantmen sailed the seven seas,
they carried two kinds of cargo-material and intellectual.
On INA field projects, we excavate both. The material cargo
is usually turned over to the conservator, who preserves it
for later display or study. The intellectual cargo is informa-
tion that was stored in the material cargo as well as in the
artifacts, ballast, chandlery, hull timbers, and anything else
that survived. This form of cargo is first entered into field
catalogs, then dispersed for processing in computers, dark-
rooms, and various other research media. Eventually, those
results are shared with others in the form of books, articles,
television documentaries, museum displays, and lectures. If
a project is properly conducted, the material cargo can never
be as valuable as its intellectual counterpart. Even if that
material consists of tons of gold objects or fine statuary, its
importance can never match the knowledge gleaned from a
well researched, well disseminated shipwreck study. That
knowledge grows and spreads over the years, and its divi-
dends can be priceless.
Of course, the value of the intellectual cargo is direct-
ly dependent on the quality of re-
cording and research. These days,
with information from dozens of
published wrecks and efficient
electronic communication, even
the simplest trinket might yield
pages of data. For something as
complex as a ship's hull, the poten-
tal for information has become so
great over the past decade that we
have been forced to adopt new
methods of analysis to ensure that
we do not overlook important de-
Ships, even small ones, are
usually the most complex objects
found on wreck sites. Take the
Kyrenia ship, for example (fig. 1).
This fourth-century BCE Greek
merchantman was only about
fourteen meters long, yet original-
ly it would have been constructed
from at least 425 pieces of pine,
each different than the others,
whose weight after processing to-
taled nearly eight tons. Its plank-
ing shell was held together by at
least four thousand mortise-and-
tenon joints and its framework was
attached to the planks with about Fig. 1. Kyrenia 11, a mo

three thousand double-clenched copper nails. It was covered
with pitch, resin, and a sheathing of lead fastened by thou-
sands of copper tacks. There were spars, sails, rigging, brail-
ing gear, anchors, rudders, ballast, dunnage, oars or sweeps,
decks, bulkheads, and dozens of other ship-related items.
All of this had to be shaped and assembled so that the com-
pleted vessel was buoyant, seaworthy, and capable of carry-
ing two and one-half times its own weight in cargo to any
port its owners desired. The Kyrenia ship was a very small
freighter. Can you imagine the complexity of those big, dou-
ble-planked Roman hulls like that of the Madrague de Giens
wreck excavated in southern France? When discovered, it
carried more than twenty times the cargo capacity of the
Kyrenia ship. How about that beautiful 44-gun British war-
ship Charon that we investigated near Yorktown, Virginia
back in the 1980s? The components from these hulls would
have numbered in the thousands and their designs and meth-
ods of assembly were an even greater challenge. One needs
excellent recording and research procedures to completely
document such monuments to technology.

dern reproduction of the Kyrenia ship.

INA Quarterly 28.1

When I became involved
with the earliest INA projects, we
were pleased if we could identify
framing patterns, planking dimen-
sions, the types of wood and metal
employed and, with a little luck, the
applications of pitch or caulking on
the planks. If preservation was good
enough, we could also supply lines
drawings and construction plans.
But that is not enough anymore.
Now we want to know where that
wood and pitch and metal originat-
ed and how each was processed, the
techniques and tools used in project-
ing and shaping those frames, and
the method of laying out and cutting
the planking. Where simple draw-
ings used to suffice, we now try to
determine various hydrostatic and
hydrodynamic properties of the hull
as welL The geometry used to design
hull shapes and control the dimen-
sions of its various components is a
target of many hull interpretations
these days (for instance, see the bot-
tom of page 13 in Filipe Castro's arti-
de in the Winter, 1999, issue of the
INA Quarterly [26.4,12-15]). Because
ship's ceiling (the inner lining of _
planking upon which the cargo rest- uL. ..A... OF THE UEIaua
ed) is sometimes made from second-
hand wood taken from abandoned Fig. 2. The Uluburun hi
vessels, the information from those
contemporary hulls must be documented as welL Now and then
we excavate a wreck that has been repaired or overhauled, some-
times on several occasions and perhaps by different ship car-
penters. What techniques were used for these replacements, how
did the tools and workmanship differ from the original hull,
and what was the arrangement of the original components that
were replaced? Then there were the people. Many lives were
involved with the construction and operation of that vessel Can
their tool marks reveal their mechanical discipline, and how did
that graffiti on the ceiling describe the ladening of the hold? Once
these and hundreds of other data have been determined, they
must be compared with similar vessels for proper analysis and
with excavations of earlier and later periods to further establish
Even where hulls have been sparsely preserved, it is
now possible to glean large amounts of information. A good
example of that was the article on the Uluburun ship by Ce-
mal Pulak in that same issue of the Quarterly (26.4, 16-21).
Dr. Pulak wrote an extensive analysis of many of the fea-
tures of this fourteenth-century BCE hull, even though only


1 m

ull timbers.

one or two percent of its original structure survived (fig. 2).
However, that is not all he will have to say about those hull
properties. His research continues and I guarantee that he
will make many more interesting statements about that old-
est seagoing hull ever to be excavated. It is a good example
of our present-day contention that all hull remains-even a
few small fragments-are potentially valuable and must be
recorded carefully.
By now you must have realized that we have had to
constantly improve our recording and research techniques,
not only in ship analyses but for all phases of underwater
projects. When I first became associated with nautical archae-
ology more than three and one-half decades ago, we inter-
preted site drawings and catalogs directly. The only research
engines were libraries and our work was conveyed in long-
hand or on typewriters. Then, for ship studies, we began
developing research models in order to extract more infor-
mation. At first they simply helped us understand where
the pieces belonged and the general nature of the hull. Then
we learned to use batten models that described the geomet-

INA Quarterly 28.1

Sl.ton A-A'


ric shapes and properties of the vessel, seabed models to study dispersion
of the timbers, and construction models that helped us determine the meth-
ods of shipwrightery involved (fig 3). Then came computers, at first ideal for
storage of information and word processing. Now, with the latest develop-
ments, powerful portable computers can be used on the most remote sites and
the process of excavation and evaluation has risen to still greater heights. A
good illustration of this is in that same issue of the INA Quarterly (26.4, 3-8). At
the top of page 8, Deborah Carlson explains how even the wreck site is now
recorded with a photogrammetric system that utilizes calibrated and digital
underwater cameras to record artifact locations with amazing accuracy. The
artifact catalog is then united with the team roster, diving log, and a daily
journal by means of an ingerdous relational database.
Hopefully, we can soon add hull catalogs to that or other field data-
bases. Last spring supplied the Tektafl Burnu crew with a check list for
recording ancient Greek hull timbers, should they come across any hullt
remains this season. It was really just an expansion of the recording and re-
search lists I published in a book and several papers a few years ago. But, when
programmed as a relational database, such a list can be used as a research tool
to determine structural similarities from other projects, variations from
common practices, or patterns that might provide information concern-
ing trade routes or nationality.
Recently, such a database was presented to INA for use by its per-
sonnel for recording, researching, and publishing hull data. Originally, it
was developed for reevaluating all our earlier ship projects and for back-
ground material for future research. In 1996, it was publicly introduced to
scholars of ancient ship construction in a paper I presented at a sympo-
sium in Greece. Over the past four years, however, it has been expanded
and improved to include wooden ships and boats of all periods and areas.
In its simplest form, this database is categorized into a series of relational
tables that compare about 150 basic details about each vessel-its struc- Photo: C. Pulak
tural properties, site details, dating methods, and other vital information. Fig. 3. Afragment model used to study the Serge
It will probably be most useful for comparative research, since it can be Limant medieval hull.
adapted for all areas and periods. In a few years, such a comparative tool will
be a necessity because of the great number of excavations that have been reported.
Several years ago, I compiled a list of more than 150 known ancient and medieval wrecks in the Mediterranean area
alone that contained hull remains. It was gleaned from dozens of publications and, in some cases, from knowledgeable
acquaintances some of us have made over the years. The vessels on this list were craft that I believed could provide varying
amounts of information about hull construction. By now, there are at least two dozen more. Some are relatively unknown,
others have been published thoroughly. The point to be made is that there must be a thousand or more known wrecks of all
periods worldwide. Add to that the virtually unlimited sources of contemporary publications, naval contracts and specifi-
cations, recorded scantling lists, and iconographic and model collections. Combined, it suggests a bonanza for investiga-
tors... provided all of that information is put into readily available, relational form. That, in a nutshell, is our intention.
Of course, much work remains to be done on the ship database. I am anything but computer savvy, and so my
creation will need the work of people versed in computer technology before it is fully operational Hopefully, though, it will
be something we can put on our website for the use of anyone interested in shipbuilding technology. It is merely our latest
answer to this continuing demand for more efficient research vehicles, so that the work of future and past INA projects will
produce even more revelations about our maritime heritage. .,

Suggested Reading

Pomey, Patrice Steffy, J. Richard
1982 "Le navire remain de la Madrague de Giens." 1994 Wooden Ship Building and the Interpretation of Ship-
Comptes rendus de l'acadnmie des inscriptions (Jan.- wrecks. College Station: Texas A&M University
Mar.): 133-54. Press.

INA Quarterly 28.1

New Hunting Grounds:

Searching for Shipwrecks in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba

Mark Feulner, INA Research Associate

Realizing a long-term dream of President Jerome
Hall, INA has conducted an investigation in Cuba (fig. 1).
In 1993, he discussed the rich archaeological potential of
Cuban waters and expressed his desire to take INA there
(FNA Quarterly 20.3, 3-6). During August 2000, Dr. Hall
joined a small team of INA researchers in a visual recon-
naissance conducted at Guantanamo Bay.
The survey was conducted from the United States
Naval Station. The Navy hosts warmly greeted the INA
archaeologists and exhibited a strong interest in their work.
The support of the base personnel made this project a sin-
gular experience and allowed the team to accomplish a
great deal in a short time.
The first European visit to Guantanamo Bay was
made by Christopher Columbus during his second voy-
age to the New World in 1494. Columbus named the bay
"Puerto Grande," then moved on in his search for gold.
Despite its meager supply of fresh water-the region is
semi-arid-the bay saw a fair amount of activity during
the following centuries. The nineteen by eight kilometer
bay has numerous mangrove inlets protected by surround-
ing mountains. It is deep enough for large vessels and has
a narrow entrance. These sheltered waters have long been
used as a haven for ships during the frequent hurricanes
of the Caribbean. In the heyday of the Spanish Main, Guan-
tanamo Bay was a stronghold for pirates preying on ships

traversing the Windward Passage from Europe to New
Spain. The pirates Naum, Sores, and Rosillo are all reput-
ed to have used it, and legend has it that the New Orleans
pirate Rosario was chased into the Bay and took refuge up
the Guantanamo River.
On July 18, 1741, the British West Indies Squadron
under the command of Vice Admiral Edward Vernon
sailed into Guantanamo Bay, known then as Walthenham
Harbor. The bay was to be used as a landing point for Brit-
ish troops who would march overland to attack Santiago
de Cuba. Due to delays, the troops had time to succumb to
tropical disease, foiling the attempt. Local lore is that the
present-day Hospital Cay in Guantanamo Bay bears that
name because the British established a hospital there to
treat its ailing soldiers and sailors. In 1854, the islet served
the same purpose for HMS Buzzard, which put ashore ten
to twelve yellow fever patients for isolation and treatment.
All recovered except the ship's paymaster, E. N. Harrison,
who is buried on the south end of the cay.
In 1898, Guantanamo Bay was used by the United
States in an expedition against Santiago de Cuba during
the Spanish-American War. On June 10, a battalion of Unit-
ed States Marines landed at Fisherman's Point in the Bay,
and established control of the region after capturing and
destroying the Spanish headquarters at Cuzco Wells. The
American forces held down seven thousand Spanish troops
at Guantanamo City, directly contributing to the United
States victory at Santiago de Cuba. In 1903, five years after

Maps: M. Feulner

INA Quarterly 28.1

Fig. 1. Guantanamo Bay became the first area of Cuba to be the subject of an INA survey in August 2000,

the Spanish-American War, the United States
acquired Guantanamo Bay as a coaling and
naval station, and it has been occupied by U.S.
forces ever since.
The maritime activity that Guantanamo
Bay has seen through the centuries suggests
that it offers a wealth of submerged cultural
resources. These enjoy special protection since
the waters are under the control of the United
States Navy. The bay has been dosed to salvors
and treasure hunters and has seen only limited
recreational diving. However, sport divers have
noted the locations of two or three wooden ship-
wrecks and have recovered artifacts of various
periods from the bay. The history of the region,
and these reports, were the primary motiva-
tion for this investigation (fig. 2).

Deer Point

Several independent oral reports indicate the exist-
ence of the remains of a wooden vessel just west of Deer
Point, in eight to nine meters of water. Clay tobacco pipes
were purportedly among the artifacts found on the site, sug-
gesting that the ship dated to the seventeenth century. This
wreck site was the primary target of the survey.
Searches were conducted near channel markers 1,
3, and 5, which Line the western and southwestern side of
Deer Point. Below six meters depth, visibility dropped to
less than a meter, limiting the effectiveness of visual re-
connaissance. As remarked by survey team member Wil-
liam Charlton, "This is like diving in liquid talcum
powder." Between the shore and the markers, the shallow
grass flats at less than two meters depth drop abruptly to

'hoto: N
Fig. 3. Deer Point from the air. The outline of USS Monongah(
seen below the point.

Photo: M. Feulner
Fig. 2. William Charlton makes notes during one of the many survey dives.

a shallow reef system at five to eight meters. Beyond the
reef, a flat comprising a thick layer of silt extends out be-
yond the markers, varying in depth from ten to thirteen
meters. The searches began at the grass flats and extended
to around fifty meters beyond the channel indicators. Mark-
er 5 set the southern and westernmost limit of the area
searched, and the pattern ran about one hundred meters
north of marker 1.
No evidence of the shipwreck was located during
these searches. However, the reporters had not dived on the
wreck in four to five years, and the remains may have been
buried by shifting sediment. It is also possible that the wreck
was overlooked in the poor visibility, or that the search area
was erroneously defined due to inaccurate information.

USS Monongahela
The historical record aided in location
of the remains of another vessel in the waters
around Deer Point (fig. 3). During the spring
of 1908, USS Monongahela, the station supply
ship at Guantanamo Bay, caught fire while
anchored in deep water between South Toro
Cay and Granadillo Point. She was towed to a
shallow location on the south side of Deer Point
and beached. Much was salvaged, but the ship
was a total loss, and several weeks later it set-
tied into the silt and submerged.
Monongahela, a wooden hulled screw
steamer that fought in the American Civil War,
was launched in Philadelphia in 1862. She saw
action under Admiral David Farragut at Port
Hudson on the Mississippi River during the
I. Feulner Vicksburg campaign. The screw sloop would
ela can be again serve Farragut in the Battle of Mobile Bay,
aggressively attacking the Confederate iron-

INA Quarterly 28.1

clad ram Tennessee as it sortied against the fleet, and in the
bombardment of Fort Morgan. After the Civil War, her en-
gines were removed and she was converted into a sailing
vessel. She served as a training ship until her assignment
to Guantanamo.
After a brief search, Monongahela was relocated in
the position indicated by the historical record. It lies about
sixty meters from the present Flag Landing on the south-
em side of Deer Point. The hull is upright in six to eight
meters of water, oriented east to west and parallel to the
shore less than fifty meters away.
The stempost in the eastern part of the wreck is
standing, and extends to within two meters below the sur-
face. The bow appears to have collapsed. A great deal of the
hull remains, just under ninety meters of it held together by
copper sheathing. Much metal can be found on the wreck, in
the form of sheeting, bolts, heavy rods, and spikes. Iron deck
structure remains on the vessel, and large fragments of iron
superstructure are located in a five-meter arc around the
sternpost. A wooden member, ten to twelve centimeters
thick, was found attached to the starboard side, which may
have been the deck clamp or part of the hull planking,
Amidships of the vessel, a barrel-shaped structure stands
upright on the deck; this is likely a capstan.
The copper sheeting peeling off the hull and the loos-
ened bolts are easily removed, as are other portions of the
vessel. As recognized by international law, Monongahela
remains the property of the United States Navy, and the
wreck is a protected site.

Leeward Point
The second search area was off Leeward Point at
the entrance to the bay. An old ceramic jenever (gin) bottle
had been recovered by a diver from a reef in this area (fig.
4). The bottle was inscribed with:

The inscription merely names the distiller, but its
wording suggests an antiquated form of Dutch. There were
also reports of a wooden shipwreck in this vicinity. The
prevailing winds and geography of the bay suggest that
the reefs in this area would pose a serious hazard to a ves-
sel attempting to enter the bay, especially in foul weather.
A brief search was made of the reef just south of Saint Nico-
las Point. This reef extended from the surface down to about
six or seven meters, where it ended in a sandy flat. Anoth-
er search was conducted further south of this position near
some old pilings. This investigation revealed a spur and
groove reef system extending into the deeper waters of the
main channel. Neither search revealed any evidence of
wreckage, but the survey was far from comprehensive. This
area merits closer attention.

Conde Beach
Our final investigation took place off the southern
portion of Conde Beach. A diver had reported the remains
of a wooden vessel just north of the mouth of the Guan-
tanamo River, within a hundred meters of the shore. A
search of the area revealed a sandy bottom with numer-
ous grass beds in less than two meters of water. The depth
did not vary as the search extended to about two hundred
meters from the shore. There was no evidence of a ship-
wreck in this area.

Public Relations
An important aspect of the team's work in Guan-
tanamo involved community education and involvement.
In an effort to familiarize the public with nautical archaeolo-
gy, the INA team presented two lectures on past INA projects.
First, Jerome Hall addressed the Society of American Mili-
tary Engineers (SAME) at their monthly luncheon, where he
spoke about nautical archaeology and the Monte Cristi "Pipe
Wreck." The enthusiasm continued as the local community
turned out for William Charlton's lecture on the Uluburun
excavation, where he discussed the challenges of underwa-
ter archaeology as well as the richness and significance of
the wreck itself. Charlton and I were interviewed on a lo-
cal radio broadcast, and he accepted an invitation to be a
guest speaker for a class at the local college. These presen-
tations further enhanced public knowledge.
The community remained extremely supportive of
our activities during survey. Many people approached the
team, offering support and information. One of the great-
est benefits was the help of individuals who volunteered
to dive with the team and greatly aided us in our work.
We hope we inspired more than a few avocational archae-

Photo: M. Feulner
Fig. 4. A jenever (gin) bottle found off Leeward Point by a recre-
ational diver.

INA Quarterly 28.1

Assessment and Recommendations
The region of Guantanamo Bay has substantial ties to
the history of the Caribbean. The amount of maritime activ-
ity the bay has seen through the years alone warrants further
investigation. The reports of wreck sites within the bay define
the areas that call for more intensive
scrutiny. The poor visibility found in
the upper regions of Guantanamo
Bay and the size of the reef systems
around the entrance make visual re-
connaissance of limited efficacy. Re-
mote sensing surveys using
magnetometers and side-scan sonar
conducted in these areas would be
of considerable value. A sub-bottom
profiler would also be helpful in re-
vealing what may lie beneath the
thick layers of silt. At this time, an
expedition to conduct a magne-
tometer survey is being planned for
this winter. The primary targets of
the survey will be the previously
identified areas around Deer Point,
Leeward Point, Saint Nicolas Point,
and Conde Beach. Additional ar-
eas of investigation may include
Windward Point, Hicacal Beach,
Caravella Point, and the inlet north
of Caracoles Point Previous research
done in the 1950s suggested a high
potential for shipwrecks to be locat-
ed in the upper bay. However, this
region is outside the area controlled
by the United States, and investiga- Fig. 5. A bronze cannot
tions there must await a better polit- Louis XIV, the Sun Kin
ical climate. quiring further investing


The remains of USS Monongahela should be preserved
and monitored on a periodic basis. The site is located in re-
stricted waters, and should remain off-limits to recreational
SCUBA divers and swimmers to protect the integrity of the
site. Should sufficient interest develop, the wreck can be ac-
cessed from shore or by boat as
needed, facilitating a partial or full-
scale excavation.
The scene of the Battle of
Cuzco Wells offers a significant area
for archaeological investigation of
an important engagement during
the Spanish-American War. The
region around the wells is part of a
restricted area, minimizing traffic
and potential disturbance of the
battlefield. The area would benefit
from an assessment made by terres-
trial archaeologists.
The Spanish-American War
also offers an additional item of inter-
est Amonument is placed atthecrest
of McCalla Hill, where the United
States Marines established their first
base camp upon landing at Guantan-
amo in 1898. The monument is a ped-
estal supporting a bronze French
naval gun. The gun bears the symbol
of the "Sun King," Louis XIV, as well
as the three fleur-de-lis associated
with him. This indicates that this can-
non was manufactured during his
Photo: M. Feulner reign,between 1643and1715. It isun-
bearing the symbol of known how the gun came to be at
is another mystery re- Guantanamo. This too, warrants
ion. further investigation.

Acknowledgements: I would like to thank first my team-Jerome Hall, William Charlton, and Brix Gustavson-whose
work, advice, and patience led to the success of this expedition. I also extend my gratitude to the sponsors-Gregory
Cook, Donald and Elaine Feulner, James and Patricia Robison, Charles Schug, and Raquel Suliveres-whose support
made this survey possible. I would like to recognize Dr. Kevin Crisman for his support and encouragement. Finally, I
would like to thank our hosts, the United States Navy and the people of the Naval Station at Guantanamo Bay, in
particular the Public Works Department. The help and support they offered were phenomenal, and not only contribut-
ed to the overall success of the survey, but made the experience enjoyable as well. *

Suggested Readings
Anderson, B.
1962 By Sea and by River: The Naval History of the Civil War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Coombe, J. D.
1999 Gunfire Around the Gulf: The Last Major Naval Campaigns of the Civil War. New York: Bantam Books.

Varner, B. D.
1964 The History of Guantanamo Bay, 1494-1964. 3d Ed. Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

INA Quarterly 28.1

Neptune 2K:

The Underwater Archaeology of D-Day

Brett A. Phaneuf, INA Research Associate

James S. Schmidt Naval Historical Center, Underwater Archaeologist

Ln 1997 Brett Phaneuf and Robert S. Neyland, Ph.D, Head of the Naval Historical Center's, Underwater Archae-
ology Branch, traveled to Cherbourg in Normandy, France to collect images of the wreck of the Civil War privateer CSS
Alabama with high-resolution side-scan sonar. Although they were unable to make it to the site due to bad weather, this
allowed several days to tour the American landing sectors (Utah and Omaha beaches) and other battlefield sites related
to Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of France. Both men agreed tha it is not possible to stand at Point du Hoc or
on Omaha Beach and not wonder what remains of the invasion fleet might lie beneath the waves. Almost immediately,
they began discussing the possibility of an archaeological remote sensing survey of the area (fig. 1).
The site has unique importance: on June 6, 1944-D-Day-Operation Overlord went into action. The long antic-
ipated Allied invasion of Nazi-held Europe had finally begun. The invasion plan had been set in motion the day before
with Operation Neptune, the naval aspect of Overlord. The scope of this naval action, arguably the most significant and
without question most massive in the history of war, is aptly described by author Cornelius Ryan, in The Longest Day:
They came, rank after relentless rank, ten lanes wide, twenty miles across, five thousand ships of
every description. There were fast new attack transports, slow rust-scarred freighters, small ocean
liners, Channel steamers, hospital ships, weather-beaten tankers, coasters, and swarms of fussing tugs.
There were endless columns of shallow-draft landing ships-great wallowing vessels, some of them
almost 350 feet long. Many of these and the other heavier transports carried smaller landing craft for
the actual beach assault-more than fifteen hundred of them. Ahead of the convoys were processions
of mine sweepers, Coast Guard cutters, buoy-layers, and motor launches. Barrage balloons flew above
the ships. Squadrons of fighter planes weaved below the clouds. And surrounding this fantastic caval-
cade of ships packed with men, guns, tanks, motor vehicles and supplies, and excluding small naval
vessels, was a formidable array of 702 warships.
We know that there were at least five thousand ships involved in Operation Neptune, and as many as eight
thousand support aircraft, ranging from fighter planes to bombers, gliders, and paratroop transports. The landing craft
in the British and American sectors taking part
in the action together number more than 3,200
_g Jd of various types, not including the specialized
vehicles and equipment such as amphibious
tanks and bulldozers, Jeeps, and artillery. The
venerable battleship Texas was also on hand to
crboug "" lend artillery support to the troops storming
the beaches. These included the Ranger Force
assaulting Pointe du Hoc under the command
of Lt. Col. James Earl Rudder-later to become
SChancellor of Texas A&M University.
O More than fifty years later, extensive
historical research has been conducted at in-
vasion-related sites. These range from the
amen landing beaches (Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno,
and Sword), to the German fortifications that
Normaody defended the shoreline, to the sites of the im-
portant battles further inland. However, there
Map: A. Atauz had been no underwater archaeological re-
Fig. 1. The activities of the allied forces were restricted to a short stretch of the search. No attempt had been made to corre-
Normandy coast and outlying waters. late the remaining undersea archaeological

INA Quarterly 28.1

material with the historical record of the naval aspects of
the invasion. These continued for months as hundreds of
thousands of troops and their equipment came ashore to
liberate Europe from Nazi tyranny. Instead, the undersea
archaeological record of the invasion has been subjected
to decades of erosion, and to clearing of hazards to navi-
gation-most notably, shipwrecks.
The Institute of Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M
University, in cooperation with the Naval Historical Cen-
ter's Underwater Archaeology Branch, has undertaken a
survey to determine the extent of the archaeological record
of Operation Neptune. This will be the first underwater
archaeological reconnaissance adjacent to the American D-
Day landing beaches using state of the art remote sensing
detection and imaging equipment. The landing areas will
be surveyed from Utah Beach in the west across Omaha
Beach in the east. The location of landing craft, artillery,
ships, ordinance and any other equipment from' Opera-
tion Neptune and its after-actions will be determined,
mapped and entered into GIS (a Geographic Information
System designed to manage "spatial" data like charts,
maps, sonar imagery, and geomagnetic contours). The state
of preservation of these most valuable archaeological re-
sources will be assessed and recommendations made for
further study and preservation. In addition to conducting
a general archaeological reconnaissance of the invasion
areas, the location of known losses will be examined with

rnoto: LU.A
Fig. 2. Two landing vessels, a large LST and a small LCT (or pos-
sibly a small barge), sit companionably side by side off Utah Beach.

the intent to visually record the disposition of the ship,
craft, or equipment.

Utah Beach
In late May of 2000, the RVRobo arrived in Normandy
almost two weeks behind schedule after a difficult cross-
ing of the Mediterranean Sea and Bay of Biscay from Isra-
el. With little time to rest, the archaeology team and ship's
crew prepared for work off Utah Beach, commencing on
the first of June. Innumerable magnetometer anomalies (de-
viations in the Earth's magnetic field due to the presence
of a massive, generally ferrous object, for example, a ship-
wreck or vehicle of WWIU vintage) and sonar images were
detected and recorded digitally. We used a cesium mag-
netometer coupled to a 300kHz Sea Scan PC side-scan so-
nar and HYPACK hydrographic survey software and
correlated with precise geographic position Survey
transects were plotted parallel to the shore in a more or
less NW-SE direction and spaced fifty meters apart. The
lines began approximately 250 meters off the beachhead
in three meters of water and extended seaward 4,700 meters
to a depth of approximately twenty-two meters. In five
days, the first fifty-five of ninety-one total planned Lines
were completed. This amounted to nearly nine hundred
ninety acres or eighty-six line miles-nearly forty percent
more than was thought possible for the first season. Al-
though many of the targets appear to be buried in the soft,
sandy sediments and were only detected by magnetome-
ter, three targets were truly awesome sites to behold.
Sonar images of two shipwrecks, side by side and
in all probability lost simultaneously, were captured
near the southern end of the survey area (fig. 2). The
larger of the two shipwrecks is most probably a Land-
ing Ship Tank (LST), and is more than sixty-five meters
in length, with the bow facing the right side of the im-
age. The frame ends of the hull and considerable cargo
still in the holds, most probably on the lower decks, are
clearly visible. This wreck may have been salvaged
shortly after the war, with much of its upper-works re-
moved as a source of metal to aid in rebuilding Europe,
or cleared as a hazard to navigation. However, the small
wreck adjacent to the LST appears unmolested and may
still be carrying its cargo. Initially, it was thought that
the smaller of these two wrecks was a British designed
Landing Craft Tank (LCT) used to ferry troops, artil-
lery, and vehicles to shore from the larger LSTs. It may
also be a small landing barge similar in dimension and
purpose (approximately twenty-five meters in length).
It is hoped that further investigation in 2001 will iden-
tify not only the type of ship, but also specifically which
ship, and when in the invasion it was lost. Further north
along Utah Beach, another remarkably well preserved
wreck of a landing craft was located. However, it is even
less clear what type of vessel this image represents (fig. 3).

INA Quarterly 28.1

Omaha Beach
Once work was completed for the 2000 survey along Utah Beach,
we turned to the larger area in need of attention adjacent to Omaha
Beach, in the shadow of the American Cemetery just to the south-
west. Using the same high-resolution sonar, magnetometer, GPS equip-
ment, and software, we laid out one 121 survey transects, each 4,700
meters long, parallel to shore running west to east. These were spaced
fifty meters apart, extending from the remains of the artificial harbor
caissons visible at low tide (destroyed in a gale June 19-22, 1944) nearly
5,200 meters seaward. In the eleven days the elements allowed for
surveying, the team covered an area of 3,400 acres, or 190 line miles,
nearly fifty percent more than anticipated.
The survey area is littered with objects that may be relics of the
invasion force. However, there are strong concentrations of material
close to the caissons--as would be expected-and a second concen-
tration farther offshore. Most anomalies were detected by magnetom-
eter and are not all correlated to objects imaged on the seafloor with
.side-scan sonar. Undoubtedly a countless number of objects, both
modern and historic, are presently buried in the sediment. These rep-
resent shipwrecks, vehicles, ordinance, and personal equipment and
effects of soldiers that never made it to the beach. Review of the data
Photo: INA forced us to disregard targets, or anomalies, of small magnetic signa-
Fig. 3. A well preserved but as yet unidentified ture or small in size as imaged with the side scan sonar. Still, nearly
vessel off Utah Beach. four hundred promising targets of interest populate our GIS and will
require further investigation in the survey seasons to come.
Of the innumerable images, several shipwrecks were clearly identified. The wreckage of what may be an LCT
lies upside down off Omaha Beach, its propellers visible in the upper portion of the image, bow facing the bottom of
the frame (fig. 4). Nearby are the small remains buried in the sand and mud of what may be an LCVP (Landing Craft
Vehicle and Personnel)--or Higgins Boat-built in New Orleans, Louisiana at what is now the site of the National D-
Day Museum (fig. 5). The possible remains of a "Rhino Barge" sit broken on the seafloor off Omaha Beach as well, its
corroded internal framing exposed. These craft were used to ferry large numbers of vehicles to shore from LSTs. The
larger craft stood off at sea with their bay doors open, disgorging cargo onto these low-to-the-water, shallow-draft
barges driven by outboard
motors (fig. 6). Fig. 4. An upside-down LCT with its pro-
Perhaps most interest- pellers still visible found off Omaha Beach.
ingly, we found a collection of
approximately thirteen vehi- Fig. 5. A possible LCVP or Higgins boat
cles assumed to be tanks. was found close to the LCT in fig. 4.
These were located a consid- Photos: INA
erable distance offshore along
the eastern end of the survey
area at Omaha Beach. These
are most likely the British du-
plex drive (DD) M4 Sherman
amphibious tanks assigned to
support the American Infantry
in the first wave of the inva-
sion (fig. 7). In the landing
zones code-named 'Easy Red'
and 'Fox Green' only five of
the thirty-two DD tanks (741"
Tank Battalion) made shore.
For necessary bouyan-
cy, the tanks' hatches were

INA Quarterly 28.1

Fig. 6. The possible wreckage of a "Rhino Barge."

sealed and large canvas skirts erected around the upper
portion of the vehicles. These would be lowered upon
reaching the surf zone. The launch of the first group of DD
tanks proved disastrous, sending twenty-seven to the sea
floor as they swamped in the heavy seas. The second group
of tanks and the crews of the LCTs from which they would
be launched witnessed this horror and instead steered close
to shore and landed the tanks near the beach. Even if both
waves of tanks been launched at the designated time and
position the current running strong to the east would have
caused the vehicles to come ashore in an area with little or
no maneuvering room. This would have forced them to
traverse a narrow littoral margin under heavy fire, either
to the west to support American troops or east to Gold
Beach to support the British. In either case, they would most
likely have been destroyed.
Ironically, the same current that so hampered efforts
at Omaha Beach and Point du Hoc was largely responsi-
ble for the successful landing at Utah Beach with relative-
ly few casualties. The Utah landing force came ashore about
a mile south of the intended area and faced little opposi-
tion on the beach, and was out of range of the major em-
placements of German artillery, many of which had been
destroyed in the preceding aerial bombardment. Fortunate-
ly, the decision was also made to launch the Utah Beach
DD tanks closer to shore than originally planned and they
were successful at supporting the infantry on the beach. In
all, between June 6 and 16 the Americans landed more than

300, 000 men and more than thirty-five thousand vehicles
at Utah and Omaha Beach.

Point du Hoc
The final survey area to be examined in the 2000
field season, Point du Hoc, a promontory situated nearly
halfway between Omaha and Utah Beaches, was the site
of German artillery emplacements that could have jeopar-
dized the landing operations. On the morning of June 6,
1944, the 2nd and 5th Ranger Battalions under the command
of Lt. Col. James Earl Rudder headed ashore in LCVPs (one
source stated LCAs) to attack the high cliffs of Point du Hoc
and neutralize the threat to the Allied advance. Prior to the
Ranger assault, a massive campaign of aerial and ship-to-
shore bombardment had been carried out to dislodge the
German defenders entrenched in heavy concrete bunkers.
Initially, the Rangers approached the shore to the east of their
objective due to the long-shore current and heavy seas that
swamped one of the landing craft. Traversing the coastline
to the west under fire, they landed at Point du Hoc and
began to scale the cliff face using rocket-propelled grap-
nels and ladders attached to the bow of their landing craft.
Unfortunately, their late arrival at the objective allowed
the German defenders time to regroup after the Allied
bombing campaign. This cost the Rangers nearly ninety
percent of their complement before Point du Hoc fell to
the Allies and the German guns were destroyed. The re-
mains of the bombardment-shattered concrete bunkers,
and barbed wire atop the cliffs-provide an eerie remind-
er of the carnage that ensued there on D-Day.

Ilnolro u-tN
Fig. 7. One of the thirteen vehicles assumed to be tanks found off
the eastern end of Omaha Beach.

INA Quarterly 28.1

The survey area extended seaward approximately
two thousand meters from the rocky and uneven seafloor
at the five-meter depth contour. Survey transects were sim-
ilarly prepared as at Utah and Omaha Beach. However
weather and time permitted us only one day's work in the
area covering a total of 392 acres, twenty-two line miles.
We found no clear indications of shipwrecks in the area.
There are many anomalies that will require investigation
in 2001, Certainly there needs to be more work conducted
offshore of Point du Hoc, given the importance of the bat-
tle to overall Allied success.
Presently all the sonar and magnetometer data is
being carefully reviewed and entered into our GIS. All the
anomalies are being plotted not only on modem charts,
but on period charts and digital, geo-referenced copies of
top-secret "Biggot" maps compiled by the 1943-4
outlining the German defenses along the Normandy coast
in scrupulous detail. Additionally, aerial photographs tak-
en just prior to and after the invasion have been located in
the custody of the United States National Archives and
Records Administration and will also be included in our
GIS. Modem images and anomalies indicating wrecks and

vehicles can in this way be checked against period accounts
and images. This should assist us in identifying not only
the ship and vehicle type, but hopefully the specific ship
or vehicle we find years later.
Promising targets located during the 2000 season
will eventually be investigated by "drop" camera and ROV
(remotely operated vehicle). Diving at this stage is preclud-
ed, since all the sites contain considerable amounts of un-
exploded ordinance. Over the past fifty-six years, trawl
fishing in the waters adjacent to the landing beaches con-
tinued. Whenever ordinance was recovered in fishing nets,
it was usually disposed of by dropping back into the sea
over known snags (wreck sites), since trawlers avoided the
wrecks for obvious reasons.
As research progresses, and ships and vehicles are
located and identified, this information will be correlated
with archival records to compile a comprehensive report
on archaeological and historical research into the naval
action of D-Day, Operation Neptune. This should be the
definitive story of the action, incorporating survivor ac-
counts, battlefield historians' notes, and the considerable
information gleaned from countless studies of terrestrial
conflicts in the wake of the invasion.

Acknowledgments: The authors wish to acknowledge all those who provided assistance for our research, particularly the
French Ministry of Culture and Communication, and the Department for Underwater and Undersea Archeological
Research, for permitting the survey work. They also provided invaluable advice and encouragement. SeaGrant Texas
and the Department of Defense Legacy Resource Management Program provided funding. Geometrics, Inc., Marine
Sonic Technology, Ltd., Coastal Oceanographics, Inc., OmniSTAR, Inc. / Fugro SeaSTAR all provided equipment that
made the survey possible. A special thanks extends to Mr. George Robb (INA Director) for providing the majority of
the funds and equipment necessary to conduct this research. o

Suggested Reading

Morison, Samuel Eliot
1963 The Two Ocean War, A Short History of the United States Navy in the Second World War. Boston: Little, Brown.

Ryan, Cornelius
1959 The Longest Day: June 6, 1944. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Ambrose, Stephen E.
1994 D-Day, June 6,1944: The Climactic Battle of World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Jonathan Gawne
1998 Spearheading D-Day: American Special Units in Normandy. Paris: Histoire and Collections.

INA Quarterly 28.1

Underwater Survey of Malta:

The Reconnaissance Season of 2000

Ayge D. Atauz and John McManamon
INA Research Associates

The Maltese archipelago, consisting of the islands
of Malta, Gozo, Comino, and some other minor islets, lies
almost at the center of the Mediterranean Sea. Covering a
total area of approximately 316 km2, with a population of
about four hundred thousand people, Malta has one of the
highest densities in all of Europe.
Maltese history, from the arrival of the first farmers
(possibly from Sicily ca. 5200 BCE) to the energetic activi-
ties of today's residents, is directly tied to seafaring activ-
ities and naval warfare. The islanders had to depend on
maritime trade from the beginning, and so developed skills
for navigation, sailing, and shipbuilding. Seafaring also af-
fected the social and political organization of the archipel-
ago, as the local economy depended upon commerce... and
piracy. A succession of invaders arrived by sea. The islands
are at the strategic intersection of major trans-Mediterra-
nean trade routes. Terrestrial and maritime archaeology
have yielded evidence for various types of ships and car-
goes carried along those routes throughout history.
Despite the archaeological potential of Maltese wa-
ters, no previous systematic underwater survey has been
carried out there. This is primarily due to the overwhelm-
ing workload of the staff of the National Museum of Ar-
chaeology (NMA) in Valletta. The islands have a significant
number of important land sites, which are receiving ap-
propriate scientific study by a small, permanent staff. Fur-
ther factors in the absence of a prior survey are the high
costs of underwater investigations and of excavation and con-
servation following the discovery of shipwrecks.
Previous archaeological work in Malta
Recovery of underwater archeological
material in Malta first started in the 1960s, when
sport divers began to give the NMA amphoras,
anchors, and shipbome artillery that they had
recovered. In 1967, a shipwreck in Mellieha Bay
was partly excavated by a team directed by Hon-
or Frost. The site yielded a primary cargo of
materials that were almost surely manufactured
in Southern Italy; amphoras and glass vessels
were also raised. The ship was likely a trading
vessel of the Severan Era (ca. 200 CE).
After a lengthy hiatus, serious interest in
submerged cultural resources in Maltese waters
was revived by collaboration between the NMA
and archaeologists from Europe. In 1988-1989,
a group from Specialist Archaeology Systems
(SAS) conducted a survey and identified at least Fig. 1.
two promising targets in the Grand Harbor. Un- Malta

fortunately, subsequent excavation using a water dredge
produced only a scatter of modern detritus. The SAS team
also surveyed extensively in St. Paul's Bay, traditionally
associated with the wreck of the Alexandrian grain vessel
that carried Paul of Tarsus to his final appeal before the
emperor in Rome. The search showed the virtual absence
of archaeological material along Tal-Ghazzenin Reef, re-
portedly the site where St. Paul's ship foundered.
In 1992, the NMA began a three-year period of
collaboration with a French team from the Department
des Recherches Archeologiques Subaquatiques et Sous-
Marines (DRASM). A survey was conducted from De-
cember 14-19, 1992, in the area around Manoel Island
and the Lazzaretto in Marsamxett Harbor. This success-
fully determined the location of the iron ship Carolita.
In December 1993, joint rescue excavation by DRASM
and the NMA in the Marsascala Bay yielded ceramic
finds. These ranged widely in date but had their great-
est concentration in the period from the fourth to sixth cen-
turies CE.
Archaeological work by INA
The Institute of Nautical Archaeology atTexas A&M
University (NA) launched a new phase of nautical archae-
ology in Malta in the fall of 1999. The years of economic
growth on the islands and throughout Western Europe
have spurred a series of waterfront development projects
at Cottonera and Manoel Island. In an effort to ensure that

rnoto: A. tiavu.
Th7e survey vessel, Madonna ta Pinu, was kindly supplied by the
Maritime Authority.

INA Quarterly 28.1

marina construction and other seaside works do not de-
stroy submerged cultural resources, developers have con-
tracted with INA to conduct a series of surveys under the
auspices of the curators of the NMA. The team from INA
conducted a survey in Malta during October 1999 (INA
Quarterly 27.1, 6-10).
In April 2000, INA conducted an archaeological and
geological hazard survey around Manoel Island on behalf
of the Museums Department and TBA Periti Associates Ar-
chitectural Corporation. The team surveyed the area
around Manoel Island in two series of closely spaced par-
allel tracks, one set being perpendicular to the other. We
utilized the Malta Maritime Authority's (MMA) 14-meter
hydrographic survey vessel (fig. 1). This was outfitted with
a high-resolution sub-bottom profiler (also provided by
MMA) and coupled to an advanced digital data collection
system (provided by CODA Technologies, Houston, TX)
and a precision global positioning system (GPS).accurate
to within fifty centimeters (provided by Omnistar, Hous-
ton, TX). We collected two gigabytes of sub-bottom profile
data. Our efforts were focused predominantly on areas ad-
jacent to Lazzaretto, the site of the old quarantine hospital
for ships entering Malta and Europe, and the proposed site
of the breakwater construction. These areas are the most
probable locations for potential negative impact to archae-
ological resources, and the largest square area scheduled
for seabed modification. We detected two known ship-
wrecks within the survey areas. However, the Museums
Department was aware of their location, disposition, and
origin, and they are not particularly significant from an
archaeological perspective, so no further research is sched-
uled. We detected several other sub-bottom anomalies
within the general survey area, and INA has prepared de-
tailed recommendations to mitigate the poten-
tial damage to these resources.
One area of concentrated sub-bottom
anomalies detected during the survey was in-
vestigated by divers later in the summer. We
found archeological material ranging from frag-
ments of Roman amphora and other pottery to
modem debris centered around a small mound
on the seabed approximately five meters in di-
ameter and extending in depth to approximate-
ly two meters beneath the seafloor. The area of
high artifact density associated with this anom-
aly runs along a roughly north-south axis. How-
ever, no other anomalies indicative of similar
deposits were detected on adjacent parallel
Modem nautical charts indicate the pres-
ence of a "mound" directly along the anomaly
path. This most probably represents dredge spoil Fig. 2. T
from modem harbor works that contained an- Gambin,
cient material as well as modem debris. Previ- na, (sitti

ous diving surveys conducted in the region noted that the
area had been extensively dredged to allow for the ber-
thing of deep draught ships. No records of the dredging
activity were located at the MMA offices, and so it is im-
possible to determine the source location of the dredge spoil
for further investigation. Based on the report submitted to
the Museums Department, no construction will be allowed
in the immediate area, hopefully protecting those artifacts
yet to be recovered. More archaeological and geological
hazard surveys are scheduled in 2001. These will not only
serve to protect cultural resources but in part may help to
finance future INA survey seasons.
The ongoing survey in Maltese territorial waters is
a joint project between INA and the Museums Department
of the NMA. The Department allowed INA to conduct
work in Malta under a renewable two-year agreement that
established the basis for cooperation. They agreed to re-
spect fully and implement the principles and recommen-
dations contained in the treaties protecting the
archaeological heritage.
In May of 2000, a joint INA-Maltese team under the
direction of Ayfle Atauz carried out a preliminary survey
of the anchorages in and around the archipelago. The work
was conducted using a Sea Scan PC side-scan sonar (Ma-
rine Sonic Technology, Ltd.), coupled with a GPS receiver.
The team also included INA Research Associate John Mc-
Manamon and personnel from the NMA, Edmond Cardo-
na and Michael Spiteri. Timothy Gambin, a Maltese
graduate student in maritime archaeology at the Universi-
ty of Bristol, UK, as well as Joseph Bianco and Godwin
Borg from the MMA, comprised the rest of the team (fig.
2). The survey included several phases.

he survey team (left to right, standing) Manuel Cardona, Timothy
Francis Mifsud, Godwin Borg, Michael Spitteri, Edmond Cardo-
ng) Joseph Bianco, Aye Atauz, John McManamon.

INA Quarterly 28.1

Determining the potential for nautical archaeology
We first conducted research among the documents
housed in the NMA archives. The museum possessed arti-
fact files and annual reports dating back to the early 1960s.
These files offered information about the context and loca-
tion of underwater materials now conserved in the muse-
um's storerooms. Re-evaluation of this data, utilizing
geographical and chronological criteria, enabled us to de-
termine the areas with higher concentrations of archaeo-
logical material. The museum curators also allowed us to
examine the forms submitted by sport divers and fishers
in order to indicate the location of artifacts they had seen.
These provided valuable information about potential ar-
eas of artifact concentration. They also were very informa-
tive, since comparisons between earlier and more recent
reports indicated the extent of damage to archaeological
Our archival research also included the study of pre-
viously published material regarding the underwater finds.
Moreover, many of our sources (for example, a map pro-
duced by an amateur diver in 1965 indicating the location
of ancient anchors and amphoras) required considerable
work to establish their reliability. We created a database
of the information collected during the research, and
mapped potential sites to determine the extent of the sur-
vey areas and establish the sites of highest priority for im-
mediate attention.

Fig. 3. Major survey areas mentioned in the text.

Establishing local conditions
The winds of the Maltese archipelago are unpredict-
able, to say the least. The strongest and most hazardous
are from the east and northeast. To avoid the dangers pre-
sented by sudden storms, seafarers were at times forced to
sail along the southwestern coast. That stretch of coast is
lined with high cliff faces towering above the sea, and it
affords very few safe anchorages, which generally lack
passage to inland regions. This area of the Maltese coast-
line has a high potential for shipwrecks.
Another factor we took into consideration when as-
sessing priorities for the survey areas was the growing sea-
son for poseidonia grass. This type of seaweed has roots
that reach nearly a meter into the sand bottom, with the
visible portion of the plant reaching up to two meters in
height. It grows in thick banks in water depths of over thirty
meters. Poseidonia has a heavy bloom in summer and
leaves behind a thick carpet of dead rhizomes in winter.
The team noted that most archaeological artifacts were re-
ported to the museum after storms. The wave action un-
covered archaeological material uprooted along with that
season's poseidonia. Surveying in the winter and early
spring would most likely yield better results, but hazard-
ous navigation conditions would prevent access to the ar-
eas of greatest interest.

Survey techniques
Every survey area required the use of a
different approach, and the survey techniques
were generally dictated by the nature and lo-
cation of the site. However, other factors such
as the availability of equipment or weather
conditions also played a role in the choice of
surveying techniques. These can be grouped
as follows: diving investigations of previous-
ly known and reported sites, side scan survey,
diving examination of the detected targets,
and diving surveys on hazard points.

Surveyed sites and areas (fig. 3)
Marsaskala Bay (Area 1). Marsaskala Bay
is one of few safe anchorages in northeast
Malta. We made a visual inspection of the site
o,, of the rescue excavation conducted by NMA
and DRASM in 1993 to determine the present
state of preservation of materials left in situ.
1A 2 This area was included in the survey program
at the explicit request of the Museum curators,
who felt that detailed mapping of the site
might help better determine its nature. If the
artifact scatter presented other chronological
concentrations beyond the fourth and sixth
centuries, it might indicate a site with multi-
ple shipwrecks. A lengthy diver search was

INA Quarterly 28.1

conducted but no further surveying of this site was car-
ried out for three major reasons: (1) previous work in this
area had produced material for the dating of the site, (2)
the site is stable and preserved under the poseidonia grass,
and (3) the bay is a popular swimming and diving area.
The site is ideal for training archaeological divers, which
would also help to rescue archaeological material from this
vulnerable area.
Salina Bay (Area 2). On three different occasions in
June, the team dived on a site that was brought to our at-
tention by the NMA. This was characterized by a signifi-
cant pile of stones not of local origin, mostly tufa with much
smaller quantities of what appear to be slate and black
marble. A photomosaic and measurements using a base-
line and offsets generated a site map (fig. 4). Extensive diver
inspection produced two amphora fragments buried deep
within the pile of rocks. The base fragment includes the
toe, while the body fragment is ridged. Possible-parallels
pointed to a North African type common in the fourth cen-
tury CE. The sherds appear to be consistent with, and non-
intrusive to, the mound of stones, which is considered to
be the ballast of a Late Roman shipwreck (fig 5).
A petrological analysis of the rock samples from the
site is required to determine the typology and, if possible,
the provenance of the ballast. Unfortunately, there is little
probability that wooden elements of the hull are preserved
on the site. In two different locations, divers reached bed-
rock by hand fanning in and around the stones. Therefore,
a full excavation of the site would almost surely not yield

INA Quarterly 28.1

results commensurate with the costs. Given the findings
published recently by Reuben Grima on further evidence
of Roman activity in the Burmarrad-Salina basin, a survey
of the alluvial plain to determine the former extent of the
Bay is vital to determine the context of this wreck.
Munxar Point and Munxar Reef (Area 3). An amateur
diver reported a wreck of "Spanish Romano" amphoras
located in the vicinity of Munxar Point in 1964. Since this
report was supported by later visual sightings of possible
amphora sherds, Munxar Point was selected as one of our
primary survey areas. Side scan track-lines were run par-
allel to the reef, and an area varying in depth from seven
to fifty-one meters was covered. However, it was clear that
diving investigations would be safer and more productive
if carried out in another season. In summer, thick posei-
donia obstructs the bottom, fish farms attract big, danger-
ous seasonal fish such as shark and tuna, and visibility is
low due to the pollution caused by these fish farms.
Qawra Point (Area 4). A number of artifacts that were
reportedly brought up off Qawra Point were donated to
the museum in 1964 and 1969. Most of these are Roman
anchor stocks and collars, including the largest Roman
anchor stock ever found (about 4 meters long). In addi-
tion, debris consisting of Roman amphoras of the third cen-
tury was reported in 1965 by a local amateur diver. There
were also recent reports of eroded sherds washing up on
shore after storms. The side scan sonar track-lines were
run from Tal-Ghazzenin Reef to Qawra Point. Divers vi-
sually inspected one target at a depth of forty-one meters.
This target included objects of human manufacture, but
these were most probably jettisoned as refuse from a pass-
ing ship. Other side scan targets were also noted for future
diver inspection. Due to the abundance of reports and ar-
cheological finds from this area, Qawra Point continues to
be a priority area for next season.
St. Paul's Bay (Area 5). Various searches showed the
virtual absence of archaeological material that might be
dated to the period of Paul of Tarsus, although other arti-
facts have been reported. These include a pilgrim's flask
similar to Byzantine types from the sixth and seventh cen-
turies, a complete Dressel 20 amphora (manufactured in
Southern Spain between the first and third centuries CE),
a large grapnel type iron anchor of the eighteenth century
CE, and scatters of Phoenician ceramics of the sixth to sec-
ond century BCE. It is also reported that post-medieval
ceramic materials, generally characterized as "Berber
ware," wash into the inner bay after storms. A British man-
of-war that ran aground in the Bay marks the latest site of
The INA team ran several track-lines around St.
Paul's Islands and across a reef at the head of the islands.
Data were also gathered in the small bay to the west of the
islands and the next peninsula to the west of St Paul's, Bla-
ta 1-Bajda. We detected several anomalies and noted them

for future visual inspection by divers. The reef immedi-
ately to the north of the islands is one of Malta's premier
diving locations, and consequently the probability of find-
ing undisturbed artifacts in this region is low.
Comino: Comino-Gozo Channel, Santa Marija Bay, and
San Niklaw Bay (Area 6). Sport divers have extensively plun-
dered this area. One wreck, pillaged in the 1970s, is said
to have yielded an alabaster vase of unknown origin. Ad-
ditionally, there are a few artifacts that were donated to
the Museum, including a grapnel-type anchor with four
flukes recovered by the Royal Navy from the Channel in
1965, two lead anchor stocks that were raised in 1994, and
a Greco-Italic amphora found in the region in 1999. The
archaeological evidence from land contexts dating to the
Phoenician and Punic periods of occupation suggests ex-
tensive seafaring activities between the fifth and third cen-
turies BCE. Furthermore, archaeological evidence points
to the use of Comino as a winter base by corsairs in the
later Middle Ages. We particularly selected the area as high
priority based on the report of a possible Punic wreck site
that contained amphoras from the late fourth century BCE.
However, the sonar data from Santa Marija and San Ni-
klaw Bays and from the channel between Comino and
Gozo produced only a few targets of small scale that are
not likely to be complete shipwreck sites. Visual diver in-
spections in the two bays did not locate any significant
cultural artifacts beneath the thick bloom of poseidonia.
Gozo: Xatt l-Ahmar (Area 7). Museum divers report-
ed sightings of large amphoras amidst boulders at the base
of a cliffside approximately thirty meters to the south of
Xatt l-Ahmar Point. The amphoras were visible after win-
ter storms in the area. We ran several sonar tracklines par-
allel to the shore from the Point southward. Visual diver
inspection located the aforementioned boulders, but divers
saw no amphoras exposed above the sand. Any further
investigation will require removal of the sand at a depth
of over forty meters.
Gozo: Xlendi (Area 8). The entrance to Xlendi Bay is
made treacherous by the presence of a pair of submerged
reefs, and the area is known to have produced whole am-
phoras, which span a significant period in antiquity. Am-
phoras recovered from the Bay in the past forty years
include examples of all of the following types: Punic, Ae-
gean Greek, Greco-Italic, and Roman. Recently, a cylin-
drical fourth-century African amphora was recovered near
the northern reef. Anthony Bonanno has proposed that
the amphoras indicated a pair of Roman shipwrecks in
this area. The earlier (second century BCE) carried a cargo
of mixed amphoras from places such as North Africa and
Apulia, Italy, and the later (fifth-sixth century) yielded only
a few isolated jars. Reuben Grima suspects that some small
jugs located in the past may have originated in the Balear-
ic Islands. No harbor works have yet been located in the
surrounding village and countryside. Therefore, ancient

INA Quarterly 28.1

sailors probably used Xlendi Bay only as a safe anchorage
during storms. The INA team extensively surveyed this
promising area, running one trackline into the Bay itself
and several tracklines parallel to the shoreline across the
entrance to the Bay. The lines covered the steep drop-off
of the shore to a depth of approximately eighty meters.
We noted a group of anomalies for further examination by
divers or by a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV).

Establishing local connections
INA established contacts with several groups:
The National Museum of Archaeology (NMA). The
Museum staff played an active part in the project from the
outset, and they were represented in all stages of the plan-
ning, organization, and actual surveying. In addition to
issuing the necessary permits for the survey, making ar-
rangements for the funds to be transferred to Malta, and
clearing the remote sensing equipment through customs,
the Museum also gave access to their archives. Likewise,
the Museum allowed Ms. Atauz access to the conserva-
tion laboratory and gave her permission to set up a desali-
nation facility on Museum property. However, the
Museum contributed most to the survey by assigning two
staff members, Michael Spiteri and Edmond Cardona. The
contribution of those two staff members was invaluable,
given their familiarity with the sites and the archaeologi-
cal material. In addition, the Museum also provided finan-
cial support by renting and filling diving tanks for the
survey, and providing a vehicle for our transportation to
shore-diving locations. Our ongoing cooperation with the
Museum allowed us regular access to facilities such as the
laboratory, computers, and other means of communica-
tion that proved to be crucial elements in our work.
The Malta Maritime Authority (MMA). This is a non-
governmental organization that has been an active partic-
ipant in the project from the beginning. The Authority
made a major contribution by allowing us to use their sur-
vey vessel, the Madonna ta Pinu, both in the remote sens-
ing survey in April 2000, and throughout this past summer.
The vessel was well suited to survey work carried out on
the project, and members of the MMA staff, Joseph Bianco
and Godwin Borg, made valuable contributions to the
project. MMA provided most of our knowledge about lo-
cal navigation patterns and coastal geology and bathyme-
try. Godwin capably captained the vessel, while Joe, the
MMA hydrographer, plotted the survey track-lines
throughout the summer.
The Archaeological Society. This non-governmental
organization aims to promote awareness about the archae-
ological heritage of Malta. The Society asked INA Research
Associate AySe Atauz to give a lecture about nautical ar-
chaeology and INA to help promote connections with lo-
cal preservation groups and create public awareness about
the need to protect underwater sites in Malta.

University of Malta-Department of Classics and Ar-
chaeology. The Department did not have an active role in
our projects. However, a number of students showed in-
terest in participating in future INA projects. After com-
municating with professors from the university, we
reached an agreement regarding the participation of stu-
dents and the scheduling of such participation. The Uni-
versity staff has also provided tours of various ongoing
terrestrial excavations and suggested possible maritime
connections between those sites and nearby harbors. Their
suggestions for collaborative research are included in the
2001 research schedule, which will require active partici-
pation of team members from the terrestrial excavations.
Others. Interviews with sport divers from a promi-
nent local dive club, fishers, and others who were likely to
have information about submerged cultural resources, or
places where such materials have been found, comprised
other sources tapped by the team. After their reports are
considered and their accuracy is evaluated in concert with
the Museum Department, some of the areas indicated may
be included in the 2001 survey plans.

Future Plans
The finds of this first season of systematic survey-
ing of Malta produced very important information about
the potential of the islands and the nature of the underwa-
ter material in Malta. This information and the experience
of being in Malta will be invaluable in terms of selecting
the appropriate season, the necessary equipment, and the
proper techniques for future survey in Malta. The most
important aspect of this first season was to establish local
contacts for future INA projects in Malta. Working rela-
tionships with the Museums Department and MMA prom-
ise excellent long-term collaboration with goverimnental
and non-governmental bodies. Hands-on training of the
team will also contribute to the success of future projects.
With a trained group resident in Malta and ready to assist
our work, time and funds will be used even more efficiently
(this year we finished the field season forty per cent under
Work for the summer of 2001 will include the use of
a magnetometer in the areas with thick poseidonia layers.
Diving surveys will be given priority, and divers will search
the shallow bays and natural harbors where archaeologi-
cal material is reported to exist. No technology presently
available seems to function well for remote sensing sur-
vey in the intractable waters of Malta.
We also believe that a search for shipwrecks in the
areas that are beyond recreational diving limits should
yield good results, since these depths are more or less pro-
tected from looting and casual artifacts collection. There-
fore, our team is scheduled to employ an advanced
multi-beam sonar system (provided by Kongseber-Simrad,
Inc.) that will detect small seafloor anomalies in water up

INA Quarterly 28.1

to two hundred meters deep. A drop camera will be em-
ployed to ground-truth the archaeological targets detect-
ed by the multi-beam sonar.
The cataloging and conservation of the artifacts at
the NMA in Valletta will continue. A database of the arti-
facts in the National Museum, the Maritime Museum, and
the Gozo Archaeological Museum will enable us to quick-
ly analyze the extent of the artifacts from underwater con-
texts in the museum storerooms, and locate their point of
origin. The artifacts from underwater sites in museum stor-

age have never before been studied. Cooperation with the
University of Malta might encourage graduate students to
compare this material with terrestrial finds in Malta and
further afield.
Collaborative research projects by INA in Tunisia
and Sicily with the Museums Department and MMA have
also been proposed for 2001-2002. There can be no doubt
that INA has a bright future in the navel of the Mediterra-

Acknowledgements: The work in Malta was conducted using a Sea Scan PC side-scan sonar coupled with a GPS receiver
generously provided by George Robb, Jr. (INA Director) and Marry Wilcox (former INA Director). Mr. John Van Tassel
generously donated the computer used for data processing. The MMA generously provided its survey boat for the
duration of our survey in exchange for training for its personnel on the side scan sonar system. The NMA provided the
vehicle for our transportation. To all of them goes our deepest gratitude.
We would like to thank the Director of the NMtA, Anthony Pace, for providing the permits for our work in Malta
and the support of the museum, and Curators Reuben Grima and Nathaniel Cutajar for their expert counsel and gener-
osity in providing access to the museum facilities.
We will take this opportunity to thank the excellent team we had in Malta: Edmond Cardona and Michael Spiteri
from the NMA for their enthusiasm and providing the information concerning the land and underwater archaeology in
Malta. Without their assistance and knowledge of ancient ceramics, it would have been impossible to locate the sites.
Special thanks to Michael Spiteri for his skills in organizing the dives and watching our safety. Without Timothy Gambin,
and his pioneering efforts, none of the INA projects in Malta would have been possible. Joseph Bianco and Godwin
Borg, skilled employees of the MMA, had incredible contributions to the project. It would not have been possible to
navigate and run our perfectly straight tracklines without their diligent and meticulous work.
Special thanks to INA Research Associate Brett Phaneuf, the general director of the Western Mediterranean
Research Project, for his support and encouragement, making all the painstaking arrangements for the remote sensing
equipment, and carrying out the Manoel Island survey to raise the funds for the 2000 season in Malta (fig. 6). I also
would like to thank Fr. Eugene Theuma for his help and his interest in our work.
Finally, our warmest thanks go to the Gambin family, for their hospitality. Very special thanks are owed to
Belinda Garnbin for her friendship and for making us feel at home. a'

Bonanno, A. and M. Mintoff
1995 Malta, an archaeological Paradise. Malta: M. J. Pub-

Elliott, P.
1980 The Cross and the Ensign: A Naval History of Malta
1798-1979. London: Harper Collins.

Grima, R.
2000 "Naxxar An Archaeological Profile," in P.
Catania and L. J. Scerri eds., Naxxar: A Village and
Its People: 52-57. Malta: P. Catania Publishers.

Milanes, V. Mallia
1992 Venice and Hospitaller Malta, 1530-1798: Aspects of
a Relationship. Malta: P.E.G. Publishers.

d Reading
Vassalo, C.
1997 Corsairing to Commerce: Maltese Merchants in XVIII
Century Spain. Marsa: Malta University Publishers.

Wismayer, J. M.
1997 The Fleet of the Order of St. John 1530-1798. Malta:
Midsea Books Ltd.

Fig. 6. Finds from the Manoel Island area. (Scales represent 5 cm).

INA Quarterly 28.1

Denbigh Revisited
An account of an underwater archaeological excavation as viewed
through the eyes of two undergraduates.

Ashley Porter and Chris Dechillo

Denbigh, one of the most successful Confederate
blockade runners, now rests on her keel in eight feet of
water off the coast of Galveston, Texas. Her bow proudly
points toward the Gulf in defiance of her obvious inability
to conjure up the power to transport supplies one last time.
Her iron hull was burnt to a blackened crisp during the
dawn of March 23, 1865, after suffering bombardment by
Union artillery fire. What now remains of the vessel is a
dismal remnant.
As senior undergraduates at Texas A&M Universi-
ty, we had the privilege of working with the Institute of
Nautical Archaeology (INA) during the summer of 2000
excavating Denbigh. J. Barto Arnold directed the excava-
tion and made us part of his crew. We all worked side by
side to aid Mr. Arnold in the painstaking task of recording
and documenting informa-
tion retrieved from long
hours of work on the vessel.
Each morning began with a
brief meeting preparing the
group of divers, engineers,
archaeologists, and students
on the proceedings for the
day. After the morning
meetings, we prepared the
boats for launch and assem-
bled all necessary tools for
the labors ahead. Some of us
had never worked in the
temperatures of a Texas
summer, and were not pre-
pared for the relentless heat
and humidity. After we ac-
climatized to the weather, it
became increasingly easier The Denbigh excavation
to carry out delegated tasks.
Since we were dealing with Texas summers, work was halt-
ed by uncooperative weather on more than one occasion.
Once out at site, operations commenced in an or-
derly fashion. We made plans for the day and willing indi-
viduals assembled dive gear. For the first four week, all
that was accomplished was digging with gas powered
water dredges through eight feet of muddy sediment.
When we finally reached the hull of the vessel, we uttered
sighs of relief, as it had seemed that the digging would go
on forever. Throughout the remaining weeks, we dived
multiple times locating sparsely scattered artifacts and frag-
ments of coal and iron.
Usually when you imagine scuba diving, you visu-
alize clear waters and tropical fish...or at least we did. Let

us briefly describe the dismal solitude and obscurity that
actually surrounded us during each dive: after the first div-
er entered the water, a cloud of silt rose from the bottom
and blanked out the entire dive site. Close your eyes for
one moment if you will, now cover your eyes with your
hand. What is it that you see? Nothing? This is what we
had to look forward to almost every day on site. We blind-
ly felt for our excavation units, protruding deck structure,
and minute artifacts. Sharp pieces of rusty iron pierced our
wet suits and skin on more than one occasion.
Ashley writes: "I was stationed in unit four, which
was midship just aft of the paddle wheels. We dug a hole
about twelve feet in length by five feet in width and mea-
suring seventeen feet from the water's surface. I affection-
ately referred to this unit as the 'cavern of darkness' for it
resembled a tomb. On one of
..____.. ___.. the last days of our project,


:; :we began to uncover some in-
teresting artifacts. In the
murky hollow, my partner
and I located bits of pre-
served wood and multiple
pieces of broken glass. I un-
covered a sherd of crude pot-
tery with what appeared to
be the word 'Marine'
stamped in a banner flutter-
ing above an anchor. My
partner found a leg of a por-
celain doll. We irere all
thankful for these elusive
pieces of history."
Days were long and
Photo: INA work was tiring, but the
eam for the 2000 season. crew would frequently find
time to go dine and listen to
the splendid music of a live Irish band. The sometimes
backbreaking work formed a bond between crew and di-
rectors alike. As undergraduates, we felt warmly welcomed
into the world of nautical archaeology. We realized that
you can discover more than just the past on an excavation.
You can also discover new friendships. Our understand-
ing of the nautical world and what it means to be an ar-
chaeologist was greatly enhanced by the Denbigh project.
The wave currents, low visibility conditions, and the
overhead environments in which we had to work each day
gave us a good introduction to the challenges one encoun-
ters in this type of work. We agreed that, overall, our ex-
periences this summer have inspired us to pursue careers
in nautical archaeology. ,'

INA Quarterly 28.1

Deep Wrecks and Research in the Gulf of Mexico

Brett A. Phaneuf, Deep Tow Research Group

Department of Oceanography, Texas A&M University

A surprising discovery can often be made while reviewing seemingly endless
data. Such was the case recently when studying voluminous deep-sea side-scan so-
nar and sub-bottom profiler data on the north-central Gulf of Mexico. The data, col-
lected by the Deep Tow Research Group (DTRG) revealed two shipwrecks. The first
is located along the steep west slope of North Terrebonne Basin, about 250 kilome-
ters offshore from central Louisiana (fig. 1). The ship hit bottom at the top of the
image, as is evident from the impact crater, and cut a trough in the seafloor as it slid
down-slope nearly seven hundred meters, pushing sediment in front of it like a snow-
plow, finally coming to rest in approximately nineteen hundred meters of water.
The second shipwreck is located near Vaca Basin, approximately 450 kilometers south of the
central Louisiana shore in approximately 2,300 meters of water (fig. 2). The side-scan sonar
image shows a largely intact metal hull, approximately seventy meters in length, the uncer-
tainty owing to the fact that part of the wreck is obscured by the "acoustic shadow" of the
side-scan pulse, indicating substantial relief. No other information is available about either
shipwreck These could be WWII losses in the Gulf, iron-hulled steamships heading north
from Panama or ports in Mexico, or modem ships caught in a storm or suffering some mis-
hap at sea. Any information about these two wrecks would be most welcome. The discovery
of these shipwrecks shows the appli-
cation of deep towing technology to
nautical archaeology.
DTRG is part of the Geological
Oceanography Section in the Depart-
ment of Oceanography atTexas A&M
S- University. The group operates an Edo
Western Deep-Tow surveying system
consisting of a 100kHz side-scan sonar
and a 3.5kHz sub-bottom profiler, sev-
en thousand meters of tow cable, a Dy-
nacon handling system, and
Fig. 1. At a depth of nearly nine- Triton-Elics Isis@ data acquisition and
teen hundred meters along the west processing system. Students working
slope of North Terrebonne Basin, with DTRG have also written custom
a ninety meter long shipzvreck was post-processing software that has
located. greatly enhanced the group's produc-
tivity. The Deep-Tow is routinely de-
ployed to depths in excess of three thousand meters to study deep-sea
sediments and seafloor processes in the numerous basins and along the Sigs-
bee Escarpment in the Gulf of Mexico. It is towed thirty meters above the
seafloor, allowing for the collection of extremely high resolution data from
the top one hundred meters of sediments without the degradation caused
by beam-spreading seen in typical shallow-towed systems (fig 3). Presently,
data from the past three to five years is being reviewed, reprocessed, and
reformatted for incorporation into a web-enabled GIS database. That
will allow DTRG to disseminate large volumes of once inaccessible in-
formation about the deep Gulf of Mexico to the commercial and aca-
demic community at large. For more information see http://, currently under construction. Fig. 2. Near Vaca Basin, just north of the Sigsbee
DTRG has also collected innumerable gravity, piston, box, and jumn- Escarpment in waters approximately 2,200 meters
bo-piston sediment cores throughout the Gulf of Mexico. It is current- deep, a seventy plus meter long shipwreck was iso-
ly correlating the geotechnical data (density, p-wave velocity, water lated using the deep-sea side-scan sonar.

INA Quarterly 28.1

content, shears strength, grain size, etc.) with deep-tow seismic profiles and other commercial sources of seismic data.
DTRG is incorporating it into the GIS database previously mentioned.
The Group is under the direction of Dr. William Bryant. It is currently seeking new research opportunities for students and
faculty in the Gulf of Mexico and beyond, in partnership with academic and commercial institutions such as INA. s-
Photos: DTRG

: ... .. -
,, ,'I


S200 meters

Fig. 3. Sub-bottom profile near the Sigsbee Escarpment, west fBryant Canyon-wter depth approximately twenty-two hundred meters.

Iron and Steamship Archaeology: Success and Failure on the SS Xantho

Just Released Mcae McCarthy
In the early 1980s, many nautical archaeologists suggested that the excavation of steamships and other modem
vessels was a waste of time. They felt that the materials themselves could provide no new information beyond what could
already be found in historical records. Dr. George F. Bass argued for the minority position that archaeology could provide
a valuable service, even for wrecks recent enough for plans and photographic evidence to exist. Excavation could not only
supplement the historical record, but also provide a valuable independent check on the accuracy of the documentary
evidence. The Western Australian Museum saw the SS Xantho (built 1848, sank 1872) as a useful test case to see whether
archaeological study of a well-documented iron steamship could indeed provide useful new information. This book, the
latest in the Plenum Series in Underwater Archaeology edited by INA's J. Barto Arnold ll, describes the investigation of
Xantho that began in 1983 and continues to inform us today.
Based on the historical record, the excavators expected to find a new, efficient engine in Xantho, which had been
converted from paddles to screw propulsion only a year before it sank. Instead, they found a horizontal trunk engine
designed for duty in Royal Navy gunboats during the Crimean War (1853-56). This used undiluted seawater to generate
steam and exhausted directly into the air without a condenser. Because of the pitch of the propeller mounted on Xantho, the
engine had to be run in reverse to go forward. All these factors made for a highly inefficient propulsion system, considering
the cost of coal and inaccessibility of repair facilities on the remote stretch of northwest Australian coast where the ship was
to operate. The attempt to explain these unexpected facts provided considerable new information about Xantho and its
historical context. Dr. Bass was vindicated-the archeology of modern vessels is a useful exercise.
Michael McCarthy has been the archaeological director of this project for over seventeen years. His book vividly
illustrates that nautical archeology is about more than just diving and excavation. Some of the most valuable information
was discovered only during the long process of conserving and studying the Xantho's engine. This was raised from the
bottom in 1984, and will be finally reassembled and displayed no sooner than 2002. The concretion that forms around
submerged metal makes the study of iron steamships a very different proposition from older wooden ships. However, the
Xantho project shows why nautical archaeologists have demonstrated increasing interest in the study of relatively modem
shipwrecks. The number of steamships discussed in this issue of the INA Quarterly proves that. ,

2000 ISBN: 0-306-46365-2, 234 pages, 76 illustrations, references, bibliography, 2 appendices, index, hardback. Price $59.00.

INA Quarterly 28.1

News & Notes

Shipwreck Weekend 2001

Visitors learned about the Insti-
tute of Nautical Archaeology and the
Nautical Archaeology Program at Tex-
as A&M University during Shipwreck
Weekend 2001. For eight hours on Feb-
ruary 3, the audience of sports divers,
avocational archaeologists and histo-
rians, and other interested individu-
als heard an impressive collection of
presentations. These included illus-
trated lectures by Professor George
Bass and six other scholars. Shell Smith
spoke on Serapis and John Paul Jones,
Bill Lees on a nineteenth-century
steamboat on the Red River, and Bar-
to Arnold on the blockade runner Den-
bigh (see page 29 in this issue). Other
speakers included Katherine Willis on
the Black Sea Trade project, Brett Pha-
neuf on his work in Normandy (see
pages 17-21), and Mark Feulner on the
Guantanamo Bay survey (see pages
13-16). In addition to attending the
lectures and viewing video footage of
[NA's ongoing projects, visitors could
tour the facilities of the Institute and

Program in the Anthropology Build-
ing at College Station. Potential stu-
dents and collaborators could see the
Conservation Research, Old World
Projects, New World Projects, and
Ship Reconstruction laboratories. All
attendees had an informative time. s
Students Receive 2000-2001 Honors
Texas A&M University has an-
nounced recent honors granted to stu-
dents in the Nautical Archeology
Program. These include INA Scholar-
ships awarded to Christoph Bachhuls-
en, Katie Michelle Custer, Lauren
Lancaster, Carrie Sowden, and Wendy
Van Duivenvoorde. The Regent Schol-
arship recipient was Rebecca Ingram.
Erkut Arcak, Sara Brigadier, Nancy
DeBono, Erika Laanela, Sam Lin, Ma-
son Miller, Asaf Oron, Anthony Ran-
dolph, Sue Vezeau, and Wendy Van
Duivenvoorde all received Graduate
Assistantships (Non-teaching). Filipe
Castro was named Mr. and Mrs. Sieg-
fried II Graduate Fellow while Matthew

Harpster was named the Marian M.
Cook Graduate Fellow. a,
Recent A&M Graduates
The Nautical Archaeology Pro-
gram within the Department of Anthro-
pology at Texas A&M University in
College Station is proud to announce its
latest graduating classes. At the Spring
2000 graduation exercises Samuel EuGene
Mark became a PhD. His dissertation was
entitled "Homeric Seafaring." BrendanJo-
seph McDermott, Schott McLauglin, and
Daria Elizabeth Merwin were awarded
their Master of Arts degrees. Joseph R.
Cozzibecame a Ph.D. in Summer 2000 for
his work 'The Lake Champlain Sailing
Canal Boat." Also, Lee Dillon Gorham
from the Anthropology Department re-
ceived his PhD. for work carried out on
various INA excavations and detailed in
his dissertation "The Archaeobotany of
the Bozburun Byzantine Shipwreck" Ri-
chard Keith Wills received the MIA. de-
gree. In the Fall of 2000, David Andrew
Johnson received his master's degree. ,

INA Founder Delivers Commencement Address

In an unusual honor for a faculty member,
INA Founder George F. Bass delivered the
Commencement Address to those graduating
from the Colleges of Liberal Arts and Educa-
tion at Texas A&M University on December
16, 2000. Just before the ceremonies in Col-
lege Station, Dr. Bass chatted oith Univer-
sity President Ray Bowen (center) and Vice
President Robert Walker (right), both INA
Directors. v

INA Quarterly 28.1


Richard W. Swete

On November 4,2000, while directing the Sera-
pis site investigation, Dick Swete succumbed to an
acute attack of malaria on He St. Marie, Madagascar.
An active nautical archaeologist for twenty-four years,
Dick leaves a wife Sharon, two grown children-Amy
Pruett and Richard A. Swete, three grand children, and
many friends.
Born in California, Dick spent his early years in
Guam, but returned to California to attend high school.
He then enlisted in the Army and served two years in
Vietnam in a night-fighting light infantry battalion.
During the Tet offensive in 1968, he was seriously
wounded in a massive firefight, los-
ing his left foot. After recovering,
he spent seven years with Army In-
telligence, earned a bachelor's degree
from Campbell University, and re-
tired from the military in 1976, In
January 1977, he began his masters
degree work in Nautical Archaeolo-
gy atTexas A&M. After receiving his
MA, he worked for his Ph.D. at the
College of William and Mary.
It was in Texas that many of
us in INA met and grew to like
Dick. He was intelligent, inquisi-
tive, perceptive, and charming.
Dick loved people. He was curious
about them, cared about them, and
inquired about them. It wasn't just
to pass the time or for idle curiosi-
ty; he cared about each individual
he met. People understood this, and
loved him for it.
Always honest, hard-work-
ing, intelligent, and up for an adventure, Dick still will
be for some time the first staff member many of us
think about when something new is brewing. When
we first met as graduate students in 1977, he said he
wanted to stay out in the field, where the action was.
Perfectly capable as a project director, he usually pre-
ferred to let someone else do the administration and
take the bows as he stayed with the action. Never one
for the ordinary, Dick would almost fall asleep if ev-
erything was going well.

Typically, Dick would be invaluable when plan-
ning and mobilizing his or someone else's project. Full
of good ideas, organizational and diplomatic skills, he
would work almost non-stop until the new shipwreck
investigation was humming smoothly. "Can do easy"
was his creed. When the weather turned nasty, the
compressor broke, the plans didn't work, and every-
one else knew we would not finish on time, Dick would
state, "It don't get no better than this," rally everyone,
and lead the way to a successful finish.
Over the years, because of his interests and abil-
ities, Dick was an active team member on many projects
around the world. He supervised or
helped with the raising of a number
of historic ships. He worked on
projects in Stockton Springs, Bangor,
Boon Island, Winterport, and Pe-
maquid, Maine; Mombassa, Kenya;
all through Chesapeake Bay and its
rivers; Gravisca, Italy; Isle aux Morts,
Newfoundland; Boston, Salem, Hy-
annis, and Plymouth, Massachusetts;
Manhattan, Athens, and Coney Is-
land, New York; Port Stanley, Falk-
land Islands; the Dominican
Republic, San Francisco Bay and Em-
erald Bay, California; and many oth-
Dick developed an interest in
the Revolutionary War hero John
Paul Jones while still a schoolboy.
Several years ago he was on the team
of archaeologists that found Jones'
first ship, Providence, off the coast of
Maine. He then set out to locate Sera-
pis, the ship Jones captured in the famous 1779 battle
with his Bonhomme Richard. His goal was for all of Jones'
ships tobe found and archaeologically investigated rath-
er than being picked over by treasure hunters.
His professional skills and work ethic under
duress were important components of every project on
which he worked. However, archaeologists knew him
first as a wonderful, charming human being. Those who
worked with him miss Dick as one of the best team mem-
bers, but even more, as the best kind of friend. s
Warren Riess

INA Quarterly 28.1


Sylvia Thomas Baird

All of us at the Institute of Nautical Archaeolo-
gy lost a kind friend and supporter with the death of
Sylvia Thomas Baird in Cleveland, Ohio on January
14, 2001. Sylvia lived most of her life in Flushing, New
York, where she was born in 1911. After graduating
from Barnhard College, she entered into a thirty-eight-
year career as an executive with the Society of Auto-
motive Engineers. Several years after retirement, Sylvia
married INA Director John H. Baird and moved to
Shaker Heights, Ohio.
A charter member of INA, Sylvia's interest in
the sea and seafaring developed from her family's her-
itage, for her grandfather Albert Th-
omas was a whaling captain who
sailed the world's oceans. An active
member of the Descendants of
Whaling Masters, she decided after
retirement to chronicle the experi-
ences of her grandfather. Not con-
tent with following his path only
through books and maps, she trav-
eled to the Azores Islands and the
Pacific Ocean to experience first-
hand the lands and oceans familiar
to nineteenth-century whalers. The
result of her efforts was the book
Saga of a Yankee Whaleman (New Bed-
ford: Old Dartmouth Historical So-
ciety, 1981), the proceeds of which
she donated to the New Bedford
Whaling Museum along with arti-
facts relating to her grandfather's
whaling career.
Sylvia's book describes each
of Albert Thomas' five whaling voyages, and the in-
terludes on shore between them. However, the account
of the last trip may be the most interesting. From 1872-
76, Captain Thomas took his wife and son (Sylvia's
father) along on his fifth whaling voyage. The bark
Merlin sailed out of New Bedford, and whaled the
waters around the Azores and Cape Verde Islands
before rounding Africa, Australia, and New Zealand
enroute to the Chatham Islands. The ship spent over
three years harvesting sperm whales in the South Pa-
cfic before returning around Cape Horn. During this

entire voyage, most crewmembers only set foot on
shore for a few days, although Mrs. Thomas needed
occasional respites in various island harbors to recov-
er from her chronic seasickness. Merlin spent nearly
four years without touching on a continent, includ-
ing one period when the family and crew did not even
see an island for seven months.
Ernest Thomas, Sylvia's father, always remem-
bered his exotic experiences, including horseback
rides on Rarotonga in the Cook Islands when he was
five years old. Those recollections inspired Sylvia's
interest in seafaring and the whaling life (see her ar-
tide in INA Quarterly [AINA News-
letter] 4.2, 1-4). In her book, Sylvia
vividly described the Merlin voy-
age and its impact on her family.
The account is based on meticulous
research, but it is a story that the
author found meaningful. Sylvia
wrote, "I hope especially that I
have succeeded in what I have
tried hardest to do, which is to cre-
ate an identity for my grandfather,
Albert Alexander Thomas, who
died when I was only three years
old." She relished her grandrroth-
er's recollections and her father's
memories of his childhood adven-
ture, and we are lucky enough to
have her book to remind us of her.
Sylvia and I shared an inter-
est in Portugal's Azores Islands, a
regular stopover point for Ameri-
can whaling ships and a source of
valued crewmen. She generously supported INA's ar-
chaeological research there since the first season of
survey in 1996, donating photographs she had taken
of Azorian coastal whalers at work (an industry which
has since ended), and regularly passing along news
clipping about the islands and whaling. Her cheerful
letters, her enthusiasm for maritime history, and her
encouragement will all be missed.
Sylvia Baird is survived by her husband John,
two nephews, and a cousin. ,
Kevin Crisman

[NA Quarterly 28.1



Frank Darden

Of the few tributes Ihave had to write in my life, this
is one of the most difficult Mr. Frank Darden was a true
friend to those ofus who work at INA. Here at the College
Station office, the words "kind," "appreciative," and "car-
ing" are adjectives that are continually used to describe
Frank In fact, one staff member has described him as "the
nicest man I know." Sadly, Frank Darden passed away on
March 1, 2001, in Fort Worth, Texas.
Born in Stinnett in 1926, Frank was a classic Texas
oilman. After his service in the Navy he worked as an engi-
neer for Humble Oil and Refining. He founded Mercury
Production Company in 1963, and was Chairman of the
company at the time of his death. Frank was also serving as
a director of Quicksilver Re-
sources, Inc., a publicly trad-
ed oil and gas exploration and
production company. He was
a member of the American So-
ciety of Petroleum Engineers,
the Fort Worth Wildcatters,
and the Independent Petro-
leum Association of America.
Also, he was active in the Kap-
pa Sigma fraternity, Trinity
Episcopal Church, and the
Shady Oaks Country Club.
Mr. Darden had a long
connection with the sea and
INA. After his graduation as
a mechanical engineer from
the University of Kansas in
1946, he served in the United States Navy, being com-
missioned as a lieutenant on the battleship USS Iowa.
An active yachtsman, he belonged to the New Your
Yacht Club and was a past commodore of the Fort Worth
Boat Club.
In 1984, Frank became an INA Director. The next
year, he sailed his 48-foot ketch, Ariane, from The Nether-
lands to Texas via New England, Bermuda, the British Vir-
gin Islands, and Florida. After his initial term on the INA
board ended in 1989, he continued to support the Institute's
work. He served again as an INA Director from 1995 until
his passing.
Frank and his lovely wife, Lucy Darden (pictured
above), were married for forty-nine years. He is survived

by Lucy, by three children, Thomas F. "Toby" Darden (who
is also an INA Director), Glenn M. Darden, and Anne Darden
Self, by eight grandchildren, and by his sister, Mrs. John
Knebles of Alberta, Canada.
The memorial service was "standing room only," a
fitting tribute to a man loved by family, friends, colleagues,
and employees. The presiding official of the service The
Reverend Walter W. Kesler of Trinity Episcopal Church in
Fort Worth-read a selection by Theodore "Teddy"
Roosevelt, a passage that both Frank and Lucy adopted as
their own personal credo:
"Far better it is to dare mighty things, to win glo-
rious triumphs, even though checkered by fail-
ure, than to take rank
with those poor spirits
who neither enjoy nor
suffer much, because
they live in the gray twi-
light that knows neither
victory nor defeat."
When the service
closed with the hymn'Etemal
Father, Strong to Save," a work
that has come to be known as
the anthem for departed nar-
iners, an elderly gentleman
seated next to me turned and
with tear-filled eyes said, "I
sailed with Frank many times
in the Virgin Islands. Some-
times we sailed together; other times we raced against each
other. Whether we were in the sameboat or competing, Frank
always made me a better sailor."
If you knew Frank, take a silent minute when you
finish reading this and remember his life: His many kind-
nesses, his cheerful countenance, his dogged optimism, his
ability to "dare mighty things," and his love for the sea. If
you never had the privilege of meeting him, take a minute
to ponder all of the wonderful people in your life who have
"always made you a better sailor." Then you'll come close
to knowing our friend, Frank Darden, whose life we remem-
ber with celebration, and whose presence in INA will, for-
evermore, be deeply missed. r
Jerome Lynn Hall

INA Quarterly 28.1



George F. Bass, Co-Founder
Jack W. Kelley, Co-Founder
Jerome L. Hall, President

William L. Alien
Oguz Aydemir
John H. Baird
Joe Ballew
George F. Bass
Edward O. Boshell, jr,
Co-Chairman and Treasurer
Ray M. Bowen
John A. Brock
Elizabeth L. Bruni
Gregory M. Cook, Co-Chairman
Harlan Crow
William C. Culp, M.D.

Donald A. Frey, Vice President
Cernal M. Pulak, Vice President
M. Gad Vermillion, Director of
Development, INA Foundation
Thomas F. Darden
John De Lapa
Claude Duthuit
Daniel Fallon
Danielle J. Feeney
Donald G. Geddes il (Emeritus)
Woodrow Jones, Jr.
Harry C. Kahn U (Emeritus)
Michael L. Katzev
Mustafa Koc
Sally R. Lancaster
Robert E. Lorton
William A. McKenzie

James A. Good, Secretary & General Counsel
Claudia LeDoux, Assistant Secretary
& Assistant Treasurer

Alex G. Nason
George E. Robb, Jr.
L. Francis Rooney
Lynn Baird Shaw
Ayhan Sicimoglu
T. Hastings Siegfried
William T. Sturgis
Frederick H. van Doominck, Jr.
Robert L. Walker
Lew O. Ward
Peter M. Way
Garry A. Weber
George O. Yamini

Allan Campbell, M.D.

Bill Klein, M.D.

Dana F. McGinnis

Molly Reily

Murad Sunalp, M.D.

George F. Bass,
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology/George O. Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts
KevinJ. Crisman, Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow
Cemal M. Pulak, Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow of Nautical Archaeology
C. Wayne Smith, Assistant Professor/Director of the Archaeological Preservation Research Laboratory
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorinck, Jr., Frederick R. Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Shelley Wachsmarn, Meadows Associate Professor of Biblical Archaeology


J. Barto Arnold, M.A., Texas Operations

Selma Agar
Esra Altnarut-Gksu
Minevver Babacik
Mustafa Babaok
Chasity Burns
William H. Charlton, Jr., M.A.
Michelle Chmelar
Mehmet iftlikli
Marion Feildel
Tuba Ekmekci
Adel Farouk
Jana Gober
Zafer Gil
Jane Haldane
Kathy Hall
Emad Khalil
Sheila D. Matthews, M.A.
Misti Moore
Muammer Ozdemir
Robin C. M. Piercy
Sema Pulak, M.A.
*iikran Senyiz
Patricia M. Sibella, Ph.D.
Glilser Sinaci
Murat Tilev

Douglas Haldane, M.A., INA Egypt

STAFF (continued)
Siileyman Turel
G(ines Yaar

Dan Davis
Jeremy Green
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D.
John McManamon, Ph.D.
Robert S. Neyland, Ph.D.
Ralph K. Pedersen, M.A.
Brett A. Phaneuf
Donald Rosencrantz
Arthur Cohn, J.D.
David Cibbins, Ph.D.
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D.
Fredrik T. Hiebert, Ph.D.
Carolyn C. Koehler, Ph.D.
William M. Murray, Ph.D.
David I. Owen, Ph.D.
Cheryl Ward, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., Ph.D.
Christine A. Powell

Tufan U. Turanli, Turkish Headquarters

Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology
Boston University
Brown University
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati
Comell University
Corning Museum of Glass
Department de Arqueol6gia Subacuatica de
la I.N.A.H., Mexico
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Partners for Livable Places
University Museum, University of Pennsylvania
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Texas A&M University
University of Texas at Austin
Mr. and Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried U
Graduate Fellow: Filipe Castro
Marian M. Cook Graduate Fellow:
Matthew Harpster

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