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Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Winter 1999
Copyright Date: 1997
Frequency: quarterly
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Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
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Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))

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Full Text




The INA Quarterly


Volume 26 No. 4 Winter 1999



3 The 1999 Excavation Season at Tekta Burnu, Turkey
Deborah N. Carlson
MEMBERSHIP
9 An Interesting Anchor from the Tekta Bumu Shipwreck Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Ken Trethewey P.O. Drawer HG
College Station, TX 77841-5137
10 A Marble Ophthalmos from Tekta Burnu
Troy owak Learn firsthand of the latest discov-
SN series in nautical archaeology. Mem-
bers receive the INA Quarterly and
11 News and Notes other benefits (see INA Quarterly
25.1, 27),
12 The 1999 Excavation Season at the Presumable
Nossa Senhora dos Mdrtires Site Researcher (students only).... $25
Filipe Castro Seafarer .................. $40-99
rp CSurveyor ............ $100-249
Diver ................ .$250-499
16 Hull Construction of the Late Bronze Age Restorer ............. $500-99
Shipwreck at Uluburun Curator .......... $1,000-$2,499
Cemal Pulak Excavator ........... $2,50-4,999
Archaeologist ...... $5,000-9,999
22 Conservation in the Bodrurn Museum of Navigator .......... $10,000--24,999
Underwater Archaeology, Turkey, 1998-1999 Anchor ..........$25,000 and over
Kathy Hall Checks m U S. currency should be made
payable to INA. The portion of any do-
24 INA Egypt Update nation in excess of $10.00 is a tax-de-
Douglas Hldane ductible, charitable contribution.
Douglas Haldane ________

25 Just Released:
The Plenum Series in Underwater Archaeology

27 Index Volume 26


On the cover: The ophthalnos of the Tekta4 Burnu ship (TK 7) as it appeared on the seabed. Photo: D. Frey.

December 1999 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology" All rights reserved.
INA welcomes requests to reprint WNA Quartrly articles and llusratns. Articles for publication should be submitted inhard copy and on a 3.25
diskette (Macintosh. DOS,or Windows format acceptable) along wth all artwork. Please address all requests and submissions to the Editor, INA
Quarterly, P.O. Drawer HG, College Station, TX 77841-5137; tel (979) 8454694, fax (979) 847-9260, e-mail powlrye@texas.net.
The Home Page for lNA is at http://nautarch.tamu.ed L/'a/
The Institute of Nautical Archaeology is a non-profit Centific and educational organization, incorporated in 1972. Since 1976, INA has
been affiliated with Texas A&M University, where 1NAfaculty teach in the Nautical Archaeology Program of the Department of Anthro-
pology. The opinions expressed in Quarterly articles are those of the authors, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Institute.


Editor: Christine A. Powell


The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsletter (vols. 1-18),







The 1999 Excavation Season at Tekta Burnu, Turkey

Deborah N. Carlson, Assistant Director
Don Frey, Photographs
An exciting new excavation began in the summer of 1999. A team of twenty students and a handful of visiting
scholars joined the staff of INA veterans under the direction of Dr. George Bass to begin the excavation of a Classical
Greek ship that wrecked nearly 2500 years ago at Tektas Bumu, Turkey. The wreck was discovered in September 1996
during one of INA's annual surveys for shipwrecks off the Turkish coast. At the time, divers directed by Tufan Turanh
were working along a very rugged and remote stretch of coastline near Tekta Ada, or "Lone Rock Island," south of
Ceyme and west of Sigacik (ancient Teos). The wreck presented itself as a small mound of about sixty amphoras, of two
distinct types, lying on a shelf at a depth of between 38 and 43 m.
Three amphoras were raised from the site for identification. On the recommendation of INA Adjunct Professor
Dr. Carolyn Koehler, drawings were sent to Dr. Mark Lawall of the University of Manitoba, who specializes in the
study of ancient Greek transport amphoras. In July 1997, Dr. Lawall visited the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Ar-
chaeology. While there, he confirmed the identification of one of the two amphora types as Mendean (fig. 1), and
determined that it was best dated to the third quarter of the fifth century BCE. Dr. Lawall was less certain about the
identity of the second amphora type (fig. 2), which he termed pseudo-Samian (based on its resemblance to earlier
amphoras from the island of Samos), and dated to the third quarter of the fifth century BCE as well. Lawall pointed out
that this type shares certain features with amphoras produced at Klazomenai, which is located very near the Tektas
Burnu wrecksite, in the vicinity of modem Urla. Excavations at Klazomenai have revealed amphora fragments from
the late seventh century BCE and a fourth-century BCE amphora workshop and kiln. Future petrographic analysis of
the pseudo-Sanuan amphoras from Tekta Burnu may enable us to identify their source.


Drawing: B. Lled6

Fig. 1. Mendean amphora from 1996 survey.


Fig. 2. Pseudo-Samian amphora from 1996 survey.


INA Quarterly 26.4


Drawing: B. Lled6











In early June, we made several reconnaissance trips
to the cape using the research vessel Saros, chartered from
the Rahmi Koc Industrial Museum in Istanbul through TINA
(Turkish Institute of Nautical Archaeology). It was Saros that
S was ultimately capable of lifting our two one-ton generators
and placing them on shore where they supplied the various
Szmir compressors, fresh water makers, lights, and computers.
However, while we were busy building a camp on the rocks,
regme
we needed a place to house the team, which grew to nearly
STektagc forty people in mid-July. To this end, we chartered Artemis,
Burnu a 150-foot-long, wooden-hulled US Navy minesweeper built
in 1942. What Artemis lacked in elegance she made up for in
practicality, for her spacious galley allowed 40 of us to dine,
work, and hold meetings together. The space also enabled
us to receive visiting INA Directors Danielle Feeney, Ayhan
Sicimoglu, Ogu2 Aydemir, Gregg and Nancy Cook, Jack and
Jean Kelley, Joe and Donna Ballew, Ned and Raynette Boshell,
INA Executive Director Jerome Hall, and Donny Hamilton,
Head of the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M
University, with his son John.

Bodrum






Drawing: D. Carlson

Fig. 3. The Tekta Burnu wrecksite.

In 1999, Turkey installed a new government. This
change, coupled with the fact that our excavation permit
was a new one, meant that we did not receive our permit
until early August. We took advantage of this opportunity
to address the logistical difficulties of working and living
at Tekta5 Bumu, the cape that takes its name from the neigh-
boring island of Tekta Ada (fig. 3).
Dr. Bass has said that TektaS Bumu presents the most
hostile environment he has worked in during forty years
of excavating shipwrecks. The tiny village of Zeytineli,
which is the nearest town of any kind, is forty minutes
away by boat, a ride that is often accompanied by rough
seas. The coastline is barren and the rocks above the wreck-
site are jagged and friable; during early visits, we found it
difficult, if not impossible, to come ashore on foot. In addi-
tion, the site is completely exposed to the prevailing north-
westerly winds. Only the small cove behind the cape offers
minimal shelter, and it was here that we anchored INA's
65-foot, steel-hulled research vessel Virazon, which housed
the project's computers and recompression chamber.


Fig. 4. Looking upslope on the Tektal Burnu wrecksite.


INA Quarterly 26.4










In early July, the Turkish
Ministry of Culture issued a permit
authorizing us to prepare the site for
excavation, which allowed us to in-
stall safety equipment, remove the
sand overburden, photograph and
map the existing amphoras, and lay
a string grid (fig. 4). For the next six
weeks, while the construction of a
camp and dive platform progressed
above the wreck, preparatory work c
continued on the seabed. By the last .: -W .
week of July, as we prepared to .
move from Artemis into our com-
pleted camp (fig. 5), artifacts began
to appear in two distinct areas of the
wr ck: ini a sandy river on the up-
per slope, and farther downslope
within the amphora mound. When
the excavation permit was issued on
August 7, with the summer wind-
ing down and the imminent depar- Fig. 5. The camp at Tekta; Burnu.
ture of many team members, we
focused all our energy on the exploration of these two areas.
The first objects to appear on the upper slope of the site included a black-glazed kantharos (a kind of two-handled
Greek drinking cup), a one-handled jug (fig. 6), a hydria (water
carrier), and a round, handleless oil lamp. These initial discov-
eries led us to conclude that we were excavating the ship's gal-
ley, which one would expect to find in the vessel's stem.
Within days, Faith Hentschel and Sam Lin uncovered, in
the same upper slope area, a white marble disk approximately
14 cm in diameter. This mysterious disk (cover), with a metal
spike running through its center, soon became the subject of
much discussion; could it be a kind of axle or weight or perhaps
the lid of an elegant marble cosmetic box? Then, independently,
and almost simultaneously, Troy Nowak and Jeremy Green
solved the puzzle: this disk was the ship's ophthalmos, or eye,
and the lead spike piercing its center would have secured the
eye to the bow of the ship. In late August, George Bass, William
Murray, and I paid a visit to the PRraeus Archaeological Muse-
um in Greece, where we viewed the six marble eyes that had
been excavated from the ship sheds that housed the famed Athe-
nian triremes. The Piraeus eyes are almond-shaped and more
naturalistic than the Tekta Burnu ophthalmos, although both
seem to have been similarly painted; on the convex side of the
Tektas Burnu ophthalmos, you can still see the dark pigment stains
of a central circle and a thin dark outer band outlined by faint
incised lines. Was the rest of the eye painted on the ship around
V the marble iris? Perhaps not, if we are to judge from the pres-
ence of purely round eyes depicted uio black figure pots from
the sixth century BCE. Troy Nowak, a graduate student at Tex-
as A&M University, has prepared a scholarly publication of the
Tektao Burnu ophthalmos, summarized in the article on pages
Fig. 6. Onc-handled jug (TK 3). 10-11.


5 INA Quarterly 26.4










In the sandy river of the upper slope, artifacts contin-
ued to appear throughout the remaining weeks. These in-
cluded two more lamps and two more black-glazed kantharoi,
one of which is decorated with stamped motifs typical of
Greek pottery from the fifth century BCE.
Farther downslope, within the amphora mound, our
team uncovered a lovely table amphora (fig. 8) and a por-
tion of another like it. In both shape and style, this amphora
parallels those found at the Rhodian cemeteries of Camirus
and lalvsos. Other discoveries in this area included two bone
tiles (gaming pieces?), five more lamps (fig. 9), a terra-cotta
mortar, and nine one-handled cups, some of which were
found nested together (fig. 10). Other interesting discoveries
included an ancient kettle, or chytra, and a matching cooking
pot (fig. 11). Near the pot lay a very fine example of an ancient
Greek perfume flask called analabastron (fig. 12). Ouralahastron,
which measures 14 cm in length, appears to have been carved
from the same attractive, banded, translucent alabaster for which
the vessel type is named. In this same area, we uncovered the
two lead cores of a wooden anchor stock, which appear to con-
stitute the earliest evidence of metal-cored wooden anchors. The
reader will find more information on the TektaS Burnu anchor
stocks on page 9 in a companion article by Ken Trethewey, who
excavated and studied them.
Still farther downslope, at the edge of the shelf, our
Turkish commissioners, Harun Ozda and Gokhan Bozkurt-
lar, uncovered a pocket of artifacts that included a carinated,
third type of kantharos. This cluster of objects suggests that
the wrecksite may be larger than we originally anticipated. Be-
yond this point, the seabed drops almost vertically about 15 m,


Fig. 9. Five of eight oil lamps found in 1999.


Fig. 8. Meghan Ryan inspects table amphora TK 32.


Fig. 10. Three of nine one-handled cups found in 1999.


INA Quarterly 26.4








































Fig. 11 (left) Cooking pot TK 51 as
it appeared on the seabed.
Fig. 12 (above). The perfumeflask,
or alabastron, TK 23.


and one of our goals for the 2000
season will be to explore the deep-
er waters around the wrecksite to
determine if any cargo has tum-
bled over the edge.
The primary cargo of the
ship that wrecked at TektaB Bur-
nu looks to be just as diverse as
the associated artifacts. During
the 1999 season, we uncovered
two hundred amphoras and
raised twenty. Two of these
have the swollen neck that is
typical of fifth-century ampho-
ras from the island of Chios,
which liesnorthwest of the Tek-
taS Burnu wrecksite. One of the
twenty amphoras is Mendean,
from the city of Mende in the
Chalktdike of Northern Greece.
Mendean wine was one of the
most widely-exported and
highly-regarded vintages of the
Classical world; ancient Greek
authors tell us that the wine of
Mende was thought to have me-
dicinal, particularly laxative, qual-
ities. Curiously, the Mendean
amphora raised for identification
during the 1996 survey was filled
with a dark resinous pitch, which
is currently undergoing analysis.
The majority of the am-
phoras at Tektal Burnu are of
the so-called pseudo-Samian
type that may have originated
along the coast of Asia Minor,
perhaps suggesting that the
ship sank very soon after tak-
ing on the bulk of its cargo at a
nearby port. While sieving one
of the pseudo-Samian ampho-
ras, we discovered that it con-
tained more than one hundred
butchered cattle bones, mostly
ribs (fig. 13), which may repre-
sent cured beef provisions for
the crew, or perhaps cargo. The
Athenian comic poet Hermip-
pos includes beef ribs from
Thessaly among those goods
imported into Athens in the
middle of the fifth century BCE.


[NA Quarterly 26.4


Fig. 13. Some of the more than 100 cattle bones retrievedfrom amphora TK 45.











All of the artifacts uncovered during the 1999 cam-
paign were mapped with a photogrammetry system man-
aged by Tufan Turanh. The provenience of each artifact
was recorded on the seabed with calibrated 35mm and dig-
ital underwater cameras. Later, on the surface, the digi-
tized images were processed using three-dimensional
modeling programs. While Tufan concentrated on the over-
all site plan, the artifacts were digitally modeled by Berta
Lled6 in a separate process, and then applied to the map-
ping points to create a map with accuracy better than 1 in
200. In addition, with the input of INA veterans Faith
Hentschel and Sheila Matthews, Berta produced a highly
efficient relational database that unites the artifact catalog,
team roster, diving log, and a daily journal in a most user-
friendly way. Don Frey, who traded in his Nikonos for an
underwater video camera, shot much of the video used in
the National Geographic Explorer program Shipwreck Hunt-
ers, which aired twice in late November and featured the
Tektas Burnu excavation.
The acquisition of the Homer and Dorothy Thomp-
son Library for INA's Bodrum headquarters, made possi-
ble by the Northwest Friends of INA in Portland, Oregon,
enabled us to conduct preliminary research while the ex-
cavation was still ongoing. This research has found many
parallels for the Tekta Bumu pottery in the Athenian Ag-
ora excavations, which uniformly offer a date between 450
and 435 BCE, precisely the date suggested by Dr. Lawall
in his analysis of the TektaS Burnu amphoras.
What was life Like at the time our ship was lost? By
450 BCE, the Aegean was firmly under the control of the
Athenian navy, and Athens, receiving regular installments
of monetary "tribute" from her allies, had become the cul-
tural center of the Mediterranean world. These were the
years that Sophocles and Euripides wrote tragedies, Hero-
dotus and Thucydides chronicled Greek history, Phidias,
Polykleitos, and Myron perfected sculptural proportion,
and Pericles commissioned the building of the Parthenon
on the Acropolis. The hegemony and prosperity of Athens


in the third quarter of the fifth century BCE was due in no
small part to sea-borne trade, which circulated slaves, grain,
timber, silver, copper, oil, and wine around the Mediterra-
nean. While Classical archaeologists are well-versed in the
architecture, sculpture, pottery, and coins of fifth-century
Greece, we know next to nothing about the ships, crews, and
cargoes. Among archaeologists, it is generally considered bad
luck to hypothesize about future finds; speculating about the
presence of certain artifacts is thought to all but guarantee
their absence. It seems only appropriate then, that the fol-
lowing inventory of Athenian imports should appear in the
words of their author, Hermippos:

From Kyrene silphium and ox hide,
From the Hellespont mackerel and salted fish of
all kinds,
From Thessaly salt and ribs of beef,
From the Syracusans pork and cheese...
From Egypt papyrus for sails and books,
Frankincense from Syria, and from lovely Crete
cypress for the Gods
From Africa an abundance of ivory,
From Rhodes raisins and dried figs that bring
sweet dreams,
From Euboea pears and plump apples...
Paphlagonia provides divine acorns
and shining almonds;
These are the delights of the banquet.
Phoenicia furnishes dates and the finest wheat flour,
And Carthage carpets and colorful cushions.

Despite the later than expected arrival of our 1999
excavation permit, we are excited about the progress made
in just a few short weeks. With the alleviation of many of the
site's logistical problems and the construction of a magnifi-
cent camp and dive platform, which was achieved through
the untiring efforts of Robin Piercy, we are ready and anx-
iously waiting to greet the 2000 season at TektaS Bumu.


Acknowledgments: The 1999 season at TektaS Bumu was made possible through the generous financial support of the Direc-
tors and members of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology, Texas A&M University, the National Endowment for the Hu-
manities, the National Geographic Society, and Turkish Airlines (THY). It was a pleasure to work with National Geographic
Explorer producer Leslie Schwerin, cameraman Jerry Risius, and photographer Courtney Platt. Leslie and Jerry had scarcely
left TektaS Bumu when Jerry was rushed back to Turkey to document the aftermath of the devastating earthquake that
occurred on August 17. That this INA project was able to follow on the heels of the Bozburun Byzantine Shipwreck Excava-
tion is due in no small part to the maintenance efforts of Murat Tilev, who worked hard to ensure that all of our equipment
was running all of the time, and Tufan Turanh, who supervised the annual overhaul and painting of Virazon. Compliments
to our Head Conservator Asaf Oron and his assistants Laura Pretsell, Sabine Westerhuis, and Meghan Ryan, who, faced
with the prospect of a less-than-desirable conservation facility, joined forces to build a highly efficient one. Kudos to Diving
Safety Officer Bill Charlton and Assistant Divemasters Dan Davis and Ken Trethewey for seeing us through more than 1800
logged dives without incident. Warmest thanks to our cook, Angie Mitchell, who prepared the most appealing meals (often
under the most unappealing conditions) and never served the same dish twice. I would like to extend my special thanks to
George Bass, for offering me the opportunity of a lifetime, and Sheila Matthews; if I met with any success as an Assistant
Director, it is largely because she took me by the hand and showed me the ropes. e'


INA Quarterly 26.4







An Interesting Anchor from the Tekta Bumu Shipwreck

Ken Trethewey


INA archaeologists excavating the classical Greek
shipwreck at Tekta Buru, Turkey, last summer discovered
and raised two large bars of lead, the well-preserved remains
of one of the ship's anchors. The heavy bars had originally
been the lead cores of a wooden stock designed to turn one
of the anchor's hooks into the seabed and hold it there. Many
similar artifacts have been discovered in the Mediterranean
and Black Seas, but very few of them have come from dat-
able contexts, since anchors are lost much more frequently
by themselves than along with the ships that carry them.
The Tekta Bumu anchor, however, comes from a fairly se-
curely datable shipwreck, and it provides new insight into
the evolutionary development of ancient anchors.
Scholars largely agree that early simple stone anchors
were followed by stone anchors fitted with wooden spikes
or hooks to improve their ability to grip the seabed. This form
in turn seems to have evolved into an anchor made predomi-
nantly of wood, but with a stone stock to add mass and ensure
the proper orientation of the anchor on the bottom. Later these
stone stocks were replaced by denser, less breakable lead
ones. The earliest lead stocks were of the type found at Tek-
ta Buru, a type defined by the wooden outer shell of the
stock into which molten lead was poured. Though none of
the wood from the Tekta5 Burnu anchor survives, it is clear
that the lead bars were originally poured into a wooden stock
mold. The notches in their edges, their trapezoidal sectional


shape, and their casting bolts (smallnail-like protrusions formed
when the molten lead flowed into holes drilled in the mold) all
demonstrate that the craftsman took pains to secure the heavy
cores within their wooden casing so that they would not break
through the bottom or sides of the stock when the anchor struck
the seabed. Later lead anchor stocks had no casing of wood;
they were cast in molds of sand or other materials, and these
molds were not retained. More efficient anchors made of iron
ultimately replaced the bulky wooden anchors with their
heavy stocks.
Though the general evolution of the ancient anchor
seems fairly clear, it has been more difficult to establish firm
dates for each of the types. Anchors with lead-filled wooden
stocks were until recently often thought to have first appeared
during the fourth century BCE, as that is the date of the Kyre-
nia shipwreck, for long the earliest datable context for lead
stock cores. Later it was thought that the cores found on the
Porticello shipwreck demonstrated that this type of anchor ex-
isted as early as the end of the fifth century, a hypothesis that
was confirmed by the discovery of the anchor discovered dur-
ing the Ma'agan Michael excavation largely confirmed that view.
In fact, the Ma'agan Michael anchor was until now the earliest
secure evidence for the change from stone anchor stocks to
lead. The Tektat Buru cores now appear to show that an-
chors with lead-filled stocks existed considerably earlier, by
the third quarter of the fifth century BCE. a'


L IULL;LU. 1/. r jr -y
The lead anchor stock cores from the Tekta; Burnu shipwreck are the earliest examples known of this
anchor design.


INA Quarterly 26.4








A Marble Ophthalmos from Tekta Burnu


Troy J. Nowak


The tradition of decorating a ship's bow with eyes is one
of the most widespread customs practiced by seafarers from
antiquity to the present. Eyes can be seen today adorning the
bows of ships from Portugal, Malta, Greece, India, and the Far
East. In their present form, they appear painted on a ship's tim-
bers or as worked components fashioned from metal or wood.
These eyes serve a prophylactic function similar to that of eyes
depicted on ships throughout antiquity. Archaeological finds of
naturalistic marble eyes from the Piraeus attest to eyes, ophthal-
nm1o, taking the form of decorated marble appliques once affixed
to the bows of ancient Greek warships. Documentation of sim-
ilar ophthalmoi can be found in entries from the contemporary
Naval Inventories that list them as "missing" or "broken." Evi-
dence for the use of marble ophthalmoi on ancient Greek mer-
chantmen has only recently come to light. The Institute of
Nautical Archaeology's 1999 excavation of the Classical Greek
merchantnan at Tekta Burnu yielded a small marble disc be-
lieved to be an ophthalrnos. This is not only thefirst known exam-
ple of an ophthalmos from a shipwreck site, but also our earliest
archaeological example of this decorative element.
The Tekta ophthalmos is a marble disc about 14 czn in
diameter with a roughly finished inner face (fig. 1). Its outer face
is convex, polished and decorated with a dark concentric de-
sign (fig. 2). A lead fastener pierces the _center of the disc, once
affixing it to the ship that sank at Tekta Bumru.
The ophthalmos was uncovered in the upper layer of the
site in what is believed to be the vessel's bow section. Its outer
face was exposed amidst a concentration of scattered wood frag-


Inoro: u. rrey
Fig. 1. The Tektay Burnu ophthalmos, inner face.


ments and copper fasteners. If these are remains of the ship's
hull, their position within the artifact assemblage suggests they
represent the inboard collapse of the ship's starboard side, Arti-
fact scatter and bottom topography indicate that the ship settled
listing to port. This may explain the concentration of structural
elements in the upper reaches of the site as well as the upright
position of the ophthalnos. Future excavation and analysis should
refine this hypothesis.
This unique object proves that the tradition of affixing a
painted marble applique to the bows of Greek ships applied to
warships and merchantmen alike. Study of the representational
evidence for ophthalmoi in the Archaic and Classical periods
shows that the most common depictions of merchantmen's oph-
thalmoi are circular. An Attic black-figure oinochoe (wine pitcher)
and an Attic black-figure cup, both dating to c. 510 BCE, best
illustrate this feature. They depict merchant vessels with circu-
lar eyes painted with a concentric pattern similar to that of the
Tektas ophthalrnus (fig. 3). This same patter is also visible on the
central portion of eyes depicted on warships of the late sixth and
fifth centuries BCE and on the naturalistic marble examples from
the Piraeus. Based on the available evidence, it seems likely that
the Tekta Bumu ship had simple circular ophthalmoi adoring
its bow. Further excavation should yield new evidence to shed
light on this enigmatic object,
Acknowledgtements: I would like to thank George F. Bass, Direc-
tor of the Tekta Burnu shipwreck excavation, and Deborah
Carlson, Assistant Director, for suggesting that I publish this
exciting find, e


Fig. 2. The Tekta5 Burnu ophthalmos, outer face.


INA Quarterly 26.4





























Drawing: T. Nowak
Fig. 3. Merchantman under sail with a circular ophthalmos set high on its bow, c. 510 BCE (after Casson, 1971. Ships and
Seamanship in the Ancient World. Princeton, fig. 91).


Suggested Readings
Filgueiras, O.L.
1989 "Some Vestiges of Old Ritual Practice in Portuguese Local Boats." In Tropis III, Proceedings of the Third Interna-
tional Symposium on Ship Constructiin in Antiquity, ed. H. Tzalas, Athens: 149-166.

Hornell, J.
1923 "The Significance of the Oculus in Boat Decoration." In The Origins and Ethnographical Significance of Indian Boat
Designs, Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 7: 247-256.

1970 "The Prow of the Ship: Sanctuary of the Tutelary Deity." In Water Transport: Origins and Early Evolution, second
edition. London: 271-289.

Saatoglu-Paliadele, C.
1980 "Marble eyes from Piraeus." A~chaiologike Ephemeris 1978: 119-135, pls. 40-41.


News & Notes


Recent A&M Graduates


Request for Contributions


The INA Quarterly would like to congratulate the
following graduates from the Nautical Archaeology Pro-
gram at Texas A&M University who received Master of
Arts degrees in the last year: Alan Thomas Flanigan and
David Stewart Robinson (Spring 1999); Thanos Aronis
Webb (Summer 1999); Kendra Quinn and Athena Traka-
das (Fall 1999). as


The INA Quarterly always welcomes contribu-
tions from INA members concerning nautical archae-
ology. Please address inquiries or manuscripts to the
Editor at the address shown on page 2, or by e-mail to
powlrye@texas.net. INA Quarterly submission guide-
lines for manuscripts were published in the Winter 1995
issue volume 22.4, page 22. a5


INA Quarterly 26.4







The 1999 Excavation Season at the Presumable

Nossa Senhora dos Mdrtires Site

Filipe Castro
On September 14, 1606, after a nine -
month voyage from Cochim, India, and a
three month stop in the Azores, the Por-
tuguese East Indiaman Nossa Senhora dos
Mdrtires arrived in sight of Lisbon. A
heavy storm forced Captain Manuel Bar-
reto Rolim to drop anchor off Cascais, a
small village a few miles from Lisbon. '*
Here the Indiaman Salva~do, another re-
turning nau from the 1605 fleet, was al- N
ready struggling with the southerly gale.
Dangerously dragging her anchors in the
direction of the beach, Salvaado was too Nossa Sehora
heavy to be towed against the wind by
the galley that was sent to help. The next
day, after seeing Salvaao run aground on PORTUGAL
the Cascais beach, Rolim decided to head
for the mouth of the Tagus River hoping M Powel
to escape the tempest in the calmer wa- -Map: Po
ters of the estuary (fig. 1). Fig. 1. The Tagus mouth and the location of the fortress of Sdo Julio da Barra.
However, getting past the sandbars
was not easy. Two large sandbanks narrowed the entrances, making the waters run dangerously fast in both the north-
ern and the southern channel. Rolimn headed for the northern canal. By the early seventeenth century, this was already
considered too narrow and shallow for laying anchor, and too crooked for any galley to tow a large vessel. In the
middle of the passage, Mdrtires lost her headway and the nau was dragged to a submerged rock. She sank in front of the
Sao Juliao da Barra fortress in a matter of hours; soon afterwards she was broken up into such small pieces that witness-
es commented it looked as if she had sunk long ago.
Her main cargo of pepper, which had been stored loose in small
holds, spilled out upon wrecking, forming a black tide that extended for
leagues along the coast and the Tagus estuary. A large amount of pepper
was saved and put to dry by the king's officers. The population also sal-
vaged a notable quantity, as it was impossible for the soldiers to stop the
3 locals who, despite the dreadful weather conditions, went to sea every night
in small craft to salvage what they could.
': .? tiDuring the subsequent summers, the officers of King Felipe III of
'*-,-. Spain-who was also King Felipe II of Portugal-may have salvaged a
Great part of the cargo from the shallow waters, and they certainly rescued
cables, anchors, and guns.
Scab Julst as with many other wrecks that occurred at this dangerous channel,
Nossa Senhora dos Mdrtites was soon forgotten. The tsunami that followed the earth-
quake of 1755 probably rolled heavy rocks over its remains. A codfish trawler
wrecked near the site in 1966, covering a large area with other debris.
Stories of treasure around the fortress of Sao Juli5o da Barra were cer-
tainly transmitted through generations, and the spread of scuba diving from
the early 1950s heightened interest in the area. In the late 1970s, archaeologi-
cal surveys were carried out by avocational archaeologists, but no govern-
mental action was taken to protect the site. As a result, the area was heavily
looted by sports divers during the 1980s.
Photo: J. Pessoa In 1993, the Museu Nacional de Arqueologia sponsored a survey of
Fig. 2. Chinese glhzed earthenw'arejarfrom the the site under the direction of Dr. Francisco Alves and identified two main
late sixteenth or early srvententnth century. areas of archaeological interest. Onedesignated as SJB2-consisted of


[NA Quarterly 26.4










the remains of a wooden hull with shards of Ming porcelain
and Chinese earthenware dating from the late sixteenth or -
early seventeenth centuries (fig. 2). Based on information from -,'.'
the Museu Nacional de Arqueologia's shipwreck archives,
Nossa Senhora dos Mdrtires seemed the most likely identity for this
wreck.
In 1996 and 1997, excavations were conducted on the SJB2 ,
site under the direction of Dr. Alves and myself. The wooden .' .
hull was recorded, and an area of approximately 100 square d
meters was excavated (fig. 3). We recovered many artifacts from '
directly below a ubiquitous layer of peppercorns. These items
included three astrolabes and two dividers, several sounding
leads, as well as porcelain, stoneware, earthenware, brass, cop-
per, pewter, and silver and gold objects. Among the organic ma-
terials, many peach pits were recovered along with ropes, fabrics,
leather, and straw, this later found between seven stacked porce-
lain dishes. Several of these artifacts were exhibited in the Portu-
guese pavilion at EXPO '98, the World Exposition held in Lisbon
during the summer of 1998.
A historical investigation led by the team of the Portuguese
Pavilion at EXPO '98 brought to light information about the
lives of some of Mdrtires' crew and passengers. Among them
were Aires de Saldanha, seventeenth vice-regent in India (1600- ,,
1605), who died just before reaching the Azores on his return trip to
the regency, and : __
Manuel Barreto
.-- Rolim, who was Drawing: CNANS
trying to make a Fig. 3. Site plan of the preserved portions ofNossa Sen-
fortune in the In- hora dos Mdrtires after the 1996/7 field season.
S"dia trade after
4..'J. being disinherited by his father because of an unwanted marriage. An-
other was the cabin boy Crist6vao de Abreu, who survived this ship-
wreck and the wrecks of several other naus namely Nossa Senhora da
Oliveira in 1610, Nossa Senhora de Belm in 1635, and S. Bento in 1642.
He then died at sea in 1645 while returning from India as boatswain of
the nau S. Lourenfo. No less interesting is the story of Father Francisco
Rodrigues, a Jesuit priest who lost his life while coming from Japan to
see the Pope on matters concerning the future of the whole Japanese
Jesuit mission. These and other stories have been published in the cat-
alogue of the Portuguese pavilion at EXPO '98: Nossa Senhora dos
Mdrtires, The last voyage.
In the summer of 1999, INA and the Instituto Portugubs de Ar-
queologia through its Centro Nacional de Arqueologia Njiutica e
Subaquitica sponsored an excavation season on the SJB2 site, aim-
ing at what is perhaps the most exciting part of this wreck: its hull
remains (fig. 4). A section of the bottom immediately before the
midship frames was preserved, including a section of the keel, elev-
en frames, and some of the planking. Construction marks carved
on the surfaces of the floor timbers allowed us not only to under-
stand the method used by the shipwright to conceive the hull shape,
but even to reconstruct some of the hull dimensions with a high
Photo: G. Garcia degree of certainty. It was a large nau with a keel close to 27.72 m in
Fig. 4. Armando Sousa and PauhIo Camargo rais- length (91 ft or 18 rumos, the un it then used in Portugal), and an overall
mng garboard T1 W. length of about 38.25 m). The hull structure had been built with cork


INA Quarterly 26.4





























Photo: F. Castro
Fig. 5 (above). Futtock B8E showing the filler piece spiked to the side of
the timber. Most contemporary written sources mention the lack of
suitable timber for the construction of such large h/ups.

Fig. 6 (right). The keel begins its ascent from Nossa Senhora dos Mirtires,
guided by two archaeologists.

Fig. 7 (below). An archaeologist brings the keel section to the surface. Photo: G. Garcia


oak (Quercus suber), and the small size of the trees that were used forced
the shipwrights to assemble large structural pieces from several small
timbers (tig. 5). The hull planking was cut from umbrella pine (Pinus
pinea), with strakes almost 11 cm thick. These were caulked with string
of lead, which was inserted between the planks during construction.
.rr.,XtQ. .''4 Two thick layers of oakum were pressed into the seam, against the
.-., lead string, and were then protected from the outside with a strip of
S" lead. This protective strip was nailed to the outer surface of the planks
I using short tacks with wide circular heads.
The 1999 excavation season lasted two months. The first month
entailed intense underwater work to record some important construc-
tion details and to raise most of the remaining structure (figs. 6 and 7).
Unfortunately, the wood remains had been heavily damaged by the
rough sea conditions since the 1997 excavation season. Most of the sec-
ond month of the 1999 season was spent recording the timbers and
preparing an exhibition of the artifact collection for Lisbon's Naval
Museum (figs. 8 and 9).
The extent of future work on this wreck site will depend on the
results of the ongoing study of the information recovered this season.
We hope that the data will allow the reconstruction of part of the mid-
ship section and the hull's overall length. We also hope to reconstruct
the rules that were used to narrow and raise the bottom of the ship in
the direction of its extremities. The hull reconstruction, the analyses
being performed on the artifacts, and the historical information as-
sembled will hopefully shed more light on the history of this wreck
Photo: G. Garcia and the Portuguese East India trade.


INA Quarterly 26 4










Acknowledgements. The author wants to express
his gratitude for the support of the Portuguese
Navy, especially the Direcqao de Far6is, with-
out which none of the field seasons would have
been possible. o,

Suggested Readings

Castro, Filipe
1998 "Underwater Archaeology in Portugal:
Policies, Budgets, and Results." INA
Quarterly 25.4, 16-18.

Luz Alfonso, Simonetta, Ed.
1998 Nosmw Senhora dos Mdrtires, the Last Voyage.
Lisbon: Verbo.

Phillips, Carla Rahn
1986 Six Galleons for the King of Spain; Imperial
Defence in the Early Seventeenth Century.
Baltimore: John Hopkins University
Press.


Photo: F. Castro

Fig. 8. Mikkel Thomsen draws the east side of floor C5 in the CNANS
warehouse.


/O / 7.


h 603


Fig. 9. Futtock C5 was carefully drawn to preserve its diagnostic features.


INA Quarterly 26.4









Hull Construction of the Late Bronze Age Shipwreck at Uluburun

Cemal Pulak


From 1984 to 1994, the Institute of Nautical Archaeol-
ogy excavated one of the world's most exciting archaeologi-
cal sites. A Late Bronze Age shipwreck at Uluburun opened
a window into ancient commerce by providing an enormous
collection of trade goods from the period. The ship appar-
ently sank shortly after 1305 BCE, when the last datable ring
on a dendrochronologicaJy dated piece of cedar dunnage
or firewood was laid down. One important aspect of this
shipwreck is the preservation of parts of its hull, which pro-
vide unique insights into Late Bronze Age shipbuilding.
r ------------ ------------------- -


Investigation of the site showed that the ancientship had
come to rest on the seabed in approximately an east-west orien-
tation The western end was uppermost on the sloping seabed,
with the wreck listing about 15 degrees to starboard. At the west
end, the stern rested atapproximately 44 m depth with the bow
at 52 m. Excavators found artifacts and cargo scattered down
the slope to at least 60 m. Since so much of the cargo perished,
estimates of the ship's size are speculative. However, it appears
that the length was about 15 m and the total capacity at least 20
tons, based on the recovered remains.


UPSLOPE


Socciopt A-A


SECTION 2L--- ) I



i ,,; 1 .
S4 ga 62
S II




Nf -- 0_o -

0_0 in
I M

HULL REMAINS OF THE ULULURUN SHIPWRfc.K SECTION 3 Drawing C. Pulak

Fig. 1. The Uluburun hull sections discussed in the article. Note that they were found on a steep slope, so the sections appear shorter
m length when projected on a horizontal plane, as here.


INA Quarterly 26.4


I









The hull remains
We found the scanty hull remains in four distinct
sections, although one of these consisted of only a few
scraps of planking (fig. 1). The first and largest section was
preserved by the weight of the ship's eight stone anchors
forcing the keel and planking into the relatively flat sand
high on the slope. This first section of Uluburun hull re-
mains measured approximately 1.8 m by 1 m (fig. 1). These
were well preserved on their inboard surfaces, but badly
eroded on the outside. Included were a 1.7 m section of
the keel, port garboard (the plank or strake joining the keel),
and second strake. Besides these two full width-strakes,
there were fragments of the third port strake. On the star-
board side of the keel, only fragments of the garboard re-
mained.
The smaller second and third hullsections were preserved
under the second and third rows of copper ingots, respectively.
The copper created a toxic environment that discouraged ma-
rine life that would otherwise have attacked the wood.The wood
from these sections is stained green and heavily distorted by
the ingots, but otherwise well preserved.
Peter I. Kuniholm of the Malcolm Weiner Laborato-
ry for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronology at Cor-
nell University identified the wood species in the ship, and
Werner Schoch of the Swiss Federal Forestry Research In-
stitute in Zurich confirmed the identifications. These anal-
yses revealed that the hull was built of cedar (Cedrus sp.)
instead of fir (Abies sp.), as previously believed. This new
identification is not at all surprising when one considers
that Bronze Age sources often mention cedar as the most
preferred timber for building ships. The physical and me-
chanical attributes of cedar are well suited for shipbuild-
ing. It is easily worked and has little dulling effect on tools,
shrinkage is minimal, seasoning is achieved without sig-
nificant distortion, and it is more resistant to decay in salt
water than most other woods.
Excavators have also tentatively identified the re-
mains of bulwark fencing (fig. 2) as evidenced by five well-
rounded stakes in a row several meters to starboard of the
bull. Only one is fully preserved. It is 1.7 m long and near-
ly 7 cm in diameter. Each stake was sharpened, with the
points all oriented towards the keel. Perpendicular to and
laying on the stakes were closely spaced parallel withies.
This almost certainly is a wicker work weather fence sim-
ilar to those on all the Syrian ships depicted in nearly con-
temporary Egyptian tomb paintings. Odysseus used
similar wicker fencing to keep the waves out of the boat he
built to leave Calypso's island.
There was no evidence of framing. It is possible that
the preserved hull section was too small to contain evi-
dence of such structural elements, or that frames or bulk-
heads were attached higher up the hull. However, the
absence of these elements in the first few strakes either side
of the keel may indicate that there were fewer internal sup-


ports than in later vessels. If, in fact, there were few sup-
ports, how was the hull held together?

Joinery used in construction
Ships today are constructed by erecting a skeleton
of framing and then attaching the planking to this frame-
work. In contrast to this "skeleton-based" approach, an-
cient shipbuilders used a "shell-based" method. This
entailed edge-joining the planks with mortise-and-tenon
joints that were then locked in place with wooden pegs.
These were driven from inside the hull through the ten-
ons to form a rigid shell. The framing was only added lat-
er to reinforce the hull. On examining the hull sections, we
discovered that the Uluburun ship used this shell-based
method known from Greek and Roman ships of more than
a millennium later. Indeed, it is the oldest ship currently
known to have been built this way.
Unpegged mortise-and-tenon joints were found in
Khufu's funerary boat at Giza (ca. 2565 BCE) and Senusret
Ill's boats (ca. 1855 BCE) at Dashur. Without pegs to lock
adjacent planks to one another, they offered considerably
less longitudinal support for the planking than did their
pegged counterparts. The tenons served primarily to align
the planks during construction. Ligatures were used to hold
the planks together. As late as the fifth century BCE, Hero-
dotus observed Egyptian shipwrights attaching short
planks with long, closely set tenons. They caulked the
planks from the inside using papyrus fibers, which pre-
sumably would have been held in place by the ligatures
used to bind the planks together. Although the Egyptians
used pegged mortise-and-tenon joints as early as the Third
Dynasty (ca. 2680-2610 BCE) for furniture, we have no ev-
idence of their use in shipbuilding. However, we also have
no physical remains of Egyptian seagoing vessels, which
could have used such construction.
Until the discovery of the Uluburun ship, the oldest
completely-documented vessel with pegged mortise-and-
tenon joints was the Kyrenia ship of the late fourth centu-
ry BCE found off northern Cyprus. However, it seems likely
that such construction was previously used in the seventh-
century Mazarr6n, Spain, shipwreck, the late sixth-centu-
ry Jules Verne 7 ship at Marseilles, France, the late
fifth-century Ma'agan Michael shipwreck near Haifa, Is-
rael, and the late fifth- or early fourth-century Porticello
shipwreck in the Straits of Messina, Italy.
We do not know when and where mortise-and-ten-
on joints were first used in ship construction. Possibly, this
technique developed on the Levantine littoral and spread
westward. It may be more than coincidence that the Ro-
mans called this type of joint "Phoenician." The two earli-
est ships known to have used pegged mortise-and-tenon
joints were both built somewhere along the Syro-Palestin-
ian coast or on Cyprus. The first was the Uluburun ship;
the other is the Cape Gelidonya shipwreck (ca. 1200 BCE),


[NA Quarterly 2,.4











excavated on the southern Turkish coast by George Bass
in 1960. Recent examination of drawings and photographs
from that ship have confirmed the use of this style of con-
struction. More exact answers about the origin of this tech-
nique may have to await the discovery and excavation of
additional Bronze Age vessels.

Keel remains
One of the most striking features of the Uluburun
ship was its keel (fig. 2). Traditional keels project well be-
low the exterior surface of the planking. This assists the ship
to hold course and tack closer to the wind in adverse weath-
er. In contrast, the Uluburun keel projected no more than
two centimeters beneath the hull. The flat top of the keel
was ten centimeters higher than the interior surface of the
garboards. In most ancient Mediterranean hulls, the inside
surface of the keel is at the same level as the garboards.
The excavators originally assumed that the keel pro-
jected well below the exterior planking, and that the keel
had settled on the bottom above its original position. How-
ever, further study showed that the garboards had been
fastened to the keel near its bottom surface. The keel was
originally wider (sided 28 cm) than it was high (molded
22 cm), although the height had to be reconstructed with
information from a small, well-preserved knot in the
worm-eaten keel's exterior. It appears that the keel nar-
rowed by about a quarter of its maximum width towards
the bow, based on a 50 cm length of the keel preserved in
the third hull section.
This keel would have served as an effective spine
for the ship, provided protection to the bottom planking,
and supported the vessel when beached. The Uluburun
keel is more massive than a simple plank but was not a
true keel projecting below the hull. This design will help
us to understand the technological and navigational capa-
bilities of Bronze Age seagoing ships. This, in turn, will
assist us in understanding how those capabilities favored
certain maritime trade routes.
The keel or keel plank of the seventh-century BCE
shipwreck at Mazarr6n, Spain, was somewhat similar in
proportion of its sectional dimensions, although its interi-
or surface was at the level of the garboards. As such, it
appears to represent the next logical step in the develop-
ment of the keel, a configuration similar to that of the Ul-
uburun ship, but now pushed to the outside of the hull.

Construction of the planking
The second section of hull is extensively eroded but
includes an important construction feature not attested
elsewhere. This is either a flat scarf or a drop strake. As
runs of planks curve in toward the stem and diminish in
width, those that become impractically narrow are discon-
tinued (dropped) and their ends cut square to prevent split-
tuig In the first hull section, the garboard noticeably tapers


Image- T. Kang
Fig. 2. This computer reconstruction of the keel shows how it
projected internally, rather than externally.


towards the bow. In the third section this tapering becomes
even more pronounced. Therefore, the drop strake possi-
bility for the feature in the second section seems most Like-
ly. There is one well-preserved mortise-and-tenon joint at
the scarf or drop strake, and a vestige of a second. Bronze
Age seafarers were apparently not worried about the
strength of such joints, since the heavy copper ingots were
placed directly above the joints. There was only a patch of
dunnage (thorny burnet, Sarcopotenum spinosum) between
the ingots and planks to protect them.
The garboards were fastened to the keel with pegged
mortise-and-tenon joints. The edges of the garboard ad-
joining the keel were approximately 10 cm in thickness
while the opposite edge was about 6-6.5 cm. We found no
metal fasteners, treenails, or ligature fastenings anywhere
in the hull. It appears that the pegged joints were the ex-
clusive means for holding the ship together. The builders
drove all the pegs completely through the planks from the
interior of the hull and then sawed them even with the
surfaces. The oak pegs, averaging 2.2 cm in diameter at
their inboard face, are tapered and multi-faceted, with one
well-preserved peg displaying about twelve facets.

Spacing and size of the joints
The Uluburun ship had joints that were spaced fur-
ther apart than those found in Greek and Roman ships of
similar size. The joints were extraordinarily robust, with
the mortices extending from one plank edge to within 1.5-
2 cm of the opposite edge. This is about twice as long as
the tenons in Greco-Roman ships of similar length, and is
considerably longer than is required to resist shear forces


INA Quarterly 26.4










on the joints. The long tenons functioned as frames within
the planks, providing extra stiffening. This intra-planking
framework compensated for the lack or paucity of exter-
nal frames in the hull. The oak tenons were much harder
than the cedar of the planks. The use of such tenons em-
bedded in very thick strakes would have provided a sub-
stantial measure of lateral rigidity.
As shipbuilders began relying on a sturdy external
framework to provide lateral rigidity, it was no longer nec-
essary to use such long tenons or thick planks. Thinner
planks simplified construction and allowed more precise
shaping of the hull. However, the resulting flexibility also
affected water tightness. Therefore, the joints needed to be
placed at closer intervals. This explains the difference be-
tween the construction of the Uluburun ship and those built
in Classical or Roman times.
One-half of a preserved Uluburun tenon is approx-
imately 15 cm long and 6.2 cm wide, suggesting a length
of about 30 cm for the complete tenon (fig. 3). When com-
pared with the only surviving tenon fragment from the
Cape Gelidonya ship (fig. 4), a relatively constant ratio of
1.2-1.3 was observed between the lengths, widths, thick-
nesses, and peg hole diameters of the two tenons. These
two tenons are remarkably similar in shape, featuring the
same taper in both width and thickness, and beveling at
the narrower extremities, but the Cape Gelidonya tenon is
17-23 percent smaller than those from Uluburun. If one
assumes that the tenons and ship were of proportional size,
then since the Uluburun ship was approximately 15 m in
length, the Cape Gelidonya ship would be 11.5-12.5 m. That
would be somewhat larger than the previously estimated
size of that ship.
Classical ships used joints that were evenly spaced
and staggered from one edge to the other. The Uluburun
mortises are paired, and each is cut immediately next to
the nearest joint in the opposite edge. In fact, the Ulubu-


run paired mortises are so close together that they some-
times overlap, and occasionally a tenon was cut into or
damaged when the mortise was cut from the opposite edge.
This seems to be a conscious attempt to extend an internal
"frame" of paired tenons up the sides of the hull planking.
In most ships of the Classical period, the joints were
spaced fairly equally and their locations along adjacent seams
were staggered. This would seem to strengthen the plank by
reducing the distance between tenons, rather than pairing
them immediately next to each other as was done in the Ul-
uburun wreck. However, it is the uncut wood between mor-
tises that resists tensile stresses and prevents the plank from
splitting. The resistance of the plank to such forces is pro-
portional to the distance between the two adjacent joints. In
a Classical hull, the short mortises on the opposite edge do
not compromise the area between the mortises on the closer
edge. Therefore, it is best to stagger the mortises and space
them evenly. The situation is otherwise when the mortises
extend almost across the plank as in the Uluburun wreck.
Then, the best way to maximize the distance between mortises
is to place each pair side by side. This nearly doubles the effec-
tive wood area and strengthens the resistance to splitting.
It is notable that the spacing of joints in the Ulubu-
run ship varies with the width of the plank. The spacing
increases from about 20 cm amidships to 25 cm in the nar-
rower planks toward the bow. By placing the joints fur-
ther apart, the ship builders could maintain the same uncut
wood area between joints. This indicates that the ship-
wrights were indeed concerned with maintaining the re-
sistance of the planks to splitting.

Lateral stiffening
Although there is no direct evidence of framework
or other structures to provide additional lateral stiffening,
there may be evidence of a standing beam or through beam.
Near the first hull section, we found one large timber that


Fig. 3. A partially preserved tenon from the Uluburun ship-
wreck, showing the peg hole.


Photo: [NA
Fig. 4. The surviving tenonfrom the Cape Gelidonya shipwreck
was similar to the larger Uluburun tenons.


INA Quarterly 26.4













lacks any evidence indicating how or whether it was attached
to the ship. Unfortunately, this heavy oval timber, curved at one
end, is so poorly preserved that its ultimate function is unclear.
Some lateral support was provided by placing fresh-
ly cut branches of up to 5 cm in diameter athwartships
from either side of the hull toward the keel (fig. 5). The
cargo was then placed above these cushioning branches.
This would assist the hull in distributing the weight of the
eleven tons of metal ingots in the ship's final cargo.


Some scholars have argued that a frameless or sparsely
framed hull would have to carry cargo on deck to evenly dis-
tribute the weight throughout the hull. This is the way an archi-
tectural arch bears the load of a building. However, the Uluburun
ship was probably only partly decked, and the cargo was placed
directly on the hull planking with only minor cushioning. Ac-
cording to the inverted arch theory, this would force apart the
planks. Obviously, the Uluburun shipbuilders and mariners
were not concerned about this prospect.


UPSLOPE


IF:

I IF
F I


-'


-2 I-.


'F





F' F
lj


r I





1


SECTION 1 J
/l
f
f


F,

p821':J


P,
I


/




1'
I1 F


SECTION 2


\

F ,
'A F
1 i
I.


SN


HULL REMAINS OF THE ULUBURUN SHIPWRECK


SECTION 3


Drawing: C. Pulak


Fig. 5. Branches were laid crosswise on the bottom of the Uluburun hull to cushion the copper ingots in the cargo.


INA Quarterly 26.4




























Fig. 6. Reconstructed lines of the Ulubu run ship, showing the position of the remains found during excavation.


Possible applications of the Uluburun discoveries
The Uluburun hull (fig. 6) provides a firm basis for
comparing an actual Late Bronze Age ship with contem-
porary ship representations and models. For example, there
is a detailed portrait of Egyptian seagoing ships on Queen
Hatshepsut's (ca. 1460 BCE) mortuary temple at Deir el
Bahri. These long and slender ships are shown in profile.
A line marks the seam between the hull planking and the
central timber that terminates in a projecting stem and
sternpost. This may indicate a keel that projects below the
planking at the extremities of the hull, but that disappears
almost entirely amidships.
These ships resemble carved boat models from the
tombs of Amenhotep II (ca. 1400 BCE) and Tutankhamun
(ca. 1330 BCE). These confirm a popular New Kingdom
hull design with a spine or backbone timber that protrudes
below the hull only near the ends. Although these models
are solid and show no internal features, they are comple-
mented by a hollow clay boat model from Byblos. This has
a molded central member running the full length of the
hull and projecting outward at bow and stem. As with the
other mode Ls, the longitudinal member appears to be flush
with the exterior hull amidships. The model probably rep-
resents a somewhat foreshortened version of an Egyptian
hull. This model also shows the protruding ends of four
through beams. Two of these are concealed beneath the
partial decks fore and aft. The other two cross the open
hold amidships.


Models from the Late Bronze Age Aegean suggest
that a similar internal keel configuration was used else-
where in the eastern Mediterranean. A clay ship model
from a late Late Cypriot I-II (ca. 1450-1225 BCE) tomb
shows a molded strip on the interior center line with no
indication of a keel on the exterior. A late Helladic IIIB
(thirteenth century BCE) model fragment from Tiryns,
Greece, has a similar internal strip. Two small Late Hella-
dic IIIB models from Tanagra, Greece, have a keel and
frames (or other lateral timbers such as beams) marked in
paint on their interior.
Therefore, the Uluburun shipwreck confirms the
evidence from contemporary artistic representations that
at least some seagoing ships were equipped with center-
line timbers that projected into the hull instead of exter-
nally. These timbers provided vital longitudinal strength.
All these indications suggest that there was no conspicu-
ous use of traditional framing during the Late Bronze Age.
Instead, shipbuilders used robust mortise-and-tenon join-
ery or ligatures to hold their planking together (although
the use of widely spaced frames or bulkheads, in conjunc-
tion with through-beams, is possible).
Study of the Uluburun ship has allowed us to push
back by more than half a millennium the first known use
of the pegged mortise-and-tenon shell-based construction
technique. This will provide many opportunities to com-
pare shipbuilding techniques in the Late Bronze Age with
later Greco-Roman ships of comparable size. &v


Suggested Reading
Pulak, Cemal
1999 "The Late Bronze Age Shipwreck at Uluburun: Aspects of Hull Construction." The Point Iria Wreck: Interconnec-
tions in the Mediterranean ca. 1200 PC. Proceedings of the International Conference, Island of Spetses, 19 September
1998. Eds. William Phelps, Yannos Lolos and Yannis Vichos. Athens. Hellenic Institute of Marine Archaeology
(HIMA).


INA Quarterly 26.4







Conservation in the Bodrum Museum of Underwater

Archaeology, Turkey, 1998-99

Kathy Hall

Life in the conservation lab in Turkey is always stimulating,
and the past year was no exception. Together with colleagues of var-
ious nationalities, we worked on many of the incredible artifacts ex-
cavated by INA in Turkey.
Work in the laboratory focused on the conservation of material
from the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1300 BCE) Uluburun shipwreck. After
eleven seasons of summer excavation, there is still a large amount of
material to be treated. Dr. George Bass estimates that for every month
of underwater excavation, two years of conservation and research are
required before publication. However, we are beginning to see the com-
pletion of conservation for some major categories of artifacts. In the
meantime, we continue to work through the material from this amaz-
ing shipwreck, eliciting information from every artifact, and learning
a little more about the ship and its cargo every week.
This year, we focused on two main areas: desalinating and dry-
ing artifacts still in wet storage, and mending the cargo of amphoras
from the thousands of pieces of broken pottery recovered from the
site. Examples of artifacts desalinated and dried this year include twen-
ty-two of the twenty-four stone anchors (which also included two small
anchors restored earlier) from the shipwreck. We now begin a project
to remove masses of marine concretion from the anchor surfaces, in
order to recover evidence of which tools were used to shape them,
how much they weighed, and signs of use wear. This will help us to
understand these artifacts. For example, why were there so many an-
chors on the ship? Information will also come from an ongoing project
to identify the source of the stone used for the anchors. Photo: INA
The concretion seen on the anchors is of the type found on most Fig 1. Stone anchor with marine concretion.
of the artifacts from Uluburun (fig. 1). It is a hard, calcareous, cement-
like material, precipitated onto artifacts from calcium carbonate rich seawater. On wreck sites, precipitation can be
triggered by changes in the pH of seawater caused, for example, by metal artifacts corroding underwater. For the an-
chors, concretion removal is carried out by skilled Turkish technicians using small pneumatic chisels running on com-
pressed air. Working all sumrrner long under fragrant mimosa trees, they sound like a group of monster bees. It takes a
skilled pair of hands and eyes to distinguish
between concretion and stone, and we are lucky
in our dedicated technicians, some of whom
have been with INA for a very long time. In the
summertime, the technicians are joined by Turk-
ish and foreign mtems, who volunteer their time
for the chance to learn about archaeological con-
servation. Several of our Turkish interns are
planning to apply to university conservation
programs, having been inspired by INA.
The interns and technicians work together
on cleaning many of the copper oxhide ingots
1 from the wreck. This year we found pomegran-
ate seeds, a silver bar, glass beads, agate beads,
and beads made of ostrich eggshell scattered
across the surfaces of ingots. We also found many
g more of the intriguing signs chiseled into the in-
Photo: INA got surfaces which are being studied by Nicolle
Fig 2. Gillser Sznacz working with amphora sherds. Hirshfeld and Patricia Sibella.


INA Quarterly 26.4










Over the past year, many people worked hard on
mending the cargo of amphoras from Uluburun (fig. 2).
Visitors often ask why we are mending them all! This is
a good question; we do not usually mend every broken
amphora we find on excavations. However, one of the
unique things we are finding about Uluburun ampho-
ras is that they come in many different shapes and siz-
es, and are made of different types of clay. Why do they
differ so much? The answer to this question may well
be an important key to understanding the wreck. In
addition, this is one of the largest existing groups of
amphoras from this period, and, as such, is a unique
resource for statistically evaluating Late Bronze Age
capacities.
Interns who are used to
working on ceramics from land
excavations are often amazed at
how fragile the artifacts from Ul-
uburun are. You might not ex-
pect pottery to deteriorate
underwater, but we are finding
that many of the amphora piec-
es have become soft and crum-
bly. Other pieces may be very
brittle. Often, we have to
strengthen the pieces with poly-
mer resin before they can be
joined together or even handled.
This lack of durability is partly
because they were fired at much
lower temperatures than the ce-
ramics we find on later ship-
wrecks.
Many of the amphoras we
are mending are composed of
sherds recovered from forty or
more different places on the
shipwreck site. First we have to
locate those pieces in a sea of
amphora sherds. It is like strug-
gling to find the pieces of a plain
brown jigsaw puzzle, after it has Fig 3. Reconstructed Ui
been scrambled together with
many other such puzzles. Frag-
ments are adhered together with a glue that we make
ourselves, using beads of an acrylic resin. In this way,
we know exactly what we are adding to the artifacts.
Most importantly, we also know that, if need be, we
can remove it again easily. Often, when the amphora is
mended, there are a few pieces missing. If these lost ar-
eas are critical, to ensure that the amphora is strong
enough for permanent storage, the missing spaces are
filled in using plaster of Paris and afterwards painted
in a neutral tone (fig. 3).


Our other big focus at the moment is the new Ul-
uburun exhibit, due to open in July 2000. The exhibit hall
building is long since finished, as is the largest room with
the replica of the ship and the mock-up of the artifacts on
the sea floor. Together with the museum, we are working
on the final gallery, where the Uluburun finds will be dis-
played. We help to advise on display cases so that they are
the safest possible for the artifacts. Everyone is aware that
these are the oldest and most fragile artifacts ever to go on
display in the museum. We are also helping to select spe-
cific artifacts for display. In addition, with all the recent
tectonic activity in Turkey (including tremors in Bodrum)
we are planning to make the display as earthquake-proof
as possible!
In addition to the above,
and looking forward to the day
when we are finished with our
work on the Uluburun artifacts,
we are mindful of our respon-
sibility to leave the museum
with a usable archive. This year,
we helped to design a new stor-
age depot for the Uluburun ob-
jects. We also worked on packing
up artifacts for final storage, in-
cluding the many bronze tools.
For these, several Turkish in-
terns helped to create storage
boxes from inert, long-lasting
materials. The tools are clearly
visible to reduce handling and
they are held firmly in the boxes
in polyethylene foam cut-outs with
fragile edges protected.
Several qualified conser-
vators worked with us as in-
terns this year. Amandina
Anastassiades came from Can-
ada, and experimented with
new materials to fill lost areas
Photo: INA in glass ingots. She is now re-
Iburwn amphora. searching techniques for the
treatment of composite objects
of wood and bronze, a tricky
problem since the treatments for the two different ma-
terials are usually incompatible. Gaby Kienitz also came
from Canada, compared treatments for glass and fatence
beads, and looked at treatments for textile fibers from
Uluburun. Edith Trnka, the Austrian conservator for the
site of Ephesus, studied the conservation of material
from underwater excavation with us. Asaf Oron, [NA
Associate Conservator, treated some of the material
from the Middle Byzantine shipwreck INA excavated
in 1995-98 at Bozburun, including the bronze steelyard.


[NA Quarterly 26.4


li










We also worked with two colleagues from the
American INSTAP (The Institute for Aegean Prehistory)
Study Center on Crete. This institution donated the time
of their illustrator Doublas Fulman and photographer
Kathy May to us for a month, for work towards the final
Uluburun publication. We hope to work with them again
next year.
In addition, many scholars visited the lab to study
Uluburun material. These included Dr. David Reese, an
expert on animal bones from excavations, and Dr. Andreas
Hauptmann from Bochum, Germany, who sampled cop-
per ingots and bronze tools. Dr. Unsal Yalcin, also of Bo-
chum, will be working on the study and provenancing of
orpiment found on the Uluburun wreck and the eleventh-
century CE Serne Limani (Glass) wreck excavated by INA
in 1977-79, as well as that from another eleventh-century


shipwreck found during INA's 1984 shipwreck survey. In
addition, Edward Rogers began a study of the glass ingots
for the final publication, Dillon Gorham took pollen sam-
ples, and Dr. Robert Blanchette, of the University of Min-
nesota, looked at copper pseudomorphs of wood
structures. As conservators, we are particularly excited
about this last project, which will enable identification of
the various woods used in hafting tools and handles from
tiny samples, even when the wood has long since decom-
posed. This is done by looking at the microscopic impres-
sions of wood cellular structures preserved in metal
corrosion products.
On a personal note, we said good-bye to a long-term
technician, Birgil AkbUlut. Gule gile Birgiul! We'll miss
you! And "Ho* geldiniz" to a new arrival-Esra Altinanit
Goksu's baby, Elif, born September 6, 1999. ai


INA Egypt Update
Douglas Haldane


Between July 1 and December 31, 1999, INA-Egypt,
with USAID support through the Institute for Internation-
al Education Development Training 2 Project, ran a six-
month training program in wet-artifact conservation. The
course was held in the Alexandria Conservation Labora-
tory for Submerged Antiquities and was designed to as-
sist the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) nationwide
in addressing conservation problems relating to the rising
ground water in Egypt.
The curriculum was divided into three subjects: 1.
Glass/Ceramic/Stone; 2. Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Met-
als; 3. Organics. Each subject was given twice for a month
each. About ten students from all over Egypt attended each
course. In all, the program reached about 65% of the per-
manent SCA conservation staff. The students were select-
ed through interviews in their home laboratories and
course assignments were made according to the type of
materials they handled (or preferred training in) and the
amount of their previous experience. With the objective
that each lab would have at least one person trained in
each artifact category, we gave preference to the least ex-
perienced. The course materials were created in English
and translated into Arabic. Someone was present through-
out the course for simultaneous translation to assist in com-
prehension. In addition to the course manuals, which
included photocopies of the overheads, the students took
away books relating to their subject and a conservation tool
set.
In other areas, INA-Egypt was granted permission
by the SCA in March 1999 to create a conservation refer-
ence library/storeroom in the sixth building in the Alex-


andria Laboratory. The library facility will complete the
laboratory complex in the National Maritime Museum.
In November 1999, the SCA granted [NA-Egypt
permission to renovate Qait Bey fortress as a nautical ar-
chaeological museum. Qait Bey fortress commands the
entrance to Alexandria's Eastern Harbor and sits atop the
foundations of the Pharos Lighthouse, one of the ancient
Seven Wonders of the World. The objectives of the reno-
vation are:
1. To restore the fortress, as closely as possible to its
late-fifteenth century condition;
2. Excavate where possible to explore and define the
Pharos site;
3. Install the equipment necessary to maintain a
modern, innovative museum to the degree that this does
not conflict with objective #1.
The first exhibit will be a joint project between INA
and Jean-Yves Empereur of the Center for Alexandrian
Studies on the history of the Pharos and Qait Bey. The sec-
ond scheduled exhibit will be the Sadana Island Shipwreck.
INA-Egypt has also been fortunate to receive permis-
sion for three shipwreck surveys in 2000 at: Agami, west of
Alexandria; the islands of the Straits of Gubal, Red Sea (be-
tween the Sinai and Eastern Desert: July August); and Umm
al-Rakham to Marsa Matrouh (September/October). The sur-
vey team members will be predominately Egyptian and from
the newly-created SCA Department of Underwater Antiq-
uities. The surveys are part of a strategy that INA-Egypt has
recently initiated to explore and document shipwrecks along
the entirety of Egypt's Mediterranean and Red Sea coast-
Lines on an annual, incremental basis. r


INA Quarterly 26.4








Just Released

The Plenum Series in Underwater Archaeology

J. Barto Arnold If[ has recently become General Editor of a series of nautical archaeology texts from the Plenum Press of
New York and London. The series is intended to meet the increased interest of the public in our discipline. It hopes to provide
materials for three distinct audiences: the academic student of archaeology, the professional archaeologist, and the avocational
dwer who wishes to participate in professional surveys or excavations. The first three books in the series show this range of
potential audiences.

Maritime Archeology
Lawrence E. Babits and Hans Van Tilburg, eds.
This first book of the Plenum Series is a collection of forty-eight T" "" u .ra- Ah.o*
articles intended as a textbook for a university course in nautical ar-
chaeology on either the undergraduate or graduate level. The focus is M ARITIM E
not on "how to excavate a shipwreck," but on the history and theory of A H LOGY
the discipline. Although nautical archaeology is a subdiscipline of ar- L
chaeology, many of the students and avocationals who explore under- Rea stantiv .
water sites lack grounding in archaeological theory. This book hopes to Eilu"s
fill that gap in knowledge.
The articles do not stand alone without an interpretive context.
Drs. Babits and Van Tilburg have provided an extensive framework of
introductory and bibliographical material for each topic. The character-
istic perspective of the volume stems from the "new archaeology" of
Lewis H Binrford and his associates. This school insists that archaeolog-
ical projects such as surveys and excavations should be approached on
the same systematic basis as any other scientific research.
The book touches on most of the major issues in the field, such as
the conflict between archaeology and treasure-hunting, and the proper
role (if any) of sport divers in maritime archaeology. Many of the arti-
cles illustrate how proper research should begin with a careful design $u S
that takes into account the processes of maritime site formation and the Lawrence E Babits and Hans Van Tilbrg
realities of survey or excavation in a hostile environment. There are ex- _L.
amples of properly executed research design from all over the world
and from each of the past four decades. Older artiulet~ are included to
provide an overview of the history of the discipline, and the editors are
careful to warn that they may not represent the best contemporary practice. All in all, the book represents an excellent
detailed introduction to maritime archaeology.

1998 ISBN: 0-306-45843-8, 590 pages, 87 illustrations, references, bibliography, 2 appendices, index, hardback.

The Persistence of Sail in the Age of Steam
Donna J. Souza
The second book in the Plenum Series in Underwater Archaeology, in contrast to the first, focuses on a single
archaeological project. Dry Tortugas National Park in Florida preserves one of the Largest collections of shipwrecks in
North America. Over two hundred ships have wrecked or stranded on the Tortugas reefs since the sixteenth century.
The Pulaski Reef in the northeast comer of the Dry Tortugas has seen twenty-one catastrophes since 1839. One of these
(possibly the 1892 wreck of the Brigantine Shannon) was the primary subject of the Pulaski Site exploration directed by
Dr. Souza.
The bulk of the book describes the remains found on the Pulaski Site. Because it was within a national park, the
wreck could not be removed from its final resting place. At most, artifacts could be briefly raised for photography
before being returned to the site. The Lion's share of study and recording had to be done in situ, 19-24 feet underwater,
It is a tribute to the careful work of the archaeological team that so much data could be collected through this nonde-


INA Quarterly 26.4










-- -structive approach. The book ts not a bare catalogue of finds. It uicludes
The Plinum Ser.s, in Underwater Archaeology interpretive material, including drawings and photographs of contem-
THE PERSISTENCE porary ships and marine equipment, to enable the reader to place the
THE ulaski Site in its historical and economic context.
OF SAIL IN THE This is not just an excavation report. The book includes a histor-
AGE OF STEAM ical account of the impact of the Dry Tortugas on navigation. However,
Underwater Archaeological Evidence the author's chief interest is given in the title. Dr. Souza is concerned
frmon the Dry Tortugas with how and why sailing vessels continued to compete with steam-
driven vessels for some applications well into the twentieth century (as
r late as 1910, American shipbuilders produced more sailing ships than
S." steamships). Part of the answer was the development of steam auxilia-
ry equipment to allow smaller, less-expensive crews the means to han-
Sdie sails and cargo. Another part was the perception of sailing ships as
f> less risky than steamships. Dr. Souza uses the Pulaski Site to illustrate
both of these factors.

SL 1998 ISBN: 0-306-45843-, 189 pages, 51 illustrations, references, bibli-
ography, 9 appendices, glossary, index, hardback.

The Materiul Culture of Steamboat Passengers
Annalies Corbin
Donna J. Souza Most of us imagine the westward expansion of the United States
to have occurred exclusively by wagon train. In fact, water transport
played an important role. Beginning in 1860, Fort Benton, Montana,
served as the world's innermost port, the place farthest from ocean or
sea regularly served by watercraft Thousands of passengers and thousands of tons of freight made the 3,300 mile
voyage up the Missouri River from St. Louis to Fort Benton, which was only 624 miles from the nearest navigable route
down the Columbia River to the Pacific. This newest book in the Ple-
num series was originally a Master's thesis at the University of Idaho
discussing this trade.
After a historical introduction, the largest section of the book is de- The Pl Stc n Un er &rlogy
voted to the artifacts found in the only two Missouri River packets exca- TH-E MATERIAL
vated to date, Arabia and Bertrand. Ms. Corbin focuses on several boxes
found in the cargo holds with contents that could be identified with a CULTURE OF
particular traveler or family of travelers. These give a vivid picture of what STEAMBOAT
the pioneers may have warned with them as they headed west in the 1850s PASSENGERS
and 60s. We are not left to take the author's conclusions on faith; a series of
appendices list all of the artifacts found on the two steamboats. There is Archaeological Evidence
also a rich selection of photographs throughout the book. from the Missouri River
A further appendix may be the most valuable feature of the book
for maritime historians and archaeologists, as it provides an alphabeti-
cal listing of over six hundred Missouri River steamboats. A paragraph
on each vessel describes its history and ultimate fate. Since a majority of
them foundered somewhere along the river, they provide a major po-
tential resource for future exploration and research. Actually, this list
represents only part of a database of over 1400 nineteenth-century ves- I
sels that Corbin has so far identified in her ongoing research on inland
river travel. The Material Culture of Steamboat Passengers thus represents
an important milestone in a developing field where historical and nau-
tical archaeology intersect.

2000 ISBN: 0-306-46168-4, 237 pages, 66 illustrations, references, bibli- Annalies Corbin
ography, 8 appendices, index, hardback. ar --


INA Quarterly 26.4









Vol. 26 Index


Author Index
Arnold, J. B., A. Hall, T. Oertling, and C. A. Powell,"The
Confederate Blockade Runner Denbigh," 26.2, 3-11
Batchvarov, K., "Ar. Archaeological Trip to Bulgaria," 26.3,
7-11
Bednarik. K.G., "Sailing a Paleolithic Raft," 26.1, 12-18
Carlson, D. N., "The 1999 Excavation Season at Tekta Bumu,
Turkey," 26.4,3-8
Castro, F., The 1999 Excavation Season at the Presumable Nos-
sa Senhora dos Mirtires Site," 26.4, 12-15
Crisman, K. J., "Looking for Ships: The 1998 Central Azores Ship
wreck Survey," 25.1,3-9
Davis, D., "In the Wake of the Argo: The 1999 Expedition to the
Georgian Black Sea Coast," 26.3, 12-17
Gunsenin, N., "From Ganos to Serge Limaru: Social and eco-
nomic activities in the Propontis during Medieval Tines
illuminated by recent archaeological and historical discov-
eries," 26.3, 18-23
Haldane, D., "The 1998 INA-Egypt Survey," 26.1, 10-11
Hall, K., "Conservation in the Bodrum Museum of Underwater
Archaeology, Turkey, 1998-1999," 26.4, 22-24
Nowak, T., "A Marble Ophthalmos from Tekta Bumu," 26.4,
10-11
Powell, C. A., "The World's Greatest Archaeologists," 26.3,3
Pulak, C., "Hull Construction of the Late Bronze Age Shipwreck
at U]uburun," 26.4,16-21
Smith, C. W., "St. Michael and the Port Royal Weights," 26.2,
13-15
Trakadas, A., "Seventh Annual Tropis Conference," 26.3,26
Trethewey, K., "An Interesting Anchor from the Tektai Bumu
Shipwreck," 26.4,9
Ward, C., "1999 Black Sea Trade Project," 26.3,4-6
Subject Index
Anchor, Tekta4 Bumu, 26.4,9
Ashkelon Deepwater Survey, 26.3, 24
Azores,
1998 INA Survey, 26.1,3-9
History, 26.1, 3
Ballard, Robert D.
Ashkelon Deepwater Survey, 26.3, 24
Black Sea Project, 26.3, 4-6
Lectures at Texas A&M University, 26.1, 22
Bass, George F.,
Awarded SHA Harrington Medal, 26.1, 22
Named as 1 of 10 Greatest Archaeologists, 26.3,3
Belle, La, 26.3, 25
Black Sea Trade Project, Report on 1999 Season, 26.3, 4
Blockade Runners, American Civil War, 26.2,3-8
Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology
Conservation, 1998-98, 26.4,22-24
Bulgaria, 26.3,7-11
Camalt Bunu Slupwreck, 26.3, 21


Denbigh, 26.2,3-12
Egypt
1998 INA-Egypt Survey, 26.1, 10-11
1999 Update, 26.4,24
Florida Coastal Survey, 26.2, 17
Galilee, Sea of, Boat, 26.3, 11
Ganos, 26.3, 18-23
General Armstrong, 26.1.5-6
Georgia, 26.3,12-17
Hamilton, Donny, Awarded Patent, 26.1, 22
McWhirter, Charles Olin: In Memoriam, 26.2,19
Morocco Survey, 26.2, 16
Nale Tisih 2 Project, 26.1,12-18
Nautical Archaeology Program Graduates, 26.4, 11
Nossa Senhora dos Mdrtires, 26.4,12-15
Ophthalmos (Eye), 26.4, 10-11
Paleolithic Seafarers, 26.1,12-18
Phasis, 26.3,12-17
Port Royal Weights, 26.2, 13-15
Pallas, 26.1, 7-8.
Profiles-Hall, Jerome L, 26.1,19
Propontis, 26.3,18-23
Qait Bey Fortress, 26.4,24
Robo, 26.3, 24
Ruddock, Billings: In Memoriam, 26.1,23
Schliemann, Heinrich, 26.2, 12
Smith, Wayne, Awarded Patent, 26.1,22
St. Michael Cipher, 26.2,13-15
Tantura Deepwater Survey, 26.3,24
Tekta Burnu (Fifth-century BCE Shipwreck Site)
1999 Season Reports, 26.4,3-11
Anchor, 26.4,9
Excavation Begins, 26.2,16
Ophthalmos (Eye), 26.4, 10-11
Uluburun Hull Construction, 26.4,16-21
Ward, Cheryl, Wins Prize, 26.3,6
Wachsmann, Shelley
Sea of Galilee Boat, 26.3, 11
Surveys, 26.3,24
Books: Reieus and Just Released
Crisman, Kevin J. and Arthur B. Cohn: When Horses Walked on
Water, 26.1,20
Cunchillos, Miguel Cisneros, Rafael Palacio Ramos, and
Juan M. Castanedo Galan: El Astillero de Colindrs
(Can abria) en la poca de los Austrias Menores, Arqueologia
y Construcci6n Naval, 26.3, 27
Marvel, William: The Alabama and the Karsarge:The Sailor's Civil
War, 26.2, 18
Staniforth, Mark and Mike Nash: Chinese export porcelain from the
wreck of the Sydney Cove (1797), 26.1, 21
The Plenum Series in Underwater Archaeology, 26.4,25-26


INA Quarterly 26.4














INSTITUTE OF NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY 0


Ceorge E Bass, Founder and
Archaeological Director
Jerome L. Hall, Executive Director

William L Allen
Oguz Agdemir
John H. Baird
George F Bass
Joe Ballew
Edward O. Boshell, Jr.,
Vice Chairman and Treasurer
Ray M. Bowen
John A. Brock
Elizabeth L. Bruni
Gregory M. Cook, Chairman
Harlan Crow
Frank Darden


Allan Campbell, M.D


Bill Klein, M.D


OFFICERS ADMINISTRATION
Donald A. Frey, Vice President
Cemal M Pulak, Vice President

BOARD OF DIRECTORS
John De Lapa
Claude Duthuit
Daniel Fallon
Danielle J. Feenev
Donald G. Ceddes III (Emeritus)
Woodrow Jones, Jr.
Harry C. Kahn 11 (Emeritus)
Michael L. Katzev
Jack W. Kelley
Mustafa Koc
Sally IR Lancaster
Robert E. Lorton

ASSOCIATE DIRECTORS
Dana F. McGinnis


James A. Goold, Secretary and
General Counsel
Claudia LeDoux, Assistant Secretary
and Assistant Treasurer
Frederick R. Mayer
William A. McKenzie
Alex C. Nason
George E. Robb, Jr.
L. Francis Rooney
Ayhan Sicimoglu
Ray H. Siegfried II
William T. Sturgis
Robert L Walker
Lew O Ward
Peter M. Way
Garry A. Weber
George O. Yamiru


Molly Reily


Murad Sunalp, M.D.


FACULTY
George F. Bass
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology/ George O. Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts
Kevin I. Crisman, Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L Hamilton, Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow
Cemal M. Pulak, Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow of Nautical Archaeology
C. Wayne Smith, Assistant Professor/Director of the Archaeological Preservation Research Laboratory
J Richard Steffy, Sara W & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr, Fredenck R Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology. Emeritus
Shelley Wachsmann, Meadows Associate Professor of Biblical Archaeology
Cheryl Ward, Assistant Protessor

AREA DIRECTORS


J. Barto Arnold, M.A., Texas Operations

STAFF
Selma Agar
Birgul Akbiillit
Esra Altmnanit-Goksu
Mtnevver Babacik
Mustafa Babacik
Chasity Burns
William H. Charlton, Jr., M.A.
Michelle Chmelar
Mehmet f tlitkli
Marion Feildel
Tuba EkmekQ
Adel Farouk
Jana Gober
Zafer GUil
Jane Haldane
Kathy Hall
Emad Khalil
Sheila D. Matthews, M.A.
Mistle Moore
Muammer Ozdemrir
Robin C. M. Piercv
Candace D. Pierson
Sema Pulak, M.A.
Patricia M- Sibella, Ph.D.
GCilser Sinaci


Douglas Haldane, M.A, INA Egypt

STAFF continued
Mural Tllev
Suleyman Ttirel
Giines YaSar

RESEARCH ASSOCIATES
Dan Davis
Jeremy Green
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D.
Robert S. Neyland, Ph.D.
Ralph K. Pedersen, M.A.
Brett A. Phaneuf
Donald Rosencrantz
ADJUNCT PROFESSORS
Arthur Cohn, I D.
David Gibbins, PhD.
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D.
Fredrik T Hiebert, Ph.D
Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph D
William M. Murray, Ph D
David 1. Owen, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., M.A.
QUARTERLY EDITOR
Christine A Fowell


Tufan U. Turanli, Turkish Headquarters

SUPPORTING INSTITUTIONS
Australian Institute of Mantime Archaeology
Boston University
Brown University
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati
Cornell University
Coming Museum of Glass
Department de Arqueol6gia Subacuatica de
la I.N.A.H., Mexico
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Partners for Livable Places
University Museum, University of Pennsylvania
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Texas A&M University
University of Texas at Austin

GRADUATE FELLOWS
Mr and Mrs. Ray H. Siegfned U[
Graduate Fellow: Dan Davis
Marion M. Cook Graduate Fellow:
Sara Brigadier




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