The INA Quarterly
Volume 26 No. 3
3 The World's Greatest Archaeologists
4 1999 Black Sea Trade Project
7 An Archaeological Trip to Bulgaria L
Kroum N. Batchvarov e
12 In the Wake of the Argo: o
The 1999 Expedition to the Georgian Black Sea Coast 2
18 From Ganos to Sere Liman: Social and economic activi-
ties in the Propontis during Medieval Times illuminated r
by recent archaeological and historical discoveries R
Nergis Giinsenin C
23 News and Notes
24 Getting into Deepwater
25 The Reconstruction of La Belle p
26 Seventh Annual Tropis Conference
27 El Astillero de Colindres (Cantabria) en la tpoca de los Austrias Menores,
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Arqueologia y Constrcci6n Naval
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Reviewed by Filipe Castro
On the cover. The World's Greatest Archaeologists (see page 3). Collage by Machelle R. Wood, Scientific American
Discovering Archaeology December 1999. Courtesy Corbis/Bettmann; Corbis/Underwood and Underwood; INA; Jere-
my Hein; Corbis/Hulton-Deutsch Collection; Corbis/Bettmann; Gary Shultz, SMU; Corbis/Underwood and Under-
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The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsletter (vols. 1-18).
Editor: Christine A. Powell
The World's Greatest Archaeologists
The November/December 1999 issue of Scientific
American Discovering Archaeology featured the INA exca-
vation at Uluburun as one of "The 10 Greatest Archaeo-
logical Discoveries of the Twentieth Century." This was
the only underwater site among the ten, although the dis-
covery of RMS Titanic rated an honorable mention. The
nine greatest terrestrial discoveries were the Folsom Site
in New Mexico; the decoding of the Mayan hieroglyphs;
the cave paintings at Lascaux, France; the "Ice Man" found
in a glacier near Bolzano, Italy; the Dead Sea Scrolls; Tut-
ankhamun's tomb; ancient Ur in Lower Mesopotamia; the
hominid remains in Oldavai Gorge, Tanzania; and the tomb
of the first Chinese emperor Qin Shihuang.
The magazine describes each of the discoveries in a
short article. Appropriately, George F. Bass wrote the re-
port on Uluburun. Bass saw the promise of nautical ar-
chaeology in 1960 and developed the scientific techniques
still used for underwater excavation. In 1984, he began the
Uluburun excavation and directed the first two seasons.
Dr. Cemal Pulak carried the work on to completion in 1994.
A number of items on the ship date it to around 1300 BCE,
and indicate that it came from the Near East. This went far
towards rewriting the history of the period, since it demon-
strated that Near Eastern merchants were a major factor in
maritime commerce between the Eastern Mediterranean and
the Aegean. The rich cargo of the Uluburun ship revealed
the extent of Late Bronze Age trade networks. INA divers
found items from as far away as Italy (a bronze sword),
tropical Africa (logs), the Baltic (amber), and perhaps even
Afghanistan (tin). Bass concludes, "Uluburun proved be-
yond doubt that properly excavated shipwrecks-with their
unique insights, well-preserved artifacts, and the rarely seen
materials in their cargoes-have gone beyond promise and
into the realm of spectacular reality."
Our cover honors the giants of archaeology named
by the editors of Scientific American Discovering Archaeolo-
gy as the most important pioneers of the last hundred years.
At the top of the picture are Louis and Mary Leakey, the
scholars whose work at Oldavai Gorge rewrote the story of
human origins. Top right is Howard Carter, the discoverer
of Tutankhamun's tomb, which excited the public like no
other archaeological site. Below him is Dr. Bass in his "work-
ing clothes." At far right is Donald Johanson, who found
"Lucy" (Austmlopithecus afarensis) in the Hadar region of Ethi-
opia. Leonard Wooley, at bottom right, excavated ancient
Ur in southern Iraq. To his left is Mortimer Wheeler, who
used his experience in the trenches of World War I to rev-
olutionize archaeological excavation through his work at
Roman and Indus Valley sites. Above him is Lewis Bin-
ford; his proclamation in 1962 of "The New Archaeology"
sparked debates on the theoretical basis of the discipline
that still continue. At top left is Flinders Petrie, excavator
of el-Amama and many other Egyptian and Palestinian
sites. The picture in the top center is Willard Libby, whose
development of radio-carbon dating was perhaps the most
important technological advance in twentieth-century ar-
chaeology. At bottom center is Arthur Evans, whose ep-
ochal excavation at Knossos (begun in March 1900)
launched a century of archaeological achievements.
INA is proud to rank among such legendary figures.
In 2099, someone will undoubtedly compose a list of the
greatest archaeological work of the twenty-first century.
Thanks to the support of our members, we expect the In-
stitute to be on that list also. ra
INA founder George Bass during the 1995field season at the Bozburun,
INA Quarterly 26.3
1999 Black Sea Trade Project
Cheryl Ward, Assistant Professor
During 1999, members of the Black Sea Trade
Project spent nearly four weeks at sea near Sinop,
Turkey, acquiring bathymetric and sonar data,
truthing previously acquired sonar targets, and
dredging along the suspected ancient shoreline
(fig. 1). I led a four-member Institute of Nautical
Archaeology team in cooperation with archaeol-
ogists, engineers, and students from the Univer-
sity of Pennsylvania, Massachusetts Institute of
Technology (MIT), Wood's Hole Oceanographic
Institute, and the Institute for Exploration (IFE).
David Mindell (MIT) was principal investigator;
Robert Ballard (IFE), Frederik Hiebert (Universi-
ty of Pennsylvania), and I were chief scientists.
The project extends four years of archaeolog-
ical land surveys to the seabed. Since the shoreline of
the Black Sea has undergone radical changes, team
memberssought notonly ancientshipwrecksbutalso
ancient settlements A recent hypothesisbuilds upon
a verifiable geological event, the sudden flooding of
the Black Sea approximately 7,400 years ago. It sug-
gest that the resultant dispersal of many different
cultures formerly crowded along the coastline would
account for flood myths in many religions. Perhaps th
ing of the Black Sea was "Noah's Rood." Although the
of coastal crowding at the time of the flooding is unpro
Black Sea Trade Project is interested in looking for the
coastline and the submerged remains of settlements al
now more than 150 m below sea level and fifteen kilome
Fig. 2. Students on the project came from MIT, the Uni
vania, and Texas A&M University's Nautical Archaeol
contributions were invaluable, and ranged from naviga
ing and analysis to communicating our needs to Turki
Fig. 1. For thousands ofyears,fishing boats, merchant vessels and ships of
war sailed in and out ofSinop's harbor. Tucked at the base of Boz Tepe, the
harbor today shelters primarily fishermen and pleasure craft. Steel ships
are built beneath the medieval city walls.
e flood- The INA crew's role in the project was to analyze
premise and interpret archaeological data and to become respon-
ven, the sible for any ships that would warrant further investiga-
ancient tion or excavation. In practice, this meant that Texas A&M
ong it- University Nautical Archaeology Program (NAP) gradu-
etersout ate students Ayee Atauz, Kathryn Willis, and Erkut Ar-
cak worked closely with me, sonar specialists, and remotely
operated vehicle (ROV) pilots to acquire, record,
and analyze data (fig. 2). Side-scan sonar sur-
veys by Marty Wilcox for Marine Sonics in 1998
had produced over two hundred targets, so our
expectations for the 1999 season were high.
Three fishing boats and, briefly, the Turk-
ish Institute of Nautical Archaeology's research
vessel Saros, carried our crew of thirty, along with
ten National Public Radio and National Ge-
graphic television and magazine staff. Two side-
scan sonar crews and two ROVs, depth-finders,
and a magnetometer on Saros made up our as-
sets, along with navigational aids.
Our research design called for us to exam-
ine targets located in Sinop's harbor at depths of
up to 65 m, learn to identify target signatures for
particular types of archaeological or geological
features, and move into deeper water (up to 200
Photo: C. Ward m) with both sonar and ROV imaging systems.
iversity of Pennsyl- Support vessel size and wind-driven waves kept
ogy Program. Their us closer to shore than was originally planned, so
tion to data record- most activities took place within the large bay just
ish ship captains, beyond the port of Sinop.
INA Quarterly 26.3
rnotr; %. wyar
Sonar tracklines have been laid around the
perimeter of Sinop's bay and crisscross it at regu-
lar intervals. The technology used included
150khz and 600khz "SeaScan" side-scan sonars
provided by Marine Sonics Technology, Limit-
ed (Gloucester, Virginia), combined with differ-
ential GPS accurate to about three meters and
Edge Tech dual frequency DF1000 100/500 khz
sonars provided by American Underwater Search
and Survey, Ltd. (Cataumet, MA). We reacquired
and examined many of the 1998 sonar targets, but
most of those features were geological or biologi-
cal in nature, as were many of the 1999 sonar tar-
gets (bothnew and revisited areas). The two ROVs
made video recordings of all sites visited, and
these will be extremely helpful in learning to iden-
tify the signatures of different target types.
Archaeological finds included an eigh-
teenth-century anchor, two isolated storage jars, Fig. 3. G
and a nineteenth-century shipwreck with twist- the deep
ed metal machinery and metal cubes, probably the day v
for water storage. The roughness of the sea pre- undertake
vented us from going much beyond the protect-
ed harbor area (up to 85 m) with sonar equipment. One of
our three ships was large enough to work farther at sea, and
it carried the "geological team" headed by Robert Ballard.
George Bass was aboard on the day we successfully identi-
fied the ancient coastline and dredged along it, recovering
freshwater mussel shells and stones similar to water-
smoothed beach pebbles (figs. 3 and 4).
Fig. 4. We had to separate rocks, shells, and sediment dredged
dumped on deck from 178 meters (about 500feet) below the surf
tifying the shells tells us not only what animal lived in them, but t
tions in which it lived. Dating them gives us even more information
the ancient Black Sea environment at the time of its flooding.
Photo: C. Ward
eorge Bass, INA's founder (right), and Robert Ballard, explorer of
sea, have been friends and colleagues for many years. Shown here
e found the ancient coastline, the two continue to inspire us all to
e the impossible.
The nineteenth-century shipwreck was extensively
explored by the smaller ROV, which captured both still
and video images. Sonar images provided invaluable keys
to locating ourselves on the site, but the lack of digital GPS
and direct positioning capability on a vessel only 19 m long
created difficulties in running transects over the shipwreck.
The site, in only 15 m of water, provided a vivid example
of some of the difficulties to be overcome in us-
ing ROVs to analyze archaeological finds. It
seemed as if every time we would get posi-
tioned, a current or wind shift would move ei-
ther the ROV or the vessel off site and we would
have to start over again. In addition, the ROV
can see only what is within a meter-wide swath
directly in front of it, so we could not easily ac-
quire the angles we wanted at times. Still, we
learned a great deal without getting wet.
Early interpretations of the sonar data,
combined with reports by local informants,
prompted pre-examination expectations. Per-
haps this was a steam-driven ship belonging to
the Ottoman Navy in its conflict with Imperial
Russian ships during the war of 1853. Local re-
ports described the vessel as having been sal-
vaged for metals in the post-World War II years,
: C. Ward when explosives were used to destroy the hull.
up and Twisted metal strips and the overall pattern of
ce. Iden- timber dispersal agree with that description. The
he condi- lack of identifiable remnants of boilers or steam
on about engine machinery in our preliminary evaluation
of video imagery suggests that this was not a
INA Quarterly 26.3
steam ship, but it may be that still photographs or
further analysis of video footage will change that.
Certainly, a few dives would be the simplest way
to gain more information about this site.
No dives or snorkeling took place in 1999.
The intent of the Black Sea Trade Project is to
seek and explore submerged archaeological sites
remotely. I was not discouraged, however, from
planning a separate and independently orga-
nized underwater survey in the area. The
project's main focus now is moving into deeper
water to explore the anoxic layer. The 2000 sea-
son includes the use of a deep-sea research ves-
sel in concert with the sophisticated and
instrument-laden ROV Argus.
The 1999 season was a success from sever-
al standpoints. NAP students received excellent
reviews from other chief scientists and the princi-
pal investigator, and expedition leaders had the Fig. 5.
opportunity to work together to solve problems us with
in a less stressful environment than a long-term, city to t
deep sea expedition. INA crew gained an under- ago, Sin
standing of the limitations and abilities of the re-
mote vehicles, and an appreciation for issues that must be
considered in planning deepwater work. We look forward
Finds of amphoras and ancient anchors in Sinop's waters provide
tantalizing proof of a vast trade network that linked the ancient
the Crimean peninsula across the Black Sea. Thousands of years
op's primary exports were olive oil and ceramics.
to returning in 2000 to continue the search for ancient trade
routes, ships, and settlement sites (fig. 5). er
INA professor receives $50,000 liberal arts award
Dr. Cheryl Ward (right), as-
sistant professor in Texas A&M at
Galveston's new Maritime Studies
(MAST) program, has received an
award for interdisciplinary achieve-
ment from the University of Louis-
ville. Ward will receive a $50,000
honoranum and be a scholar-in-res-
idence this coming Spring in Lou-
Ward was one of the first three
recipients under a $2 million grant to
further liberal arts studies at the
university. Each year, the Liberal
Studies program will present awards
to honor outstanding achievement in
interdisciplinary scholarship, teach-
ing, and service. Awards for 1999 also
went to Simon Dinitz, emeritus pro-
fessor at Ohio State University, and
to Jan R Carew, emeritus professor
at Northwestern University.
Dr. Ward received degrees
from Texas A&M University and
the University of London. An out-
standing researcher in the fields
of underwater archaeology, an-
cient ships, botany, and the histo-
ry of technology, Cheryl Ward
joined the Galveston faculty in
1998 to teach nautical archaeolo-
gy in the campus' first liberal arts
program. She formerly was direc-
tor of the Institute of Nautical Ar-
chaeology's branch in Egypt,
where she gained international at-
tention for her exploration of the
Sadana Island shipwreck and
study of Red Sea trade.
In 2000, Dr. Ward is work-
ing as a principal investigator in the
Black Sea Trade/Archaeology
project led by Dr. Robert Ballard,
discoverer of Titanic. Her reports
have been published and she re-
cently has been recognized by Na-
tional Geographic Magazine and U.S.
News & World Report. er
INA Quarterly 26.3
An Archaeological Trip to Bulgaria
Kroum N. Batchvarov, INA Research Associate
[NA has recognized for many years the
potential for nautical archaeology in the Black RomI is
Sea. In 1992, INA representatives visited the M ack se
countries bordering the sea (INA Quarterly 20.3,
12-16). Again in 1997, students from the Nauti- .
cal Archaeology Program at Texas A&M Uni-
versity made the Crimea the focus of an
expedition (INA Quarterly 24.4,19-23). Another ..
area of interest has been the Bulgarian coast. In
1999, a team again visited Bulgaria (fig. 1). Due Blgaria
to limitations on resources, it was impossible to raI, nn a i...
carry out a full-scale survey with remote-sens-
ing equipment. Instead, the team visited sites
and potential sites that were already known to G"" '
local archaeologists. turkey
As a Bulgarian, I am naturally interested
in the region and had potential contacts. Three
associates offered to accompany me-Dr. Fred- Drawning: K. Batchvarov
erick Hocker of the Danish National Museum, Fig. 1. Bulgaria and the sites visited by the team in June, 1999.
Dr. John McManamon from Loyola University,
Los Angeles, and Troy Nowak, an INA research associate and fellow student in the Nautical Archaeology Program.
The participants covered their own expenses. We contacted the Vama Museum of Archaeology, the largest and possi-
bly oldest archaeological museum in the Balkans. Dr Ivan Ivanov, the Director of the Museum, organized the Bulgarian
side of the expedition and was instrumental in its success.
The most famous of the sites that personnel from the Varna Museum have excavated is the Varna necropolis,
where the oldest worked metal in the world has been found in the shape of complicated golden jewelry. The graves
date to ca. 4800 BCE. The settlements to which the necropolis belonged are now beneath the shallow salt-water Varna
Lake. Thirteen submerged settlements were found during an extension of the port facilities, and most fell victim to the
dredging operation. Some of the settlements still survive, however, and the INA team had the opportunity to visit one.
Despite poor visibility, it was clear that the
settlement, barely 2.5 meters below the surface, is
a treasure trove for archaeology. The bottom was
covered with worked flint, long dagger blades,
spear and arrow points, Early Bronze Age pot-
tery sherds, and even the wooden corner postsof
dwellings. These timbers date to the later period
of occupation in the Early Bronze Age. Dr. Ivanov
informed us that organic material retrieved from
the site included bones and textiles. Not far away,
a nearly intact dugout canoe was found in the
early 1970s. Radiocarbon dating of the boat sug-
gests a probable date in the thirteenth century
BCE. The conserved vessel is presently on display
in the Varna Museum.
Although the Museum has conducted me-
t~dical excavations of the site, lack of funding forced
Photo: T. J. Nowak a temporary halt in 1992. Even so, much material
removed from the site is presently undergoingstudy.
Fig. 2. The team in front of the Kavarna Museum of Archaeology. From There is a great potential for future work at Varna
left to right: Dr. John McMannamon, Mr. Assen Salkin, Dr. Mikhail Laz- and the assistance of Dr. Ivanov would make it a
arov, Dr. Ivan lnrnov, Kroum Batchvarov, Dr. Frederick Hocker. valuable project for any interested scholar.
INA Quarterly 26.3
Kavama to Kaliakra
After the investigation at Vama, the team under-
took a trip toward the north under the guidance of Dr.
Ivanov, accompanied by the doyen of Bulgarian under-
water archaeology, Dr. Mikhail Lazarov. We began in Ka-
varna. The local Archaeological Museum was specially
opened for the team by its Director, Mr. Assen Salkin, and
we examined the rich collection there (fig. 2). It includes a
large number of stone anchors, stone and lead stocks, and
Greek, Roman, and Byzantine amphoras. We also saw part
of a broken anchor, shaped like those from the Serne Limaru
shipwreck. The Museum also displays a number of can-
non from roughly the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries that
were raised by fishermen and mine sweepers shortly after
the Second World War.
Of special interest to Mr. Salkin is a site that was
formerly on dry land, although a landslide has placed
roughly half of it underwater. It is an impressive sight-
the dry land part, known as the Chirakman, is perched on
top of a rock that overlooks the sea. The broken medieval
anchor was found in the waters of the Chirakman. Al-
though we did not dive there, we learned that the bottom
is covered with pottery sherds and amphoras, the majori-
ty of which are from the fifth and sixth centuries CE. After
seeing the bottom of the Varna Lake, I no longer consider
these reports exaggerated. Numerous grain storage caves
dating to the same period surround the harbor. The evi-
dence suggests that Kavarna was an active port in late an-
tiquity and early Byzantine times.
Farther north, the team visited Cape Shabla and Light-
house Shabla. There have been confirmed reports of at least
three post-medieval wrecks lying in no more than ten to fif-
teen meters of water, 150 meters off the beach. One wreck
can possibly be dated by an 1834 coin to the first half of the
nineteenth century. This site reportedly includes a steam
engine, most of which is still in place, as well as the propel-
ler. The sides of the ship, with beams and some deck plank-
ing, seem to survive above the turn of the bilge.
The other two Cape Shabla wrecks lie about five
hundred meters further south. Cannon recovered from
these sites suggest that these wrecks are either frigates or
sloops of war from the second half of the eighteenth cen-
tury. However, the guns may have formed part of the quar-
terdeck armament of a small ship of the line. This period
was characterized by extensive wars between the Ottoman
Empire and the emerging Russian Empire. Several en-
counters between the opposing fleets took place off this
stretch of the coast and mostly ended in favor of the
Russians. Local opinion holds that the shipwrecks were
Russian. Few Russian warships of the Age of Sail have
been archaeologically excavated, with the exception of
the pink Evstafii and the thirty-two-gun frigate Nicolay
from the Baltic fleet. That makes Cape Shabla a poten-
tially important site.
Diving on the wrecks is normally easy but, as luck
would have it, the waves were too high this day for safe
diving. The dive master engaged by the Varna Museum
has visited the sites before and reported extensive hull re-
mains, often completely exposed with knees and beams
still in place. In his estimate, the wrecks are about thirty to
thirty-five meters long, or slightly more. An unspecified
number of cannon are still in situ. Most of the salvaged
cannon are presently in the Naval Museum in Varna, along
with a large log windlass from Cape Shabla. The latter
probably came from the steam wreck, as warships usually
had a capstan. However, the older wrecks may have been
merchant ships converted for naval use. There are records
showing such vessels in Admiral Ochakov's fleet in this
About a kilometer south of the beach, at Lighthouse
Shabla, the team inspected an ancient jetty, completely
submerged at present and surmounted by a modem jetty.
The open construction of the new jetty, fortunately, has
not completely obscured the site. The little bay was used
for breaking up ships in the 1960s and traces of this activ-
ity are still visible. Large quantities of ceramic sherds and
other artifacts suggest that this was an important port from
the Classical period to late antiquity. Especially numer-
ous are sherds from the Roman period and lead anchor
stocks. A few hundred meters offshore is a mound cov-
ered with Roman ceramics and marble mortars, probably
from a shipwreck. Mr. Salkin and Dr. Lazarov believe that
the Lighthouse Shabla site may be Carolliman. This was a
famous harbor in antiquity mentioned by Strabo and Di-
odorus. Due to the waves, no diving was possible on the
The next stop was the lailata archaeological pre-
serve, perched on top of cliffs about ten to twenty meters
above the present level of the sea. An impressive network
of single and double chamber graves has been found there,
closely paralleling the ones at Mycenae. The examples in
Bulgaria may be the latest that we have of this type of tomb,
as they date to the second to sixth centuries CE. The cham-
ber graves are located on the northern extremity of a shal-
low bay that was much larger two thousand years ago. On
the southern horn of the bay is a fortress built in the late
Roman period, finally abandoned around the third quar-
ter of the sixth century CE. More than half of it has slid
into the sea and its stones are clearly visible from the shore.
The bay contained a large number of lead anchor stocks,
about fifty to one hundred meters out from shore. Many
of these are presently in the Kavarna Museum, but even
more remain on the bottom. Numerous sherds found in
the sea point to the same date as the land survey.
lailata is in sight of Cape Kaliakra, the next stop of
the expedition. Extensive ruins of pre-Roman, Roman, and
Medieval fortifications survive. The Cape forms one of the
very few good natural harbors on this stretch of the coast,
INA Quarterly 26.3
which was extensively used through the centuries. In the
fourteenth century CE, it was the capital of Despot Do-
brotitza, a Bulgar ruler of Dobrudja. Extensive records in
the Genoese archives show the harbors of Kaliakra and
Kavama as the bases of his galeys. Since the Genoese lost
a large number of ships to Dobrotitza, they usually refer
to him as a pirate.
In 1791, Cape Kaliakra supposedly witnessed the
destruction of a superior Turkish fleet by the Russian Ad-
miral Ochakov. Underwater surveys carried out in 1962
and 1963 failed to locate any material to support the Rus-
sian claim, but have found extensive evidence of the rich
maritime history of the Cape. Large quantities of stone an-
chors, lead anchor stocks, and grapnel-type anchors have
been discovered, along with extensive ceramic finds.
Sozopol and vicinity
The following day found the team in Sozopol, where
Dr. Ivanov had arranged a meeting with the Director of
the Center for Underwater Archaeology, Mrs. Christina
Angelova (fig. 3). After a brief summary of the work car-
ried out by the Center, Mrs. Angelova took the team to
visit two of the most important sites on which they have
The Bay of Kiten, known in antiquity as Urdoviza,
contains at least three shipwrecks. Two divers from the
Center accompanied the INA team and served as their
guides. One of the wrecks was completely covered by sand,
even though it had been clearly visible as late as April.
The remains of two other ships were exposed and a rapid
study was possible.
Both wrecks survive to just short of the turn of the
bilge and are in approximately six meters of water in
rnoro: A. Di
Fig. 3. Graffiti on a thirteenth century CE amphora in the Sozop
um of Archaeology, showing a medieval ship with a square ster
Kiten's harbor. We could easily identify some of the ships'
skeleton. One of the vessels had a timber cargo, part of
which was still lying on top of the ceiling planking. The
most impressive characteristic of these exposed wrecks is
the excellent state of preservation of the wood. It is extreme-
ly hard and shows no trace of damage caused by wood-
eating worms. Mr. Kalin Dimitrov, an archaeologist with
the Center, showed Dr. Hocker and me a concreted gud-
geon and the body of a wooden pump. We could trace the
length of the pump for two meters from the point where it
was buried in the sand. It is certain that more survives.
The plunger, also made of wood and well preserved, was
visible in the exhaust opening of the pump body.
In close proximity to the wrecks are the remains of
another inundated settlement that dates to roughly the
same period as the settlements in Varna Lake. A prelimi-
nary report has been published in English. Peter Kuniholm
from Cornell University has also published a dendrochro-
nological study of the corner posts of the houses. Dr. Kuni-
holm describes the longest and oldest uninterrupted oak
ring sequence for the Aegean and Black Sea regions. The
late cultural levels at Kiten that begin this sequence can be
accurately dated within the Early Bronze Age. Unfortu-
nately, lack of funding has also stopped the excavation of
this exciting site.
A shipwreck that likely dates to the sixteenth cen-
tury was uncovered in 1982 during the early stages of the
work in the bay, before the time of Mrs. Angelova. The
artifacts it contained were recovered, but the hull has nev-
er been recorded, as the expertise needed was not avail-
able. The wreck has been sandbagged and backfilled to
ensure its survival. Although the site has not been revisit-
ed, we were shown the approximate location in about nine
meters of water, close to the shore in the pro-
tected waters of the bay. According to visual
material provided by a diver and photographer
who worked on the site, the hull is in impres-
sive condition. Amidships footwaling and ceil-
ing planks are still in situ. We saw floors,
futtocks, and exterior planking on the video foot-
age of the excavation. Around what seems to be
the bow, the planking is still standing to about
1-1.5 m above the turn of the bilge. A breast hook
is alsq in situ.
The last site we visited was near the
Ropotamno River, off the beach of one of the old
Communist hunting preserves that have been
practically undisturbed by the public. There are
Neolithic, Copper Age, Early Bronze Age, Iron
Age, Roman, Byzantine, Bulgar, and Ottoman
Itchavrov ceramics lying together on the bottom. In addi-
ol Muse- tion, another Early Bronze Age inundated set-
n, a most tlement has been located there. Obviously, an
active port existed here for millennia. It is believed
INA Quarterly 26.3
that a jetty lies below the surface, but this has
not been positively located, so far, since the lack
of funds has restricted study. Kalin Dimitrov
found, and retrieved for further study and anal-
ysis, an amphora that Dr. Hocker believed a close
match to those found at Bozburun. A jug found
on the same dive may be Roman (fig. 4).
Mrs. Angelova showed us a reconstruc-
tion of the ancient coastline, based on the exten-
sive work by Bulgarian archaeologists since
1960. The bathymetric measurements clearly
show capes and bays that have long since sunk.
The coast of Bulgaria still settles at approximate-
ly five millimeters annually. As work has so far
been carried out on sites formerly on dry land,
it is not surprising that relatively few wrecks
were easily accessible for the team to visit. We
Photo: K. Batchvarov
expect that most are now at depths between
twenty and forty meters. Fishing trawlers are Fig. 4. An amphora, an amphora sherd, and a jug from Ropotamo. The
constantly reporting amphoras, pottery, timber, whole amphora is a close parallel to some of the Bozburun examples.
anchors, and other artifacts caught in their nets.
Unfortunately, lack of funding has prevented Bulgarian archaeologists from venturing farther offshore to search for
shipwrecks. They have devoted their limited resources to the study of the inundated sites that are contemporary with
the famous Varna necropolis. These sites reveal a highly developed cul-
ture that prospered even before the emergence of the Thracians, let alone
the arrival of Greek colonists. The Varna sites most probably antedate
the Egyptian pyramids.
The group returned to Varna, where Dr. Hocker and Dr. Mc-
Mannamon departed. Troy Nowakand I remained to study the collec-
tion of the Vama Museum for a few more days (fig. 5). Besides the
treasures from the necropolis, among the rich possessions are also ex-
amples of the jeweler's art from the second half of the fourteenth cen-
tury CE. Dr. Ivanov provided us with the opportunity not only to study
anything in the museum but also to photograph everything we found
of interest. The staff disassembled the armored cases in which they
keep the most valuable finds to allow us to photograph some of the
more interesting items. We can hardly express our gratitude to Dr.
Ivanov and his staff.
Prospects for future work
The material that our Bulgarian colleagues possess would be
available to INA researchers for projects carried out in Bulgaria. The
local scholars are most willing to cooperate. We have already identi-
fied promising regions for sonar, magnetometer, and sub-bottom pro-
filer surveys through the preliminary study of Bulgarian measurements
and old coastal line data.
The INA Archaeological Committee has approved a proposal
to follow up this summer's project with the re-excavation and record-
ing of the wreck in the Bay of Kiten. The extensive hull remains may
tell us more about the maritime history of the Eastern Mediterranean
Photo: K. Batchvarov and Black Sea. Dendrochronological analysis of the timbers should
Fig. 5. A thirteenth century BCE dugout boatfrom provide a more definite date or even suggest the origin of the ship. If
Varna Lake. Presently in the Varna Museum. it proves to be from the sixteenth century and was built within the
Courtesy of Dr. Ivanov. limits of the Ottoman Empire (most probably Bulgaria itself), it will
INA Quarterly 26.3
provide new insights on previous INA research. Specifi-
cally, it may allow us to determine whether the Ottoman
wreck from Yassiada was a captured Iberian vessel or an
indigenous product of the Empire. This will give us a bet-
ter knowledge of the dispersal of shipbuilding technolo-
gy within the Mediterranean and Black Sea basin.
The project is to be a cooperative venture with the
Center of Underwater Archaeology. Mrs. Angelova has
agreed to help by loaning the equipment of the Center, ac-
commodations, and last-but certainly not least-the excep-
tional knowledge and experience that she and her talented
team possess. The project is now in the fund-raising stages. If
the campaign is successful, this will be the first shipwreck in
the Black Sea excavated to modem archaeological standards,
as well as the first INA project in the waters of this promising
region. To the best of my knowledge, no other foreign ar-
chaeological institute has ever worked here, so INA will be
breaking new ground and exploring new waters.
Acknowledgments. Our hosts, Dr. Ivanov and Mrs. Angelova, could not have been more helpful. They went far beyond
the call of common courtesy due to colleagues. Without Dr. Ivanov's organizational abilities and dedication, the project
could not have achieved as much as it did. Mrs. Angelova generously provided sleeping accommodations for the team
and shared the exceptional database that she had accumulated. Her associates were good and patient guides. The staff
of the Varna Museum of Archaeology again, as in 1992, went out of their way to assist with everything. To all of them
goes my deepest gratitude.
I would like to thank Dr. Kevin Crisman for his support and encouragement for this project.
I will particularly take this opportunity to thank the excellent team that I had the honor to lead. Dr. Hocker has
always been a deeply respected professor and a dear friend. The friendships of Dr. McManamon and Troy Nowak are
very dear to me. Without the three of them, the project would have been impossible. I can only hope that the same
group will be in Bulgaria again next summer. a
An Ancient Boat from the Sea of Galilee
In keeping with the maritime heritage theme of the World Stamp Exhibition-Australia 99, a souvenir sheet was
issued recently showing the boat excavated by Dr. Shelley Wachsmann near Tiberias, Israel, in 1986. The subject of
numerous articles and two books by Shelley Wachsmann, the vessel still draws much attention. William Charlton, Jr.,
constructed a model of the vessel with financial support from the Mead-
ows Professorship of Biblical Archaeology. Dr. Jerome Hall, INA's Ex-
ecutive Director, is currently responsible for the final documentation
of the first-century CE fishing boat. a
The souvenir stamp issued in honor of the World Stamp Exhibition-
The model of the "Sea of Galilee" boat built by Texas A&M nautical
archaeology student William Charlton Jr., which is currently on dis-
play at the Yigal Allon Museum, Israel.
INA Quarterly 26.3
In the Wake of the Argo:
The 1999 Expedition to the Georgian Black Sea Coast
Dan Davis, INA Research Associate
The eastern end of the Black Sea has enticed nauti-
cal travelers since time immemorial (fig. 1). In antiquity,
Greek tradition told of Jason and the Argonauts, who came
to the remote region of Colchis to retrieve the Golden
Fleece. As legendary as the tale may seem, historians and
archaeologists generally agree that it may have been root-
ed in reality. During their expansion into the Black Sea dur-
ing the eighth-fifth centuries BCE, Greek colonists followed
in Argo's fabled wake and established permanent cities
around its shores. According to Aristotle, it was the citi-
zens of the Aegean city Miletus who undertook the "far-
thermost voyage" to Colchis. As early as the sixth century
BCE, they established a sizeable trading center on thebanks
of the river Phasis (today known as the Rioni River)-the
very river that the Argo sailed up to reach the fabled king-
dom of Aetes (fig. 2). That settlement, also named Phasis,
became a popular destination for Greek, Roman, and Phoe-
nician merchant ships.
Indeed, contemporary writers describe a city mak-
ing its livelihood through seaborne trade well into the Late
Roman and Byzantine periods. Ships from the Mediterra-
nean arrived bearing their cargos of wines, olives and ol-
ive oil, and finely made ceramics in exchange for metals,
wood, Colchian wines, fine linens, and exotic, high-value
goods. The latter commodity was especially important to
Phasis's economic development, for the city lay along the
northern arm of the Silk Road that linked Rome and Byz-
antium with China during the first few centuries of the
first millennium. The demand for another product, pheas-
ant, the city's namesake, also grew during the Roman pe-
riod. Following their wars with Parthian kings in the first
and second centuries CE, Rome's armies constructed forts
at Phasis, near modern Poti, and to the south at Apsarus,
near modem Batumi. Later, Byzantine, Genoese, Ottoman,
and Turkish ships, merchants and war fleets both, frequent-
ed the eastern Black Sea.
Fig. 1, Mediterranean and Black Seas, indicating sites mentioned in the text.
INA Quarterly 26.3
Given the level of nautical activity along the Geor-
gian coastline, there is good reason to believe in the great
potential of underwater archaeology. In February of 1999,
the non-profit institute Pipeline Archaeologyfor the Recovery of
Knowledge (PARK) and the Center for Archaeological Studies
(CAS) of the Georgian Academy of Sciences invited the In-
stitute of Nautical Archaeology to conduct an underwater
survey near the modem port city of Poti on the Black Sea
coast. For many years Georgian archaeologists have searched
in vain here for ancient Phasis. According to ancient sourc-
es, the city had all the accouterments of a Greek city: a har-
bor, a marketplace, temples, a theater, and gymnasia. The
Hippocratic text Airs, Waters, and Places (fifth century BCE)
states that the Phasians "walk very little in the city and har-
bor, but sail up and down in monoxyla (craft made from a
single log), for there are many canals." This accords well with
the situation today, for the region's marshy environment has
prevented widespread surface survey, and only recently have
the remains of the Roman fort come to light.
The near absence of physical evidence led some to
suspect that the city may have subsided into the sea. In-
deed there is geological support for this view. About 6,000
years ago, the Black Sea finally slowed its steady rise, fix-
ing the Georgian coastline some 50 kilometers west (sea-
ward) of where it is today. Over the millennia, strong,
longshore currents continuously ate away at the prehis-
toric coastline, steadily dumping their burden into the
many deep canyons carved by several rivers, including the
largest, the Rioni. The shoreline continues to recede today;
in the last thirty years Georgia has surrendered more than
1,500 hectares to the sea. The modem port city of Poti essen-
tially rests on a large sandbar separating the Black Sea from
a boggy hinterland, much as the city of Phasis must have
done 2,00 years ago. However, the inability to measure past
rates of coastal erosion prevents us from extrapolating ex-
actly how far offshore a 2,500 year-old city would lie. Be-
sides, ancient Phasis may have been situated a distance
upstream, away from the coast.
Recently, local fishermen began to report ancient
paving stones and "walls" offshore in waters 10 to 15
meters deep. Dredge operators reported raising large am-
phoras to the surface during the construction of the off-
shore pipeline terminal at Supsa, just to the south of Poti.
In Lake Palaeostomi, which is also near Poti, Georgian and
Russian divers discovered ceramics dating as early as the
fifth century BCE. It became clear that settlements and ship-
wrecks exist along this coast.
In April of 1999, two Nautical Archaeology Program
students, Kristin Romey and Ayse Atauz, traveled to Tbili-
si, the country's capital, to introduce the Georgian archaeo-
logical community to the Institute's work in Turkey. After
theirwarm reception, they visited several archaeological sites,
then proceeded to Poti, where they made living arrangements
for the expedition team that was to follow.
Fig. 2. The eastern shore of the Black Sea and the areas explored
during the 1999 season.
By June we had assembled a team and were on our
way to Georgia. Bjor Loven of Denmark and Charles
Pochin of the U.K., both veterans of INA's excavation at
Bozburun, eagerly joined us. Ayse Atauz, however, had other
commitments and could not participate in the actual survey.
INA Quarterly 26.3
After clearing customs at Tbilisi's airport with over 200
kilograms of dive gear, we joined up with Professor Liche-
li, Deputy Director of CAS, and Prince Hans von Sachsen-
Altenburg, chairman of PARK. On the way to Poti, we
made an overnight stop at the ancient site of Vani, located
some 112 km from the Black Sea coast. Excavations here
have revealed architectural and material remains that re-
flect heavy Greek influence during the fifth and fourth cen-
turies BCE. The site's director, Professor Otar Lordkipanidze,
who is also the director of CAS, toasted our team and held a
dinner in our honor. Upon arriving at the coast the next day,
we met with the authorities at the nearby Supsa Pipeline ter-
minal to obtain permission to dive near their offshore buoy.
In addition to the necessary permissions, they graciously
extended to us the use of their
state-of-the-art hyperbaric cham-
ber aboard the seagoing tug Tina-
tini, as well as their nearby medical
clinic. Their presence gave us the
confidence to survey the deeper
areas of the coastal shelf, visibility
We also interviewed sever-
al Poti fishermen working the
large trawlers, for they have per-
haps the best impression of the lo-
cal sea bottom. They eagerly
brought forward a number of bar-
nacle-encrusted amphoras and
amphora fragments, one of which
was from third-century Sinope
and bore the graffito "M." Indeed
one fishermen took us to his house
where he produced a large Col-
chian pithos dating to the early
third century BCE (fig. 3). He and
other fishermen, he said, often
brought up ancient ceramic jars
near the southernmost mouth of
the Rioni in waters 50 to 70 meters
As fig. 2 makes clear, Poti Fig. 3. Colchian pithos
and its environs are part of the 50 meters offPoti.
Rioni River delta. This wide, me-
andering stream courses westward from the Caucasus and
slows to a crawl when it reaches the marshy Colchian plain.
Just to the south of the river's mouth lies Poti, and south of
there, separated from the Black Sea by a narrow tongue of
land, lies Lake Palaeostomi. Its name is derived from an-
cient Greek, meaning "Old Mouth," clearly an indication
that the waters of the River Phasis at one time drained first
into the lake before reaching the sea. Today it is essentially
a freshwater lake, connected to the Black Sea only by a very
narrow channel at its southwest comer. We were later to
discover that the lake was likely a harbor, or perhaps a
lagoon, more intimately connected with the Black Sea than
today. Many of the ceramics that we found there, one meter
below the lake's bottom, were heavily encrusted with bar-
nacles, crustaceans that live only in saltwater.
The river's mouth has shifted through time. Thousands
of years ago it was evidently located more to the south, corre-
sponding to the modem harbor, for here the river cut a deep
channel when the Black Sea's level was lower; the steep gradi-
ent of the sea bed here is evident from hydrographic charts (fig.
2). Only two kilometers offshore, the depths are thousands of
meters. If any diving search was to be carried out here, it had to
be done along the narrow stretch of bottom within diving depths
(0-50 meters). This is where we began.
fished up from a depth of
Black Sea Reconnaissance
From June 13-20, aboard
the 9 meter steel-hulled boat Ire-
na, we dived at various locations
along the coast. We began near the
southernmost mouth of the Rioni,
where fishermen had reported
raising ancient ceramics. The Ad-
miralty chart listed an anomaly
nearby, a circular rise (see Area 1
in fig. 2) situated on the 20 meter
curve and extending upwards to
9 meters below the surface. Its sur-
rounding topography was inter-
esting, for here was the edge of the
ancient riverbed that dropped
steeply to 300 meters before plum-
meting to the abyssal plain of the
eastern Black Sea. We attempted
to swim compass courses as we
moved along the depth contours.
Beginning in the deep areas at first,
we swam along the 30-meter
curve, then moved up slope at the
end of each leg. The presence of a
strong and erratic current, howev-
er, made us switch from compass
dives to drift dives. Consequent-
ly, we were able to cover more area
on the bottom with less expenditure of energy. We used bud-
dy-lines to maintain contact. In the end, the rise proved elu-
sive. But from this series of dives we learned that visibility
deteriorated quickly past 15 meters due to suspended parti-
cles and the resultant loss of sunlight-no surprise given the
proximity of the river's mouth.
Area 2, farther offshore, also lay on the bank of the an-
cient river bed. A day-long search here for an obstruction turned
up nothing but a flat, silty bottom. So we moved closer in-
shore to Area 3, where local fishermen indicated the presence
INA Quarterly 26.3
of ancient paving stones and possibly even submerged walls. In
theend, despite coveringseveralhectares of bottom, oursearches
turned up only deep trawl scars and lots of angry crabs.
With our hopes still high, we turned our attention to Area
4, ten kilomeers south of Poti The Georgia Pipeline Company
(GPC) maintainsan oil storage and pumping facilityhere, along
with a buoyed terminal for oil tankers. During the burial of the
pipeline beneath the seabed, dredge operators reported carv-
ing through a mound of amphoras lying along the intended
route. After several dozen passes over the pipeline, it be-
came clear to us that better search equipment was needed,
with limited visibility being the single most frustrating fac-
tor. Although an excavation of a submerged land site, or even
a shipwreck, under these conditions is certainly feasible, find-
ing them with scuba equipment is not.
The "Old Mouth:" Lake Palaeostomi
Therefore, with limited luck offshore, we decided to
spend the rest of our short stay exploring Lake Palaeostomi,
where Dr. Gela Gamkrelidze of CAS had previously surveyed.
Based on his early discovery of ancient ceramics around the
margins of the lake, he suspected that we might find addi-
tional evidence of settlement, and perhaps even the city it-
self. With a large inflatable boat and motor on loan from the
Georgian Coastguard, we explored the lake's perimeter and
took several soundings. Accompanied by Dr. Gamkrelidze,
we investigated the mouth of one small stream, the Pichora
(Area 5). The shallows here had produced a number of ce-
ramics, mostly medieval, scattered in the mud layer. How-
ever, the arrival of a herd of water buffalo unnerved us, and
so we moved on to Area 6, an area lightly explored in the
1980s. In the shallows along the shoreline of Natechebi, a
small island in the western part of the lake, we discovered
virtually thousands of artifacts: amphora she rds, pot sherds,
broken glass from finely made vessels, roof tiles, and brick
fragments. Here were the signs of settlement for which we
Realizing the significance of the find, we immediately
set up a system of measurement and began digging a trench
perpendicular to shore. The sheer volume of sherds, however,
made us rethink our approach Instead, we switched to digging
test pits at three-meter intervals along each datum (201-204),
which in turn were spaced approximately five meters apart (fig.
4). At the end of four days, working under the fierce sun one
day and intense thundershowers the next, we registered over
1700 artifacts, including a fourth-century CE Roman coin Some
of the more diagnostic artifacts are described on page 17.
Preliminary analysis has shown that import wares
comprise about thirteen percent of the total. Amphoras from
Hellenistic Rhodes turn up in significantnumbers, along with
Sinopean and Crimean transport amphoras. The rest are of
local (Colchian) manufacture in all shapes and sizes; ampho-
ras and pithoi are the most common shapes.
Perhaps more significant, however, is the span of time
represented by these artifacts. The earliest sherd, from a Greek
import, dates to the fourth century BCE. The latest artifacts, on
the other hand, date to the Byzantine (Early Medieval) period-
the time when Phasis disappears from historical accounts. Could
this be Phasis, or perhaps the outskirts of the ancient city?
Georgian archaeologists believe so. Based on our findings
and the survival and proximity of the second-century CE
Roman fort north of Natechebi, we tentatively agree. If it
is, however, what happened to the city and its seaport? Is
it possible that the physical remains of the city-the walls,
the munipalbuildings, harbor works-lie submerged in a deep-
er part of the lake, or perhaps even offshore?
Map: D. Davis
INA Quarterly 26.3
Fig. The island of Nateche (Area ) on te western shore of Lake Pal tomi.
Fig. 4. The island of Natechebi (Area 6) on the western shore of Lake Palaeostomi.
Where do we go from here?
The key to finding definitive proof of Phasis's loca-
tion, we believe, lies in a comprehensive understanding of
sea-level changes in the Black Sea in antiquity as well as
the geological history of the wandering mouth of the Rio-
ni. Once the path of the ancient riverbed is scientifically
charted, and coastal-erosion processes are taken into ac-
count, a search of its ancient inland banks should reveal
clues of the location of the Archaic and Classical city cen-
ter. Given the poor visibility and silty bottom, a remote-
sensing survey in the lake and offshore will reveal far more
useful information than a limited diver survey.
More pertinent for INA would be the discovery of
an ancient shipwreck along the Georgian coast. The exca-
vation of a Bronze or Iron Age ship would, in the opinion
of several Georgian archaeologists, help fill gaps not only
in the region's history, but also in the history of the Black
Sea. Unlike northern Europe or the Mediterranean, there
is no known tradition of shipbuilding in this region, and
yet there must have been. For we know that dugouts (mon-
oxyla) were used specifically in Phasis. Tacitus, a first-cen-
tury Roman historian who detailed events in the eastern
Black Sea, describes another ship type, the camarae. These
seagoing vessels had "narrow sides and broad bottoms"
and were "constructed without any bronze or iron fixings.
And when the sea swells, as the waves rise, so they build
up the sides of the vessels with planks, until they are shut
in as if under a roof" (Tac. Hist. 3.47). So far, owing to a
lack of searching, these ships have escaped discovery.
With this in mind, we have begun plans for an expe-
dition in summer 2001. Returning with remote-sensing and
diving equipment, we will search the narrow shelf off Poti
for shipwrecks and other cultural remains; then we will fol-
low up by diving on the acquired targets We also intend to
survey along the coastline 50 kilometers south of Poti near the
harbor town of Batumi, ancient Bathys Lten or "Deep Harbor"
(fig. 2). Aside from only a few references in Roman sources,
we know only that this ancient harbor served nearby Ap-
sarus (modem Gonio), where the Romans established a fort
in the first or second century CE. This fort is currently under
excavation by CAS archaeologists and may provide a con-
servation and storage area for submerged artifacts.
The Republic of Georgia holds great promise for
nautical archaeology. With an energetic relationship al-
ready established with Georgian archaeologists, there is
no better time than the present to begin a full-fledged search
for wrecks and other historical evidence along these shores.
We believe that this little-known and even lesser-under-
stood corner of the ancient world is ripe for exploration
Acknowledgments. I would like to thank the following people for their help in making the 1999 expedition possible: Dr.
George F. Bass, for his trust, inspiration, and financial support. Professor Vakhtang Licheli for his vision, professionalism
and generous nature. Prince Hans von Sachsen-Altenburg of PARK, for his organizational and diplomatic abilities, as well
as for his contribution of time and resources; without him, this project would not have been possible. Professor Otar Lord-
kipanidze of Georgia's Center for Archaeological Studies (CAS), for the tour of Vani and the festivities held there in our
honor. Dr. Gela Gamkrelidze of CAS, for his enthusiasm and unfathomable knowledge of ancient ceramics. Irakli Chkonia,
Senior Assistant to the Chairman of Parliament, for paving the way. Alexander Gvasalea, the museum director in Poti,
whose affability and good humor gave us a good introduction to Georgian culture and tradition. The good citizens of Poti,
who turned out to watch us work The Georgian Pipeline Company (GPC) at Supsa, who graciously fulfilled our needs for a
hyperbaric chamber and emergency oxygen. The Georgian Coast Guard, for loaning us boats and boat motors. Nancy Donnelly at
National Geographic Television, for the underwater video camera. In addition to the above mentioned, I cannot find wordsenough
to thank those Georgians involved in housing, feeding, and entertaining us during our brief stay. We are truly in your debt w
1980 The Greeks Overseas: Their Early Colonies and Trade. Rev. ed. London.
1994 Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia 550 BC-AD 562. Oxford.
1991 "What Did the Argonauts Seek in Colchis?" Hermathena 150:3141.
1976 "The Earliest Greek Settlements on the Black Sea." Journal of Hellenistic Studies 96: 18-32.
1992 "Hydroarchaeology in the Georgian Republic (the Colchian Littoral)." IJNA 21: 101-109.
M. Koromila, ed.
1991 The Greeks in the Black Sea, from the Bronze Age to the Early Twentieth Century. Athens.
Please visit our webpage at INA's Virtual Museum: http/llnautarch.tamu.edu
INA Quarterly 26.3
Lake Palaeostomi may hold the key to unlocking the location of Phasis. The lake has already produced a number of
interesting discoveries, among them amphoras identical to those found on the Yassiada fourth-century shipwreck, as well
as a Byzantine-era burial In the shallows along the eastern shore of Natechebi Island we discovered a voluminous deposit
of ancient material (fig. 4). In place of excavating the large site layer by layer, we chose instead to focus on a small cove where
we dug several dozen pits at regular intervals into the silty bottom. This gave us a large sample size of artifacts while saving
considerable time in the process. Each pit revealed some degree of stratigraphy, both geological and artifactual, despite only
a few centimeters of visibility. A 10 cm layer of fine black sand rested atop a thicker, organic layer of soft clay with the
consistency of peat; it averaged approximately 16 cm thick. The bottom layer, which continued deeper than our test pits,
contained somewhat courser sand. All three strata produced artifacts, with frequency falling off with depth; the very bot-
toms of our 60 cm pits rarely produced sherds. After collecting and registering over 1,700 sherds we conducted a prelimi-
nary analysis of the pottery assemblage. Several shapes are represented: of the dosed shapes, amphoras made up a dear
majority, followed by pithoi and amphoriskvi (small amphoras); open shapes in the form of bowls, cups, and plates are
overwhelmingly of local manufacture (fig. 5). The ratio of local wares to import wares is approximately 8:1 (1,590/179), or
13%, statistics very similar to those found at the Archaic site of Eshera, up the coast from Pold The foreign finds are mostly
from Sinope and the Crimea, although a significant number of Hellenistic Rhodian (fig. 6) and late Roman amphora sherds
were recorded (figs. 7 and 8). Indeed the earliest sherd discovered at this site is a foreign one, a fourth-century BCE black-
glaze base fragment from Athens (fig. 9). It probably belonged to a kylix, a cup usually used for wine-drinking. Every
century thereafter, between the fourth century BCE and the ninth century CE, is represented by both local and foreign
ceramics. This uninterrupted span of time suggests that the site was either an emporium or sat very near to one. Historical
Phasis appears to fulfill that description. a
Drawings: Bjorn Lov6n
S Fig. 5 (above left). Medieval
Colchian cooking bowlfound
in Area 6.
Fig. 6 (above right). Toe of a
Rhodian amphora, third/sec-
ond century BCE.
Fig. 7 (above). Rim fragmentfrorn
a Late Roman amphora.
Fig. 8 (left). Handle from a Late
Fig. 9 (right). Base fragment of a
fifth century BCE Attic black-glaze 0 1 '
cup, probably a kylix. Photo: Dan
[NA Quarterly 26.3
I crm b I
From Ganos to Serge Limani:
Social and economic activities in the Propontis during Medieval Times
illuminated by recent archaeological and historical discoveries
Nergis Giinsenin, Associate Professor, University of Istanbul
In the sumner of 1989, an archaeological team including the author discovered a major amphora production
center at Gazikby, on the Northwest shore of the Sea of Marmara, in the modern administrative district of Tekirdag,
Turkey. This confirmed museum research that revealed the existence of such production sites on the Anatolian coast
during the Middle and Late Byzantine periods. The discovery at Gazik6y led to an ongoing project studying the medi-
eval amphora workshops and shipwrecks in the region of the Propontis. This project has included three major ele-
ments: surveys of the Gazikby area, the waters around the Marmara Islands, and the land area of the islands. The next
phase will include the excavation of a Late Byzantine shipwreck and further investigation of the monastic economy in
the Sea of Marmara region.
.4.. Istanbul (Byzantium
.Mar C. A. Powell
Fig. 1, The research area and the archaeological sites where the amphora samples were obtained for chemical analyses.
Gazik6y was known in ancient and medieval times
as Ganos (fig. 1). Strabo describes it as a Greek colony es-
tablished during the first century BCE. From the tenth cen-
tury CE onward, it was a thriving monastic center. The
mountains of this region were a major pilgrimage site, com-
parable with Bithynian Olympus and Athos. Therefore, the
Ganos amphora factory was a small part of a major medi-
eval monastic settlement. According to Ottoman sources,
the region had a reputation for wine production. This sug-
gets that amphora production was a component of an
"' important monastic economic activity. Production contin-
ued well into the Ottoman period when wooden barrels
became the typical transport container in the Mediterra-
nean. Even today, wine production and ceramic manufac-
ture continue in the area (fig. 2).
Fig. 2. The last potter of a "thousand years of tradition,"
INA Quarterly 26.3
Several surveys of the Ganos region
were conducted in 1991-1993. Albert Hesse
and his assistant, Florence Tixier, used mag-
netic prospecting techniques to pinpoint kilns.
This writer, together with colleagues from the
Tekirdag museum, carried out a rescue exca-
vation of a kiln at Ganos. With the help of
Pamela Armstrong of the Oxford Byzantine
Ceramics Project, we investigated glazed pot-
tery production in the region.
These studies have shown the exist-
ence of many amphora kilns stretching for
several kilometers along the coast. High qual-
ity day deposits provide a nearby source of
material for ceramic production. When these
production sites were in operation, the area -- *
formed a part of the monastic estates of Ga-
nos. Clearly the monastery functioned as a
vertically integrated economic unit produc-
ing both a bulk commodity and the contain-
ers necessary to transport it Map: N. nsen
Amphoras of the type produced at Ga- Fig. 3. The diffusion of Type I amphoras.
nos (author's Type I) are found all over the
Byzantine Empire (fig. 3). This suggests that Ganos was part of a large scale trading network. Produce, particularly wine,
from the monastery may have been used to obtain supplies that the monks could not produce locally. The monasteries at
Athos still function this way.
All this provided indirect evidence of trade centered on Ganos. To obtain direct evidence, it was necessary to con-
duct an underwater survey. The focus of research therefore shifted from the shoreline to the most likely routes between
Ganos and Constantinople. The Marmara Islands (ancient Prokonnesos) have provided an obstacle to navigation for many
centuries. During the 1993-94 and 1995 survey seasons, eleven Byzantine shipwrecks were identified (fig. 4). Seven of these
**" Fig. 4. Discoveries to date around the Marmara Is-
S 1. Ocaklar Bumu wreck (1lth century CE)
2. Camaltt Burnu wreck (13th century CE)
3. Tekmezar I Tekmezar I wrecks
(11th century CE)
4. Kocayemillik wreck (llth century CE)
5. Anatas adacik (11th century CE)
6. Kuyu Burnu tile wreck (7th century CE)
S7. Kiitik Ada water pipe wreck
MAMR!.MJR ISLttos (7th century CE)
8. Tasada (Virankoy) wreck
(11th century CE)
9. Egek adalan wreck (11th century CE)
S10. Cthh Buru wreck (7th century CE)
S11. Tiirkeli (Avpa) adasi mound
SKAPDL PFtN)Ad.s (3200-1100 BCE)
12. Ekinlik adast marble wreck
(6th (?) century CE)
0 Kiln areas
INA Quarterly 26.3
Fig. 5 (left). The tile wreck
Fig. 6 (above). The water pipe wreck
carried Ganios type amphoras. Another was laden with a
cargo of roof tiles (fig. 5), while another carried water pipes
(fig. 6). A seventh-century wreck carried globular ampho-
ras of a form familiar from the contemporary Yassiada
wreck. Finally, one carried amphoras of the last form used
in maritime commerce. A twelfth wreck was found in 1997,
this one containing architectural marbles, possibly from
the sixth century CE (figs. 7).
Photo: E. hrk'akan
The wrecks of Tekmezar Burnu
Two wrecks carrying Ganos-style amphoras were
found approximately fifty meters southwest of the Cape
of Tekmezar. The larger of the two shipwrecks, Tekmezar
I, was one of the most substantial vessels of the Byzantine
period. The 800 square meter amphora mound measures
40 by 20 m, and there are three visible layers of amphoras
(fig. 8). Without counting the amphoras that are buried and
0 i S m
tKiNLiK ISLAND m
_Drawing: K. Bircan
Fig. 7. A sketch of the Ekinlik Island wreck on the sea floor.
INA Quarterly 26.3
rnmoo: t. umur
Fig. 8. Tekmezar I wreck.
out of sight, the visible cargo can be estimated at well over
twenty thousand units. Such ships were called muriophoros,
or "thousand-carriers." If they were common, it is hardly
surprising that Ganos-type amphorashad wider circulation
than any other medieval type. Since a full amphora (40 cm
high with a circumference of 90 cm) weighed about 12 kg,
the total weight of the Tekmezar I cargo must have exceed-
ed 200 tonnes. In contrast, the Serie Limam ship carried 103
amphoras, along with its other cargo, in a hull 15.36 m long.
Only twelve meters to the west, the Tekmezar II
wreck carried about three thousand Ganos-type ampho-
ras, now dispersed over 180 square meters. Each of the ves-
sels was equipped with at least five "Y" shaped anchors
(fig. 9). However, Tekmezar I probably required addition-
al anchors that have not yet been found. The wrecks lie at
a depth of thirty-five to forty-five meters, and their huge
cargoes would make excavation difficult. However, an
exploration of at least the Tekmazar I shipwreck might help
reveal the techniques that ancient and medieval ship-
wrights used to build such enormous ships.
Mhoto: E. umur
Fig. 11 (left). Type IV amphoras of the Camalti Burnu wreck.
Fig. 9. An anchor of the Tekmezer I wreck.
The (amaltL Buru wreck
Another tempting shipwreck is located just over
thirty meters south of the rocky cape of Camalti Bumu.
The amphoras on this wreck have been dated to the thir-
teenth century CE, placing them among the last amphoras
in large-scale commercial use. The ship's cargo has settled
in three pockets at depths between twenty and thirty-two
meters. The smallest amphoras (fig. 10) are in the top de-
posit, and the largest in the bottom deposit with the medi-
um sized amphoras in the middle. Any hull remains are
probably beneath the lowest deposit on the slope (fig. 11).
Many anchors have been found associated with this wreck.
About two hundred amphoras are currently visible, al-
though the wide distribution of the cargo makes it diffi-
cult to assess its size and tonnage.
The (amalt Burnu wreck was chosen for further
study because it is small and shallow enough to excavate
economically, and it represents a period that has not previ-
ously been explored. It is hoped that it will provide valuable
information from the thirteenth century about shipbuilding
and commerce. The production site of the late amphoras is
not currently known, so information from this wreck may
help to identify the ship's route and the amphora produc-
tion sites. The author hopes to establish the infrastructure
necessary for a full-scale excavation of the amalti Burnu
wreck as the first step towards a long-term project studying
the Anatolian underwater heritage. We hope to follow the
example provided by the collaboration between INA and
the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology.
The Marmara Production Sites
While surveying the offshore areas, the team also
surveyed Marmara Island for additional amphora produc-
tion sites. Two kiln areas were found, at Saraylar in the
north and at Topagac in the south (fig. 1). As both sites
produced Ganos-type amphoras, the hypothesis that all
such amphoras actually came from Ganos as wine-filled
or empty containers must now be revised.
INA Quarterly 26.3
However, no clay sources were
found on the island. It is therefore possible
that Canos clay was transported to Marma-
ra for amphora fabrication and filling. It
would have been substantially easier to
transport raw materials, rather than fin-
ished amphoras. That both kilr, areas are
located on exposed beaches supports this.
The Topagaq site was close to a small mon-
astery, and the Saraylar site was associated
with domestic buildings of as yet unidenti-
fied use. It is possible that both kilns were
operated by monastic communities associ-
ated with or subject to Ganos.
To investigate this possibility, analy-
ses were carried out by Helen I catcher, an
analytical chemist, then associated with the
Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the
Historyof Artin the University of Oxford. She
used inductively-coupled plasma emission
spectroscopy, a technique for analyzing the
chemical composition of a sample, to check
the concentrations of twenty-nine elements.
The study included amphora sherd samples
from Ganos, Saraylar, and Topagag. Sherds
of the Ganos-type amphoras found by INA
investigators on the Glass Wreck were also
compared to the other samples.
The analysis suggests that Ganos
clay was used to make most, if not all, of
the amphoras found on the Glass Wreck.
However, Ganos clay is different from the
Saraylar and Topaga; samples. Although
these clays are similar, the common geolo-
gy of the Sea of Marmara region makes the
identification of a specific origin difficult.
~ -^ "o/
K- --- L ID
The Ganos-Serge Limanm Connection- __
Noethess, Dr. Frederick Van Doom- Drawing: N. Ginsenin, Aya Akin, Erkut Arcak, and Atila Kara
inck agrees that most of the Glass Wreck am-
phoras came from Ganos This includes the Fig. 11. Plan of amaith Rurnu third group amphoras.
group stowed separately in a stem compart-
ment and marked with an "M," possibly for "Michael," who may have been the ship's captain. Since some of these were marked
before finrg, the ship's home port may have been very near where the amphoras were made, a proposition confirmed by the
similar composition of the amphoras and the ship's storage and cooking ware. The Ganos area may have had strung Slavic
(Bulgarian) influences, based on the potter's marks, tools, and weapons.
All this confirm the importance of Gancs in Byzantine trade relations Vast quantities of wine-filled amphoras came from
Canos itself, or from closely associated sites in the Sea of Marmara region This writer and Pamela Armstrong are researching
whether the Marmara island monasteries operated independently or were subject to Canos.
Acknowledgments. I would like to thank my permanent staff, Erkut Arcak, Korhan Bircan, Ayqa Alan, Atila Kara and the other
members of the Middle East Tednical University Underwater Research Team (ODIO-SAT). I would also like to express my
appreciation to my colleagues who visited the sites and brought their valuable knowledge with them, Albert Hesse, Akif ISm
(director of the Tekirdag museum), F.H. Van Doomrnick Jr., Yvon Garlan (who indicated the kiln at Topagaq), NuVin Asgari (who
INA Quarterly 26.3
drew attention to Saraylar), and Eric Rieth. I am also grateful to Pamela Armstrong, with whom I have collaborated for
some years and who has been particularly helpful in improving my understanding of medieval ceramic production,
social life, and economic activities. Helen Hatcher, whose analyses are invauable for our comprehension of under-
standing the historical facts, also provided invaluable information. Each year's survey was made possible by the per-
manent financial assistance of the French Institute of Anatolian Studies in Istanbul (IFEA). Omer Kog, Defne Akqag~lar,
Togan Miftioglu-Padi-Aware Foundation and Emre Omur also brought their help, especially in underwater equip-
ment and photography. I am also thankful to the Ministry of Culture, and the Director of Museums and Antiquities for
their permission to work. My deepest thanks to the villagers, my friends, and the local authorities of Gazikby-HoSk6y
and the Marmara islands. As INA has also learned, most of the shipwrecks had already been found by the local fisher-
man and divers. I will never forget the good will and information of Mustafa, Erdogdu, Kadem, and Captain Omer. ae
1990 Les amphores byzantines (Xe-XIile si&cles): typologie, production, circulation d'apr&s les collections turques. University
Paris I (Panth6on-Sorbonne), Paris, doctoral thesis. Atelier national de reproduction des these de Lille i.
1992 "Ganos: Centre de Production d'Amphores A l'Epoque Byzantine," Anatolia Antiqua II, Paris: 193-201.
1995a "Ganos: r6sultats des campagnes de 1992 et 1993," Anatolia Antiqua III Paris: 165-178.
1995b "Glazed pottery production at Ganos," Anatolia Antiqua III, ( with Pamela Armstrong), Paris: 179-201.
1997 "Analyses chimiques comparative des amphores de Ganos, de l'ile de Marmara et I'6pave de Serce Limaru
(Glass Wreck)," Anatolia Antiqua V (with Helen Hatcher), Paris: 249-260.
1998 "R6centes d6couvertes sur 'ile de Marmara (Proconnese) l'4poque byzantine: paves et lieux de chargement,"
Archaeonautica 14, Paris: 309-316.
1999 "Les ateliers amphoriques de Ganos a l'epoque byzantine," Production et Commerce des Amphores Anciennes en
Mer Noire, I'Universite de Provence: 125-128.
For further information about this project refer to the website www.nautarch.org
News & Notes
Book receives prize nomination
When Horses Walked on Water,
the latest publication by Kevin
Crisman, Nautical Archaeology Facul-
ty Fellow, and Art Cohn, Executive
Director of the Lake Champlain Mari-
time Museum at Basin Harbor, has
been nominated for the Francis Park-
man Prize. This annual award for the
best non-fiction book on the history of
the United States is presented by the
Society of American Historians. The
first half of Crisman and Cohn's book
traces the history of animal powered
vessels from Roman times to the last
horse ferry in the 1920s. The second half
of the book discusses a particular ves-
sel, the horse-powered ferry they locat-
ed in 1989, and excavated during
1990-92, two kilometers northwest of
the city of Burlington, Vermont. The
bookcontains the first detailed descrip-
tion of a horse-propelled vessel that is
based on scientific observation. For a
more detailed description of the book,
please see INA Quarterly 26.1:20-21.
Students receive 1999-2000 honors
The following students in the
Nautical Archaeology Program at Tex-
as A&M University have received
non-teaching graduate assistantships
in the Program: Kroum Bachvarov,
Felipe Castro, Adam Kane, Erika
Laanela, Sam Lin, Mason Miller, and
Asaf Oron. Erkut Arcak, Jonathan
Faucher, Daniel Walker, and Amy Bor-
gens all received LaSalle non-teaching
graduate assistantships. An INA
scholarship was awarded to Nancy
DeBono while Ayse Atauz has been
awarded a TINA scholarship. Dan
Davis will hold the Mr. and Mrs. Ray
H. Siegfried III Graduate Fellowship
while Sara Brigadier will hold the
Marion M. Cook Graduate Fellowship.
Erika Laanela will hold a Regents Fel-
INA Quarterly 26.3
Getting into Deepwater
In Deep Water, Ancient Ships, Willard Bascomb delved
into shipping records from the mid-nineteenth century, pri-
or to the introduction of steam engines and iron hulls. He
discovered that forty percent of all recorded ships sank with-
in three hundred meters of a coastal obstruction. However,
Bascomb also found that an additional ten-and perhaps as
many as twenty- percent of ships sank in deep water. These
statistics are probably conservative in regard to ancient times
when sail systems allowed for less maneuverability.
Until recently, deepwater shipwrecks remained out
of the reach of archaeologists. This situation is, however,
starting to change. In 1997, the US Navy's nuclear research
submarine NR-I discovered several shipwrecks in interna-
tional waters nearly a half kilometer deep opposite the Is-
raeli site of Ashkelon. The submarine was on a search mission
to locate Dakar, an Israeli submarine lost in 1986. In 1999,
Drs. Robert D. Ballard (President, Institute for Exploration
[IFE]) and Lawrence E. Stager (Head, Harvard Semitic Mu-
seum) led an expedition to study these vessels. INA's Dr.
Shelley Wachsmann, the Meadows Associate Professor of Bib-
lical Archaeology at Texas A&M University, participated in the
survey as a member of Dr. Stager's archaeological team.
Two of the shipwrecks examined are wine-caryingtrad-
ing vessels that sank in the second half of the eighth century
BCE- about the time that Homer is believed to have written
the Iiad and the Odyssey. Personal items retrieved from the ves-
sels identify them as Phoenician, the first such shipwrecks ever
found. These are also the oldest ships ever discovered in deep
The survey was carried out aboard Northern Horizon,
with staff and equipment from Woods Hole Oceanographic
Institution's (WHOI) Deep Submergence Operational Group.
IFE Adjunct Professors Drs. Dana Yoerger and Hanumant
Singh from WHOI, David Mindell of the Massachusetts In-
stitute of Technology (MIT), and Louis Whitcomb of Johns
Hopkins University also participated in the search and re-
covery The shipwrecks were examined by means of WHOI's
remote operated vehicle (ROV) Jason.
Sponsors of the expedition included the National Geo-
graphic Society, the United States Office of Naval Research,
and philanthropist Mr. Leon Levy. The story of the expedi-
tion will be told in a documentary film produced by Nation-
al Geographic TV for its Israeli channel, and in an upcoming
issue of National Geographic Magazine.
Fall 1999 saw the first-ever search for ancient shipwrecks located in depthsbeyond those of normal scuba diving capabilities
carried out inside Israeli territorial waters. Wachsmann directed a survey opposite Tantura Lagoonsponsoredby INA Director Mr.
George Robb, Jr. who also provided his vessel Robo, with its crew and complement of remote sensing equipment This prcect was
an international endeavor, carried out in cooperation with Haifa Universitys Recanati Center for Maritime Studies (CMS).
The team surveyed to a depth of 110 meters and in doing so recorded a number of what appear to be non-geological
targets that fall within the expected parameters of ancient shipwrecks (defined as 15-30 meters long and found away from
In antiquity, seafaring was primarily a
summer occupation. In the eastern Mediterranean
during the summer, the wind rose is predomi-
nantly from northeast to southwest. With the rel-
S e ". SAatively primitive sails then in use, this made for
easy sailing on an outbound journey from Europe
to Egypt, but required a counterclockwise return
trip along the entire Levantine coast. This made
the sea lane along Israel's Mediterranean shores
among the most traveled in antiquity. Thus, sta-
tistically we might expect a relatively large num-
ber of shipwrecks here. The abundance of
shipwreck-like anomalies revealed in a relatively
small search area during the Robo survey is excit-
ing because it seems tentatively to support this
Photo: Nf. Baram Today, deep submergence archaeology
Members of the 1999 INA/Robo Remote-Sensing Expedition show the INA is in its infancy, yet it promises immensely sig-
flag in Israel: From left to right: Amir Yurman, Bundy, Isabel Rivera, nificant returns in knowledge gained about our
Stevhen Breitstein, Arad Hagi, Shelley Wachsmann, Andy Wilson, Finn human past. Shipwrecks in Israeli waters will
Swzanson, Heather Swanson, Cristian Swanson. Missing: George E. Robb, add a distinctly biblical flavor to this unfold-
Jr., Brett Phaneuf, Gordon Swanson, Meir Baram and Bill Broughton. ing intellectual adventure. a,
INA Quarterly 26.3
The Reconstruction of La Belle
Opening the next chapter in the history of
La Belle, guests at the Riverside Campus of Texas
A&M University witnessed the dedication of a
new conservation facility on November 12, 1999.
A large vat will soon house the flagship of Robert
Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle. Like the French explor-
er, scientists at the Conservation Research Labo-
ratory (CRL) of the Nautical Archaeology Program
are heading boldly into new territory. They are
rebuilding the 316-year-old ship in the largest ship
conservation facility in the Americas-the largest
in the world designed for conservation by immer-
sion. The European facilities that are preserving
Vasa and Mary Rose use spraying techniques, rath-
er than immersing the ships in conservation solu-
tion. The CRL has a new 60 x 20 x 12 foot concrete
vat, large enough to hold the reconstructed La Belle
under fresh water that willbe replaced by increas-
ing concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) This neu
solution as conservation proceeds. tihe world
Readers of the INA Quarterly are undoubt-
edly familiar with the earlier chapters of this sto-
ry. The 15.5 meter barque longue was constructed in the
shipyards of Roucheford, France, in 1684 and sailed to Amer-
ica shortly thereafter as the flagship of La Salle's expedition
to colonize the mouth of the Mississippi River as a French
stronghold. Probably due to La Salle's reliance on bad maps,
the expedition landed at Matagorda Bay, Texas, in February
1685. After a series of misadventures, La Belle was wrecked
in the bay in January of the following year. La Salle was killed
by his own men in March 1687 and the remnants of the col-
ony were destroyed by a Native American attack in January
1688. This effectively ended the French claim to Texas, but
the episode was the driving factor in the subsequent settle-
ment of Texas by Spaniards seeking to provide a protective
buffer for Mexico.
A team from the Texas Historical Commission led by
J. Barto Arnold (now of INA) located La Belle in 1995. The
ship lay under twelve feet of water and two feet of sediment
about 14 miles from shore. Because visibility was not much
better than zero, divers would have found it difficult to re-
cover all of the artifacts in the wreck without damaging them.
Therefore, the archaeologists decided to surround the ship-
wreck with a cofferdam and drain the site so the excavation
could proceed on dry land. Nearly a million artifacts were
recovered between September 1996 and April 1997. These
were transported 160 kilometers to the CRL for conserva-
Dr. Donny Hamilton directs the lab, with Jim Jobling as
La Belle Project Manager and Dr. Helen Dewolf as Conservator.
The artifacts have been preserved by being waterlogged in a
low-oxygen environment for the past three centuries. The water
and sea salts must be removed slowly, thoroughly, and careful-
ly if the irreplaceable historic items are to survive. For example,
ly-dedicated vat is the largest conservation facility of its type in
the 750,000 glass beads that La Salle brought to Texas as trade
goods will each need to be rinsed in tap water, rainwater, dilut-
ed alcohol, pure alcohol, and finally acetone, beforebeing dipped
in a chemical toconsolidate and protect them. The five hundred
pieces of wood that represent the surviving forty percent of La
Belle's original hull will be reassembled on a 12-tonelevator plat-
form in the vat. This can be hauled out of the conservation solu-
tion by four big gearboxes to allow conservators to work on the
ship before it must be reimmersed to prevent drying.
The November 12 gathering celebrated the opening
of the unique CRL ship conservation facility. However, it
also provided an opportunity to thank the sponsors who
made the La Salle Project possible. These included Fuji NDT,
Dinacon Inc., Fibregrate, Northrup Grumman, Huntsman
Chemical, Dow Chemical. A&M officials and administrators,
The Cullen Foundation, The Fondren Foundation, Houston
Endowment Inc., The Meadows Foundation, Mobil Explo-
ration and Producing U.S. Inc., Dennis O'Connor, Shell Oil
Company Foundation, The Summerlee Foundation and Blue
BellCreameries, L.P., Diamond M Foundation, Inc., The Mel-
bern G. and Susanne M. Glasscock Foundation, Gulf Coast
Medical Foundation, Hillcrest Foundation, Carolyn Bennett
Jackson, The Kathryn O'Connor Foundation, Strake Foun-
dation, The Summerfield G. Roberts Foundation, The Trull
Foundation, and the many others who have made this project
What may be the last chapter in La Belle's long story
will follow after five or six years of conservation treatment
at CRL. The reconstructed and preserved hull will be taken
to its permanent home in a Texas museum. Generations of
visitors will marvel at the ingenuity of both La Salle and the
conservators who have made it possible to view his ship. ae
INA Quarterly 26.3
L~L~ .- I:": .r.
Seventh Annual Tropis Conference
During the week of August 26-30, 1999, current and
former faculty and students of the Nautical Archaeology Pro-
gram (NAP) and the Institute of Nautical Archaeology present-
ed papers at Tropis: the Seventh International Symposium on
Ship Construction in Antiquity. This conference was held in
south-western Greece at the Sunrise Hotel in Petalidi and the
Medieval Castle at Pylos under the auspices of Harry Tzalas of
the Hellenic Institute for the Preservation of Nautical Tradition,
the Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities, and the Prefecture of
At thisconference, the diverse and promising finds from
the first season of the new INA shipwreck excavation along the
Turkish Aegean coast were presented. Dr. George Bass' paper,
"The Fifth-Century B.C. Shipwreck at Tekta u Bumu, Turkey,"
revealed that aside from the recovery of some Mendean and
pseudo-Samian amphoras that provided the tentative date of
the wreck, the ensuing discoveries of fine black glazeware kyle-
kes, lamps, analabastron, and what is possibly the ship's oculus,
were also raised during this preliminary season.
On-going analyses of past INA shipwreck excavations
were also presented at the conference. Dr. Cemal Pulak's paper,
"Constructional Features and Tentative Reconstruction of the
Uluburun Shipwreck," analyzed the three extant sections of
the mortise-and-tenon constructed Late Bronze Age hull, a
fragment of which is the keel-plank. Dr. Jerome Hall, in his
paper, "The First-Century CE Boat from Lake Kinneret,"
discussed his work in Israel, where he has been recording
the hull of the vessel, newly-emerged from a PEG treatment.
Ph.D. candidate Matthew Harpster reported the tentative
results of his recent research sojourn in Bodrum, Turkey,
where be began to record the hull that will be the subject of
his dissertation. His paper, entitled, "Preliminary Research on
the Ninth-Century Hull Remains from Bozburun, Turkey," re-
vealed that the Byzantine ship was unusually constructed of all
oak planking, and some oak ceilings and frames at midships,
while the other floors, futtocks, and ceilings were of pine. An-
thropology Ph-D. candidate Dillon Gorham, in his paper, "The
Palynological and Axchaeobotanical Studies of Ninth Century
A.D. Shipwrecksin Turkey and Israel Two Projects from INA,"
proffered the data of fossil pollen and seeds excavated from one
of the Tantura Lagoon, Israel, shipwrecks, and the Bozburun,
Turkey, shipwreck, in order to provide further information re-
garding the ships' cargo origins.
NAP graduate and former NAP professor Dr.Fred Hock-
er and former visiting scholar Dr. John McManamon, SJ, co-
authored a paper entitled, "Celebrity Shipwrights and the
Educational Process: Social Aspects of the Early Italian Treatis-
es on Shipbuilding" that re-assesses the earliest surviving writ-
ten works on ship design and construction from northern Italy
during the Renaissance Period. Instead of analyzing the techni-
cal details of these fifteenth-century documents, McManamon
and Hocker instead present several early manuscripts as instruc-
tional texts that focus on basic design concepts for emerging ship-
wrights during Venice's rapid ascension to maritime dominance.
Deborah Carlson, a former NAP student and current
Assistant Director of the Tekta5 Burnu shipwreck excavation,
presented a paper entitled, "Roman Fishing Boats and the Blunt
Prow." Through iconographic examples derived from Italy, Sic-
ily, and North Africa, as well as several textual references, Carl-
son was able to conclude that the blunt or transom prow was a
distinctivebut not exclusive feature of small Roman fishing boats
in the first several centuries CE. NAP graduate student Athena
Trakadas presented a paper entitled "The Khorsabad Timber
Transport Relief," which re-evaluated the earlier assignment of
the location of a nautical scene from the palace at Khorsabad, in
ancient Mesopotamia. Her new identification of the scene helps
to reconstruct a facet of the relationship between the Neo-As-
syrian kingdom and the Phoenician seafars in the ninth through
seventh centuries BCE.
Interest in the prolific maritime history of ancient Egypt
was also well-represented in several papers given by NAP and
INA scholars. Dr. Cheryl Ward, a NAP graduate and current
Assistant Professor in Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M
Galveston, presented the paper, "A Comparison of Mediterra-
nean and Egyptian Nilotic Traditions of Hull Construction be-
fore 450 BCE." This paper dispelled the use of several accepted
but inaccurate and misleading facets ofinformationderved from
Egyptian riverine vessels in the reconstruction attempts of sea-
going ships. NAP graduate Edward Rogers followed the theme
of atypical ancient Egyptian ship construction with his paper,
"Boat Construction inOld KingdomEgypt Evidence from Tomb
Reliefs," in which he presented building techniques deduced
from iconography but unknown in the present archaeological
sources. Further analysis of Egyptian iconography was also the
subject of a paper given by Noreen Doyle, another recent NAP
graduate. Her paper, "Sitting on Tholes, Dining on Anchors:
Perils in the Interpretation of Ancient Egyptian Nautical Iconog-
raphy," examined the dangers in interpreting and then recon-
structingships' features without taking into account the nuances
of the respective images, such as artistic convention and pro-
duction, and even modern publishing techniques. Dr. Shelley
Wachsmann, experimenting with comparative cultural anthro-
pology, presented a paper which documented a amalgamation
between ancient and modem Egyptian history. Through his
paper, "The Moulad of Abu el Haggag: A Modem-day Boat Fes-
tival in Egypt" Dr. Wachsmann documented the striking simi-
larities between the modembirthday festivalof the Moslem saint
Abu el Haggag, with the pharaonic-period Opet boat proces-
sion between the temples at Karnak and Luxor.
In two years' time, the tradition of insightful and well-
received papers documenting the research projects and excava-
tions by students and faculty of the Nautical Archaeology
Program and the Institute of NauticalArchaeologywillbe much
anticipated at the Eighth Biannual Tropis Conference.,
INA Quarterly 26.3
by Filipe Castro
El Astilero de Colindres (Cantabria) en la Epoca de los Austrias Menores, "" *
Arqueologia y Construcci6n Naval a AS.LROD 'o '
by Miguel Cisneros Cunchillos, Rafael Palacio Ramos, and Juan M. Cas- EN LA FPOCA DrE A .O
tanedo GalAn AQLtoGL .i Ni'r'caoNaV .--
Edition Universidad de Cantabria y Ayuntamiento de Colindres, 1997
ISBN: 84-8102-169-5,206 pages, 30 color plates, 9 b/w plates, and 20 draw-
ings and maps, references, bibliography, 5 appendices, index, hard cover. /
The small village of Colindres, Spain, is situated inside the Bay of.
Santofia, on the Cantabrian coast, and is already mentioned at the time of -.
the Roman conquest. Colindres de Abajo is also cited in the eleventh cen-
tury as one of the possessions of the kingdom of Navarra. In the seven-
teenth century this small community of about 160 inhabitants saw intense
activity in its shipyards, where twenty-one ships were built for Spain's
Armada del Mar Ocdano. When shipbuilding was at progress more than four hundred carpenters and laborers would lodge
in this small village, sometimes for several months or even years.
This book presents an interdisciplinary view of the shipyard of Colindres and its relation with the surrounding
villages during the seventeenth century. Ships were also built in four other places around Colindres on the fortified Bay of
Santofia. The region had good shipbuilding resources, for here iron was mined and worked, and oak timber was abundant.
Extensive archival research, as well as the study of the local cartography and its toponyms support the study pre-
sented in this book. Following an archaeological survey of a selected area of the waterfront, excavations were performed
that allowed archaeologists to identify three distinct areas. The first area was protected by a dam that has been interpreted
as a storage area for wet timber. The second area had a small slope paved with clay and pebbles, which may have been used
for the construction of ships, and the third area was artificially leveled with the same pavement that is thought to have held
the shipbuilding stocks. Very few archaeological materials were found, mostly pot sherds-dated to a period after the
activity of the shipyards and found in layers above the original pavement-tiles (dated from the late sixteenth to the early
seventeenth centuries), and iron objects, mostly nails, of undetermined date.
The book generally provides accurate information. However, in the prologue Jodo Baptista Lavanha, the Portu-
guese writer, mathematician, and cosmographer who is also the author of the Livro Primeiro da Arquitectura Naval, is mistak-
enly identified as being Spanish. In the first chapter a comprehensive historical introduction is given, including useful
information about the geological characteristics of the area, its human occupation and economic activities.
The second chapter looks at the origins of the shipbuilding activity in and around Colindres, its characteristics and
development, and its decay and eventual extinction. Following is a short overview of the history of the Spanish navy
during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, particularly in the north and northwest of the Iberian peninsula. The con-
tribution of this zone to the construction of ships is also emphasized. Information is provided on the dimension and ton-
nage of the first four galleons built in Colindres for the Armada del Mar Ociano, by Martin de Arafia, the man who had built
Carla Rahn Phillips' Six Gallensfor the King of Spain (Johns Hopkins University. Press, Baltimore and London, 1986).
The third chapter discusses the organization of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century shipyards, supported by iconog-
raphy and a bibliography. It also follows the excavation of the selected areas in the presumed area of the seventeenth-
century shipyard at Colindres. Chapter Four explains how the fortifications of Santoita Bay and its surroundings were
conceived and built, destroyed in 1639 by the French, and rebuilt soon after. In Chapter Five a clear and short summary is
presented, followed by five appendices with historical information supporting and completing the text.
El Astillero de Colindres is a complete monograph of a site that was once important, but that has completely vanished,
despite its rich history. I believe that its basic interest resides in the restitution of an almost forgotten history to the place
where it belongs. It is also an important contribution for understanding the shipbuilding industry of that time. gr
INA Quarterly 26.3
INSTITUTE OF NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY
George F. Bass, Founder and
Jerome L. Hall, Executive Director
William L. Alien
John H. Baird
George F. Bass
Edward O. Boshell, Jr.,
Vice Chairman and Treasurer
Ray M. Bowen
John A. Brock
Elizabeth L. Bruni
Gregory M. Cook, Chairman
Allan Campbell, M.D.
Bill Klein, M.D.
Donald A. Frey, Vice President
Cemal M. Pulak, Vice President
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
John De Lapa
Daniele I. Feeney
Donald G. Geddes III (Emeritus)
Woodrow Jones, Jr
Harry C. Kahn D (Emeritus)
Michael L. Katzev
Jack W. Kelley
Sally RI Lancaster
Robert E. Lorton
Dana F. McGinnis
James A. Goold, Secretary and
Claudia LeDoux, Assistant Secretary
and Assistant Treasurer
Frederick R. Mayer
William A. McKenzie
Alex G. Nason
George E. Robb, Jr.
L. Francis Rooney
Ray H. Siegfned n
William T. Sturgis
Robert L. Walker
Lew 0. Ward
Peter M. Way
Garry A. Weber
George O. Yamini
Murad Sunalp, M.D.
George F. Bass
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology/ George O. Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts
Kevin J. Crisman, Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Frederick R- Mayer Faculty Fellow
Cemal M. Pulak, Frederick R, Mayer Faculty Fellow of Nautical Archaeology
C. Wayne Smith, Assistant Professor/Director of the Archaeological Preservation Research Laboratory
i. Richard Stelty, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Frederick H, van Doorniack, fr., Frederick R Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Shelley Wachsmann, Meadows Associate Professor of Biblical Archaeology
Cheryl Ward, Assistant Professor
3. Barto Arnold, M.A., Texas Operations
William H. Charlton, Jr., M.A.
Sheila D. Matthews, M.A.
Robin C. M. Piercy
Candace D. Pierson
Sema Pulak, M.A.
Patricia M. Sibella, Ph.D.
Douglas Haldane, M.A., INA Egypt
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D.
Robert S. Neyland, Ph.D.
Ralph K. Pedersen, M.A.
Brett A. Phaneuf
Arthur Cohn, I.D.
David Gibbins, Ph.D.
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D.
Fredrik T. Hiebert, Ph.D.
Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
William M. Murray, Ph.D.
David I. Owen, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr, M.A.
Christine A. Powell
Tufan U. Turanh, Turkish Headquarters
Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati
Coming Museum of Glass
Department de Arqueol6gia Subacuatica de
la I.N.A.H., Mexico
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Partners for Livable Places
University Museum, University of Pennsylvania
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Texas A&M University
University of Texas at Austin
Mr. and Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried lI
Graduate Fellow: Dan Davis
Marion M. Cook Graduate Fellow: