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 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Winter 1998
Copyright Date: 1997
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
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Volume ID: VID00026
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
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Winter 1998

Volume 25 No. 4

The INA Quarterly

Volume 25 No. 4 Winter 1998

3 Bozburun Byzantine Shipwreck Excavation:
The Final Campaign 1998 M
Frederick M. Hocker MEMBERSHIP
Institute of Nautical Archaeology
14 Diving at Bozbunrm -1998 P.O. Drawer HG
William H. Carton College Station, TX 77841-5137
William H. Charlton
Learn firsthand of the latest discov-
16 Underwater Archaeology in Portugal: series in nautical archaeology. Mem-
Policies, Budgets, and Results bers receive the INA Quarterly and
Filipe Castro other benefits (see INA Quarterly
19 Des bateaux et desfleuves, archgologie de la batellerie
du ntolithique aux temps modernes en France esearcer (sdents on ..... $25
r .Seafarer..................$40-99
by Eric Rieth. Surveyor .............. $100-249
Reviewed by Filipe Castro Diver ................. $250-499
Restorer ............... $500-999
20 The Bodrum Library Grows Curator ......... $1,000-$2,499
George F. Bass Excavator ........... 2,500-4.999
Archaeologist ...... $5,000-9,999
21 News and Notes Navigator .......... $10,000-24,999
Anchor ......... .$25,000 and over
22 In Memoriam: Checks in U.S. currency should be made
Doris Smothers payable to INA. The portion of any do-
nation in excess of $10.00 is a tax-de-
23 Vol. 25 Index ductible, charitable contribution.

On the cover: Murat Tilev carries a frame from the ninth-century Bozburun shipwreck. Photo: D. Frey

December 1998 by the Institute of Nautical ArchaLeolgy. All rights reserved.

INA welcomes requests to reprint INA Quarterly articles and illustrations. Please address all requests and submissions to the Editor,
INA Quarterly, P.O. Drawer HG. College Station, TX 77841-5137; tel (409) 845-6694, fax (409) 847-9260, e-mail
Article should be submitted in hard copy and on a 3.25 diskette (Macintosh, DOS, or Windows format acceptable) along with all artwork.

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The Institute of Nautical Archaeology is a non-profit scientific and educational organization, incorporated in 1972. Since 1976, [NA
has been affiliated with Texas A&M University, where INA faculty teach in the Nautical Archaeology Program of the Department of
Anthropology. The opinions expressed in Quarterly articles are those of the authors, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the

The editorship of the IN.4 Quarterly is supported by the Anna C. & Oliver C. Colburn Fund.

The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Neewsletter (vols. 1-18).

Editor: Christine A. Powell

Bozburun Byzantine Shipwreck Excavation:

The Final Campaign 1998

Frederick M. Hocker, Sara W. and George 0. Yamini Associate Professor

Old, wet wood can be surprisingly strong. The last
object recovered from the site of the Byzantine shipwreck
near Bozburun was the central section of the ship's keel,
an oak timber nearly 6 meters long, 20 centimeters wide
and 30 centimeters deep, weighing over 350 kilograms.
This timber was too large to be raised and moved safely,
and so we decided to separate it into two pieces. As de-
structive as this may sound, it is fairly common practice,
as less overall damage results. If this has to be done, it is
preferable to break the timber in an existing weak spot,
rather than sawing it, as less information is lost and it is
easier to put the timber back together for recording or dis-
play. Thus three experienced ar-
chaeologists spent an entire
30-minute dive at 30 meters depth
attempting to break one 1100-
year-old piece of wood. Unfortu-
nately, there was no weak spot
and the effort failed. Eventually,
the piece had to be sawn part way
through before it could be broken.
We had had some intima-
tion of the soundness of the wood
from this ship earlier in the 1998
season, when taking a sample for
dendrochronological analysis
from the after segment of the keel.
The sample was a 5-cm-thick sec-
tion sawn from one apparently
eroded and teredo-eaten end of
the timber, and little difficulty was
anticipated. However,underneath
a thin layer of rather spongy, black
decayed cells the wood wasstillhard
and tough. An hour of sawing final-
ly produced the sample (fig. 1).
Although the hull remains
were the focus of much of the last
season of excavation at Bozburun,
a wide range of finds were recov-
ered in the course of four months' Fig. 1. Matthew Harps
work and over 3,600 dives. In the nology sample sawn f
previous three seasons, much of Bozburun ship's oak keg
the broken material covering the
upper levels of the site had been removed, as had the ma-
jority of cargo, hundreds of amphoras originally full of
wine. However, there were still several important concen-
trations of material overlying the hull remains at the begin-
ning of the 1998 season. In addition, the pace of excavation

in 1997 had exceeded our capacity to clean and catalogue
the finds, so over 250 whole amphoras had been stored on
the bottom in depots, awaiting recovery and documenta-
tion in the final season.
In order to finish the excavation in 1998, several
improvements were made in the logistical and technical
arrangements for the season. A larger staff, including a
substantial number of non-diving conservators, were re-
cruited to manage the anticipated workload. By mid-sum-
mer, over 50 people were working on the project, including
more than 35 diving archaeologists, 10 conservators, and
two full-time cooks. To increase the total working hours


on the bottom, dive teams were
increased from four to six per-
sons, which allowed us to put in
an average of 48 dives on most
working days, in less time than 40
dives had taken in previous sea-
sons. In order to get the most out
of the diving season, we also insist-
ed on a higher level of dive train-
ing among participants than in the
past, and Assistant Divemaster Jon
Faucher spent many weekends of
the preceding winter and spring
updating the education of College
Station-based divers.
We hoped to be able to
wrap things up by the end of Au-
gust, when most of the graduate
students who make up the bulk
of the team would have to return
to school. This proved unrealistic,
and the possibility of continuing
into a fourth month of work had
S to be taken into account. This ex-
p tension of the season was carried
out by a much smaller field crew,
no more than a dozen, who not
Photo: D. Frey only completed the final phases
r holds the dendrochro- of archaeological work but also
m the after end of the took down the camp for the last
time, packed finds and equipment
for shipment to Bodrum, etc. Es-
pecially because of the long season, some measures had to
be taken to reduce the cumulative fatigue that affects ev-
ery field project. To a certain degree, this was alleviated
by the larger staff, which distributed the total workload,
but diving takes its toll on the human body, and we had

INA Quarterly 25.4

noticed dangerous levels of fatigue by August in previous seasons. [NA's Diving Safety Officer, Bill Charlton, and I had
discussed in 1996 the possibility of using Nitrox, a breathing gas with a higher oxygen content than normal air. This allows
shorter decompression times or longer bottom times than air, or decreases the risk of decompression sickness for similar
times. Divers using it also report clearer thinking at depth and less fatigue at the end of the dive. Unfortunately, the equip-
ment necessary to produce Nitrox in an excavation environment was prohibitively expensive and we were not able to realize its
benefits immediately. Thanks to a generous donation from Robb Peck McCooey Financial Services, Inc., we were able to
purchase the equipment tor 1998. This system and its effects on our productivity are described in more detail in the follow-
ing article by Bill Charlton.
As in previous seasons, the first weeks
of the final campaign were devoted to re- '. cC
moving the cargo of amphoras.Most of what .. _
remained after 1997 was a large group of jars -, '" OZBURUN BYZANTINE
from the lowest layer, still stacked in orderly ... SHIPWRECK
rows in the starboard side of the hold amid- ....Final Site PIan
ships. The excavator of one section, Jaynie ..---
Cox, noticed that the jars in several of the I
rows carried the same graffiti. This was par- . .
ticularly exciting, as it suggested that the
graffiti represented an owner who was in- 1
volved in the voyage, rather than a vintner I Jjb
who had sold his produce on or a govern-
ment warehouse official. It may be one tiny ---'
clue to the overall structure of maritime
trade in the Byzantine world as it began its
recovery from the depression of the later
seventh and eighth centuries.
In all, we have recovered 970 am- 2
phoras that are either whole or sufficiently
complete to provide an accurate indication
of their form or capacity (fig. 2). Christine C1 2
Powell, who is writing her dissertation at
Texas A&M University on the amphoras,
has identified four major classes of jars
within this assemblage (fig. 3), and several
possible types within these classes. Further-
analysis may indicate that the four classes
represent four different workshops, and the B I
types are best explained as the natural vari-
ation resulting from hand production, but
this will depend on more detailed analysis ,
of the fabric. The most common class, which L 0 1:
accounts for almost 90 per cent of the jars .
and identifiable sherds recovered, is of pir- P
iform-ovoid shape with a short, conical .- -
neck and heavy rim. The capacity varies iM
over a relatively small range, compared to l 0
the amphoras recovered from the eleventh- T -- -- '
century wreck at Serce Limaru, averaging *
approximately 13 liters. The best parallels '
for these jars come from Crimean kiln sites _ _ -
of the ninth and early tenth centuries, but ,
similar jars are known from many medieval SLOPE VIEWV Drawing: M. Scafuri
sites of the period in Greece and Turkey,
and even as far away as Italy. Fig. 2. Site plan showing whole or nearly whole amphoras raised 1995-1998.

[NA Quarterly 25.4

_i-., I clab, 2

Drawing: C. A. Powell

Fig. 3. The four major classes ofamphoras recovered from
the Bozburun shipwreck.

Fig. 4. Distribution of the most common amphora graffiti
from the Bozburun wreck. The dotted line shows the ap-
proximate outline of the bottom of the hull.

The other three classes are each represented
by fewer than 30 examples, and a correspondingly
small number of sherds. Class 2, a shorter jar with a
kicked-up bottom, more pronounced shoulder, and
wider mouth, is the least common, with only a hand-
ful of examples and no close parallels yet identified.
Class 3, which has a similar body to Class 1 but a
narrower, cylindrical neck and vestigial rim with
rounder handles, is the second most common. It has
very clear parallels in the Crimean kiln finds, nor-
mally dated to the later eight through mid-ninth cen-
tury. A group of Ukrainian archaeologists visiting the
excavation were readily familiar with this type from
coastal finds offsoutheastern Crimea. The fourth class,
characterized by a much narrower and almost point-
ed bottom, may have a Black Sea origin as well.
Approximately 200 examples of graffiti have
been found on the amphoras, almost all on the shoul-
der, typically to the right side of one of the handles.
Except for a few, these are Greek letters, thought to
be initials of former owners. Several owners are rep-
resented by multiple jars, with AN (possibly Anas-
tasios or something similar) and GE (almost certainly
Georgeos) accounting for more than 35 jars each.
EPISKO (or variants of it, probably for Episkopos, or
bishop) has six jars, and someone represented by a
symbol resembling a leaf or pine tree has another six.
The pine tree symbol is known from contemporary
graffiti in both Greece and the Crimea. Distribution



SI ng: K. Trh

Drawing: K. Trethewey

INA Quarterly 254

SdJas, (3*I T1 4



of these graffiti on the site suggests that they were grouped
by owner in the hold (fig. 4).
A surprising number of the amphoras, mostly from
the lower levels, still had their stoppers in place. While
many of these were filled with fine silt right up to the top,
a number contained only sea water and grape pips. Two
jars recovered in 1998, when decanted, produced large
quantities of a dark reddish brown liquid with brown sed-
iment and grape pips. There are many folk tales in the ar-
chaeological world of ancient bottles of wine or spirits being
discovered by workmen (who usually consume the con-
tents, as the stories go), but it was
the first time I had encountered
such a thing. Of course, the temp-
tation to taste a ninth-century vin-
tage was too great to resist, and
several of us tried a drop. The fla-
vor was indescribably nasty, .
clearly some sort of decomposed
organic product, and we were .-
probably lucky not to have got-
ten wretchedly sick.
Although the vast majority
of the amphoras recovered pro-
duced grape pips, if they contained
any organic remains at all, a few
jars carried other contents. Ajar re-
covered in 1996 had been full of
olives, and a second jar full of ol-
ives was found in 1998. Both came
from the stem, near the galley, and
probably carried provisions for the
crew or passengers. One or two
jars, also found in the stem but on
the port side, away from the gal-
ley, seem to have contained resin
or pitch, which was found in large
congealed puddles on the inside of
the planking. One of the Class 2
amphoras and a pair of jugs found
near it in the stem had been full of Fig. 5. An amphorafidl
grapes (fig. 5). These survived were still recognizable a
mostly in the form of thousands of
seeds, but one of the containers produced a double handful
of recognizable grapes, with firm, juicy (if discolored) flesh
and intact skins. These containers were carefully sealed, sug-
gesting the possibility that the grapes were part of a sauce
rather than fresh grapes to be eaten on board. Dillon
Gorham's dissertation on the contents of the amphoras, as
well as research being conducted on grape DNA and wine
chemistry, should reveal much more about the nature of the
contents of the amphoras in the coming years.
Although amphoras filled most of the interior of the
ship, one area in the stem on the starboard side, does not


seem to have been part of the ship's hold. Relatively few
amphoras were found in this area, probably spillage from
farther aft, and this area produced the only significant
quantity of ballast found in the vessel. Overlying these
blocks of stone (some of them cut building stone fragments)
was a dense mass of broken tile fragments and domestic
pottery. The tile fragments are from many different sorts
of tile, and probably do not represent a tile roof, as was
found on the seventh-century vessel at Yassiada, but may
have made up the ship's hearth in the galley. This area,
excavated by Faith Hentschel in 1997 and 1998, produced
a series of nearly identical cook-
ing/serving pots, a pair of collar
stands on which to set them, and
.. a variety of jugs inboth ceramic and
i copper (fig. 6). The pots, of simple
,:- round-bottomed form with two
handles (one of the ten or so exam-
S ples is single-handled), seem to
have been made in the same shop
and are of a relatively common type
known from around the Aegean
and southwestern Black Sea coasts.
Each is about right for a single serv-
ing, and thus their number may) in-
dicate the size of the ship's crew.
Except for one pot found farther aft,
the pots were all found in a line
across the ship, suggesting the ex-
istence of a bulkhead or storage
rack, possibly at the after side of the
galley. The two collar stands, of
similar form, were each incised
with an initial before firing; one is
marked with an alpha or delta, the
other with a single stroke.
The jugs, of several sizes
and varying shape, were found in
Photo: D. Frey a line running more or less paral-
lel to the keel toward the outer
of grapes, some of which edge of the bottom, except for one
ter 1100 years. jug found with the solitary cook-
ing pot farther aft. This line of jugs,
which included the two old, broken jugs being reused to
carry grapes, may have been stored on a shelf or in a rack
against the ship's side. Two of the jugs are made of beaten
copper sheet soldered together in a form relatively com-
mon in early and middle Byzantine times, but how their
function may have differed from that of the ceramic jugs is
as yet uncertain. Doreen Danis, who is writing her Mas-
ter's thesis on the galley vessels, notes that the origin of
the pitchers may be quite wide spread, with some paral-
lels as far away as Iran, but that Middle Byzantine domes-
tic pottery is very difficult to characterize, due to the limited

INA Quarterly 25.4






Drawing: K. Trethewey

Fig. 6. Distribution map ofgalley vessels in the stern of the Bozburun wreck.

Fig. 7. Bronze steelyard and counterweight before cleaning.

Photo: D. Frey

amount of well provenienced or dated com-
parative material.
Further down slope, fallen down in be-
tween the stacked amphoras, Robin Piercy
found several important items of ship's equip-
ment. A bronze steelyard with lead counter-
weight (fig. 7) may have been used to weigh
the ship's cargo, as its size is similar to other
Middle Byzantine examples with capacities in
excess of 50 Byzantine pounds (16 kg). One
end appears to have an animal head finial, sim-
ilar to steelyards recovered from the Yassiada
and Ser ing of the beam indicates that the graduations
survive under a layer of corrosion and con-
cretion, so it should be possible to say much
more about the steelyard after conservation.
Near the steelyard, Robin found the ship's
lamp (fig. 8), a simple clay object with rudi-
mentary decoration on the upper surface. Ex-
tensive blackening of the nozzle indicates that
it had seen some use before the ship sank.
A large concretion of iron objects join-
ing an amphora to one of the pine frames in
the stern had been removed from the site in
1997 but not raised. This was recovered early
in the 1998 season, and then posed a problem
for three different conservators, Claire
Peachey, Emma Hocker, and Asaf Oron, in
how to dismantle the unwieldy composite for
safe transport and treatment. Like most of the
iron concretions recovered at Bozburun, the
carbonate shell was relatively thin and fragile
in places, making it difficult to separate the
component parts without losing important bits
of the concretion. In the end, Asaf managed to
get it apart with the loss of only one object, a
small rectangular iron plate whose dimensions
were recorded. The concretion may be the car-
penter's tool basket, based on the shape of
some of the items in it and its location in the
stem. The small rectangular plate, of which at
least two more survive in the main mass, is
puzzling, but it is of the right size and shape
to be part of an armored jacket of a kind worn
in Byzantine times. It may have been includ-
ed in the tool basket purely for its value as a
raw material, since no other indications of ar-
mament or military hardware have been
The two anchors first identified in 1995
were finally recovered. One, firmly concreted
to the rocks above the site, may not be from
the wreck but is at least of the right shape for

INA Quarterly 25.4


Fig. 8. The ship's oil lamp.

the period. The second anchor, found beneath a layer of
spilled amphoras at the bow, was already in several pieces
and required several weeks work by Assistant Diving Safe-
ty Officer Dan Davis to free it from the bottom without
further damage. A bonus of his careful work was the re-
covery of a length of rather decomposed rope concreted to
the head of the anchor. More rope, in better condition, was
found all along the starboard side of the hull, under the
turn of the bilge, probably the remains of rigging attached
to the side of the hull.
A few less utilitarian items were also discovered in
1998. The base of a third fine glass goblet, matching more
complete examples found in 1996 and 1997, was found in
the same area as the first two, aft and to port of
the galley. These are probably part of a set that
includes a mold-blown flask found in 1997. Such
fragile items are not common finds on ship-
wrecks, unless the ship is carrying glass as a car-
go, and so these objects may have been the
personal possessions of someone on board. At the
after edge of the galley area, the antler of a fallow
deer was found down between the frames. This
had been sawn off the skull, but had not yet been
otherwise worked. Antler was a commonly used
material up through this century for small items
that had to be hard or long-wearing, such as but-
tons, knife handles, and spindle whorls. A small,
ivory tusk (fig. 9), only 17 cm long, found quite
far aft, was probably also being shipped as raw
material, although perhaps not for shipboard use.
The Middle Byzantine period saw the pinnacle
of Byzantine ivory carving as an art form, with
the production of complex religious scenes in high
or low relief at the high end of the scale. This tusk Fig. 9. A

is too small to be made into a large plaque or pyx-
is, but could have been used for smaller items.
One group of finds is probably not part
of this shipwreck. Over the last four seasons, we
continued to find sherds of Roman domestic
pottery, as well as large pieces of two contem-
porary amphoras, in the lower levels of the site
and in the rocks, mostly to the east of the main
amphora mound. These fragments include a
nearly complete drinking bowl, parts of several
jugs, and even a few shards of yellow glass. Ayse
Atauz, who had studied material from a Roman
wreck several kilometers away for her Master's
thesis at Bilkent University, suggested that this
pottery dates to the first or second century AD.
We worried on occasion about find ing a second
wreck underneath the Byzantine wreck, as had
D. Frey been the case at Yassiada, but our fears were not
realized. There probably is a Roman wreck
somewhere nearby, perhaps farther down the
slope or off to the east, but a series of survey dives down
slope of the wreck, to near the bottom of the channel at 60
meters, revealed only a few of our Byzantine amphoras
that had rolled down the slope.
The most complex part of this final season was the
mapping and recovery of the hull, which, although more
complete than we had hoped, presented certain problems
in documentation (figs. 10-12). Preservation of the star-
board side is extensive, with virtually all of the bottom,
from the keel out to and around the turn of the bilge, sur-
viving. The keel itself is nearly complete, surviving over a
straight length of nearly 12 m, with the traces of where the
grain begins to turn up into the stem and sterpost visible

Photo: D. Frey
n ivory tusk, as found on the bottom and after preliminarv cleaning.

INA Quarterly 25.4

at both ends. Many of the frames survive on the starboard side as large,
single pieces with their original shape intact, so that the sectional shape
of the hull should be relatively straightforward to reconstruct. Unfor-
tunately, as the hull decayed on the bottom, the frames eventually broke
free of the planking and tilted forward (down slope), so that the for-
ward edges of the frames broke through the planking. The planks thus
were revealed as an extensive carpet of short rectangular and triangu-
lar pieces conforming to the shape of the sea bottom. Only in the stem
and the bow, as well as against the keel, where the frames were less
flat, did longer lengths survive. The pocket in the rocks into which the
stem settled actually helped to preserve some of the shape of the hull,
so that one could see on the bottom the sweep of the first five strakes as
they ran up toward the stempost. Fragments of two stringers and ceil-
ing boards laid over the frames were also preserved, but these had
been badly crushed and broken by the amphoras sitting on top of them.
On the port side, only a few strakes at bow and stem survive in
anything like their original positions or dimensions, but there was an
extensive layer of scattered wood fragments to port. Only the largest
of these were included in the site plan, after Assistant Excavation Di-
rector Sheila Matthews struggled over them for most of the sumn-mer.
The overall extent of more or less coherent remains is about 12 meters
long and 3 meters wide, from a ship whose original dimensions were at
least 15 meters long and 5 meters wide, but may have .been as long as 17
or 18 meters. The timber scantlings are larger than those of the 15-meter
Serge Limani ship and closer to those of the 18-20-meter Yasstada ship.
The ship is built primarily of two wood species, with the keel, Photo: D. Frey
planking, and some of the frames and loose ceiling boards in oak (prob- Fig. 10. The frames in the middle of the ship, af-
ably Quercus ilex) and the majority of frames, stringers, and ceiling in ter removal of the ceiling fragments.

pine (Pinus brutia). The oak frames are
concentrated in the central part of the hull.
A small fragment of the mastStep timber
or keelson appears to be of neither oak nor
.- . .... pine, but awaits identification. The plank-
S . .-. ing and stringers are fastened to the
-M, N frames and the frames to the keel with
square-shanked iron nails, but Jeff Royal,
while recording the frames, noticed that
many of the oak frames also had a few
small treenails attaching planks to them.
A% .-"A mixed pattern of nails and treenails was
also seen in the Serqe Limani ship, but the
distribution was somewhat different and
the treenails are thought there to have
been part of a general refastening. Sever-
al iron bolts, about 2 cm m diameter, have
also been found in the keel, presumably
for the attachment of a keelson or other
centerline timber above the frames, but
the pattern of these fastenings has not yet
Photo: INA b&en fully determined. There was no trace
Fig. 11. The turn of the bilge is clearly defined after the removal of the cargo, found of mortise-and-tenon joints, which

1NA Quarterly 25.4

Fig. 12. The excavated hull remains with the bow to the right of thefigure.


S ~


are characteristic of ancient Mediterranean shipbuilding
and are seen as late as the seventh century in some ship
The primary structure of the hull consists of a heavy
keel of rectangular section without rabbets, a keelson or
keelson-like timber, relatively large frames (molded up to
25 cm over the keel and sided up to 18 cm) spaced 30 to 40
cm apart, planking 3 to 4 cm thick, and a pair of stringers
on each side, one at the turn of the bilge and one about 50
cm out from the centerline. The ceiling, laid between the
stringers on each side and between the stringers and keel-
son (?), seems to have been of thin (perhaps little more
than 2 cm thick in some places), loose boards, in some cas-

es overlapping rather than butting at their ends. Further
information on the design and construction of the hull will
be revealed as Matthew Harpster begins his study of the
timbers this spring.
One of the more peculiar features of this site is what
was not found. Despite four seasons of careful excavation,
including investigation of the sea bottom under the hull,
we failed to turn up a single coin or object other than the
glassware that might readily be identified as a personal
possession of a crew member or passenger. Along with the
distribution of the recovered material, this suggests that
the people on board had time to collect their belongings
and get off the ship before it sank. There is also some evi-

INA Quarterly 25 4

_*- .--"

,,-~ c


a i



Drawing: K. Quinn, M. Harpster, and F. Hocker

dence to allow us to reconstruct the ship's last hours, as it
beat itself to death against the cliffs of Kiigiiven Burnu.
The location of the wreck suggests that it was driv-
en onto the rocks by a north or north-northeasterly wind,
These sometimes occur in this area, especially in the spring,
and often bring rain squalls. The ship was probably trying
to enter the harbor of Selimiye, just to the east-northeast,
as a ship trying to leave would not have been able to get
out of the harbor mouth or would have been blown back
into Sig Limani, where the excavation camp was. The ab-
sence of a large number of spare anchors, typical of other
early medieval wrecks in the Mediterranean, suggests that
the crew had already cast most of the anchors before the

ship sank, and may have been readying the last anchor at
the bow before giving up. The position of the ship on the
bottom, heading away from the cliff, also indicates that
the crew had tried to anchor, but the bottom is deep and
slopes steeply away from the cliff, making it difficult. It
appears that the anchors held only enough to turn the ship's
stem to the rocks.
As the ship began taking on water, the crew may
have tried to lighten ship by jettison ing some of the cargo.
A surprising number ot amphoras were found scattered
in the rocks above the site, up to 50 m away from the main
amphora mound, including on the other side of the rocky
spur against which the ship wrecked. Additionally, several

INA Quarterly 25.4



amphoras were found under the hull in attitudes that sug-
gested that they had come to rest there before the ship land-
ed on top of them. Some of these amphoras have graffiti
that match those in the middle of the ship and were prob-
ably nearest the main hatch (if the ship had a deck). Jetti-
son is a well-known practice from medieval texts, and there
were legal formulas to determine how the owner of the

jettisoned cargo was to be compensated if the ship sur-
vived. This wreck may represent the first clear archaeo-
logical evidence of the practice. In any case, the effort was
futile and the crew gathered up the few valuables in the
ship and either climbed into a waiting boat (medieval
sources indicate that merchant vessels often had smaller
accompanying service boats) or scrambled onto the rocks.

Acknowledgements: The final season at Bozburun would not have been possible without the generous financial and in-
klnd support of Robb Peck McCooey Financial Services, Inc., the Smothers Foundation, Turkish Airways, Faith Hentschel,
Bob and Cindy Olson of Nitrox Technologies, Inc., Efes Pilsen and Ajans 21, Paradise Scuba, Ron and Hazel Vandehey,
Dick and Mary Rosenberg, Bulent Verdi, David Steinberg and IBM, Jon Faucher, and the general membership of INA.
The Directors and staff of INA have, as always, provided the necessary infrastructural support, through the mainte-
nance of a full-time Turkish headquarters.
In the course of four seasons, over 80 people have participated in the field portion of the excavation, and several
more have spent cold winters in Bodrum cleaning and cataloguing the finds. This group includes a large number of
graduate students from the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M University, full-time professional staff from
INA, and volunteers who dedicated their summers to the project. It seems unfair to name one without listing them all,
as every one of them made a useful and much needed contribution to the successful completion of the project, living in
primitive conditions, working 12 and 15-hour days over 6-day weeks, and maintaining a high standard throughout.
Their enthusiasm and dedication is the emotional fuel on which field projects run. I am proud and grateful to have
worked with them.
Some people do deserve a special mention, as their commitment to the project extended over several seasons, but

they are only a few of the Bozburun All-Stars:
Sheila Matthews (First Assistant Director 1995-98)
did all the dirty jobs that no one else would do, and kept
the excavation camp running, in addition to overseeing
the cataloguing of wood fragments.
Bill Charlton (Diving Safety Officer 1995-98) main-
tained a safety standard for the project that allowed us to
execute over 8,000 dives with only two incidents requir-
ing treatment in the recompression chamber (neither seri-
ous), arranged sponsorship for diving equipment, and
supervised diver orientation, maintaining an orderly and
proficient Marine attitude at all times.
Murat Tilev (Mechanic 1995-98) fixed anything that
broke (and we broke a lot of stuff), kept a worn out corn-
pressor running on life support for two seasons, and spent
his days off hunting down spare parts or materials we
could make into spare parts.
Faith Hentschel (Excavator Extraordinaire 1995-98)
put long dives into the investigation of the most complex
part of the site, tirelessly mapping tile fragments and gal-
ley pottery and still managed to add a note of civilized
society in the primitive conditions of the camp.
Chistine Powell (Amphora Manager 1995-98) sat for
hours at a time, cataloging hundreds of amphoras and ampho-
ra fragments when she would much rather have been diving.
Don Frey (Photographer and Fund Raiser 1995-98)
raised much of the money to pay for things as diverse as
airplane tickets to refrigerators, and took virtually all of
the color underwater photographs used in publications and
talks about the wreck. We may have cursed his light ca-
bles on a regular basis, but the results were worth it.

Emma Hocker (Conservator 1995-98) cleaned slimy
stuff off of amphoras in the summer heat while wrangling
a 0-3 year-old (Thomas).
Robin Piercy (Construction Engineer and Digging
Machine 1995, 1997-98) designed and built houses and dive
platforms in the most impossible places, single-handedly
excavated most of the lower third of the site, and inspired
a convivial atmosphere wherever he went.
Mike Scafuri (Computer Wizard 1995-97) kept the
mapping software online, struggled with fluctuating volt-
age, and spent his winters processing all of the location
data into the detailed 3-D maps found in these pages.
Brian Jordan (Archaeologist 1905-96, Second Assis-
tant Director 1998) managed artifact cataloguing and led
by example in the responsible way he lives life. Would
have reached the unfinished house in center field if he was
not a consistent pull hitter.
Dave Stewart (Administrative Assistant 1995-96,
Second Assistant Director 1997) was travel agent, equip-
ment manager (half-owner of Glenn and Dave's Dive Shop
and Bait Shack), and King of the Paperwork in the hectic
springs preceding the first two seasons.
Asaf Oron (Conservator 1995-96, 1998) kept things
flowing smoothly through the field laboratory and tack-
led the tough ones.
Sue Schulze (Artist 1995-96,1998) drew untold num-
bers of amphoras while providing stream-of-consciousness
commentary on everything from Arthurian legend to me-
dieval burial practice.

INA Quarterly 25.4

Doreen Danis (Archaeologist 1996-98) slaved away
at data entry when no one else would and fought for three
seasons with the huge jumbled pile of wood fragments in
square D9.
Tom and Kathleen Sutton and Kevin Barrett (Med-
ics 1996-98) kept everyone healthy, and fortunately treat-
ed many more bad tummies than bent divers.
Korhan Bircan (Diver and Artist 1995-97) usually ar-
rived unannounced from his real job, drew pots like a ma-
niac, and then returned to Istanbul when his boss absolutely
insisted he come back to work.
Jane Pannell Haldane (Conservator 1996-97) scraped
gunk off of amphoras in the summers and reassembled
glass in the winters, keeping us from getting behind on
the conservation work. If we publish this wreck on sched-
ule, she gets a big chunk of the credit.
Esra Altmanit Goksu (Conservator 1996-) who nev-
er got to enjoy the field work, but took over the thankless
winter work after Jane PanneU's departure, and continues
to look after the material with a wonderful sense of orga-
Jane Hawks (Cook 1995-96, 1998) and Angie Mitch-
ell (Cook, 1996-98) fed us the best food ever seen on any
excavation, anywhere, any time.

Dr. Frederick M. Hocker Leave

It was in appreciation of a
long and far-ranging relationship : -
that students, staff, and faculty said
a fond farewell to Dr. Frederick
Hocker in December 1998 (right).
After many years association with
INA and Texas A&M University as
student, professor, excavation
head, and ]NA President, Dr.
Hocker and his family have now
moved to Denmark. Dr. Hocker
was involved inmany projects dur-
ing his time with INA. In 1985 he
studied several Dutch vessels and
established a close relationship be-
tween INA and institutions in the
Netherlands. He conducted theex-
cavtion of the Clydesdale Planta-
tion vessel, and also supervised the
removal of the Brown's Ferry ves-
sal to a permanent exhibition site
in Georgetown, South Carolina. In
1994 he conducted INA first land
excavation of the crusader's chap-
el in Bodrum and from 1995-8 he
directed the Bozburun excavtion.


Jana Gober (Graduate Assistant 1996-98) only dived
one season, but did the paperwork, equipment buying, and
travel arrangements for two or three.
Erkut Arcak (Assistant divemaster 1995-96) always
thought safety first, and spent his winter months teaching
most of the archaeology students in Turkey to dive.
Nurdan and Ozcan Area (Film makers 1996-98)
made a wonderful set of documentaries about the excava-
tion, coming and going at frequent intervals on their love-
ly old boat and capturing the spirit of the project without
ever getting in the way.
Feyyaz Subay (Faithful friend and salvage diver 1995-
98) provided dive gear and compressors at short notice, con-
sulted on ailing compressors, recovered lost boat motors, and
entertained one and all with tales of the dive shop business.
Dick and Mary Rosenberg (Faithful Friends 1995-98)
opened their house in Datca to tired excavators, provided fresh
vegetables, and were always there when we needed help (and
have you tried their olive oil?).
Danielle Feeney (Faithful Friend and Dinner Hostess
1995-98) always arrived when spirits were lowest and gave
us a break from the gnnd-the excavation could be chroni-
cled 'b the series of dinner parties to which she treated us
(sorry about the belly dancer). Cleaned the first amphora, too. s

for New Position in Denmark

It is at the Center for Maritime Ar-
chaeology of the Danish National
Museum in Roskilde that Dr.
Hocker will now take tip the posi-
tion of Senior Researcher and Re-
search Coordinator (Techniques
and Auxiliary Sciences) for the Na-
tional Museum of Denmark Cen-
tre for Maritime Archaeology (A
Center under the Danish National
Research Foundation). In addition
to his own research, Dr. Hocker is
responsible for publishing all the
Danish cog finds at the moment
and is the coordinator for the re-
searchers working on the develop-
ment of new tools for nautical
archaeology. This includes conser-
vation studies into in situ preser-
vation and reburial, mapping
software development, fragment
recording devices, and ship analy-
sis tools. He is also responsible for
overseeing graphics services and
diving within the Centre, and is a
Photo: C. A. Poiwell Ph.D. advisor. e

INA Quarterly 25.4

Diving at Bozburun 1998
William H. Charlton Jr.

In June of 1998, Institute of Nautical Archaeology
(INA) divers on the Byzantine Shipwreck Excavation at
Bozburun, Turkey stepped up a notch in diving technolo-
gy. For the first time on a large-scale, long-term INA exca-
vation, divers breathed Nitrox as a diving gas, rather than
the normal compressed air they have used throughout
INA's history. INA divers had first used Nitrox on the com-
bined INA/University of Haifa Center For Maritime Stud-
ies underwater survey at Ashkelon, Israel in 1997 using
procedures introduced there by Steve Breitstein, the Uni-
versity of Haifa Diving Safety Officer. I had been Lobbying
for the use of Nitrox at Bozburun for a couple of years, but
it was not until this year that we were able to obtain a Ni-
trox-making system.
The most common, and best known, diving maladies
which can effect compressed-air divers are Nitrogen Narco-
sis and Decompression Sickness (DCS, or "The Bends"), both
of which are caused by absorption of nitrogen into the blood.
In an effort to reduce the possibility of these maladies, div-
ing researchers have for many years been experimenting with
oxygen and nitrogen mixtures other than that of normal air,
which is 21% oxygen and 79% nitrogen. Dr. Morgan Wells,
long-time Diving Supervisor of the National Oceanographic
and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is best known
for establishing two standard reduced-nitrogen mixtures.
These are called "NOAA Nitrox I," 32% oxygen and 68%
nitrogen, and "NOAA Nitrox II," 36% oxygen and 64% ni-
trogen. INA divers used the 32% oxygen NOAA Nitrox I (or
as it is often called in the diving industry, simply "NOAA
I") for the entire 1998 season at Bozburun.
The Nitrox system used at Bozburun uses a semi-per-
meable membrane, which removes
nitrogen from normal air. This
method of making Nitrox is called
denitrogenation, and is much safer --
than other methods which require
the handling and mixing of pure
oxygen. Our system was generous-
ly provided for us by Robb Peck
McCooey Financial Services, Inc. of ',
New YorkCity, and was manufac- Low Pressure
tured to our specifications by Bob compressor
and Cindy Olson of Nitrox Tech-
nologies, Inc. of Petaluma, Califor-
nia. Bob and Cindy also came to P
Bo2burun to install the system and L w Pre s t
get it up and running for us. (This
was not a big concern for us,
though, as their systems are easy
to set up and virtually foolproof to Fig. 1. The Nitrox system
operate), able membrane which re

Nitrox diving requires a training and certification
course, and only a few of our divers at Bozburun-98 came
to the project as certified Nitrox divers. Those that had not
previously been certified were trained by this writer, an
Instructor (Course Director) with the International Diving
Educators Association (IDEA), headquartered in Jackson-
ville, Florida. The certifications were provided at no cost
by IDEA's President, Mr. David Scoggins. (IDEA has pro-
vided, at no cost, all the certifications I have done for INA
since 1990.)
At Bozburun-98 we dived on a set of Nitrox Dive
Tables specifically formulated for this project by Dr. Rich-
ard Vann and his team of researchers at Duke University
Medical Center's F.G. Hall Hyperbaric Laboratory. This
same group makes up the hyperbaric research team at the
Divers Alert Network [DAN]. These tables provide for two
dives a day of between 25 and 40 minutes to depths of
between 90 and 120 feet of seawater, separated by a five-
hour surface interval. Each dive is followed by in-water
decompression at a depth of 20 feet breathing 100% oxy-
gen. Decompression times were between 3 and 20 min-
utes, depending on length and depth of the dive, much
shorter than for similar dive times when breathing air. (INA
divers have been diving on Dr. Vann's two-dives-per-day,
in-water oxygen decompression air tables since the early
days of the Bronze Age Shipwreck Excavation at Ulubu-
run, Turkey.)
The advantages of Nitrox diving include longer bot-
tom times, reduced decompression obligation, and shorter
surface intervals, all a result of the reduced amount of ni-
trogen being taken in by the body, and all now factored

IF eano


Grade "E"

^ m Tanks
High Pressure

System Drawing: Courtesy of Nitrox Technologies, Inc.

m used in the 1998field season at Bozburun utilized a semi-perme-
moved nitrogen from air.

INA Quarterly 25.4

Fig. 2. Murat Tilev, Bob Olsen,
and Fred Hocker with the newly
installed Nitrou system.

into dive tablesrnd dive computer algorithms intended
for Nitrox diving. The main disadvantage of diving on
Nitrox is the increased possibility of Central Nervous Sys-
tem Oxygen Poisoning/Oxygen Toxicity due to the greater
concentration of oxygen in the gas. The oxygen in normal
compressed air will become toxic to the human body at a
depth of 218 feet, causing convulsions and the probability
of drowning. Since few air divers ever approach that depth,
this is not a major concern. With increased levels of oxygen
in the breathing gas, however, Oxygen Toxicity does be-
come a major concern. As the percentage of oxygen in the
breathing gas increases, the depth at which oxygen becomes
toxic to the human body decreases, or gets shallower. Be-
cause of this, hyperbaric science has established Maximum
Operating Depths (MODs) for the various Nitrox mixtures.
As long as divers strictly adhere to the Maximum Operat-
ing Depth for their particular Nitrox mixture, breathing
Nitrox should be safer than breathing air.
There is one more advantage to the use of Nitrox in
scuba diving, although this one is not scientifically mea-
surable and cannot be indicated on Nitrox dive tables or
dive computers. Most divers who breath Nitrox, especially
working divers, report that they are less fatigued after a
long series of dives. I believe we proved at Bozburun this
past summer that this is, in fact, true. My observations of
the team as a whole this summer, as compared to past
summers, indicate such. Dr. Fred Hocker, the Project Di-
rector, feels much the same. He noted that he thought more
clearly on the bottom, and felt that the shortened decom-
pression times certainly reduced overall fatigue levels.
Other testimonials come from two long-time INA
divers. Murat Tilev, INA's Chief Engineer, and a realcon-

servative guy, somewhat resistant to change, finally ad-
mitted that Nitrox was "some pretty good stuff." Robin
C.M. Piercy, INA's "guy who can build anything" (just look
at the camps and dive platforms at Uluburun and Bozbu-
run) probably put it best. Robin told me, about two-thirds
of the way through the 1998 season, "By this time in the
season I usually don't feel like doing anything on the [week-
ly] day off other than sleeping all day; I would feel com-
pletely exhausted. But this year I look forward to going
out and doing something on the day off." He attributes
this to his use of Nitrox.
My overall evaluation of Nitrox as a breathing gas
on a working project (within allowable Nitrox diving
depths, of course) is that I do not want to go back to air.
After supervising between thirty and forty divers a day
for three months at Bozburun this past summer, where we
completed over 3,500 dives on Nitrox, I cannot express
strongly enough the advantages of Nitrox. Plainly stated,
the reduced fatigue levels allowed everyone to approach
each day more enthusiastically and, because of this, to be
more productive. The reduced time in the water on the
decompression stop, alone, improved everyone's attitude,
except for Fred Hocker's, of course; he didn't have any oth-
er time to read.
Our most sincere thanks go to Robb Peck McCooev Fi-
nancial Services, Inc for providing our Nitrox system.

Bill Charlton is INA's Diving Safety Officer (DSO), DSO
for the Bozburun Excavation, a retired U.S. Marine Corps offic-
er, and a PhD student in the Nautical Archaeology Program at
Texas A&M.

INA Quarterly 25.4

Underwater Archaeology in Portugal:

Policies, Budgets, and Results
by Filipe Castro

Portugal has often been called ur jardim a beira-mar
plantado, or "a garden by the sea." It encompasses a long,
rough coast rHnning west and south along the western edge
of Europe. It also includes two small archipelagoes in the
Atlantic Ocean: the Azores and Madeira. Portuguese sea-
farers have operated at this crossroads of trade between
the Mediterranean and North Atlantic worlds for centu-
ries. Today, an impressive number of shipwrecks remain
to tell the stories of this dynamic maritime tradition.
Archaeologists hardly represent the first to tap into
Portugal's rich underwater cultural heritage. The popu-
larity of spear fishing and SCUBA diving (starting in the.
1950s) led to the discovery of numerous wrecks. As public
awareness of these historic treasures increased, so did in-
stances of looting. Cases of both authorized and unautho-
rized disturbances continued throughout the early 1970s,
being finally forbidden in 1976.
In 1982, Dr. Francisco Alves, the newly appointed
director of the Museu Nacional de Arqueologia (MNA),
made an old passion one of his priorities and started to
promote active government involvement in the protection
of Portugal's shipwrecks and other underwater historic
sites. Dr. Alves received backing from a number of fine
scholars, among whom was the late maritime ethnogra-
pher Octavio Lixa Filgueiras. Convincing the Portugese
government of the importance of these sites was not an
easy task at first. Many politicians opposed Alves's work
because they saw archaeology as an unnecessarily expen-
sive discipline. Meanwhile, treasure-hunters were begin-
ning to lobby for permits to salvage wrecks with precious
metals and promised a percentage of the spoils to Portu-
gal. MNA kept its direction and encouraged the idea that
shipwrecks can be studied archaeologically and preserved
for the public without incurring exorbitant expenses. Op-
erating on small budgets with largely volunteer crews,
MNA worked to bring the stories of these vessels to the
public and prevent treasure-hunters from doing their dam-
aging work.
Dr. Alves managed to push the treasure-salvage in-
terests out of Portugal by the late 1980s. The first under-
water archaeological excavation came in 1984 with the
Ocean Project. Oc6an was a French man-of-war of 80 guns
sunk by the British in 1759 off the southern coast of Portu-
gal. In 1986, MNA followed this project with the excava-
tion of the Spanish galleon San Pedro de Alcantara which
was later under the direction of archaeologist Jean-Yves
Blot. Publications of these and many other projects, both
in schorlarly journals and in widely read magazines, and
public presentations by Dr. Alves on television and radio,
helped promote MNA's efforts. By 1991, a non-profit or-

ganization called Arqueonautica Centro de Estudos
emerged out of MNA, and sponsors started to show inter-
est. Arqueonautica published its first popular magaine-
the Correio de Arqueonautica-funded in part by Alcatel
and Proctor&Gamble. The goal was to appeal to the young-
er generations of divers in Portugal and encourage their
interest in the historic value of shipwrecks.
A potentially devastating setback occurred in the
summer of 1993 when new legislation allowed treasure-
hunters into Portuguese waters. Salvage companies quickly
moved into Portugal, and from there into Cape Verde,
Mozambique, and Brazil, all Portuguese-speaking, coun-
tries where opposition by archaeologists was still weak.
Portugal itself felt the ill-effects of these new regulations.
The remains of a late 15th-century vessel found during the
construction of a Lisbon subway line underwent'thorough
archaeological documentation (funded by the Metropoli-
tano de Lisboa EP and the contractor Bento Pedroso Con-
struq6es SA) only to be left to dry out and warp in a
government warehouse. A second 15th-century shipwreck
in the Vouga River, near Aveiro, was not excavated until
1995 for lack of government authorisation.
Arqueonautica (with some 300 members) champi-
oned the cause against this new legislation. The group em-
barked on a public campaign to promote awareness
concerning the differences between archaeology and trea-
sure-hunting. They circulated informative brochures, in-
cluding a translation of "The Man Who Stole the Stars" by
Dr. George Bass, and used the media to reach an even larger
audience. Finally, in 1995, national elections in Portugal
brought a different government into power and with it a
different approach to underwater cultural resource man-
agement. New laws were passed putting an end to the trea-
sure-hunting legislation before any permit was granted to
the companies that applied for salvaging concessions, and
a separate administrative arm within the Ministry of Cul-
ture called the Instituto Portugues de Arqueologia (IPA)
was formed in 1997. Today, one of the more active depart-
ments within IPA is the Centro Nacional de Arqueologia
Nautica e Subaquatica (CNANS) which deals directly with
underwater sites.
Watchdogs like IPA and CNANS have helped to
clarify the distinction between profit and science. Even ac-
cidental finds have undergone a series of new regulations.
Traditionally, the person who made a discovery was enti-
tled to half of the market value of the objects found when
recovered. Today, finders rewards are granted if the sites
are left undisturbed and based both on the monetary val-
ue and the scientific importance of the sites. Fines and oth-
er penalties have also increased for those insisting on

iNA Quarterly 25.4

Fig. 1 (left) a cannon and fig. 2 (right) an archaeologist recovering four
chinese porcelain plates from the many uncovered during excavation of
Nossa Senhora dos Martires. Photos courtesy of COAS.

evading the law. Finally, mandatory preventive measures
were defined for every construction project that may dis-
turb potentially rich archaeological zones.
The creation of the official CNANS was preceded
by an informal organization, created in July 1996. It was
named Centro de Operaqges de Arqueologia Subaqu6tica
(COAS) and provided by the Ministry of Culture with a
spacious warehouse and enough equipment to carry on
its projects. In this new environment several projects start-
ed to emerge.
First, the excavation of the middle 15th century
wreck found in the Aveiro estuary-the Ria de Aveiro A
wreck-started in 1996. The work was done in conjunc-
tion with the University of Aveiro and the Instituto Portu-
gues do Patrim6nio Arquitect6nico e Arqueol6gico
(IPPAR)-the state institute from which archaeology de-
pended at the time-and was supported by a grant of the
Junta Nacional para a Investiga&ao Cientifica e Tecnol6gi-
ca (JNICT) and the European Union program for scientific
development PRAXIS XXI. In the 1996 and 1997 seasons
archaeologists excavated the interior part of the hull and
documented and recovered all of the frames.
Second, work started on the remains of the late 15th
century hull found at the subway works, the Cais do Sodr6
wreck, under the direction of Dr. Paulo Jorge Rodrigues. The
structure had been found lying on its port side and although
the digging machines had done some damage amidships,
forty frames were in place, the ones between the tailframes

showing sequential numbers in roman numerals that must
have started on the midship frame or frames.
Third, the remains of another ship found in the be-
ginning of 1996 during the subway works at Lisbon, dated
by radiocarbon to the late 14th century, were recuperated
and documented. They proved to be the lower part of the
stempost and the aftermost part of the keel, preserved to-
gether with an inner stem knee, three "Y" frames and five
planks. The existing structure measured about 1.8 by 1.6 m size.
At the end of the summer of 1997, during the con-
struction of an underground parking garage at the Praqa
do Municipio, also in Lisbon, a set of large timbers-most-
ly floors and keel sections-were found close to the place
of the old shipyard of the Ribeira das Naus.
A fifth project was started in the fall of 1996, within
the program of the Pavilion of Portugal in the World Ex-
position of 1998 (Expo'98). This was the official reason why
COAS was created. In 1995, the Commissioner of the Por-
tuguese Pavilion, Dr. Simonetta Luz Afonso, decided to
initiate the underwater archaeology reorganisation process
by adopting the theme of the Carreira das Indias for the
Expo'98 exhibits. She invited Dr. Francisco Alves-and
myself-to direct the survey and excavation of an area pre-
viously identified by MNA as the wreck site of the nau
Nossa Senhora dos Mdrtires, lost in 1606. Here the wooden
remains of a large hull had been spotted in 1993-94 by a
team of young divers and archaeologists, under the direc-
tion of Dr. Francisco Alves (figs. 1-2).

INA Quarterly 25.4

In the Azores, Dr. Kevin Crisman
and the Institute of Nautical Archaelogy
(INA) started a series of annual survey
operations in cooperation with the COAS
and the regional Portuguese authorities.
Since 1996, a number of wrecks have been
found, positioned, and recorded through
their efforts in Angra Bay, at the Island of :
Terceira, and around the Islands of Faial,
Pico, and S. Jorge.
Two of the wrecks in Angra Bay ap-
pear tobe Lidador,a Brazilian steamer wrecked
in 1878 and Run-Her, a British built Confed-
erate blockade runner of the American Civil
War wrecked on November 5, 1864. Two
other Angra Bay wrecks were designated as
Angra A and Angra B, and date to the 19th
and 17th centuries respectively.
Two more wrecks dated to the 16th
century and designated as Angra C and Fig. 3. Archaeo
Angra D were found during a preventive
survey operation that preceded the construction of a mari-
na in Angra Bay. A team of archaeologists coordinated by
Dr. Francisco Alves recorded, dismantled and stored the hulls
in deeper waters in a quick emergency operation, before the
stones of the harbour wall started to fall on them. The rescue
started in March 1998 under the direction of Catarina Gar-
cia and Paulo Monteiro and invited archaeologists from
several countries. At the end of May, the remains of the
first hull-Angra C-had been recorded, dismantled, and
removed to a safe area, under the supervision of Canadian
archaeologist Peter Waddell. By August, the remains of
Angra D had been placed in a safe storage having been

ilogists record hull details of the Angra D wreck.

recorded and dismantled under the supervision of French
archaeologist Eric Rieth.
All these works were presented in a Symposium or-
ganised by the CNANS in Lisbon, on September 7th to 9th,
1998, during the World Exposition EXPO'98, in collabora-
tion with the Academia de Marinha and supported by
UNESCO and ICOMOS. Under the title, "Archaeology of
Medieval and Modem Ships of Iberian-Atlantic Tradition,"
a number of scientists joined to present twenty reports on
this type of ship. The proceedings of the symposium will
be available in 1999, and the preliminary results of the Sao
Juliao da Barra wreck excavation have already been pub-
lished in the catalogue of the Portuguese
Pavillion at EXPO'98. Preliminary reports
of the wrecks Aveiro A, Cais do Sodr6, and
Corpo Santo await publication in the In-
ternational Journal of Nautical Archaeology
and in a CNANS monograph to be com-
pleted in 1999.
By adopting a strict policy to-
wards the underwater cultural heritage,
Portugal is proving that it is possible to
develop a coherent and sustainable strat-
egy toward the preservation, study and
publication of its maritime history, with-
out the need of large budgets or compli-
cated and expensive technologies. The
study of the important maritime cultural
heritage and tradition in Portugal is now
being enriched by the study of the archae-
Drawing: COAS logical remains of its vessels. w

Fig. 4. Mast step construction of the Angra D wreck.

INA Quarterly 25.4


by Filipe Castro DES BATEAUX

Des bateaux et des fleuves, archgologie de la batellerie du ET DES FLEUVES
niolithique aux temps modernes en France
by tric Rieth. Arch\.oll ogiO e de la baei lerie
Editions Errance, Paris, 1998 tIy Na ii- a\ ."ps moden ': 'e n '
ISBN: 2 87772 145 X, 159 pages, 121 illustrations, references,
glossary, bibliography, paperback Eric RIETH
Price: 170.00 Francs.

A quick look at the map of France shows immediate-
ly the dense net of rivers and creeks penetrating deep in-
land, and home to many villages and cities which extend
along its margins.
This delightful book on river craft covers the ships
that can not be imagined without that landscape behind
them, be it rural or urban, with castles, bridges, towers, aq-
ueducts, churches, palaces, or plain simple houses. This book . a_ ,
is an invitation to look at this particular universe that in-
cludes the rivers, their margins, and the people that trav-
eled in them, carrying a very rich past in which the boats
have such an important share.
This book deals with river craft before the industrial er of
the middle nineteenth century, when canals and dams drastically
changed the conditions of navigation, allowing year-round
circulation along many rivers, such as the Seine, Oise, Yonne,
Marne, Meuse, Sa6ne. It is divided into five chapters.
The first is dedicated to the specifics of river naviga-
tion, much different from ocean navigation, in which the
ships travel in a deserted sea. River boats spend their entire existence in a landscape from which people are seldom
absent, with landmarks, curves, shallow passages, and narrow ways. As a result, these craft can not be considered
separately from their landscape, nor from their cultural environment. These vessels were designed for and adapted to
a particular environment, many times modified for the passage of the boats, with docks, tow paths and maintained
banks. Inland waterways were not only communication routes, but also the place of many economical activities, from
the production of artifacts to the exploitation of the local fauna. River navigation was also the object of administrative,
juridical, economical and political control, tolls being demanded during the Middle Ages and the Ancien Regime.
In the second chapter, the author provides the reader a set of basic definitions of aspects related to the study of
fluvial hydraulics, a characterization of the most important hydrographic basins of France, and a comment on their
importance in a broader view. This considering that all these rivers end in the sea, either in the Mediterranean coast, a
culturally diversified universe that goes from Spain to Lebanon, or in the Northern and Western European coasts that
extend from the Baltic to the Atlantic.
The third chapter is dedicated to the major building traditions of the fluvial environment: floats, rafts, and boats.
In this last group, the author describes three smaller groups: logboats, assembled craft, and the mixed technique of
extended logboats. The text is illustrated by iconographical and written sources, and archaeological examples. From
the almost 10 m long dugout of the tenth century BCE found at Chalain-Marigny, to two rafts from the second-third
centuries CE found in Strasbourg in an old course of the Rhine, to the medieval extended dugout of Ouroux (Sa6ne-et-
Loire), and to the over 40 in long bateaufoncet described in the seventeenth century Traitt des bois servant & tous usages,
tric Rieth takes the reader through the diversity of solutions found by the builders of these craft.
In the fourth chapter, propulsion methods are presented. An overview of the several ways in which boats and
rafts used the current, paddles or oars, poles, sails, or human or animal pulling force from the banks to move along their
ways. Once again clear illustrations and opportune quotations make the reading easy and comprehensive. Some com-
Continued on page 20

INA Quarterly 25,4

The Bodrum Library Grows

With the Frances Rich Library building nearing completion, we are pleased to announce that thousands of books
on classical archaeology from Homer and Dorothy Thompson's collection are now safely in Bodrum and being cata-
loged by Faith Hentschel and Berta Lledo. Shipping cost INA nothing, thanks to our good friends in TINA (Turkish
INA) established by INA Director Ayhan Sicimoglu, who arranged for the first shipment of books a couple of years ago.
This year TINA member Jonathan Beard arranged through Garry Ferruli to have NSCSA (National Shipping Company
of Saudi Arabia) ship 127 large boxes of books without cost from Houston, Texas, to Izmir, Turkey. So we add our
profound thanks to all three of these people to the thanks we earlier expressed to the Northwest Friends of INA in and
around Portland, Oregon. The Friends made the original acquisition of the books possible, and now have a goal of
raising an endowment for the library so that we can keep it up to date by journal subscriptions and annual book
purchases. Lastly, Dr. David Gibbins of the University of Liverpool, who will play a large role in our forthcoming
excavation of a fifth-century B.C. shipwreck off the Turkish coast, has obtained about $5,000 of new books in the United
Kingdom and will soon ship those to Bodrum, where he hopes to bring students from the U.K. for parts of their spring
terms starting in the year 2000. Our dream of turning INA's Bodrum headquarters into an academic as well as field-
work center is coming true. s' George Bass

Photo: R. C. M. Piercy
The new library facility at the INA headquarters in Bodrum nears completion and it is
hoped that it will be operational by the year 2000.

Continued from page 19
ments on steering, stressing the fact that here direction and propulsion are frequently synonyms but pointing out the
importance of controlling direction in large craft traveling fast in relation to shore, but with almost no speed in relation
to the water in which they travel.
Finally, in the fifth chapter the author presents three examples of river craft through different approaches: a group
of seven dugouts dating from the fifth to the thirteenth centuries; an extended dugout from the eleventh century, the Orlac
wreck; and the Port-Berteau 2 wreck, a small ship from the fifth to eighth century excavated between 1992 and 1997.
Much more than a mere invitation to discover river craft and rivers, as the author puts it, this book is an wonder-
ful trip to the world of the historical, ethnographical, archaeological, and technical investigation of highly diverse and
rich solutions of fluvial transport in France, from the Neolithic to the beginning of the industrial boom of the nineteenth
century. a"

INA Quarterly 25.4

News & Notes

Students receive 1998-99 Honors
The following students in the
Nautical Archaeology Program at Tex-
as A&M University have received
non-teaching graduate assistantships
in the Program: Kroum Bachvarov,
Felipe Castro, Dan Davis, Troy
Nowak, Kristin Romey, Athena Traka-
das, and Kenneth Trethewey. Deborah
Carlson received a teaching graduate
assistantship for fall 1998 and a non-
teaching graduate assistantship for
Spring 1999. In addition, the follow-
ing students received LaSalle assis-
tantships: Erkut Arcak, Jason Barrett,
Amy Borgens, Jonathan Faucher,
Mark Feulner, Peter Fix, Adam Kane,
and Daniel Walker. An INA scholar-
ship was awarded to Christopher Sab-
ick. Christine Powell received an INA
non-teaching graduate assistantship to
continue as editor of the INA Quarter-
ly. Oscar Blasingame and Erich Hein-
hold will jointly hold the Marion Cook
Graduate Fellowship, while Matthew
Harpster will hold the Ray Sigfried
Graduate Fellowship. r

IX International Symposium on
Boat and Ship Archaeology (ISBSA)
The ninth meeting of the Inter-
national Symposia on Boat and Ship
Archaeology will be held in Venice,
Italy, in the first half of December 2000
under the auspices of the Dipartimen-
to di Scienze dell'Antichith e del Vici-
no Oriente of the University of Venice.
The Symposium theme chosen for the
present edition of the ISBSA is "Boats,
ships and shipyards." Other aspects of
maritime archaeology will be accom-
modated in 'open sessions'.
The official language of the
meeting will be English. Those who
wish to take part in the symposium as
speakers, with a poster, or as auditors
can write to the organizers for further
details at once to be on the mailing list
by July 1999 (1" circular). The dead-
line for the Call for Papers will be the
end of October 1999.

If possible, please send an E-mail
address that can be used for all correspon-
dence. All responses should be sent to:
Dott. Carlo Beltrame (marked IX ISBSA),
Dipartimento di Scienze dell'Antichitt e
del Vicino Oriente (sez. Archeologia),
University Ca' Foscari, Palazzo Bemar-
do Favero, 1977 San Polo, Venezia, Italy,
Tel: (+39) 415287992, Fax: (+39)
415242605, E-mail: o

Visiting Scholars
The Nautical Archaeology Pro-
gram at Texas A&M University welcomes
international scholar Asaf Oron to the pro-
gram. Oron, who is well known to many
INA members for his work on the Bozbu-
run excavation, has spent many years at
the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New
York as a conservator. wr

Recent A&M Graduates
The INA Quarterly would like
to congratulate the following gradu-
ates from the Nautical Archaeology
Program at Texas A&M University
who recently received Master of Arts
degrees: Stefan Hans Cleasson, Nor-
een Doyle, and Erika Lea Washburn
(Spring 1998); David Layne Hendrick,
and Roxani Eleni Margariti (Summer
1998). In Spring 1998 two Anthropol-
ogy students associated with the Nau-
tical Archaeology Program became
Doctors of Philosophy. Helen Cathe-
rine Dewolf's dissertation was entitled,
"Chinese Porcelain and Seventeenth-
Century Port Royal, Jamaica" and Ri-
chard Dale Herron's dissertation was
entitled, "The Development of Asian
Watercraft: From the Prehistoric Era to
the Advent of European Colonization."
In Summer 1998, Georgia Lynne Fox be-
came a Doctor of Philosophy; her dis-
sertation was entitled, "The Study and
Analysis of the Kaolin Clay Tobacco
Pipe Collection from the Seventeenth-
Century Archaeological Site of Port
Royal, Jamaica." w<

Shipwreck Weekend
On Saturday, March 13, 1999, the
Institute of Nautical Archaeology and
Texas A&M University hosted a "Ship-
wreck Weekend," a session of illustrat-
ed public lectures. This included talks,
video and slide shows, and discussions
of shipwreck projects. Dr. George F.
Bass spoke on the eleventh century
Serce Limaru excavation in a paper en-
titled, "The Glass Wreck: A Medieval
Shipwreck off the Turkish Coast." J.
Barto Arnold give a presentation on his
latest project off the Texas coast entitled,
"Civil War Blockade-Runner Denbigh,
Galveston, Texas."
Following the presentations, a
tour of the INA and Nautical Archae-
ology Program facilities was held. Par-
ticipants were shown the extensive
teaching facilities, including the con-
servation teaching lab, the Old World
Projects lab, the New World Project
lab, and the Ship Reconstruction lab.
This is the second such "Ship-
wreck Weekend" and more are planned
in the future. If you are interested in
learning how you as a sport diver, av-
ocational archaeologist-historian, po-
tential student, or interested
individual can become constructive-
ly involved as a volunteer please call
(409) 845-6694, L

Ancient Mariners Conference
The Archaeological Institute of
America is sponsoring a symposium,
"Ancient Mariners," April 23-25 at the
University of St. Thomas in Houston,
in connection with the opening of an
exhibit, "Ships in the Gulf: Texas Mar-
itime Archaeaology." Speakers with
an INA connection include George
Bass, Cemal Pulak, J. Barto Arnold,
Cheryl Ward, and Shelley Wachsman,
who will all be discussing work that
was first described in the INA Quar-
terly. The range of topics by other
speakers includes remote sensing,
deep water archaeology, trade in the
Aegean, and visions of the future of
nautical archaeology. o

INA Quarterly 25.4


Doris Smothers

It is with great sadness that we report the death
of Mrs. Doris Smothers, generous INA benefactor,
grandmother of Director Elizabeth Bruni, and mother
of long-time supporter Mary Ann Bruni. Doris passed
away on Friday, January 29th 1999, inCorpus Christi, Tex-
as after a brief battle with cancer.
Doris is well remembered for providing al-
most $50,000 in funding for student travel in sup-
port of the four year Bozburun excavation. Through
the J. E. Smothers Sr. Memorial Foundation, where
she served as trustee along with daughter Mary Ann
Bruni and son Bud Smothers, her generous gifts en-
abled more than fifty Nautical Archaeology Program
students the opportunity to travel to Turkey and earn
valuable field experience. Doris told me that she par-
ticularly enjoyed the letters she received from Fred
Hocker and the students in Turkey, and in her home
she proudly displayed the photographs taken each
summer of the group of students and staff at the
camp in Selimiye.

A lifelong resident of Corpus Christi, Doris
and her husband Jack founded Texas Laundry, Tex-
as Linen Service, and Texas Shop Towel. These grew
into Texas Industrial Laundries, the largest textile
rental business in the southwest until its sale in 1987.
After the death of her husband in 1990, Doris dedicat-
ed herself to charitable work, She funded the J. E. Smoth-
ers Sr. Memorial Foundation to honor her late husband
and the Jack and Doris Smothers Medical Foundation,
which provides fellowships for interns at Driscoll Hospi-
tal in Corpus Christi. Doris was a driving force and prin-
cipal benefactor behind the acquisition and permanent
display of the Columbus Fleet in Corpus Christi. In addi-
tion toher support of higher education through [NA, Doris
also funded the Jack and Doris Smothers Fellowship at
our Lady of the Lake University in San Antonio.
Doris is survived by her son Bud Smothers
and daughter Mary Ann Smothers Bruni, both of San
Antonio, five grandchildren (including Liz), and
three great-grandchildren. r
Dr. G. Martin

Mrs. Smothers with Fred Hocker, Don Frey and just afew of the many students she helped
over they years. From left, clockwise, Ben Liu, Mike Scafuri, Greg Grieco, Doreen Danis, Jeff
Royal, Don Frey, Fred Hocker and Mrs. Smothers (center).

INA Quarterly 25.4


AVol. 25 Index
Author Index

Bass, G. F., "A History of INA Research," 25.1,3-4
Bass, G. F., "The Bodrum Library Grows," 25.4,20
Bass, G. F., and G. Martin, "Scenes from the INA Anniversary
Gala," 25.1, 16-18
Bednarik, R G., "Mariners of the Pleistocene," 25.3,7-15
Castro, F., "Underwater Archaeology in Portugal: Policies, Bud
gets, and Results," 25.4,16-18
Castro, F., Review of Des bateaux et desfleuves, archdologie de la
batellerie du ndolithique aux temps modernes en France, 25.4,
Charlton, W. H., "Diving at Bozburun-1998," 25.4,14-15
Crisman, K J., "Crossroads of the North Atlantic: The 1996 and
1997 Angra Bay Shipwreck Surveys, Terceira Island,
Azores," 252,3-11
Danis, D. M., "X' Marks the Spot," 253, 19-20
Davis, D., "JustReleased: Seagoing Ships & Samanship in the Bronze
Age Levant," 253,22-23
Haldane, D., "The Logistics of the Sadana Island Shipwreck Ex
cavation," 253, 6
Hocker, F. J., "The Byzantine Shipwreck at Bozburun, Turkey-
The 1997 Field Season," 25.2,12-17
Hocker, F. M., "Bozburun Byzantine Shipwreck Excavation; The
Final Campaign 1998," 25.4,3-13
Jordan, B., "Exploring the Dusty Halls of Antiquity: Archival
Resources of Lisbon," 252,18-23
Mark, S., "The Earliest Mast Step," 25.2,24-25
Martin, G., "In Memoriam: Doris Smothers," 25.4,22
Martin, G., and G.F. Bass, "Scenes from the INA Anniversary
Gala," 25.1,16-18
Powell, C. A., and D. A. Rye, "Twenty-five Years of INA," 25.1,
5-15, 19-31
Rye, D. A., "ust Released: From Egypt to Mesopotamia," 253,21
Sibella, P., Review of La navigation dans I'antiquitW, 25.2, 25-26
Smith, C. W., "Conservation of Seventeenth-Century Canvas
Using Silicone Oils," 253,16-18
Ward, C., "Sadana Island Shipwreck Final Season," 253, 3-6
Wood, D. C., Review of Archaeological Ethics, 253,18

Subject Index
1996 INA Survey, 252,6-8
1997 INA Survey, 25.2,8-11
1998 INA Survey, 252,27
History, 25.2,4-5
Bass, George F., 253, 23
Blockade Runners, 252,8
Bodrum Library Construction, 25.4,20
Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology, 252,27
Bozburun Shipwreck,
1997 Field Season, 252, 12-17
1998 Field Season, 25.4,3-15
Amphoras, 254, 6; 252,13-14; 25.4,4-6
Diving Methods, 25.4, 14-15

Galley Vessels, 25.4,6-7
Hull Remains, 252,15-16; 25.2,8-10
Miscellaneous Finds, 25.4,7-8
Tableware, 25.2,14-15
Bronze Age Shipping,, 253,22-23
Canal Boats, 25.2,27
Coconuts, 253,4-5
Sadana Island Finds, 253,5
Silicone Oils, 253,16-18
Egypt, Sadana Island, 253, 3-6
Geographic Information Systems (GIS), 253,19-20
Global Positioning Satellites (GPS), 253,19-20
Hocker, F. Leaves for New Position in Denmark, 25.4,13
Homo Erectus, 253,9-12
Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Anniversary Gala, 25.1, 16-18
Chronology, 1972-1998,25.1,5-15,19-31
Frances Rich Library in Bodrum, 254, 20
Membership Information, 25.1,31
Retrospective, 25.1, 3-4
Shipwreck Weekend, 25.4,21
Lake Champlain, 252,27
Lidador, 25.2, 7-8
Lisbon, Museums and Research Institutions, 252,18--23
Lombok Strait, Indonesia,
First Crossing, 253, 11
Wallace-Huxley Line, 253,8
Mast Steps, 252,24-25
Membership Information, 25.1,31
Mesopotamia, Protoliterate, 253,21
Nale Tasih 1, 253,12-14
Nitrox, 25.4,14-15
Museums and Research Institutions, 252,18-23
Nautical Archaeology, 25.4, 16-18
Prehistoric Mariners, 253,7-15
Rich, Frances: Library in Bodrum, 25.4,20
Run'Her, 25.2,8
Sadana Island Shipwreck
Ceramics, 253, 3-4
Final Season, 253,3-6
Logistics, 253, 6
Smothers, Doris: In Memoriam, 25.4,22

Books: Reviews and Just Released
Mark, S.: From Egypt to Mesopotamia, 253,21
Pomey, P. et al.: La navigation dans I'antiquiti, 25.2,25-26
Rieth, E: Des bateaux et desfleuves, archologie de la batelerie du
ndolithique aux temps modernes en France, 25.4, 19-20
Vitelli, K. D.: Archaeological Ethics, 253,18
Wachsmann, S.: Seagoing Ships & Seamanship in the Bronze Age
Leant, 253, 22-23

INA Quarterly 25.4


George E Bass, President
Jerome L. Hall, Executive Director

William L. Allen
John H. Baird
George F. Bass
Edward O. Boshell. Jr-,
Vice Chairman and Treasurer
Ray M. Bowen
John A. Brock
Elizabeth L. Bruni
Gregory M. Cook, Chairman
Harlan Crow
Frank Darden
John De Lapa

Donald A. Frey, Vice President
Cemal M. Pulak, Vice President

Claude Duthuit
Daniel Fallon
Danielle J. Feeney
Donald C. Geddes III (Emeritus)
Woodrow Jones, Jr.
Harry C. Kahn II (Emeritus)
Michael L. Katzev
Jack W. Kelley
Mustafa Ko;
Sally R. Lancaster
Robert E. Lorton
Frederick R. Mayer

James A. Goold, Secretary/General Counsel
Claudia F. LeDoux, Assistant Secretary

William A. McKenzie
Alex G. Nason
George E. Robb, Jr.
L. Francis Rooney
Ayhan Sicimoglu
Ray H. Siegfried II
William T. Sturgis
Robert L. Walker
Lew 0. Ward
Peter M. Way
Garry A. Weber
George O. Yamini


Allan Campbell, M.D.

Bill Klein, M.D.

Dana F. McGinnis

Murad Sunalp, M.D.

George F Bass
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology/ George O. Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts
Kevin J. Crisman, Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow
Frederick M. Hocker, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Associate Professor
Cemal M. Pulak, Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow of Nautical Archaeology
C. Wayne Smith, Assistant Professor/Director of the Archaeological Preservation Research Laboratory
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamim Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., Frederick R. Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Shelley Wachsmann, Meadows Assistant Professor of Biblical Archaeology
Cheryl Ward, Assistant Professor, TAMU at Glalveston

J. Barto Arnold, M.A., Texas Operations

Birgiil Akbiilut
Esra Altinanit G6ksu
Mustafa Babacik
Wilham H. Charlton, Jr., M.A.
Michelle Chmelar
Marion Feildel
Tuba Ekmekci
Adel Farouk
Jane Haldane
Kathy Hall
Maria Jacobsen
Emad Khalil
Sheila D. Matthews, M.A.
Selma Agar
G6khan Ozagaci, Ph-D.
Robin C.M. Piercy
Candace D. Pierson
Sema Pulak, M.A.
Patricia M. Sibella, Ph.D.
GClser Sinaci
Giines Yaar

Douglas Haldane, M.A., INA Egypt

Dan Davis
Jeremy Green
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D.
Robert S. Neyland, Ph-D.
Ralph K. Pedersen, M.A.
Brett A. Phaneuf
Donald Rosencrantz
Arthur Cohn, J.D.
David Gibbins, Ph.D.
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D.
Frederick Hiebert, Ph.D.
Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
William M. Murray, Ph-D.
David 1. Owen, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., M.A.
Mr. and Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried II
Graduate Fellow: Matthew Harpster
Marion M. Cook Graduate Fellow:
Oscar Blasingame and Erich Heinhold

Tufan U. Turani, Turkish Headquarters

Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology
Boston University
Brown University
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati
Corell University
Coming Museum of Class
Department de Arqueologia Subacuatica de
la I.N.A.H., Mexico
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Partners for Livable Places
University Museum, University of Pennsylvania
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Texas A&M University
University of Texas at Austin

Christine A. Powell

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