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Title: The INA quarterly
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 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Summer 1998
Copyright Date: 1997
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098800
Volume ID: VID00024
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
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The INA Quarterly

Volume 25 No. 2 Summer 1998

3 Crossroads of the North Atlantic:
The 1996 and 1997 Angra Bay Shipwreck Surveys, MEMBERSHIP
Terceira Island, Azores Institute of Nautical Archaeology
P.O. Drawer HG
Kevin J. Crisman College Station, TX 77841-5137

12 The Byzantine Shipwreck at Bozburun, Learn firsthand of the latest discov-
Turkey: The 1997 Field Season series in nautical archaeology. Mem-
Frederick M. Hocker bers receive the INA Quarterly and
other benefits (see INA Quarterly
25.1, 27).
18 Exploring the Dusty Halls of Antiquity: 251,27).
Archival Resources of Lisbon Researcher (students only) .....$25
Brian Jordan Seafarer ................. $40-99
Surveyor ..............$100-249
24 The Earliest Mast Step Diver ......... .......$250499
Samuel Mark Restorer ................ $500-999
Curator ........... $1,000-$2,499
Excavator ........... $2,500-4,999
25 La navigation dans I'antiquitz Archaeologist ...... $5,000-9,999
by Patrice Pomey et al. Navigator .......... $10,000-24,999
Reviewed by Patricia Sibella Anchor ......... $25,000 and over

27 In the Field Checks in U.S. currency shouldbe made
payable to INA. The portion of any do-
nation in excess of $10.00 is a tax-de-
27 News and Notes ductible, charitable contribution.

On the cover: A charming but not-quite-accurate Dutch print of Angra Bay, Terceira Island, Azores, dating to the late
seventeenth century. Courtesy of Kevin Crisman.

September 1998 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. All rights reserved.

INA welcomes requests to reprint INA Quarterly articles and illustrations. Please address all requests and submissions to the Editor,
INA Quarterly, P.O. Drawer HG, College Station, TX 77841-5137; tel (409) 845-6694, fax (409) 847-9260, e-mail
Article should be submitted in hard copy and on a 3.25 diskette (Macintosh, DOS, or Windows format acceptable) along with all artwork.

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The Institute of Nautical Archaeology is a non-profit scientific and educational organization, incorporated in 1972. Since 1976, INA
has been affiliated with Texas A&M University, where INA faculty teach in the Nautical Archaeology Program of the Department of
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The editorship of the INA Quarterly is supported by the Anna C. & Oliver C. Colbur Fund.

The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsletter (vols. 1-18).

Editor: Christine A. Powell

Crossroads of the North Atlantic:

The 1996 and 1997 Angra Bay Shipwreck Surveys,

Terceira Island, Azores.
by Kevin J. Crisman

A Spanish Tragedy at Angra Bay
On October 10,1589, residents of the island of Terceira in the Azores lined the hillsides and shores of the south coast
to watch a desperate battle upon the sea. The protagonists were two ships, one a lumbering Spanish nao heavily laden with
the riches of the Americas, including two hundred thousand ducats in gold, silver, and pearls; the other vessel was a small
but handy English privateer that had been lurking about the island seeking prizes. The Spaniard mounted twelve cast guns
and the Englishman only three, so the contest should have be one sided. It was, but perhaps not in a way that the onlookers
Among the Terceiran citizens who lined the shore to witness the action was a foreigner, a recently shipwrecked
Dutchman named Jan Huygen Van Linschoten. The Spanish ship, Linschoten later wrote, "sayled close under the Island, so
to get into the Roade." Outside the shelter of the bay and its gun batteries, however, the little English ship closed to within
cannon range and commenced a lengthy battle. The governor of the Spanish forces occupying Terceira sent two boatloads
of soldiers to bolster the hard-pressed crew of the nao,
...but before they could come at her, the English shippe had shot her under water, and we saw her
sinke into the Sea, with all her sayles up, and not anything of her seen above the water. The
Englishmen with their Boate saved the captain and about thirtie others with him, but not one
pennie worth of the goods ... the rest of the men were drowned, which might be about fiftie
persons, among the which were some fryers and women, which the Englishmen would not save.
Those that they had saved they set on land: and then they sayled away.
The sinking of the Spanish ship that Linschoten described was one of many ship losses to war and storms that have
taken place in and around the Bay of Angra on the southern shore of Terceira. This stretch of rugged shoreline is one of the
most promising regions in the world today for maritime archaeology, for beneath its waters lie the remains of scores of
ships dating from the mid fifteenth century to the present day (fig. 1). Indeed, the potential of all the Azorian islands for
post-Medieval shipwrecks studies is immense, and is only now being realized through a collaborative effort by archaeolo-
gists from INA, the Azores, and mainland Portugal.
The Azores and Terceira Island
My interest in pursuing research in the
Azores began in early 1994 as the result of a tele-
phone call from archaeologist Bruce Verhaaren of
the Cultural Assessment Division at the Argonne
National Laboratory in Illinois. Verhaaren was
scheduled to fly to Lajes Field on Terceira Island
(a U.S. and Portuguese Air Force base) to ensure
that construction activity would not damage ar-
chaeological sites. His question for me was sim-
ple, but has had lasting repercussions: "What can
you tell me about shipwrecks in the Azores?" -
My knowledge of the Azores in 1994 was
sketchy at best (fig.2). I knew that they were a clus- .
ter of islands lying in the middle of the Atlantic w 1Z
Ocean, and frequent references to them in ac-
counts of sailing voyages made it clear that they
were a focal point for shipping in the North At-
lantic. But shipwrecks? While surely there must
have been many vessels lost around the islands, I
could not recall ever reading or hearing of any Fig. 1. Angra Bay in the late sixteenth century, from a print by Jan Huy-
shipwreck studies in the Azores. gen Van Linschoten. Courtesy of the Museum of Angra.

INA Quarterly 25.2

Verhaaren's question in-
trigued me, especially since after
many years of work on wrecks in NORTH
North American lakes, I was inter- AMERICA
ested in expanding my research to
earlier, seagoing ships. I began
reading everything available on
Azorian history, geography, geol- _
ogy, and culture. The Azores, I
learned, lie 1300 kilometers (800
mi.) west of Portugal and consist
of a 320-kilometer-long (200 mi.)
chain of islands created by im-
mense volcanic mountains rising
abruptly from the depths of the sea.
They are terrestrial evidence of the AZORES
'Mid-Atlantic Rift', the great ceft
created by the separation of conti- 2
nental plates. The islands are still
geologically active, with periodic
eruptions and earthquakes. Their Fig. 2. The North Atlan
volcanic composition, combined
with a temperate but humid climate-plenty of rain here-
has also made them extraordinarily green and fertile.
The Azores were discovered during the earliest
years of Portugal's great age of exploration, in the late 1420s
or 1430s, when Portuguese mariners returning from voyag-
es down the African coast sighted the heavily-forested, un-
peopled isles on the final leg of their journey home. The
islands acquired their name, Acores, from the Portuguese
word for the goshawks that inhabited their mountainsides.
Colonization followed soon after discovery, with a combi-
nation of Portuguese and Flemish settlers seeking timber and
farm land. During the first sixty years of their recorded his-

Fig. 3. Angra Bay and Mount Brasilfrom the Museum of Angra

tic (1), the Azores (2), and Terceira Island (3).

tory the Azores constituted Europe's westernmost outpost,
a collection of colonies at the very edge of the known world.
Two momentous voyages of discovery at the end
of the fifteenth century profoundly changed the status of
the Azores. The first was Columbus's voyage to the Ameri-
cas in 1492 (he stopped at the Azorian island of Santa Maria
on his way back to Spain in 1493); the second was Vasco da
Gama's passage around Africa to India in 1497 (Da Gama
also stopped in the Azores on the return voyage, where his
brother Paulo died). The astounding expansion of Europe-
an seafaring, colonization, and trade that followed these dis-
coveries transformed the Azores into the crossroads of the
North Atlantic. For Iberian mariners returning
from the East and West Indies, the islands were
a key landfall, a navigational reference point and
a place to refresh after weeks or months of sail-
ing. Over the next five hundred years ships of
every size and purpose anchored off Azorian
harbors, including little carvelas and naos of the
Iberian explorers, massive Portuguese East In-
"3 - diamen heavily laden with textiles, porcelains,
spices, and luxury goods from Asia, Spanish
galleons filled with precious metals and other
commodities from the Americas, and merchant
vessels from every maritime nation in Europe.
The wealth passing through the islands attract-
ed seafaring predators as well, privateers and
pirates who infested Azorian waters and took
an annual toll of merchantmen.
Lessmann Throughout the first three hun-
dred years of Azorian history the island of Ter-
ceira functioned as the center of government,

INA Quarterly 25.2

religion, and commerce. Terceira's early prominence among
the islands can be largely ascribed to two natural harbors at
the city of Angra do Heroismo on the south coast (cover).
Here a narrow peninsula, topped by an extinct volcano called
Monte Brasil, extends out from the island at a right angle; to
the east of Monte Brasil lies the principal harbor, Angra Bay
(fig. 3), while to the west of the mountain lies the secondary
anchorage of Fanal Bay. Angra Bay offers shipping protec-
tion from the prevailing west winds and a good bottom for
anchoring. During Terceira's heyday as a port in the sixteenth
and seventeenth centuries the bay was regularly filled with
vessels engaged in trade, re-watering and re-victualing, and
repairing. The bay was not entirely free of danger, however,
for when the winds shifted to the southeast and blew with
great strength, it became a cull de sac-a deathtrap-for sail-
ing ships. So common were incidents of wrecking that An-
grans referred to southeast winds as carprnteiros (carpenters
winds), since the pieces of ships that washed ashore provid-
ed Terceiran carpenters with the wood they needed to build
houses and furniture. Ship timbers can still be seen in the
walls and ceilings of many Angran houses.
The potential of the Azores for shipwreck studies is
impressive: Angra Bay and the waters off Terceira and the
other islands are one of the great archaeological storehouses
in the world today. In the spring of 1994 I made several at-
tempts to get in contact with Azorian archaeologists and
government officials to discuss shipwreck studies in the is-
lands, but these efforts met with little success. At that time
the Azores were the focus of an epic struggle between the
small Portuguese maritime archaeology community and an
army of foreign treasure hunters-mostly from the United
States-who were lobbying for permission to mine the is-
lands' shipwrecks. A law had been passed that permitted
treasure hunting, and permits for survey and salvage were

L'noto: N,. ri5sman
Fig. 4. The Museum of Angra, located in the city's Franciscan
cathedral and monastery.

about to be issued. Under these circumstances an American
calling from out of the blue to ask about Azorian shipwrecks
was sure to be regarded with suspicion.
In May of 1995 1 received another phone call con-
cerning the Azores, this one from reporter William Broad of
the New York Times. Broad was preparing an article on the
treasure hunting controversy in the Azores, and he wanted
comments from someone at the Institute of Nautical Archae-
ology. He got the comments he needed, and I got something
in return: the name and phone number of the Portuguese
archaeologist leading the battle against the treasure hunters,
Dr. Francisco Alves, then director of the National Archaeo-
logical Museum in Lisbon. Dr. Alves and I began a corre-
spondence, and he directed me to an association of volunteer
divers, historians, and archaeologists, the Grupo de Arqueo-
logia Subaqudtica (GAS), which had formed at the Museum
of Angra do Heroismo to protect and study the region's mar-
itime heritage. In October I flew to Terceira to meet with the
group and discuss cooperative archaeological research.
Terceira proved to be even more beautiful than an-
ticipated, with its multitude of volcanic peaks, stone-walled
cow pastures, and rugged coastline; I was also awed by the
strong connection with the past evident in Angra's cobble-
stoned streets, tile-roofed stone buildings, cathedrals, and
harbor fortifications. The Museum of Angra is lodged in the
ancient Franciscan cathedral and monastery that overlooks
the town, surely a fitting location for an institution dedicat-
ed to Azorian history (fig. 4). It was here, beneath the floor of
the cathedral, where Vasco da Gama buried his brother Pau-
lo in 1499 on their return from that momentous voyage to
India; the grounds of the museum also feature an impres-
sive collection of bronze and iron guns salvaged from the
sea in the 1960s and 1970s (fig. 5). My hosts in Angra proved
to be a dedicated and knowledgeable group of individuals,

Photo: K. Crisman
Fig. 5. Sixteenth-century bronze cannon-Portuguese, Span-
ish, French and English in origin-salvaged from Angra Bay.

INA Quarterly 25.2

and they certainly made me feel welcome. During my brief stay in 1995 we reviewed our many mutual interests and
decided to begin a joint program of archival research, shipwreck surveys, and excavations that could provide an alternative
to treasure hunting in the Azores. A subsequent meeting with Dr. Alves in Lisbon was similarly productive. Everyone
agreed that the first order of business was to begin a survey of the Azores for shipwrecks.

The 1996 Angra Bay Survey
Since the 1995 meeting all of us involved in the Azores endeavor have been climbing the slope of a steep learning
curve. Dealing with the intricacies of logistics, funding, project personnel, and government bureaus has demanded much
effort on the organizational level; learning about the diving environment, the topography and composition of the ocean
floor, and the ever-changing sea conditions has certainly made the fieldwork challenging. Fortunately, many factors have
worked to our favor. In late 1995 a change of national governments in Portugal led to a re-examination of treasure-hunting,
and the controversial law was frozen and then repealed in 1997. Meanwhile, the INA portion of the research team was
bolstered by the addition of my long-time colleague Arthur Cohn, Director of the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum and
by Dr. William Bryant of the Texas A&M Oceanography Department. Funding for part of the survey project was provided
by a Texas A&M Interdisciplinary Research Initiatives grant and by a very generous donation by INA member Sylvia
Baird. Finally, plans for the construction of a marina on the Angra waterfront gave us our first opportunity to look under
the water and test survey equipment, with part of the project costs covered by the Azorian harbor authority.
Research by the GAS team indicated that the innermost part of Angra Bay, the area slated for marina construction,
was likely to contain ship'vrecks (fig. 6). The seafloor here is characterized by a coarse sand bottom that is highly mobile.
According to octopus-hunting diver Waldemar Reis, who has spent many hours in the waters off Terceira, shipwreck
remains and other debris can be seen in the inner bay after heavy winter storms move sand into deeper water; within a few
weeks, however, the sand shifts back and covers everything. Since sonars are generally ineffective for finding materials
buried beneath sand, and we had doubts about how a magnetometer would function in this highly-magnetized volcanic
environment, Dr. Bryant and I elected to use a sub-bottom profiler to get a better
look at thesediments in the marina zone. Dr. Anne Rutledge of Texas A&M Ocean-
ography joined us to operate the Datasonics Chirp II system leased for the project.

Fig. 6 (below). The inner bay at Angra, location of the proposed manna. The
harbor's ancient landing, Porto Pipas, is in the foreground.

Fig. 7 (right). The Angra Harbor pilot boat Vouga surveying Angra Bay with a
sub-bottom profiler in 1996.

r*Clnc~p~ 'br~l~~ ~-272-nr

- 7 *- Vi n --* -

a- '.3

INA Quarterly 25.2

8. The Copper-fastened Wreck at

INA's portion of the 1996 survey extended between
September 13 and 24. The GAS-Angra Museum team secured
the harbor pilot's boat Vouga for our primary survey vessel (fig.
7) and arranged for the use of work space in a building over-
looking the waterfront After getting the Chirp 1 cleared through
the Terceiran customs office and rigging Vouga for its new ca-
reer, Rutledge and Bryant ran a series of transects with the pro-
filer across the inner harbor. Their records showed an average
depth of one to two meters of sand overlying a sub-stratum of
compacted sediments or outcropping bedrock It was clear that
in this dynamic, near-shore environment shipwreck remains or
loose artifacts would likelyhave worked their way down through
the shifting sand layer and settled on top of the denser layer
beneath. A series of test pits in the inner bay subsequently con-
firmed that this was the case,

At the same time that the sub-bottom profiler sur-
vey was proceeding, GAS and INA divers investigated three
wrecks protruding above the sand on the west side of the
bay. The first wreck was 35 meters (115 feet) in length and
evidently was once a large wooden vessel. The dimensions
and condition of the wreck and the presence of copper-alloy
fasteners together suggested a date sometime after the first
quarter of the nineteenth century (fig. 8). The second wreck
was mostly buried under a ballast mound, but the style of
framing, the presence of lead sheathing, and a scatter of lead
shot for small arms all hinted at a late sixteenth or early sev-
enteenth century date. Lead hull sheathing was typical of
Spanish and Portuguese ships built at this time. The third
wreck was of the iron-hulled steamship Lidador (fig. 9), a 78.6-
meter (258-foot), British-built vessel belonging to the Empresa

o 5 10 M

Drawing: K. Crisman

Fig. 9. The Brazilian steamship Lidador, another victim of Angra Bay that sank in 1878.

INA Quarterly 25.2


Transatlantica de NavegaCao (Transatlantic Navigation Com-
pany) and registered in Rio de Janiero, Brazil, Lidador sank
during a storm in February of 1878 and is now a picturesque
mass of twisted iron plates, boiler fragments and stone bal-
last. All three of the sites would be well worth further study
in the future.
The Texas A&M-INA team's time at Angra was all
too brief in 1996, but nevertheless provided us with a tanta-
lizing look at what we could expect to find in Azorian wa-
ters. After our departure the GAS team continued the survey
of the inner bay under the direction of Paulo Monteiro and
Catarina Garcia, and by systematic test-pitting of the marina
zone turned up three more wrecks, two of them wooden and
evidently of a fairly early date. The third wreck was more
recent and had a curious history. This vessel was the Con-
federate blockade runner Run'Her, sunk late in the Ameri-
can Civil War in November of 1864. Run'Her was typical of
late-war runners, built in Britain with a long and extremely
lean iron hull and propelled at high speeds by powerful steam
engines. She left England for Bermuda (and the Confederate
states) carrying both the latest in undersea electrical mine
technology and Confederate mine expert Hunter Davidson.
During a stopover at Terceira Run'Her inexplicably ran
aground and wrecked in broad daylight immediately below
the customs house on the Angran waterfront. Part of the car-
go was salvaged, but a storm that struck the island a short
time after the wrecking broke up the hull and scattered its
remains; part of one boiler and numerous iron fragments
were evident during the GAS survey.

The 1997 Survey
The discoveries at Angra in 1996 and their implica-
tons for the construction of the marina are still being debat-
ed in the Azores, and at some time it may be necessary to
renew the study of the wrecks in the inner bay. For 1997,
however, we concentrated on our original plan: a wider sur-
vey for shipwrecks along the south coast of Tercetra, partic-
ularly in Angra and Fanal Bays. This was to be accomplished
by searching the sea bottom with high-resolution side-scan
sonars (provided at no cost to the project by Marine Sonic
Technology, Ltd ard Jon B. Jolly, Inc) and by examining so-
nar targets with teams of divers. We also planned to test the
effectiveness of both the magnetometer and a new type of
sub-bottom profiler; precision navigation for the entire sur-
vey was provided by a differential GPS unit donated to INA
by Trimble Navigation Corporation.
In late May of 1997 INA Board Chairman Gregory
M. Cook, Nancy Cook (fig. 10) and I flew to Terceira for a
week to meet with Professor Jose Alamo de Meneses, the
Secretary of Education and Cuiltral Affairs for the Azorian
Government, to discuss both the 1997 survey and long-term
INA-Azoian cooperation in archaeological research and ed-
ucation. This also proved to be a good opportunity to work
out many details of the survey with our colleagues at the

Museum of Angra and the GAS. This year's project partici-
pantsincluded the same individuals and institutions that con-
tributed to the 1996 work, and we were additionally
supported by the Azorian Government's Dirrecao Regional
dos Assuntos Culturais (DRAC), Dr. Luiz Fagundes Duarte,
Director, which supplied partial funding and leased the
University of Azores research vessel Aguas Vitvas for the so-
nar survey. Thanks to a cultural-scientific cooperation agree-
ment between the Azorian Government and the United States
Military Forces (the 'Lajes Agreement'), a trailer containing
INA's inflatable boat, diving equipment, and survey instru-
ments was flown to Terceira by U.S. Air National Guard units
at no cost. During the survey we were also joined by Dr.
Francisco Alves and Filipe Castro of the Centro Nacional de
Arqueologia NAutica e Subaquatica in Lisbon.
The 1997 survey, like most surveys, was a roller-
coaster ride of triumphs and frustrations, all concentrated in
days filled with intense activity. The [NA-Texas A&M team
arrived on Terceira between September 11 and 14, and spent
the first few days retrieving the INA trailer from Lajes Field,
unpacking equipment, and generally preparing to go to work.
We had more time for preparation than we antidpated, due to
tropical storm (ex-hurricane) Erika, which stalled in the mid-
Atlantic, upwind of the Azores, and refused to move oR The
harbor at Angra was a beehive of activity as fishermen hauled
their boats out of the water in preparation for the storm. Erika
finally drifted by the north coast of Terceira on September 15
and 16, roiling the seas and blasting the island with high winds
and rain, but luckily causing no serious damage.

Fig. 10. INA Board Chairman Gregory Cook and Nancy Cook.
The inter-island freighter Fernao Magalhaes, wrecked in a storm
on Christmas, 1996, lies upon the rocks in the background.

ot.: 1N. IsItan

INA Quarterly 25 2

1'hotot K. Crisman
Fig. 11. Brett Phaneuf rigs the sonar provided by Marine Son-
ics, Inc. for deep towing.

The sonar survey finally got underway on Septem-
ber 17 and we began to search beneath the waters around
Monte Brasil. For the first few days the seas proved rough
and forced us to limit daily operations; that we were able to
accomplish anything at all was largely due to the seaman-
ship of Captain Paulo Martins and Frederico Cardigos of
the R/V Aguas Vivas. During this time one of our two so-
nars malfunctioned, limiting the survey coverage. On the
plus side, the Marine Sonics sonar operated by Brett Pha-
neuf (fig. 11) yielded dozens of magnificent images of the
sea floor, including a near-photographic view of the steam-

er Lidador (fig. 12). The geology off Terceira was like nothing
we had ever seen, with enormous linear volcanic-rock out-
crops (which were, in fact, fault lines extending out from the
island), fields of boulder-sized rocks, and wide expanses of
coarse, heavily-rippled sand. The area was a geologist's
dream, but the convoluted sea bed made our search for ship-
wrecks more challenging, for it was hard to differentiate
possible ballast mounds from the fields of natural rock.
Unusual features noted in the sonar images were
electronically 'tagged' and, after review of the sonar records
each evening, the more promising targets were identified
and buoyed the next morning for diver verification. The INA-
GAS dive team, under the direction of Art Cohn, made over
two dozen verification dives during the course of the sur-
vey (fig. 13). Most of the sonar targets proved to be ship-
shaped geological features, although some may require
further investigation to rule out the presence of ship remains.
That Angra Bay experienced much maritime activity was
evident from the enormous numbers of anchors encountered
by divers, anchors of every size, type and period; most were
evidently lost when they wedged in rock outcrops and could
not be extracted. The sonar also revealed a scatter of wreck-
age on the flat sand bottom immediately east of Monte Bra-
sil; divers inspecting this area found wooden ship timbers
and pieces of modem, steel-hulled vessels, as well as quan-
tities of nineteenth and twentieth century ceramics. No iden-
tifiable shipwreck site was encountered, however, and we
strongly suspect that wrecks in this part of the bay are deep-
ly buried under the sand, where they are Likely to be well-
The tests of our proton magnetometer and a sub-
bottom profiler during the survey of the outer bay gave back
disappointing results. The magnetometer would be a most

Fig. 12. Marine Sonics, Inc. high-resolution sonar image of the steamer Lidador. Courtesy of Brett Phaneuf and Marine Sonics,

INA Quarterly 25.2


Fig. 13. Brian Jordan of the INA team and Catarina Garcia of
National Center for Nautical and Underwater Archaeology (CNA
remains of a wreck in Angra Bay.

useful tool for finding buried wrecks off Angra were it not
for the fact that the background 'noise' of Terceira's magne-
tized volcanic bedrock overwhelms these instruments, at

least the one we had with us. A more ad-
vanced magnetometer might be able to bet-
ter filter out the island's magnetism and
pinpoint wrecks or debris fields beneath the
sand. The sub-bottom profiler we tested in
1997 yielded some stratigraphic data in
sandy portions of the outer bay, but it is
not a useful device for searching broad ar-
eas of sea bottom for wrecks. At this point
in time the sonar appears to be the best tool
for locating more shipwrecks in Azorian
The survey concluded on Septem-
ber 28 with the departure of the INA crew
from Terceira. During the 1997 project we
thoroughly covered a total of two square
kilometers of Angra and Fanal Bays with
the Marine Sonics sonar, despite periods of
unfavorable weather and a series of tech-
i: A. Lessmarn nical difficulties (fig. 14). The amountof data
collected was considerable and the sonar
the Portuguese files are still undergoing analysis and get-
LNS) record the ting pieced together into a mosaic at the
Texas A&M New World Lab. The Trimble
differential GPS system allowed us to main-
tain very tight navigational control of the survey, and gave
us a 100% success rate in relocating sonar targets for diver
verification. The combined approach of this survey, with

do Heroismo

'? U

Fig. 14. The 1997 sonar survey of Angra Bay.

INA Quarterly 25.2

sonar coverage followed by immediate target inspection by
divers, was quite effective; the ability to compare sonar
records with diver observations greatly improved our abili-
ty to interpret the sonar images (fig. 15). We have gained a
much better idea of sea floor conditions in the Azores and a
wealth of practical experience that will be invaluable on fu-
ture surveys.

Future Work
The 1996 and 1997 surveys were just the beginning
of what we hope will be a long and fruitful association of
TNA with shipwreck investigations in the Azores. These is-
lands, the crossroads of so much of the world's shipping for
the past five hundred years, offer an unparalleled opportu-
nity to study the developments in ship technology, seafar-
ing practices, trade and warfare that have shaped the modem
world. The existence in the Azores of a regional government
dedicated to protecting its shipwrecks, and of a group of
professional and avocational archaeologists and historianm
dedicated to the study of those wrecks, bodes well for the
future. We plan to continue the joint INA-Azorian surveys
and wreck assessments over the next few years, at Terceira
and around other islands in the Azores archipelago, and com-
pile an inventory of sites that will guide further research.
Ackncmwedgements. The 1996 and 1997 Azorian surveys
would not have been possible without the help of many peo-
ple and institutions, and it is with pleasure that I take this
opportunity to recognize their contributions. Funding and
encouragement for the surveys have been provided by INA
member Sylvia Baird, who gave the project a real boost when
it needed it most, by Texas A&M University's Interdiscipli-
nary Research Initiatives Program, and by the Azorian Di-
rec~go Regional dos Assuntos Culturais; special thanks are
due to Professor Jose Alamo deMeneses, Secretario Region-
al da Educaaio e Assuntos Sociais and Dr. Luiz Fagundes
Duarte, Director Regional dos Assuntos Culturais. I also
wish to recognize the assistance of Dr. Joao Zilhao, Director
Geral of the Instituto Portugues de Arqueologia, and Dr.
Francisco Alves, Director, and Mr. Filipe Castro of the Cen-
tro Nacional de Arqueologia Nautica c Subaqu6tica in Lis-
bon. The work on Terceira would simply not have been
possible without the tireless efforts of Paulo Monteiro, Rui
Teixeira, Albano Pereira, Thomas Spiker, and the other mem-
bers of the Grupo de Arqueologia Subaquatica, and of Dr.
Olivio Mendes da Rocha, Director, Heliodoro Silva, Cura-
tor, and the staff of the Museu de Angra do Heroismo. Art
Cohn has been, as always, a true friend and wise council
through thick and thin; Brian Jordan, Anne Lessmann, and
Erick Tichonuk all greatly assisted in the field work. The
electronic instrument surveys in 1996 and 1997 were con-
ducted by Dr. William Bryant and Dr. Anne Rutledge of
Texas A&M, Brett Phaneuf of Marine Sonic Technology, Ltd,

.s. *-2Zl .'S

Photo: K. Cnsman

Fig. 15. Rui Texiera and Arthur Cchn follow a deep dive in
Fanal Bay with ten minutes of breathing oxygen, observed by
University of the Azores Marine Biologist Frederico Cardigos.

Jon Jolly of Jon B. Jolly, Inc, and and Greg Gooding of Lunde
Marine Electronics, Inc. Paulo Martins and Frederico Cardi-
gos of the University of the Azores' R/V Aguas Vivas were
of immense help in 1997. Colin Petty of Pacific Crest Inc.,
contributed radio modems. Transportation of INA equip-
ment between the U.S. and Azores was carried out by the
102d Rescue Sqladron of West Hampton Beach, Long Is-
land, New York and by the 167h Airlift Wing of Martins-
burg, West Virginia; the process was greatly expedited by
Captain George Smith, U.S.N. of the Pentagon's Office of
international Security Affairs and by Master Sergeant Louis
T. Amato, U.S.A.F. of Lajes Field, Terceira, Azores. Finally,
many thanks are due to INA Board Chairman Gregory Cook,
and to Becky Holloway, Claudia I Doux, Angie Shafer and
Michelle Chmelar at the INA/Nautical Program home of-
fice in College Station, Texas.a"

]NA Quarterly 25.2

The Byzantine Shipwreck at Bozburun, Turkey:

The 1997 Field Season

by Frederick M. Hocker,
Sara W. and George O. Yamini Associate Professor

At the Bozburun Byzantine shipwreck excavation, 1997 was the Year of the Amphora. At the end of the 1996
campaign, we could identify at least 500 whole or nearly complete amphoras remaining on site, and estimated that
another 100 to 200 remained to be discovered under the sand. That season also gave us our first glimpse of the well-
preserved hull remains under the cargo. In 1997, our twin goals were to map and recover as much of the cargo as
possible and to expose more of the hull and begin raising it for study.
As in previous seasons, accommodations for project staff and work areas were established in an olive grove
rented from a local farmer on Sig (Shallow) Bay. The camp, which includes dormitories for up to 40 people, sanitary
facilities, and a cooking/eating building, as well as the recompression chamber to treat potential diving incidents, was
built by project staff as a temporary facility, to be dismantled between seasons and at the end of the project. No new
facilities were constructed in 1997, but improvements were made to the artifact handling area (the addition of a con-
crete floor) and a new roof was built over the recompression chamber. The camp also features a small boat dock, from
which the excavation site can be reached in as little as three minutes by motoring out of Sig Bay to the north, around the
point of Kiiiiven Burnu and back
along the cliffs that stretch away to
the southwest. Diving was conduct- a
ed from a cement and wooden plat-
form constructed on a projecting
spur of the Kiiiven Buru cliff, the
same spur against which the ship
was wrecked over 1100 years ago.
As the site lies between 90
and 120 feet deep in the Aegean Sea
(fig. 1), provisions for safe diving
operations were a priority. Excava-
tors dived on compressed air using
dive tables compiled specifically for
the project by Dr. Richard Vann of
the Diving Physiology Research *
Center of Duke University. Using
these tables, most excavators dived
for 25 or 30 minutes in the morning 0q It f)
and 20 to 30 minutes in the after-
noon, following a five-hour surface
interval. A few divers worked for
up to 40 minutes at a time. Normal-
ly, excavators dived in teams of four,
and up to six teams in succession
could dive both morning and after-
noon, although the usual number of
dives was five. Divers decompressed
at a depth of 6 meters on pure oxy-
gen, supplied from the surface, for
up to 35 minutes after each dive. Al-
though this requires the transport
and loading of heavy, unwieldy cyl-
inders of compressed oxygen, it has
been shown, largely through INAdiv- Map: B. Jordan
ing projects in Turkey, that in-water Fig. 1. Southwestern Turkey, showing the location of the Bozburun shipwreck

INA Quarterly 25.2

oxygen decompression adds a significant safety factor to repetitive deep diving on compressed air. In total, we made over
2,000 individual dives, including training and acclimatization dives. Over the course ot the season, no confirmed incidents
of decompression sickness or embolism occurred, and there was no occasion to use the recompression chamber.
Work in previous seasons had shown that the majority of the cargo amphoras had tumbled about in the wreck,
but about 60 jars were still stacked in orderly rows where medieval stevedores had left them. We also knew that this
area of stacked jars backed up against a large concentration of stones and tiles that we suspected of being the ship's
hearth, and that the upper end of the site
was the stem, where we could expect to
l \ cpIC find the personal possessions of the crew
ccI c l o and a wide range of ship's equipment. Ex-
cas im cavation in this area would have to go

sets SITE PLAN 1997 slowly. Farther down slope, where the pre-
I( vious season had been spent in removing
1 much of the broken material lying on top
$A \ of the whole amphoras, work could pro-
Is ceed more rapidly, as smaller finds normal-
ly filter down between the jars and are not
encountered until later in the excavation.
SExcavation proceeded rapidly in
D the lower half of the site and on the port
Side, where the hull had collapsed in the
past. The majority of the site has now been
E1 --completely cleared of cargo and other cul-
tural material (fig. 2). The group of stacked
"o' amphoras remains in place, protecting the
Shull remains underneath, in squares F11,
SGl, and H1l, and a similar number of
o12 4 tumbled amphoras remain in other
-4v squares. A total of 158 whole amphoras
-a were recovered, along with 105 substan-
4 tial partial amphoras. Another 222 am-
phoras were excavated, mapped and
S#no Js removed to underwater depots without
S* raising, to await recovery in the future. In
i I --0 addition to whole jars, we also recovered
4V over 400 kilograms of broken amphora
Y o Lsherds. Most of these cannot be joined and
preserve no significant diagnostic infor-
Is *A. mation, such as rim profiles or graffiti.
-. After cataloguing, the majority of this bro-
Sken material was sorted by provenience
j I and redeposited in a sherd dump excavat-
ed to the west of the site. Sherds saved for
S-further analysis include substantial par-
N HIO Ni 1 tial amphoras (often, the neck, handles
and shoulder survive as a unit) and large
S9 shoulder sherds, which may have graffiti.
-pi A sample of the sherds was also saved for
composition and fabric analysis.
SLOP VIW The whole jars are full of mud, but
the mud often preserves evidence of the
Site Plan: M. Scafuri contents of the jars. When sieved, the mud
Fig. 2. Bozburun site plan, showing all whole amphoras recovered through the almost always contains grape seeds, indi-
1997 season. eating a wine cargo, although one jar

INA Quarterly 25.2

found in 1996 was full of olive pits. A surprising number of amphoras have
their stoppers, of clay tile fragments or pine bark, in place, but these jars are
normally full of mud as well. Two amphoras recovered in 1997 still had their
stoppers sealed in place, and had not admitted any marine sediment. These
jars contained a clear liquid, which tasted suspiciously like sea water, and a
small amount of dark reddish-brown sludge. The seeds and sludge are of great
interest to specialists in the history of wine and grape cultivation, as DNA anal-
ysis of the seeds may reveal their relationship to modem grape varieties and
chemical analysis of the sludge should reveal something about the processing
of the grapes and thus what sort of wine was being carried in the jars.
Three major classes of amphoras had been identified in the 1995 and
1996 seasons, and all were represented in the 1997 finds. The first class, with an
ovoid body, short neck and squared handles, continues to be the most com-
mon. Only two partial examples of the second class, with a shorter, flat-bot-
tomed body and wider, flaring neck, were found in 1997. The third class, of
similar body shape to the first but with a taller, narrower neck and rounded
handles, was a common find in 1997 (fig. 3). These last are particularly interest-
ing, as they match up well with a narrowly dated type from ninth-century kiln
sites in the Crimea. Similar jars were also found in the summer of 1997 on an
INA survey of a small shipwreck off the Crimean coast (Quarterly 24.4). Several
unique amphoras, not clearly fitting into any of the three classes were also re-
covered, as was the upper half of a Roman amphora, probably contemporary
with two Roman pots recovered in 1996.
Many of the amphoras have graffiti on their shoulders (fig. 4), probably
indicating ownership. We have now seen enough of these graffiti to identify by
name a few of the merchants participating in this particular venture. The most
common mark, TE, is a common abbreviation for TlopYoE (George). Other
merchants represented are Leon, Niketas, and (possibly) Anastasios. The loca-
tion of these marked jars is very important, as it is our best clue to the organiza-
tion of trade in this period when the Mediterranean world
was just beginning to recover from economic and political
turmoil that followed the Arab conquest of the seventh
century. In this case, all of George's amphoras are togeth-
er in one part of the hold, all of Anastasios' are together in
another. In addition, not all of one owner's amphoras are
from the same kiln or source. This strongly suggests that
these owners are not the vintners or producers of the wine,
but are middlemen engaged in the purchase and resale of
wine. The small number of jars for each owner also sug-
gests the relatively small scale on which this venture was
taking place. Taken together, these seemingly trivial bits
of information may answer one of the great questions of
Middle Byzantine economic history-how did long-dis-
tance trade recover in the ninth century, and who were
the instigators?
In addition to amphoras, examples of domestic pot-
tery were recovered in the stem, primarily, but not exclu-
sively, in the area of the hearth (fig. 5). Eight cooking/ Fig. 3 (above). Ai
serving pots of identical type were recovered. Three of distinguishingfeatu
these were intact, three others were complete but broken, ed handles.
and two are represented by sherds. These pots, in a dark,
gritty clay, are characterized by a round bottom, inward
curving sides, a flared rim, and a pair of vertical strap han- Fig. 4 (below). Ty
dles (fig. 6). The size of the pots is appropriate to a single lion for George.

Photo: D. Carlson

nphora 8K 241, a typical Class 3 jar. The
rres are the tall, narrow neck and thin, round-

pical amphora graffito; this is the abbrevia-

INA Quarterly 25.2

BQZ 97~

Fig. 5. Dr. Faith Hentschel excavating tiles and cook-
ware in the galley area.

serving, and so the number of pots may indicate the size
of the crew. For serving, these pots were probably set on a
collar stand, such as one found in the same area. A partial
pitcher, similar to one found in 1995, was also found in
the hearth area. A rather enigmatic piece of pottery, a small
glazed jug, was found smashed up slope and to port.
Another possible item of tableware, a glass goblet,
had been found to port of the galley area in 1996. Its mate
(fig. 7) was recovered next to the smashed glazed jug. Al-
though broken between amphora sherds, the profile is
nearly complete and matches the goblet found in 1996. A
finely fluted glass flask (fig. 8) was recovered nearby. The
goblets and flask, all found within less than two meters of
each other may well be part of a set. No exact parallels
have yet been found, but the basic form of the goblet is
well known from Roman and Byzantine sites, and no sim-
ilar vessels are known from the thousands of glass objects
recovered from the eleventh-century Serge Limani wreck.
Glass stemware is an unusual find on Mediterranean ship-
wrecks, probably because of its fragility, and so these piec-
es may be personal possessions.
The hearth itself is of simple construction, using
earthenware tiles. It is too jumbled at the moment to per-
mit accurate reconstruction, and some of it remains to be

1 I IUIkL L I~r
Fig. 6. One of eight cooking/serving pots recovered
from the galley, with a collar stand to support it.

excavated, but it is possible to say that the galley was lo-
cated on the starboard side toward the stern, but did not
extend all the way across the hull, as did the galley in the
seventh-century Yassiada ship. Cargo was stacked to port.
To balance this cargo, the hearth was built atop a layer of
stone ballast, partly made up of large, cut blocks that may
be former building material. Outside of this area, there is
no separate ballast, except for a few small pebbles.
Removal of the cargo aft of the galley revealed the
stem of the ship, lying in a crevice in the rocky bottom (fig.
9). The keel is preserved to its after end, where it began to
turn up into the sternpost, and the first four strakes of
planking survive to their ends on both sides. There are even
close to their original locations, so that the run of plank
seams is readily apparent and one can even get an impres-
sion of the shape of the lower part of the stem, where the
planking runs into the keel. Some of the frames in the stem
are in relatively poor condition, but others are sufficiently
preserved to indicate something of the transverse shape of
the hull. As in the area of hull exposed near midships in
1996, the keel and planking are of oak (Quercus, possibly
Quercus ilex) and the internal timbers all of pine (Pinus bru-
tia). All of the fastening, primarily nails, are of iron. A few
iron bolts recovered loose in the stern suggest that there

INA Quarterly 25.2

may have been a keel~on atop the frames, but no identifi-
able remains of it survived in the stem.
Toward the bow, our knowledge of the hull was
expanded by the exposure of several frames and the keel
down slope of the central area uncovered in 1996. This pro-
vides a minimum length for the keel of 13 meters, and in-
dicates that some of the floor timbers (the central frame
elements that rest on top of the keel) extended all the way
out to a fairly hard bilge. All of the frames exposed to date
have been broken off at the port side of the keel, where
deep limber notches created a natural fault line in the struc-
ture. Except at the stem, almost nothing survives of the
port side, which was probably suspended above the sand
bottom after the ship sank and was more vulnerable to at-
tack by marine borers (Teredo navahs). The eroded port ends
of the frames are heavily damaged by these borers as well.
Several discoveries in 1997 have raised questions
about how the ship sank. In the first surveys of the site in
1973, it had been noticed that there was a large number of
amphoras strewn about the rocks above and to either side
of the site, some of them more than 50 meters away from
the main mound. We had presumed that these had fallen
out of the ship as it dragged its stem down the underwa-
ter face of the cliff, but examination of the stern does not

Fig. 7. Doreen Dan is with the glass goblet BK 401.

show a great deal of damage. It does show that some am-
phoras came to rest on the bottom before the ship did-in
the stem, one of these jars broke a hole in the planking
from underneath as the ship settled onto it. It is possible
that this is one of the jars that fell out of the hull as the
upper works disintegrated but before the timbers worked
their way down into the rocks, but it would have to have
fallen up slope to have done so. The absence of any spare
anchors, a typical feature of medieval Mediterranean
wrecks, is also perplexing. Is it possible that the crew were
desperately trying to lighten ship by casting overboard
spare anchors and the upper layers of cargo before they
finally abandoned the doomed vessel? Medieval maritime
law assumed that this would be a normal method of sav-
ing a ship in distress and provided for a rational system of
compensating those merchants whose cargo was lost or
damaged in saving the ship.
Part of our task in 1998 will be a survey down slope
in search of the anchors and other jettisoned material. Our
primary goals are the excavation of the remaining cargo,
ship's equipment, and personal possessions, and the re-
covery of the hull remains. Small objects under the hull
may, in the end, be the best indicators of how the ship and
her crew spent their last few minutes afloat.

Photo: U. Frey
Fig. 8. Glass flask BK 272 after conservation.

INA Quarterly 25.2

Photo: F Hocker Drawing: F. H
Fig. 9. Hull remains at the stern; left, the planking after removal offrame elements and right, plan of remains as excavated.

Acknowledgments. For financial support, all of the
participants in the project would like to thank Texas A&M
University, the Smothers Foundation, Mary and Richard
Rosenberg, Omit and Cem Boyner, Alev and Halis Kom-
ili, Cem Duna, BJ and Fred van Doorinck, Paradise Scu-
ba of College Station, Lillian Brianer and Enzo Calderari,
John DeLapa, and Lynn and Gary Martin. We would also
like to thank the Turkish Ministry of Culture, General Di-

rectorate of Monuments and Museums, who were repre-
sented by Mr. Yaar Yildiz, and the Bodrum Museum of
Underwater Archaeology and its Director, Mr. Oguz
Alpbzen. Finally, no project of this scale can succeed with-
out the efforts of large numbers of people who are willing
to live and work for endless hours in demanding condi-
tions. You know who you are.a

INA Quarterly 25.2

Have You Turned to Point-and-Shoot?

If you no longer need your old Single Lens Reflex camera or equipment, and
would enjoy a fair tax write-off, please consider donating it to INA. Vice-President
Don Frey is looking for an O.M body to replace his water-damaged O.M., so he can
continue to use his existing lenses. However, Nikon, Minolta, and Canon equipment
would all be appreciated. This is just one example of the ways in which INA members
and friends can help the Institute by making contributions of used, but still usable,
equipment to assist us. If you can be of help, please contact the INA offices in College
Station, Bodrum, or Alexandria.

Exploring the Dusty Halls of Antiquity:

Archival resources of Lisbon
by Brian Jordan

My first view of Lisbon was through the sleep-de-
prived, red-rimmed eyes of a weary traveler who had just
completed twenty-four hours of seemingly endless travel
across Asia Minor and Europe by bus, plane, and taxi. The
plan for the trip to Lisbon originated five months earlier at
Texas A&M University. While trying to juggle a summer
schedule between a two-and-a-half month stint working
on the excavation of a ninth-century shipwreck off the coast
of Selimiye, Turkey and a survey in the Azores in mid-
August, 1996, I needed something to fill in a two-week gap
between archaeological pursuits.
INA's Dr. Kevin Crisman, who was heading the sur-
vey in the Azores as well as working on the final publica-
tion of the seventeenth-century Portuguese frigate Santo
Antdnio de Tana, generously offered to sponsor a trip to
Lisbon in an attempt to uncover more information on the
construction of this historic vessel. Since my thesis was also
on the Santo Antdnio and I had the time, I eagerly accepted.
During the course of the summer while struggling with
non-functioning fax machines and power outages in Tur-
key, I was informed that due to delays in obtaining the
permit the Azores survey was postponed two weeks. In-
stead of two weeks, Ihad an entire month to delve into the
Lisbon archives.
Arriving from a remote hamlet in Southwest Tur-
key, I did not know any of our contacts in Lisbon, or wheth-
er any could offer assistance in the research we had come
half-way around the world to attempt. I knew only my
traveling companion Anne Lessmann, who was to fly to
Holland and complete research of her own during this time,
returning to Lisbon before flying to the Azores. While plan-
ning this excursion, I failed to take several factors into con-

Fig. 1. The Tower of Belem is one of the outstanding larumarks
of this Lisbon suburb.

sideration. First, as we were informed shortly after our
arrival, August-the traditional holiday month-is per-
haps the absolute worst time for any type of research in
Portugal. This of course played havoc with our plans, as
most of our contacts were gone. Having no idea where to
start looking for a place to live, or how we were going to
stretch our limited funds, panic had begun to rear its ugly
head. Trying the last name on a short list, the phone rang
for an eternity before a voice finally answered. I stumbled
through my limited Portuguese and discovered that the
person in question no longer worked at that location. Giv-
en another phone number, I grimly dialed and held my
breath not daring to hope that anyone would pick up at
the other end. As luck would have it, someone did answer
and soon I was speaking to Filipe Castro, my only contact
in Portugal. He excitedly welcomed us to Lisbon and gave
us directions to Belem (fig. 1), just outside of Lisbon, where
he was working at the Centro de Operazies de Arqueolo-
gia SubaquAtica da EXPO '98 (COAS). In 1997, COAS be-
came Centro Nacional de Arqueologia Subaquatica
(CNANS), a department within the newly-created Portu-
guese Institute of Archaeology (IPA). With much relief, I
hung up the phone and smiled for the first time since ar-
riving in this fast-paced city of close to three million.
Making our way to Belkm via Lisbon's public trans-
portation system we arrived and were greeted by Paulo
Monteiro wearing a dark-blue INA T-shirt. Paulo was our
contact for the Azores and was visiting his colleagues in
Lisbon. We were taken to the new COAS headquarters
which is located in a former army complex's motor pool a
block away (fig. 2). There we were introduced to the direc-
tor of COAS, Dr. Francisco Alves, and Filipe Castro his co-

J1 l .1 I -.3J.L1J111
Fig. 2. Cannons from a seventeenth-century wreck in the south
of Portugal laid out for study at the CNANS facility in Belem.

INA Quarterly 25.2

director in the Project S. Juliso da Barra. They were ex-
tremely pleased to have us in Lisbon and immediately
made us feel at home. Soon we were talking like old friends
and the 2,000 pound weight that had been crushing down
on my shoulders slid off with a silent crash of relief.

Research Considerations
Now I was able to focus on more immediate con-
cerns, such as housing. Belem, located just outside of Lis-
bon, was the obvious choice because of its proximity to
several of the major archives and libraries in the area. This
small town was noticeably less hectic than Lisbon, pro-
viding an atmosphere more conducive to research. Filipe,
using his formidable powers of persuasion and abundant
charm, located a room in a pensao for the entire month at
a reasonable price. Our new dwelling was located on the
third floor and provided a view of the Tagus river and the
famous Mosteiro dos Jer6nimos. Vasco da Gama prayed
at the site of this massive church before and after his mon-
umental voyage of discovery, and it exudes antiquity. Part
of the funds from the Carreira da India were used for its
construction, and nautical motifs are carved throughout
the vaulted ceilings and massive columns. The monastery's
block-long complex also houses the Biblioteca Central da
Marinha, the Museu Nacional de Arqueologia, and the
Museu da Marinha. Located within walking distance from
the pensao were the Instituto de Investigaq~o Cientifica
Tropical, Centro de Estudos de Hist6ria e Cartografia An-
tiga and the Arquivo Histdrico Ultramarino. The COAS
headquarters located a block away quickly became our base
of operations, while the Biblioteca Central da Marinha was
our research facility of choice.
Finally, I was prepared to initiate some serious re-
search on seventeenth-century Portuguese seafaring. Un-
fortunately, this was not as easy as I had led myself to
believe. First of all, the librarian at the Biblioteca Central
da Marinha spoke no English, and although I could read
Portuguese, my speaking skills were limited. This proved
to be a significant hindrance, although not insurmount-
able. Second, none of the libraries and archives that were
visited had computer-based card catalogues. Searching for
documents was a time-consuming and often frustrating
process. Last, the letter of introduction from Robin Piercy
(INA-Turkey), the excavation director of the Santo Antdnio
de Tana was written entirely in English and therefore ren-
dered almost completely useless. Fortunately the latter was
quickly remedied with a letter from Dr. Alves, and the other
problems became more manageable with the passage of
time and familiarity with the facilities.
The next several paragraphs will attempt to famil-
iarize the reader with some of the archives and libraries
visited and what one can expect from each. The more ex-
perienced researcher probably would not have had the
difficulties which presented themselves to me, and un-

rnoto: &S. Lnsman

Fig. 3. The Jerdnimos Monastery, a fifteenth-century gothic
church with subsequent construction that today house the Bib-
lioteca Central da Mannha, the Museu Nacional de Arqueolo-
gia, and the Museu da Marinha.

doubtedly would have been better prepared. I, on the oth-
er hand, was inexperienced at the art of archival research.
Nonetheless, I did uncover some extremely useful informa-
tion about the Santo Antonio de Tana and frigates of the sev-
enteenth century. This article is not meant to be extensive
nor overly detailed, but hopefully will provide assistance to
someone with time constraints and limited fluency attempt-
ing to navigate the maze of historical material in Lisbon.

Biblioteca Central da Marinha
The Biblioteca Central da Marinha is located through
an arch directly across from the massive wooden doors of
the Mosteiro dos Jer6nimos (fig. 3). Outside the library's
front doors is a small courtyard area with a large anchor
sitting prominently in the middle. At the front desk, you
must surrender your passport and your bag in exchange
for a Leitor (reader) name badge. The clerks are Cadets at
the Naval School and are very friendly, although they speak
only fragmentary English. Down the hall and to the left is
the lobby, which contains the librarian's desk and the card
catalogues. The card catalogues are archaic, but are gener-
ally easy to understand once one becomes familiar with
the system. The books themselves are kept in separate
rooms upstairs. Once a request is given to the librarian,
the material is brought out to you in the adjacent reading
The leitura is large and very comfortable with small
stands to prop up the material for ease of reading. There
are abundant reference sources in the reading room includ-
ing several dictionaries in varied languages which provid-
ed me necessary assistance in translating some of the more
difficult texts. One set of volumes stands out among the
shelved books in this room: Portugaliae Monumenta Carto-

INA Quarterly 25.2

graphic by Armando Cortesao and Avelino Teixeira da
Mota. The comprehensive six-volume set features stun-
ningly beautiful color and black and white reproductions
of maps and renderings of fortresses dating as far back as
the twelfth century. The maps were exquisite and the de-
scriptions even more spectacular. Each map has a date,
description, the cartographer (if known) and its current
location. The authors did an impressive job in organizing
the maps chronologically and geographically. Also includ-
ed are sections on the various types and styles of maps as
well as synopses on the various cartographers who made
them. It is an incredible source for gaining an understand-
ing of how the Portuguese viewed their world through
The library has much more to offer besides refer-
ence material. Books and manuscripts range from histori-
cal material to technical manuals on sailing dating from
the fifteenth century to the present. In order to examine
anything before the turn of the century, a credencial or let-
ter of introduction must be reviewed and approved by the
Director of the library. This took several days and a call on
my behalf from the former Director of the Archaeological
Museum before approval was granted. It is well worth the
trouble considering the material available. I was able to
gently peruse original texts on rigging and pilot's roteiros
from the sixteenth and seventeenth century that I had pre-
viously only read about in other's footnotes. The Bibliote-
ca Central also possesses numerous manuscripts and copies
of shipbuilding treatises from the seventeenth century. The
Director graciously allowed me to obtain a photocopy of
Joao Baptista Lavanha's Arquitectura Naval and two sub-
sidiary texts dating to the early seventeenth century.
Another important group of resources within the
Biblioteca Central are the catalogues of material in other
libraries. The catalogues provide short summaries of vari-

Photo: K. Crisman
Fig. 4. Dr. Francisco Alves, the Director of CNANS, with INA
researcherAnn Lessman.

ous collections at other institutions and saved me many
hours of fruitless research. One catalogue in particular
warrants mentioning: Catdlogo de PublicaFoes published by
the Instituto de Investigaqao Cientifica Tropical. Of the cat-
alogues examined, this one was extremely well organized
and provided concise and informative abstracts of indi-
vidual documents in various collections at other archives.

Centro Nacional de Arquelogia Subaquitica (CNANS)
During my stay I frequently visited the COAS head-
quarters (as it then was). This center was organized and
funded for the collection and organization of some of the
historical and archaeological displays for the 1998 exposi-
tion celebrating the five hundredth anniversary of the open-
ing of the sea route to India by Vasco da Gama. Headed by
the former director of Lisbon's Archaeological Museum,
Dr. Francisco Alves, the center offers amazing personal and
archaeological resources (fig. 4). Though overwhelmed
with work and the refurbishing of the old military motor
pool which is their new home, the members of COAS al-
ways had tune to discuss various aspects of my research
and provided useful guidance throughout my stay in Lis-
bon. COAS also possesses a small but extremely useful li-
brary of archaeological texts and reports, as well as
numerous reproductions of Portuguese shipbuilding trea-
tises ranging from the sixteenth century to present.
Texts are not the only valuable resource available.
A specialized team of archaeologists gathered by Dr. Alves
have excavated two late fourteenth/early fifteenth centu-
ry wrecks from northern Portugal and numerous cannons
and Roman period anchors and stocks. This team has un-
derwater as well as terrestrial experience and have partic-
ipated in excavations of sites dating from the Roman
occupation up to the present. Shelves of catalogued arti-
facts attest to their dedication, as do the timbers from the

Photo: K. Crisman
Fig. 5. Timbersfrom a late fifteenth- or early sixteenth-century
shipwreck discovered during construction of the subway.

INA Quarterly 25.2

early vessels undergoing conservation. The most spectac-
ular archaeological feature on display at the headquarters
is the timbers from a late fifteenth-century/early sixteenth-
century shipwreck uncovered during the construction of
the new subway system (fig. 5). The timbers are badly dis-
torted, and the central part of the frames was destroyed
before the construction process could be halted. Howev-
er, entire frames, futtocks, and runs of outer hull and ceil-
ing planking are fairly well preserved and laid out for
recording on the floor of the center. Details of construc-
tion were readily visible, including scribe lines and roman
numerals carved into the timbers by the shipwright, a sec-
tion of a breasthook, and the remains of a whipstaff. These
structural features are rarely found in excavated ships from
this period and are an example of Portugal's archaeologi-
cal wealth. Further study should provide exciting glimps-
es into the fabrication of vessels from this period.

Museu da Marinha
If your interest runs toward the nautical, then the
Museu de Marinha will be on your list of places to visit.
Make sure to bring plenty of high speed film, because flash-
es are not allowed. The exhibits start from the Age of Ex-
ploration and continue to the present. Hundreds of detailed

ship models are on display alongside nautical artifacts and
paintings (fig. 6). Relics, such as the fifteenth-century carv-
ing of the angel Rafael which accompanied Vasco de Gama
on his voyage to India, bring the history of Portuguese sea-
faring to life. The details of the ship models are superb,
with some possessing actual movable rigging. Many in-
teresting artifacts showcase every aspect of the mariner's
life. Mannequins dressed in authentic uniforms stand next
to sixteenth and seventeenth century astrolabes (fig. 7).
Quadrants, sextants, globes, and lead sounding weights
are displayed next to cannons and sabers. The museum
also includes many objects from Portugal's contacts with
the Far East. A sinister curved sword with twelve small
rings dangling from the blade hangs above a card explain-
ing that each circle signifies a beheaded victim. At the end
of the museum are the refurbished Royal barges of the late
nineteenth century which were used to carry royalty up
and down the Tagus River on pleasure cruises. This article
is far too short to showcase the contents of the Museu de
Adjacent to the museum is a small library which is
rumored to be quite good. Unfortunately the library was
closed during my visit, depriving me of the opportunity
to peruse its contents. The director of the museum, Capitdo-

Fig. 6. Model ofa late sixteenth-century
galleass in the Museu da Marinha.

Fig, 7. Part of the astrolabe collec-
tion in the Museu da Marinha.

Photos: K. Crisman

1NA Quarterly 25.2

de-Mar-e-Guerra Jose Fernandes Martins e Silva, was kind
enough to meet with me and even mailed some requested
information after my return to the United States. He is ex-
tremely knowledgeable on subjects concerning Portuguese
seafaring, with a special interest in astrolabes. The muse-
um's collection is most impressive.

Arquivo Hist6rico Ultramarino
Tired of searching through the same places (al-
though by no means exhausting their sources), I decided
to venture further afield. Located about a mile from the
pensAo, the Arquivo Hist6rico Ultramarino was the most
challenging of the facilities I visited. The material within
the Overseas Archive is for the most part completely un-
translated and very loosely organized. Fluency in histori-
cal Portuguese is absolutely necessary, as is familiarity with
the subject matter. After the typical perusal of credentials
and checking of the bags at the desk, you are ushered into
a large reading room filled with studious historians por-
ing over documents dating from the fifteenth, sixteenth
and seventeenth centuries. Although some of the manu-
scripts have been translated and studied by such noted
historians as C. R. Boxer, a vast majority of sources have
not been studied in detail. The librarian will first ask which
group of documents are of interest; each group represent-
ing a specific region of the Portuguese empire (i. e. India,
or Macao). Within each geographic area, the manuscripts
are grouped chronologically, primarily in ten-year lots.
Once the time period has been selected the librarian wheels
out a rather large and intimidating cart with caixas (boxes)
or pastas (loose bundles) of documents. There is an enor-
mous amount of original material in the individual fold-
ers indicating years (if known) within the containers. Some
of the folders have short summaries of the texts within,
but for the most part the contents must be read carefully.
The writing is cramped, full of abbreviations, and gener-
ally hard to understand. Many of the pages have dark
water stains causing the script to blur and further com-
pounding the problem. Needless to say, I quickly felt over-
whelmed, and retreated to more familiar ground. Maybe
after many years of studying archaic Portuguese and sub-
stantially more practice at translating documents from this
period, I can make another trip back to this incredible his-
torical resource and delve into its hidden treasures with
more understanding. The work involved in the transla-
tion of such documents makes one appreciate the life-long
dedication historians must have to immerse themselves
in a culture so far removed from our own.

Institute de Investigazao Cientifica Tropical-Centro
de Estudos de Hist6ria e Cartografia Antiga
Having perused some of the catalogues in the Bib-
lioteca Central (as stated above), I had marked many pas-
sages which I wished to study further. I was particularly

interested in one set of manuscripts called the Livro das
Monftes (Book of Monsoons) which contained letters from
the Estado da India to Portugal and vice versa. The name of
this set of manuscripts derives from the seasonal winds
which propelled the carracks and galleons along the fa-
mous Carreira da India and controlled sea travel in the In-
dian Ocean. These documents contain enormous amounts
of information detailng only a fraction of the bureaucracy
encompassing the Portuguese empire in past centuries. My
focus for research was the two decades surrounding the
birth and death of the Santo Anfdnio de Tana (1681-1696).
The Instituto de Invesbgacao Cientifica Tropical possess-
es a copy of these manuscripts on microfilm in a series
called the Boletim Filmoteca Ultramarinho Portuguesa. The
microfilm is listed chronologically in catalogues with short
descriptions of each of the manuscripts. The documents
are relatively clear, and the microfilm machines are fairly
standard. Copies of specific manuscripts can be obtained
by filling out the necessary forms. I found this method to
be by far the easiest and most cost effective (less than $1.00
a copy) way to obtain copies of original material.

The Museu de Arte Antiga
Having had enough of stuffy archives for a while, I
decided it was time to see some actual material from the
period under study. The Museu de Arte Antiga is located
between Bel]m and Lisbon, and situated conveniently on
the elkctrico (tram) route. The museum is set on a hillside
overlooking the Tagus River with a nice picnic/park area
in the back. For those interested in ancient art and more
specifically religious art, this museum has copious quan-
tities of both; rooms upon rooms of fascinating paintings
and sculptures of saints and angels in various states of pi-
ety or martyrdom. Quite an impressive collection of pot-
tery and furniture from the sixteenth, seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries is also present. There are several pieces
of Portuguese faience ware that are almost identical in
pattern to those found on the Santo Antdnio de Tana. Un-
fortunately, paintings containing images of ships are not
prevalent among the other great pieces. Only two paint-
ings are of particular interest to the nautical enthusiast.
The first is a large piece covering most of a wall featuring
the River Tagus in front of the Mosteiro dos Jer6nimos.
Numerous types of ships in several shapes, sizes and in
various states of repose grace the canvas. The detail of the
vessels is incredible. One scene shows a carrack being ca-
reened in the water. The second painting features the mar-
tyrdom of a thousand virgins which, oddly enough, has
an insert of a Portuguese carrack painted in exquisite de-

Academia de Marinha
The last place 1 visited in Portugal was the Academia
de Marinha. Midway between the Cais do Sodrb station

INA Quarterly 25.2

and the Praza do Comercio in Lisbon, the building itself is
located on the site of Lisbon's historical shipyards. One of
the two ships under conservation in the COAS headquar-
ters was unearthed during renovation of one of these build-
ings. The Academia is a repository of several publications
which may prove of interest to those studying Portuguese
naval architecture in the sixteenth and seventeenth centu-
ries. They have editions of several of Padre Fernando OL-
iveira's sixteenth-century manuscripts with copies of the
original manuscript, as well as modem Portuguese and
English translations. Also for sale is a beautiful over-sized
volume of Manuel Fernandes' Livro de Tracas de Carpintar-
ia. This 1989 edition of the manuscript is in full color and is
an amazing reproduction of the original. Other publica-
tions include good Portuguese-English and English-Por-
tuguese nautical dictionaries, as well as the Academia's
own series of books specifically dealing with aspects of
historical Portuguese seafaring.

Lisbon is a mesmerizing city with its abundant his-
torical monuments, beautiful mosaic sidewalks, and tile
covered buildings (figs. 8 and 9). There is a definite sense
of history when walking along the broad avenidas in the
Baixa district or the curving travessas and escadinhas of the
Alfama district. The archives and libraries are much like the
city itself; easy to get lost in, but holding treasures around every
corer. This short trip to Lisbon was not meant to be a thorough
research venture, but more of a reconnaissance of the his-
torical resources available. Along the way, I met many peo-
ple with similar interests and much more experience who
were able to give considerable guidance in my bungling
efforts. Hopefully this article can be of assistance to some-
one seeking knowledge of their own in Lisbon.

Acknowledgments. I wish to thank Dr. Kevin Crisman, Mr.
Robin Piercy and the Institute of Nautical Archaeology for
the funding and guidance which made this trip possible.
From COAS, I would like to thank Dr. Francisco Alves,
Filipe Castro, Henrique de Brion and the entire staff who
all have my undying gratitude for use of their facilities and
for getting me started and helping along the way. Special
thanks to Chico, Filipe and Siaska for inviting me into their
homes and making me feel like an honored guest as well
as an old friend. Hopefully I can repay the favor one day.
There were so many other people that made this trip suc-
cessful, that I can't name them all. But there are a few who
went out of their way to make things easier: Cmdt. Carlos
Gomes who took time out of his own busy research to pro-
vide sources and assistance with the librarian of the Bib-
lioteca Central; and Capitao-de-Mar-e-Guerra Jose Fernandes
Martins e Silva who agreed on extremely short notice to
meet with me and then sent copies of sources after I reached
home. Last but certainly not least, I would like to sincerely
thank my co-traveler and friend Anne Lessmann, without
whom I probably would not have made it through those
first few shaky days.
All material copied during the author's trip to Lis-
bon belongs to the Institute of Nautical Archaeology and
is located at Texas A&M

Figs. 8 and 9. Tie Lisbon waterfront today.

Phnonte K. Cri smn

INA Quarterly 25.2

The Earliest Mast Step
By Sam Mark, Mr. & Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried II Fellow

Ancient Egyptian artisans painted
thousands of scenes of ships and boats on the
walls of tombs that have enriched our under-
standing of their long nautical tradition. Our
knowledge of this rich heritage is supplement-
ed by boat models and even a few full-size ves-
sels that have been interred in or near tombs.
In 1987, one such model was discov-
ered in a temple at Elephantine in Upper
Egypt (fig. la and Ib) and dates to the Fourth
Dynasty (ca. 2613-2494 B.C.). Despite being
badly broken and lacking aesthetic value, it
does have a few interesting features. The most
important feature is an A-shaped mast step
(fig. Ib). This is the earliest known example
of a mast step and the only example from an-
cient Egypt. This model also reveals how the
mast was secured. A supporting pole is
stepped into the forward hole of the mast
step, and the mast is stepped into the aft hole.
A thwart, which is a timber that connects the
port and starboard sides of a vessel, runs be *
tween both poles. Cords are then tied around
the pole and mast directly above the thwart.
Finally, the mast receives additional support
from two forestays that run from the top of the
mast to two small holes on each side of the bow
(fig. 2).
Evidence of a single or center-line mast
in this model is also important. Vessels with
this type of mast date as early as the Late Pre-
dynastic period (c.a. 3200 B.C.). At this time, a
sail and its rigging would have been support-
ed by thee poles. Known as a tripod mast, it
was necessary design. Egyptians made their
first boats with bundles of papyrus, and,
when shipwrights built their vessels with
wood, they bound the planking together with
cords. The weight of a center-line mast could
force open planking seams in these types of
vessels. In contrast, the tripod, and later bi-
ped mast, could distribute this weight over a
larger aiea, which would preserve the integ-
rity of the seams. Egyptian shipwrights ap-
pear to have patterned this A-shaped mast
step after a tripod mast because they realized
it would distribute the weight of a center-line
mast step.
The holes on both sides of the hull are
yet another interesting feature of the model
for they allow us to date the introduction of

0 10 cm

Fig. 1 a & b (above). Fourth Dynasty boat model.

Fig. 2 (below). Reconstruction cf model.


[NA Quarterly 25.2

oars from the Fifth Dynasty (ca. 2494-2345 B.C.) to the
Fourth Dynasty (figs. 1 and 2). As previously mentioned,
the forward-most holes are for securing forestays. Two
small holes below the notch that holds the thwart (fig lb)
are for tying off the cords that secure the thwart. It seems
unlikely that the remaining holes were used to tie off lines
for the mast or rigging since all extant Egyptian iconogra-
phy shows such lines being tied at the stem of vessels. Rath-
er, the placement of these holes appears to be consistent with the

location of loops of rope used to hold oars. This is significant
because the earliest evidence for oars in Egypt dates to the Fifth
This model has given us new insight into some fea-
tures of early Egyptian boat construction. We now have
an example of a mast step and a better understanding of
how a mast was secured. Finally, we can move the intro-
duction of oars from the Fifth to the Fourth Dynasty, all
from a few bits of clay.,'

Suggested Readings

Kaiser, al.,
1988 "Stadt und Tempel von Elephantine," Mitteilungen des deutschen archdologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo 44:
Petrie, W. M.
1915 Prehistoric Egypt. London.
Casson, L.
1995 Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Baltimore.


by Patricia Sibella

La navigation dans l'antiquitd
by Patrice Pomcy et al.
Aix-en-Provence: Edisud, 1997.
ISBN 2-85744-799-X, 208 pages, hardcover, 23x30 cm
Price: 280 French Francs

La navigation dans I'antiquitt, written under the di-
rection of Patrice Pomey, sees the contributions of two
French -P. Pomey himself, and A. Tchernia-, one Italian
P. Gianfrotta-, and one Spanish -X.Nieto-underwater
archaeologists who are well-known for having largely ex-
plored the western Mediterranean seafloor. These highly
qualified and respected scholars present here chapters on
subjects for which they are known masters. Furthermore,
those years of laborious work spent in the field certainly
count as decades of experience. All of this makes the read-
ing of this volume even more interesting and enjoyable, as
no detail is left aside.
La navigation dans l'antiquitl is divided into five
sections with a total of 206 pages. The introduction has the
merit to rectify erroneous ideason ancient navigation with-
out falling into the reverse error. It clearly explains lacks
and limitations of archaeological documents, but at the
same time emphasizes the contribution of underwater ar-

Part One, titled "Navigation," contains three en-
tries subdivided into a total of eight sub-entries. Accounts
of ancient illustrious travelers such as Pythias, Paul or Stra-
bon are used to introduce and summarize the conquest of
maritime space within and beyond the Mediterranean. The
geographical and climatic constraints of this closed sea are
clearly evoked while the absence of navigational tools and
maritime charts are explained by the ability the ancients
had to interpret natural phenomena. On the other hand,
human greediness, through the existence of pirates, is pre-
sented as an unavoidable plague nurtured by political, eco-
nomic, and social motivations.
Part Two, titled "Vessels and Men," is composed
of two entries divided into eleven and two sub-entries,
respectively. It introduces the notion that from the primr-
tive craft of the Neolithic period and Aegean vessels of
the Bronze Age onwards, ancient ships never stopped
evolving. They gave birth to war and commerce vessels
through formulas that perpetuate themselves well past

INA Quarterly 25 2



George F Bass, President
James A Goold. Secretary

William L Alien
]ohn H. Baird
George E Bass
Edward 0. Boshell, Jr.,
Vice Chairman and Treasurer
Ray M. Bowen
John A. Biock
Elizabeth L. Bruni
Gregory M. Cook, Chairman
Harlan Crow
Frank Darden
John De Lapa

Allan Campbell, M D

Donald A. Frey, Vice President
Cemal hi. Pulak, Vice President

Claude Duthuit
Daniel Fallon
DanielleJ. Feeney
Donald G. Geddes III (Emeritus)
Woodrow Jones, Jr.
Harry C. Kahn II (Ementus)
Michael L. Katzev
lack W Kelley
Sally R. Lancaster
Robert E. Lorton
Frederick R. Mayer
William A. McKenzie

Bill Klein, M.D.

Claudia LeDoux, Assistant Secretary

Alex G. Nason
L. Francis Rooney
Ayhan Sicimoglu
Ray H. Siegfned Ul
William T. Sturgis
Robert L. Walker
Lew O. Ward
Peter M. Way
Garry A. Veber
Martin H. Wilcox
George 0. Yamini

Murad Sunalp, M.D.

George F Bass
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor ol Nautical Archaeology/ George O. Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts
Kevin J. Crisman, Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow
Frederick M. Hocker, Sara W & George O. Yamini Associate Professor
Cemal M. Pulak, Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow of Nautical Archaeology
C. Wayne Smith
I Richard Steffy. Sara W & Ceorge O. Yamiru Professor of Nauctial Alchaeolugy, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr.. Frederick R Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emertus
Shelley Wachsmann, Meadows Assistant Professor of Biblical Archaeology
Cheryl Ward, Assistant Professor

J. Barto Arnold, M.A., Texas Operations

Birgul Akbilltit
Eara Altinarut Coksu
Mustafa Babacik
William H. Charlton, Jr., M.A.
Michelle Chmelar
Marion Degirmencl
Tuba Ekmekgi
Adel Farouk
lane Haldane
Kathy Hall
Maria Jacobsen
Emad Khalil
Sheiia D Matthews, M.A
Selma Oguz
GtSkhan Ozagaclh. Ph.D.
Gdnet z02bay
Robin C.M. Piercy
Sema Pulak, M.A.
Patricia M Sibella. Ph.D.
Culser Sinaci
Howard Wellman, M.A.

Christine A. Powell

Douglas Haldane, M.A., INA Egypt

Elizabeth Robinson Baldwin, M.A.
Gregory Cidden
Jeremy Green
Elizabeth Greene
Jerome Hall. Ph D
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D.
Robert S. Neyland, Ph.D.
Ralph K. Pedersen, MA.
Brett A. Phaneuf
Duonald Rosencrantz
Peter G. van Alfen, M.A.

Arthur Cohn. J.D.
Cvnthia Eisenan, Ph.D.
John A. Gifford, Ph.D.
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D.
Carolyn C. Koehler, Ph.D.
David I. Owen, Ph.D.
David C. Switzer, Ph. D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., M A.
James A. Coold

Tufan U. Turanh, Turkish Headquarters

Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology
Boston University
Brown University
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
Uruversity of Cincinnati
Cornell University
Coming Museum of Glass
Department de Arqueoligia Subacuablca de
la .N.A.H., Mexico
University of Maryland, Baltimore COunty
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Partners for .ivable Places
University Museum, University of Pennsylvania
Texas A kM Research Foundation
Texas A&M University
University of Texas at Austin

Mr. and Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried II
Graduate Fellow; Samuel Mark
Marion M. Cook Graduate Fello>w
Erich Heinold

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