Group Title: INA quarterly
Title: The INA quarterly
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098800/00023
 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Spring 1998
Copyright Date: 1997
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098800
Volume ID: VID00023
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
 Related Items
Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))

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The INA Quarterly


Volume 25 No. 1 Spring 1998





MEMBERSHIP
The Institute of Nautical Archaeology wishes Institute of Nautical Archaeology
to thank you, our generous members, who have made PO. Drawer HG
all the accomplishments described in this anniversary College Station, TX 77841-5137
issue possible! Learn firsthand of the latest discov-
eries in nautical archaeology. Mem-
bers receive the INA Quarterly and
other benefits (see page 31 for full
3 A History of INA Research details).
George F. Bass
Researcher (students only) ..... $25
5 Twenty-five Years of INA Seafarer ................. $40-99
Christine Powell and Dale Rye Surveyor .............. $100-249
Diver ......... .....,.. $250-499
Restorer .............. $500-999
16 Scenes from the INA Anniversary Gala Curator ........... $1,000-$2,499
Gary Martin and George F. Bass Excavator ........... $2,500-4,999
Archaeologist ...... $5,000-9,999
31 INA Membership Information Navigator .......... $10,000-24,999
Anchor ......... $25,000 and over

Checks in U.S. currency should be made
On the cover: payable to INA. The portion of any do-
nation in excess of $10.00 is a tax-de-
Dr. George F. Bass excavating a ceramic krater from ductible, charitable contribution.
one of the last seasons at Uluburun.




May 1987 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. All rights reserved.

All the photographs and illustrations in this issue are taken from the INA Archives or contributors.

INA welcomes requests to reprint INA Quarterly articles and illustrations. Please address all requests and submissions to the Editor,
INA Quarterly, P.O. Drawer HG, College Station, TX 77841-5137; tel (409) 845-6694, fax (409) 847-9260, e-mail powlrye@texas.net
Article should be submitted in hard copy and on a 3.25 diskette (Macintosh, DOS, or Windows format acceptable) along with all artwork.

The Home Page for INA and the Texas A&M University Nautical Archaeology Program on the WorldWideWeb is http://nautarch.tamu.edu
The Institute of Nautical Archaeology is a non-profit scientific and educational organization, incorporated in 1972. Since 1976, INA
has been affiliated with Texas A&M University, where INA faculty teach in the Nautical Archaeology Program of the Department of
Anthropology.

The editorship of the INA Quarterly is supported by the Anna C. & Oliver C. Colburn Fund.


The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsletter (vols. 1-18).


Editor: Christine A. Powell







A History of INA Research
by George F. Bass


In 1972, INA was only a
dream, although an incorporated
dream. The dream was spelled out
in Proposal for the Foundation of an
American Institute of Nautical Archae-
ology, which was almost universally
ignored. Then, in the spring of 1973,
a few farsighted businessmen and
women met for the first Board Meet-
ing, and the Institute became a reali-
ty. The first year's budget was
$50,000-for everything. Three of the
original staff of four had pioneered
shipwreck archaeology in the 1960s
while still students at the University
of Pennsylvania.
I decided to write this note just
a couple of weeks before INA's 25th
Anniversary Celebration, to remind
myself and others how far we have
come in our first quarter century. It
does not claim, therefore, to be com-
plete-I was not even able to reach
some of the staff for their bibliogra-
phies, and thus tried to list as many
of their titles as possible from the


Ascending a staircase ofcopper ingots, Nic-
olle Hirschfeld raises an amphora from the
Late Bronze Age shipwreck at Uluburun.


books in my library. I ask that read-
ers fill in any missing blanks so that a corrected version of
this may become a permanent record of our early years.
What have we accomplished so far?
There has been no more important an excavation in
the field of historical archaeology during the past half cen-
tury than that conducted at Port Royal, Jamaica, the richest
English colony in the New World, sunk beneath the waves
in 1692 by an earthquake that submerged houses, inns, shops,
and their uniquely preserved contents. Thatexcavation, alone,
is more than similar institutes might have hoped to accomplish.


There has been no more impor-
tant preclassical Mediterranean site ex-
cavated in recent decades than the
Uluburun shipwreck in Turkey, with its
18,000 artifacts from nearly a dozen dif-
ferent cultures, twenty tons in all, pre-
cisely dated to within a few years of 1300
BCE by the tree rings in a log, perhaps
firewood, carried on board. This site is
revolutionizing our picture of the Late
Bronze Age, the time of the Trojan War,
King Tut, and the Exodus. Its excavation,
alone, would justify the existence of an
archaeological institute.
There has been no more impor-
tant medieval site excavated in the past
half century than the Serge Limaru ship-
wreck in Turkey, with the largest collec-
tion of medieval Islamic glass in the
world (between 10,000 and 20,000 ves-
sels), the largest collections of Byzantine
tools and weapons, the earliest dated
chess set, and so much more, all dated
almost exactly to the year 1025 by in-
scribed objects on board. The curator of
Islamic Art at the Metropolitan Muse-


um of Art in New York has written that
this excavation, alone, has revolutionized the study of me-
dieval Islamic art.
INA researchers have written the definitive history of
Lake Champlain, excavated the oldest shipwreck ever found in
the New World, excavated the oldest ship ever found in the Old
World, were the first to excavate shipwrecks of the Ameri-
can Revolution-both American and British-, have pio-
neered shipwreck archaeology in East Africa, from Egypt to
Kenya through Eritrea, and given the world its first chance
to see what a classical Greek ship looked like sailing across


Helen Dewolf and Donny Hamilton examine an array of arti-
facts from Port Royal.


An array of medieval Islamic glass recovered from the shipwreck
at Serge Liman.


[NA Quarterly 25.1











Homer's wine-dark sea! Even now,
an INA scholar in Israel is studying
the Roman-period fishing boat exca-
vated in the Sea of Gallilee by anoth-
er INA scholar before he joined the
institute.
INA archaeologists, already the
first to discover an ancient ship with
sonar, and already the first to map the
seabed with accuracy by means of their
own techniques, became the first to
excavate a wreck using saturation div-
ing, and set the record for any under-
water project undertaken with
compressed-air equipment with their
22,500 dives to between 145 and 200
feet at Uluburun, Turkey. INA re-
searchers have made Texas A&M Uni-
versity the center for the conservation
of underwater archaeological finds,
with current experiments with silicone
oils likely to revolutionize the field of
archaeological conservation.
In order to disseminate the re-


:'* -L ,-' r, i' '.A



I .'- '.,
.. . ,
I
)L-


Test sailing Kyrenia II.


suits of its research in scholarly and
popular form, INA has begun four sep-
arate publications series: The Nautical Archaeology Series
(Texas A&M Press) for major excavation reports, Studies in
Nautical Archaeology (Texas A&M Press in the U.S. and
Chatham Publishing in the U.K.) for slimmer works, includ-
ing those written by graduate students as M.A. theses, INA
Reports in the International Journal of Nautical Archaeology,
and the INA Quarterly (originally AINA Newsletter). It is es-
pecially heartening to see how young scholars develop a hab-
it for publishing quickly by writing for the INA Quarterly
and soon move on to writing books for national and inter-


national publishers. Over 400 publica-
tions have been written by INA archae-
ologists and give an idea of the record
INA is leaving for future generations.
By affiliating with Texas A&M
University, INA has advanced the field
of underwater archaeology not only in
the United States, by training the state
archaeologists for several states, but
around the world, by training students
from Peru, China, Jamaica, Canada,
Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Japan, En-
gland, South Africa, Switzerland, Tur-
key, France, and Albania.
In return for the financial aid
provided by Texas A&M, INA's many
appearances on all the major television
networks, its several one-hour specials
on PBS-TV, and its articles in National
Geographic and other popular maga-
zines around the world have all given
a positive image of the university to an
immense audience.


With a newly discovered ship-
wreck of the middle of the fifth centu-
ry B.C., the first ever found from the
height of classical Greek civilization, and the prospect of ac-
quiring a submersible that should help locate hundreds of
others wrecks, INA has the opportunity for continuing to
revolutionize our knowledge of the past in various parts of
the world. Equally exciting is INA's development of an in-
state program in Texas. Let us hope that INA's second quar-
ter century will be as deserving of celebration as its first, for
not only are we writing the definitive history of ships, but
we are adding new chapters to the histories of technology,
art, commerce, and so much more.a&


The remains of Santo Antonio de Tanna, a Portuguese frig-
ate which sank in Mombasa harbor in 1697.


Onboard Virazon anchored at Uluburun, Dr. Carolyn Fife (left) con-
ducts her Doppler research on one of the divers in her study group.


INA Quarterly 25.1


I
r
.:t


Y r







Twenty-five Years of INA
by Christine Powell and Dale Rye


Excavation without publication is only destruction. Although articles about our projects, by INA staff and others, runs to
many hundreds of titles, we mention in this brief history only preliminary reports published in American Journal of Archaeol-
ogy (AJA), International Journal of Nautical Archaeology (IJNA), Journal of Field Archaeology (JFA), annual Underwa-
ter Archaeology Proceedings from the Society for Historical Archaeology Conference (UAP) [originally The Proceedings
of the Conference on Underwater Archeology, and now simply Underwater Archaeology], National Geographic, and a
few more. As virtually all of these projects appear in the INA Quarterly (originally AINA Newsletter), those citations do not
appear. A complete bibliography will be available by request after September 1998.6s

1972
The American Institute of Nautical Archaeology (AINA) was incorporated in Pennsylvania by George F. Bass,
Ann S. Bass, and Steven Gadon early in 1972. Its mission statement was clear: "The Institute of Nautical Archaeology is
a nonprofit, scientific, and educational organization whose purpose is to gather knowledge of man's past as left in the
physical remains of his maritime activities and to disseminate this knowledge through scientific and popular publica-
tions, seminars, and lectures."
That same year, George Bass published A History of Seafaring Based on Underwater Archaeology which has since
been translated into Dutch, French, Swedish, Italian and German editions. This book still serves as a basic guide to
nautical archaeology.
Board of Directors: Ann Bass, George F. Bass, Chair, and Steve Gadon.6


1973
The first Board Meeting in Philadelphia brought
together the founding directors, whose support made
George Bass's dream a reality. Thus, INA calculates its
twenty-fifth anniversary celebration from this meeting.
AINA's first field project was a survey off the Turk-
ish coast directed by Bass. The survey far exceeded all ex- .
pectations by locating seventeen wrecks, of which at least q '
half a dozen were worthy of future excavation. Almost
every period of antiquity was represented-Preclassical,
Classical, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and later-and
include those since excavated by INA at Seytan Deresi,
Serce Limarun, and Bozburun. The survey was published
in IJNA 3 (1973).


1973 (above) Karodesler, equipped with a chamber, served as
AINA's first search trawler.

1973 (left) A Byzantine shipwreck with a cargo of tiles was located
during AINA's first Turkish survey.

Board of Directors: John H. Baird, Ann S. Bass,
George F. Bass, Chair, Fletcher A. Blanchard, Alan L.
Boegehold, John Brown Cook, Steve Gadon, W. Willson
Cummer, Nixon Griffis, Harry C. Kahn II, Michael L.
Katzev, Jack W. Kelley, Melvin M. Payne, Kenneth Sams,
W.F. Searle, and Elizabeth A. Whitehead.6w


INA Quarterly 25.1










1974
One of the major achievements of the Institute has been the training of
students in the discipline of nautical archaeology. Over the years numerous
students have participated in excavations and field schools all around the world
and many have gone on to lead their own excavations. In 1974, Bass directed
the first Summer Field School at Yassiada, Turkey. Although aborted by the
Cyprus War, work from this period led to a new publication of the fourth-
century Yassiada hull in IJNA 5 (1976). One of the aims of the field schools is
to train future leaders for underwater excavations both in the Old World and
the New. Participants of this first field school have gone on to further research
and careers and some have remained in close contact with INA. Faith
Hentschel, now Adjunct Professor, was at that first field school and has re-
turned each year to work on all of INA's Turkish projects.
There was a major new addition to the AINA staff this year. J. Richard
Steffy joined the team bringing with him his expertise in ship construction.
Steffy had long worked with AINA as a consultant developing lines, con-
struction plans, and construction procedures for the Kyrenia ship project. The
Steffy/INA relationship has been long and fruitful. Mr. Steffy retired in 1990
after assisting with the publication of the Kyrenia ship, Yassiada ships, and
the Athlit ram to name but a few. In 1994 Steffy published the landmark work
Wooden Shipbuilding and the Interpretation of Shipwrecks, which is the quintessential
guide for those who want to know how to document wooden ships and boats.
Work on the fourth-century B.C. Kyrenia Ship and museum displays
continued in Cyprus. An extensive article, "Last Harbor for the Oldest Ship" by 1974 Richard Steffy restores the hull of the
Susan & Michael Katzev was published in National Geographic (November 1974). Kyrenia ship.
The first AINA Newsletter (now INA Quarterly) was inaugurated by
Cynthia Eiseman in the Spring.
Board of Directors: John H. Baird, Ann S. Bass, George F. Bass, Chair, Fletcher A. Blanchard, Alan L. Boegehold,
John Brown Cook, Harrison Eiteljorg II, Cynthia J. Eiseman, Nixon Griffis, Simeon Hutner, Michael L. Katzev, Harry C.
Kahn I1, Jack W. Kelley, Melvin M. Payne, G. Kenneth Sams, W.F. Searle, Jr., Samuel S. Walker, Jr., Elizabeth A. White-
head, and James Eiseman, Counsel.6,


1975
In the summer of 1972, AINA Director W.F. Searle, Jr. and the Maine Maritime Academy (MMA)/Massachusetts
Institute of Technology Summer Sea Grant Project located the American brig Defence in Penobscot Bay, Maine. Between
June 1 and July 15, 1975, the first scientific excavation of an
.. -' American Revolutionary War ship began, under the direc-
torship of Bass and Dave Switzer. This was a joint effort be-
tween the AINA, MMA and the Maine State Museum.
AINA's second excavation of this year was conducted
on the cargo from ca. 1600 BCE, at Seytan Deresi (Devil Creek),
Turkey, between September 1, and mid October, 1975. Many of
the volunteers on this excavation have remained in dose con-
tact with the Institute. Both Cemal Pulak and Tufan Turanh were
on this early excavation. Pulak completed his Ph.D. at Texas
A&M University in 1997 and is now a Professor with the Nauti-
cal Archaeology Program while Turanh is permanently em-
ployed at the Bodrum headquarters and organizes the annual
shipwreck surveys. The excavation report was published in INA
5 (1976). This Middle Bronze Age cargo was the oldest then exca-
vated in the Mediterranean.
1975 Robin Piercy and Ann Bass restore the jars from eytan Deresi. Restoration of the classical Greek ship was complet-
ed at Kyrenia, Cyprus, by the Katzevs and Dick Steffy. A


INA Quarterly 25.1









one-ton concretion from the wreck was examined and stud-
ied and provided a variety of metal objects that greatly
aided in the final study of the ship.
In the Spring issue of the AINA Newsletter (2.1), Ex-
ecutive Director Cynthia J. Eiseman reported on her doc-
toral research, the final excavation report on the Porticello
Shipwreck. This fifth century BCE wreck from the Italian
side of the Straits of Messina was excavated in 1970 by fu-
ture INA staff members when they were still working for
the University Museum. The final publication, The Porti-
cello Shipwreck: A Mediterranean Merchant Vessel of 415-385
B.C., was published by Texas A&M Press in 1987 as part of
the Nautical Archaeology Series.


Bass published Archaeology Beneath the Sea, now out
of print but sometimes available at used book stores. It is
a personal account of the early days of underwater exca-
vation.
Board of Directors: John H. Baird, Ann S. Bass,
George F. Bass, Chair, Fletcher A. Blanchard, Alan L.
Boegehold, John Brown Cook, Harrison Eiteljorg, Cynthia
J. Eiseman, Nixon Griffis, Simeon Hutner, Harry C. Kahn
II, Michael L. Katzev, Jack W. Kelley, Melvin M. Payne, G.
Kenneth Sams, W.F. Searle, Jr., SamuelS. Walker, Jr., Eliz-
abeth A. Whitehead and James Eiseman, Jr., Counsel.s-


1976


In perhaps the most significant event of the year,
AINA affiliated with Texas A&M University and moved
its headquarters to College Station. The agreement main-
tained AINA's status as an independent research institute
but provided for the creation of an
academic program in nautical archae-
ology. Bass, Steffy, and, shortly after-
ward, Fred van Doorninck joined the
A&M faculty. In Turkey, Tufan
Turanl joined the staff as Projects
Manager.
In January, Don Frey and Rob-
in Piercy spent three weeks at the in-
vitation of the Fort Jesus Museum,
Kenya. He was investigating the re-
mains of a Portuguese ship in Mom-
basa harbor that was believed to be
Santo Antonio de Tanna, which was
sunk during the 1697 siege that led to
the loss of the European colony there.
In March and April, George
Bass, Donald Frey, and Robin Piercy
conducted an underwater survey
around western Sicily, including in-
spection of a Classical wreck at Secca
di Capistello (Porticello shipwreck).
In May, AINA began the first
1976 Bronze head fr
scientific excavation of a British ves- 1 r
wreck.
sel from the American Revolutionary
War, the "Cornwallis Cave Wreck" in
the York River, Virginia, published in IJNA 7 (1978). Bass
advised the Virginia archaeologists that the next wreck
from the Battle of Yorktown excavated in the river should


o0


be surrounded by a coffer dam in which the water could
be filtered for visibility, with a pier built from land to the
dam. This led to the successful excavation of the Betsy (see
National Geographic June 1988).
Excavation of the Defence in
Maine continued under David C.
Switzer. This research was published
in UAP (1978). The six weeks of work
were in conjunction with AINA's
fourth summer field school, with
twelve students enrolled. On "Bicen-
tennial Sunday," July 4, 1976, the ex-
cavation was formally recognized as
a National Bicentennial Project.
Excavations began in July at
the Minoan harbor town of Kommos
on Crete, directed by AINA Adjunct
Professor Joseph W. Shaw. This site
was inhabited during the Middle and
Late Minoan Periods. These excava-
tions are now being published by
Shaw and others in a multi-volume
set by Princeton University Press.
Board of Directors: John H.
Baird, Ann S. Bass, George F. Bass,
Chair, Fletcher A. Blanchard, Alan L.
m the Porticello ship- Boegehold, John C. Calhoun, Jr., John
Brown Cook, Harrison Eiteljorg, II,
Cynthia J. Eiseman, Nixon Griffis,
Simeon Hutner, Harry C. Kahn, II,
Michael L. Katzev, Jack W. Kelley, J.M. Lewallen, Melvin
M. Payne, G. Kenneth Sams, W.F. Searle, Jr., and Elizabeth
A. Whitehead.sr


1977


In the winter months, excavation of the Portuguese frig-
ate SantoAntonio de Tanna (sunk 1697) began at Mombasa, Ken-
ya, under Robin Piercy. This was published in IJNA 6 (1977).


During this summer, AINA began its excavation of
the eleventh-century "Glass Wreck" at Serge Limaru, Tur-
key. As noted above, this was perhaps the most significant


INA Quarterly 25.1










medieval site discovered in the Mediterranean in the past half
century. The excavation was published in IJNA 7 (1978), UAP
(1978), and as "Glass Treasure from the Aegean" in the June
1978 National Geographic. The final publication for this site is now
in the hands of the publishers and expected out shortly. Serge
Lunam Project Co-Director Frederick H. van Doominck, Jr., had
joined the ALNA staff in College Station that spring.
Don Frey directed the excavation of a third-centu-
ry BCE Hellenistic wreck off La Secca de Capistello, Lipari,
one of the Aeolian Islands north of Sicily. The wreck, at 65
meters depth, posed special risks; earlier expeditions to
the site had suffered four deaths from diving accidents.
Even limited scientific exploration required mixed-gas sat-
uration diving with the assistance of divers from Sub Sea
Oil Services. The team recovered black-glazed Campanian
pottery and Greco-Italian amphoras. The excavation was
published in 1JNA 7 (1978) and UAP (1978).
David C. Switzer continued excavation of the De-
fence in Penobscot Bay, Maine. As the only existing priva-
teer of the Revolutionary War period, the ship remains
provided important information related to the design and
construction of wooden ships of this era. J. Richard Steffy
lectured the students at the field school on ship construc-
tion and worked on models of the Defence with David
Wyman. Steffy also served as reconstructor on the Brown's
Ferry Project sponsored by the University of South Carolina.


.. .. S
* ~-** .* Ha'-' t; .


1977 A one-man diving bell Robertina was used during the
excavation of the shipwreck found near Lipari.

Board of Directors: John H. Baird, George F. Bass,
Chair, Fletcher A. Blanchard, Alan L. Boegehold, John C.
Calhoun, Jr., Ronnie Chamness, John Brown Cook, Harri-
son Eiteljorg, II, Cynthia J. Eiseman, Nixon Griffis, Simeon
Hutner, Harry C. Kahn, II, Michael L. Katzev, Jack W.
Kelley, John M. Lawrence, Counsel, J.M. Lewallen, Melvin
M. Payne, G. Kenneth Sams, W.F. Searle, Jr., and Elizabeth
A. Whitehead.s"


1978


During this year, AINA contin-
ued with several of its major projects
from prior years. As if to mark this,
the Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation
released a 55-minute color film on the
Kyrenia Ship, excavated by a team
from the University of Pennsylvania
Museum, many of whom were later
associated with INA. This film, co-
produced by the National Geographic
Society, was aired throughout the
world.
Bass and van Doorninck di-
rected the second campaign on the
"Glass Wreck" at Serce Limani, Tur-
key. Even as the cargo was brought
to the surface, work began on the hull.
This vessel marked a critical stage in the
transition from shell-first to frame-first
construction during the Middle Ages.
During the work at Serge
Limanl that summer, word came that
the supervising commissioner from
the Turkish Department of Antiqui-
ties, Oguz Alp6zen, had been ap-


1978 Oguz Alpdzen (left) and Don Frey
raise a lead anchor stock found in Serge
Liman.


pointed director of the Bodrum Mu-
seum. This marked a new phase of the
relationship between INA and this
dedicated scholar, who had partici-
pated in almost every Turkish exca-
vation and survey since 1962. Under
his direction, the Bodrum Museum-
which houses all of INA's Turkish finds
since 1960-has become a world-class
center for marine archaeology.
Also this year, J. Richard Steffy
built a scale model of the colonial ves-
sel raised at Brown's Ferry in South
Carolina, published in UAP (1978)
and, with Alan Albright, in IJNA 8
(1979). Robin Piercy continued the ex-
cavation of Santo Antonio de Tanna in
Kenya, published in IJNA 7 (1978).
The major effort at Mombasa in 1978
was to reveal the details of the ship's
stem. During June and July, AINA
held its 1978 field school during the
fourth season of the excavation of
Defence in Maine, with David Switzer
again at the helm.


INA Quarterly 25.1










However, the year was not exclusively marked by
the continuation of preexisting projects. New work includ-
ed the survey of the sidewheel steamboat Black Cloud (sunk
1873) in the Trinity River, Texas, by Texas A&M students,
and investigation of the Griffon Cove Wreck in Lake Hu-
ron, published in LIAP (1981).
Since its beginning, INA was pledged to more than
simply underwater excavations. Teaching, conservation,
and publication were equally a part of its mission. In 1978,
Donny Hamilton joined AINA and the Texas A&M facul-
ty. Dr. Hamilton had been director of the Antiquities Con-
servation Laboratory at The University of Texas at Austin,


where he was responsible for conserving all the material re-
covered from the 1554 Padre Island shipwrecks. At Texas
A&M, he established the Conservation Research Labora-
tory, which has done outstanding work in this field.
Board of Directors: John H. Baird, George F. Bass,
Chair, Fletcher A. Blanchard, Alan L. Boegehold, John C.
Calhoun, Jr., Ronnie Chamness, Harrison Eiteljorg, II, Cyn-
thia J. Eiseman, Nixon Griffis, Simeon Hutner, Harry C.
Kahn, II, Michael L. Katzev, Jack W. Kelley, J.M. Lewallen,
Melvin M. Payne, G. Kenneth Sams, W.F. Searle, Jr., and
Elizabeth A. Whitehead. o


1979
One most significant change for the Institute this
year was a change in its legal name. In recognition of the -
international scope of its staff, directors, and work, AINA "A 1 -.
(the American Institute of Nautical Archaeology) became
simply INA. The AINA Newsletter similarly changed its
name as of the Spring issue (6.1). An era had ended with
the previous issue as the founding Editor, Dr. Cynthia Jones
Eiseman, resigned to devote more time to her own research.
George F. Bass and Don Keith conducted a one-
month course on underwater archaeology at the National
School of Anthropology and History at the University of
Mexico. Their work included dives in a sacred lake, Media



1979 George Bass with Mexican students prepare to dive in the
sacred lake of Media Luna.

Luna, in the state of San Luis Potosi. Elsewhere in Mexico, a joint project with
the Institutio National de Anthropologia y Historia on a 16th-century wreck
at Cayo Nuevo in the Bay of Campeche was published in UAP (1981).
Several INA projects this year centered around the rich archaeological
site at Serge Limanl, Turkey. The excavation of the medieval "Glass Wreck"
was completed, published in IJNA 11 (1982) & UAP (1981). Cemal Pulak be-
gan a test excavation on the nearby Hellenistic wreck, published in AJA 91
(1987). Hundreds of amphoras manufactured on the nearby island of Knidos
were identified. Finally, an underwater survey of the ancient anchorage at
Serqe Limaniby Dorothy A. Slane and Don Frey was published in UAP (1981).
An observation of the thirteenth-century Chinese shipwreck excavation
at Shinan-gun, Korea, was published by Donald Keith as "A 14th-Century Car-
go Makes Port at Last" in the August 1979 National Geographic, in UAP (1981),
and in IJNA 10 (1981), with C.J. Buys. This wreck yielded more than 12,000 ce-
ramics and other artifacts and several tons of Chinese coins minted over a span
of six centuries ending in 1311.
Donny Hamilton and the Conservation Laboratory preserved a sample
of the iron hull plating raised from the famous Civil War ironclad USS Monitor.
1979 Raising artifacts found during the This project was undertaken to develop information on the condition of the wreck,
survey of the ancient anchorage of Serge 16 miles off the coast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, and to provide insight
Limanr. into the problems that would be involved in the recovery of further material.


INA Quarterly 25.1










The Defence excavation continued in Maine, pub-
lished in UAP (1981). Due to the prohibitive cost of raising
and preserving the hull, the structure was thoroughly doc-
umented in situ. Certain particularly important items were
recorded topside before being redeposited within the hull.
The excavation in Mombasa by INA and the Na-
tional Museums of Kenya of Santo Antonio de Tanna also
continued in 1979, published in IJNA 8 (1979).
A new project this year was INA's first venture into
the Caribbean, at the invitation of the Government of the
Cayman Islands. Roger C. Smith directed a survey for
wrecks around Little Cayman Island, once the busiest of
the three islands but inhabited by only fifteen persons in
1979. At least seventeen confirmed sites were found dur-
ing the first summer of the project.


INA-trained archaeologists were also involved dur-
ing 1979 in the excavation of Lord Comwallis's scuttled
fleet off Yorktown, Virginia, and the reconstruction of the
Dutch East Indiaman Batavia for the Western Australia
Maritime Museum.
Board of Directors: John H. Baird, Chair, George F.
Bass, Harry W. Bass, Jr., Richard D. Bass, Fletcher A. Blan-
chard, Duncan Boeckman, Alan L. Boegehold, John C. Cal-
houn, Jr., Ronnie Chamness, Claude Duthuit, Cynthia J.
Eiseman, Harrison Eiteljorg, II, Vice Chair, Sumner Ger-
ard, Nixon Griffis, Simeon Hutner, Harry C. Kahn, II,
Michael L. Katzev, Jack W. Kelley, J. M. Lewallen, Jarvis
E. Miller, Melvin M. Payne, G. Kenneth Sams, W.F. Searle,
Jr., and Elizabeth A. Whitehead.


1980


Several projects represented the
continuation of prior work. This year
saw the fourth and final season of ex-
cavation of Santo Antonio de Tanna in
Kenya. The preliminary results were
published in IJNA 10 (1981). In Turkey,
an INA team continued the excavation
of the Hellenistic Serge Limaru wreck,
published in AJA 91 (1987). At Bodrum
Castle, the tedious work of reassem-
bling the half million fragments of glass
from the medieval Serqe Limam wreck :
got well underway. Roger Smith con-
tinued the Cayman Island survey, and
was joined for part of the season by
Donny Hamilton and Vaughn Bryant,
Chair of the Texas A&M Anthropolo-
gy Department. The survey identified
over fifty sites around Cayman Brac
and the East End of Grand Cayman.
In Mexico, the Institutio Nation-
al de Anthropologia y Historia estab-
lished a Department of Underwater 1980 Thiscarved wo
Archaeology, headed by Pilar Luna stern of Santo Antc
Erreguerena, a veteran of Serge
Limani and the Cayman survey. The
Department continued the preliminary excavation of the
16th-century wreck in the Bay of Campeche, with Donald
H. Keith of INA acting as a consultant.
This year, the summer field school moved south
from Maine to Virginia. J. Richard Steffy directed the ex-
cavation in the York River. This led to the identification of
General Cornwallis's flagship, the fifth-rate man-of-war
Charon. The results were published in UAP (1981). The ex-


oden angel adorned the
nio de Tanna.


cavation showed how much informa-
tion can be drawn from even a very
poorly preserved shipwreck. In par-
ticular, Thomas J. Oertling's study of
the Charon's chain pump eventually
led to his book, Ship's Bilge Pumps,
published by Texas A&M Press in
1996.
Perhaps the biggest step for
INA in 1980, however, was the pur-
chase of its first research vessel. The
65-foot Virazon was initially taken to
Turkey in 1964 by George Bass for the
University of Pennsylvania, but was
later transferred to the U.S. Air Force
in Izmir. The Institute purchased the
ship as a platform for surveys and a
base for excavations in the Mediter-
ranean region. Under Captain Tufan
Turanh, Virazon has had a distin-
guished career. That first year, the
vessel took part in an underwater sur-
vey for wrecks in Turkish waters,
published in IJNA 10 (1981).


Board of Directors: Oren E.
Atkins, John H. Baird, George F. Bass,
Harry W. Bass, Jr., Richard D. Bass, Fletcher A. Blanchard,
Duncan Boeckman, Alan L. Boegehold, John C. Calhoun,
Jr., Mrs. John Brown Cook, Ronnie Chamness, Claude
Duthuit, Cynthia J. Eiseman, Harrison Eiteljorg, II, Vice
Chair, Sumner Gerard, Nixon Griffis, Chair, Simeon Hut-
ner, Harry C. Kahn, II, Michael L. Katzev, Jack W. Kelley,
J.M. Lewallen, Jarvis E. Miller, Melvin M. Payne, G. Ken-
neth Sams, and Elizabeth A. Whitehead.,c


INA Quarterly 25.1










1981
This seems to have been "the year of the Caribbean." of local sponge divers. A number of wrecks that may mer-
The Government of Jamaica invited INA to conduct a survey of it future excavation were located. In Maine, the excava-
Pedro Bank off the southern coast. Resisting the blandishments tion of Defence concluded with the assistance of thirty
of treasure hunters, the country wished to safeguard its nation- volunteers from Earthwatch.
al heritage through proper- Two television films
ly-managed archaeological provided broad public expo-
investigation. The team, in- sure for underwater archaeol-
cluding project director ogy during 1981. One, The
Steve Hoyt and INA Direc- Ancient Mariners, gave an in-
tor SumnerGerard (a former international audience an over-
U.S. ambassadortoJamaica), view of INA's work in the
located four 17th-century Mediterranean. This program
wrecks. The project was was produced for the Odyssey
published in IJNA 13(1984). program on PBS as the kick-
As a result of this off for the 1981/82 television
survey, INA was invited season and has been rebroad-
to assist in the excavation cast many times since. The
of other significant Jamai- other film, The Ancient Ship of
can sites. Donny Hamil- Kyrenia, produced by the Cy-
ton conducted his first test 1981 Fred and BJ van Doorninck work on a replica of one of the prus Broadcasting Corpora-
excavations at Port Royal. anchors from the Serge Limant shipwreck, tion in cooperation with the
This was the most econom- National Geographic Society,


ically important English site in the New World between 1655
and 1692, when much of the city sank into Kingston Harbor
during an earthquake. As a result of the disaster, Port Royal
contained one of the world's largest collections of undis-
turbed seventeenth-century British artifactual material. In
this first season, the INA team discovered the remains of
two buildings. Most importantly, it confirmed the feasi-
bility of conducting controlled archaeological excavations
on this incomparable site.
Meanwhile, on the north coast of Jamaica, INA con-
ducted a preliminary survey of St. Ann's Bay under the
direction of Roger C. Smith. This is where Columbus aban-
doned two ships on his fourth voyage. Although the ships
were not located, much valuable work was done at this
early center of Spanish activity.
Two older projects also took their place in INA's
agenda in 1981. The survey of Turkish waters from Vira-
zon, directed by Don Frey, continued with the assistance


received a prize at the Thirteenth Festival International du
Film Maritime et d'Exploration in Toulon, France.
Also this year, INA adjunct professor Edwin Do-
ran, Jr., published Wanka: Austronesian Canoe Origins (Tex-
as A&M University Press). This was an exploration of the
anthropological data covering an area from Easter Island
to Indonesia and west to Madagascar, interpreted in the
light of over forty years of experience with different types
of sailing craft.
Board of Directors: Oren E. Atkins, John H. Baird,
George F. Bass, Harry W. Bass, Jr., Richard D. Bass, Fletcher
A. Blanchard, Duncan Boeckman, Alan L. Boegehold, John
C. Calhoun, Jr., Vice Chair, Mrs. John Brown Cook, Claude
Duthuit, Cynthia J. Eiseman, Harrison Eiteljorg, II, Chair,
Sumner Gerard, Nixon Griffis, Harry C. Kahn, II, Michael
L. Katzev, Jack W. Kelley, David C. Langworthy, J.M. Le-
wallen, Jarvis E. Miller, Melvin M. Payne, G. Kenneth Sams,
and Elizabeth A. Whitehead.a


1982


In July, INA and the Bodrum Museum of Under-
water Archaeology co-hosted a two-week Council of Eu-
rope field school. This setting allowed study of the
Museum's exhibits and INA's conservation work. In ad-
dition, participants had the opportunity to dive on the six-
teenth-century Ottoman wreck at Yassiada, less than two
hours from Bodrum by car and boat. INA had returned to
the site to excavate this shipwreck, which partially over-


lay the fourth-century wreck excavated between 1967 and
1974. The project also provided another chance to search
for artifacts on the older wreck, whose excavation had been
cut short by the outbreak of the Cyprus War.
Don Frey continued his annual surveys along the
Turkish coast. He hit paydirt this year with the discovery
of the Bronze Age wreck at Uluburun and nine other ship-
wreck sites. The first dives at Uluburun revealed fifty copper


INA Quarterly 25.1


























1982 (above) Divers raise a bombardetafound during the excavation of the Molas-
ses Reef shipwreck.

1982 (left) Diver raises a glazed bowl, one of the few artifacts associated with the
16th-century Ottoman shipwreck at Yasszada.


ingots and four jars, which suggested a date in about the
fourteenth century BCE, a century or more older than the
Cape Gelidonya wreck forty miles to the east.
In the New World, Don Keith began excavation of
the Molasses Reef wreck in the Turks and Caicos Islands.
This ship was probably built in the fifteenth century and is
the oldest known wreck in the New World. It was published
in IJNA 13 (1984). Further north, Dick Steffy consulted on
the excavation of a seventeenth-century merchantman found
during a construction project at Water Street in Manhattan.
Several ongoing projects continued in 1982. In Ja-
maica, Donny Hamilton went forward with the Port Roy-
al excavation, published in IJNA 13 (1984), and the surveys
at St. Ann's Bay and Pedro Bank continued. In Kenya, con-
servation and analysis of the Mombasa Wreck occupied
Robin Pearcy and several others. In Italy, Cynthia Eise-
man conducted her studies on the Porticello shipwreck (ca.
400 BCE). In Mexico, progress was made on the joint project
with the Department of Underwater Archeology study-


ing a sixteenth-century wreck and other finds at Cayo
Nuevo in the Bay of Campeche.
In the final months of 1982, Michael Katzev and Steffy
were advisers for the construction of a full-scale replica of
the Kyrenia ship. This project was to provide valuable expe-
rience in ancient ship construction and navigation.
Several important publications also marked the year.
Bass and van Doorninck published Yassi Ada I: A Seventh
Century Byzantine Shipwreck as the first volume in the new
INA Nautical Archaeology Series from Texas A&M Univer-
sity Press. B. Ford and Dave Switzer published Underwater Dig:
The Excavation of a Revolutionary War Privateer about the Defence.
Board of Directors: John H. Baird, George F. Bass, Ri-
chard D. Bass, Duncan Boeckman, Chair, John C. Calhoun,
Jr., Mrs. John Brown Cook Vice Chair, Claude Duthuit, Nix-
on Griffis, Harry C. Kahn, II, Michael L. Katzev, Jack W.
Kelley, David C. Langworthy, Frederick R. Mayer, Melvin
M. Payne, Ray H. Siegfried, II, Frank E. Vandiver, Garry A.
Weber, and Elizabeth A. Whitehead, Emerita.,


1983


Dick Steffy spent the first two weeks of January in
Haifa, Israel completing the field recording of the first an-
cient warship ram ever recovered. The Athlit ram, and
Steffy's study of it, remain crucial to modem knowledge of
Classical-period naval technology and warfare.
In perhaps the most exciting development of the year,
Cemal Pulak and Don Frey conducted the first detailed sur-
vey of the Bronze Age wreck at Uluburun, Turkey. This was
published in IJNA 13 (1984). A photomosaic of the site re-


vealed eighty-three four-handled copper ingots, more than
twice the number recovered at Cape Gelidonya. Initial test-
ing showed that hull remains probably survived, and that
the ship had connections with the Syro-Palestinian coast.
There was a rush of activity in Turkey in 1983. Earlier
in the summer, Pulak directed the second year of excava-
tion of the Ottoman wreck at Yassiada. Surprisingly com-
plete hull remains and surprisingly few artifacts were found.
In addition, many amphoras from the seventh-century


INA Quarterly 25.1

























1983 (above) Drawing by Richard Steffy of the Athlit ram.


1983 (right) Don Keith (at left) examines one of the cores taken in Isabela harbor.


Yassiada wreck were lifted to examine for graffiti; about
eighty markings were found. Don Frey conducted the an-
nual coastal survey, which discovered four promising sites
out of a dozen-odd shipwrecks investigated. Of course, the
long work of conservation and study on the Serge Limani
"Glass Wreck" hull and artifacts continued in Bodrum.
In the Caribbean, work at most sites continued. At
Port Royal, Jamaica, Donny Hamilton and his team con-
tinued their exploration of a submerged brick building,
published in Archaeology (1984). Rooms in the building had
probably contained a meat processing shop, a tavern, and
a pipe shop. Port Royal was also the site for a 5-week sum-
mer field school. The St. Ann's Bay and Pedro Banks sur-
veys also continued in Jamaica. In the Turks and Caicos
Islands, Don Keith and the Molasses Reef team completed
their excavation, which was published in JFA 12 (1985).
The Conservation Lab in College Station began the slow
process of conserving over a thousand concreted objects
the Molasses Reef team brought back. In addition, the team
conducted a survey of a well-preserved sixteenth-century
wreck at Highborn (Hyburn) Cay in the Bahamas. This was
published in IJNA 14 (1985). Keith's group also looked for
several of Columbus's ships sunk in a 1493 hurricane near
La Isabela in the Dominican Republic. INA and its Mexi-


can colleagues carried out a another joint expedition to
Cayo Nuevo.
In 1983, Kevin Crisman, while still a student in the
Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M Universi-
ty, published The History and Construction of the United States
Schooner Ticonderoga. This unique vessel was designed as
a commercial steamboat but converted to an armed schoo-
ner while still on the stocks. Crisman based his book on a
two-year study of the hull remains. Another student, Ruby
Lang, served as project director for a survey and test exca-
vation on the Mittie Stevens, an 1870s steamboat that blew
up and sank near the Texas-Louisiana border in Caddo
Lake. Cynthia Eiseman, Jim Eiseman, and Don Frey stud-
ied and photographed the Porticello material for publica-
tion.
Board of Directors: John H. Baird, George F. Bass,
Richard D. Bass, Duncan Boeckman, Chair, John C. Cal-
houn, Jr., Charles Collins, Mrs. John Brown Cook, Vice
Chair, Claude Duthuit, Donald G. Geddes, III, Sumner
Gerard, Nixon Griffis, Harry C. Kahn, II, Michael L. Katzev,
Jack W. Kelley, David C. Langworthy, Frederick R. May-
er, Melvin M. Payne, Clinfon A. Phillips, Ray H. Siegfried,
II, Frank E. Vandiver, Lew O. Ward, Garry A. Weber, and
Martin A. Wilcox.r


1984
The most memorable event of this year was the first artifactual finds proved to be far richer than anyone had
season of serious excavation at Uluburun. A remarkable dared to imagine. This first season was published in AJA
group of scholars directed by George F. Bass conducted a 90 (1986). After the Uluburun excavation closed for the
meticulous exploration of the Bronze Age site. A small field year, Virazon carried out the annual survey along the Turk-
school provided additional workers. The hull remains and ish coast, using special side-scan sonar equipment designed


INA Quarterly 25.1


-.4-----.-

i _ _ _










by INA Director Marty Wilcox. A num-
ber of significant sites were found.
In Jamaica, the excavation of
Port Royal continued under Donny
Hamilton, who conducted a fourth
field school on the site. Similarly, the
St. Ann's Bay team under Roger C.
Smith carried on their search for the
two caravels Columbus abandoned in
1504. Don Keith and Tom Oertling re-
turned to College Station to supervise
the conservation, analysis, and docu-
mentation of the Molasses Reef arti-
facts. In addition, Keith led a survey
on West Caicos for any evidence of
survivors from the Molasses Reef
wreck. INA and its Mexican col-
leagues carried out a joint survey of
an early sixteenth-century shipwreck
at Bahia Mujeres on the coast of Quin-
tana Roo. To provide historical
grounding for INA's Caribbean op-
erations, Denise Lakey conducted re-
search in the Archives of the Indies,
Seville, Spain. Her findings were pub-


1984 Marty Wilcox prepares to lower the
side-scan sonar developed by his compa-
ny, Marine Sonic Technology.


lished in UAP (1985). Elsewhere in Spain,
Denise Lakey and Joe Simmons conduct-
ed archival research in preparation for a
joint survey of the Bay of Cadiz with ar-
chaeologists from the Ministry of Culture.
Dick Steffy studied a small Ro-
man boat found at Herculaneum, It-
aly, one of the towns destroyed by the
famous eruption of Mount Vesuvius
in 79 CE. The study was published in
AJA (1985). Steffy was also involved
with Michael and Susan Katzev in the
construction of a full-scale sailing rep-
lica of the Kyrenia ship. The ship was
completed in 1984 and passed its sail-
ing trials with flying colors.
Conservation of the Sere Limaru
Glass Wreck, Yassiada Ottoman Wreck,
Santo Antonio de Tanna, and the Molasses
Reef Wreck continued on three conti-
nents. Especially noteworthy was the
beginning of work on reconstructing
the Glass Wreck from the timbers that
had been undergoing conservation
treatment since 1981.


Board of Directors: John H. Baird, George F. Bass, Richard D. Bass, Duncan Boeckman, Chair, John C. Calhoun,
Jr., Charles Collins, Mrs. John Brown Cook, Vice Chair, Frank Darden, Michael J. Davidson, Claude Duthuit, Donald G.
Geddes, III, Sumner Gerard, Nixon Griffis, Harry C. Kahn, II, Michael L. Katzev, Jack W. Kelley, David C. Langworthy,
Robert E. Lorton, Frederick R. Mayer, Melvin M. Payne, Clinton A. Phillips, Ray H. Siegfried, II, William T. Sturgis,
Frank E. Vandiver, Robert L. Walker, Lew O. Ward, Garry A. Weber, Martin A. Wilcox, and George O. Yamini.a~


1985
In June, J. Richard Steffy was
named a MacArthur Fellow, an honor
bestowed on "individuals who show ex-
ceptional promise, dedication, and ca-
pacity for self-direction" in their chosen
field. This honor carried with it a five-
year tax-free annual grant to be spent at
the honoree's personal discretion. The
grant enabled Steffy to carry out research
with a minimum of institutional duties
and report-writing. Indeed, it enabled
him to write the definitive text on wood-
en ship construction and reconstruction.

1985 (left) Sheila Matthews restores the
Serge Limam hull, using bicycle spokes
to secure the timbers.

1985 (right) Sieving the contents of one
qf the Canaanite jarsfound at Uluburun.


INA Quarterly 25.1










The prize was appropriate in this year particularly,
as INA and various Nautical Archaeology faculty and stu-
dents were engaged in a number of reconstruction projects,
including the Athlit Ram, the Glass Wreck, the Kyrenia
replica, the Molasses Reef Wreck, and Dutch vessels stud-
ied by Fred Hocker and Aleydis van de Moortel. Conser-
vation of all these ships and their artifacts, as well as the
materials from Santo Antonio de Tanna and the Yassiada
Ottoman Wreck continued around the world.
The excavation of the Bronze Age shipwreck at Ul-
uburun, Turkey, continued for a second season, and was
published in AJA 92 (1988). In addition to the previously
noted copper ingots, tin and glass ingots were also found.
Cheryl Haldane Ward discovered that most of the fifty
Canaanite jars contained resin. Cemal Pulak began his
study of the assemblage of balance pan weights. Many


other artifacts were found, but at this stage the mixture of
origins still represented somewhat of an enigma.
Donny Hamilton continued his work at Port Royal,
Jamaica, where another summer field school was held. One
significant innovation was INA's first use of computers in
the field to manage databases and mapping.
Board of Directors: John H. Baird, George F. Bass,
Duncan Boeckman, John C. Calhoun, Jr., Charles Collins,
Mrs. John Brown Cook, Chair, Frank Darden, Michael J.
Davidson, Claude Duthuit, Donald G. Geddes, Ill, Sumner
Gerard, Nixon Griffis, Harry C. Kahn, II, Michael L. Katzev,
Jack W. Kelley, David C. Langworthy, Robert E. Lorton, Fre-
derick R. Mayer, Vice Chair, Melvin M. Payne, Clinton A.
Phillips, Ray H. Siegfried, II, William T. Sturgis, Frank E.
Vandiver, Robert L. Walker, Lew O. Ward, Garry A. Weber,
Martin A. Wilcox, and George O. Yamini.6r


1986
In what has to have been one of the most "visual" of nautical archaeology stories, Kyrenia 11 sailed up the Hudson River in
a Tall Ships Parade honoring America's Fourth of July. Following the replica's retum to Greece, it sailed to Cyprus, where it was
greeted by more than 12,000 well-wishers at Pathos and by great crowds elsewhere on the southern coast.
The major projects at Uluburun and Port Royal continued to dominate INA resources this year, but there were many other
irons in the fire as well. Cemal Pulak undertook direct supervision of the Bronze Age wreck, which was published in AJA 93
(1989). Among the most significant finds was a gold scarab of Queen Nefertiti, which has allowed establishing a synchronism
between the Egyptian king lists and the absolute dating established at Uluburun by dendrochronology. The world's oldest writ-
ing tablet was also found among the significant discoveries of this season.
Donny Hamilton continued excavation of Port Royal, Jamaica, with twenty-two students in the summer field school. Two
buildings were investigated, and the bastions at Fort James were mapped.
INA continued its focus on the Ships of Discovery with the excavation of a 16th-century wreck at Highborn Cay,
Bahamas, published in IJNA 18 (1989). A team headed by Don Keith finished the detailed study of the Molasses Reef
Wreck in the Turks and Caicos Islands. Team members also carried on archival research in Spain.
The annual survey off the Turk-
ish coast continued under Don Frey.
This year, a number of significant an-
cient and medieval sites were found. At
Bodrum, conservation and study con-
tinued in its routine. Fred van Doom-
inck studied an assemblage of more
than seven hundred amphoras from the
seventh-century Yassiada and eleventh-
century Serge Limani shipwrecks, dis-
covering that many had been recycled.
INA faculty had a number of
achievements in 1986. George F. Bass re-
ceived the Gold Medal for Distin-
guished Archaeological Achievement
(continued on page 19)

1986 (left) A gold scarab of Queen
Nefertiti wasfound at Uluburun.

1986 (right) This test trench revealed the
well preserved mast step ofthe Highborn Cay
shipwreck.


INA Quarterly 25.1







Scenes from the INA Anniversary Gala


Coming from as far away as Istanbul, Paris, London, Hawaii, and Vancouver, INA Directors and patrons gath-
ered at the Mansion in Dallas in January, 1998, to help celebrate the Institute's Twenty-Fifth Anniversary. After a
banquet on the first night, all those who have done so much to make INA a success during its first quarter century were
recognized. The pictures on this and the following pages can show only a few of these generous friends.,


Dr. Fred Hocker (left) presents a half model of the hull of the eleventh-century CE
"Glass Wreck"excavated at Serge Limani to Jan and Frederick Mayer, recogniz-
ing them as [NA's all-time most generous donors.


Founding Director John Baird of Cleveland (left) recognizes the twenty-five years
of INA leadership by Dr. George Bass with a laser photograph of the INA head-
quarters in Bodrum, Turkey.


INA Quarterly 25.1








































Barbara Duthuit of France (left) and Zelfa Olivier of
Great Britain were among the international guests at-
tending the 25th anniversary Gala.


INA Director Garry Weber of Dallas (left) with fellow
Director Lew Ward of Enid, Oklahoma.


INA Board Chairman Gregg Cook (left) re-
ceives an INA armillaryfrom Dr. Bass in rec-
ognition of his family's support through the
years.


INA Quarterly 25.1














Dr. George Bass (left) with Northwest
Friends of INA founders Mary and Dick
Rosenberg of Portland, Oregon.


Sharing Fond Memories


















Mr. Ray H. Siegfried FT (left) of Tulsa accepts
thanks for his years of service and support from
Dr. George Bass.


INA Quarterly 25.1


INA Vice President Dr. Don
Frey (left) with long-time
Director Harry Kahn.










(continued from page 15) from the Archaeological Institute of
America, and the Lowell Thomas Award for Underwater Ex-
ploration from the Explorers Club. He was also named to the
George T. and Gladys H. Abell Chair in Nautical Archaeology
at Texas A&M University. Kevin Crisman published Of Sailing
Ships and Sidewheelers: The History and Nautical Archaeology of Lake
Champlain. Dick Steffy consulted on the Sea of Galilee Boat sal-
vaged by Shelley Wachsmann, which was published in IJNA 16
(1987). Fred Hocker recorded a seventeenth-century passenger
ferry in Lelystad, Netherlands (to be published in 1998).


Board of Directors: John H. Baird, George F. Bass, Dun-
can Boeckman, John C. Calhoun, Jr., Charles Collins, Mrs. John
Brown Cook, Frank Darden, Michael J. Davidson, Claude
Duthuit, Donald G. Geddes, II, Sumner Gerard, Nixon Griffis,
Harry C. Kahn, II, Michael L. Katzev, Jack W. Kelley, David C.
Langworthy, Robert E. Lorton, Frederick RI Mayer, Chair, Melvin
M. Payne, Clinton A. Phillips, Ray H. Siegfried, II, Vice Chair,
William T. Sturgis, Frank E. Vandiver, Robert L. Walker, Lew
O. Ward, Peter M. Way, Garry A. Weber, Martin A. Wilcox, and
George O. Yanmini.


1987


The fourth season of work at Uluburun highlighted
the year. As the excavators, now directed by Cemal Pulak,
uncovered the central part of the site, they found both an-
chors and eggshells. An almost intact ostrich egg had lain
on the sea floor for almost 3300 years until the INA team
recovered it. It was discovered that the 200 copper and tin
ingots had been placed in layers that preserved the curva-
ture of vanished parts of the hull. The excavations were pub-
lished as "Splendors of the Bronze Age" in the December
1987 National Geographic. A film on the Uluburun project pro-
duced by INA Director Jack Kelly and directed by Robert
Dalva, Voyage from Antiquity, was aired in America as the
NOVA episode "Ancient Treasures from the Sea."
George Bass and INA Director Claude Duthuit re-
turned to Cape Gelidonya, the scene of the first underwater
excavation conducted to archaeological standards. The 1960
work directed by Bass and Peter Throckmorton set a stan-
dard for the field. However, the brief visit in 1987 contribut-
ed a number of new artifacts.
The excavation of Port Royal, Jamaica, continued. Two
buildings had been completely excavated, and three others
examined in part. In front of a doorsill in one of these, the
excavators found the remains of a young child who had been
killed in the 1692 earthquake. One of the great advantages of
historical archaeology is the abil-
ity to draw on written accounts
to illuminate physical evidence.
In addition to its work under-
water, the team headed by Don-
ny Hamilton was spending a
great deal of time locating and
microfilming the relevant Jamai-
can public records.
Don Keith and the Ex-
ploration and Discovery Team
continued their search for one
or more of the twelve vessels
known to have been lost by Co-
lumbus. In 1987, their search fo-
cused on the mouth of the Rio 1987 In the central portion o
Been in Panama, where the car- ship's 24 stone anchors.


f


avel Gallega was abandoned in 1503. The Team's work at Mo-
lasses Reef had yielded some eight tons of iron artifacts. Conser-
vation and study of these continued in 1987. Much of the project's
efforts focused on the largest collection of ordinance from a dis-
covery-period ship. This work was published in IJNA 18 (1989).
Bill Lamb studied the ballast stones and found that many had
come from the area of Lisbon, while others were from Bristol
and the Canary Islands or Azores.
In Turkey, other conservators continued their work
preserving and documenting materials from the Serge
Limani "Glass Wreck" and Yassiada Ottoman wreck. The
eleventh-century Serge Limant ship was reassembled by
Sheila Matthews in a new ship museum at Bodrum, with a
replica of the midships section built by Fred Hocker. Vira-
zon carried out a three-week survey, finding two "new" ship-
wrecks-a Rhodian amphora carrier from the third or second
century BCE and a Byzantine ship from the late seventh or
early eighth century CE. The survey also found additional
evidence of a Late Roman wreck located in 1972.
Dick Steffy and Michael and Susan Katzev were in-
volved in sailing tests of Kyrenia II, which sailed from Cy-
prus to Greece. The ship encountered weather varying from
dead calm to severe storms, providing considerable infor-
mation about the performance of ancient ships under these
conditions
INA staff, students
and faculty were busy
throughout the world in
1987: Fred Hocker estab-
lished a cooperative rela-
tionship between INA and
the Dutch Museum of Ship
Archaeology (later the
Center for Ship Archaeol-
ogy, and now the National
Institute for Ship Archae-
,. "ology). Cheryl Haldane
Ward served as a consult-
ant to the National Geo-
the Uluburun hull lay four of the graphic Society on the
Royal Boat Project by the


INA Quarterly 25.1










pyramid of Khufu at Giza, Egypt (National Geographic April
1988). Cynthia Eiseman and Brunilde Ridgway published
77e Porticello Shipwreck A Mediterranean Merchant Vessel of 415-
385 B.C. as the second volume in the INA Nautical Archaeology
Series. Kevin Crisman published The Eagle: An American Brig on
Lake Champlam during the War of 1812. George Bass received an
Honorary Doctorate from Bogazici University, Istanbul.
Board of Directors: John H. Baird, George F. Bass, Dun-
can Boeckman, Charles Collins, Gregory M. Cook, Harlan


Crow, Frank Darden, Claude Duthuit, Daniel Fallon, Donald
G. Geddes, III, Nixon Griffis, Bengt O. Jansson, Harry C.
Kahn, II, Michael L. Katzev, Jack W. Kelley, David C. Lang-
worthy, Samuel J. Le Frak, Robert E. Lorton, Frederick R.
Mayer, Chair, Melvin M. Payne, Clinton A. Phillips, Ray H.
Siegfried, II, Vice Chair, William T. Sturgis, Frank E. Van-
diver, Robert L. Walker, Lew O. Ward, Peter M. Way, Garry
A. Weber, Martin A. Wilcox, and George O. Yamini.06


After years of operat-
ing out of rented facilities,
INA acquired a tract of land
for its permanent headquar-
ters in Turkey. By this time,
there were twenty-two peo-
ple on the INA roster in Bo-
drum, even during the
reduced activities of winter.
Many more, of course, vis-
ited Turkey each summer
during the excavation and
survey season. The generos-
ity of several INA Directors
enabled the purchase of a
tract of land on a hill over-
looking the growing city-
without tapping the regular
archaeological and operations
budget.


1988


. .. -
,' L . -- ', ".-"' -;..::. A .. ,- 1


1988 INA purchases a tract of land on a hill with a view of Bo-
drum harbor and the Castle of Saint Peter, which houses the
Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology.


There were three major INA projects underway in
1988. Don Keith and the Ships of Exploration and Discov-
ery team returned to the Rio Belen in Panama to continue
the search for the Columbus caravel Gallega. A magnetom-
eter survey detected six magnetic anomalies that resem-
bled those created by a wooden shipwreck or a large
isolated iron object such as a cannon or anchor. However,
difficulties in excavating through the thick, loose bottom
sediments prevented any actual discoveries.
At Port Royal, 1988 represented a "catch-up year"
with no planned excavations, while the team under Don-
ny Hamilton recorded and studied the materials from pri-
or years and continued their archival research. However,
due to the construction of a government water line trench
through old brick floors and walls in the city, the team had
to mount an archaeological rescue operation. A consider-
able amount of information was recorded before it was lost
forever. In September, Hurricane Gilbert severely damaged
many of the facilities used by the Port Royal team.
In Turkey, Cemal Pulak's team spent two weeks at Cape
Gelidonya, searching for items that may have been missed by
the pioneering underwater archaeologists in 1960. Among oth-


er things, two large Mycenae-
an IIIB stirrup jars finally con-
firmed the date of the
shipwreck to the thirteenth
century BCE. The team then
moved on to Uluburun for
almost two months, where
they completely mapped the
site and continued to lift the
heavy cargo. Among the arti-
facts recovered were neck me-
dallions that resembled those
depicted on the necks of Syri-
ans by Bronze Age Egyptian
artists, and the first complete
four-handled tin ingot.
These major projects
did not exhaust the INA news


in 1988. Fred Hocker and fel-
low students Mike Fitzgerald, Sam Mark, and Bob Neyland re-
corded a coggeschip from Almere, Netherlands, which sunk
around 1425, was excavated in 1986, and published in 1997. This
was an inland craft developed from the seagoing cogs.
In November, George F. Bass received the National
Geographic Society Centennial Award. This placed him in
the company of only fourteen other individuals of the cali-
ber of Jacques-Yves Cousteau, Robert Ballard, Harold E.
Edgarton, John Glenn, Jane Goodall, Sir Edmund Hillary,
and Richard Leakey. Also in 1988, Bass published Ships and
Shipwrecks of the Americas, with chapters by Donald Keith,
Roger Smith, Jody Simmons, Dick Steffy, Kevin Crisman,
W.F. Searle, Peggy Leshikar, and Ken Cassavoy.
Board of Directors: John H. Baird, George F. Bass, Dun-
can Boeckman, Charles Collins, Gregory M. Cook, Harlan Crow,
Frank Darden, Claude Duthuit, Daniel Fallon, Donald G. Ged-
des, NixonGriffis, BengtO. Jansson,HarryC. Kahn, Michael
L. Katzev, Jack W. Kelley, David C. Langworthy, Samuel J. Le
Frak, Robert E. Lorton, Frederick R. Mayer, Chair, Charles
McWhirter, William H. Mobley, Melvin M. Payne, Clinton A.
Phillips, Ray H. Siegfried, 11, Vice Chair, William T. Sturgis, Rob-
ert L. Walker, Lew O. Ward, Peter M. Way, Garry A. Weber,
Martin A. Wilcox, George O. Yamini, and John Younger.s


INA Quarterly 25.1










1989


Cemal Pulak directed the sixth
year of excavations at Uluburun, Tur-
key, published in UAP (1990). The ex-
cavation of cargo and artifacts (apart
from hull remains) in the upper slope
area was virtually completed. Since the
downslope areas were as much as 182
feet deep, bottom time was no more
than 15 minutes, making excavation
there a very slow process. As always,
necessity was the mother of a number
of valuable inventions. Claire Peachey
developed a method for fixing badly
corroded ingots with epoxy while still
underwater so they could be raised
without damage. SHARPS (Sonic High
Accuracy Ranging and Positioning Sys-
tem), invented by INA Director Marty
Wilcox, was indispensable for record-
ing artifact locations. Dr. Carolyn Fife
carried out research to develop safer
decompression profiles for scientific
diving at these depths.
In contrast, the sites at Port


1989 Before raising a copper ingot, Claire
Peachey uses underwater-curing epoxy and
a coat of Plaster of Paris to protect its erod-


Royal, Jamaica, were so shallow that ed lower section.
divers could stay on the bottom for
more than three hours at a time. Donny Hamilton's exca-
vations at Port Royal were continued for a ninth year, with
labor again provided by the Texas A&M/INA field school.
The team was surprised to find the remains of a ship that
had sunk in the disturbances caused by the 1692 earthquake
and torn through the floor of a building they were excavat-
ing. They also found two more partial skeletons of children
killed by the disaster.
Don Keith had planned to continue the search for
Columbus's Gallega into a fourth three-month season. How-
ever, for a variety of reasons, INA restructured its New World
activities that year and the Ships of Exploration and Discov-
ery Research Project no longer formed a part of the Institute.
George Bass conducted a three-week survey at Cape
Gelidonya (in Geographica Section of National Geograph-
ic). Among other things, the survey showed that the se-
quence of wreck formation that had been assumed in 1960


was actually incorrect. A number of
artifacts were scattered outside the
original excavation area.
In many parts of the world dur-
ing 1989, INA was engaged in the con-
servation and study of materials that
had been excavated in prior years.
Robin Pearcy and a small team contin-
ued cataloging, organizing, and drafting
data from the seventeenth-century Mo-
mbasa wreck Santo Antonio de Tanna.
Cemal Pulak and Gbkhan Ozagaqli
worked on materials from the six-
teenth-century Ottoman wreck at
Yassiada. Restoration of the eleventh-
century "Glass Wreck" from Serqe
Limanl, primarily by Sheila Matthews,
neared completion in Bodrum. Jane
Pannell prepared for the Glass Wreck
exhibit and also conserved objects
from Uluburun. Conservation of mate-
rials from Port Royal and the Molasses
Reef Wreck also continued. The Gover-
nor of the Turks and Caicos Islands


visited College Station in April to view
the Molasses Reef artifacts. Fred Hock-
er returned to the Dutch Museum of Ship Archaeology at
Ketelhaven to resume work on the Almere ship's hull recon-
struction. Kathleen McLaughlin-Neyland and Bob Neyland
worked on the remains of three other ships at Ketelhaven.
Cheryl Haldane Ward studied ship timbers found at Lisht,
Egypt, by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and published
them in The South Cemeteries of Lisht, Vol. III, by Dieter Ar-
nold (Metropolitan Museum).
Board of Directors: John H. Baird, George F. Bass,
Duncan Boeckman, Charles Collins, Gregory M. Cook, Har-
lan Crow, Frank Darden, Claude Duthuit, Daniel Fallon,
Donald G. Geddes, III, Nixon Griffis, Bengt 0. Jansson, Har-
ry C. Kahn, II, Michael L. Katzev, Jack W. Kelley, David C.
Langworthy, Samuel J. Le Frak, Robert E. Lorton, Frederick
R. Mayer, Chair, Charles McWhirter, William H. Mobley,
Melvin M. Payne, Peter M. Way, Garry A. Weber, Martin A.
Wilcox, and George O. Yamini.vr


1990


In January, the Meadows Foundation announced at
the INA annual meeting in Dallas that it was giving
$200,000 to be matched by Texas A&M University to es-
tablish the Meadows Professorship in Biblical Archaeolo-
gy. This position was to allow the expansion of INA


interests into the Holy Land, as well as to meet a demand
for instruction on this area in the Nautical Archaeology
Program. Joining INA later in 1990 as the first holder of
the Professorship was Shelley Wachsmann, who had ex-
cavated the "Sea of Galilee Boat" while he was with the


INA Quarterly 25.1










Israel Archaeology Authority. That same year, Wachsmann
published The Excavations of an Ancient Boat from the Sea of
Galilee (Lake Kinneret).
As one of the most significant events of 1990, the
Serqe Limani "Glass Wreck" permanent exhibit opened on
June 17. The Turkish government had built a new exhibit
hall at the Bodrum Museum especially for this exhibit. INA
staff members Donald Frey, Robin Piercy, Frederick van
Doominck, and Jane Pannell spent much of the spring pre-
paring for the opening and moving the Conservation Lab
to new quarters in the Castle. The centerpiece of the dis-
play was the reconstructed Serqe Limani ship. Although
only about 20% of the original material survived, the steel
stanchions and braces supporting the conserved hull were
extended upwards to indicate the original size and shape.
In addition, the wooden replica of part of the port side
midships, built by Fred Hocker, shows how the ship was
constructed. The hall also exhibits many of the artifacts
found on the eleventh-century wreck. Part of the collec-
tion of Islamic glass was already housed in a special ex-
hibit elsewhere in the museum.
In the field, INA was involved in both new and es-
tablished work this year. In what had become the tradi-
tional pattern, the Turkish season began with more dives
on the Bronze Age shipwreck at Cape Gelidonya. Addi-
tional artifacts were found. INA activities then shifted to
Uluburun, where Cemal Pulak directed a seventh year of
excavation at the even older and more spectacular Bronze
Age site there. This site was published in the Geographica
Section of National Geographic. The year marked the first
substantial study of the hull remains, as well as the recov-
ery of many more ingots.


Finally, INA's contingent in Turkey moved out for
another session of surveying the coast. This year, the sur-
vey included dives on the 300-foot-deep Yahkavak wreck
in a one-person submarine provided by Henri Delauze of
COMEX at his own expense. The site revealed a large and
coherent pile of (probably first-century BCE Koan) ampho-
ras, but it is too deep for excavation with current resourc-
es. While all this was going on, conservation and study
continued in Bodrum on materials from the sixteenth-cen-
tury Yassiada Ottoman ship, the Serge Limani glass cargo,
and the Uluburun shipwreck. Sheila Matthews, Gokhan
Ozagaqli, Jane Pannell, and Claire Peachey were among
the INA personnel involved in this.
1990 marked the tenth and final season of field work
at Port Royal, Jamaica, published in UAP (1991). The INA/
Texas A&M project had excavated five buildings at the com-
mercial center of the mercantile capital of the English New
World. The 1990 season's crew also studied the remains of a
ship (probably HMS Swan) found in one of the buildings.
The Port Royal Project resulted in a more detailed body of
data than any previous excavation of the town, whether on
land or underwater. The long process of conserving, study-
ing, and publishing the project findings still continues.
There were a number of new or resumed INA
projects elsewhere in the New World that year. James Par-
rent and an American and Jamaican team picked up the
search for Capitana and Santiago de Palos in St Ann's Bay,
Jamaica. The two caravels, grounded and lashed together,
had formed Columbus's last camp in the Americas. Geoar-
cheological surveys attempted to identify the 1504 shore-
line and potential sites for the ships. Margaret Leshikar
surveyed for pre-Columbian remains at Isla Cerritos,


1990 (left) A one-person submarine was used to survey the shipwreck at Yahkavak.

1990 (below) The restored hull of the Glass Wreck in the exhibit hall of the Bodrum
Museum of Underwater Archaeology.


INA Quarterly 25.1










Yucatan, Mexico (the main port for Chichdn Itza between
750 and 1200 CE). She also investigated the Wreck of the
Ten Sail off Grand Cayman, published in UAP (1992). Fred
Hocker began final recording and analysis of the Brown's
Ferry vessel in Columbia, South Carolina.
The entire March 1990 issue of The Biblical Archae-
ologist was written by INA or Texas A&M faculty and
students, including George F. Bass, Michael Fitzgerald,
Cheryl Haldane Ward, Douglas Haldane, Nicolle Hir-
schfeld, Claire Peachey, Cemal Pulak, and Stephen Vin-
son. Cheryl Haldane Ward also published The Pharaoh's
Boat at the Carnegie with D.C. Patch.
The arrival of Shelley Wachsmann was only one of
the significant personnel changes at INA in 1990. Kevin
Crisman, who had received his M.A. from the A&M Nau-
tical Archaeology Program before earning a doctorate in
American Studies at the University of Pennsylvania, re-
turned to fill a new position in New World archaeology.
On the other hand, J. Richard Steffy retired from INA and
the Texas A&M faculty in September. However, as the
Sara W. and George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Ar-


chaeology, Emeritus, Dick Steffy has continued his involve-
ment with INA. As the man who developed much of the
specialized field of ship reconstruction, his help has been
invaluable. Jerome Hall became the first Marion Cook Fel-
low, thanks to a generous endowment from Marian Miner
Cook matched by Texas A&M University. Mrs. Cook was
a former Chairman of the INA Board of Directors, the wid-
ow of founding Director John Brown Cook, and the mother
of future Chairman Gregory M. Cook. In another important
development this year, Donny Hamilton and Wayne Smith
began experiments with silicone oils for conservation.
Board of Directors: John H. Baird, George F. Bass, J.E.R
Chilton, Gregory M. Cook, Harlan Crow, Claude Duthuit,
Daniel Fallon, Donald G. Geddes, III, Nixon Griffis, Bruce
Heafitz, Bengt O. Jansson, Harry C. Kahn, II, Michael L.
Katzev, Jack W. Kelley, Sally R. Lancaster, David C. Lang-
worthy, Samuel J. Le Frak, Robert E. Lorton, Frederick R.
Mayer, Charles McWhirter, William H. Mobley, Alex G.
Nason, Ray H. Siegfried, II, Chair, William T. Sturgis, Robert
L. Walker, Lew O. Ward, Peter M. Way, Garry A. Weber,
Martin A. Wilcox, and George O. Yamini, Vice Chair.ar


1991


INA offices made two major shifts this year. The
American headquarters moved from the Riverside Cam-
pus of Texas A&M University to new quarters near the
center of the main campus in College Station. The move to
the Anthropology Building allowed the Institute and the
Nautical Archaeology Program to enjoy newly renovated
surroundings and enhanced visibility. It also allowed closer
coordination with the Anthropology Department, the Pro-
gram's institutional parent. In Turkey, the new INA head-
quarters building in Bodrum was to provide centralized
work and office spaces for the first time.


In continuing research, field director Cemal Pulak
and principal investigator George F. Bass directed the eighth
year of excavation at the Bronze Age shipwreck at Ulubu-
run, Turkey, published in UAP (1992). Work concentrated
on raising as many of the metal ingots as possible, together
with surrounding artifacts. It was discovered that the total
number of ingots exceeded 350, nearly twice the initial esti-
mates. In all, there were almost 10 tons of copper ingots and
half a ton of tin ingots. It was fairly obvious why this is called
the Bronze Age! Cheryl Haldane Ward was carrying out ar-
cheobotanical research on the Uluburun organic remains.


1991 INA moves to the Anthropology Building on the main cam- 1991 Drawing by Kevin Crisman of the Lake Champlain Horse
pus of Texas A&M University. Ferry.


N A Quarterly 25.1











In 1991, INA began a collaboration with the Lake
Champlain Maritime Museum. As the first project, Kevin
Crisman of INA and Arthur Cohn of the Museum began
their excavation of the Burlington horse-powered ferry of
ca. 1830 in Lake Champlain. This excavation was conduct-
ed as a field school. Well-preserved remains helped illu-
minate this little-known, but once important, form of
nautical propulsion. The results from the excavation were
published in 1998 by Crisman and Cohn as When Horses
Walked on Water: Horse-Powered Ferries in Nineteenth-Centu-
ry America (Smithsonian Institution Press).
Another field school conducted by Jim Parrent cov-
ered the archaeology of Jamaica. During the final weeks of
the school, the students assisted in the survey at St. Ann's
Bay, where the search for Columbus's ships continued, also
published in UAP (1992). A sonar survey added 21 possi-
ble sites to the six previously identified; 11 of these fit within
the broad criteria established for locating the two carav-
els. Four of these sites were test-excavated, revealing one
ballast dump site and three well-preserved shipwrecks, all
most likely from the seventeenth or eighteenth century.
Elsewhere in the New World, Jerome Hall began ex-
cavation of the seventeenth-century shipwreck in Monte
Cristi Bay, Dominican Republic, published in UAP (1992).
David Robinson assisted Paul Johnston of the Smithsonian
Institution in a study of the steamer Indiana in Lake Superior.
As usual, conservation and study work continued
quietly in 1991. Artifact sources included the Mombasa
Harbor Wreck, the Yassiada Ottoman Wreck, the Serge
Limani Glass Wreck, the Uluburun and Cape Gelidonya
Bronze Age wrecks, and Port Royal. In the field, the annu-
al Turkish survey was joined by a preliminary survey of
the Syrian coast.


Fred van Doorinck was named Frederick R. May-
er Professor at Texas A&M University. This professorship
was named for INA Director Frederick R. Mayer, who had
played a significant part in the effort to establish a perma-
nent INA endowment. Frederick M. Hocker was awarded
a doctorate from the Nautical Archaeology Program at
Texas A&M University and joined the faculty as the Sara
W. and George O. Yamini Faculty Fellow. In 1991, Cemal
Pulak became the first Mr. and Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried II
Fellow at Texas A&M University. Mr. Siegfried, an inductee
into the Oklahoma Hall of Fame, was the Chairman of the
INA Board of Directors. His contribution was matched by
Texas A&M to provide an endowment for the fellowship.
J. Richard Steffy published The Athlit Ram, with Li-
onel Casson, as the third volume in the INA Nautical Ar-
chaeology Series (Texas A&M University Press). This ram
is still the best-preserved evidence for the construction of
ancient warships. Dick Steffy's work on the ram revealed
a very different pattern of construction than that seen on
Mediterranean merchant ships.
Board of Directors: John H. Baird, George F. Bass,
J.E.R. Chilton, Gregory M. Cook, Harlan Crow, Claude
Duthuit, Daniel Fallon, Donald G. Geddes, III, William
Graves, Nixon Griffis, Bruce Heafitz, Bengt O. Jansson,
Harry C. Kahn, II, Michael L. Katzev, Jack W. Kelley, Sally
R. Lancaster, David C. Langworthy, Samuel J. Le Frak,
Robert E. Lorton, Frederick R. Mayer, William A. McKen-
zie, Charles McWhirter, William H. Mobley, Alex G. Na-
son, Ray H. Siegfried, II, Chair, William T. Sturgis, Robert
L. Walker, Lew O. Ward, Peter M. Way, Garry A. Weber,
Martin A. Wilcox, George 0. Yamini, Vice Chair, and James
A. Goold, Counsel.6s


1992


At the beginning of this year, the INA Newsletter be-
came the INA Quarterly. This name more accurately reflect-
ed the character that the publication had increasingly held
for a number of years. It continues to serve as both a vehicle
for informing the INA membership of the work being per-
formed by the Institute and by the Nautical Archaeology
Program at Texas A&M University, and also as a vehicle for
students and faculty to publish timely accounts of their work.
Cemal Pulak continued the excavation of the Bronze
Age shipwreck at Uluburun, Turkey, for a ninth year. It
had been hoped that a season extended to four months
might allow completion of the project, but the site proved
to be even larger and richer than previously realized. The
ingots-with the exception of fifteen left in place to pro-
tect delicate items beneath them-were finally all raised
in 1992. Items found included the complete tusk of a small
elephant, which required two months to free it from its
matrix. Other finds included a hippopotamus incisor carved
into the shape of a ram's-horn trumpet and the statuette of a


goddess. The survey of the downslope area reached a depth
of 60 meters.
INA established a cooperative program in 1992 with
the Museum voor Scheeparcheologie in Ketelhaven, The
Netherlands. Although students in the Nautical Archaeol-
ogy Program at Texas A&M University had pursued indi-
vidual research projects with the Museum in the past, this
was the first formal relationship between the institutions
themselves. During the year, the new program facilitated
excavation and study of two sixteenth-century ship exca-
vations in the Netherlands by Kathleen McLaughlin-Ney-
land and Robert Neyland.
Sara W. and George O. Yamini Faculty Fellow Fred
Hocker conducted the excavation of the Clydesdale Plan-
tation Vessel, an eighteenth-century coastal sloop that had
been buried under a river levee near Savannah, Georgia.
The woods used in the vessel were typical southern spe-
cies, so this was possibly the oldest American-built vessel
ever studied. The operation involved hand excavation


INA Quarterly 25.1


" AA


























1992 Fred and Emma Hocker survey the remains of the Clydes- 1992 Bill Charlton with his model of the Sea of Galilee Boat.
dale Plantation Vessel.


while standing waist-deep in mud the consistency of warm
peanut butter. In 1992, Fred Hocker also supervised the
move of the Brown's Ferry vessel to permanent exhibition
site in Georgetown, South Carolina.
Kevin Crisman and Arthur Cohn continued with a
fourth season on the Burlington Bay Horse Ferry, published
in UAP (1993). A part of the Lake Champlain field crew
under Joseph Cozzi conducted test excavations of a near-
by sailing canal boat in Lake Champlain, published in UAP
(1993, 1994, 1996). A final phase of the 1992 field season con-
sisted of a two-week waterfront survey at Mount Indepen-
dence, Vermont, a Revolutionary War fort across the lake
from Fort Ticonderoga. The survey focused on the caissons
for a floating bridge built in 1777 to connect the two forts.
In the Caribbean, the search for Columbus's two carav-
els continued in St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica. The archaeologists sur-
veyed and explored more than twenty sites, finding several
eighteenth-century British ships. Jerome Hall continued work
on the Monte Cristi wreck in the Dominican Republic, published
in UAP (1993). During the first two seasons, the excavators had
found more than 13,000 pipe fragments.
In 1992, INA archaeologists and directors visited and
established relations in Bulgaria, Rumania and Ukraine.
This trip was useful to Fred van Doorinck's research on


the amphoras from the eleventh-century Serce Limanl ship-
wreck, which paralleled types produced near the Sea of
Marmara and Black Sea.
Other 1992 INA projects included an underwater
survey in the Sea of Galilee, Israel, directed by Shelley
Wachsmann. Bill Charlton built a model of the Sea of Gali-
lee Boat excavated by Wachsmann. The survey of the
steamer Indiana continued in Lake Superior, as did conser-
vation from earlier projects.
The Studies in Nautical Archeology Series of Texas
A&M University Press was inaugurated with publication
of Those Vulgar Tubes: External Sanitary Accommodations
Aboard European Ships of the Fifteenth through Seventeenth
Centuries, by Joe Simmons.
Board of Directors: John H. Baird, George F. Bass, J.E.R.
Chilton, Gregory M. Cook, Harlan Crow, Claude Duthuit, Daniel
Fallon, Donald G. Geddes, l, William Graves, Nixon Griffis,
Bruce Heafitz, Bengt 0. Jansson, Harry C. Kahn, II, Michael L.
Katzev, Jack W. Kelley, Sally R. Lancaster, David C. Langwor-
thy, Samuel J. Le Frak, Robert E. Lorton, Frederick R. Mayer,
William A. McKenzie, William H. Mobley, Alex G. Nason, Ray
H. Siegfried, II, Chair, William T. Sturgis, Robert L. Walker, Lew
O. Ward, Peter M. Way, Garry A. Weber, Martin A. Wilcox,
George O. Yamini, Vice Chair, and James A. Goold, Counsel.-


1993


The excavation of the Bronze Age shipwreck at Ul-
uburun, Turkey, continued under Cemal Pulak. This was
planned to be the final season, but the discovery of further
hull remains and additional artifacts showed that the wreck
still had much to offer. The most exciting part of this tenth
year at Uluburun was the documentation, study, and re-
covery of substantial portions of the hull. These showed
that it was constructed with much the same shell-first,
mortise-and-tenon methods as the Kyrenia Ship of a mil-


lennium later. Many artifacts were also recovered at Ul-
uburun that year. During the fall, the annual underwater
survey in Turkey by Cemal Pulak and Tufan Turanli found
a shipment of medieval millstones, a large Corinthian col-
umn, a Byzantine cargo of marble architectural elements,
and a Byzantine amphora wreck off the southwest coast.
A second team aboard a Turkish trawler carried out a so-
nar survey near Foga.


INA Quarterly 25.1


I -%











On Lake Champlain, INA had several projects under-
way. The arrival of the Zebra mussel made lake archaeology
all the more urgent. Kevin Crisman and Arthur Cohn direct-
ed a study of the schooner Water Witch, originally built (as a
steamer) in 1832 and lost in 1866. Crisman also continued
the underwater survey at Mount Independence, Vermont.
Elizabeth Baldwin directed a study of the sidewheel steam-
ship Champlain II, published in UAP (1994). John Bratten set
up a conservation laboratory at the Lake Champlain Mari-
time Museum to treat the artifacts from these and other joint
projects of INA and the Museum.
Three somewhat smaller INA-connected projects
also continued in 1993. Robert Neyland directed the exca-
vation of a 17th-century Dutch freighter with the Center
for Ship Archaeology in the Netherlands. Jerome Hall con-
tinued working on the Monte Cristi "Pipe Wreck" in the
Dominican Republic, published in UAP (1994). This now
appeared to be an English-built ship that had been carry-
ing mostly Dutch-made goods. Finally, the survey of the
steamer Indiana continued in Lake Superior.
There was also much incidental news in 1993. George
Bass became the George O. Yamini Family Professor of Lib-
eral Arts at Texas A&M University. This was the second pro-
fessorship established through the generosity of the Yamini
family. Kevin Crisman received the Award of Merit from
the Society for Historical Archaeology. Roger Smith pub-
lished Vanguard of Empire: Ships of Exploration in the Age of
Columbus (Oxford). Donny Hamilton became head of the
Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M.


1993 The Turkish underwater survey team found a shipment of
marble architectural elements.

Board of Directors: John H. Baird, George F. Bass, Ed-
ward O. Boshell, Jr., Gregory M. Cook, Harlan Crow, Claude
Duthuit, Daniel Fallon, Danielle J. Feeney, Donald G. Geddes,
II, William Graves, Bengt O. Jansson, Harry C. Kahn, I, Micha-
el L. Katzev, Jack W. Kelley, Chair, Sally R Lancaster, David C.
Langworthy, Samuel J. Le Frak, Robert E. Lorton, Frederick R
Mayer, William A. McKenzie, William H. Mobley, Alex G. Na-
son, Ray H. Siegfried II, Ayhan Sicimoglu, William T. Sturgis,
Robert L. Walker, Lew 0. Ward, Vice Chair, Peter M. Way, Gar-
ry A. Weber, Martin A. Wilcox, Richard A. Williford, George O.
Yamini, and James A. Goold, Counsel.-


1994 Cemal Pulak weighs the Cape Gelidonya
stone anchor onboard Virazon.


1994
After eleven seasons of excava-
tion, the field work at Uluburun, Tur-
key, concluded on September 7. Since
1984, the INA archaeologists had made
22,413 dives and had spent 6,613 hours
on the wreck, exclusive of the much
longer descent, ascent, and decompres-
sion times. This was by far the longest
and largest excavation INA had ever un-
dertaken. The last season yielded anoth-
er rich collection of hull remains,
ceramics, other artifacts, and organic re-
mains. In addition, three team members
took more than 7000 measurements of
the seabed during 1994 in order to cre-
ate a detailed contour map of the site.
This will help to comprehend the forces
affecting the dispersion of the ship and
cargo as a step towards reconstruction.
It had become clear that the ship was
probably Levantine or Cypriot in origin,
but wascarrying one, or more likely two,
high-ranking Mycenaean passengers.


1994 Cheryl Ward and Doug Haldane exam-
ine an artifact from the Sadana Island wreck


INA Quarterly 25.1










Confirmation of the details of the wreck would await
years of conservation work and careful study. Claire
Peachey was hired as INA's second full-time conservator
to work on the Uluburun material. The Bodrum Museum
broke ground that busy summer for the Bronze Age Ship-
wreck Hall that will eventually house the Uluburun dis-
plays. The crusader's chapel in the Castle was to provide
the setting for the Yassiada exhibit then in preparation. As
a result, INA conducted a rescue excavation of the Helle-
nistic through modem levels beneath the chapel floor-
INA's first land excavation! A summer school in the
conservation of submerged antiquities was held at the Mu-
seum in 1994, sponsored by the National Endowment for
the Humanities. Among the factors that made this possi-
ble was the construction of dormitory facilities at the INA
headquarters in Bodrum. The ability to house visiting stu-
dents and scholars has greatly expedited the conservation,
study, and publication of artifact collections such as the
Serqe Limani glass.
The Turkish underwater surveys were continued in
1994 by Cemal Pulak. This year, Murat Tilev finally locat-
ed the Cape Gelidonya ship's anchor. The survey also
found three medieval wrecks and one from the first centu-
ry CE. INA put the skills learned in two decades of Turk-
ish surveys to work in a survey of the Red Sea off Egypt.
The survey directors, Douglas Haldane and Cheryl
Haldane Ward, located several shipwrecks, including the
eighteenth-century porcelain carrier that INA-Egypt later
excavated at Sadana Island. Also in 1994, Shelley Wachs-
mann began a survey of Tantura Lagoon near Dor, Israel,
jointly with Haifa University. In this first season, the team
found a Byzantine-period shipwreck and began excavation.


The New World was not ignored that year, either.
Gregory D. Cook returned to St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica, for
the excavation of the Reader's Point Vessel, an eighteenth-
century sloop. The well-preserved hull provided consid-
erable information on these important colonial vessels. The
Lake Champlain team led by Kevin Crisman spent the year
working with all the data they had collected in previous
campaigns.
In 1994, J. Richard Steffy published Wooden Ship
Building and the Interpretation of Shipwrecks (Texas A&M
University Press), the one indispensable volume for any-
one interested in the construction of old wooden ships.
Margaret Leshikar published The Wreck of the Ten Sail, her
study of the famous foundering of nine merchant ships
and their naval escort on the Cayman reefs. Claude Duthuit,
INA Director and diver on the Cape Gelidonya and
Yassiada Byzantine ships, was named to the French Le-
gion of Honor, for his pioneering role in the development
of underwater archaeology as well as his work in defense
of intellectual property rights.
Board of Directors: John H. Baird, George F. Bass, Ed-
ward O. Boshell, Jr., Gregory M. Cook, Harlan Crow, Claude
Duthuit, Daniel Fallon, Danielle J. Feeney, Donald G. Ged-
des, III, William Graves, Bengt O. Jansson, Harry C. Kahn,
II, Michael L. Katzev, Jack W. Kelley, Chair, Sally R. Lancast-
er, David C. Langworthy, Samuel J. Le Frak, Robert E. Lor-
ton, Frederick R. Mayer, William A. McKenzie, William H.
Mobley, Alex G. Nason, Ayhan Sicimoglu, Ray H. Siegfried
II, William T. Sturgis, Robert L. Walker, Lew O. Ward, Vice
Chair, Peter M. Way, Carry A. Weber, Martin A. Wilcox, Ri-
chard A. Williford, George O. Yamini, Vice Chair, and James
A. Goold, Counsel.as


1995


A ribbon-cutting ceremony officially opened INA's
Bodrum Center this year, which also marked the opening
of the first new Turkish excavation since 1984. Fred Hock-
er began work that summer on a ninth-century Byzantine
shipwreck at Bozburun. This site was located during INA's
first survey in 1973, and had originally been slated for ex-
cavation in 1983. However, discovery of the spectacular
Uluburun wreck put all other Turkish excavations on hold.
The Bozburun ship will fill a major gap in our knowledge.
The ninth century is unusually poorly represented in the
archaeology of the eastern Mediterranean. This is unfortu-
nate, since the period between the seventh-century Yassiada
and eleventh-century Serge Limaru ships was one of rapid
change in trade and technology.
Bozburun was not the only INA project in 1995.
Doug Haldane and Cheryl Haldane Ward began their ex-
cavation of an eighteenth-century wreck at Sadana Island
in the Red Sea, published in IJNA (1996). This site was note-
worthy both for its fine collection of Chinese porcelain, in-
tended for the Middle Eastern market, and for the unusual


1995 INA Director Danielle Feeney and George Bass at the rib-
bon-cutting ceremony which officially opened INA's Bodrum
Center.


INA Quarterly 25.1


I










construction of the ship itself. In the
fall, INA and the Haifa University
Center of Maritime Studies continued
their work in Tantura Lagoon with
the further excavation of the Byzan-
tine shipwreck and the discovery of
several more vessels in the immedi-
ate area. The Lagoon was proving to
be a truly remarkable place to do nau-
tical archaeology. INA Director Mar-
ty Wilcox contributed a state-of-
the-art side scanning sonar for use in
the annual Turkish coastal survey di-
rected by Don Frey.
Two Texas A&M Nautical Ar-
chaeology Program graduate stu-
dents directed projects in Lake
Champlain, and one on the Northeast
U.S. Coast. Erika Washbur studied
the Royal Navy 1812 brig Linnet,
while Eric Emery studied the U.S.
Navy 1812 gunboat Allen. Both
projects were published in UAP 1995 Fred Hocker
(1996). Stefan Hans Claesson led the ceramic jars found
excavation of Annabella, a nineteenth-
century coasting schooner in Cape Neddick, Maine.
Other events of 1995: Fred Hocker established a co-
operative arrangement between INA and the Danish Na-
tional Museum's new Center for Maritime Archaeology.
The College Station-Roskilde alliance led to many fruitful


1996 In the newly established Archaeological Preservation Re-
search Laboratory, Wayne Smith (at left) introduces profession-
als from the Texas A&M Veterinary College to silicone oil
technology.


exchanges of scholars in the years
ahead. Wayne Smith advised the In-
stituto de Cultura Puertorriquena,
Consejo de Arqueologia Subacuatica
(Council of Underwater Archaeolo-
gy), San Juan, Puerto Rico, on the fea-
sibility of developing a conservation
facility. Shelley Wachsmann pub-
lished his award-winning The Sea of
Galilee Boat: An Extraordinary 2000 Year
Old Discovery. Conservation and study
of the fruits of over two decades of INA
labors continued on four continents.
Board of Directors: William L.
Allen, John H. Baird, George F. Bass,
Edward 0. Boshell, Jr., Ray M. Bowen,
Gregory M. Cook, Vice Chair, Harlan
Crow, Frank Darden, Claude Duthuit,
Daniel Fallon, Danielle J. Feeney,
Donald G. Geddes, III, Bengt O. Jans-
son, Woodrow Jones, Jr., Harry C.
Kahn, II, Michael L. Katzev, Jack W.
examines a group of Kelley, Chair, Sally R. Lancaster, Day-
at Bozburun. id C. Langworthy, Samuel J. Le Frak,
Robert E. Lorton, Frederick R. Mayer,
William A. McKenzie, Alex G. Nason, Ayhan Sicimoglu, Ray
H. Siegfried II, William T. Sturgis, Robert L. Walker, Lew O.
Ward, Vice Chair, Peter M. Way, Carry A. Weber, Martin A.
Wilcox, Richard A. Williford, George O. Yamini, and James
A. Goold, Counsel.a


)96
A guiding principle for INA from the beginning has
been that archaeology only begins with an excavation; it
does not end there. The movement of artifacts without
proper conservation, study, and publication is only an act
of vandalism. Accordingly, 1996 may be seen as "the year
of the laboratories." In College Station, Texas A&M Uni-
versity established the Archaeological Preservation Re-
search Laboratory, with Wayne Smith as Director. In the
Texas A&M Conservation Lab, a team under Donny
Hamilton began conservation of cannons and other mate-
rials from La Belle, the ship of Rend Robert Cavelier, Sieur
de la Salle, discovered by Barto Arnold in Matagorda Bay.
INA-Egypt and Egypt's National Maritime Museum es-
tablished the Alexandria Conservation Laboratory for Sub-
merged Antiquities. In the laboratories of the Bodrum
Museum of Underwater Archaeology, conservation, study
and documentation of the Uluburun artifacts continued, with
the addition of the finds from Bozborun. Jane Pannell also
devoted attention to the care and examination of many of
the artifacts excavated in the 1960s at Cape Gelidonya that
had been in storage ever since. George F. Bass and Frederick


INA Quarterly 25.1


t










H. van Doominck, Jr., continued their study of the cargo
from the eleventh-century Serce Limaru "Glass Wreck." This
was also the year that Fred van Doorninck retired as the Fre-
derick R. Mayer Fellow of Nautical Archaeology.
The three major excavations of the previous year
continued in 1996. Fred Hocker conducted a second cam-
paign on the Byzantine wreck at Bozborun, Turkey, pub-
lished in UAP (1997). The team removed the upper level
of sediment and cultural material from the site, including
over 140 whole or nearly whole amphoras and nearly a
ton of other ceramic material. Hocker's group also took
their first look at the structure of the ship itself.
Cheryl Haldane Ward and Doug Haldane contin-
ued their excavation of the eighteenth-century wreck at
Sadana Island, Egypt. More than 1500 registered artifacts
were recovered, as well as bulk finds of porcelain, earth-
enware, copper alloy, and various organic materials. Most
of this material was transported to the new lab in Alexan-
dria for conservation and study.
Shelley Wachsmann continued work at Tantura
Lagoon, the principal harbor of ancient Dor in Israel. By
now, the small area of the Lagoon under investigation was
looking like a parking lot for sunken ships. There has rare-
ly been a richer area for archaeologists to work. Wachsmann
also conducted a preliminary survey off Ashkelon, Israel.
Bob Neyland and Maria Jacobsen directed the exca-
vation of a late medieval inland merchant vessel found in
the Dutch polders. This project was carried out in cooper-
ation with the Center for Ship Archaeology.
Surveys played an important part in INA's 1996
program. The annual underwater survey in Turkey locat-
ed the wreck of a ship from the mid-fifth century BCE. Its
future excavation will provide archaeologists with their
first look at a vessel from the period when Classical Ath-
ens was rising to dominate much of the Mediterranean
world. Kevin Crisman and Arthur Cohn began a survey
for shipwrecks at Angra Bay, Terceira Island, Azores. This
was an important jumping-off-place for ships headed out
from Europe to the rest of the world during the Age of
Discovery and Exploration. The survey was supported by


1996 Shelley Wachsmann and his team excavate an early ninth-
century shipwreck in Tantura Lagoon,

Brian Jordan's research in the Portuguese archives in Lis-
bon.
1996 saw a number of INA-related books. Donny
Hamilton published Basic Methods of Conserving Underwater Ar-
chaeological Material Culture. Thomas Oertling published Ships'
Bilge Pumps: A History of Their Development, 1500-1900, as thesec-
ond volume in the Studies in Nautical Archaeology Series (TAMU
Press). The third volume was The Development of the Rudder: A
Technological Tale by Lawrence V. Mott. George Bass published
Shipwrecks in the Bodrum Museum of Undervater Archaeology.
Board of Directors: William L. Alien, John H. Baird,
George F. Bass, Edward O. BosheU, Jr., Vice Chair, Ray M. Bo-
wen, John A. Brock, Gregory M. Cook, Chair, Harlan Crow, John
De Lapa, Frank Darden, Claude Duthuit, Daniel Fallon, Danielle
J. Feeney, Donald G. Geddes, Emeritus Woodrow Jones, Jr.,
Harry C. Kahn, I, Emeritus, Michael L. Katzev, Jack W. Kelley,
Chair, Sally R Lancaster, David C. Langworthy, Robert E. Lor-
ton, Frederick R Mayer, William A. McKenzie, Alex G. Nason,
L. Francis Rooney, Ayhan Sicimoglu, Ray H. Siegfried II, Will-
iam T. Sturgis, Robert L. Walker, Lew 0. Ward, Peter M. Way,
Garry A. Weber, Martin A. Wilcox, Richard A. Williford, George
O. Yamini, and James A. Goold, Counsel.,


1997


President Demirel of Turkey opened the Yassiada
exhibit in the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeol-
ogy. The center of this exhibit is a full-scale replica, de-
signed and mostly built by INA and Texas A&M faculty,
staff, and students, of the stem and galley of the seventh-
century Byzantine ship. The opening of the exhibit fulfilled
a longstanding dream of Oguz Alpizen, Director of the
Museum and one of the oldest friends of INA.
Full reports on the 1997 work of the Institute of Nau-
tical Archaeology will be appearing in forthcoming issues


of the INA Quarterly. For now, a short listing of some of
the projects must suffice. Fred Hocker directed another
season of excavation on the Byzantine shipwreck at Bozbu-
run, Turkey. Donny Hamilton began in earnest to conserve
the hull and contents of La Salle's flagship La Belle in Col-
lege Station. This was published in the May 1997 National
Geographic. Ralph Pedersen directed the excavation of a
fourth-century wreck in Eritrea. Eric Heinold and Christo-
pher Sabick directed the recording of the War of 1812
wrecks Tecumseh, Newash, and Nancy in Ontario, Canada.


INA Quarterly 25.1
































1997 (above) President Suleyman Demirel of Turkey (in center) and Oguz Alpozen
(at right) opened the Yassiada exhibit in the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archae-
ology.


1997 (right) A full-scale replica of the stern and galley of the seventh-century Byzantine ship excavated at Yassiada.


Kevin Crisman and Arthur Cohn's survey for ship-
wrecks off the south coast of Terceira Island, Azores, con-
tinued. The two also recorded two canal boat wrecks in
Lake Champlain, and Cohn discovered an intact gunboat
from Benedict Arnold's 1776 Revolutionary War flotilla in
Lake Champlain. Jerome Hall began the study for publi-
cation of the hull of the Sea Of Galilee Boat in Israel. Of
course, conservation and study of the cultural material
from all the prior INA projects listed in this history contin-
ued throughout the world.
There were several old faces wearing new hats in
1997. INA Vice-President Cemal Pulak, who had been in-
volved with the Institute since 1975, joined the faculty of
the Nautical Archaology Program at Texas A&M Univer-
sity. Another new A&M faculty member was Wayne Smith,
who has been involved in the conservation of INA finds
for many years. Barto Arnold, discoverer of La Belle, joined
the INA team as the director of a new program focusing
on the many archaeological sites along the Texas coast. Gary
Martin became President of the INA Foundation, with respon-
sibility for developing the resources needed to carry the work of
the Institute forward into its second quarter century.
This was another busy year for books by INA facul-
ty, staff and students. Chatham Press obtained United
Kingdom rights for Studies in Nautical Archaeology. Fred
Hocker published A Small Cog, Wrecked on the Zuiderzee in
the Early 15th Century, with K. Vlierman. Sam Mark, the


second Mr. and Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried II Fellow, published
From Egypt to Mesopotamia: A Study of Predynastic Trade
Routes as the fourth volume in the Studies in Nautical Ar-
chaeology Series. The year also saw publication of a second
edition of Those Vulgar Tubes by Joe Simmons. Shelley
Wachsmann's The Sea of Galilee Boat won the Biblical Ar-
chaeology Society's Biannual Award for the Best Popular
Book on Biblical Archaeology published in 1995-1996. The
summer issue of the INA Quarterly (24.2) catalogued the
thesis and dissertation research-often on INA projects-
of graduates of the Texas A&M Nautical Archaeology Pro-
gram since the first class in 1978. It is an impressive roll of
honor, as well as a reminder of how much INA has contrib-
uted to the state of nautical archaeology over the past quar-
ter century.
Board of Directors: William L. Allen, John H. Baird,
George F. Bass, Edward O. Boshell, Jr., Vice Chair, Ray M.
Bowen, John A. Brock, Elizabeth L. Bruni, Gregory M. Cook,
Chair, Harlan Crow, Frank Darden, John De Lapa, Claude
Duthuit, Daniel Fallon, Danielle J. Feeney, Donald G. Ged-
des, Emeritus, Woodrow Jones, Jr., Harry C. Kahn, II, Emeri-
tus, Michael L. Katzev, Jack W. Kelley, Sally R. Lancaster,
Robert E. Lorton, Frederick R. Mayer, William A. McKenzie,
Alex G. Nason, L. Francis Rooney, Ayhan Sicimoglu, Ray H.
Siegfried 1I, William T. Sturgis, Robert L. Walker, Lew O.
Ward, Peter M. Way, Garry A. Weber, Martin A. Wilcox,
George O. Yamini, and James A. Goold, Counsel.ar


INA Quarterly 25.1











1998
Again, descriptions of INA's work in 1998 will be forthcoming in the INA Quarterly. However, it is worth noting that
the beginning of the year has already seen publication of Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant by Shelley
Wachsmann (Texas A&M University Press) and When Horses Walked on Water: Horse-Powered Ferries in Nineteenth-Century
America by Kevin Crisman and Arthur Cohn (Smithsonian Institution Press). There
is much good archaeology underway, but there is much more to be done as INA
celebrates its twenty-fifth anniversary and moves confidently into its future. \/

1998 (right) Artifacts and hull remains from the excaation of La Belle are currently undergo-
ing conservation in the Texas A&M Conservation Lab headed by Donny Hamilton.

1998 (below) Kevin Crisman and his team survey Lidador, wrecked in Angra Bay, Azores.
















owlv
Institute of Nautical Archaeology Giving Levels and Benefits
Researcher $25 (student members only) Curator $1,000 $2, 499
*1 yr. subscription to INA Quarterly *all of the above, plus
Seafarer $40 $99 'special collections of out-of-print National Geographic
*I yr. subscription to INA Quarterly, plus magazines which feature INA projects
*discounted prices on selected books and INA Excavator $2,500 $4,999
publications, plus *all of the above, plus
*scientific reports and articles by INA associates, plus full-scale replica of an INA-recovered artifact, plus
'special subscription rate to the International ournalof 'invitation to a tour, reception, and lecture at INA
Nautical Archaeology headquarters at Texas A&M University
Surveyor $100 $249 Archaeologist $5,000 $9,999
*all of the above, plus *all of the above, plus
*video tape tour of an INA underwater excavation '1/2 day diving tour of a current INA excavation site*
Diver $250 $499 Navigator $10,000 $24,999
*all of the above, plus *all of the above, plus
*copy of the full-color book, Shipwrecks in the Bodrum *a two-day study stay at a designated INA excavation
Museum of Undenvater Archaeology by Dr. George F. Bass site*
Restorer $500 $999 Anchor $25,000 and over
*all of the above, plus *all of the above, plus
*gift set of full-color note cards featuring INA-recovered *a four-day study-stay at the INA library/research
artifacts and underwater photography center in Bodrum, Turkey including guided visits to
nearby archaeological sites*
*By special arrangements. Transportation and accommodations at donor's own expense. Only trained, certified divers over the age
of 18 are permitted to dive at INA sites.
Under Internal Revenue Service guidelines, the estimated value of the benefits received by the donors is not substantial; therefore
the full amount of your gift is a deductible contribution.


INA Quarterly 25.1













INSTITUTE OF NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY


George F. Bass, President
James A. Goold, Secretary


William L. Allen
John H. Baird
George F. Bass
Edward O. Bushell, Jr.,
Vice Chairman and Treasurer
Ray M. Bowen
John A. Brock
Elizabeth L. Bruni
Gregory M. Cook, Chairman
Harlan Crow
Frank Darden
John De Lapa


Allan Campbell, M.D.


OFFICERS ADMINISTRATION
Donald A. Frey, Vice President
Cemal M. Pulak, Vice President

BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Claude Duthuit
Daniel Fallon
Danielle J. Feeney
Donald G. Geddes III (Emeritus)
Woodrow Jones, Jr.
Harry C. Kahn II (Emeritus)
Michael L. Katzev
Jack W. Kelley
Sally R. Lancaster
Robert E. Lorton
Frederick R. Mayer
William A. McKenzie

ASSOCIATE DIRECTORS
Bill Klein, M.D.


Claudia LeDoux, Assistant Secretary
Rebecca H. Holloway, Asst. Treasurer


Alex G. Nason
L. Francis Rooney
Ayhan Sicimoglu
Ray H. Siegfried II
William T. Sturgis
Robert L. Walker
Lew O. Ward
Peter M. Way
Carry A. Weber
Martin H. Wilcox
George O. Yamini



Murad Sunalp


FACULTY
George F Bass
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology/ George O. Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts
Kevin J. Crisman, Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow
Frederick M. Hocker, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Associate Professor
Cemal M. Pulak, Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow of Nautical Archaeology
C. Wayne Smith
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr, Frederick R. Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Shelley Wachsmann, Meadows Assistant Professor of Biblical Archaeology
Cheryl Haldane Ward, Assistant Professor


J. Barto Arnold, M.A, Texas Operations


STAFF
Birgul Akbiilut
Mustafa Babacik
William H. Charlton, Jr., M.A.
Marion Degirmenci
Adel Farouk
Sevil Gbkmen
Jane Haldane
Maria Jacobsen
Emad Khalil
Sheila D. Matthews, M.A.
Selma Oguz
Gbkhan Ozagach, Ph.D.
Gine Ozbay
Claire P. Peachey, M.A.
Robin C.M. Piercy
Sema Pulak, M.A.
Patricia M. Sibella, Ph.D.
GCilser Sinaci
Howard Wellman, M-A.



QUARTERLY EDITOR
Christine A. Powell


AREA DIRECTORS
Douglas Haldane, M.A., INA Egypt

RESEARCH ASSOCIATES
Elizabeth Robinson Baldwin, M A
Gregory Gidden
Jeremy Green
Elizabeth Greene
Jerome Hall, Ph.D.
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D.
Robert S. Neyland, Ph.D.
Ralph K. Pedersen, M.A.
Brett A. Phaneuf
Donald Rosencrantz
Peter G. van Allen, M.A.

ADJUNCT PROFESSORS
Arthur Cohn, J.D.
Cynthia J. Eiseman, Ph.D.
John A. Gifford, Ph.D.
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D.
Carolyn G. Koehler, PhD.
David 1. Owen, Ph.D.
David C. Switzer, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr, M.A.
COUNSEL
James A. Goold


Tufan U. Turanhl, Turkish Headquarters

SUPPORTING INSTITUTIONS
Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology
Boston University
Brown University
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati
Cornell University
Coming Museum of Glass
Department de Arqueol6gia Subacuatica de
la I.N.A.H., Mexico
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Partners for Livable Places
University Museum, University of Pennsylvania
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Texas A&M University
University of Texas at Austin

GRADUATE FELLOWS
Mr. and Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried II
Graduate Fellow: Samuel Mark
Marion M. Cook Graduate Fellow:
Ench Heinold




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