Winter 1997 __
Volume 24 No. 4
The INA Quarterly
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Volume 24 No. 4 Winter 1997
3 The Tantura B Shipwreck: The 1996 INA/CMS
Joint Expedition to Tantura Lagoon MEMBERSHIP
Shelley Wachsmann, Yaakov Kahanov, and Institute of Nautical Archaeology
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27 Vol. 24 Index
On the cover A Tale of Two Shipwrecks. During the 1996 campaign, members of the INA/CMS Joint Expedition to
Tantura Lagoon studied the early ninth-century CE (Arabic period) Tantura B shipwreck, and then were surprised to
discover that it was lying on top of an early third-century CE (Roman period) shipwreck. Photo: S. Wachsmann.
December 1997 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. All rights reserved.
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Editor: Christine A. Powell
The Tantura B Shipwreck:
The 1996 INA/CMS Joint Expedition to Tantura Lagoon
by Shelley Wachsmann, Yaakov Kahanov, and Jerome Hall
S --A& --/
God has the purest judgment.
Kufic (ancient Arabic) inscription on a wooden
roundel found on the early ninth-century CE
Tantura B Shipwreck
Tantura Lagoon is one of the few natural harbors
along Israel's long and straight Mediterranean coast (see
INA Quarterly 22.2, 3 [figs. 1-2]). The cove has served as a
port facility for Tel Dor, one of the largest ancient mounds
in Israel, as well as for Dor's immediate environs, for at
least 4,000 years. Due to the lagoon's geographic configu-
ration, ships that wrecked here tend to be buried and pre-
served under a thick anaerobic blanket of sand. These
considerations, both of antiquity and geography, make the
cove an exceptional laboratory for the study of historical-
ly and archaeologically significant shipwrecks.
Throughout its long history, Tantura Lagoon served
as a gateway between the cosmopolitan Mediterranean Sea
and the hinterland. Artifacts recovered from Tantura La-
goon include materials dating to periods for which we
know virtually nothing about the ships in use. If these re-
mains are wash-off from shipwrecks still buried under the
cove's shifting sands, which seems likely, then they sug-
gest an archaeological treasure trove. As the area adjacent
to the lagoon has been inhabited for four millennia, there
are few Mediterranean ports that hold the remains of such
a historical expanse.
Tantura Lagoon is now being coaxed into revealing
some of her nautical treasures. Since 1994, INA has joined
forces with Haifa University's Recanati Center for Mari-
time Studies (CMS) to carry out joint research under the
directorship of INA's Shelley Wachsmann (fig. 1).
In 1995, the team completed in situ recording of the
Tantura A Shipwreck, which was discovered the previous
year (fig. 2: A). The preserved portion examined consti-
tutes about twenty-five percent of the bottom of a small
local coaster, dating to the Late Byzantine period (mid-
fifth to mid-sixth centuries CE) that originally was proba-
bly about twelve meters long. The team also confirmed
that this hull had been constructed without the aid of un-
pegged mortise-and-tenon joinery that had, until this dis-
covery, been considered standard for that time-period. This
makes Tantura A the oldest recorded hull in Mediterra-
nean waters to have been built with the innovative meth-
ods that were to evolve more fully and become
standardized during medieval times.
Also during the course of the 1995 season, the team
carried out a hydraulic probe survey in the immediate area
surrounding Tantura A, during which remains of four ad-
ditional shipwrecks were discovered (see INA Quarterly
A third season of exploration at Tantura Lagoon
took place from late October through early December 1996.
Expedition members logged 1,054 diver-hours during 344
recorded field-related tasks. The expedition focused pri-
marily on the well-preserved section of an early ninth-cen-
tury shipwreck in Trench VIII- now termed the Tantura
B Shipwreck (fig. 3-4). Timbers derived from two other
hulls were also recorded in this trench. The Trench VIII
hull remains were mapped against stainless steel baselines,
as well as by means of direct measurements (fig. 5-6). Ad-
ditionally, a black and white photographic record was
made of all timbers.
INA Quarterly 24.4
\* 0 50
Drawing: P. Sibella
Fig 1. Map of the southern portion of Tantura Lagoon showing the locations of shipwrecks and collections of timbers discovered and
examined during the 1994-1996 seasons of exploration.
The Tantura B hull was particularly chosen for de-
tailed study as it is remarkable in dating to a century from
which there are no other documented Mediterranean ship-
wrecks (fig. 7). Subsequently, the in situ study of the hull
has revealed it to be of a previously unrecorded Mediter-
ranean hull shape. Y. Kahanov and J. Hall were responsi-
ble for recording and studying the hull. Noted Hull
Reconstructor J.R. Steffy visited the expedition and ad-
vised on matters of hull construction.
The uniform continuity of the hull breadth tenta-
tively suggests a long and narrow vessel. This combina-
tion of angles, breadths, and lack of longitudinal
strengthening has not been recorded previously on any
medieval Mediterranean shipwreck.
The Tantura B hull is oriented along a southeast by
northwest bearing (fig. 2: B). This appears to be a relatively
small section of the vessel. Steffy believes that it may include
somewhat less than twenty-five percent of the hull's bottom.
INA Quarterly 24.4
I .= m Drawing: P. Sibella
Fig. 2 A parking-lotfor shipwrecks... Plan of the shipwrecks found in Tantura Lagoon during the 1994-1996 seasons of exploration. We
have recorded remains of seven (!) different shipwrecks in an extremely small area. As a reference point, the superimposed rectangle
represents the size of a single regulation-size basketball court (28.65 by 15.24 meters). Interestingly, all the coherent hulls that we have
uncovered to date at Tantura are aligned roughly in a northwest-to-southeast direction. This is probably the result of the eastern part of
each ship being buffeted by the powerful north-to-south current that runs in the lagoon during storms.
For a detailed descriptionof the ship's construction, see the side-
bar on page 13.
The vessel's keel and keelson are insufficient longitudi-
nal stiffening for such a vessel Unfortunately, evidence for any
upper longitudinal strengthening timbers is lacking, leaving the
question of how such along hull was strengthened unresolved.
The unusual association of angles, breadths, and
lack of longitudinal strengthening on the Tantura B hull is
unlike those of any other known Mediterranean medieval
vessel recorded to date (Figs. 4,8). This has led J.R. (Dick)
Steffy to propose that this arrangement may be indicative
of medieval galley (oared ship) construction, which (till
now?) has been missing in the archaeological record.
Although no cargo was found in the hull, numer-
ous artifacts were recovered that will teach us much about
the ship and crew. Of particular interest is an exceptional-
ly large Abbasid-period oil lamp. This was associated with
five bivalve shells, which were stacked neatly inside each
other (fig. 9). Part of a sixth, broken, shell was found near-
by. The function for which these items were being carried
is, for the present, unclear, although similar bivalve shells
were foundion the early seventh-century CE Yassiada Ship-
wreck where they were interpreted as spoons. A second,
smaller yet contemporaneous, lamp was found just beyond
the hull's northwest quadrant.
Rope of various sizes-from string to massive hawsers-
was found lying throughout the hull. Ongoing study of
his cordage will contribute to our understanding of the
vessel's rigging. Also of interest are four wooden toggles, two
of which were found with rope still adhering to them (fig. 10).
Three wooden roundels of uncertain purpose, were
found (fig. 11: A-C), one bearing a carved inscription (fig.
INA Quarterly 24.4
Fig. 3 (main). Trench VIII site plan. The Tantura B Shipwreck, with part of an enormous Roman shipwreck beneath it.
(Left) The "HX" graffito was found on a timber in the northwestern quadrant of the hull.
11: C). H. Khalilieh (CMS) identified the script as Kufic-
an early Arabic script-and has translated it as, "God has the
purest judgment." A similar artifact was found on the seventh-
century CE Yassiada shipwreck (our thanks to Professor F. van
Doominck for bringing this parallel to our attention).
Several spoon-like wooden items have holes pierced
through their spatulate extremities (fig. 12). Also worthy
of note are a bone or ivory inlay, a wooden decorative piece,
and a gourd, which still bears a deep orange color, pierced
in two locations along its rim (fig. 11: D, 13-14). It is not
clear at present if fish weights found in Trench VIII are
associated with the Tantura B vessel. Numerous small bal-
last stones were found lying on the hull. These are cur-
rently under study by Y. Mart (CMS). Four stone anchors,
of indeterminate date, were also found in Trench VIII (fig. 15).
Stratigraphy-the subsequent layering of archaeo-
logical artifacts-is rare in nautical archaeology. In Tantu-
ra Lagoon, however, we repeatedly find stratified artifacts.
Undoubtedly, the most remarkable occurrence of this phe-
nomenon was our discovery in 1996 that the Tantura B hull
had come to rest upon another ancient hull!
In 1995, we had noted a single plank with mortise-
and-tenon joints lying on top of a layer of Roman-period
ceramics. During the 1996 season we discovered that Tan-
tura B had come to rest directly on top of a Late Roman
period shipwreck (Cov9r; figs. 2: 1; 3 [lower right]). This
latter hull appears to be a relatively small fragment of an
enormous ship. The 11-cm-thick hull planking is the most
robust planking noted for a Roman-period vessel to date.
The ship had on board a ceramic cargo, primarily of
globular vessels, which were new when the ship sank. A
ceramic oil lamp also belonging to this cargo, and discussed
in the following article by P. Sibella, bears an Early-Chris-
tian anagram, the "tau-rho" symbol. A chain and hook,
perhaps part of a steelyard, was also found nearby (fig.
16). Near these two hulls we found several disarticulated
timbers-a keel with mortise-and-tenon joints, two frames,
as well as the plank noted in the 1995 survey. These be-
long to a third (!) smaller hull (fig. 2: 2-2'), perhaps the
Roman-period ship's boat (fig. 17; cf. Acts 27: 30-32).
INA Quarterly 24.4
Drawing: P. Sibella
Due to the abundance of hulls in Trench VIII, the
1996 expedition's hydraulic probe survey was somewhat
curtailed. Nevertheless, the survey revealed three addition-
al concentrations of timbers beneath the sand, in addition
to the Trench VIII timbers, discussed above. One, in Trench
X, was part of a large early-medieval hull (fig. 2: X). Two
other anomalies were mapped, but were not examined.
We have now recorded the remains of seven (!) dif-
ferent vessels in an area about the size of a regulation bas-
ketball court, confirming the impression that the cove is,
quite literally, a graveyard of shipwrecks and one well
worth further investigation (Figs. 1-2).
A section opened across the Trench X hull (fig. 18)
revealed a massive rectangular mast step. This was posi-
tioned over a pair of centerline "stringers," which were
half-logs cut lengthwise down the center, each with one
flat and one rounded side. These were placed flat-side up.
A layer of rushes or reeds had been placed parallel to the
keel, over the frames, probably as dunnage to protect the
ship's cargo. Pottery found on the hull suggests a date from
the eighth-tenth centuries CE.
Samples of timbers from the Trench VIII and X ship-
wrecks were submitted to E. Werker (Department of Bota-
ny, Hebrew University, Jerusalem) for identification. The
keel of the Tantura B shipwreck and a longitudinal strength-
ening member placed over the keelson scarf were made of
oak (Quercus). Her keelson, as well as a plank, were identi-
fied as Pine (Pinus). Aleppo pine (Pinus halapensis) was used
for the stringers on either side of the keelson, a frame, a
garboard, crenulate ceiling planking overlying the hull in
the northwest quadrant, and a ceiling (?) plank overlying
planking in the southwest quadrant. A small log of Tabor
oak (Quercus ithaburensis) lay in the northwest quadrant of
Tantura B, while another stick, still with its bark intact, was
of Common oak (Quercus calliprinos).
A sample from one of the planks of the large Ro-
man-period shipwreck found underneath Tantura B is iden-
tified as Cypress (Cupressus). A tenon used in the Roman
pegged mortise-and-tenon joinery was identified as of
Common oak and a peg as oak.
In the Trench X shipwreck, the mast step, a stringer,
a plank, as well as a transverse ceiling plank, were all made
INA Quarterly 24.4
Fig. 4 (above left). The Tantura B Shipwreck.
Fig. 5 (above right). Silt billows as Stephen Breitstein sinks a pipe into
the seabed of Tantura Lagoon in preparation for laying a stainless-steel
baseline over the centerline of the Tantura B Shipwreck.
Fig. 6 (below left). Isabel Rivera and Jerome Hall take direct measure-
ments of the Tantura B keelson.
Photos: S. Wachsmann
INA Quarterly 24.4
Fig. 7 (left). Team member Michael Halpern
glides over planking in the northeastern quad-
rant of the Tantura B Shipwreck at the outset
of the 1996 season.
Fig. 8 (below). Planking plan of the Tantura
Photos: S. Wachsmann
Fig.9 (below). A largeAbbasid-period lamp wasfound with
a group ofbivalve shells, tucked next to the keel ofTantura B.
The lamp had been in use, as evidenced by soot adhering to its
Fig. 10 (right). Four toggles were uncovered on theTantura
B Shipwreck. Two had been turned on a lathe (A-B), while
two others were hand-whittled (C-D). One of the toggles (A)
was found still wrapped in a multi-coiled rope, while another
was found with remains of a thin rope still wrapped around
INA Quarterly 24.4
-Drawing: P. Sibell
1_50 r. Drawing: P.ie
o~!S3 ^^^ ~al^^
Drawing: P. Sibella
Drawing: P. Sibella
of Aleppo pine, while one of the vessel's frames was made
of Tamarisk (Tamarix).
A radiocarbon sample was collected during the
1995 field season and was studied by Y. Carmi and D.
Segal for the Weizmann Institute of Science's Department
of Environmental Sciences and Energy Research, and the
Israel Antiquities Authority. This yielded a date of 680-
850 CE. Samples from three of Tantura B's widest planks
were submitted for dendrochronological dating to P.I.
Fig. 11 (above left). Wooden roundels (A-C) and an ivory or
bone inlay (D). Roundel C bears an Arabic inscription, written
in Kufic script, "God has the purest judgment," which is partic-
ularly evocative, considering that it was found on a shipwreck.
Fig. 12 (above right). Spatulate wooden objects found in the
southwestern area ofTantura B.
Fig. 13 (below left). Wooden decorative ornament found on
Fig. 14 (below right). The gourd found on Tantura B.
Drawings by P. Sibella
INA Quarterly 24.4
0 1 2
0 1 2
U 1 Ocm
Fig. 15. Two of the stone anchors from Trench VIII. Anchor A
weighs 49 kilograms; anchor B weighs 58 kilograms.
Kuniholm of Cornell University's Malcolm and Carolyn
Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendro-
The three planks were cut from a single tree and
form a 138-year-long sequence. Kuniholm notes that the
only chronology available at present for the period to
which the Tantura B shipwreck is assigned-based
on the radiocarbon dating and the ceramic evidence
(800-850 CE)-is the Aegean Oak Master Chronology.
There are two possibly significant "fits." One
is if the Tantura B graph is placed so that it ends at
801 CE, the other is 829 CE. Kuniholm notes that the
timber cannot date to both dates, and may not date
from either of them. There are two problems in eval-
uating these materials. The first is that we are com-
paring oak and pine. The second is that the oak
derives from Zadar on the Dalmatian coast, Hagia
Sophia in Constantinople and Kiitahya in northwest-
ern Turkey. Although the ship sank in Tantura La-
goon, some 1800 kilometers southeast of Zadar, at
this time we cannot determine where she was built,
nor from where her timbers were derived.
Much can be learned about the Tantura ship-
wrecks, their cargoes and crews, as well as shipboard
diet and hygiene (or lack thereof) onboard ship through pa-
leoethnobotanical analyses. This project is one of the first
Mediterranean shipwreck sites in which pollen remains are
being systematically studied.
Organic remains of the Tantura A hull will be stud-
ied as part of S. Butler's MA thesis at Texas A&M Univer-
sity's (TAMU) Nautical Archaeology Program; he is also
studying the Trench VII Roman-period materials. Paleo-
ethnobotanical materials from the Tantura B hull will form
the framework for L.D. Gorham's Ph.D. dissertation at
TAMU's Department of Anthropology.
Paleoethnobotanical samples were collected from
the Tantura B shipwreck during the 1996 season, includ-
ing organic sediments from the hull's interior; basketry/
woven fibrous material; caulking; rope and the contents
from all closed ceramic vessels. Roman-period materials
collected included pitch or conifer resin adhering to tim-
bers (perhaps remnants of timber treatment), anatomical
plant remains, as well as the contents from all intact fine-
All samples will be processed and analyzed for fossil
pollen content. Samples will also be examined for macrobo-
tanical remains, such as seeds and identifiable plant parts.
Samples of sediment and the clay strata found beneath the
sand in Tantura Lagoon will be analyzed for pollen as a base-
line comparison for shipwreck material. These data will pro-
vide the basis for an excellent comparative study.
Most of the ship remains we have uncovered show
evidence of traumatic ends. Their keels are snapped or
twisted apart. The hulls have been ripped asunder. What
is believed to be part of the Tantura A hull was found over
60 meters away from the main portion.
;. 16. Metal chain and hook from Trench VIII.
INA Quarterly 24.4
Drawing: P. Sibella
Fig. 17. Plan of Roman-period hull remains and pottery in Trench VIII.
Fig. 18. Section across the Trench X shipwreck. Note the large mast step, which rests on a
transverse ceiling~ plank.
INA Quarterly 24.4
Why did so many ships,
over such an extended period of
time, come to grief here? Why do
thesehullsshow dramatic evidence
of being ripped apart by immense
forces? This phenomenon seems
particularly enigmatic as the
wrecks are located inside a qui-
et cove that is well protected by
a necklace of islands. Further-
more, the wrecks are aligned
northwest-southeast, making a
composite plan look reminiscent
of a parking lot for shipwrecks
The only scenario that
adequately explains the present
evidence is that these vessels all
sank under similar sets of cir-
cumstances. The ships were
probably forced against a lee
shore during storms. Caught in
a storm, a sailing vessel or a gal-
ley had little choice but to run
before the wind. A lee coast,
however, meant that there was
nowhere to run but straight on
to the shore.
Perhaps the crews were
trying to enter the safety of the
lagoon by making a run between
two of its sheltering islands (fig.
19). Raised up by the waves and
smashed against the rocks hid-
den between these islands, the
ships broke their backs as they
were battered over the rocks and
into the cove by the waves. This
process is vividly described by
St. Paul in relating his shipwreck
off Malta (Acts 27).
Once flushed into the
cove, large sections of the vessels
were quickly buried, and subse-
quently protected, by a deep lay-
er of sand, which entombed the
hulls and their contents in an
anaerobic embrace (fig. 20). The
ships' "parallel parking" is prob-
ably due to the east end of each
ship being pushed by the pow-
erful north-to-south current that
runs in the lagoon during
Technical Information on Tantura B
The rockered keel, preserved for 9.8 meters, contains two horizontal hook-scarfs. One, 30 cm long, is the southeast-
ern preserved end of the keel. A second hook-scarf, constructed in the opposite direction, is located 8.06 meters from it A
step, 4.5 centimeters deep, is 1.33 meters from the southeastern end of the keel. The only rabbet for the garboards is
located at the post edge, cose to the southeastern scarf. No evidence for a false keel was found.
The ship's main surviving longitudinal strengthening element is a massive rockered keelson with a preserved
length of 7.84 meters. The sided (horizontal) dimension of the keelson decreases from 20.2 to 12.2 centimeters, and the
molded (vertical) dimension tapers from 18.0 at the northern end to 15.7 centimeters at the southern end. The keelson's
underside is notched with recesses for the frames' upper surfaces. There are two main types of notches: one for a floor
timber, the other, twice the size of the previous type, to receive pairs of half frames. Nail impressions are visible on the
upper surface of the keelson at all floor stations, but are not found above half-frame stations. The surviving keelson is
made of two timbers connected with a horizontal, 40.0 centimeter-long, hook-scarf that is fastened with at least four nails.
The southernmost end of the scarf was placed directly over Frame Station (FS) 18. The scarf begins 5.09 meters from the
southeastern terminus of the keelson. A 1.76 meter long timber is nailed in five locations directly over the keelson scarf. It
apparently served to secure the scarf.
The shipwrights placed longitudinal timbers on either side of the keelson. These stringers, although fastened by
means of only a few nails to the keelson and the frames, may have added to the hull's longitudinal strengthening, and
perhaps supported the keelson scarf and mast step. Furthermore, they may have supplied a surface on which the inboard
edges of transverse ceiling planking could rest. The mast step heel, cut directly into the keelson, is located between 7.05
and 7.46 meters from the southern end of the keelson.
The framing pattern was of alternating floors and overlapping half frames. Timber survived in thirty framing
locations and there is evidence for nine additional stations. On average, frames are 9 centimeters sided and 9.4 centimeters
molded, with an average distance of 26 centimeters between frame centers. Frames were sawed and worked flat along
their surfaces to form a rectangular cross-section. They were chamfered on their upper surfaces. Some frames, and partic-
ularly those on the western side of the keel, are preserved to the turn of the bilge. There are two limber holes in each frame.
The best preserved floor, FS 21, is 2.48 meters long and extends 1.43 meters on the western side of the hull. The shape of
the frames indicate a relatively flat-bottomed hull.
Seven planks are preserved on the west side of the hull, while remnants of six strakes are preserved on the east side
(fig. 8). With but one exception- Strake Six-all the planks appear to have been made of Aleppo pine (pinus halepensis).
Planks vary considerably in width, from 4 to 36 centimeters; their thickness varies from 2.5 to 3.4 centimeters. Dependent
on plank width, from one to three iron nails were driven to attach the planks to the frames. Planks are butt-joined. Some
of these joints are "L-shaped," some contain short diagonals, while others are straight. Drop strakes and stealers were also
used. On the west side of the keel two repair planks were identified. The sixth strake seems to be made of oak; it is thought
to be a bilge keel or a bilge wale. This strake is considerably thicker (up to 10.2 centimeters) narrower than the other
planking and relatively narrow.
There is widespread evidence for the use of caulking between the planks. In several cases, where planks were
perhaps cut too short, spaces of up to 1.0 by 7.0 centimeters were filled by caulking material
A single crenulate timber lay over the hull in the northwestern quadrant of the hull. The outboard edges of the
tongues were cut at an angle, suggesting they were tangential to the inner surfaces of the hull planking as it turned
upwards. The notches were cut to take the extremities of the frames at the turn of the bilge. This timber bore the only
graffito found on the entire hull-"HX" when viewed from the keel-line (fig. 3, insert).
Three loose rectangular boards, tentatively identified as removable transverse ceiling planking, were found dis-
tributed around the site. At least one of these has two parallel lines incised into it. These fit perfectly when placed trans-
versely between frame stations, with sufficient space for the next adjoining plank to rest atop the frame. If these timbers
represent ceiling planking, they likely rested on the keelson stringers and extended out to just before the turn of the
surviving bilge. This compares with the transverse ceiling planking on the Serqe Limaru Shipwreck. Two small nail holes
on half frames in the southwestern quadrant of the hull, spaced about equidistant between the keelson and the turn of the
bilge, suggest the existence of an additional stringer there that could have supported such transverse ceiling planking.
The butt-joints of planking beneath frame stations indicate that Tantura B is a "skeleton-based" hull. The hull was
relatively flat; its maximum beam is believed to have been about five meters, perhaps slightly less. Dependent on whether
this vessel was a one or a two-masted lateener, the hull could have attained a minimum length of 19 meters, or a maxi-
mum one of nearly 30 meters.
INA Quarterly 24.4
Acknowledgments. The 1996 season of exploration was made
possible by generous support from the National Geograph-
ic Society, the L.J. Skaggs and Mary C. Skaggs Founda-
tion, and by the support of the following individuals: Robert
and Hallie Anderson, Ned and Raynette Boshelle, Theodore and
Francis Halpem, Harry and Joan Kahn, I, Rubin and Norma
Kershaw, and John and Ellie Stern.
Senior expedition staff came primarily from INA and
CMS faculty and staff, as well as independent profession-
als: Shelley Wachsmann (Project Director and Principal
Investigator; Still Photography); Jerome Hall (Assistant
Director); J. Richard Steffy (Advisor on Hull Reconstruc-
tion); Stephen Breitstein (Director of Operations); Yaakov Kaha-
nov (Hull Reconstructor); Patricia Sibella (Ceramacist and Artist);
Michael Halpem (Diving Coordinator); Andrew Lacovara (Hy-
draulic Probe Coordinator); Chris Brandon (Artist); Joshua Copel
(Excavation Doctor); Rami Israelov (Technician).
Additionally, students from Texas A&M Universi-
ty, the University of Haifa, and the University of Puerto
Rico, as well as from local high schools, participated in the
excavation. The 1996 team included members from Cana-
da, France, Germany, Israel, and the United States, mak-
ing it a truly international educational experience. Some
graduate students were assigned significant responsibili-
ties within the excavation's framework. Participant includ-
ed the following persons: Joe Breman; Steven Butler (Dive
Master, Accountant, Darkroom Technician, Paleoethnobot-
any and Video Photography); Lee Dillon Gorham (Paleo-
ethnobotany); Hadas Mor; Jennifer Pinion (Dive Log/
Recorder); Ofer Raz; Isabel Rivera (Assistant Hull Record-
er/Illustrator); Shai Shalev; Anna Sey; Claude Tibi (Stu-
dio Photography); and Yishai Wachsmann.
.- tn t'. ._, N
Fig. 19. The steps in the process of how ships may have wrecked in Tantura Lagoon are graphically illustrated in this artist's reconstruc-
tion. A ship runs before a storm (left). She is caught against a lee shore and makes a run between two islands (left center). The ship is
lifted bodily by a wave and smashed against the rocks that protect the entrance to the cove. One can imagine the terrible sounds of
INA Quarterly 24.4
1995. Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. (Reprint
with Addenda and Corrigenda.) Baltimore.
1915 The Materials for the History of Dor. New Haven.
In the Field. National Geographic 191 (Jan 1997):103-109.
1982 Miscellaneous Finds. In: Yassi Ada I. Eds. G.F. Bass
and F.H. van Doorninck. College Station: 266-295.
1994 Wooden Ship Building and the Interpretation of Ship-
wrecks. College Station.
1993 The Many Masters of Dor. Biblical Archaeology Re-
view 19/1: 22-31, 76,78; 19/2: 18-29; 19/3: 38-49.
1994 Dor: Ruler of the Seas. Jerusalem.
Wachsmann, S., and K. Raveh
1984 A Concise Nautical History of Dor/Tantura. Inter-
national Journal of Nautical Archaeology 13: 223-241.
1996B Technology Before its Time: A Byzantine Ship-
wreck from Tantura Lagoon. The Explorers Journal
i, r "yy; s. ---x"t r --a-wkn "
c-' -- s ,r"*r- --' I "- C "rand n
groaning and crashing as the vessel's back is broken and she comes apart (right center). As the vessel breaks up and takes on water (at
right), the waves push her into the sand bank just inland of the islands, where she is swiftly buried by the constantly migrating sands
(note that the vessels represented in figure 19 are intentionally generic, and are not intended to represent any specific shipwreck).
INA Quarterly 24.4
Light from the Past: The 1996 Tantura Roman Lamp
by Patricia Sibella
"The spirit of a man is the lamp of the Lord"
-Proverbs 20: 27
Archaeologists shed light on the past by bringing
long-hidden things out of darkness. Appropriately, one
of the most interesting finds of the 1996 season at Tantura
Lagoon is a lamp. This artifact brings light from the past
on the movement of Christianity out of the shadows of
persecution into the public arena of commerce. The oil
lamp has a very long history in Israel, and its technical
development parallels that of other pottery vessels. Pot-
ters made lamps by similar methods at the same work-
shops, using the same raw materials. The invention of the
oil lamp changed history at least as much as the light bulb
would several thousand years later. The various steps that
led to the invention of the lamp are still unclear. No one
knows who the inventors were, or when and where they
lived. The lamp served for the illumination of both do-
mestic and commercial establishments, in places of wor-
ship, and as tomb furniture.
The 1996 Tantura Lagoon excavation campaign
found and examined a few complete and fragmentary oil
lamps, ranging in date from the Roman to Islamic peri-
ods. One of these lamps, from the fourth century CE (fig.
1), deserves special attention. We found it in the north-
eastern part of Trench VII between two large ashlar blocks,
near some wooden planks and a number of small cooking
pots of contemporaneous date.
This complete Roman oil lamp (G-135/1996-.0265)
falls in the Broneer Type XXV and Loeschke Type VIII. It
has a maximum length of 11.1 cm, a maximum diameter
of 9.9 cm, and a maximum height of 3.05 cm, with an aver-
age fabric thickness of 0.25 cm. The lamp presents a uni-
form molded shape with no handle, a round reservoir, and
a small rounded nozzle termination. The sloping rim is
rather large, plain, and slightly convex. At the very edge
of a decorated sunken discus, there are four ring-and-dot
patterns impressed between two concentric grooves of 0.2
cm in width. The central decoration consists of a cross-
monogram in ronde bosse known as a "Taw Rho," with
branches almost entirely ornamented with small incisions
arranged in a chevron pattern. The extremity of one of the
branches, opposite the nozzle, turns to the right to form a
closed loop. Two small filling holes of 0.5 cm in diameter
appear on either side of the discus decoration. One of these
holes may have served as an air bubble vent. A linear
groove followed by two impressed rings and dots placed
on top of each other separates the projecting nozzle from
the sloping rim. The potter formed the wick hole at a slight-
ly oblique angle, probably with a wooden or metal rod.
Below the line of maximum diameter, the straight
sides slant rather sharply to reach a flat base set off by two
concentric grooves, 0.25 cm in width. The base bears one
slightly off-center impressed small circle flanked by the
Greek letters Nu (N) and Upsilon (Y), possibly the abbrevi-
ated name of the potter who clearly incised this decora-
tion before firing. A ridge links the base to the projecting
nozzle, and two scratches are discernible along the sides.
Although its prolonged stay in the water totally deterio-
rated the color as well as the consistency of its clay, the
lamp's original color was probably buff with a red, black,
or brown slip. We found no evidence of charring.
We recovered a very small fragment-only the very
tip of one of the ornated branches of a cross-monogram
symbol-of the discus of another similar example (96-
.0268) to the southwest of this complete oil lamp, closer to
the wooden planks. Unfortunately, the fragment did not
survive its removal from the sea. These lamps belong to a
type attested as early as the second half of the first century
CE, and found in the predestruction levels at Jerusalem.
The type continues well into the third-fourth centuries to-
gether with other provincial styles. Examples are preserved
all around the eastern Mediterranean world, including
Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and Cyprus.
The particularity of our complete example clearly
stands out not only in its fairly large dimensions, but also-
and especially-in the choice of the decoration for its sunk-
en discus. The symbol attested here is a form of
cross-monogram known as the Taw Rho, as opposed to the
Chi Rho. The latter, composed of the letters Chi (X) and
Rho (P), is the more wide-spread Christ-monogram sym-
bol, but is probably just a more elaborate variant of the
Taw Rho. The Taw is the twenty-second, and last, letter of
the Hebrew alphabet. It can very well mean "mark"-not
only in a broad sense, but also in the specific sense of the
cross mark, its alphabetic character in the Old Hebrew
script. Writers used Taw as the abbreviated form of the
name of God and of the Messiah. Scribes wrote Taw as a
symmetrical cross mark (+) down at least to the eve of the
New Testament period. In the further evolution of the al-
phabet the Semitic Taw became the Tau (T) of the Greek
alphabet and the T of Latin. Greek scribes recognized Chi
(X) as an equivalent of the Taw because in early Greek Chi
was often written as an erect cross mark. The Taw itself
was also written in the sideways position, so that it already
resembled the later more usual form of the Chi and the
Latin X. However, since the Taw was the last letter of the
Hebrew alphabet, the last letter of the Greek alphabet-
Omega (Q)-was also considered its equivalent. Rho in the
monogram corresponds to the second letter of the word
for Christ, XPICTOC.
INA Quarterly 24.4
0 1 2
IL I. J I cm
The 1996 Tantura Roman Lamp. Drawing by P. Sibella
People used the cross, possibly the oldest and most
universal of all symbols, as an emblem well before the
Christian era. The Old Testament and Jewish thought re-
fer to the Anticipatory Cross, the Egyptian Cross, and the
Crux Commissa-the true form of the cross upon which
Moses lifted up the brazen serpent in the wilderness. Chris-
tians regard this as foreshadowing the lifting up of Jesus
upon his cross. It is the sign made by the Israelites on their
doorposts at the Exodus for protection, deliverance, and
eschatological salvation. The Prophet Ezekiel in his vision
beholds the Lord who commands "mark Taw upon the
foreheads of the men" (Ezekiel 9:4). For the early Chris-
tian believers, it represented the promise of life with Christ
here in the world and beyond the grave.
There is no reason to believe that the cross was first
adopted as a Christian symbol during the reign of the
Emperor Constantine. The events that led to the wide-
spread and enthusiastic use of the symbol may be legend-
ary. However, not until Christians were granted the
privilege to publicly practice their religion under Constan-
tine in 313 did the cross openly became the mark of the
followers of Christian faith, the symbol of suffering and
humiliation, and the emblem of salvation and redemption.
One may well ask about the motivations for plac-
ing a religious symbol on utilitarian objects. In our daily
lives today, we use a wealth of symbols, particularly in
our worship, because symbols link human beliefs to the
cosmos. In the search for integration, humanity had to cre-
ate these markers to make sense of the journey that will
carry us through life, from birth to death. Symbols express
ideas and emotions, feelings and images; they address our
basic needs and fears. The oil lamp, because of the light it
sheds, is thus a natural symbol of wisdom and piety. Proverbs
20:20 compares the last breath of a man to thesnuffingof a lamp.
Although there was large-scale exportation of lamps
from certain centers at different times, the manufacture of
these cheap, domestic objects normally satisfied a local
market. Throughout the Mediterranean world, small work-
shops flourished, some for short periods, others for many
years. These supplied their own communities and made
use of clay found in the immediate neighborhood. It is dif-
ficult to determine how the Romans actually organized
the export trade in lamps. The long life in the Levant of
this type of lamp illustrates the commerce uniting the Ro-
man Empire, and at the same time confirms the acceptance
of Roman lamp fashions by wide segments of the popula-
tion. Our complete Roman oil lamp, possibly of Eygptian'
or Syro-Palestinian origin, together with the fragment of
another similar lamp and the series of cooking pots, were
probably intended for this trade.
INA Quarterly 24.4
We only partly excavated the northeastern part of
Trench VIII, where we found the Roman remains. The area
concerned did not exceed 10 m square. Thus, it is difficult
to determine the exact amount of cargo carried on board.
However, among all the sherds found, we only counted
two of these oil lamps, six other oil lamps of a different,
but more common type, and about thirty to forty complete
or fragmentary vessels. All except the complete Taw Rho
lamp may be locally-made products, manufactured dur-
ing a transitional phase, at a time when Christianity was
no more than a tolerated cult.
Acknowledgments. I wish to express my gratitude to Varda
Sussman who "enlightened" me on these types of lamps. a,
Bailey, D. M.
1972 Greek and Roman Pottery Lamps. The Trustees of the
British Museum, London.
1930 Corinth. Vol. IV, Part I. Terracotta Lamps. Harvard
University Press, Cambridge.
1992 The Archaeology of the New Testament: The Life of Jesus
and the Beginning of the Early Church. Princeton
University Press, Princeton.
1919 Lampen aus Vindonissa, Zurich.
Christian Symbols, Ancient Roots. Jessica Kingsley
Publishers, London and Philadelphia.
1985 "Lighting the Way through History: The Evolu-
tion of Ancient Oil Lamps." Biblical Archaeology Re-
view, March-April: 42-56.
1969 Ancient Lamps. Argonaut Inc. Publishers, Chicago.
Webber, F. R.
1971 Church Symbolism: An Explanation of the More Im-
portant Symbols of the Old and New Testament, the
Primitive, the Mediaeval and the Modern Church, 2nd
ed. Gale Research Company, Detroit.
by Barto Arnold
Looking for Leads: Shipwrecks of the Past Revealed by Contemporary Documents and the Archaeological Record by Christian Ahlstrim
Helsinki: The Finnish Academy of Science and Letters, 1997. 238 pages, 16 tables, 57 figures, hardbound.
Dr. Ahlstr6m's book on post-medieval shipwrecks
of the Baltic is a good one, and I am pleased to recommend
it. This book concentrates on how the archaeological data
and artifact analysis from shipwrecks combine with the
documentary evidence from the archives to conclusively
identify individual wreck sites with the name of a ship.
The author effectively demonstrates his point. The first part
of the book covers exhaustively the existing archives relat-
ing to the northern side of the Baltic Sea, specifically Fin-
land, Sweden, and to some extent Denmark. The last part
covers six specific shipwrecks: the-- utae-An-na Maria of
Stockholm (1701), the Swedish frigate Birger Jarl (1813), the
galiot Concordia (1754), the Jussar6 II wreck that is proba-
bly the Russian brig Graf Nikita (1785), the Bostr6 I wreck
that is possibly the Sankt Mikael (1747), and the schooner
Fiidernslandet of Stockholm (1845).
Archaeologists and historians will find this book
useful, as of course will anyone interested in shipwrecks
of the Baltic Sea. The hulls in the area are often practically
intact since the brackish water precludes shipworm. Ahl-
str6m summarizes his efforts thus:
One of the goals of this study is to illustrate
a general archaeological and mythological
approach with examples from marine ar-
chaeology. The interplay of written and
physical evidence has been previously ap-
plied in many areas of historical archaeol-
ogy. However, the problem particular to the
Baltic have not been discussed to any ma-
jor degree in the literature on underwater
archaeology (p. 208).
The avocational archaeologist, especially, can benei ::r ;.
this work in that it shows the rigorous application of de-
ductive reasoning and logic in "proving" o identity of
wreck sites. So often the non-specialiq ..1 let the "could
have been" creep into the chain .o. Sometimes even
the professionals fall into tH; Dr. Ahlstr6m's book
provides a suitable reme :
INA Quarterly 24.4
On the Shores of Scythia:
The 1997 Crimean Coastal Survey
By Gregory Gidden, INA Research Associate, Taras Pevny, and Kristin Romey
The long history of nautical activity and the pres-
ence of so many different maritime cultures make the Black
Sea an ideal location for underwater archaeological re-
search. A considerable amount of archaeological investi-
gation has been conducted along the southern coast of
Ukraine, revealing intensive settlement dating back more
than three millennia. The Black Sea has served as a con-
duit for trade and communication between Europe, Cen-
tral Asia, and the Mediterranean for thousands of years.
With its central location in the Black Sea, Crimea has frequently
been the focus of maritime activity in this region (fig. 1).
In recent decades Ukrainian and Russian research-
ers have begun to take advantage of the potential for nau-
tical archaeology in the Black Sea. Given the vast amount
of work to be done and the limited resources available,
they have barely scratched the surface of this highly prom-
ising region. Recent political developments have opened
up this area to Western scholars in a way never before pos-
sible, and the opportunity for collaborative work between
Ukrainian and American nautical archaeologists has nev-
er been better.
As the first American nautical archaeologists working in
Ukraine, we were unsure
of what to expect Possi-
bly one of the most seri-
ous misconceptions that
we heldbefore our arriv-
al in Crimea concerned
the climate of the penin-
sula that juts into the
northern waters of the
Black Sea. Our guide-
books extolled the rug-
ged, harsh, and dry
landscape of Crimea, and
we hadpacked judicious C R
amounts of sun-screen
accordingly. The rain-
and hail-storm of July 13h
That nearly washed away .
our camp was the first of Black Sea
a series of torrential
downpours that we ex-
perienced nearly every
other day for the rest of
our six-week survey ex- chu0m
petition in Crimea. We
questioned the accuracy
of our guidebooks, but _
thelocalsdefendedthem. Fig. 1. Crimea and the locations di:
"This is very unusual," they would repeatedly insist, "it
never rains here."
There was one "guidebook", however, that we had
failed to consult for our outfitting requirements: "...All the
summer [in Crimea] there is rain unceasing; and when there
are thunderstorms in other lands, here there are none, but
in the summer there is great plenty of them..." The au-
thor? Herodotus, Book IV, 28.
Apart from reminding us to pack our rain gear,
Herodotus and other ancient authors have much to tell
archaeologists about the rich maritime history of Crimea
and the great promise for underwater archaeology off its
shores. It was the lure of this untapped potential that drew
one of the authors, Gregory Gidden, to Ukraine on a brief
research trip in the spring of 1996. There he met Sergei
Zelenko, director of the Underwater Archaeology Research
and Training Center (UARTC) at Kiev University. Mr. Ze-
lenko and his team have been conducting underwater ar-
chaeological surveys in Crimea for more than a decade. At
his invitation, the authors returned to Ukraine this past
summer to participate in the first joint Ukrainian-Ameri-
can underwater archaeology survey.
_Drawing: G. Gidden
INA Quarterly 24.4
Seafaring in the Northern Black Sea: A Historical Overview
The southern coast of the Crimean peninsula has
been the focus of intense maritime activity for nearly three
millennia. From the earliest historical references to Greek
colonization of the Crimean coast in the 8th century BCE,
Crimea has been home to people of numerous cultures:
ancient Greeks, Scythians, Byzantines, Goths, Genoese,
Turks, Russians, and Ukrainians, among others. The loca-
tion of Crimea provided its masters with an excellent base
from which to exploit the resources of the Black Sea and
its hinterland as well as to defend access to these resourc-
es from outsiders. Due to the mountainous nature of the
peninsula's interior, most of the occupation of Crimea was
focused on the coast until recent times. This history pro-
vides an excellent potential for dramatic discoveries along
the Crimean coast.
The Black Sea features prominently in the earliest
histories and legends of the Mediterranean world. Ancient
authors and storytellers set their tales of gods and heroes
in the Black Sea-a region on the fringe of their known
world. The perils and riches which these early stories at-
tribute to the region reflect the mystique which surround-
ed the Black Sea in ancient times. The Greeks originally
referred to the Black Sea as Pontos Axeinos-the Inhospita-
ble Sea-for good reason. Large sections of the southern
and Crimean coasts are mountainous and offer few pro-
tected anchorages. Violent storms and dangerous winds
from both north and south made navigation treacherous
for ancient mariners. Despite these hazards, however, the
Mediterranean cultures were drawn to the Black Sea by its
enormous economic potential. The story of Jason and the
Golden Fleece, while fictional, illustrates the great value
placed on the resources of the Black Sea by the ancient
Greeks. The lure of mineral and agricultural wealth offset
the dangers of sailing into these uncharted waters.
In order to better exploit the resources of the region,
trade centers were established by several Greek cities along
the shores of the Black Sea. Colonization generated a dra-
matic increase in maritime activity, both for trade and com-
munication. Both the ancient Greeks and Romans relied
heavily on grain, fish, salt, and other resources from the
Black Sea hinterland to satisfy the needs of their large ur-
ban populations. In exchange, oil, wine, and finished prod-
ucts were imported for consumption by the colonists and
The ancient pattern of colonization and trade in the
Black Sea continued through the Byzantine period and into
the Middle Ages. Many scholars have relegated the Black
Sea to the periphery of the Byzantine world, but historical
sources contradict this view. The economic importance of
the Black Sea grew dramatically during the early medi-
eval period as a result of the Arab conquest of the eastern
Mediterranean in the seventh century. To avoid the haz-
ards of piracy and war in the Mediterranean, the lucrative
trade between Europe and the Near East was redirected
through the Black Sea and the land and riverine trade
routes of eastern Europe. The enormous wealth generated
by this commerce attracted the attention of newcomers to
the Black Sea region-Scandinavian merchant-mercenaries.
The commercial interests of these merchant-merce-
naries were integral in the early development of the Rus
state. Byzantine, Rus, and Arabic sources document the
extensive commercial and military activity of the Rus
throughout the northern Black Sea region. Competition for
access to the commercial wealth of the Black Sea quickly
brought the Rus and Byzantines into conflict. Several
seaborne attacks were launched by the Rus across the Black
Sea against Constantinople. The essentially commercial
nature of this rivalry is demonstrated by the trade treaties
which concluded these conflicts regardless of the success
or failure of the Rus attacks.
Despite the collapse of the Rus state and the wan-
ing of Byzantium's influence in the Black Sea in the 13th
century, the Black Sea remained a center of maritime trade.
Italian merchants, primarily Genoese and Venetian trad-
ers, continued a lucrative trade in luxury goods from the
Near East, as well as agricultural goods and slaves from
the Eurasian steppe. The Italian trading centers in Crimea
thrived on this trade and became quite prosperous. For
example, contemporary sources claim that the Genoese
colony at Kaffa (modem-day Fedosiya) became so pros-
perous through Black Sea trade that it rivaled Genoa itself
Genoese merchants remained in Crimea until the
last quarter of the 15th century, some 20 years after the fall
of Constantinople. The departure of the last European
merchants did not mean the end of seafaring in the Black
Sea, however. Kaffa remained an important center for the
slave trade during the Tatar and later Ottoman occupa-
tions of Crimea. Ukrainian Cossacks launched several
seaborne attacks on Ottoman ports throughout the Black
Sea during the late-16th and 17th centuries. Their disrup-
tion of Black Sea trade was a source of major concern for
the Ottomans. While Greeks and other Europeans contin-
ued to live in Crimea throughout the period of Ottoman
occupation, European traders no longer played an active
role in Black Sea seafaring. The Black Sea became an "Ot-
toman lake" and knowledge of the region among Europe-
ans began to fade.
This brief survey of the history of seafaring in the
northern Black Sea illustrates the great potential for un-
derwater archaeology in the region. Wind and current pat-
terns, as well as a central geographic position, make Crimea
an ideal location to search for shipwrecks. For almost 3000
years, ships of every design have'sailed along the penin-
sula; many of these voyages ended disastrously in ship-
wreck. These ancient tragedies have left a remarkable, and
largely untapped, archaeological resource.
INA Quarterly 24.4
The 1997 INA Crimean Survey
For seven weeks, from July 2nd to August 17*, 1997,
the authors, in conjunction with Mr. Zelenko and divers
from the UARTC, conducted a survey of several sites on
the southeastern coast of Crimea between Sudak and Fe-
dosiya (fig. 2). The majority of the team's efforts were fo-
cused on the bay of Koktebel, formerly Planerskoye, a
popular resort town 35 km from Fedosiya. Archaeological
excavations earlier in this century confirmed the presence
of Tepsen, a medieval trading center, on the hills above
Koktebel. Mr. Zelenko's interest in Koktebel, however,
stems from its possible identification with Amfineon (or
Afineon), an ancient port mentioned by Arrian in his sec-
ond-century CE Periplus Ponti Euxini. This port is particu-
larly significant to the maritime history of southern Crimea.
Arrian describes it as a Scytho-Taurian port located in the
"no-man's-land" at the edge of the Greek Bosporan king-
dom. The nomadic Scythians and native Taurii are not com-
monly believed to have played a major role in the maritime
commerce of Crimea. Historians and archaeologists have
primarily focused on the role of the Greek colonists in the
maritime history of the region. The positive identification
of this port would add a new and exciting chapter to the
region's history. Using stadia measurements provided by
Arrian in his periplus, Mr. Zelenko has focused on the large
bay of Koktebel as the most promising site for the location
Aerial photographs confirm the existence of an arti-
ficial pier or breakwater in the bay directly off the shores
of Koktebel. Unfortunately, much of this structure was de-
Fig. 2 (below). Koktebel may be the ancient Amfineon.
Fig. 3 (right). Mr. Gidden (left) and Mr. Zelenko display two of
stroyed during dredging operations earlier in this centu-
ry. The remains of the pier were thoroughly surveyed by
the team, but no ancient material was recovered. Located
in shallow water, easily accessible to local snorkelers and
divers, it is not surprising that all archaeological material
in this area had been removed as "souvenirs." Evidence of
the local antiquities entrepreneurs was readily apparent
in the open markets of Koktebel; partial amphoras, still
wet and covered with marine growth, were regularly dis-
played for sale to the crowds of vacationers for an average
price of 8 grivni ($ 5).
Fortunately, Mr. Zelenko had secured permission
to dive in the protected waters of the Kara-Dag nature pre-
serve which incorporates all of the bay south of Koktebel
proper, where we hoped the looting had been less thor-
ough. Our work in the waters of the preserve was imme-
diately productive. Within the first few days we located a
large scatter of medieval amphoras and other ceramic ves-
sels of various types from the eighth to tenth centuries (fig.
3). The nature of the scatter did not suggest the presence
of a single coherent shipwreck but demonstrated a steady,
long-term pattern of maritime trade in this area during the
middle Byzantine period. The wealth of material in this
area commanded our attention for the majority of the sur-
vey period. Each artifact, including fragments of pitchers,
amphoras, and pithoi, was recorded and photographed and
fabric samples were taken (fig. 4). The INA team members
have used this information to assemble a catalog that will
INA Quarterly 24.4
Fig. 4 (above). Ms. Romey docume
Fig. 5 (below). Spill of rejected
kiln at Chuban Kale.
be made available to students and archaeologists. We believe this
catalog will prove a useful resource to those interested in medieval
maritime trade and amphora production.
The significance of this material extends beyond the shores of
the Black Sea. Our developing catalog of medieval ceramics from
Crimea will provide valuable comparative material for archaeologi-
cal research in regions as far away as southwestern Turkey. Prelimi-
nary research indicates that the cargo amphoras on the Byzantine
shipwreck at Bozburun, currently being excavated by INA archaeolo-
gists, have their closest parallels in eastern Crimea (Quarterly 23.4).
Numerous kiln sites dot the eastern Crimean coast. Through Mr. Ze-
lenko's assistance, we were able to visit the medieval kiln site of Chu-
ban Kale, a major ceramics production center from the eighth to tenth
centuries (fig. 5). As with most of the medieval kiln sites in eastern
Crimea, Chuban Kale has not been extensively researched. A wide
variety of fabric samples from this site was collected for inclusion in
the catalog. Over the next few seasons we intend to develop a com-
prehensive collection of fabric samples from all of the major kiln sites
in eastern Crimea, providing the first such catalog of comparative ma-
terial available to INA researchers.
Although not part of our original research plan, a brief investi-
gation of the small bay of Novyi Svet was made on one of the last
days of the survey. Novyi Svet, while best known as the Russian tsar's
personal retreat in the late nineteenth century, served as a secondary
Photo: T. Pevny port for Sudak, one of the largest Genoese trading centers in Crimea
renting the finds. throughout the medieval period (Fig. 6). Led by a local archaeologist
who had dived extensively in the bay, we examined a small area near
pottery below a the rocky western mouth of the bay. At a depth of approximately
twelve meters we found a large scatter of broken pithoi and ampho-
ras of twelfth or thirteenth-century manufacture. Unlike the remains
found in Koktebel, the Novyi Svet material appears to belong to a
shipwreck. Our guide indicated to us that coherent material was located
below a deep layer of tumbled, broken sherds, rocks and sand. He showed
us a sketch he had made of finds he had uncovered approximately one
Fig. 6. The Genoese fortress at Sudak.
Photo: T. Pevny Photo: T. Pevny
INA Quarterly 24.4
meter below the present floor of the bay. This sketch appeared to show a group of
large twelfth to thirteenth-century amphoras neatly stacked and aligned in their
original, upright position. Stacked Byzantine glazed ware was separated from the
amphoras by a layer of thin planking which was still preserved. Samples of mate-
rial exposed by hand-fanning, including a partial amphora with an intact stopper,
a broken pitcher with some of its original contents, and fragments of a glazed plat-
ter, were collected and have been added to the catalog (fig. 7).
While we were somewhat surprised to find such excellent organic preserva-
tion so close to the surface, this only confirmed what we had already learned. Con-
ditions in the Black Sea offer the potential for excellent preservation. The sea bottom
along the Crimean shore is primarily composed of silty clay deposits; organic pres-
ervation in this matrix is known to be exceptionally high. Excited by the potential
for a well-preserved shipwreck, we are currently attempting to secure permission
to return to this area for an extended period next summer to evaluate the site's
potential for future excavation.
After one season in the field and a summer of experience we are confident
and excited about the future of nautical archaeology in Crimea. In the coming sea-
sons we hope to expand the scope of our work, investigating new areas of the coast
and continuing to collect material on the maritime history of the region. In 1998, in
Soto: K. Romey addition to further investigation at Novyi Svet, we will return to Koktebel to inves-
tigate a possible ninth or tenth-century shipwreck on the northwestern side of the
Fig. 7. Twelfth or thirteenth-century bay. We will also return to several possible shipwreck sites already investigated by
amphora from Novyi Svet. UARTC to evaluate their potential as future full-scale excavations. We look for-
ward to returning to Ukraine. It is an exciting time both for the country and for
underwater archaeology in Crimea.
Acknowledgments. Numerous individuals contributed to the success of this project. The authors would like to thank Mr.
Sergei Zelenko and the UARTC for the opportunity to work with them in Crimea. Mr. Toly Tcymbal, Dr. Sergei Ko-
tyelnikov, Dr. L. Marchenko, and Ms. Diana Slobodian offered us generous support while in Ukraine. Our deepest
thanks to the Pevnys for providing us with accommodations during our stay in Kiev. The encouragement and guidance
of the faculty and staff of Texas A&M's Nautical Archaeology Program, especially Dr. George Bass, Dr. Fred van Doom-
inck, Dr. Fred Hocker, Dr. Donny Hamilton, and Mrs. Becky Holloway, are greatly appreciated. Thanks also to Mr.
Wayne Cotter at Paradise Scuba in College Station and Mares for their support in outfitting the team. The Nautical
Archaeology Program generously supported this project with travel funds for Mr. Gidden and Ms. Romey. Finally, Mr.
Gidden would like to thank the MSC L.T. Jordan Institute for awarding him the research fellowship which launched
1995 The Black Sea. New York: Hill and Wang.
Hind, J. G. F.
1993 "Archaeology of the Greeks and Barbarian Peoples Around the Black Sea, (1982-1992)." Journal of Hellenic
Studies 113: 82-112.
1996 Sources and Studies on the Ottoman Black Sea. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
1991 The Greeks in the Black Sea. Athens: Panorama.
Treister, M, and Vinogradov, Y
1993 "Archaeology of the Northern Coast of the Black Sea." American Journal of Archaeology97: 521-63.
INA Quarterly 24.4
Frances Rich, whose
works grace museums,
and parks in Canada,
Sweden, France, Greece,
and the United States, and
include the Army/Navy
Nurse in the National
Cemetery at Arlington,
has just made a gift to the
Institute of Nautical Ar-
chaeology of a life-size
bronze bust of INA
founder George Bass.
George met Frances Rich
in 1991, on the first INA
cruise down the Turkish
coast. The rest of the story
is in his own words:
"When the cruise
ship stopped for us to
have a swim," George re-
ports, "Frances was the
only one to dive from the Frances Rich sculpting a bust of the great soprano Lotte Lehmann in 1952. Photo courtesy of
top deck. As she was al- Santa Barbara News Press.
ready in her 80s, how
could I not be impressed!
We all had so much fun together on that trip,"
Their ensuing friendship led Frances to offer to sculpt George's bust, followed soon thereafter by her visiting
College Station to measure and photograph his head. Luckily, her visit to College Station coincided with the INA/
Texas A&M Nautical Archaeology Program dinner hosted annually at the home of Fran and Chip Vincent, then INA
president, so she was able to meet most of the staff, students, and faculty. Later, during week-long sittings at Frances's
home in Payson, Arizona, George learned more about the sculptor "She's so modest," he says, "it took years of visits,
often with Ann, to learn the details of her amazing life. Now that the bust is finished, we just go out there for fun.
There's a painting of her by the famous Mexican artist Diego Rivera, and in her studio there is a terra-cotta bust of
Rivera that she did, so they were sitting for one another simultaneously! And there are busts of her good friend Katherine
Hepburn, the soprano Lotte Lehmann, composer Virgil Thompson, and other greats.
"Along the way, leafing through scrapbooks in her library, or looking at photographs of friends ranging from
Hepburn to film director John Ford, or simply browsing through biographies of other people, I learned so much about
her. She was the daughter of well-known motion-picture actress Irene Rich, who co-starred with such actors as Will
Rogers and Charlie Chaplin, and later had a highly successful radio program. I learned that after graduating from
Smith College in 1931, Frances had been a Hollywood starlet and Broadway ingenue before studying art--first with
Malvina Hoffman in Paris, and later under Carl Milles, Sweden's most famous sculptor. When World War II came, she
INA Quarterly 24.4
worked as a draftsman for Lockheed in California, and
then was one of the first two or three women to join the
WAVES, serving from 1942 to 1946, sometimes touring
the U.S. as one of their spokespersons, Soon afterward,
she headed public relations for Smith College, her alma
mater. Since then she has devoted herself full-time to her
"I asked her what one does with a bronze bust of
oneself and she answered that you put it in a closet and
after you die someone takes it out and does something
"Instead of that, I told her that I thought the bust
should eventually be placed in the Frances Rich Library
building being constructed at our Bodrum complex to
house the Dorothy and Homer Thompson library that we
acquired through the generosity of the Friends of INA in
Portland, Oregon. Frances plans to come over for a visit
next year when it is finished. I hope she likes it!"a~
Photo: S. Wilson
(Above). Frances Rich, in 1992, sculpting the bust
of INA President George Bass.
(Left). The bust, cast in bronze, in 1997.
INA Quarterly 24.4
Readers of the INA Quarterly
will be quite familiar with the name
of Barto Arnold, who directed the
recent discovery of La Salle's ship
La Belle in Matagorda Bay. This has
been widely regarded as one of the
most significant archaeological
projects in U.S. history. In October,
1997, Barto Arnold joined the under-
water archaeologists of the Institute
of Nautical Archaeology and the
Nautical Archaeology Program at
Texas A&M University to establish
a shipwreck program in Texas and
adjoining areas. As Director of Tex-
as Operations for INA, Arnold will
plan and direct pre-disturbance sur-
veys of known shipwreck sites, sur-
veys for wrecks yet to be located,
and major wreck excavations.
A San Antonio native, J. Barto
Arnold Ireceived his undergradu-
ate and postgraduate education at the
University of Texas at Austin From
1972 until 1997, he worked as a marine archaeologist for the
Texas Antiquities Committee and Historical Commission.
He has been extremely active in several professional societ-
ies, including terms as Secretary-Treasurer of the Society of
Professional Archaeologists and as President of the Society
for Historical Archaeology. Arnold has received wide recog-
nition for his contributions to the passage of the Abandoned
Shipwreck Act, which has helped protect irreplaceable cul-
tural resources from unscrupulous treasure hunting. Before
News & Notes
the La Belle project, he was heavily in-
volved in the study of USS Monitor.
This experience qualifies him admi-
rably for his new position.
The 2200+ shipwrecks in Tex-
as are an excellent resource for the
study of New World seafaring. Pro-
spective projects include: the Indiano-
la wharves area and the steamer
Portland, the W.W. II wreck of Oaxaca
off the Matagorda jetties in the Gulf
of Mexico, a 1920 steam tug near the
Aransasjetties, the lighthouses of Ma-
tagorda Bay, a ship graveyard near
Palacios, Civil War wrecks near
Galveston and Sabine Pass, a steam-
boat wreck near Brownsville in the
Rio Grande,and others.
The new INA operations will
1 5 enhance our understanding of the
state's heritage embodied in histor-
i. ic shipwrecks for the general pur-
poses of education and tourism.
They will also provide opportuni-
ties for nautical archaeology students at A&M to gain practi-
cal, hands-on experience in areas relatively close to campus
and on projects of relatively short duration to fit with their
other studies. As a further plus, the Texas operations will
allow the public to volunteer and participate in shipwreck
studies in an appropriate setting. Increasing the visibility of
nautical archaeology (and distinguishing it from treasure
hunting) should help motivate the public support and fund-
ing that is essential to the discipline.ls
Recent A&M Graduates
The INA Quarterly would like to
congratulate the following graduates
from the Nautical Archaeology Program
at Texas A&M University who recently
received Master of Arts degrees: Eliza-
beth Robinson Baldwin, David James
Stewart (Spring 1997);James Lowell Cog-
geshall, Gregory David Cook (Summer
1997); Anne Wood Lessmann (Winter
1997). In Spring 1997, John Raymond
Bratten became a Doctor of Philosophy;
his dissertation was entitled, "The Conti-
nental Gondola Philadelphia."
OnFebruary 21,1998, the Institute
of Nautical Archaeology and Texas A&M
University hosted a "Shipwreck Week-
end," a session of public lectures. This in-
cluded talks, video and slide shows, and
discussions of shipwreck projects. Dr.
George F. Bass presented "Excavating the
Oldest Shipwrecks in the Mediterranean;
The Bronze Age Wrecks of Cape Gelidon-
yaand Uluburun, Turkey," Barto Arnold
presented "Fleur-de-lis and Lone Star: La
Salle's Shipwreck," and Dr. Cheryl
Haldane Ward spoke on the INA-Egypt
excavations at Sadana Island,
After the presentations, INA and
Nautical Archaeology Program hosted a
tour of their facilities in College Station.
Participants were shown the extensive fa-
cilities, including the conservation teach-
ing lab, the Old World Projects lab, the
New World Project lab, and the Ship Re-
The extremely successful weekend
was held to introduce interested parties
to the facilities and attract potential stu-
dents and volunteers for INA and the
INA Quarterly 24.4
1. Barto Arnold III
Arnold, J. B. III, Review of Looking for Leads: Shipwrecks of the Past
Revealed by Contemporary Documents and the Archaeological
Record, 24.4, 18
Bill, J., "Tracking Professionalism in Sixteenth Century Scandi-
navian Boatbuilding," 24.1, 19-24
Crisman, K., Review of Ships Bilge Pumps: A History of Their De-
velopment, 1500-1900, 24.2, 30
Gidden, G., T. Pevny, and K Romey, "On the Shores of Scythia: The
1997 Crimean Coastal Survey," 24.4,19-23
Hall, J., S. Wachsmann, and Y. Kahanov, "The Tantura B Shipwreck
The 1996 INA/CMS Joint Expedition to Tantura Lagoon," 244,
Kahanov, Y, andWachsmann, S., "Shipwreck Fall: The 1995 INA/CMS
Joint Expedition to Tantura Lagoon," 24.1,3-18
Kahanov, Y, S. Wachsmann, and J. Hall, "The Tantura B Shipwreck:
The 1996 INA/CMS Joint Expedition toTantura Lagoon," 24.4,
Margariti, R and P. van Alfen, "Arabia Felix et Maritima: The Trade and
Maritime Legacy of Yemen," 243,12-17
Mark, S., Review of The Development of the Rudder: A Technological Tale,
Peachey, C., "Ulubunm Shipwreck Project Conservation and Research
Pevny, T., "ShipbuildingTraditions: Building theYassiada Exhibit," 243,
Pevny, T., G. Gidden, and K. Romey, "On the Shores of Scythia: The
1997 Crimean Coastal Survey," 24.4 19-23
Powell, C. A., "Scholars at Work," 24.2, 3-29
Romey, K, G. Gidden, and T. Pevny, "On the Shores of Scythia: The
1997 Crimean Coastal Survey," 24.4,19-23
Rosenberg, M., "The Camel's Nose is in the Tent Can the Whole Camel
Make it in?," 243,24
Sibella, P., "Light from the Past The 1996 Tantura Roman Lamp," 24.4,
Steffy, J. R, Review of LeMattre-abarit, La Tablette et le Trebuchet, 241,25
van Alfen, P., and R. Margariti, "Arabia Felix et Maritima: The Trade and
Maritime Legacy of Yemen," 243,12-17
Wachsmann, S., and Y. Kahanov, "Shipwreck Fall The 1995 INA/CMS
Joint Expedition to Tantura Lagoon," 24.1,3-18
Wachsmann, S., Y. Kahanov and J. Hall, "The Tantura B Shipwreck:
The 1996 INA/CMS JointExpeditiontoTantura Lagoon," 24.4,
balance pans and weights, Uluburun, 24.3,13
bilge Pumps, 24.2, 30
Black Sea, Seafaring, 244,20
Canaanite Amphoras, Uluburun, 243,14
ceramics, Uluburun, 24.3,14-15
copper ingots, lead, tin, and bronze, Uluburun, 24.3,15-16
Crimean Coastal Survey, 24.4, 22-23
ceramics, 244, 22-23
Fitzgerald, M., 24.2,4
Hailey, T., 24.2,5
Haldane, C., 24.2,6
Hall, J., 24.2,7
Hocker, E, 24.2, 8
Leshikar, M., 242,9
Vol. 24 Index
Neyland, R, 242, 10
Parent, J. M., 24.2,11
Pulak, C. M., 24.2,12
Smith, C.W., 242,13
Weinstein, E.N., 24.2,14
faience, Uluburun, 24.3,14-15
glass, Uluburun, 24.3,13
Index to Thesis and Dissertation Authors, 24.2,28-29
ivory, bone, shell, and tortoise carapace, Uluburun, 24.3,12-13
Koktebel, Ukraine, 24.4,21
Northwest Friends of INA, 243,24
Novyi Svet, Ukraine, 24.4,22
Arnold, J. Barto L, 24.4,26
De Lapa, John, 24.3,25
Rich, Frances, 244,24-25
rudders, 24.2, 31
ship Construction, 243,3-11.
Tantura Lagoon, Israel,
1995 excavation, 24.1,3-18
organic remains, 24.1,14.
ships newly found, 24.1,9-10
Tantura A hull remains, 24.1, 5-9
1996 excavation, 24.4,3-15
hull remains, 24.4,13
lamp, Roman, 24.4, 16-18
organic remains, 24.4,11
ship construction and equipment, 242,19-22
specific vessels, 24.2,16-18
technical, 242, 27
trade, 24.2, 27
conservation and research, 24.3,12-17
exhibition hall, 243,12
exhibit, 243, 3-11
lamp, Roman, 24.4,16-18
ports and seafarers of Islamic times, 243, 20-21
post-Medieval and modem times, 24.3,21-23
pre-Islamic trade, 243,19-20
Zelenko, Sergei, 24.4,19-23
Ahlstr6m, C.: Looking for Leads: Shipwrecks of the Past Revealed by Contem-
porary Documents and the Archaeological Record, 24.4,18
Mott, L. V: The Development of the Rudder: A Technological Tale, 242,31
Oertling, T. J.: Ships Bilge Pumps: A History of Their Development, 1500-
Rieth, E: Le Matre-Gabarit, La Tablette et le Trebuchet, 241,25
INA Quarterly 24.4
INSTITUTE OF NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY
George F. Bass, President
James A. Goold, Secretary
William L. Allen
John H. Baird
George F Bass
Edward O. Boshell, Jr.,
Vice Chairman and Treasurer
Ray M. Bowen
John A. Brock
Elizabeth L. Bruni
Gregory M. Cook, Chairman
John De Lapa
Donald A. Frey, Vice President
Cemal M. Pulak, Vice President
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Danielle J. Feeney
Donald G. Geddes m (Emeritus)
Woodrow Jones, Jr.
Harry C. Kahn II (Emeritus)
Michael L. Katzev
Jack W. Kelley
Sally R. Lancaster
Robert E. Lorton
Frederick R. Mayer
William A. McKenzie
Claudia LeDoux, Assistant Secretary
Rebecca H. Holloway, Asst. Treasurer
Alex G. Nason
L. Francis Rooney
Ray H. Siegfried II
William T. Sturgis
Robert L. Walker
Lew O. Ward
Peter M. Way
Garry A. Weber
Martin H. Wilcox
George O. Yamini
George F. Bass
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology/ George O. Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts
Kevin J. Crisman, Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow
Frederick M. Hocker, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Faculty Professor
Cemal M. Pulak, Frederick R- Mayer Faculty Fellow of Nautical Archaeology
C. Wayne Smith
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., Frederick R. Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Shelley Wachsmann, Meadows Assistant Professor of Biblical Archaeology
J. Barto Arnold, M.A.
William H. Charlton, Jr., M.A.
Douglas Haldane, M.A.
Sheila D. Matthews, M.A.
G6khan Ozagach, Ph.D.
Claire P. Peachey, M.A.
Robin C.M. Piercy
Sema Pulak, M.A.
Patricia M. Sibella, Ph.D.
Tufan U. Turanli
Howard Wellman, M.A.
Christine A. Powell
Elizabeth Robinson Baldwin, M.A.
Jerome Hall, Ph.D.
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D.
Robert S. Neyland, Ph.D.
Ralph K. Pedersen, M.A.
Brett A. Phaneuf
Peter G. van Alfen, M.A.
Arthur Cohn, J.D.
Cynthia J. Eiseman, Ph.D.
John A. Gifford, Ph.D.
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D.
Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
David I. Owen, Ph.D.
David C. Switzer, Ph.D.
Cheryl Ward, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., M.A.
James A. Goold
Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati
Corning Museum of Glass
Department de Arqueol6gia Subacuatica de
la I.N.A.H., Mexico
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Partners for Livable Places
University Museum, University of
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Texas A&M University
University of Texas at Austin
Mr. and Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried II
Graduate Fellow: Samuel Mark
Marion M. Cook Graduate Fellow: