The INA Quarterly
Volume 24 No. 2 Summer 1997
3 Works in Progress
4 The Dissertations: MEMBERSHIP
4 Michael A. Fitzgerald, Ph.D. Institute of Nautical Archaeology
5 Tommy Ike Hailey, Ph.D. P.O. Drawer HG
6 Cheyl Ward Haldaane, Ph.D. College Station, TX 77841-5137
7 Jerome Hall, Ph.D.
8 Frederick M. Hocker, Ph.D. Learn firsthand of the latest discov-
9 Margaret E. Leshikar, Ph.D. series in nautical archaeology. Mem-
10 Robert S. Neyland, Ph.D. bers receive the INA Quarterly, sci-
11 James Michael Parrent, Ph.D. entific reports, and book discounts.
12 Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D.
13 C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D. Regular ........... $30
14 Eri Nattan Weinstein, Ph.D.
15 The Culminant Works Contributor ........ $60
28 Alphabetical List of Thesis and Dissertation Supporter ........ $100
30 Reviw Benefactor ....... $1000
Ship Bilge Pumps: A History of Their Student/ Retired ... $20
Reviewed by Kevin Crisman
SChecks in U.S. currency should be made
31 Review payable to INA. The portion of any do-
The Development of the Rudder: A Technological Tale nation in excess of $10.00 is a tax-de-
Development, 1500-1900 ductible, charitable contribution.
Reviewed by Samuel Mark
On the cover Scholars at Work. From top left, clockwise. Brian Jordan examines the delicate glass goblet remains he excavated last
summer at Bozburun, Turkey. Erika Washburn puts the final touches to her drawings of the vessel Linnet that is the subject of her
thesis. Eric Emery, whose research on the U.S. Navy row galley Allen will be the subject of his dissertation, at work in the photo-
graphic laboratory. Harun Ozdas, a visiting scholar from Turkey, completed valuable research for his dissertation while studying at
the Institute over the last year. Photos by C. A. Powell.
August 1997 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. All rights reserved.
INA welcomes requests to reprint INA Quarterly articles and illustrations. Please address all requests and submissions to the Editor,
INA Quarterly, P.O. Drawer HG, College Station, TX 77841-5137; tel (409) 845-6694, fax (409) 847-9260, e-mail email@example.com
Article should be submitted in hard copy and on a 3.25 diskette (Macintosh, DOS, or Windows format acceptable) along with all artwork.
The Home Page for INA and the Texas A&M University NauticalArchaeology Program on the WorldWideWeb is http://nautarcKtamu.edu
The Institute of Nautical Archaeology is a non-profit scientific and educational organization, incorporated in 1972. Since 1976, INA
has been affiliated with Texas A&M University, where INA faculty teach in the Nautical Archaeology Program of the Department of
The editorship of the INA Quarterly is supported by the Anna C. & Oliver C. Colburn Fund.
The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsletter (vols. 1-18).
Editor: Christine A. Powell
Work in Progress
Much of the day-to-day work of the Institute of Nautical Archae-
ology is done by graduate students in the Nautical Archaeology Program
in the Department of Anthropology at Texas A&M University. They pro-
vide much of the labor for INA excavations, and their scholarship con-
tributes immeasurably to the interpretation and publication of the data
INA gathers. These are not merely "scholars in the making," as the cover of
the December 1985 INA Newsletter (12.3) would have it, but truly "scholars
at work." In the following pages, you will see some of the work in progress.
This is not a one-way street. The graduate students also receive
priceless benefits from their close association with the Institute. In addi-
tion to the opportunity to work on INA's projects around the world, the
students have access to the incomparable INA faculty and research facil-
ities. The generation of trained archaeologists that the Program has grad-
uated since 1978 are themselves one of the greatest contributions that INA
and its supporters have given to the discipline.
As of May, 1997, seventy-five students had received M.A. degrees
through the Nautical Archaeology Program, and eight had received doc-
torates. In addition to the graduates listed in this issue, at least four (Ran-
dal Davis, Samuel Margolin, Richard Swete, and Shell Smith) completed
the program in the early years when a non-thesis master's option was
offered. Others received their degrees through other programs in Anthro-
pology, Geography, or another department.
Today, the Nautical Archaeology Program has fifty-five students
at various stages of the Master of Arts program, as well as eight doctoral
candidates (John Bratten, Bill Charlton, Joseph Cozzi, Eric Emery, Maria
Jacobsen, Sam Mark, Christine Powell, and Jeff Royal). It is expected that
some exciting work from these students will appear over the next few
years, covering a wide range of topics. Many scholars are researching var-
ious aspects of INA excavation projects, but their work is not restricted
solely to these. Students are encouraged to seek out their own projects. In
many cases, they are actively supported by the Institute and Texas A&M
University in their endeavors. Unfortunately, the spatial limitations of this
issue do not permit a discussion of all of these varied projects, but it is
hoped that they will be the subject of an article in a future issue.
A thesis or dissertation often goes on to be part of an excavation's
final publication. In other cases it can appear as a journal article, a chapter
of a book, or in some cases a book in its own right. Two examples of the
latter are reviewed in this issue, but these do not stand alone. Dr. Crisman's
thesis on the brig Eagle became a book. Dr. Fitzgerald's research became
part of the BAR Series published on the excavations at Caesarea Mariti-
ma, while part of Dr. Hocker's research was also recently published.
This issue of the INA Quarterly is dedicated to the work of A&M
graduate students since the Institute moved to College Station in 1976. Elev-
en articles discuss the A&M doctoral dissertations related to nautical ar-
chaeology. A separate categorical compendium provides brief summaries
of these, along with seventy-five masters' theses. An alphabetical list of all
eighty-six works by author's name follows. Finally, two reviews discuss re-
cent books from the Texas A&M University Press that had their genesis within
the Nautical Archaeology Program. In the event that anyone's work has
been overlooked or imprecisely summarized, please accept our apologies.
The work of the Progmm does not always take the form of "archaeology." Often a student
has to be a "Jack of all trades" as Jaynie Cox (top) demonstrates, painting the INA camp
sign at Bozburun in 1995. Peter Hitchcock (second) has recently been working on the La
Salle Shipwreck project and now returns to College Station to complete his thesis. Steve
Thornton (third) helps volunteer Judy McNeil draw an artifact during the 1996 season of
the Bozburun excavation. Sam Mark (bottom) was formerly the Program's librarian and
as ofl September 1997, will be the Mr. and Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried H Graduate Fellow.
His book From Egypt to Mesopotamia will be released in November 1997
INA Quarterly 24.2
Michael A. Fitzgerald, Ph.D.
Michael Andrew Fitzgerald was awarded the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy in 1995. He is now Assistant Editor with
the American School of Classical Studies at Athens Publication
Division. His dissertation is entitled, "A Roman Wreck at Cae-
sarea Maritima, Israel: A Comparative Study of its Hull and
Equipment." Dr. Fitzgerald's research has been published in
Volume II of The Harbours of Caesarea Maritima in BAR Interna-
tional Series 594 (1994). The dissertation describes his research
on a large merchant ship found in the noith bay adjacent to the
harbor built by Herod the Great in the first century BCE. Although
the remains were only partial, Dr. Fitzgerald estimates the orig-
inal length of the ship at 40-45 meters.
The size makes this wreck site significant. The consider-
able body of knowledge pertaining to Graeco-Roman shipbuild-
ing and seafaring is grounded primarily in the study of wrecks
of ships that did not exceed about 25 m in length. Knowledge of
ships of some 30-50 m in length from the ancient Mediterranean
is severely limited. To date, only one big seagoing ship, which
wrecked off the southern coast of France about 60-40 BCE, has
been excavated extensively and published. Investigated during
the 1970s near the small town of Giens, it is still under study.
Numerous wrecks of other large Roman ships are only partly
known. The research by Dr. Fitzgerald was thus aimed at dis-
covering whether there were significant differences between the
approach to constructing large ships and the better-known ap-
proaches to building smaller ones.
The Caesarea wreck was discovered in the summer of 1976
during a casual survey led by Avner Raban with a group of Israel
Underwater Exploration Society divers. The upper extremities of
25 frames were observed protruding from the sand. Their position
in less than 2.5 m of water measured some 60 m from the shore-
line, inside the partially protected bay about 200 m northwest of
the Hellenistic quay at Caesarea. Surveys followed, as well as four
seasons of excavation between 1983 and 1988. The site was cov-
ered with a thick layer of sand most of the time. Unfortunately,
storms have since taken much of the remains, in part because off-
shore currents have been altered by the construction of a large load-
ing platform a few kilometers south of the site. These losses have
occurred despite care taken to protect the site.
Dr. Fitzgerald describes the planking, fastenings, sheath-
ing, lead rings, cordage, and other artifacts associated with the
wreck. Chapters are devoted to each of the major categories, with
an extensive search of the literature to compare each feature with
similar finds from other shipwrecks of the period. The compara-
tive chapters are discrete in order to isolate patterns or trends in
the history of Graeco-Roman shipbuilding that can help deter-
mine the ship's date of construction. Such patterns or trends may
also provide evidence of general practices or principles character-
istic of Greek and Roman shipbuilding, as well as illuminating dif-
ferences between construction approaches to large as opposed to
small seagoing vessels of the Graeco-Roman world. The final chap-
ters are devoted to the reconstruction, dating, and analysis of the
ship in its historical, archaeological, and technological contexts.
In early Graeco-Roman ships, the planking served as the
primary structural component of the hull. This was a result of
the way the hulls were built: planks were joined securely to the
keel and to one another edge-to-edge with mortise-and-tenon
joints. Only after a number of planks had been built up from the
keel of the vessel were frames added to serve as secondary sup-
Dr. Fitzgerald (right), assisted by Michael
Halpern, carefully shifts an amphora from its
lifting basket onto the dock.
port components. At Caesarea in 1983, a single layer of 16 strakes
was found preserved over a width of approximately 3.5 m and a
length of more than 14 m. The planks are edge-joined with pegged
mortise-and-tenon joints that are staggered across the thickness
of each plank. This construction is typical of a Roman vessel from
around the turn of the millennium. The planking is of pine, a
softwood that provided both lightness and strength. Since the
edge-joined hull was more important than the frames in provid-
ing structural strength, the ability to cut a great many mortices
was essential to ship construction in the period. The planking is
thus typical of the period; it is the framing that is unusual.
This framing is critical to Dr. Fitzgerald's major conclu-
sions placing the construction of the Caesarea ship in its histori-
cal context. The ship had very heavy pine framing, with
alternating half-frames and floor-and-futtock sets in typical
Greco-Roman fashion. Average spacing of frames (center-to-
center) is ca. 0.25 m, as sided dimensions average about 0.18 m.
The remains of fasteners gave some evidence of longitudinal
stringers. This is truly massive construction for an ancient ship.
Dr. Fitzgerald tentatively concludes that the ship dates
from the first century CE. The comparative studies reveal that
the ship was probably quite flat-bottomed, measured some 40-
45 m in length, and is one of the most heavily built Roman mer-
chant hulls yet documented. In this perhaps unique case, hull
construction and equipment details allow the dating of the ship's
construction with a fair degree of confidence. The historian Jose-
phus Flavius describes a famine in 46-47 CE that was relieved by
grain shipments from Egypt, and this hull seems to match the
descriptions in Roman literature of the large vessels that fed the
INA Quarterly 24.2
Empire with Egyptian grain. There are too little data pre-
served to make a firm identification of this ship as a grain
The most important conclusion drawn in the dis-
sertation may be a new hypothesis regarding Graeco-
Roman shipbuilding: that approaches to the
construction of large ships differed fundamentally from
approaches common to the building of small ships. Due
to limitations inherent in the nature of mortise-and-ten-
on "shell-first" shipbuilding, wherein the shell is the
primary structural hull component, frames were more
important in large ships than they were in small ships.
Shipbuilders thus had centuries of experience in build-
ing strong skeletons, even while shell-first techniques
As economic factors changed, shipbuilding meth-
ods were adapted accordingly. Labor- and material-inten-
sive methods characteristic of the Greek and Roman periods
had to evolve. Mortise-and-tenonjoinery techniques proved This m
incompatible with needs for more economical construction by-nin
methods in the early Byzantine period- The experience gained
from the large ships was now applied to smaller vessels. The rudi-
ments of more efficient skeleton-first techniques appeared at least by
the fifth or sixth century in smaller ships and by the early ninth century
Tommy Ike Hailey, Ph.D.
Tommy Ike Hailey received the degree of Doctor of Phi-
losophy in the Anthropology program in 1994. His dissertation
is "The Analysis of 17th-, 18th-, and 19th-Century Ceramics from
Port Royal, Jamaica for Lead Release: A Study in Archaeotoxi-
cology." This research attempts to solve a very old mystery, with
shades of an episode of Quincy M.E.
The concern over lead poisoning in modem times has led
scholars to investigate ways in which exposure to lead may have
affected past cultures. Many observers of the Jamaican scene in
the late 17th and early 18th centuries described a malady known
as "The Dry Bellyache," which was among the most common
and most fatal local illnesses. The symptoms of this condition
correspond rather closely to those of lead poisoning. There has
been some speculation as to whether this was, in fact, the source
of the illness, and (if so) as to possible sources of the offending
Studies of the possibility of lead poisoning in the past have
tended to use historical records and skeletal analyses for evidence,
and have ignored artifactual analysis. This dissertation attempts
to fill that gap by studying the finds from Port Royal. Although
there were many types of artifacts that might contain lead, lead-
glazed ceramics were certainly one of the most common. Recent
medical records have confirmed cases of lead poisoning caused
by the consumption of acidic beverages such as wine, soft drinks,
and fruit juice that had been stored or served in glazed earthen-
ware vessels. Therefore, Dr. Hailey focused his research on de-
termining whether the glazes in use at Port Royal might provide
a significant source of environmental lead.
odel of the Caesarea ship was built to represent the approximately forty-
e-meter vessel studied by Dr. Fitzgerald.
on bigger vessels (such asTantura B). Dr. Fitzgerald's dissertationrep-
resents a step forward in understanding how the transition in con-
struction methods came about
Initial tests on ceramic sherds from lead-glazed vessels
confirmed the potential for a substantial lead release from these
glazes. Further tests on sherds and ceramic tiles with equal glazed
surface area allowed the development of a framework for pre-
dicting the rate of lead release from any vessel under various
conditions. Acidity, temperature, and the volume of solution were
the major variables studied. The goal of this approach was a strat-
egy for estimating human lead exposure under different condi-
tions, such as the cooking or storage of various foods and drinks.
Dr. Hailey estimated that a typical individual might have
consumed about 450 ml a day of a mildly acidic beverage from a
cylindrical pitcher with a radius of 10 cm, filled to a height of 20
cm. Under these conditions, 57.5% of the glazes represented could
have posed a significant risk of dangerous blood lead levels with-
in 8 months of daily use. Daily use of lead-glazed cooking ves-
sels could have produced dangerous levels even more quickly.
If these test results can be viewed as representative, there
can be little doubt that much of the population of Port Royal
must have had chronic lead poisoning to a greater or lesser ex-
tent. It is not surprising that many persons eventually developed
the acute symptoms of "Dry Bellyache." Further, since the Ja-
maican ceramic assemblage was not greatly different from that
found elsewhere in the 17th century, the same condition must
have prevailed anywhere in the world where these common glaz-
es were used. Lead poisoning may have had an enormous, and
largely unrecognized, impact on all these populations. This re-
search serves as a substantial contribution in the development of
artifactual analysis as a major tool for lead archaeotoxicology.
INA Quarterly 24.2
Cheryl Ward Haldane, Ph.D.
Cheryl Ward Haldane was awarded the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy in May, 1993. She is currently associated with INA-Egypt
and co-directs the excavation of the Sadana Island Shipwreck on the
Egyptian Red Sea coast Her dissertation is "Ancient Egyptian Hull
Construction." Models, representations, economic and religious texts,
and more than 20 actual wooden hulls allow the tracing of nautical
technology in Egypt from 5000 to 2500 years ago.
Dr. Haldane concludes that "the picture that evolves is one of
dedication to certain principles and of flexibility in the face of need."
The ancients would recognize broad, shallow hulls built of thick planks
with joggled edges that are still afloat on the Nile. The basic designs,
construction methods, and tools used well over 4000 years ago were
still in use by traditional Egyptian shipwrights in our own century.
These techniques show obvious continuity with methods developed
for the construction of wooden hulls with stone tools.
It probably took the equivalent of one laborer working a week
of eight-hour days to produce a single plank measuring 4 by 02 by
0.025 meters, yet Old Kingdom inscriptions brag of building an entire
30-meter freighter in 17 days. This is impressive testimony of the pow-
er of the king to command resources and workers. The famed monu-
mental structures of ancient Egypt represent the efforts of the many
shipbuilders needed to construct the large, rounded cargo carriers that
transported huge stones and other materials to the building sites.
These large cargo carriers and the narrow, fast hulls buried at
Abydos and other sites show that the Egyptian shipwrights of the Ear-
ly Dynastic period could already provide solutions to diverse prob-
lems. The edge-joinery used to hold Egyptian hulls together was also
found in coffins, furniture, and other wooden structures at least as ear-
ly as the First Dynasty. The mortises and tenons used in ship construc-
tion, unlike those in furniture, were left unpegged. This allowed hulls
tobe broken down and reassembled more easily. The lack of pegs meant
that ligatures or lashing needed tobe used as a supplementary means
of fastening the thick planks as they were built up one-by-one around
a central section.
Cargo hulls were built of short planks fashioned from thick
slices sawn from a trimmed acacia or tamarisk log. This method (still
used in Upper Egypt in the early part of this century) generated little
waste. In contrast, ceremonial hulls are longer and more curved, and
show evidence of having been formed from much larger pieces of ex-
pensive cedar from Syria and modem Lebanon. In cargo vessels, the
framework could be heavy, both to support the cargo and to lower the
center of gravity to counter the effect of deck cargo. This "skeleton"
was only inserted after the planked shell was completed.
Egyptian ships were designed so that as much of the material
as possible could be reused. As noted, fastenings were designed so that
the planking could be disassembled without damage to the wood. The
recycled wood could be used again for shipbuilding; a number of planks
and beams from the Dashur boats show evidence of previous use. In
addition, the construction ramps and slideways used at temple com-
plexes include hundreds of planks that appear to have been designed
for original use in ships and secondary use in construction. The Egyp-
tian bureaucracy kept track of every scrap of wood and every metal
tool, and may have required that shipsbebuiltwith standardized planks
that could be used equally for several purposes.
There must have been rigid rules about the shapes and designs
that could be used. Many Egyptian ships and models use an identi-
cal planking plan. Such standardization had an additional benefit
it allowed the ships to be disassembled by a team in one location,
transported across land and then reassembled by a different team.
This is well attested from at least the Middle Kingdom right down
to the nineteenth century CE. There is evidence that the organiza-
tion of labor in Egypt was profoundly affected by the need for stan-
dardized teams to carry out these projects.
Unfortunately, we have no remains or models, and few de-
tailed representations of Egyptian seagoing ships. The technical chal-
lenges involved guarantee that these would have been quite different
from the riverine craft. The oldest excavated Mediterranean hull, the
Uluburunshipwreck excavatedby INA, uses methods of hull construc-
tion vastly different from those we know from Egypt The Egyptian
riverine craft were built up around a large flat central strake, while the
Uluburun and other Mediterranean seagoing ships had a keel or keel-
like plank. The planking on known ancient Mediterranean seagoing
hulls is much thinner in proportion to the size of the vessel tanin known
Egyptian ships, and is held together by pegged mortises. Egyptian ship-
builders avoided having anything pierce the hull below the waterline
until around the sixth century BCE, when pegged joints were first used.
The discovery of an ancient Egyptian seagoing vessel would answer
many questions about the influence of Egyptian shipbuilding practic-
es on shipbuilding in the Mediterranean basin.
As fragmentary as the Egyptian material is, it still provides more
information about Bronze Age hull construction, over a longer period
of time, than any other source available to us. Dr. Haldane's disserta-
tion shows how much we can learn from this material about the solu-
tions that the Egyptian shipwrights evolved to solve their problems. In
many ways, these design and technological features proved as durable
as the familiar stone monuments of Egypt
INA Quarterly 24.2
Carnegie Dashur boat, inner surface of hull planking. The bulwarks are not illustrated. The bow is to the left. Drawing: C. Haldane
Jerome Hall, Ph.D.
Jerome Hall was awarded the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy in 1997. His dissertation is entitled "A Seventeenth-
century Northern European Merchant Shipwreck in Monte Cristi
Bay, Dominican Republic." The shipwreck involved in this study
has been known (and looted) for several centuries, but intensive
archaeological work began under Hall in 1991.
This site is often called "The Pipe Wreck" because the
cargo largely consisted of at least 4000 clay tobacco smoking
pipes. Since many of these bear an "EB" heel stamp, used by the
Dutch pipemaker Edward Bird between 1630 and 1665, it had
previously been assumed that this was a merchantran headed
from the Netherlands to one of the Dutch colonies. The bulk of
the dissertation is a catalog, analysis, and interpretation of the
cultural materials recovered from the site in 1991 and 1992. These
data are placed in their historical context with the goal of
determining whether the previously-accepted hypothesis is
correct. This research has cast considerable doubt on the theory.
Dr. Hall's research significantly narrowed the possible
date of the wreck. A coin from the Santa Fe de BogatA mint with
the New Style Pillar design cannot have been minted before 1651.
Other coins from the Potosi mint in Peru indicate a time before
1656, probably in the period 1652-54. This is consistent with the
known dates of several of the pipe types found in the wreck.
Analysis of the hull wood reveals that the ship was built of
English oak. The construction details more closely resemble the Sea
Venture, an Englishship that sankoff Bermuda in 1609, thanany known
Dutch ship. These facts indicate that the ship was built in England
rather than in the Netherlands. There is no clear evidence as to which
flag the ship was flying when it wrecked. Dutch pipes are frequent
finds in seventeenth-century Anglo-American sites, so they do not point
exclusively to a ship from the Netherlands. The faunal remains are
those characteristic of an English crew, but the sample is too small to
rule out Dutchseamen. The nationality of the ship at the time of its last
voyage must thus remain an open question, with the evidence leaning
Dr. Hall concludes that the common supposition that the
Pipe Wreck ship was headed for the Dutch colonies is unlikely
to be correct. None of the characteristic items of cargo are present.
Particularly suggestive is the absence of the yellow bricks that
were usually carried as ballast to the Americas. Instead, there
are funnel elbow-angled smoking pipes especially prized by
Native Americans. This indicates that the ship was headed for a
destination in North America, rather than the Caribbean. The
goods found on the ship match those found at the Compton Site
in Maryland. The Anglo-American colonies of the Upper South
had a close relationship with the Dutch during the period of the
English Civil War and Interregnum, despite the Anglo-Dutch
Wars. Thus, it seems likely that this ship was headed for the
English colonies when it wrecked in Monte Cristi Bay. However,
a destination of New Amsterdam cannot be ruled out, since the
Native Americans who most prized the pipes were in
the upper Hudson Valley, under the aegis of the
Netherlands until 1663.
One of the primary lessons that Dr. Hall draws
from the "Pipe Wreck" is that England and the
Netherlands, and their respective colonies, maintained
close commercial contacts notwithstanding the rivalry
that sparked the Navigation Acts and the Anglo-Dutch
Wars. The wreck also provides insights into trade
between the Old World and the New. The large number
of funnel elbow-angled smoking pipes indicate the
extent to which European manufacturers were willing
to tailor their production to the tastes of consumers in
the New World. In this case, Dutch manufacturers were
responding to the Native American market by meeting
New World tastes in smoking equipment. As Dr. Hall
concludes, "Regardless of which provisional conclusion
is offered to explain its presence and subsequent demise
off the coast of Hispaniola, the northern European
shipwreck in Monte Cristi Bay lies as a monument to
European colonial expansion, maritime commerce, and
the important role of tobacco in the New World during
the second half of the seventeenth century."
Drawing: A. Roberts
Bulbous-bowled pipes from the seventeenth-century
northern European merchant shipwreck in Monte Cristi
Bay, Dominican Republic. Seven distinct heel marks
(enlarged 2x) are shown.
INA Quarterly 24.2
0 0 2
Frederick M. Hocker, Ph.D.
Frederick Martin Hocker is now the Sara W. and George
O. Yamini Faculty Fellow in the Nautical Archaeology Program
at Texas A&M University, and Field Director of the INA excava-
tion of a Byzantine wreck near Bozburun, Turkey. He became a
Doctor of Philosophy in December 1991. His dissertation is "The
Development of a Bottom-Based Shipbuilding Tradition in North-
western Europe and the New World." This details Dr. Hocker's
identification of a major family of boats and ships of bottom-built
construction. Part of the dissertation has recently been published
in A small cog wrecked on the Zuiderzee in the early fifteenth century
(Flevobericht, 1996), co-authored with Karel Vlierman.
Traditionally, nautical historians and archaeologists have
divided watercraft into two major families: shell-built and skele-
ton-built. In the shell-built craft, the exterior skin of planking or
some other material is the primary component. It is generally
built first and provides most of the structural strength to the ves-
sel. Although there is frequently an internal framework to pro-
vide additional strength, this is generally inserted into the
completed hull as a secondary component. Examples of this fam-
ily may be found from many areas of both Northern and Medi-
terranean Europe. Vessels as diverse as the grave boats found in
Egyptian tombs and Viking longships were built in some varia-
tion of the shell-first form of construction.
In contrast, most modem boats and ships are members of
the skeleton-first family. A keel, transverse frames, and longitudi-
nal stringers are built and assembled first to provide most of the
strength. The external skin of planking or other material is added
later to keep the water out. The elements of the skin are primarily
attached to the framework, rather than to each other. The gradual
adoption of skeleton-first construction during the medieval period
marks one of the most significant transitions in nautical history.
Dr. Hocker noticed that a large number of vessels, largely
flat-bottomed and confined to inland or coastal waters, did not go
neatly into either category. They seem to mix characteristics of both
shell-first and skeleton-first concepts. In fact, they often employ
methods that do not seem to fit either family. Indeed, these vessels
belong in a distinct, third family of boat and ship construction.
The bottom-built craft are distinguished by a heavy, flat
bottom of straight planks. These are temporarily fastened together
as the first step of construction. Ships built in this tradition (and
their remains) often show extra holes in the bottom planking at-
tributable to these temporary fastenings. Once the bottom has
been shaped properly, the planks are permanently attached to
heavy floor timbers. Finally, the sides of the ship are completed
over the framework previously erected.
The bulk of Dr. Hocker's dissertation traces the history of
the bottom-built tradition from its dim origins before the first
description of "Celtic" ships in the Commentaries of Julius Cae-
sar. Originally, the sides of a bottom-built ship were generally of
overlapping planks riveted or nailed together in lapstrake fash-
ion. This was similar to the planking of the clinker-built ships of
the Northern European shell-built tradition, although the shell
of bottom-built ships did not need to be as strong, due to the
preexisting framework. Eventually, northern shipwrights in the
bottom-built tradition adopted the southern custom of planking
with boards laid flat edge-to-edge (carvel-built), relying on the
framework for all the side strength. This had economic benefits
that the Dutch, in particular, exploited in and after the fifteenth
Most of the modern survivors of this tradition are rela-
tively small inland and coastal craft. The examples from the Ro-
man era, when the tradition first clearly emerges, are also
relatively small compared to the larger contemporary Mediter-
ranean vessels built with edge-joined shell-first techniques. In
medieval Northern Europe, however, the bottom-built ship real-
ly came into its own. One of the most important ship types of the
Middle Ages, the cog, is an example of the bottom-built tradi-
tion. Cogs dominated seagoing trade in Northern Europe during
the twelfth through fourteenth centuries, and some related in-
land craft have remained in use down to this century.
In an epilogue, Dr. Hocker describes the influence of the
bottom-built tradition of the construction of watercraft in the New
World. The Brown's Ferry vessel from tidewater South Carolina
is described as an example. Over time, this tradition merged with
native and European skeleton-based traditions to produce hy-
brid vessels well adapted for particular uses. Thus, the third fam-
ily of watercraft continues to have an influence on boatbuilding
on both sides of the Atlantic.
INA Quarterly 24.2
Oost Flevoland B 71 Longitudinal Construction Section, just one of Dr. Hocker's drawings presented in his dissertation.
Margaret E. Leshikar, Ph.D.
Margaret Elaine ("Peggy") Leshikar received the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy in December, 1993. Her dissertation is
entitled, "The 1794 Wreck of the Ten Sail, Cayman Islands, British
West Indies: A Historical Study and Archaeological Survey." She
presents the history, archaeology, and folklore associated with
an incident on 8 February 1794, when His Majesty's Frigate Con-
vert, and nine of the fifty-eight merchantmen it was escorting (fif-
ty-five from Jamaica to Britain, and three to North American ports
en route) wrecked on the reefs to windward of the East End of
Grand Cayman Island. The dissertation ties together informa-
tion gathered from archival research in Jamaica, Britain, and
France; survey and mapping of shipwreck sites on the Cayman
reef; and oral history interviews with older Caymanians.
The archival research results concentrate on the Convert,
which had been captured from the French as recently as Novem-
ber 1793. The broader context of the disaster was the series of
wars between Great Britain and revolutionary France, which were
(in effect) world wars extending to the overseas possessions of
both combatants. The French twelve-pounder frigate l'lnconstan te
was one of the casualties of this conflict when it was captured off
the French West Indian colony of St. Domingue, now Haiti.
The frigate I'Inconstante was under construction at Roche-
fort in 1789 when the French Revolution broke out, and was not
ready for service until nearly the end of 1791. From 12 April 1792
through 25 November 1793, the ship served with the French Car-
ibbean squadron based in St. Domingue. The ship's life as a French
man-of-war ended when it was captured by two British ships
and sold to the Royal Navy as a prize. Since there was already an
H.M.S. Inconstant, the ship was renamed Convert.
The first mission of the new British warship was to escort a
convoy of fifty-eight merchant ships. Two days after the convoy
sailed, a series of mishaps and miscalculations sparked by an un-
usually strong current led to the loss of Convert and nine ships of
her charge (hence "Ten Sail") on the Grand Cayman reefs. There
were only eight fatalities, and most of the people continued their
interrupted journey on other ships of the convoy. Despite consid-
erable efforts at salvage, most of the cargoes were lost.
The oral history research revealed an additional dimen-
sion to the story. The Wreck of the Ten Sail has remained a signifi-
cant event in Caymanian folklore down to the present day. The
stories are not entirely consistent with the historical or archaeo-
logical record, but nonetheless form the most important of Cay-
man's many wrecking tales.
An archaeological survey revealed thirty underwater and
eight terrestrial sites from the late eighteenth to twentieth centu-
ries in the area where the convoy wrecked. Two of the underwa-
ter locations seem to represent some of the French cannon from
the Convert, and an area of spillage from the frigate, while one of
the terrestrial sites seems to be the salvage campsite. A number
of the other loci maybe associated with the merchant vessels from
the Ten Sail catastrophe.
Few vessels from the 1792-1815 period have been archae-
ologically studied, so the Wreck of the Ten Sail has the potential to
provide a valuable physical record of the era. In particular, fur-
ther investigation of the merchant ships might help throw light
on Britain's commercial activity during this important period. The
information and artifacts would provide the foundation for inter-
pretive displays that could educate and inform both Caymanians
and visitors about an important part of eighteenth-century history
Since writing this dissertation, Dr. Leshikar has had an
opportunity given to few of us, to follow her own advice. She is
now the Museum Archaeologist for the Cayman Islands National
Museum. In that capacity, she has been able to share her schol-
arship with the Caymanian people. The data from the disserta-
tion formed the basis for the Museum's two-hundredth
anniversary exhibition that opened in February 1994. The ex-
hibit, which was viewed by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II and
His Royal Highness Prince Philip, formed the centerpiece of a
celebration that included art contests and commemorative coin
and stamp issues. Dr. Leshikar's dissertation was the basis of
her book, The Wreck of the Ten Sails (Georgetown, Grand Cay-
man, 1994). Further work on the Ten Sail sites is anticipated when
larger conservation facilities have been constructed.
Photo: Dennis Denton
Above: Aerial view
of the reefs where
the Wreck of the
Ten Sail occurred.
Left: An archaeolo-
gist examines a prob-
able eighteenth cen-
tury Wreck of the
Ten Sail anchor.
INA Quarterly 24.2
Robert S. Neyland, Ph.D.
Robert Stephen Neyland received the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy in August 1994. He is now an INA Research Associate
and Head of the Underwater Archaeology Branch at the Naval
Historical Center, Washington Navy Yard. Dr. Neyland's disserta-
tion is "Technological Continuity and Change: A Study of Cultur-
al Adaptation in Pram-Class Boatbuilding in the Netherlands." This
traces the development of an ancient class of Northern European
watercraft with flat bottoms and hard chines at the turn of the bilge.
Although these vessels are known by a variety of local names, the
best-known is the English term "pram" (in Dutch, praam). Dr. Ney-
land refers to the broader collection of vessel types as "pram-class."
The research presented in this study deals primarily with archaeo-
logical examples from the Netherlands.
The pram falls into the bottom-based tradition of shipbuild-
ing, as opposed to either the shell-based or skeleton-based tradi-
tions. In the pram-class vessels, there is no distinct keel or keelplank,
although there may be a central plank with skegs fastened under-
neath and rectangular toes in the bow and stem for mounting the
The flatbottom and narrow hull of the Netherlands pram-class
vessels reflect the environment in which they evolved. The key to the
development of the Netherlands, and of the pram-class vessel,was the
presence in the heart of the country of the inland body of water that
developed from the freshwater Flevomere of Roman times, through
the brackish Almere of the earlier Middle Ages, to the tidal Zuiderzee
by the late Middle Ages (particularly after the St. Elizabeth's Flood of
1421). In 1932, it again became the freshwater IJesselmeer after the con-
struction of a 19-mile barrier dan. Polders, reclaimed areas of the lake-
bed, are where most of the pram-class vessels studied by Dr. Neyland
were found. The design of these watercraft allowed them to operate
safely in the shoal waters of the Almere and Zuiderzee, as well as in the
narrow waterways that connected them to the North Sea, Rhine, and
Dr. Neyland describes the ancient predecessors of the pram,
the Zwammerdam vessels and other Roman bottom-built boats of
the Rhine and its tributaries. These share many of the characteris-
tics of the pram class, including a flat carvel-laid bottom, hard chines
with near-vertical sides, and the use of L-shaped frames. It is hard
to assume direct historical continuity, however. During the Dark
Ages after the Roman withdrawal, the area of the modem Nether-
lands reverted to a nearly unpopulated wetland. There are no
known post-Roman watercraft remains of any sort in the Nether-
lands before the eleventh century. The oldest surviving examples
of the pram class were found in an old course of the Rhine at Mein-
erswijk near Amheim. These two vessels date to about the thir-
teenth century, nearly a thousand years after the similar Roman
examples. The larger of these vessels may have been 25 meters in
length. This vessel indicates the growth in available capital that
could be invested in tools and materials, as well as the increased
availability of laborers with specialized skills.
During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, prams were
used as coasters, lighters, and transports in the shoal waters of the Alm-
ere, where larger cogs could not sail. This allowed transshipping mer-
chandise from the inland provinces of the Netherlands to the deep
water ports on the Scheldt or North Sea. In the late fifteenth century,
the rising sea levels that formed the Zuiderzee also created a crisis for
farming in the Netherlands. Many of the Dutch sought a living on the
water at sailing or fishing (a colder climate after 1400 forced the major
herring shoals from the Baltic to the North Sea). Virtually every village
had access to the sea via the inland waterway network, so shipping
and trading became important secondary occupations even for those
who still primarily worked in agriculture. The pram-class vessel played
an important part in this process, which eventually led the Nether-
lands to its status as a world power in the sixteenth through eighteenth
The type continued its evolution during these centuries.
Fore-and-aft sails came into common use in the fourteenth centu-
ry, enabling the craft to sail much closer to the wind and even tack
upwind (given enough running room). The combination of great-
er efficiency and shorter sailing times represented a major savings
WN 92 construction plan, just one of many vessels studied by Dr. Neyland.
Drawing: R. S. Neyland
INA Quarterly 24.2
in labor costs. This provided important advantages during the
European population decline that began in the fourteenth century.
Some small ships found from this period combine the features of
the pram with a finer entrance and run for increased speed and
stability, without losing the advantages of shallow draft and high
capacity given by the nearly rectangular cross-section amidships.
This may have been motivated, in part, by the transformation of
the Zuiderzee into an arm of the North Sea, requiring more sea-
In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Netherlands
enjoyed their golden age. The experience of the Dutch with ship-
ping and commerce allowed them to reap the benefits of the new
global exchange economy. Again, pram-class vessels played an
important part in this economic boom. They carried the peat fuel
for industry, and all the other bulk cargoes that required transport
on the inland waterways or coastal waters. The invention of lee-
boards (oval planks on both sides of the hull that could be lowered
into the water as needed to preventleeway) considerably increased
the tacking abilities of shallow-draft vessels with flat bottoms. Many
variants of the pram were developed, from small vessels with fine
lines to much larger freighters with a bluff bow and stem on an
almost rectangular outline.
James Michael Parrent, Ph.D.
James Michael Parrent was awarded the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy in Anthropology in 1990. His dissertation, enti-
tled, "Management of Historic Ship Archaeological Sites in the
Caribbean" attempts to address one of the most severe problems
for maritime archaeology-the destruction of sites by treasure
hunters. The rich diversity of Caribbean cultures makes the re-
gion a world resource for archaeology. Regional sites preserve
the evidence for the European discovery, exploration, and settle-
ment of the New World. Treasure hunters who view sites as bank
vaults to be looted pose the greatest danger to this invaluable
part of the regional and world heritage.
Archaeology is one of the few sciences that destroys what
it studies. The only excuse for the excavation of a culturally-im-
portant site is that responsible researchers preserve and publish
every scrap of information that the state of the art will allow. A
treasure-huntingexpedition cannotpossibly take the time necessary to
do this, and stillprovide the maximum return to investors. As Dr. Par-
rent says, "profit and archaeology are mutually exclusive terms."
The Caribbean area has suffered some of the worst dam-
age, since it is a prime target for treasure-hunting ventures. Many
of these ventures have operated clandestinely, on the fringes of
the law or flatly against the law. Other treasure hunters have cho-
sen to seek contracts with island governments. Treasure hunters
tend to be far better at public relations than archaeologists are,
since the hunters must seek publicity in order to attract inves-
tors. Furthermore, treasure hunters are not bound by professional
standards that limit their claims and promises. Archaeologists are
therefore at a disadvantage in dealing with host governments that are
subject to popular and political pressures (to say nothing of economic
pressures that might be alleviated by "a cut of the action").
Regardless of the avenue chosen by the treasure hunters,
the results are the same: the irretrievable loss not only of valu-
After 1650, the Netherlands, although still a world pow-
er, went into a long period of stagnation and ultimate decline.
The small nation had become overextended, and suffered from
naval defeats, expensive colonization efforts, foreign competition,
and trade barriers. Several small pram-class vessels from this
period have been excavated, showing the changed emphasis on
small specialized workboats to transport peat, mud, or night-
soil. There were also larger vessels designed to travel short dis-
tances across the Zuiderzee or through the canals to industrial
centers or the Scheldt. These late pram-class vessels show signs
of having been built with poor timber on a very tight budget.
Dr. Neyland concludes that the pram-class watercraft must
be studied in conjunction with the society that used them. Nauti-
cal archaeology cannot content itself with a simple description of
the technical details of ship construction or with catalogs of arti-
facts. It must develop theoretical models that will allow a greater
understanding of the significance of watercraft for the societies that
used them. Ship construction designs, and particularly the devel-
opment of new techniques, are the result of adaptation to evolving
economic, cultural, environmental, and technological factors. In
order for the discipline to mature, nautical archaeologists must be
willing to see and study these broader considerations.
able artifacts, but still more of the everyday objects, trace evi-
dence, and provenience data that are the soul of archaeology,
but irrelevant to a treasure hunter. We have all seen the television
programs celebrating the exploits of men who tear a site to shreds with
their prop wash in order to expose the gold that might be there. When
they are done, nothing is left intact or in its original location.
Even if the treasure hunters hire an "archaeological
consultant," there are rarely any financial provisions made
for adequately recording the site; for conservation and perpet-
ual curation of the artifacts without commercial value; for peer-
reviewed research by experienced technical experts, archivists,
historians, and other specialists; or for publication of the record-
ed data and final conclusions. All of that takes time, trouble, and
money that a treasure hunter cannot easily pass along to his in-
vestors. The host country may receive short-term economic ben-
efits from dealing with treasure hunters, but the long-term cost
is the loss of the local cultural heritage.
The Caribbean nations'seeking to develop their cul-
tural resources do not have to rely on treasure hunters. Dr.
Parrent suggests these countries should enact legislation that
clearly establishes ownership of historic ship archaeological
sites. Then they should adopt cultural resource management
plans that consider site preservation, ecological impacts from ex-
cavation, and professional standards for the recovery, conserva-
tion, study, and display of artifacts. Governments can contract
with universities and non-profit organizations to provide the
expertise and experience essential to deal with historic shipwreck
sites, while simultaneously providing for the on-site training of
local scholars and archaeological workers. This will allow the
Caribbean nations to act as faithful stewards of the portion of
the world heritage that has been committed to their charge.
INA Quarterly 24.2
Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D.
Cemalettin Mustafa Pulak is well-known to TNA Quarter-
ly readers as the Director of the later stages of the excavation of
the Uluburun Bronze Age ship. He was awarded the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy in December 1996 and (as of the 1st Sep-
tember 1997) will be Assistant Professor and Frederick R. Mayer
Fellow in the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M Uni-
versity. His dissertation is "Analysis of the Weight Assemblages
from the Late Bronze Age Shipwrecks at Uluburun and Cape
Gelidonya, Turkey." This will be published as part of a multi-
volume excavation report.
Since we live in a world in which virtually all nations
have adopted a single system of weights and measures, it is hard
to imagine the chaos that prevailed before. Units of length, ca-
pacity, and mass differed not only from one country to another,
but even from city to city, and almost from shop to shop. The
only way to recover these ancient systems is to study the arti-
facts that incorporated them.
For convenience, most objects were (and are) designed to
incorporate either an integer multiple of the basic unit, or some
simple fraction of the unit. Given enough examples, it is possible
to deduce the size of the basic units in terms of the metric stan-
dard. For example, someone who walked into a modem Ameri-
can bakery and weighed every loaf of bread could quickly
establish that most of them were related in some way to a unit of
mass approximately equal to 0.45 kilogram. It would probably
also be possible to deduce that this unit was commonly divided
into smaller units equal to 1/16 of the basic unit. This disserta-
tion performs the same sort of analysis on pan-balance weights
from the Late Bronze Age to determine what units of mass were
in use on these two ships.
Fortunately, the fourteenth-century Uluburun and thir-
teenth-cnetury Cape Gelidonya shipwrecks provide an adequate
sample. The assemblages of pan-balance weights from these sites
are by far the largest and most complete collections of Late Bronze
Age weights recovered from individual archaeological sites. A
total of 149 specimens were recovered from the Uluburun ship
and 62 from Cape Gelidonya.
The collections are notable not only for their size, but also
for their nature. Because all the weights in a shipwreck are de-
posited together into a sealed context, the excavator can be cer-
tain that they were used concurrently. Researchers of terrestrial
sites can rarely be sure of this. Since weights and measures may
change over time, it becomes much harder to be certain that pan-
balance weights intended to represent the same unit of mass will
actually have the same mass. For example, Dr. Pulak's research
indicates an increase of more than 1.2% in the standard mass unit
during the century between these two Bronze Age wrecks.
The overwhelming bulk of the pan-balance weights found in
both shipwrecks use a standard mass unit equal to approximately 9.3
grams. The Uluburun assemblage includes no less than four complete
sets of sphendonoid (sling-bullet-shaped) weights in integer denomi-
nations of this basic unit Virtually all of the domed weights found in
the wreck conform to this same standard. The larger units in the 93 g
system seem to have been related to the basic unit according to a dec-
imal hierarchy. It appears that the domed weights were used for ev-
eryday weighing of bulk commodities that did not require great
precision, while the sphendonoids were used for the accurate weigh-
Dr. Pulak at workon sme of the many artifacts
from the Uluburun Bronze Age shipwreck
ing of valuable objects such as precious metal, valuable stones, and
spices (all of which have been found in the Uluburun wreck).
Likewise, the Cape Gelidonya weights incorporate the
same decimally-structured norm based on a unit mass of about
9.3 g. Both the sphendonoid and domed weights seem to have
been used for the same purposes, as both types include only
integer multiples of the basic unit, and both types range up to
weights with a mass equal to 50 basic units. The century between
the two wrecks was one of economic decline in the Mediterranean
world, and this may be reflected by the slight inflation of the basic
unit. The Cape Gelidonya weights average 1.2% heavier than the
Uluburun weights. This may be due to the absence of precision
weights from the later set, or due to the economic depression.
Secondary weight standards are not completely absent
from either shipwreck site. The Uluburun wreck yielded sets that
followed basic units of about 8.3 g and 7.4 g. Some irregularly-
shaped domed weights from Cape Gelidonya seem to conform
to a standard mass of between 7.1 and 7.3 g.. The three sphen-
donoid sets from Cape Gelidonya that follow the 9.3 g standard
lack 10-unit weights. Instead, each set has 7-unit pieces of
approximately 65 g, and there are three additional weights of
the same mass. This is initially puzzling, until one realizes that
the 7-unit weights are also approximately equal to the basic unit
of the 61 g system used in the Aegean by the Mycenaeans. Thus,
these scale weights could be used for both systems.
Before the development of government-sponsored stan-
dard measures and government-guaranteed coinage, each party
to a transaction would use their own scales to guarantee that the
value given was not too heavy and the value received was not
INA Quarterly 24.2
too light. Scales and their attendant weights were thus an essen-
tial form of personal property for everyone who had business in
a public market. Merchants would trade with their own weight
sets based on the mass standards to which they were most ex-
posed. For this reason, scale weights are crucial indicators of the
nationality of the persons who used them.
It is therefore significant that none of the weight sets on
either of these ships followed primarily the 61 g system used on
land in the Aegean during the Late Bronze Age. Although there
were at least two Mycenaeans on the Uluburun ship, they were
probably officials or envoys accompanying an immensely valu-
able royal shipment back to their home port. They were appar-
ently not merchants carrying their own scales. The overwhelming
majority of the weights on both ships complied with the 9.3 g
standard in use along the Syro-Palestinian coast and on Cyprus.
Thus, the weight assemblages suggest that both vessels had pri-
marily Syrian or Cypriot merchants aboard. That this was true of
two ships about a century apart would seem to indicate the impor-
tance of these merchants near the end of the Late Bronze Age.
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D.
C. Wayne Smith, who is the director of the Archaeologi-
cal Preservation Research Laboratory at Texas A&M and will be
an Assistant Professor in the Nautical Archaeology Program from
the 1st September 1997, received the degree of Doctor of Philoso-
phy in May 1995. His dissertation is "Analysis of the Weight As-
semblage of Port Royal, Jamaica," which will shortly be published
in the BAR series. This is a study of the 90 weights recovered to
date from the excavations at Port Royal. Dr. Smith uses the
weights as ajumping-off-place for his study of a surprisingly wide
range of issues relating to life in the seventeenth century.
Approximately thirty-two acres of the colonial commu-
nity of Port Royal sank into Kingston Harbor during an earth-
quake on 7 June 1692, Layers of silt and a protective layer of
staghorn coral have encased the site for most of the past three
centuries, protecting it from both human and natural dangers.
As a result, the site provides one of the best windows into the
17th century, not only for the study of colonial culture, but also
for the study of, English and European culture as a whole.
These conditions have been particularly beneficial for the
preservation of the scale weights used in commerce and indus-
try. Lead weights were soft and easily damaged, in which case
they were generally recycled. The weights had an intrinsic value
as material for musket balls and other armament, so they were
frequently melted down for reuse. For these and other reasons,
lead and bronze weights have not survived in anything like the
numbers that archival records suggest should be present at Eu-
ropean or colonial archaeological sites. Due to the sealing of the
site, Port Royal is an exception.
Dr. Smith's dissertation includes a descriptive catalog of
the recovered weights, necessary for further study of the artifacts,
as well as for planning future work and curation. However, the
bulk of the paper deals with more analytical issues.
A pan-balance weight in the form of a sphinx from the Uluburun
f'hoto: U. A. O'oweu
Dr. Smith holds two artifacts from the La Salle shipwreck that are currently
undergoing siliwne conservation treatment under his direction.
The distribution of weights and other archaeological ma-
terials at Port Royal is used to better understand the functions
and uses of the buildings that have been investigated. For exam-
ple, the particular assemblage of weights found in Building 5
suggests that it was in part a tavern including a bakery. One
weight is 55 pounds avoirdupois, which was the standard mass
of a bushel of wheat. There were also 7 and 9 pound weights,
which were standard masses for loaves of bread.
Dr. Smith provides a history of the development of stan-
dardized weights and measures in England and its colonies. This
involved several competing metrological systems. This led to the
famous riddle: "Which weighs more, a pound of feathers or a
INA Quarterly 24.2
pound of gold?" The answer is "feathers," which were sold ac-
cording to the avoirdupois pound, which is 22% heavier than the
troy pound used by goldsmiths. The simultaneous use of both
the standard European weight standards gave England a mer-
cantile advantage over countries that used only troy or avoirdu-
pois exclusively. Weights in England were loosely guaranteed
by the guilds until 1670, when King Charles II directed that a
King's Beam with standardized weights should be set up in ev-
ery public marketplace. This system was in the process of imple-
mentation in Jamaica at the time of the Port Royal disaster.
The King's Beam used bronze weights as the standard.
Perhaps as a result, many lead weights found their way to the
colonies. Lead weights predominate in the Port Royal assemblage
to a degree that would not have been expected from the British
evidence. The number of weights is also suggestive. Most house-
holds kept their own scales and weight sets to check on mer-
chants who might sell light and buy heavy. Indeed, many kept
two sets, a light one for making sales and a heavy one for making
purchases. Weights and scales ("steelyards") are often mentioned
in English and Jamaican probate inventories, since they were
valuable heirlooms to be passed along from one generation to
Dr. Smith describes the complex system of marks found
on some Port Royal weights. The most common marks were a
monarch's mark with an orb or crown over an initial, a dagger
and shield signifying the City of London, an insignia stating the
weight's standard (for example "A" for avoirdupois), the mark
of the certifying guild (for example, an angel on lead weights for
the Plumbers Guild, and a laver or ewer on bronze weights for
the Worshipful Company of Founders), and various owner's
marks. The dissertation includes a lengthy discussion of one of
the most prevalent marks, the Archangel Michael.
Eri Nattan Weinstein, Ph.D.
EriNattanWeinstein received the degree of Doctor of Philoso-
phy in the Anthropology program in 1992. His dissertation is "The
Recovery and Analysis of Paleoethnobotanical Remains from an Eight-
eenth Century Shipwreck." This describes the methodology and re-
sults of an innovative study of the fill material excavated from the collier
brig Betsy. This was one of the vessels scuttled by General Lord Corn-
wallis in October 1781 during the Battle of Yorktown.
Botanical remains such as macrofossils and pollen can pro-
vide substantial information about the use of an archaeological
site. Because of the special problems of underwater collection,
efforts to collect samples of these materials from a shipwreck are
usually limited to sampling the contents of containers and a few
other locations of special interest, such as protected parts of the
hold or bilges. The Betsy excavation, however, presented the pos-
sibility for another approach. Due to turbulent local conditions,
the wreck site was enclosed by a cofferdam, so that excavation
could proceed in calm, filtered water. This protected the fill ma-
terial from contamination or disturbance during the excavation
process. Further, the plan at the time of excavation was to re-
move all of the fill material from the surviving bow, starboard
side, and stern for the purpose of reconstructing the hull. It was
therefore decided that 100% of the fill could be examined, in-
Less than 1% of the weights recovered from Port Royal
were illegal or inaccurate. Many of the weights show signs of
having been adjusted to the standard used by the King's Beam at
the market. Most of them bear cipher marks showing their ap-
proval by the London guilds. This indicates that Jamaica largely
adhered to the standard set in the metropolis. This part of the
city appears to have been composed of well-to-do house/shops,
so it is possible that poorer quarters would have had a different
assemblage with a higher proportion of illegal weights. Further
excavations at Port Royal may eventually answer that question.
Dr. Smith suggests a number of avenues for future research.
A pail-shaped lead weight bearing a number of well preserved marks,
including the Archangel Michael stamp (enlarged, right), which may
have identified the Plumbers Guild or a particular shop.
stead of small samples. A total of 237 cubic meters of fill was
tested during the 1986-88 seasons.
This approach allowed the recovery of extensive cask frag-
ments, macrofossil remains, and pollen. These were distributed
in meaningful, non-random patterns. The material provided a
great volume of data about the stowage and composition of the
cargo. There were considerable quantities of corn cobs, poorly
cleaned oats, and grass pollen, suggesting that Betsy may have
been used as a horse transport at some time prior to her sinking.
There were also a large number of peach, plum, and cherry stones.
These were among the most common fruits in colonial Virginia
and were probably used to feed the troops transported in the
ship prior to thebattle, and the sailors and officers billeted aboard
during the siege. The wine bottles aboard were virtually free of
macrofossils or pollen, suggesting that they may have been used
for rum, rather than wine.
Dr. Weinstein's research, published in the Final Report on the
Yorktown Shipwreck Archaeological Project (1996), provided valuable in-
formation about the use of this ship during the climacticbattle forAmer-
ican independence. It further demonstrated the potential value of future
exhaustive studies of shipwreck fill for paleoethnobotanical remains
and other very small forms of archaeological evidence.
INA Quarterly 24.2
The Culminant Works
Nautical Archaeology Theses and Dissertations as of December 1996
Since 1976, the Institute of Nautical Archaeology has been associated with Texas A&M University in College Station, where many INA
faculty also teach within the Nautical Archaeology Program of the Department of Anthropology. The interaction between the two organizations
has been extremely fruitful, not least because so many Nautical Archaeology graduate students have participated in INA projects. Unlike many
academic programs, the Nautical Archaeology Program at A&M encourages its students to carry out independent research and publish it under
their own names. The depth of the work performed by A&M students is reflected in the documents that culminate their academic experience: the
master's thesis or doctoral dissertation.
The following compendium summarizes the abstracts and conclusions of eighty-six theses and dissertations submitted since 1978 (a few
of these were outside the Nautical Archaeology Program, but on nautical themes for a degree through the Department of Anthropology; summa-
ries that appeared in the 1985 Winter issue [12.3] are only cited by reference). A look at the authors' names will show how many of these students
have gone on to distinguished careers in nautical archaeology or related fields. Many are still associated with INA in some way. A look at the titles
will reveal the world-wide scope of our discipline.
In addition to the short summaries that follow, the eleven dissertations also receive longer treatments elsewhere in this issue. It should be
noted that all these summaries were prepared by the editor, not the authors. Again, in the event that anyone's work has been overlooked or
imprecisely summarized, please accept our apologies.
Baker, James. "Computers and Nautical Archaeology:
Characterization of the C.S.S. Georgia Wreck Site" (1982). A Civil
War period Confederate ironclad vessel in the Savannah River
(see INA Newsletter 12.3, 8).
Cowin, Margaret "Artifacts Recovered off the Southwest-
ern Turkish Coastby Institute of Nautical Archaeology Shipwreck
Surveys in 1973 and 1980" (1986). Each year the Institute of Nau-
tical Archaeology (INA) conducts a survey of sites along the Turk-
ish coast line. This is part of INA's continuing quest to expand
our knowledge of the area and to learn more of the culture of
past peoples. Cowin studied fifty-nine miscellaneous artifacts
which were recovered during the 1973 and 1980 surveys in order
to date each site. The bulk of material is Hellenistic to Byzantine,
but the entire collection extends from a twelfth-century BCE sky-
phos to a fifteenth-century CE glazed Mamluk fragment. This
demonstrates the long history of sea trade in the area. The pro-
portional numbers of certain artifacts underline two well-known
features of ancient commerce in the area: the general vigor of
Hellenistic trade, and the strength of Rhodes as a mercantile center.
Whenever possible, the latest technology is utilized on INA surveys.
Indruszewski, George. "A Comparative Analysis of Ear-
ly Medieval Shipwrecks From the Southern Shores of the Baltic
Sea" (1996). Although most shipwrecks discovered on the south-
ern shore of the Baltic Sea have been attributed to Scandinavian
or Germanic origin, Indruszewski argues that the technical de-
tails of these wrecks reveal a distinct regional shipbuilding tradi-
tion. The shipwrecks seem to match the characteristics attributed
to Wendish ships in historical sources. He concludes that these
shipwrecks should be regarded as products of a Slavic shipbuild-
ing tradition that showed its full potential during the eleventh
and twelfth centuries. The difficulties in tracing the origins and
evolution of this tradition with the available, poorly dated materi-
al reveals the need for further research that will be essential for
tracing the interaction of the maritime societies of the medieval
Inoue, Takahiko. "A Nautical Archaeological Study of
Kublai Khan's Fleets" (1991). In 1274 and 1281, the Mongol lead-
er and Emperor of China, Kublai Khan, assembled and dispatched
large invasion fleets from Korea in unsuccessful attempts to con-
quer Japan. Although there are many general works in the liter-
ature that discuss these campaigns, there are no detailed studies
of the ships themselves. Since Chinese ships may have been the
most advanced seagoing vessels in the world at the end of the
thirteenth century, this is a major gap in our knowledge of mar-
itime history. This thesis collects, analyzes, and interprets all the
available information from both historical and artistic represen-
tations. Inoue concludes that the discovery and excavation of one
or more of the many sunken ships from these fleets would greatly
expand our knowledge of the history of East Asian ship types and
Lakey, Denise C. "Shipwrecks in the Gulf of Cadiz
(Spain): A Catalog of Historically Documented Wrecks from the
Fifteenth through the Nineteenth Centuries" (1987). INA and the
Spanish Ministry of Culture conducted an underwater archaeo-
logical survey of the Bay of Cadiz from April 1984 through July
1985. In order to facilitate this survey, it was necessary to com-
pile all the available archival and other historical information on
shipwrecks known to have occurred in the bay. This thesis lists
more than 400 such shipwrecks. It includes not only the sources
INA Quarterly 24.2
consulted for each wreck, but also the documents and publications those sources
used, thus providing a base for additional research In addition, the thesis discusses
the questions that must be answered in order to compile such a catalog, and relates
the results of the field survey to the historical information presented in the catalog.
Marquez, Carmen. "Cultural Contributions to the Island of St. John,
United States Virgin Islands: Underwater Historical Archaeology at Cruz Bay"
(1995). Cruz Bay was the principal port of the Danish colony of St. John from
1733 until the Virgin Islands were purchased by the United States in 1917.
After St. John became a free port in 1764, ships of various nations periodically
called at Cruz Bay to trade. The Danish West Indies were also a center of the
slave trade; servitude was not abolished until 1848. This thesis describes a
three-week underwater survey of the area where the historical wharf struc-
tures were assumed to be located. Although these were not found, many arti-
facts were recovered (despite intensive modem use of the area, including heavy
ferry-boat traffic). The remains from the lowest cultural stratum included glass
bottles, ceramic pipes, and plates, mostly of 18th or 19th-century English ori-
gin. These suggest that the English-rather than the Danes-controlled the
commerce and everyday life of the island.
Shuey, Elizabeth. "Underwater Survey and Excavation at the Ancient Port
of Gravisca, Italy" (1978). The first master's thesis completed through the Nautical
Archaeology Program; locates the Etruscan port of Tarquinia and the Roman port of
Gravisca at modem Porto Clementino, Italy (see INA Newsletter 123, 8).
Slane, Dorothy A. "The History of the Anchorage at Serge Limaru,
Turkey" (1982). The anchorage was in use from 3000 BCE to the thirteenth
century CE. The frequency of use and the nationalities of the users varied with
time (see INA Newsletter 123, 8).
Smith, Roger C. "The Maritime Heritage of the Cayman Islands: Contribu-
tions in Nautical Archaeology" (1981). Results of a two-season INA survey and archi-
val research (see NA Newsletter 12.3, 8).
Amer, Christopher. "Construction of the Brown Bay Vessel" (1986). In
1985, Amer conducted a post-excavation examination of an early nineteenth-
century British naval vessel at Browns Bay on the St. Lawrence River, Canada.
The history and development of the vessel type, the 54-foot-long hull, and
artifactual material were all investigated to identify the hull and determine
the reasons for its loss in Browns Bay. A visual reconstruction was possible,
establishing two perspective views of the hull using wreck plans and hull lines.
Extensive modifications to the hull were discovered, giving indications of the
vessel's long and productive career. Most likely constructed as one of His Maj-
esty's naval boats around 1812, it was abandoned after a possible career as a
commercial cargo carrier. This only known example of a Royal Navy flat-bot-
tomed boat of this period is significant and unique.
Clifford, Sheila. "An Analysis of the Port Royal Shipwreck and its Role
in the Maritime History of Seventeenth-Century Port Royal, Jamaica" (1993).
During the 1989 and 1990 seasons of Texas A&M University's underwater ar-
chaeological field school at Port Royal, Jamaica, a shipwreck was excavated as
it lay amidst the submerged remains of a seventeenth-century building. Sev-
eral noteworthy construction features were evident on the vessel. While the
shipwreck cannot be positively identified, the excavation and recording of the
wreck have nonetheless contributed information to the extremely small body
of knowledge available concerning seventeenth-century ship construction. Af-
ter careful analysis, Clifford gives a strong argument for the identity of the
vessel as H.M.S. Swan, which was undergoing careening at the time of the
disastrous 1692 earthquake.
Crisman, Kevin. "The Eagle- An American Brig on Lake Champlain During
the War of 1812" (1984). An 1814 U.S. Navy brig built in 19 days as the final addition
to the fleet that defeated the British at Plattsburgh Bay (see INA Newsletter 12.3,9).
Plan of the Port Royal shipwreck, possibly H.M.S.
INA Quarterly 24.2
Fitzgerald, Michael. "A Roman Wreck at Caesarea Mari-
time, Israel. A Comparative Study of its Hull and Equipment"
(1995). Dissertation (see pages 4-5 of this issue). The hull remains
and equipment of a heavy Roman merchant ship are described
and illustrated, with particular attention given to its construc-
tion. In addition to chapters describing each detail of the ship in
its comparative context, the final chapters are devoted to the re-
construction, dating, and analysis of the ship. The comparative
studies reveal that the ship in one of the most heavily-built Ro-
man merchant hulls yet documented. Fitzgerald concludes that
ancient approaches to the construction of large ships differed
fundamentally from approaches common to the building of small
ships. The knowledge accumulated through a long history of
building big ships contributed to the evolution in ship construc-
tion that resulted in the development of "frame-first" techniques.
Haldane, Cheryl W. "The Dashur Boats" (1984). Hulls of
six boats buried beside the brick pyramid of Sesostris III at Dashur,
Egypt (see INA Newsletter 12.3, 8).
Hall, Jerome. "A Seventeenth-Century Northern European
Merchant Shipwreck in MonteChristi Bay, DominicanRepublic" (1996).
Dissertation (see page 7 of this issue). This is a detailed examination of
the results of the author's excavation of 'The Pipe Wreck," a vessel
whose cargo of several styles of tobacco smoking pipes illustrate the
processes that brought European culture to the New World.
Hundley, Paul. "The Construction of the Griffon Cove
Wreck" (1980). Mid-1800s shipwreck in Lake Huron near Tober-
mory, Ontario (see INA Newsletter 12.3, 8).
Lang, Shelley Ruby. "The Mittie Stephens: A Sidewheel
Steamboat on the Inland Rivers, 1863-1869" (1986). Over sixty per-
sons lost their lives when this first-class packet enroute from New
Orleans to Jefferson, Texas, caught fire near the state line in Caddo
Lake. The disaster has become a major feature of folklore in this
region of northwest Louisiana and east Texas ("The Mint Tulip Ice
Cream Emporium in Jefferson offers the Mittie Stephens float-it
goes down fast!"). This thesis collects the known information about
Photo: K. Neyland
Above: The Lyons Creek site with the Patuxent River in the
Right: A reconstructed view of the Lyons Creek boat, as seen from
the Mittie Stephens and its last voyage, and describes a lake survey
that possibly located the last remains of the ship. Lang suggests that
enough of the hull, machinery, and personal stores may still remain to
justify the time and expense of a definitive search and excavation.
Leshikar, Margaret "Peggy". "The 1794 Wreck of the Ten Sail,
Cayman Islands, British West Indies: A Historical Study and Ar-
chaeological Survey" (1993). Dissertation (see page 9 of this issue).
Dr. Leshikar brings together documentary research, oral history,
and archaeological survey in this study of the wreck, due to a nav-
igational error, of a British naval frigate and nine merchant ships
on the windward reef of Grand Cayman Island. The study traces
the history of H.M.S. Convert from its construction as the French
frigate l'Inconstante, through its capture near Haiti by the Royal
Navy, to its final voyage escorting a convoy of fifty-eight ships
bound from Jamaica (fifty-five to Britain and three to America)
during the French Revolutionary Wars. Dr. Leshikar follows the
story down to the folktales circulating among the Caymanians and
an INA survey that located three sites associated with the wreck.
Lloyd, Manuela F. "A Byzantine Shipwreck at Iskandil
Burnu, Turkey: Preliminary Report" (1984). Describes findings from
the exhaustive 1982-84 survey of a late sixth- or early seventh-century
shipwreck (see INA Newsletter 12.3,4-5, 8).
Neyland, Robert. "The Lyons Creek Boat Remains" (1990).
The Lyons Creek boat was found in a tributary of Maryland's Patux-
ent River. Because the vessel was found by a dredging operation,
the artifacts recovered with it (dated 1680-1750) have lost their pro-
venience and the wreck may be either newer or older than this
interval. The fragments of the boat reveal a boatbuilding heritage
descended from the North European shell-based form of construc-
tion, with the planking as the primary assembly. There seem to be
dose parallels to late-medieval Scandinavian shipbuilding. The boat
has riveted overlapping thin oak strakes in the traditional clinker-
built form. Such construction allowed the builder to erect the hull
by eye before setting the unconnected frames (which were not con-
nected into a rigid skeleton). This allowed considerable resilience.
D C I JA
Drawing R. Neyland
INA Quarterly 24.2
Pedersen, Ralph K. "Waterschip NZ42i: A Late Medieval
Fishing Vessel from Flevoland, the Netherlands" (1991). The wa-
terschip was a distinctive form of Netherlands fishing vessel found,
with very few apparent changes, from the Middle Ages down to
our own century. As an unglamorous working boat, it has received
very little study. The subject of this thesis is one of a number of
waterscheppen that have been discovered in the IJesselmeer polders
that formerly lay beneath the Zuiderzee. NZ42i is distinctive be-
cause it is the only waterschip of clinker-built construction to have
received detailed study. This type is older than the carvel-built
boats, which are more numerous and better known. Pedersen
studies NZ42i in great detail, particularly comparing it with wa-
terschip W10, a carvel-built vessel of similar date. He concludes
that the waterschip falls within a broader Celtic shipbuilding tra-
dition. Archival evidence confirms that similar small craft were
common in Maryland waters.
Pulak, Cemalletin M. "Late Bronze Age Shipwreck at Ulu
Burun: Preliminary Analysis (1984-1985 Excavation Campaigns)"
(1987). The wealth of objects from the Ulu Burun site, mostly chis-
eled from rock-hard concretion, have required years of analysis.
This thesis by the excavation Director describes the artifacts found
in the first two seasons. It was already apparent that the immense-
ly valuable cargo was headed from the east (the Levant or Cy-
prus) toward the Mycenaean west. Finds included copper and
tin ingots in the shape of ox-hides and buns, glass ingots, ivory,
resin, and jewelry. Among these items was an Egyptian scarab
that already allowed dating the shipwreck to the years immedi-
ately after the Amama period but still within the 18th Dynasty
(see INA Quarterly 23.1, 12, for later developments concerning
the chronology of the Ulu Burun wreck). There were also tools,
weapons, equipment, and personal items. Eight stone anchors
were found, as well as the hull itself. There was already evidence
of the presence of at least one Mycenaean aboard, but the origin of
the ship itself remained unclear at that early stage of research.
Riess, Warren C. "The History of, and Search for, the Sev-
enteenth Century Bristol Merchantman Angel Gabriel" (1980).
Wrecked in 1635 near Pemaquid, Maine, while carrying settlers
and supplies (see INA Newsletter 12.3, 9).
Rosloff, Jay P. "The Water StreetShip: Preliminary Analysis of
an Eighteenth-Century Merchant Ship's Bow" (1986). This 100-foot-
long merchant ship had been installed as pier cribbing along Manhat-
tan Island's East River in the mid-eighteenth century. In 1982, the
substantially intact ship was uncovered during an archaeological sur-
vey prior to construction at 175 Water Street The excavators salvaged
approximately the first 8 feet of the bow and associated structures. The
recovered timbers show both the specifics of constructing a bow and
the major structural features of the vessel as a whole This research cast
new light on the vessels that met the requirements for transatlantic
transport during the American colonial era.
van De Moortel, Aleydis. "A Cog-Like Vessel from the
Netherlands" (1987). A small, well-preserved shipwreck in lot
NZ43, near the southern end of the reclaimed Zuyderzee polders,
appears to be of a small cargo carrier with many of the character-
istics of a cog, the leading seagoing type in late-medieval North-
ern Europe. The hull was very well built and has been remarkably
well preserved. The wreck demonstrates features previously
known only from 17th-century Dutch sources. In the 13th and
14th centuries, vessels like this were indispensable for distribut-
ing goods to the smaller ports between England and the Baltic.
This thesis provides an in-depth analysis of the construction fea-
tures, hull design, and probable sailing qualities of this cog-like
vessel. Since this small craft was so carefully planned and built,
we may assume this was also true of the large cogs that carried
valuable cargoes in far more dangerous waters.
Drawing: A. van De Moortel
Strake plan of the reconstructed vessel NZ43, 1987 Shaded areas represent substituted parts.
INA Quarterly 24.2
A L k 0
Ship Construction and Equipment
Adams, Robert "Construction and Qualitative Analysis of a
Sewn Boat of the Western Indian Ocean" (1985). Pre-fifteenth century
sewn boats along the East African coast (see INA Newsletter 123,10).
Charlton, Bill. "Rope and the Art of Knot-Tying in the
Seafaring of the Ancient Eastern Mediterranean" (1996). One of
mankind's earliest tools must surely have been fibers woven into
cords or ropes and tied together with knots. When people first
went out onto the water on anything more sophisticated than a
simple paddle-driven dugout canoe, they needed the assistance
of some type of cordage. A line tied around a stone as an anchor,
a line to retrieve a fishing spear, and a line to moor the craft on
the beach are all examples of an ancient need. As time progressed,
more complex needs led to lines of many different types and
sizes. In ancient times, as today, no waterbore vessel could func-
tion without rope. Charlton reviews all aspects of rope and knot-
tying. He uses the archaeological remains from shipwrecks, and
depictions of seagoing vessels from the ancient eastern Mediter-
ranean in art and literary sources, to provide insight into an im-
portant but little-known subject.
Franklin, Carol. "Caulking Techniques in Northern and
Central European Ships and Boats: 1500 B.C.-A.D. 1940" (1985).
A regional survey of waterproofing methods spanning 3500 years
(see INA Newsletter 12.3, 10).
Geannette, Mark Alan. "Mast Step and Keelson: The Ear-
ly Development of Shipbuilding Technology" (1983). Traces the
merger of these framework members; based on shipwrecks dat-
ing from the sixth century BCE to the eleventh century CE (see
INA Newsletter 12.3, 9).
Goelet, Michael. "The Careening and Bottom Mainte-
nance of Wooden Sailing Vessels" (1986). Before the widespread
adoption of drydocks, the only way to perform bottom mainte-
nance on a ship was to careen it (lay it on one side in shallow
water or a tidal beach). Because this was so commonplace, no-
body thought to record how it was done. Now that the technique
has vanished, it is necessary to gather the information in scraps
from many sources. This study collects the available data and
describes the procedures required to careen large sailing vessels,
Drawings: W. H. Charlton
emphasizing northern European and North American vessels
between 1750 and 1850.
Haldane, Cheryl W. "Ancient Egyptian Hull Construc-
tion" (1993). Dissertation (see page 6 of this issue). The dry cli-
mate of Egypt has preserved a great many representations and
models of ships, as well as about 20 actual hulls. Dr. Haldane
studies both the continuity and evolution of hull construction in
Egypt, showing how many methods evolved in the pre-dynastic
period over 4000 years ago continued in use right down to the
present century. The shallow craft with planking joined by edge
joinery and lashings were so well adapted to Nile travel that the
general design survived both the transition from stone to metal
tools and the later transition to nail joinery. This is a definitive
study of ancient Egyptian watercraft.
Haldane, David D. "The Wooden Anchor" (1984). Anal-
ysis and synthesis of existing information about the wooden an-
chor that developed toward the end of the seventh century BCE
(see INA Newsletter 12.3, 67, 9).
Halpern, Michael D. "The Origins of the Carolinian Si-
dereal Compass" (1985). Navigation patterns of peoples in the
Indo-Pacific region (see INA Newsletter 12.3, 10).
Hocker, Fred. "The Development of a Bottom-Based Ship-
building Tradition in Northwestern Europe and the New World"
(1991). Dissertation (see page 8 of this issue). Dr. Hocker argues
for the existence of a bottom-based tradition for the construction
of boats and ships, distinct from the long-recognized shell-based
and skeleton-based traditions. Craft built in this tradition have a
flat bottom laid down with temporary fastenings. The bottom is
then permanently fastened to heavy frames, to which the side
planking is finally attached. The dissertation traces this tradition from
the time of Julius Caesar down to present-day Europe and America
Jobling, Harold J. (Jim). "The History and Development
of the English 'Admiralty' Anchor, ca. 1500-1860" (1993). This
thesis examines one of the symbols of the sea that is often over-
looked by landlubbers and taken for granted by mariners. Jobling
is the first to research the English Admiralty pattern anchor for
the period beginning in the 16th century and continuing until
Drawings: H. J. Jobling
Left: a French anchor (after Reaumur); Right: an English anchor
(after Sutherland), both from the eighteenth century.
INA Quarterly 24.2
Z, Left, or
S, Right. or
the mid-nineteenth century (prior to this period, the basic design
of the anchor had been fully developed; after 1850, the increased
knowledge of iron technology produced radical changes in an-
chor design). To enable other researchers to identify an anchor's
heritage, Jobling examines the small changes that the anchor un-
derwent. By means of contemporary documents, treatises on ship-
building, and archaeological records, the anchor's components are fully
described, relevant terminology explained, and the number, weight,
and size of anchors for various sizes of vessels listed chronologically.
Lamb, William R. "The Provenance of the Stone Ballast
from the Molasses Reef Wreck" (1988). Ballast from an early six-
teenth century shipwreck in the Turks and Caicos Islands, Brit-
ish West Indies, was analyzed for evidence of its origin and
voyage history. The wreck was excavated by INA in 1981-86,
and the ballast pile was systematically sampled. Nearly 1200
stones were analyzed with petrography, paleontology, geochem-
istry, electron microscopy, and geochronology to identify seven
major rock groups. Lisbon, Portugal, is believed to be the source
for several of the lithologies. Other types (including stones likely
from the Canary Islands and from the vicinity of Bristol) could
have been picked up by the ship on a prior voyage, or come from
ballast that had been offloaded in Lisbon by other ships. The data
from the ballast study enabled the excavators of the wreck to ex-
amine the rest of the evidence in the light of a possible Portu-
guese origin for the voyage that ended on Molasses Reef. Lamb's
thesis shows the potential for future ballast research.
Matthews, Sheila D. "The Rig of the Eleventh-Century
Ship at Serge Limaru, Turkey" (1983). Concludes that the ship
used a double-masted lanteen rig (see INA Newsletter 12.3, 9).
Monroe, Christopher. "New Kingdom Boat-Building: In-
terpretations of Existing Evidence" (1990). This study is a sum-
mary and analysis of the information gathered over the past
century regarding the construction of ships and large, secular
craft during the Egyptian New Kingdom period (ca. 1570-1070
BCE). Comparative material from the Late Bronze Age wreck at
Uluburun is used to illuminate the data from ancient texts, art,
and models. It is concluded that a class of state-employed men,
women, and children near Memphis were responsible for build-
ing watercraft within a highly organized system. These workers
fell somewhere near the bottom of the socio-economic hierarchy.
The workplace and technology that had been evolving for almost
a millennium underwent changes in the New Kingdom period
(including the adoption of the keel), probably as the result of in-
fluence from Canaan, the Aegean, and Cyprus.
Moore, Charles David. "Salmon Fishing Boats of the
North American Pacific Coast in the Era of Oar and Sail" (1993).
The last comprehensive study of small craft on the West Coast of
North America was published in 1892 (and did not include Brit-
ish Columbia or Alaska). Moore attempts to plug part of the gap
with this study of the interaction of two subcultures, the fisher-
men of the U.S. and Canadian Pacific inshore salmon fishery, and
the boatbuilders who supplied them with their most important
tool. Salmon were sought with dugouts, sampans, feluccas, small
double-enders, and various flat-bottom craft. Chinese and Ital-
ian influences predominated in the early days, with many more
ethnic influences moving in over the years. Unfortunately, there
is very little historical information available on these craft. Moore
suggests that the computer enhancement of old photographs and
A diver excavating the Molasses Reef Wreck.
(particularly) archaeological exploration of the northwestern es-
tuaries provide the best hope of preserving information about
regional small craft.
Mott, Lawrence V. "The Development of the Rudder, A.D.
100-1600: A Technological Tale" (1991). Mr. Mott developed his
thesis into a book published by the Texas A&M University Press
(see Review on page 31 of this issue). Until the thirteenth centu-
ry, the primary instrument used to control ships was the quar-
ter-rudder system, mounted on the sides toward the stem. The
Mediterranean form of quarter rudder was an inherently simple,
adaptable device. The basic system was flexible enough to evolve;
medieval rudders were far more efficient than the traditional
Greco-Roman rudder. A different pattern of quarter rudder
evolved in northern Europe. This less-flexible design forced north-
ern shipwrights to seek an alternative for steering larger ships.
This led them to invent the stem rudder mounted on a pintle-
and-gudgeon. The new device did not replace the Mediterranean
quarter rudder for centuries, until after a significant change in
hull design and the emergence of the full-rigged ship. The evolu-
tion of the rudder is thus an interesting case study on the devel-
opment of technology in general.
Myers, Mark D. "The Evolution of Hull Design in Six-
teenth- Century English Ships of War" (1987). The transforma-
tion from the bulky ships of the fifteenth century into the sleek
men-of-war of the seventeenth enabled England to hold its own
against European powers with land armies vastly larger than
anything Britain could have put in the field. This thesis studies
that transformation with data drawn from comparative studies,
historical documentation, and art. By using these sources, Myers
demonstrates how designs invented during the reign of Henry
VIII, with the aid of Italian shipwrights, evolved into the well-
known ship of the line. One key development was the decision
to mount the heavy ordinance below the main deck, rather than
in towering castles. This led to the long, deep warships of Eliza-
bethan times, designed for their nimble sailing qualities, not sheer
strength. The battle with the Armada in 1588 validated this de-
sign choice. The English, unlike the Spanish, put the cream of
their technology below the waterline.
INA Quarterly 24.2
Neyland, Robert "Technological Continuity and Change:
A Study of Cultural Adaptation in Pram-Class Boatbuilding in
the Netherlands" (1994). Dissertation (see page 10 of this issue).
Dr. Neyland relates the development of a distinctive class of bot-
tom-based watercraft to the evolution of the history, economy,
culture, and geography of the Netherlands. The study places these
vessels in their context during a period spanning both the Ro-
man period and the twentieth century of our era. Dr. Neyland
argues that nautical archaeologists must be willing to look at these broad-
er associations, rather than focusing on ship technology in isolation.
Oertling, Thomas J. "The History and Development of
Ships' Bilge Pumps, 1500-1840" (1984). Because all wooden ships
leak, pumps are arguably the most important piece of marine
equipment (see INA Newsletter 12.3, 9-10). Mr. Oertling devel-
oped his thesis into a book published by the Texas A&M Univer-
sity Press (see Review on page 30 of this issue).
Olsen, Carol A. "Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Figure-
heads from the Mystic Seaport Museum Collection" (1984). A general
discussion of 5000 years of bow decorations, with special emphasis on
twenty figureheads from Mystic (see INA Newsletter 123,10).
Pridemore, Matthew. "The Form, Function, and Interrelation-
ships of Naval Rams: A Study of Naval Rams From Antiquity" (1996).
The discovery of several naval rams from the Mediterranean has al-
lowed scholars to study one of the most common naval weapons of the
ancient world. Five rams have been identified, but Pridemore regards
only two of these as functional weapons: the Bremerhaven and Athlit
rams. Both show the features of primary waterline rams, he argues.
The other three are questionable in this regard on constructional
grounds. The Fitzwilliam ram is likely a proembolion, a secondary ram
used to damage an enemy ship's outrigger and limit primary ram pen-
etration. The Canellopoulos and Turin rams are most likely just deco-
rative bow projections. All five of the rams are most likely from the
Hellenistic period. Pridemore calls for further research, as well as for
efforts to locate further examples on the sites of ancient naval battles.
Renner, Mary Ann. "Eighteenth-Century Merchant Ship Inte-
riors" (1987). Despite the importance of merchant shipping in the 18th
century, little information has been available concerning their interior
furnishings and fittings. Ironically, the very commonness of the vessels
explains the lack of contemporary accounts; why document a familiar
everyday commodity? This thesis combines the previously-available
information with data from the nine shipwrecks discovered by the
Yorktown Shipwreck Archaeological Project (see INA Quarterly 23.1,
24). The best-preserved wreck, 44Y088 [later identified as H.MS. Betsy],
provided particularly rich information about the stylish and well-made
appointments of the officer's quarters near the stem and the compara-
tive lack of artifacts from the crew further forward. The Yorktown
data allows a very vivid picture of the interior of a relatively small
Rogers, Edward. "An Analysis of Tomb Reliefs Depict-
ing Boat-Construction From the Old Kingdom Period in Egypt"
(1996). This is an examination of the 20 known reliefs and relief
fragments from the Old Kingdom private tombs that provide
insights into the technology and methodology of wooden hull
construction. Because each relief is a unique composition, many
details are shown at least once. The majority of the reliefs relate
to the final stages of construction. The pictures show how hull
symmetry was checked with a plumb bob and how adzes were
used to smooth the planking; similar tools were still in use in the
early twentieth century CE. The process of joining planks with
mortise-and-tenon edge joints is shown with great clarity, as is the
way that rope trusses were used to tighten internal traverse lashed
joinery. This technology may have suggested the development of
the hogging truss used on seagoing ships and cargo vessels.
Simmons, Joe. 'The Development of External Sanitation Fa-
cilities Aboard Ships of the Fifteenth to Nineteenth Centuries" (1985).
The evolution of hygienic accommodations (see INA Newsletter 123,
10). Mr. Simmons developed his thesis into a book, Those Vulgar Tubes,
published by the Texas A&M University Press.
Thompson, Bruce. "The Rigging of a 17th-Century Frig-
ate at Mombasa, Kenya" (1988). It is ironic that we should know
so little about the shipbuilding techniques of Portugal, which
acted as the advance agent of the "Age of Discovery." Almost
uniquely, the Mombasa Harbor Wreck allows comparison of the
V- 1 / .A i
The rigging of the 17th-century Frigate at Mombasa, Kenya would have
closely resembled that of the Mordaunt shown here and as discussed by
Thompson. Courtesy of the Maritime Museum, Greenwich.
INA Quarterly 24.2
Ir- r- I
details of an India-built Portuguese warship with better-known
contemporary designs from elsewhere in Europe. Between 1977
and 1982, INA conducted the excavation of Santo Antonio de Tan-
nd, which played a key role in the siege of Fort Jesus in the late
seventeenth century. Of 6000 artifacts recovered, 237 pertain in
some way to the ship's rig. This thesis presents the analysis of
these components and proposes reconstructions of possible rig-
ging features. The wooden fittings are well-fashioned from teak
and other quality wood, while the textile materials are sparse
and poorly made. It seems likely that the major influence by this
time on Portuguese designs was contemporary Dutch ships, al-
though the shipwrights in Portuguese India seem to have relied
more heavily on "rule of thumb" methods.
Tolson, Hawk. "The Vernacular Watercraft of Isle Roy-
ale: A Western Lake Superior Boatbuilding Tradition" (1992). Isle
Royale, Michigan, required several types of small watercraft to
meet the needs of the local fishing and resort communities. This
once-large fleet has now been reduced to a few scattered rem-
nants by recent historical circumstance. The abandoned hulls on
and around the archipelago preserve the only record of the de-
sign and building process operating in the region from the 1880s
to the 1960s. This thesis collects the data available through the
investigation of these derelicts, and combines it with oral history
interviews with surviving boatbuilders and commercial fisher-
men. This allows the clarification of many details of the evolu-
tion of local watercraft types.
Vinson, Stephen M. "Boats of Egypt Before the Old King-
dom" (1987). This study traces the origin and early development
of planked boats in Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt. There
is a considerable body of material available for study of these
periods, including representational art, tools and woodworking,
boat burials, and surviving fragments. Vinson argues that the
development of nautical technology in the Nile Valley was in-
digenous and independent of influence from Mesopotamia, Mi-
noan Crete, or elsewhere. The techniques of shell-based boatbuilding
and mortise-and-tenonjoinery used in later Egypt, and even in Greece
and Rome, are found to be directly dependent on methods perfected in
Brenni, Gianmarco. "The Dolia and the Sea-Borne Commerce
of Imperial Rome" (1985). Study of huge ceramic vessels used from the
1st century BCE to the 5th century CE (see INA Newsletter 123,11).
Carter, Brinnen. "Armament Remains From His Majes-
ty's Sloop Boscawen" (1995). Carter's thesis describes and analyz-
es the armament remains found in and around the hull of the
1759 Lake Champlain warship Boscawen during its excavation in
1984 and 1985. Weaponry recovered at that time included small
arms parts, ammunition, pole arms, and artillery munitions. The
distribution of the armaments indicated that muskets, other per-
sonal weapons, and artillery munitions were loaded into the cen-
ter of the hold, while ammunition for small arms was loaded in
the bow and stern. Carter describes these finds and suggests that
a re-examination of armament remains from the Seven Years War
would improve our understanding of the period.
"-' :, . -
Cassavoy, Kenneth. "The Gaming Pieces from the Glass
Wreck at Serge Limani, Turkey" (1985). A study of Islamic games,
including chess, backgammon, and dicing (see INA Newsletter
Darroch, Alison. "The Visionary Shadow: A Description
and Analysis of the Armaments Aboard the Santo Antonio de Tan-
na" (1986). This thesis concerns the armament collection from a
shipwreck in the Old Harbor of Mombasa on the Kenyan coast.
The wreck is that of the Santo Antonio de Tannd, a Portuguese
vessel that was sunk in 1697 during an attempt to relieve Fort
Jesus. The history of the siege is given first to set the shipwreck
in its historical context. Then, a brief description of the excava-
tion is followed by a catalog of the armaments and related arti-
facts found during excavation. Research into the various
categories of armaments made it clear that many of the artifacts
Armament remains have been popular topics in a number of theses. On the left are some of the weapons from His Majesty's Sloop Boscawen
while on the right are shown some of those from the Santo Antonio de Tanni.
INA Quarterly 24.2
Buttons were among the 1,345 items relating to the crew's clothing,
diet, and recreation found on H.M.S. Boscawen.
have no parallels in museums or other collections. Only five guns
were found on the site. Because of this, the projectiles, cartridge
molds, and powder ladle have been analyzed in order to predict
what types of ordnance the Santo Antonio de Tannd was probably
Erwin, Gail. "Personal possessions from the H.M.S. Bos-
cawen: Life on Board a Mid-Eighteenth-Century Warship During
the French and Indian War" (1994). In addition to serving as a
warship, Boscawen was used to transport soldiers and supplies to
British fortifications along Lake Champlain. In 1763, it was taken
out of service and eventually sank into the mud below Fort Ticon-
deroga. Between 1983 and 1985, the excavation of Boscawen was
carried out as a multidisciplinary study of naval architecture, mar-
itime history, shipboard life, and artifact conservation. The as-
semblage reported here consists of 1,345 items relating to the
crew's clothing, diet, and recreation. The study of these artifacts
has contributed to our knowledge of shipboard life on British
Army warships during the French and Indian War, indicating
the terms of interaction between British and Provincial forces,
and reflecting the relationship between the armies and navy.
Franklin, Marianne. "Wrought Iron Hand Tools in Port
Royal, Jamaica: A Study Based upon a Collection of the Tools
Recovered from Archaeological Excavations and on Tools Listed
in the Probate Inventories of Colonial Port Royal, c. 1692" (1992).
181 pages. This study is based upon a collection of wrought iron
hand tools recovered from five archaeological excavations of Port
Royal, Jamaica, between 1966 and 1990. Over 100 tools have been
recovered so far from the archaeological excavations of Port Royal,
ranging from the finely shaped pincher of the shoemaker to the
most crudely fashioned chisel. This study combines the analysis
of the archaeological record and probate inventories to answer
questions about the variety of tools available and in common use
by the seventeenth century craftsman in the Caribbean. It is hoped
that this work will provide a significant data base for future com-
parative studies on tools of the late seventeenth century.
Garigen, Lisa. "Description and Analysis of Flintlock Pis-
tols Recovered from a Seventeenth-Century Shipwreck on Pedro
Bank, Jamaica" (1991). Garigen presents a complete catalog of
the pistols and pistol fragments recovered from the Spanish fleet
Over one hundred hand tools have been recovered from Port Royal,
ship that sank in 1691 on Pedro Bank, Jamaica. A brief history of
the Spanish fleets and the development of flintlock pistols are
given. The archaeological excavation at Pedro Bank and the later
conservation treatments and their effects are discussed. Garigen
shows that the pistols were probably not of Spanish origin as
first assumed, but more likely English or Dutch. The pistols were
probably not being used for defense of the ship, since they were
stored in boxes of cacao beans. The number of pistols found (54
recovered and others left on site) indicates they were part of the cargo.
Carver, Elizabeth. "Byzantine Amphoras of the Ninth
through Thirteenth Centuries in the Bodrum Museum of Under-
water Archaeology" (1993). A total of fifty-nine Byzantine ampho-
ras of nine classes, dating from the 9th to 13th centuries, were
examined, cataloged and discussed. The preponderance of par-
allels in the Black Sea region to those in the Mediterranean
world was striking. This is undoubtedly due to the greater
amount of archaeological research covering this period in that
region. However, it could be also be the result of differing
trading patterns. Standardization of shape and capacity are
discussed along with reuse and transfer of ownership. Garv-
er also investigates economic issues that could influence a
potter's production strategies.
Gotelipe-Miller, Shirley. "Pewter and Pewterers from
Port Royal, Jamaica: Flatware before 1692" (1990). The Port Roy-
al Pewter Collection is not only the world's largest assemblage
of late seventeenth-century pewterware. It also includes the ear-
liest examples of English colonial pewter, and the most exten-
sive hoard of pewter artifacts recovered from a single
archaeological setting. Gotelipe-Miller sets out to cover one sec-
tion of the greater picture, the flatware, and provide a basis for
future study. Four major areas of research are explored. Firstly,
how the pewter got to Jamaica is considered and what trade im-
plications may result. Secondly, the study used pewter artifacts
as a means to understand the city's submerged ruins by examin-
ing archaeological associations and ownership monograms.
Thirdly, social and economic implications were explored by the
use of archival documents. Finally, the flatware was fully docu-
mented, thereby establishing archaeological guidelines for future
recording of pewter.
INA Quarterly 24.2
Grant, David. "Tools from the French and Indian War
Sloop Boscawen (1996). Archaeological excavation of the hull in
1984-5 revealed a surprisingly large number of artifacts, with tools
representing a small but diverse segment of the total assemblage.
Unexpectedly, few of the tools from Boscawen are comparable to
those used by ship's carpenters and shipwrights, and that are
commonly associated with shipwrecks. Instead, the tools repre-
sent types commonly used by eighteenth-century armies for for-
tification, siegework, and fatigue duties. These may have been
used by the crew or the troops the ship transported, but most
were probably some sort of cargo, either tools for use by the Brit-
ish Army, or scrap iron collected from British and French sites
during or immediately after the war.
Haddan, Lester James. "Ceramics from the American
Steamboat Phoenix (1815-19) and their Role in Understanding
Shipboard Life" (Anthropology Department 1995). This was a
first-class steamer used to ferry passengers between Whitehall,
New York, and St. John, Quebec, during the five years from its
construction until it was destroyed by fire. The ceramic assem-
blage from the shipwreck shows that the items used on this early
steamboat closely resembled those found in ordinary rural Amer-
ican homes and inns. True luxury items were not found, sug-
gesting that this pioneer in mechanized water travel offered its
passengers comforts much like a country inn.
Hailey, Tommy Ike. "The Analysis of 17th-, 18th-, and
19th-Century Ceramics from Port Royal, Jamaica for Lead Re-
lease: A Study in Archaeotoxicology" (1994). Anthropology De-
partment dissertation (see page 5 of this issue). Studies of the
possibility of lead poisoning in the past have tended to use histor-
ical records and skeletal analyses for evidence, and have ignored
artifactual analysis. This dissertation attempts to fill that gap by
studying the lead-glazed ceramics from Port Royal. Initial tests
confirmed the potential for a substantial lead release from these
glazes. Further tests on sherds and glazed ceramic tiles allowed
the development of a framework for predicting the rate of lead
release from any vessel under various conditions.
Heidtke, Kenan. "Jamaican Red Clay Tobacco Pipes"
(1992). Locally-made red clay pipes from Jamaica are studied in
detail. Pipes from other colonial sites in the New world are also
examined to identify possible parallels. The presence of red clay
pipes reflects the interactions between European, African and
native American societies that were to shape Colonial society.
White European pipes were copied in the local Jamaican red clay,
probably by craftsmen of African descent. The various decora-
tions on the pipes are cataloged and used to offer possible expla-
nations for the markings and stylistic attributes of the pipes.
Hirschfeld, Nicolle. "Incised Marks on Late Helladic and
Late Minoan III Pottery" (1990). This is a study of the incised
signs often found on ceramics produced in the Aegean near the
end of the Late Bronze Age. Most of the marked vessels were
found on large fineware transport or storage vessels on Cyprus
or in the Near East, with another substantial deposit in the Ar-
golid. The marks show many affinities to the Cypro-Minoan char-
acters, but not to Linear B. Both the distribution pattern and the
nature of the marks suggests a Cypriot connection. The presence
of these jars in the Argolid suggests that the vessels were desig-
nated for export to Cyprus while still on the mainland, and
marked for that purpose. There appears to be no pattern restrict-
ing a particular sign to a certain shape, decorative pattern, re-
gion, or context. The marks are thus most likely to be personal
marks of the Cypriots handling the merchandise.
Hoyt, Steven D. "An Empirical System for the Identifica-
tion of Smooth Bore, Cast Iron Cannon" (1986). Any data collect-
ed by different researchers inherently differs by some degree.
Hoyt tries to establish an objective, quantitative system for gath-
ering, storing, and manipulating information on smooth bore,
cast iron cannons. Physical characteristics of cannons are de-
scribed, and detailed instructions are given for the recording of
various attributes for computer correlation and analysis. Data
from a small sample of six reliably-dated cannon from a 250-year
period is used to analyze the position of the trunnions. Hoyt em-
ploys his methods to shed some doubt on the popular hypothe-
sis that the position of the trunnions correlates directly with the
age of the gun-the lower the trunnion, the older the gun. Hoyt
hopes his thesis provides the foundations for a long-term, quan-
titative study of cannons from a larger, more statistically reliable
Photo: INA Photo: INA Photo: N. Hirschfel
The Lake Champlain steamboat Phoenix (left); Ceramics from Port Royal (center); An inscription on a Minoan jar handle from Hala Sultan
INA Quarterly 24.2
Glass beakers (left)from the eleventh-century Serge Limani shipwreck; Drinking glass (center) from Port Royal; Nicolle Hirschfeld, Michael
Halpern, and Claire Peachy examining amphora contents at Uluburun. Photos and drawings: INA
James, Stephen R., Jr. "The Analysis of the Conde de To-
losa and the Nuestra Senfora de Guadalupe Olive Jar Assemblage"
(1985). Two vessels sunk in 1724 contained 600 intact olive jars,
providing new comparitive data (see INA Newsletter 12.3, 11).
Kitson-MimMack, Joy. "The Glass Beakers of the Elev-
enth-Century Serge Limani Shipwreck" (1988). The glass cargo
of the Serge Limarn wreck has provided a wealth of knowledge
and a greater understanding to scores of scholars worldwide who
are interested in Islamic glass of the eleventh century. Kitson-
MimMack provides a descriptive catalog of ninety-five of the best-
preserved and most significant beaker vessels and pieces. A
comparative study of the iconography and style of the engraved
decorations, the quality of engraving work, colors, and glass qual-
ity are also studied. The Serqe Limaru beakers can firmly dated to
the latter part of the third decade of the eleventh century CE,
making this thesis a valuable contribution to Islamic glass stud-
Lyon, Jerry D. "The Pottery from a Fifth Century B.C.
Shipwreck at Ma'agan Michael, Israel" (1993). The ceramics from
this shipwreck excavated off the coast of Israel between 1988 and
1990 can be dated to approximately 425 to 400 BCE. Transport
amphoras are found only in small numbers, so it appears that
most of the pottery was used by the crew, rather than forming a
part of the cargo. However, it is possible that most of the cargo
was salvaged at the time the ship wrecked near the beach. A num-
ber of ceramic vessels are common types known from the Per-
sian period strata of the Levantine coast, although many have
good Cypriot parallels. Attic and East Greek wares are repre-
sented by few examples. The pottery assemblage suggests that
the ship was bound from the southern coast of Cyprus to one (or
more) of the Phoenician settlements along the eastern coast of
McClenaghan, Patricia. "Drinking Glasses from Port Royal,
Jamaica, circa 1660-1850: A Study of Styles and Usage" (1988).
Among the numerous glass artifacts recovered from Port Royal
was an extensive collection of items and fragments that can be
identified as drinking glasses. Most of these are English, manu-
factured in the late-seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth cen-
turies. This thesis provides a descriptive catalog of the Port Royal
drinking glasses to provide comparative data for scholars in-
volved in similar artifactual research. The fine-quality table glass
from the late seventeenth century shows the relative wealth and
prosperity of Port Royal during that period. The number of tav-
ern glasses reinforces contemporary accounts that the town was
full of punch houses and inns, and agrees with the number of
liquor bottles recovered from the city. The glassware finds con-
firm the declining population after the 1692 earthquake and sub-
Morden, Margaret E. "The Glass Lamps from the 11th-
Century Shipwreck at Serge Liman, Turkey" (1982). 235 broken
glass lamps, probably from the Syro-Palestinian coast or inland
to the Caspian Sea (see INA Newsletter 12.3, 10).
Peachey, Claire. "Terebinth Resin in Antiquity: Possible
Uses in the Late Bronze Age Aegean Region" (1995). The Late
Bronze Age wreck at Uluburun yielded the remains of an esti-
mated one metric ton of terebinth resin in about 130 amphoras.
This is the largest single deposit of terebinth resin from antiquity
ever found, and the first to be found by modem analytic meth-
ods. The yellowish, semi-fluid, aromatic resin is the subject of
this thesis. Pistacia trees have many products in addition to resin,
including their fruits, leaves, bark, wood, and galls, all of which
have aromatic and astringent properties. Peachey concludes that
the Linear B word ki-ta-no may refer to any of the products of the
terebinth tree. The Late Bronze Age evidence from the Aegean is
scanty, but parallels from other regions and later periods allow
the tentative conclusion that the resin might have been intended
for use in either the perfumed oil industry or as incense.
Pulak, Cemalletin M. "Analysis of the Weight Assem-
blages from the Late Bronze Age Shipwrecks at Uluburun and
Cape Gelidonya, Turkey" (1996). Dissertation (see page 12 of this
issue). The pan-balance weights found in these two shipwrecks
are the largest assemblages of such artifacts from any Bronze Age
site. Statistical analysis allows Dr. Pulak to conclude that most of
the weights were used in connection with a decimally-structured
system for measuring mass with a basic unit of approximately
9.3 grams. This system is known to have been used in the Syro-
Palestinian area and Cyprus. That suggests that most of the mer-
chants aboard the two Late Bronze Age ships came from that
region, rather than from the Aegean, where a binary-structured
system with a basic unit of about 61 grams was used.
INA Quarterly 24.2
The cylindrical amphoras from the seventh-century Yassi Ada shipwreck (left) and pewter
from Port Royal (right) have both been the subject of several theses.
Smith, Wayne. "Analysis of the Weight Assemblage of
Port Royal, Jamaica" Dissertation (see page 13 of this issue). Dr.
Smith describes the scale weights discovered during the excava-
tions of sections of the city that were submerged by an earth-
quake in 1692. These form one of the largest collections of
seventeenth-century weights. The Port Royal weights are placed
in the context of the development of the standard British systems
for measuring mass (troy and avoirdupois weight), and the evo-
lution of the artifacts used to measure mass. The information
gained from the excavated weights is then used to suggest the
use of the rooms and buildings where they were found.
Thornton, Diana. "The Probate Inventories of Port Royal,
Jamaica" (1992). Archaeology always requires a multi-faceted ap-
proach, and that approach is illustrated by this thesis. Historical
archaeology is the study of all remains, Thornton points out, not
just those that come from the ground. The probate inventories of
the parish of Port Royal provide much information about the ma-
terial culture and' social history of seventeenth-century Jamaica.
Admittedly, they concentrate on the upper classes, ignore liabil-
ities and real estate, and tend to vagueness, but they are often the
best information available. When combined with other documen-
tary sources and data from archaeological excavations, the in-
ventories help form a much more complete reconstruction of
Caribbean colonial life. This thesis acts as a guide to the Port Royal
probate inventories for future researchers.
Turner, Sam. "Saona Artillery: Implication for Inter-Is-
land Trade and Shipboard Armaments in the First Half of the
Sixteenth Century" (1994). The island of Saona in the Mona Pas-
sage between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico is the site of at least
three sixteenth-century shipwrecks. This thesis studies the guns
examined at or excavated from these sites, and places them in
the context of Mona Passage navigation in the early sixteenth
century, wrought-iron artillery construction, and contemporary
artillery tactics. Since the sites appeared to be unsalvaged, these
are probably complete artillery collections from lightly-armed ves-
sels with one or two tube guns, four to eight swivel guns, and
some additional portable weaponry. Turner concludes that the
1983 examination of these three sites was brief and incomplete,
so a future reinvestigation might discover many new facts about
commerce in this important part of the early colonial New World.
van Alfen, Peter. "A Restudy of the Cylindrical Ampho-
ras from the Seventh-Century Yassi Ada Shipwreck" (1995). This
thesis catalogs 71 of the 822 recorded amphoras from the ship-
wreck excavated under the direction of George F. Bass in 1961-
64, and again in the early 1980s. The author also presents a
summary of the amphoras' significant features, following the lead
of F.H. van Doorninck, Jr.'s work on the eleventh-century am-
phoras from Serce Limaru. The Yassi Ada vessels were apparent-
ly not so carefully calibrated to a standard measurement as those
at the other site.
Wadley, Cathryn. "Historical Analysis of Pewter Spoons
Recovered from the Sunken City of Port Royal, Jamaica" (1985).
Presents the basis for a preliminary key for identifying and dat-
ing pewter spoons from seventeenth and eighteenth-century sites
(see INA Newsletter 12.3, 11).
Parent, James M. "The Conservation of Waterlogged
Wood Using Sucrose" (1983). Experiments with four techniques
using inexpensive sugar solutions to conserve Port Royal wood
remains (see INA Newsletter 12.3, 11).
INA Quarterly 24.2
Darrington, Glenn. "Analysis and Reconstruction of Im-
permanent Structures of the 17th and 18th Centuries" (1994). Im-
permanent architecture was a major technology used to construct
shelter in the Americas during the seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries. Darrington uses Computer Aided Design (CAD) tech-
nology to reconstruct three historic buildings (including one from
the TAMU/INA excavation of Port Royal). Each of these struc-
tures represents a stage in the settlement process which was used
by early colonists to survive and succeed in the New World. Ear-
lier methods of recording site data have been compared with more
modern methods possible with CAD technology. These new
methods have shown that more information can be gathered, ma-
nipulated, and displayed than was previously possible. This
opens new doors of opportunity for researchers who try and rec-
reate the historic past.
Weinstein, Eri Nattan. "The Recovery and Analysis of
Paleoethnobotanical Remains from an Eighteenth Century Ship-
wreck" (1992). Anthropology Department dissertation (see page
14 of this issue). Due in part to the fact that the collier brig Betsy,
scuttled during the Battle of Yorktown in October 1781, was ex-
cavated inside a cofferdam, it was possible to study the paleo-
ethnobotanical material in an innovative manner. Instead of a
small sample, 100% of the fill excavated from the site in 1986-88
(237 cubic meters) was tested. This allowed the recovery of ex-
tensive cask fragments, macrofossil remains, and pollen that pro-
vided valuable information about the use of the ship during the
climactic battle for American independence.
Woodward, Robyn P. "The Charles Cotter Collection: A
Study of the Ceramic and Faunal Remains" (1988). This collec-
tion consists of Spanish and Arawak material from Sevilla la
Nueva, the major port and capitol of the Spanish colony of Jamaica
between 1509 and 1534, excavated by Captain Charles Cotter
between 1953-1968. During the early Spanish colonial period,
Jamaica played an important role in supplying foodstuffs and
animals to the early European ventures into Central America.
Woodward describes the ceramic and faunal remains associat-
ed with each of the three major features excavated by Cotter.
This demonstrates the function of each structure. The Sevilla la
Nueva remains also illustrate the ways in which the foodways
of the early colonists adapted to the conditions of the new envi-
ronment. Finally, the remains are found to indicate the level of
foreign trade to this remote new colony.
Mark, Samuel E. "A Study of Possible Trade Routes between
Egypt and Mesopotamia, ca. 3500-3100 B.C" (1993). It is certain that
there was contact between the Mesopotamian cultures and Predynas-
tic Egypt, but there has been little effort to find the route these objects
and motifs followed. Mark compares Mesopotamian influences in
Egypt with those found in northern Syria and the Gulf region He con-
dudes that most influences traveled from Mesopotamia inland to north-
em Syria, then both by sea from the Syrian coast to Egypt and by land
through Palestine. There is no evidence that the southern route by sea
around Arabia to the Red Sea was in use during this period. The ex-
pansion of Mesopotamian influence to the southern Gulf occurred just
as Mesopotamian influence on Egypt was coming to an end (see book
announcement on page 31).
Smith, Mark. "The Development of Maritime Trade Be-
tween India and the West From C. 1000 to C. 120 B.C" (1995). There
has been much attention given by scholars to the trade between
India and the Roman world. However, there has been much less
study devoted to the roots of this trade in earlier periods. Con-
tacts between India and the West were stimulated by the activi-
ties of the Persian Empire, which stretched from Egypt to India.
The Persian monarchs, and later Alexander the Great, attempt-
ed to integrate their far-flung provinces commercially. Although
political unity shattered after Alexander's death, trade between
India and the West continued to expand. Merchants in Arabia
acted as the middlemen for the ships carried to and fro by the
shifting monsoon winds. However, trade was largely one-way.
Western markets were eager for many types of Indian goods,
but the Indians were only interested in Western gold. The result
was a balance-of-payments imbalance, and a drain of European
gold to South Asia.
Hierakonpolis mural (after I. E. Quibell and F W. Green, Hierakonpolis II [London 19891 pl. 75) Drawing: S. Mark
INA Quarterly 24.2
Parrent, James M. "Management of Historic Ship Archae- of Ships and Boats Before ca. 1450" (1992). The Venetian Re-
ological Sites in the Caribbean" (1990). Anthropology Department public and maritime commerce are completely inextricable sub-
dissertation (see page 11 of this issue). Dr. Parrent provides a jects for the student of the medieval history and archaeology of
detailed description of a major threat to the Caribbean historical the eastern half of the Mediterranean Basin. Venice was the fo-
and archaeological heritage-the destruction of important sites cus for interaction between East and West. There are basically
by treasure hunters. There is an alternative, the dissertation sug- three sources of information on Venetian ships: archaeological
gests: the Caribbean nations can take control of their own nation- remains, written documents, and artistic representations. How-
al treasures and enlist the assistance of experts from universities ever, maritime art cannot be utilized as a resource unless it has
and non-profit organizations to help preserve, study, and dis- been adequately cataloged and analyzed. This thesis attempts
play significant archaeological sites and artifacts, to perform that service for the medieval art of the Veneto re-
Ray, Lillian. "Venetian Ships and Seafaring up to the gion, allowing access to the Venetian ship and boat representa-
Nautical Revolution: A Study Based on Artistic Representations tions dating before the second half of the 15th century.
Alphabetical List of Thesis and Dissertation Authors 1978-1996
Adams, Robert. "Construction and Qualitative Analysis of a Sewn Boat of the Western Indian Ocean" (1985).
Amer, Christopher. "Construction of the Brown Bay Vessel" (1986).
Baker, James. "Computers and Nautical Archaeology: Characterization of the C.S.S. Georgia Wreck Site" (1982).
Brenni, Gianmarco. "The Dolia and the Sea-Bore Commerce of Imperial Rome" (1985).
Carter, Brinnen. "Armament Remains From His Majesty's Sloop Boscawen" (1995).
Cassavoy, Kenneth. "The Gaming Pieces from the Glass Wreck at Serqe Limani, Turkey" (1985).
Charlton, Bill. "Rope and the Art of Knot-Tying in the Seafaring of the Ancient Eastern Mediterranean" (1996).
Clifford, Sheila. "An Analysis of the Port Royal Shipwreck and its Role in the Maritime History of Seventeenth-Century Port Royal,
Cowin, Margaret. "Artifacts Recovered off the Southwestern Turkish Coast by Institute of Nautical Archaeology Shipwreck Surveys
in 1973 and 1980" (1986).
Crisman, Kevin. "The Eagle: An American Brig on Lake Champlain During the War of 1812" (1984).
Darrington, Glenn. "Analysis and Reconstruction of Impermanent Structures of the 17th and 18th Centuries" (1994).
Darroch, Alison. "The Visionary Shadow: A Description and Analysis of the Armaments Aboard the Santo Antonio de Tanna" (1986).
Erwin, Gail. "Personal possessions from the H.M.S. Boscawen: Life on Board a Mid Eighteenth-Century Warship During the French
and Indian War" (1994).
Fitzgerald, Michael. "A Roman Wreck at Caesarea Maritime, Israel A Comparative Study of its Hull and Equipment" (1995). Dissertation.
Franklin, Carol. "Caulking Techniques in Northern and Central European Ships and Boats: 1500 B.C.-A.D. 1940" (1985).
Franklin, Marianne. "Wrought Iron Hand Tools in Port Royal, Jamaica: A Study Based upon a Collection of the Tools Recovered
from Archaeological Excavations and on Tools Listed in the Probate Inventories of Colonial Port Royal, c. 1692" (1992).
Garigen, Lisa. "Description and Analysis of Flintlock Pistols Recovered from a Seventeenth-Century Shipwreck on Pedro Bank, Jamaica" (1991).
Garver, Elizabeth. "Byzantine Amphoras of the Ninth through Thirteenth Centuries in the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archae-
Geannette, Mark Alan. "Mast Step and Keelson: The Early Development of Shipbuilding Technology" (1983).
Goelet, Michael. "The Careening and Bottom Maintenance of Wooden Sailing Vessels" (1986).
Gotelipe, Shirley. "Pewter and Pewterers from Port Royal, Jamaica: Flatware before 1692" (1990).
Grant, David. "Tools from the French and Indian War Sloop Boscawen" (1996).
Haldane, Cheryl W. "The Dashur Boats" (1984).
Haldane, Cheryl W. "Ancient Egyptian Hull Construction" (1993). Dissertation.
Haldane, David D. "The Wooden Anchor" (1984).
Hall, Jerome."A Seventeenth-Century Northern European Merchant Shipwreck in Monte Christi Bay, Dominican Republic" (1996).
Halpern, Michael D. "The Origins of the Carolinian Sidereal Compass" (1985).
Heidtke, Kenan. "Jamaican Red Clay Tobacco Pipes" (1992).
Hirschfeld, Nicolle. "Incised Marks on Late Helladic and Late Minoan Im Pottery" (1990).
Hocker, Fred. "The Development of a Bottom-Based Shipbuilding Tradition in Northwestern Europe and the New World" (1991). Dissertation
Hoyt, Steven D. "An Empirical System for the Identification of Smooth Bore, Cast Iron Cannon" (1986).
Hundley, Paul. "The Construction of the Griffon Cove Wreck" (1980).
INA Quarterly 24.2
Indruszewski, George. "A Comparative Analysis of Early Medieval Shipwrecks From the Southern Shores of the Baltic Sea" (1996).
Inoue, Takahiko. "A Nautical Archaeological Study of Kublai Khan's Fleets" (1991).
James, Stephen R., Jr. "The Analysis of the Conde de Tolosa and the Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe Olive Jar Assemblage" (1985).
Jobling, Harold J. (Jim). "The History and Development of the English'Admiralty' Anchor, ca. 1500-1860" (1993).
Kitson-Mim Mack, Joy. "The Glass Beakers of the Eleventh-Century Serqe Limani Shipwreck" (1988).
Lakey, Denise C. "Shipwrecks in the Gulf of Cadiz (Spain): A Catalog of Historically Documented Wrecks from the Fifteenth through
the Nineteenth Centuries" (1987).
Lamb, William R. "The Provenance of the Stone Ballast from the Molasses Reef Wreck" (1988).
Lang, Shelley Ruby. "The Mittie Stephens: A Sidewheel Steamboat on the Inland Rivers, 1863-1869" (1986).
Leshikar, Margaret "Peggy". "The 1794 Wreck of the Ten Sail, Cayman Islands, British West Indies: A Historical Study and Archae-
ological Survey" (1993). Dissertation.
Lloyd, Manuela F. "A Byzantine Shipwreck at Iskandil Burnu, Turkey: Preliminary Report" (1984).
Lyon, Jerry D. "The Pottery from a Fifth Century B.C. Shipwreck at Ma'agan Michael, Israel" (1993).
Mark, Samuel E. "A Study of Possible Trade Routes between Egypt and Mesopotamia, ca. 3500-3100 B.C." (1993).
Marquez, Carmen. "Cultural Corntibutions to the Island of St. John, United States Virgin Islands; Underwater Historical Archaeol-
ogy at Cruz Bay" (1995).
Matthews, Sheila D. "The Rig of the Eleventh-Century Ship at Serge Limaru, Turkey" (1983).
McClenaghan, Patricia. "Drinking Glasses from Port Royal, Jamaica, circa 1660-1850: A Study of Styles and Usage" (1988).
Monroe, Christopher. "New Kingdom Boat-Building: Interpretations of Existing Evidence" (1990).
Moore, Charles David. "Salmon Fishing Boats of the North American Pacific Coast in the Era of Oar and Sail" (1993).
Morden, Margaret E. "The Glass Lamps from the 11 th-Century Shipwreck at Serqe Limani, Turkey" (1982).
Mott, Lawrence V. "The Development of the Rudder, AD. 100-1600: A Technological Tale" (1991).
Myers, Mark D. "The Evolution of Hull Design in Sixteenth-Century English Ships of War" (1987).
Neyland, Robert. "The Lyons Creek Boat Remains" (1990).
Neyland, Robert. "Technological Continuity and Change: A Study of Cultural Adaptation in Pram-Class Boatbuilding in the Neth-
erlands" (1994). Dissertation.
Oertling, Thomas J. "The History and Development of Ships' Bilge Pumps, 1500-1840" (1984).
Olsen, Carol A. "Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Figure Heads from the Mystic Seaport Museum Collection" (1984).
Parrent, James M. "The Conservation of Waterlogged Wood Using Sucrose" (1983).
Parrent, James M. "Management of Historic Ship Archaeological Sites in the Caribbean" (1990). Dissertation.
Peachey, Claire."Terebinth Resin in Antiquity: Possible Uses in the Late Bronze Age Aegean Region" (1995).
Pedersen, Ralph K. "Waterschip NZ42i: A Late Medieval Fishing Vessel from Flevoland, the Netherlands" (1991).
Pridemore, Matthew. "The Form, Function, and Interrelationships of Naval Rams: A Study of Naval Rams From Antiquity" (1996).
Pulak, Cemalletin M.. "Late Bronze Age Shipwreck at Ulu Burun: Preliminary Analysis (1984-1985 Excavation Campaigns)" (1987).
Pulak, Cemalletin M. "Analysis of the Weight Assemblages from the Late Bronze Age Shipwrecks at Uluburun and Cape Gelidonya,
Turkey" (1996). Dissertation.
Ray, Lillian. "Venetian Ships and Seafaring up to the Nautical Revolution: A Study Based on Artistic Representations of Ships and
Boats Before ca. 1450" (1992).
Renner, Mary Ann. "Eighteenth-Century Merchant Ship Interiors" (1987)
Riess, Warren C. "The History of, and Search for, the Seventeenth Century Bristol Merchantman Angel Gabriel" (1980).
Rogers, Edward. "An Analysis of Tomb Reliefs Depicting Boat-Construction From the Old Kingdom Period in Egypt" (1996).
Rosloff, Jay P. "The Water Street Ship: Preliminary Analysis of an Eighteenth-Century Merchant Ship's Bow" (1986).
Shuey, Elizabeth. "Underwater Survey and Excavation at the Ancient Port of Gravisca, Italy" (1978).
Simmons, Jody. "The Development of External Sanitation Facilities Aboard Ships of the Fifteenth to Nineteenth Centuries" (1985).
Slane, Dorothy A. "The History of the Anchorage at Serge Limaru, Turkey" (1982).
Smith, Mark. "The Development of Maritime Trade Between India and the West From C. 1000 to C. 120 B.C" (1995).
Smith, Roger C. "The Maritime Heritage of the Cayman Islands: Contributions in Nautical Archaeology" (1981).
Smith, Wayne. "Analaysis of the Weight Assemblage of Port Royal, Jamaica" (1995).
Thompson, Bruce. "The Rigging of a 17th-Century Frigate at Mombasa, Kenya" (1988).
Thornton, Diana. "The Probate Inventories of Port Royal, Jamaica" (1992).
Tolson, Hawk. "The Vernacular Watercraft of Isle Royale: A Western Lake Superior Boatbuilding Tradition" (1992).
Turner, Sa.m "Saona Artillery- Implication for Inter-Island Trade and Shipboard Armaments in the First Half of the Sixteenth Century" (1994).
van Alfen, Peter. "A Restudy of the Cylindrical Amphoras from the Seventh-Century Yassi Ada Shipwreck" (1995).
van De Moortel, Aleydis "A Cog-Like Vessel from the Netherlands" (1987).
Vinson, Stephen M. "Boats of Egypt Before the Old Kingdom" (1987).
Wadley, Cathryn. "Historical Analysis of Pewter Spoons Recovered from the Sunken City of Port Royal, Jamaica" (1985).
Woodward, Robyn P. "The Charles Cotter Collection: A Study of the Ceramic and Faunal Remains" (1988).
INA Quarterly 24.2
by Kevin Crisman.
Ships Bilge Pumps: A History of Their Development,
By Thomas J. Oertling
College Station: Texas A&M University Press,
Studies in Nautical Archaeology, Number 2. 1996.
ISBN 0-89096-722-9, 105 pages, softcover, $17.95
(INA Members $15.26).
Before we examine Thomas Oertling's Ships Bilge
Pumps, a confession is probably in order: the reviewer
has a strong bias in favor of both the author and his
ing in Texas A&M's Nautical Program, Tom and I spent
many a pleasant hour talking about his pump research;
his enthusiasm for these humble devices was always
infectious. Tom's extensive--and highly readable-
study of the technology of ships' pumps was complet-
ed as a master's thesis in 1984, but I always hoped it
would see much wider distribution, for it is beyond a
doubt the most authoritative work ever written on the '
subject. At last, thanks to the Texas A&M University .
Press' Studies in Nautical Archaeology series, Tom's mas-
terpiece is available to all.
In the book's introduction and in chapter one
("Of Leaks and Men") Oertling begins with a simple ro .
statement of fact: "all ships leak, and so some means of
expelling excess water from the hull is needed." With-
out a pump, a ship will eventually fill with water and
sink, a prospect that becomes more immediate when a
vessel is damaged or stressed and begins to take on great
quantities of water. Through a series of anecdotes de-
scribing nautical disasters, the author vividly illustrates
the central role of the pump in saving ships and lives
(and, on the reverse of the coin, the losses that result
when pumps break down).
The technology of pump construction and operation is covered in the following four chapters. Chapter two briefly describes
the materials, tools, and techniques required to construct pump tubes. Subsequent chapters examine the three principal types of
pumps employed aboard ships between 1500 and 1900: the crude burr pump, the ubiquitous common pump, and the high-volume,
high-maintenance chain pump. Characteristics of each type, construction methods, variations in designs, and operation are all dis-
cussed in Oertling's clear, concise prose. No stone is left unturned here, for Oertling expertly combines both archival data and
archaeological examples of pumps to describe the advantages and disadvantages of each kind of pump, and to provide dates of their
use. The delayed publication of this book has dearly had one beneficial result, the inclusion of a great many new and significant
pump finds made since 1984.
Both Oertling and Texas A&M University Press can congratulate themselves on the number and excellent quality of the
illustrations in the book. Photographs of archaeologically-recovered pump elements, scale archaeological drawings, cut-away dia-
grams, and contemporary prints are used to show the individual elements and working arrangements of every type of pump. A total
of fifty-five illustrations are included, an impressive number in light of the book's modest length of 105 pages.
While ships' pumps may not be a subject that will delight and thrill every reader, this is a publication that no conscientious
nautical archaeologist can afford to pass up. All large ships carried one or more pumps, and nearly every wreck contains evidence of
their type and location. With Oertling's book it should be possible to quickly and correctly identify most pump finds from ship-
wrecks. The usefulness of this book was nicely illustrated this past fall (1996) when Joe Cozzi, a Nautical Program Ph.D. candidate
and co-field director of the La Salle ship Belle (1686) excavation in Matagorda Bay, Texas, described an unusual cylindrical object of
wood found on the wreck. It sounded pump-like, a suspicion that was quickly confirmed by checking an advance copy of Tom's
book that the publisher had recently mailed to me. We were able to match the Belle artifact with a photograph of an upper valve body
from the common pump of the French frigate Machuault (1760). I predict that in future years this book will be a standard entry in the
bibliographies of most post-Medieval shipwreck excavation reports.
INA Quarterly 24.2
by Samuel Mark.
The Development of the Rudder: A Technological Tale
by Lawrence V. Mott
College Station: Texas A&M University Press,
Studies in Nautical Archaeology, Number 3. 1997
ISBN 0-89096-723-7, 218 pages, softcover, $19.95
(INA Members $16.96).
Considering that the rudder is one of the few de-
vices that all ships have had in common throughout his-
tory, it is no surprise that its evolution has been a topic
of debate since the nineteenth century. The Development
of the Rudder: A Technological Tale, the third title in the
Studies in Nautical Archaeology Series from Texas A&M
University Press, is a worthy addition to this debate. It
is one of the most thorough studies yet produced on the
development of rudders.
Unlike previous authors that only looked at nar-
row aspects of this development, Lawrence Mott brings
together primary sources and writes a lucid account that
spans the Roman period through the Age of Discovery.
Most of the book concentrates on the construction,
mounting, and hydrodynamics of quarter rudders. The
mounting of two rudders on the stem quarters of a ves-
sel provided a simple and effective means of control that
was in use throughout the Mediterranean as early as
2500 B.C. and continued in use on most ships until the
thirteenth century A.D. By drawing upon iconographic
and textual evidence in the framework of hydrodynamic
theory, the author produces a fascinating look at the way
in which this rather simple system was refined and
adapted to fulfill the needs of various types of ships.
Unlike earlier publications, Mott emphasizes the impor-
tance of the mounting systems; the various mountings
allowed considerable flexibility in the design and adaptation of quarter rudders.
The last two chapters discuss the probable origin and development of the pintle-and-gudgeon rudder, the rudder system that
replaced quarter rudders in Europe and the Mediterranean. Mott goes into considerable detail in outlining the strengths and weak-
nesses of each system. He explains why quarter rudders continued to be used long after the knowledge and technology necessary for
their replacement by the stern rudder had been acquired.
This tale succeeds on a number of different levels. The illustrations, citations, and bibliography, alone, makes this volume
invaluable to the serious student of nautical history and archaeology. At the same time, the large number of illustrations, the glossa-
ry, and the style of writing results in a work that is accessible to everyone, even if they have little or no background in this subject.
Finally, for those with an interest in physics and mathematics, two appendices are included that explain the flotation models that are
a basis for this study.
Nautical Books to be Released
The Texas A&M University Press has announced the forthcoming release of From Egypt to Mesopotamia: A Study ofPredynastic
Trade Routes by Samuel Mark (see above and bottom picture on page 3). This November publication will be the fourth volume in the
Studies in Nautical Archaeology series. The book is based on Mr. Mark's M.A. thesis, described on page 27 of this issue. The Press has
also announced the December reissue of Number One in the series, Those Vulgar Tubes by Joe J. Simmons III (page 21 of this issue).
INA Quarterly 24.2
INSTITUTE OF NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY
James A. Goold, Secretary
Claudia LeDoux, Assistant Secretary
Rebecca H. Holloway,
William L. Allen
John H. Baird
George F Bass
Edward O. Boshell, Jc,
Vice Chairman and Treasurer
Ray M. Bowen
John A. Brock
Elizabeth L. Bruni
Gregory M. Cook, Chairman
John De Lapa
George F Bass, President and
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
DanieUe J. Feeney
Donald G. Geddes I (Emeritus)
Woodrow Jones, Jr.
Harry C. Kahn II (Emeritus)
Jack W. Kelley
Sally R Lancaster
Robert E. Lorton
Frederick R Mayer
Donald A. Frey, Vice President
Cemal M. Pulak, Vice President
William A. McKenzie
Alex G. Nason
L. Francis Rooney
Ray H. Siegfried I
William T. Sturgis
Robert L. Walker
Law O. Ward
Peter M. Way
Carry A. Weber
Martin H. Wilcox
George O. Yamini
George F Bass
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology/ George O. Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts
Kevin J. Crisman, Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Frederick R Mayer Faculty Fellow
Frederick M. Hocker, Sara W & George O. Yamini Faculty Fellow
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., Frederick R. Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology
Shelley Wachsmann, Meadows Assistant Professor of Biblical Archaeology
William H. Charlton, Jr., M.A.
Michael A. Fitzgerald, Ph.D.
Douglas Haldane, M.A.
Sheila D. Matthews, M.A.
G6khan Ozagach, Ph.D.
Claire P. Peachey, M.A.
Robin C.M. Piercy
Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D.
Sema Pulak, M.A.
Patricia M. Sibella, Ph.D.
C Wayne Smith, Ph.D.
Tufan U. Turanh
Howard Wellman, M.A.
Elizabeth Robinson Baldwin
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D.
Robert S. Neyland, Ph.D.
Brett A. Phaneuf
Ralph K. Pedersen, M.A.
Peter G. van Alfen, M.A.
Arthur Cohn, J.D.
Cynthia J. Eiseman, Ph.D.
John A. Gifford, Ph.D.
Cheryl W. Haldane, Ph.D.
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D.
Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
David I. Owen, Ph.D.
David C. Switzer, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., M.A.
James A. Goold
Christine A. Powell
Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati
Coming Museum of Glass
Department de Arqueol6gia Subacuatica de
la I.N.AH., Mexico
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Partners for Livable Places
University Museum, University of
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Texas A&M University
University of Texas at Austin
Mr. and Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried II
Graduate Fellow: Cemal M. Pulak
Marion M. Cook Graduate Fellows:
Eric Emery and Erika Washburn