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Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Winter 1996
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
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Volume ID: VID00018
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issn - 1090-2635
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The INA Quarterly

Volume 23 No. 4 Winter 1996

3 The Bozburun Byzantine Shipwreck Excavation:
1996 Campaign MEMBERSHIP
Frederick M. Hocker and Michael P. Scafuri Institute of Nautical Archaeology
P.O. Drawer HG
10 Field Conservation at Sadana Island, 1996 College Station, TX 77841-5137
Howard Wellman
Howard Welman Learn firsthand of the latest discov-

14 A Search for Italian Wine: series in nautical archaeology. Mem-
bers receive the INA Quarterly, sci-
Middle Byzantine and Later Amphoras entific reports, and book discounts.
from Southern Puglia
Paul Arthur and Rita Auriemma Regular ........... $30

18 Review Contributor ........ $60
The Archaeology of Ships of War, Volume 1 of the
4 \Supporter ........ $100
International Maritime Archaeology Series
Mensun Bound, Editor Benefactor ....... $1000
Reviewed by Kevin Crisman
Student/ Retired ... $20
20 In the Lab Checks in U.S. currency should be made
payable to INA. The portion of any do-
22 News and Notes nation in excess of $10.00 is a tax-de-
ductible, charitable contribution.
23 Volume 23 Index

On the cover: Texas A&M graduate student Glenn Grieco gently lifts one of the three pitchers found during the 1996 season of the
Bozburun Byzantine Shipwreck Excavation. Photo by Don Frey

March 1997 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. All rights reserved.
INA welcomes requests to reprint INA Quarterly articles and illustrations. Please address all requests and submissions to the Editor,
INA Quarterly, P.O. Drawer HG, College Station, TX 77841-5137; tel (409) 845-6694, fax (409) 847-9260, e-mail
Article submissions should be sent directly to the Editor in hard copy and on a 3.25 diskette (Macintosh, DOS, or Windows format acceptable)
along with all artwork.
The Home Page for INA and the Texas A&M University Nautical Archaeology Program on the WorldWideWeb is http:/ /
The Institute of Nautical Archaeology is a non-profit scientific and educational organization, incorporated in 1972. Since 1976, INA
has been affiliated with Texas A&M University, where INA faculty teach in the Nautical Archaeology Program of the Department of
The editorship of the INA Quarterly is supported by the Anna C. & Oliver C. Colbum Fund.

The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsletter (vols. 1-18).

Editor: Christine A. Powell

The Bozburun Byzantine Shipwreck Excavation:

1996 Campaign

by Frederick M. Hocker and Michael P. Scafuri

When two of the excava- cco0
tion staff drove into the camp at cc" 3 1995 SEASON
Selimiye in February, 1996 for an cca1 \cc e o 1 1996 SEASON
inspection trip, they were a little \s
surprised to see that the landown- Bm13
er, DurmuS, had planted the en- B
tire field in chick peas, carefully AM12
driving his ox-drawn plow be- s" I
tween the houses and outbuild- N
ings we had constructed in 1995.
They also saw that a heavy storm K
earlier in the winter had blown DO
down three of the five dormito- DI '
ries. A trip to the dive platform
on that cold, raw day revealed lit- 1
tie damage there, although some- E1
one had tried to pry the cover off- 9
the big Mercedes generator., n
All of the damage was eas-
ily repaired in May, once we re- C
turned to the Bozburun wreck for12 1 1
the second season of excavation.
The three dorms were all re-erect- H-
ed in a day, a new dormitory and
a conservation/registration shed
were built, the boat dock and dive -- J
platform were slightly enlarged t t o
to make them safer to use, and *
Murat Tilev continued to enlarge e
the shade built over the recom- MIR lot
pression chamber and high pres-
sure compressors. By the time the -
excavation finishes, he should
have the entire camp under one
roof, like the Grand Bazaar in -
Istanbul. Our crew, including a1 4 '
graduate students from Texas"
A&M, Bilkent (in Ankara), and *
Istanbul Universities as well as Ni. m I
"old hands" who have worked on
INA projects since the Seree i lo ---
Limani excavation and earlier, P
were poised for a long, produc-
tive season. SLOPE VIEW
During the 1995 season, Site Pla
we had explored the extent of the Fig. 1. Bozburun Byzantine shipwreck site plan for 1996.

INA Quarterly 23.4

site, which first appeared as a mound of amphoras 20
meters long at the base of an underwater cliff. We com-
pleted the initial topographic mapping of the site, and be-
gan the excavation of two trenches across the main
amphora mound, one at the top of the slope (approximately
30 meters deep) and one at the bottom (35 meters). These
trenches had revealed that under the broken and jumbled
material of the upper, visible layer, the cargo was in better
shape, and that the upper end of the wreck was probably
the stern. An anchor uncovered at the bottom of the site
was probably one of the two bower anchors kept ready
for use near the stem. It seems that the other bower an-
chor may have been cast in desperation, but only succeed-
ed in turning the vessel around to crash ster-first into the
rocks of the KLiUiiven Burnu cliffs sometime in the ninth
century AD.
Our goals for the 1996 sea-
son focused on the upper half of
the site, where there was more bro-
ken material, but also where the
small finds typically found in the
stern are to be expected. We hoped
to remove much of the debris from
this area and expose the intact lower
layers of the cargo, and to reveal at
least a small part of the hull re-
mains, to assess their condition. We
also planned to investigate a large
sand field on the ledge immediately
above the main amphora mound.
Amphoras and other wreck mate-
rial visible in the rocks above this
ledge suggested that more wreck
material should be buried in the
Over twelve weeks in June,
July, and August, a staff averaging
28 divers executed 2,189 dives, in-
cluding acclimatization and orien-
tation dives. Most divers spent 30
minutes on the bottom once or
twice a day, although a few divers
whose air consumption and cold
tolerance allowed it worked for 40 Fig. 2. A diver works
minutes at a time. To reduce the the rows of neatly stack
risk of decompression sickness
(DCS), divers decompressed on pure oxygen at 6 meters
for up to 35 minutes, depending on the depth and dura-
tion of the dive.
A large part of the season was spent in removing
the upper layer of sediment and cultural material from
the site. This layer consists almost entirely of amphoras
tumbled out of their original positions in the hold and the
broken remains of amphoras. By the close of the season,


we had cleared the upper layer from approximately 40%
of the site. In the process, we recovered over 140 whole or
nearly whole amphoras (fig. 1), an even larger number of
partial amphoras, and thousands of sherds (nearly a ton
in weight). Beneath this material, the whole amphoras of
the lowest original layer are still in place, marching down
the slope on the starboard side of the hold like columns of
soldiers (fig. 2). Farther to starboard, the spillage resulting
from the collapse of the side of the hull extends deeper
into the sand and farther out than originally thought. To
port, the stacking pattern is less orderly, but the angle at
which the amphoras lie indicates that the hull came to rest
on its starboard bilge, so the port side was unsupported
until it collapsed and the cargo there was not locked in
place by accumulating sand. We did not remove any of
the stacked amphoras, as we be-
lieve that they protect a large area
of intact hull remains. Instead, we
concentrated on clearing the sedi-
ment from between the jars and
mapping them in preparation for
lifting in a later season.
The removal of the upper
layer did expose two areas of hull
remains. At the upper end of the
site, hard against the face of the
ledge at the base of the cliff, an as-
sortment of eroded, disarticulated
timbers was discovered. Few of
these preserved much original sur-
face, although a pair of large iron
bolts probably indicate the location
of the after end of the keel. In the
middle of the site, among the
stacked amphoras, an area of well
preserved, coherent structure was
carefully cleaned by Faith
Hentschel, one of our most experi-
enced excavators. Individual tim-
bers beneath amphoras raised from
other areas of the site indicate that
Photo: D, Frey the preservation of the bottom of
the hull is extensive, and that parts
th an air-lift to uncover of the starboard side survive at
amphoras. least toward the upper end of the
Excavation in the large sand field just above the
amphora mound produced only a few whole and nearly
whole amphoras. Although the sand is over 0.5 meters
deep in most places, it is relatively sterile, suggesting that
the stem of the wreck did not come to rest on the ledge,
but just below it. The amphoras found in the sand, like
those in the rocks, probably spilled out of the ship as it

INA Quarterly 23.4

We currently estimate the original number of amphoras between 1,500 and
2,000. Many of these are now broken, and a number, perhaps 100-200, were re-
moved by sponge divers and other visitors before excavation began. Nearly 200
whole jars and parts of at least 300 others have been recovered during the excava-
tion. At the end of the 1996 season, we counted approximately 500 whole or nearly
whole jars still lying on the seabed. Another 100-200 may still be buried in the sand
or covered by other amphoras. There is not yet a definitive typology for Byzantine
amphoras between the eighth and eleventh centuries, largely due to the absence of
well dated examples from land sites, so our working classification system is con-
stantly undergoing revision. After the 1995 season we had identified two basic
classes of amphoras, but the greater number of jars recovered in 1996 has allowed
us to refine this typology somewhat. We have also become aware of the wide range
of variation in details and inconsistent quality of production displayed by these
crudely made containers.
The first class (fig. 3), which is by far the most common, consists of several
related types. All have ovoid bodies with short, conical necks, heavy rims, and
generally L-shaped handles of elliptical section. There is a great deal of variation in
rim profile, handle section, and surface treatment of the bodies, from smooth to
deeply ribbed, but the dimensions and general shape are fairly consistent. Many of
the jars are lopsided or indented from handling while the clay was still wet, and
they were often not fired very carefully, so many of the bodies are very crumbly
and fragile. Similar jars have been found at kiln sites in the eastern Crimea, which
was a distant but important outpost of the Byzantine Empire in the years when the
Bozburun ship was trading. The sites producing these kinds of amphoras have
been dated to the ninth and early tenth centuries.
The second class of amphoras (fig. 4), shorter and broader, with flat bases
and wide necks, remains just as enigmatic now as it did at the end of the 1995
season. No exact parallels have yet been found, but amphoras on medieval sites
other than kilns are often extremely fragmentary and are not usually reconstructed.
We know from the wreck that these amphoras break up into very small sherds that
make recognition of particular forms difficult.
A third class (fig. 5) provisionally identified in 1996 is similar to the first
class, but is generally larger, with a taller, cylindrical neck and a less pronounced
rim. The handles are also distinctly different, and Christine Powell, who is studying
the amphoras as the subject of her dissertation at Texas A&M, believes these jars
should be distinguished from those of Class 1. Very close parallels are also known
from the eastern Crimea, but from different kiln sites dated to the eighth and ninth
centuries. We hope that neutron activation analysis of the fabric will provide a
more certain identification of the origins of the clay.
The attribution of any of these amphoras to specific kiln sites is tentative, as
insufficient work has been done on amphora production centers outside of the
Balkans and Crimea. At least one Italian kiln of the early ninth century was pro-
ducing very similar jars, and amphoras of the basic ovoid form of Classes 1 and 3
are widely known from Middle Byzantine contexts (see the article by Arthur and
Auriemma in this issue for later examples). In addition, there is ample evidence from
both before and after this period that amphoras were reused as transport contain-
ers, sometimes extensively, so the origin of the containers may have no direct relationship

Fig. 3 (top). Class 1 amphoras, by far the most common type at Bozburun, all have an ovoid
body shape but are composed of many various permutations of individual features.
Fig. 4 (center). Class 2 amphoras are less common and are shorter and broader, with aflat
base and wide neck.
Fig. 5 (bottom). Class 3 amphoras are the smallest group but the largest in size.

INA Quarterly 23.4

addition to the pitchers, fragments of bowls, plates, and
cooking pots have also been found in the stem near the
possible remains of a stone-tiled hearth.
One of the more surprising finds in 1996 was a small
goblet of blue-green glass in square E 10 (fig. 9). Although
broken into two non-joining pieces, the shape can be re-
constructed. Glass stemware is a rarity on Mediterranean
shipwrecks, but this piece may be the personal possession
of a member of the crew or a passenger. The vessel type,
which is sometimes described as a lamp, is common in
non-maritime contexts from the Roman and Byzantine
Other finds include a fragmentary copper jug (fig.
10) of common Byzantine form (one very similar was found
on the seventh-century Yassi ada ship), lead fishnet and
line sinkers (probably intrusive), and a large number of
concretions, mostly of fasteners. A few tools can be identi-
fied, including what are probably a double-headed felling
ax and a smaller ax or hatchet. Such tools are relatively
common finds on Mediterranean shipwrecks and are only
a small part of the assemblage of carpenter's and foraging
implements to be expected on board a ship.
The sediment in which the more imperishable finds
are buried is also full of organic remains, especially twigs,
oak leaves, and acorns. At first, we wondered if thesewere
evidence of brush dunnage, as was commonly carried in
ancient and medieval ships, but the plant remains were

distributed too evenly throughout the sand and mud to
be clearly associated with the wreck. They did match the
scrub oaks growing abundantly on the slopes above the
site, and so were doubtless carried into the water by run-
off. The same is probably true of two goat or sheep teeth
found loose at the upper end of the site-the last remains
of an animal that met its end on the rocks.
The largest find from the 1996 season was the ship
itself. In addition to the fragments recovered from the up-
per end of the site, an area of approximately 2 square
meters of coherent hull remains was exposed in square H
11, probably forward of amidships (fig. 11). Although the
amount of structure examined was relatively small, it did
include the keel (with a scarf), four frames, three strakes
from the starboard side, one strake from the port side, a
heavy stringer, fragments of two ceiling strakes, and the
extremely fragmentary remains of what may have been a
keelson (fig. 12). Except for the keelson and one of the ceiling
strakes, these remains were all in excellent condition (for
a Mediterranean wreck), with crisp edges, tool marks, and
relatively little teredo infestation. The timbers are all fas-
tened together with iron nails and bolts, and there is no sign
of mortise-and-tenon joints (although none are expected in a
ship of this date). The keel and planking are of white oak
(Quercus sp., probably Q. ilex or holm oak, the only large
white oak growing in quantity in the eastern Mediterra-
nean or Black Sea basin) with the frames, stringer, and
ceiling of pine (Pinus sp.). This choice of ma-
terials is a little surprising, as other archaeo-
logical evidence suggests that oak was not
commonly used for structural timbers in Med-
iterranean ships before the late Middle Ages,
and that hardwoods in general were preferred
by Mediterranean shipwrights for frames,
with softwoods more commonly used for
One aspect of the site that continues to
intrigue us is its location. The wreck is not on
any major sailing routes, but is well up into a
deep bay and near the entrances to three of
the larger medieval settlement areas on the
peninsula. All were considered worthy of de-
fense in the troubled times of Middle and Late
Byzantine administration. The ship may have
been carrying wine to supply one of the garri-
sons or to trade, or it may have been driven
into the shelter of the bay by weather or pi-
rates. It is more than likely that the ship was

Fig. 11. Hull remains exposed during the 1996
season. Three of the four heavy frames are clearly
visible, as is a stringer running over them.

Photo: E Hocker

[NA Quarterly 23.4

Drawing: F. Hocker

Fig. 12. Schematic section of the hull elements observed in 1996.

bound for Selimiye (then known as Hyda or Hyla) or pass-
ing the entrance to the harbor when it was lost. Winds are
usually out of the north to northwest during the sailing sea-
son, but can veer rapidly into the northeast early in the sea-
son. This could easily push a ship entering the harbor toward
the rocks, although it would still be relatively easy to turn
away and run down the channel back toward the Aegean,
so an additional factor is probably involved. We were ably
assisted in the evaluation of the local landscape by Dr. Jen-
nifer Moody, of Baylor University, who visited the area with
her colleagues and students as part of a field school in ar-
chaeological survey she taught in July.

The proposed work in 1997 at Bozburun will con-
centrate on recovery of the lower layer of stacked ampho-
ras, exposure of a larger area of hull remains, and
commencement of large-scale excavation in the lower parts
of the site, where there is much less broken material. Field
walking of the surrounding area will continue in an at-
tempt to define the contemporary maritime cultural land-
scape. It is hoped that two more seasons will see
completion of the excavation phase, which may include
recovery of the hull remains for more detailed study and

Acknowledgments. The authors wish to thank the Directors of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology, the J. E. Smothers
Foundation, Mary and Richard Rosenberg, Hazel and Ron Vandehey, Chatten Hayes and David Steinberg, Ann Duwe,
Judy McNeil, and MARES S.A. for financial and in-kind support of the 1996 excavation campaign. Thanks also are due to
Marie and Frank Ricciardone for transport services. The excavation was carried out under a permit issued by the Turk-
ish Ministry of Culture, General Directorate of Monuments and Museums; the Ministry was represented in the field by
Mr. Erhan Ozcan. The contributions of Dr. Jennifer Moody and her team have already been mentioned. The authors
also wish to acknowledge the assistance of Doreen Danis (galley pottery), Gregory Gidden (Crimean archaeology),
Janalyn Gober (timber usage), Tonka Ostoich (glass), and Christine Powell (amphoras), whose research papers for a
graduate seminar in medieval Mediterranean seafaring at Texas A&M University provided much useful information
concerning many aspects of the material recovered during the 1996 season.

INA Quarterly 23.4

I ----------
0 1 ME.TE R

--~~~~ ~ ~ ~ -.. _~ eel--- -

~~-- 1~~. ---mm r; 5
. . -

Field Conservation at Sadana Island, 1996

by Howard Wellman

INA-Egypt's 1996 excavation season at Sadana Is-
land yielded more than 1500 registered artifacts and bulk
finds of porcelain, earthenware, copper alloy, and various
organic materials. All this material was excavated, raised,
and given preliminary conservation during the eleven-
week field season. The ship wrecked in the second half of
the 18th century on this site near Hurgada represents a,
previously unstudied form of Red Sea trading vessel.
Conservation should be a major concern on all ma-
rine excavations, since artifacts can suffer greatly from the
radical change of their environment. Waterlogged organic
materials can dry out quickly, causing irreparable crack-
ing and shrinkage, while the pressures of salt crystalliza-
tion can literally explode ceramics. The effects of the change
from anoxic waterlogged conditions to oxygen-rich, dry
conditions were only increased by the desert conditions at
Sadana Island. Daytime temperatures usually reached 88-
100" F, while the drying effects of almost constant winds

were increased by relative humidity that ranged from about
20-45% (except in the conservation tent, where it usually
seemed to exceed 90%!). The problems were compounded
by the high level of salts in the Red Sea (and, by extension,
in the artifacts), which is estimated to be about 6-8% more
saline than typical ocean water.

The conservation team consisted of INA-Egypt staff
conservator Howard Wellman and Tanja Roskar, a volun-
teer on leave from the conservation unit at the University
of Trondheim, Norway. Our aims at Sadana Island were
to mitigate the effects of the environmental changes, while
enabling the archaeologists to obtain initial data from the
artifacts that could affect the ongoing excavation. Most of
the conservation could be described as "First Aid," though
some of it was definitely aimed at reducing the amount of
work that would have to be done later in the Alexandria

Photo: H. Wellman
Fig. 1. Team members building the artifact storage tanks on the beach at Sadana Island.

INA Quarterly 23.4

,^C., ""'~'~~'r~~~~lr;--- r~lr~Sa*~LLIPaacBEl~p46

Conservation Laboratory for Submerged Antiquities (see
INA Quarterly 23.2).
Stabilization was the first concern. The artifacts had
to be kept wet to prevent damage by shrinkage or salt crys-
tallization. This was accomplished by building two brick
and concrete storage tanks where the objects could be held,
and where artifact cleaning could take place (fig. 1). These
tanks were filled by the rising tide, with the occasional
boost from a bucket brigade.
Physical support was given to delicate or decayed
materials in order to minimize the possibility of mechani-
cal damage once the artifacts were removed from the sup-
port of the water. Stabilization also factored into our plans
for packing the objects for transport across 700 km of desert
and urban roads to their new home at the National Mari-
time Museum in Alexandria. Various plans and schemes
for "containerization" of the various objects were tested in
order to make the packing units as durable and resistant
to physical shock as possible, while still maintaining the
moist environment needed by the objects.
Our second concern was to reveal as much infor-
mation about these objects as possible so that the excava-
tion team would be able to use freshly excavated objects to
guide the ongoing interpretation of the site. Most objects
were cleaned of obscuring calcareous concretion, but only
enough to expose diagnostic forms and decorative elements
("investigative cleaning"). Removing massive concretion
also aided the aim of stabilization, since it could reduce an
artifact's weight and volume by 100-200%, making it easier
and safer to handle and pack. This also
allowed the conservators time to inspect
each object more closely, identify poten-
tial conservation problems, and make
notes for future treatments. Conservation
records were kept on all the objects pro-
cessed on site.
The team photographers were then
able to produce black-and-white photo-
graphs of every registered artifact for the
excavation catalog and the official Egyp-
tian Supreme Council of Antiquities' site
register. The illustrators and cataloguers
also benefitted, since it allowed them to
better judge the special characteristics of
each object. The conservation notebooks
proved to be critical in maintaining inven-
tory and tracking lists of all the artifacts
as they passed through photographers',
catalogers', registrars', and illustrators'
Another conservation aim was to in-
crease the general knowledge of the excava-
tion team about conservation ideals and
techniques, and show them how conservation Fig. 2. Volunt

could be a forward-looking part of any excavation, and
not just a mopping-up exercise. To this end, INA-Egypt's
staff conservator gave lectures on the nature of archaeo-
logical materials and their decay, how this relates to the
nature of the site deposits, and how conservation deals with
those problems. Techniques of "minimal intervention" and
understanding the nature of the materials were stressed.
Practical lessons in conservation techniques were part of
the everyday routine as volunteers came and went in the
conservation tent.

Restrictions and Assets
As in all field projects, conservators at Sadana Is-
land faced significant restrictions on their ability to per-
form as much treatment as they would have liked. That is
one reason we focused primarily on stabilization and in-
vestigative cleaning. Time is always a factor on excava-
tions, and with 1500 objects to be processed, it was not
feasible to spend as much time with each object as we could
have wished. Our greatest restriction was the lack of fresh
water. All the camp's water was trucked in, and there was
simply not enough for us to begin the standard desalina-
tion procedures that would have allowed us to begin dry-
ing objects prior to transport.
We were, however, blessed with several bits of good
fortune: first and foremost, we had a large group of very
enthusiastic volunteers to help us with the most tedious
parts of the cleaning and recording. At the height of the
season, up to seventeen students and archaeologists could

Photo: N. Piercy
eers at work in the conservation tent.

INA Quarterly 23.4

be found in the conservation tent (an airy 6xl0m tent),
cleaning, photographing, cataloguing, and illustrating ob-
jects (fig. 2). Several volunteers with special experience
could be found in the holding tanks at all hours using air-
scribes to remove the larger masses of concretion. Dou-
glas Haldane and Emad Khalil especially put in heroic
hours battling the concretion on the 750 earthenware wa-
ter jugs (q'ulal) that threatened to fill the tanks to overflow-
ing. Meanwhile, the archaeobotanical crew under Dr.
Cheryl Haldane was swamped by bags of q'ula contents
that had to be floated and sieved.

Most of the work done at Sadana Island used very
basic techniques of mechanical cleaning and support. The
lack of fresh water prevented the use of chemical cleaning
and stabilization methods that require extensive washing
afterwards. As noted above, the gross removal of concre-
tion was performed with air-scribes (fig. 3), while the final
cleaning for illustration and photography was done with
scalpels. In the course of the summer, the conservators

Photo: H. Wellman
Fig. 3. INA-Egypt Deputy Director Emad Khalil using an air-
scribe to clean an earthenware jug.

trained approximately twenty-five volunteers and archae-
ologists in basic mechanical cleaning techniques for earth-
enware, porcelain, glass, and copper. The more delicate
materials such as organic remains and inscribed or painted
surfaces were handled by the conservators.
A subsidiary part of cleaning was the removal and
sieving of vessel contents. Although the q'ulal were as-
sumed to have been shipped empty as cargo, they had filled
with sediment and small fragments of the vessel's organic
cargo. By emptying each jar, their weight was not only sig-
nificantly reduced, but the archaeobotanical team found
examples of hazelnuts, nutmeg, coriander, cardamom, and
coffee beans among other things. These delicate organic
materials were stored in sealed jars full of sea water for
transport to the laboratory.
Many of the copper alloy vessels (pans, basins, caldrons
and trays) were highly corroded and very fragile. For these
objects particularly, cleaning was considered of second-
ary importance to physical support. The artifacts were
bound and supported with strips and pads of polyethyl-
ene foam, sometimes lashed to rigid supports. This allowed
the objects to be handled for photography and transport.
The packing scheme for transport was adapted from
the successful plan devised the previous year by Douglas
Haldane. Artifacts were packed in plastic perforated crates
with sufficient foam padding and wet wrapping to pre-
vent physical damage. These crates, plus basins of objects
that could not be removed from water, were then stacked
onto the Project's Landrover and a flat-bed truck loaned
to the Project by Arab Contractors, Inc. A plastic bubble
was created by lining the truck bed with polyethylene
sheet and wet polyurethane foam mattresses, on which
the crates were stacked. The rest of the plastic sheet was
then wrapped over and around the stack of crates and
basins, and lashed down and sealed tight (fig. 4). In this
way, a humid environment was provided that lasted for
the entire fourteen-hour drive from the site to Alexandria,
where the crates were unloaded into the storage tanks at
the National Maritime Museum.
Small and delicate objects such as tobacco pipes,
porcelain coffee cups and waterlogged organic materials
were "containerized" in one-liter plastic sealable boxes
with interior padding. These were then sealed into plastic
trash bags and placed in cardboard boxes. These boxes
could then be placed in the truck, outside the plastic bub-
ble, where more care could be taken for their disposition.
They were transferred directly to the main laboratory
building for more immediate care, rather than being placed
in the main storage tanks with the bulk of the finds.
Not all the excavated materials were raised to the
surface or transported to Alexandria. After the thrill of
finding the first eight waterlogged coconuts wore off, it
was decided that the other thirty were probably better off

INA Quarterly 23.4

remaining on the site for future recovery, rather than risk-
ing the trip to Alexandria. Once proper treatments for these
unique finds have been designed, we can consider lifting
the remainder. They were bagged with their identifying
context labels, placed in a hollow in the sand, covered with
inverted crates, then covered with plastic sheeting and sand.
Other materials, such as q'ulal, rope, and the ship's
timbers also remain. These were all cached at the end of
the season by various means. A length of rope, too deli-
cate to lift without further care and thought, was careful-
ly fastened down to the sand and timber substrate by
spreading nylon mosquito netting over it, and pinning the
net down with sharpened bicycle spokes. A notice about
the fragile object below was stitched to the netting, and
the whole was covered with sand, polyethylene sheet, and
more sand. It was hoped that this combination would both
create anoxic conditions necessary for the rope's survival,
S and deter sport divers from interfering with it.

In a thrill-packed, stress-filled eleven weeks, the
conservators and team members at Sadana Island man-
aged to process, pack, and deliver safely over 1500 arti-
facts and bulk finds. In the process we were able to identify
future project needs, and plan some interesting conserva-
tion research projects. The conservators were able to sat-
isfy the curiosity of team members about different aspects
Photo: H. Wellman of conservation, and perhaps guide one or two towards
university courses on the subject. We also proved that con-
Fig. 4. Crates of artifacts packed on board the Landrover "Ed- servators can in fact spend far more time in the water than
win," ready to be sealed into their plastic sheet "bubble" before anyone else, and develop far more interesting infections
transport to Alexandria. and rashes.

Acknowledgments. The 1996 Sadana Island Shipwreck excavation was supported by generous donations from the the
Amoco Foundation, John and Donnie Brock Foundation, the Institute of Nautical Archaeology and George F. Bass,
Danielle Feeney, His Royal Highness Prince Khalid Ibn Sultan, Uwatec/Dynatron, Harry Kahn, Richard and Mary
Rosenberg, British Gas Egypt, ScubaPro, and Lucien D'Hondt, Banyan Medical Suppliers, DHL, Kodak-Egypt, Scuba-
doo Diving Center, CitiBank of Egypt, Arab Contractors, and numerous other donors. Significant work, both in excava-
tion and conservation, was done by a hard-working team of volunteers, INA-Egypt staff, members of the Egyptian
Supreme Council of Antiquities, and the Egyptian Navy. I personally want to thank Tanja Roskar, Melissa Zabecki,
Julie Eklund, Louise Fisher, David Harrison, Emad Khalil, Adel Farouk, Meredith Kato, and Jan Borg for their hard
work and moral support. The directors of INA-Egypt and the Sadana Island Shipwreck excavation, Dr. Cheryl Haldane
and Douglas Haldane, get my sincere thanks for putting up with endless questions and nitpicking.

Suggested Reading
Pearson, Colin
1987 Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects. London: Butterworths.
Sease, Catherine
1994 A Conservation Manual for the Field Archaeologist, 3rd ed., Archaeological Research Tools No. 4. Los Angeles:
Institute of Archaeology, University of California.
Watkinson, David, ed.
1987 First Aid for Finds, 2nd ed. (soon to be rewritten). London: RESCUE, British Archaeological Trust, and UKIC
Archaelogical Section.

INA Quarterly 23.4

A Search for Italian Wine
Middle Byzantine and Later Amphoras from Southern Puglia

by Paul Arthur and Rita Auriemma, University of Lecce

The INA Quarterly of Spring 1995 described an in-
teresting new venture of the Institute aimed at mapping
the shipwrecks off the virtually unexplored coast of Alba-
nia [Editor's note: internalfactors in Albania have since led to
the suspension of the project described in INA Quarterly 22.1].
On the opposite side of the Adriatic, along the coast of
Puglia, the University of Lecce has been working for a num-

ber of years charting wrecks and
stray underwater finds. Many of
these are of Roman date, though a
few may be assigned to the lesser
known medieval period. Amongst
the finds are a number of locally-
produced commercial transport
amphoras that are also matched at
various mainland sites.
Indeed, southernmost Puglia,
commonly known as the Salento or
heel of Italy (fig. 1), is one of the few
provincial areas of the Byzantine
empire where archaeological evi-
dence for the production and expor-
tation of surplus agricultural
products is relatively abundant.
Much of this material must have left
Puglia through the port of Otranto
(Greek Hydrous), the major Middle
Byzantine town in the deep south,
well-known for its cross-in-square
plan Byzantine church of S. Pietro
and its later Norman cathedral with
a splendid mosaic floor depicting
the tree of life, the months, and
scenes from the Old Testament and
from Classical and later legends.
The accumulating evidence may
suggest a relative well-being of the
area in Byzantine times when com-
pared to other parts of Italy. It is in
this context that the export of an ag-
ricultural surplus in amphoras
seems to fit.
The material evidence for lo-
cal Puglian amphora manufacture
falls into two chronologically dis-
tinct groups:

1. The discovery in 1989 of a substantial kiln site for
transport amphoras close to the port of Otranto, probably
dating to the seventh and perhaps early eighth century
A.D. Little is yet known about the distribution of these
products (an example might come from the island of Ae-
gina). Similar amphoras from the port of Ugento (Roman
Uxentum) on the opposite, western, coast of Puglia, are in

B sN -S-, ** .*" ..-.. -... ... ..... .. ... ... .. .. .,


t I I .' ,LECCE

Map: C. Ruggiero

find); 6. Otranto; 7. Anflano, Palmariggi; 8. Centoporte, Giurdignano; 9. S. Giovanni
Malcantone, Uggiano; 10. Qua tro Mace, iuggianeo; 11. Porto Badisco (underwa-

ter find); 12. Racale, Ugento (underwater find); 23. Torre S. Giovanni, Ugento; 14. Porto
Cesaro (underwater fi ; 15. C. Otranto erti; M fr


Map: G. Ruggiero
Fig.1. Distribution map ofMiddle Byzantine and later Puglian amphoras in the Salento.
Key: 1. Brindisi (underwater find); 2. San Cataldo (underwater find); 3. San Foca (un-
derwaterfind); 4. Torre dell'Orso (underwater find); 5. Torre S. Stefano (underwater
find); 6. Otranto; 7. Anflano, Palmariggi, 8. Centoporte, Giurdignano; 9. S. Giovanni
Malcantone, Uggiano; 70. Quattro Macine, Giuggianello; 11. Porto Badisco (underwa-
terfind); 12. Racale, Ugento (underwater find); 13. Torre S. Giovanni, Ugento; 14. Porto
Cesareo (underwaterfind); 15. Copertino; 16. Massafra.

INA Quarterly 23.4


4 5

Drawings: R. Auriemma and C. Mazzotta
Fig. 2. Middle Byzantine and later Puglian amphorasfrom 1. Torre dell'Orso; 2. San Foca; 3. Torre S. Stefano (see also fig. 4); 4. the
Canale Pigonati wreck in the port of Brindisi; 5. the village of Quattro Macine.

INA Quarterly 23.4

I -

a different clay fabric and may
have been produced near the lat-
ter site.
2. Excavations at Otranto in
the 1980s and 90s, and at the aban-
doned village site of Quattro Ma-
cine since 1991, have revealed
abundant amphoras of different
forms to those cited above, in a dis-
tinctly local Puglian fabric, in con-
texts dating from the tenth/eleventh
to the thirteenth century.
Thus, it can now be demon-
strated that amphoras were pro-
duced in southern Puglia in the
seventh and perhaps in the early
eighth centuries, and from the
tenth/eleventh century, and it is
likely that the gap in our evidence
will be bridged by future work. It
is also likely that further cases of
amphora production in medieval
Italy will come to light, to comple-
ment both the Puglian evidence
and recently recognized vessels
manufactured near Naples and in
both southern (around Agrigento-
Gela) and north-western Sicily
(Palermo-Trapani area) (fig. 2).
The purpose of this present
note is to draw attention to the
group of later medieval Puglian
amphoras in the hope that it will
aid their identification along the
Adriatic coasts and elsewhere, so
as to help define their distribution
and assess their significance in Byz-
antine and medieval trade.
The basic vessel type is quite
clearly of Byzantine tradition, and
fairly close formal parallels may be
found elsewhere. The Puglian am-
phoras, which seems to be present
in two principal variants, are char-
acterized by a ribbed body, taper-
ing towards a rounded or slightly
flattened base, short neck with a
vertical or slightly everted rim, of-
ten cupped, and thick handles
which rise above the rim. The han-
dles of the later examples are dis-
tinctly peaked. The shoulders often
bear a single deeply incised wavy
line, sometimes more than one. The

Fig. 3 (above). Amphora from Porto Cesareo
in the Museo Provinciale, Lecce.

Fig. 4 (below). Amphora from Torre S. Stefano
(LE). See figure 2, number 3.

principal clay fabric encountered is
fairly well elutriated and generally
off-white to pale red in color. Small
limestone inclusions, occasionally
fossiliferous, are somewhat remi-
niscent of fabrics encountered in
Roman amphoras produced
around Brindisi. The fabric vari-
ants suggest that more than one
production site in southern Puglia
was involved. Through it is still not
certain what these vessels con-
tained, both their form and the fact
that they sometimes bear traces of
a resin lining suggest wine.
As regards their dating, the
earliest examples of the type so far
recognized come from recent exca-
vations by Francesco D'Andria at
Otranto. There, associated ceram-
ics suggest a date no later than the
tenth century for the earliest ap-
pearance of the series. The latest
examples, which do not appear to
be residual, were found alongside
Frankish coins, minted in southern
Greece and dating to the late thir-
teenth century, in the fill of a pit
excavated at the deserted medieval
village of Quattro Macine, some 8
kilometers inland from Otranto. It
has been suggested that the differ-
ences of the two main variants dis-
cussed above are mainly due to
chronological factors, variant 1 be-
ing the earliest. However, given the
relatively large time-span over
which these vessels appear to have
been produced, it is likely that in
future we shall be able to create a
more articulated typology that re-
flect a development of the vessels
over the centuries.
Their quantitative distribu-
tion is at present heavily weighted
towards Otranto itself, with a fair
number coming from sites in its
hinterland, from the deserted me-
dieval villages of Quattro Macine
and Anfiano, and from the monas-
tic sites of S. Giovanni Malcantone
and Le Centoporte. Further exam-
ples come from underwater sites
around Puglia. On the western coast

INA Quarterly 23.4

they are known from the waters of Porto Cesareo, from near
Racale and from the bay of San Foca, where a Roman fish-
ing establishment has been excavated (fig. 3). It is interest-
ing that San Foca of Sinope is an eastern saint, patron of
merchants from the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterra-
nean. Other amphoras of the type come from Adriatic
coastal sites including the bay of S. Cataldo, harbor of
Lecce, Torre dell'Orso, Torre S. Stafano (fig. 4), Porto Ba-
disco and probably from the wreck of Canale Pigonati, in
the port of Brindisi, which has been dated through car-
bon-14 to between 1100 and 1300 by the Consiglio Nazio-
nale delle Ricerche in Rome.
These underwater finds clearly show that the am-
phoras, with their contents, were intended for shipment.
Indeed, at least one example appears to come from exca-
vations in Venice (S. Lorenzo di Castello). Interestingly, in
1104, the Venetians had a trading contract with Otranto,
to ship provisions from the town to Antioch in- Syria. No
certain examples have yet, however, been recognized over-
seas, though some likely candidates, whose fabrics need
to be examined, may be cited. They include vessels from
Sibenik in the former Yugoslavia, from Durres in Albania,

and a possible example from the sea near Marseilles. Given,
however, the rather persistent presence of eastern Byzan-
tine glazed tanle wares with sgraffito decoration, princi-
pally from Corinth and other Greek areas, and of amphoras
from further east, including the sea of Marmara (11-13th
centuries), in archaeological contexts in and around
Otranto, as well as evidence for exportation from south-
ern Puglia to Greece of Brindisi-type protomaiolica (13th
century), we believe that the identification of Puglian am-
phoras abroad is only a matter of time.
The ceramic evidence for east-west contacts was
largely left by medieval commercial ventures, in which cen-
ters such as Amalfi, Venice, Genoa and Pisa played a lead-
ing role. The amphoras examined in this paper suggest
that southern Puglia, through Byzantine and Norman
times, may also have played a rather significant part, which
archaeology is helping to clarify.

Acknowledgments. We should like to thank Dott.ssa Maur-
izia De Min for information concerning finds from Venice
and Afrim Hoti for those from Durres.

Suggested Reading
Arthur, P.
1992 "Amphoras for bulk transport." In F. D'Andria and D. B. Whitehouse, eds, Excavations at Otranto, volume II:
The Finds. Galatina: Congedo Ed., 197-217.
Arthur, P., M. P. Caggia, G. P. Ciongoli, V. Melissano, H. Patterson, and P. Roberts
1992 "Fornaci altomedievali ad Otranto. Nota preliminary." ArchMed XIX, 91-12.
Tartari, F.
1982 "Amforat e muzeut arkeologjik te Durresit." Illiria XII, 2, 239-279.

Now Available to INA Members

Through special arrangement, a recent book in the Nautical Archaeology Series from the Texas A&M
University Press is now available to INA members at a 15% discount.

Ship's Bilge Pumps: A History of Their Development, 1500-1900
by Thomas J. Oertling

Retail $17.95; Discounted: $15.26
Discounted price, plus shipping: $19.26; Texas Resident price, including sales tax & shipping: $21.52

Please quote CODE OTNA to receive the discounted price. Credit card orders may be placed by calling
800-826-8911 (M-F, 8-5 Central time) or by faxing the order to 409-847-8752. Mail orders should be sent to:
Texas A&M University Press, Drawer C, College Station, TX 77843.

INA Quarterly 23.4


by Kevin Crisman.

The Archaeology of Ships of War, Volume 1 of the
International Maritime Archaeology Series
Mensun Bound, Editor.
Oswestry, Shropshire: Anthony Nelson Publishers, 1995.
ISBN 0-9004614-52-2, 192 pages, softcover, 32.

The Archaeology of Ships of War and its companion
volume Excavating Ships of War represent the proceedings
of a two-day international conference held at Greenwich,
England, on October 31 and November 2, 1992. As the ti-
tles of these works suggest, the theme of the meeting was
warships-of every type, nationality, and period. This re-
viewer, anchored deep in the heart of Texas by teaching
commitments, did not attend... but greatly regrets his ab-
sence. The table of contents of The Archaeology of Ships of
War indicates that the conference brought together many
talented archaeologists and historians who delivered pa-
pers on a wide range of topics.
In the Preface, series editor Mensun Bound provides
a rationale for the archaeological study of warships, stat-
ing that the course of human history has been affected by
naval vessels, both by the naval forces required to protect
the world's maritime trade systems, and by the periodic
clashes of warships that decide the fate of nations or em-
pires. Bound believes that there is "no better expression of
man's technological capability" than the warship, but that
often-unreliable historical and visual records make it dif-
ficult to fully understand warship design, construction and
operation. Archaeological study of warship remains, he
contends, is our best approach if we are to understand the
evolution of these vessels over the centuries. I fully agree
with these sentiments.
What is baffling, however, is Mr. Bound's statement
in the preface that "ships of war have not been an entirely
respectable area of academic inquiry," and that they have
received "scant regard ... as objects of serious study." While
it is true that there are maritime scholars who find naval
matters of little interest, there are a great many serious his-
torians and archaeologists who have dedicated their ca-
reers to the study and publication of naval vessels. The
shelves of the library here at Texas A&M University are
heavily laden with books on warships, and maritime-
related quarterlies such as The Mariner's Mirror, The Amer-
ican Neptune, or The International Journal of Nautical
Archaeology feature articles on naval affairs or naval ship-
wrecks in nearly every issue. A large percentage of the re-
stored historic ships to be found in the world's maritime




The Archaeology

of Ships of War

museums are naval vessels. I simply cannot see any evi-
dence that ships of war have been systematically slighted
in favor of merchant craft.
The Archaeology of Ships of War is divided into three
parts with a total of 24 papers. Part One, titled "Excava-
tions and Interpretations," contains 13 entries, all but one
of which discuss research on specific shipwrecks. The spec-
tacular photo of a circa 600 B.C. Greek helmet on the pub-
lication's cover is somewhat misleading, for if your interest
is in naval vessels pre-dating 1500 A.D. you will likely be
disappointed by the limited attention given to ancient
Mediterranean and Medieval-era wrecks. There is a defi-
nite slant toward the post-Medieval here. The two ancient
warship entries include a brief survey report on the scat-
tered wreck of a possible warship dating to the first century
B.C. off the coast of Sicily and a discussion of rowing sys-
tems for ancient warships based on reliefs and vase paint-
ings. Of the Medieval papers, one discusses the survey of
a fragmentary wooden wreck of questionable date sunk
off Sicily, while the second is a re-examination of the large
clinker-built ship, identified as Henry V's great carrack
Grace Dieu, that lies in the Hamble River on England's south

INA Quarterly 23.4

coast. The remaining nine entries in the "Excavations and
Interpretations" section concern wrecks dating from the
sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries, and provide a well-
balanced selection in terms of vessel types, periods, and
archaeological finds. For the sixteenth century there is a
research update on the construction of the well-known
Tudor warship Mary Rose and a paper describing a very
promising English wreck, believed to date to 1592, off the
Channel Island of Alderney. Seventeenth-century contri-
butions include a report on a small but well-preserved
Cromwellian warship, possibly the Speedwell, lost in 1653
off the Island of Mull in the Inner Hebrides, and a report
by editor Mensun Bound on the guns and shot scattered
on the seabottom by the wreck of the Danish 46-gun Wran-
gels Palais off the Shetland Islands in 1687.
The three eighteenth-century wrecks described in
the first part could hardly be more dissimilar: the 90-gun
man-of-war Association, lost with all hands in 1-707 off the
Scilly Isles in one of the worst navigational foul-ups in
Royal Navy history; the little transport brig Betsy, scuttled
during the British debacle at Yorktown in 1781; and a Span-
ish sail-propelled "floating battery," one of ten heavily-
timbered ships that attempted (quite unsuccessfully) to
batter British Gibraltar into surrender in 1782. Two famous
wrecks from the nineteenth-century, the H.M.S. Thetis
(wrecked off Brazil with treasure in 1830) and the highly-
successful Confederate raider C.S.S. Alabama (sunk off
Cherbourg in 1864), nicely round out the list of warships
examined in Part One of the publication.
Part Two, titled "Ordnance," has three papers on
shipboard guns, including an excellent typology of
wrought-iron swivel guns, a summary of armament
mounted on English East India Company ships, and a dis-

cussion of ordnance recording practices using the Dutch
East Indiaman Mauritius as an example. Part Three of Ar-
chaeology of Ships of War, titled "Construction, Reconstruc-
tion, and Preservation," contains eight papers on topics
such as wooden warship building practices, the restora-
tion and maintenance of four eighteenth- and nineteenth-
century Royal Navy ships (Victory, Trincomalee, Warrior,
and Gannet), and current issues in historic ship restoration.
The award for "most provocative paper" must certainly
go to "Too many preserved ships threaten the heritage,"
the entry by Colin White, Head Curator of the Royal Na-
val Museum. In it, White points out that while everyone
likes the idea of restoring and displaying old ships, by try-
ing to save too many large ships museums are blindly com-
mitting themselves to enormous maintenance costs that
will consume all money available for collections manage-
ment and research. White calls on museums and maritime
preservation groups to coordinate their approach to ship
restoration and combine this with a realistic appraisal of
the number of ships that can be supported by shrinking
preservation funds.
This volume was carefully edited and thoughtfully
assembled. The papers were well-illustrated with appro-
priate photographs, maps, wreck diagrams, and artifact
drawings, and most included endnotes and a short bibli-
ography. Taken all-in-all, The Archaeology of Ships of War
provides a useful summary of various ongoing naval ar-
chaeology projects around the world, and would be a good
addition to any nautical archaeologist's bookshelf. It cer-
tainly deserves to be in the library of all self-respecting
universities. Unfortunately, the high price for this softcov-
er volume will likely be beyond the reach of many would-
be buyers.

INA Quarterly 23.4

Just Released

Through special arrangement, the latest book in the Nautical Archaeology Series from the Texas A&M
University Press is available to INA members at a 15% discount.

The Development of the Rudder: A Technological Tale
by Lawrence V. Mott

Retail. $19.95; Discounted price: $16.96
Discounted price, plus shipping: $21.96; Texas Resident price, including sales tax & shipping: $22.36

Please quote CODE OTNA to receive the discounted price. Credit card orders may be placed by calling
800-826-8911 (M-F, 8-5 Central time) or by faxing the order to 409-847-8752. Mail orders should be sent to:
Texas A&M University Press, Drawer C, College Station, TX 77843.

In the Lab

Conservation Lab Expands La Salle Conservation work

The "French Connection" of the Conservation Lab-
oratory of the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas
A&M University has recently grown stronger. A press
conference on February 14, 1997, revealed the existence of
a major French-Texan historic and archaeological site, and
the involvement of the Conservation Laboratory in that
discovery. The lab was already conserving the finds from
La Belle, the ship of Rend Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle,
recently excavated in Matagorda Bay. It has now received
the first artifacts from the recent discovery near Victoria
of Fort Saint Louis, La Salle's base and the first European
settlement in Texas (fig. 1).

Fig. 1

Fig. 2

Photo: C. Powell artifc
The first artifacts to be excavated were eight cast
iron cannons (two large, three medium, and three small).
These had been removed from La Salle's ship L'Aimable
before it was lost in 1685, and used to fortify the settle-
ment. The cannons were described, and buried on the site,
by the Spanish explorer Alonzo DeLeon when he visited
the abandoned French settlement in 1689. They remained
hidden in the dense clay soil for 306 years, until a team of
archaeologists from the Texas Historical Commission led
by Executive Director Curtis Tunnell recovered them in
October, 1996. The finding of the cannons was kept confi-

dential until the February press conference in order to se-
cure the site from looters and preserve it for future exca-
The cannons will remain at the Riverside Campus
in College Station for approximately one year while a team
under the direction of Dr. Donny Hamilton conserves them
(fig. 2). Once they are stabilized, the cannons will be per-
manently stored and displayed at a location to be deter-
The discovery of the cannons is just one more excit-
ing chapter in the developing story of Rend Robert Cavelier,
Sieur de La Salle. While plans are being developed to ex-

Photo: C. Powell
(above). One of La Salle's cannon being lifted into a tank at the
A&M research laboratory for treatment by electrolysis, while three
await conservation.

(left). Dr. Donny Hamilton announces plans for conservation of
ts from the La Salle fort and shipwreck.

cavate and preserve Fort Saint Louis, the actual excava-
tion of the La Salle shipwreck draws to a close. February
and March 1997 will be dedicated to the dismantling, tim-
ber by timber, of the wooden hull and its transportation to
Texas A&M's Conservation Laboratory in College Station,
Texas. It is believed that the hull will produce approxi-
mately five hundred pieces that will be conserved and
eventually reassembled.
The La Salle Shipwreck Project will be featured in
full-length articles in both the National Geographic and
Smithsonian magazines this spring.

INA Quarterly 23.4

Gelidonya Revisited by Jane Pannell

Artifacts from the 13th-century BCE shipwreck at
Cape Gelidonya (excavated by Professor George F. Bass in
the 1960s and revisited by INA in 1987-89) are undergoing
further conservation and examination. With the exception
of objects previously on display, all the artifacts from Cape
Gelidonya have been stored much as they were left thirty
years ago, in a tower in the castle that houses Bodrum Mu-
seum. The objects range from bronze tools and weapons
to ceramics and copper ingots. All artifacts are now being
located, and checked against both the original excavation
notes and resulting publication. New storage facilities are
being constructed and any conservation needs seen to.
Conservation, especially on material from underwa-
ter excavations, was a relatively new discipline when these

Photo: N.
Fig. 1 (above). A 13th-century BCE basket fragment from the Cap
donya shipwreck shown after cleaning.

Fig. 2 (right). Head conservator Jane Pannell carefully cleans a
stores the basket remains.

artifacts were raised. Unlike the objects from the Bronze
Age wreck at Uluburun, the Cape Gelidonya finds bene-
fited only from a basic knowledge of the need for conser-
vation. Considering this, however, the artifacts themselves,
apart from some of the organic material, are in good con-
dition. One particular fragment of basketry shows clearly
the way it was manufactured (fig. 1). Further cleaning of
the surface revealed a solitary seed tucked amongst the
weave (fig. 2). Now a special mount is to be made for the
basket, allowing it to be safely displayed and handled when
necessary for further study. Newly restored artifacts from

Cape Gelidonya will be exhibited in a purpose-built hall
adjacent to the Uluburun shipwreck exhibition.
Working on the material from Cape Gelidonya has
enabled one to review the history of conservation both gen-
erally and especially within the Institute of Nautical Ar-
chaeology. In the beginning, treatment was simply
brushing off the sand and silt or rinsing in water, and stor-
age usually meant a cardboard box. It is refreshing now to
see not only how conservation itself has changed, but also
how it has become an important part of any excavation
that INA undertakes. The Institute's conservation area has
progressed from a damp and drafty disused garage in the
Bodrum Museum (where only basic tools and equipment
were available, but used with a great deal of enthusiasm)

e Geli-

nd re-

Photo: N. Piercy
to a purpose-built laboratory within the museum. The fa-
cility now boasts state-of-the-art equipment and chemicals
needed to treat the ever-widening variety of material ex-
cavated. Students from all over the world are encouraged
to come and spend time working on some of the finest ar-
chaeological material ever recovered. Conservation with-
in the Institute of Nautical Archaeology will continue to -
play a major role in the preservation of history-further-
ing the knowledge of lives, technology, and trade of the

INA Quarterly 23.4

News & Notes

Recent A&M Graduates

The INA Quarterly would like
to congratulate the following recent
graduates from the Nautical Archae-
ology Program at Texas A&M Univer-
sity who received Master of Arts
degrees: George Indruszewski, Mat-
thew G. Pridemore, Edward M. Rog-
ers (all Spring 1996); William H.
Charlton (Summer 1996); and David
M. Grant (Winter 1996). In Summer,
1996, Jerome Lynn Hall became a Doc-
tor of Philosophy; his dissertation was
entitled, "A Seventeenth-Century
Northern European Merchant Ship-
wreck in Monte Cristi Bay, Domini-
can Republic." Cemal M. Pulak

became a Doctor of Philosophy in
Winter, 1996; his dissertation was en-
titled, "Analysis of the Weight Assem-
blages from the Late Bronze Age
Shipwrecks at Uluburun and Cape
Gelidonya, Turkey."

Thanks Due to INA Contributors

The Turkish headquarters of
the Institute of Nautical Archaeology
continues to grow in Bodrum. INA
wishes to express its thanks to INA
members Jane and Jack Yates for a
special gift to help furnish the new li-
brary building that should soon be
built there. The core of the new library
will be the Homer and Dorothy Thomp-

son collection of several thousand
volumes of books about classical
archaeology, purchased for INA
by the Friends of INA established
in Portland, Oregon (about which
more in a forthcoming number of
the INA Quarterly). The Griffis
Foundation is funding design and
construction of a conservation
laboratory there to honor the late
Nixon Griffis, one of INA's Found-
ing Directors. We also are grate-
ful to Trimble Industries for
providing a differential global po-
sitioning system without which
our search for a Bronze Age ship-
wreck in the Bay of Antalya would
not be possible.

30 August 8 September 1997

The INA Quarterly has been asked to announce a course taught by former graduate student in the Nautical Archaeology
Program at Texas A&M University. The course is organized by the Italian archaeology journal Archeologia Viva with the
support of the International Academy of Underwater Sciences and Techniques, and the Servizio Tecnico per l'Archeologia Subac-
quea of the Italian Heritage Ministry.

You are invited to the Sicilian island of Ustica to follow an introductory course in maritime archaeology involv-
ing daily lectures in English and practical underwater dives, from 30 August to 8 September 1997. Ustica is a small
volcanic island located in the Tyrrhenian Sea about 35 miles north of Palermo. It boasts a superb underwater landscape
that includes one of the most important natural marine reserves in the Mediterranean Sea and a renowned submerged
archaeological itinerary. Remains on land and in the sea testify to centuries of seafaring activities in the region.
The survey lectures on Mediterranean maritime archaeology, presented by Claire Calcagno*, include discus-
sions on underwater survey and excavation techniques, key shipwrecks of the ancient Mediterranean, cargo remains,
ancient ship technology and seafaring, conservation issues and coastal harbour studies. The eight guided dives to areas
of archaeological and naturalistic significance are open to students with Open Water PADI certification or equivalent.
Course fees cover accommodation and half-board in lovely local hotels with excellent seafood, boat dives, tu-
ition, air tanks and weights, and come to 1,500,000 Italian lire (approximately $935.00). Reduced rates apply to non-
diving students (800,000 lire, or ca. $500.00) and traveling companions (650,000 lire, or ca. $400.000). Dive equipment
may be rented on site (if reserved in advance).
Ustica can be reached from the Sicilian capital of Palermo by ferry (2 1/2 hours) and by hydrofoil (1 1/4 hours).
You can fly directly to Palermo's international airport, or arrive in Rome and take a train to Palermo (overnight).
For further information and bookings, please contact: CORYMBUS VIAGGI, Via Massetana Romana, 56, 53100
Siena, Italy, tel: (39) (577) 271.654, FAX: (39) (577) 271.615.

Ms. Calcagno is currently completing her doctorate in Central Mediterranean maritime archaeology at the
University of Oxford. She can be reached at: Institute of Archaeology, University of Oxford, 36 Beaumont Street, Ox-
ford OX1 2PG, England, FAX: (44) (1865) 278.254 or e-mail:

INA Quarterly 23.4

Vol. 23 Index

Author Index
Arthur, P and R. Auriemma, "A Search for Italian Wine: Middle
Byzantine and Later Amphoras from South Puglia," 23.4,14-17
Bass, G. F, "Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., Retires," 23.3, 20-1
Claesson, S., "Annabella: the Excavation of a Nineteenth-Century
Coasting Schooner in Cape Neddick, Maine," 23.2, 16-21
Cook, Gregory, D., "Sailing into Adventure, The 1995 Cutty
Sark Tall Ships Races," 23.1, 20-3
Crisman, K., Review of The Archaeology of Ships of War, 23.4,18-9
Fitzgerald, M., "Laboratory Research and Analysis" in "Continuing
Study of the Uluburun Shipwreck Artifacts," 23.1,7-9
Haldane, C., "Sadana Island Shipwreck Excavation 1996," 23.3,3-8
Haldane, D., "The Alexandria Conservation Laboratory for
Submerged Antiquities," 23.2, 3-6
Hocker, F. M., and M. P. Scafuri, 'The Bozburun Byzantine
Shipwreck Excavation: 1996 Campaign," 23.4, 3-9
Indruszewski, G., "Maritime Archaeology in the Western Baltic
Sea," 23.3, 15-9
Lled6, B., "The Glass from Serce Limani: An Example of Mass
Production in the Eleventh Century," 23.3, 9-14
Pannell, J., "Gelidonya Revisited," 23.4, 21
Peachey, C., "Conservation," in "Continuing Study of the
Uluburun Shipwreck Artifacts," 23.1, 4-7
Powell, C. A., "The Logs from the Mombasa Wreck," 23.2, 7-15
- "Yorktown Project Final Report Now Available," 23.1, 24-5
Pulak, C., "Dendrochronological Dating of the Uluburun Ship" in
"Continuing Study of the Uluburun Shipwreck Artifacts," 23.1,
Scafuri, M. P., and F M. Hocker, "The Bozburun Byzantine
Shipwreck Excavation: 1996 Campaign," 23.4, 3-9
Sibella, P, "The Copper Oxhide and Bun Ingots," in "Continuing
Study of the Uluburun Shipwreck Artifacts," 23.1,9-11
-- Review of The Sea of Galilee Boat, 23.2, 23-4
Washburn, E., "Linnet: A Brig from the War of 1812," 23.1,14-9
Wellman, H., "Field Conservation at Sadana Island 1996," 23.4,10-3
Subject Index
Albania, delegation visits Bodrum, 23.1, 26
Bozburun shipwreck, 23.4, 4-6
Italy, Southern Puglia, 23.4, 14-17
Uluburun Canaanite jars, 23.1, 9
Annabella, Cape Neddick, Maine, 23.2, 16-21
Betsy, 23.1, 24-5
Bozburun, 9th-cent. shipwreck, excavation, 1996, 23.4, 3-9
Bronze Age,
artifacts, 23.1, 4-11
chronology, 23.1, 12-3
see Uluburun
see Gelidonya, Cape
Byzantine shipwrecks,
see Bozburun
see Serce Limani
Conservation Labortory, Alexandria, Egypt, 23.2, 3-6
field, Sadana Island, Egypt, shipwreck,1996, 23.4.10-13
Gelidonya, conservation update, 23.4, 21
ingots, Uluburun, Bronze Age Shipwreck, 23.1, 9-11
jug, Bozburun, 9th cent. shipwreck, 23.4, 8

Sadana Island, Egypt, shipwreck, 23.3, 5
Cutty Sark Tall Ships Races, 23.1, 10-23
Dar Mlodziezy, 23.1, 20-3
Denmark, Maritime Archaeology, 23.3, 15-9
Danish Centre for Maritime Archaeology, 23.3, 17-1
Danish Institute of Maritime Archaeology, 23.3, 16
Viking Ships Museum, 23.3, 16-7
Egyptian survey, 23.1, 26
Gelidonya, Cape,
conservation update, 23.4, 21
pan-balance weights, 23.1, 7
goblet, Bozburun, 9th-cent. shipwreck, 23.4, 8
Sadana Island, Egypt, 23.3, 3-8
Serce Limani, mass production, 23.3, 9-14
graffiti, amphoras, Bozburun, 9th cent. shipwreck, 23.4, 6
hull construction,
Linnet, H.M.S., 23.1, 18
Sadana Island, Egypt, 23.3, 6
Uluburun, 23.1, 8
Bozburun, 9th cent. shipwreck, 23.4, 8
Linnet, H.M.S., Brig from the War of 1812, 23.1, 14-9
role in war of 1812, 23.1, 14-6
discovery, 23.1, 16-7
excavation, 1995, 23.1, 17-9
Memoriam, in, Williford, Richard A., 23.1, 27
Mombasa, shipwreck, Kenya, logs, 23.2, 7-15
pottery, domestic, Bozburun, 9th-cent. shipwreck, 23.4, 6-7
profile, Cook, Gregory M., 23.1, 22
Sadana Island, Egypt, shipwreck,
conservation, field, 1996, 23.4.10-13
excavation 1996, 23.3, 3-8
glassware, 23.3, 5
hull remains, 23.3, 6
metal artifacts, 23.3, 5
organic, 23.3, 5-6
porcelain, earthenware, 23.3, 3-5
Santo Ant6nio de Tanni, 23.2, 7-15, also see Mombasa shipwreck
Serce Liman 11th-cent, shipwreck, glass, mass production, 23.3,9-14
Survey, Egyptian, 23.1, 26
Uluburun, Bronze Age Shipwreck,
conservation, continuing study of artifacts, 23.1, 4-7
pan-balance weights, 23.1, 7
wood, hull, 23.1, 8
Canaanite Jars, 23.1, 9
copper oxhide, bun ingots, 23.1, 9-11
dendrochronogical dating of, 23.1, 12-3
van Doorninck, Jr., Fredrick H., retires, 23.3, 20-1
Wachsmann, Shelley, honored, 23.1, 26
Western Baltic, Denmark, Maritime Archaeology, 23.3,15-9
Williford, Richard A., in memorial, 23.1, 27
Yorktown project, 23.1, 24-5
Bound, M.: The Archaeology of Ships of War," 23.4, 18-9
Broadwater, J. D.: Final Report on the Yorktown Shipwreck
Archaeological Project, 23.1, 24-5
Wachsmann, S.: The Sea of Galilee Boat, 23.2, 23-4

INA Quarterly 23.4



James A. Goold, Secretary
Claudia LeDoux, Assistant Secretary
Rebecca H. Holloway,
Assistant Treasurer

William L. Alien
John H. Baird
George F. Bass
Edward O. Boshell, Jr.,
Vice Chairman and Treasurer
Ray M. Bowen
John A. Brock
Elizabeth L. Bruni
Gregory M. Cook, Chairman
Harlan Crow
Frank Darden
John De Lapa

George F. Bass, President and
Archaeological Director


Claude Duthuit
Daniel Fallon
Danielle J. Feeney
Donald G. Geddes III (Emeritus)
Woodrow Jones, Jr.
Harry C. Kahn II (Emeritus)
Michael L. Katzev
Jack W. Kelley
Sally R. Lancaster
Robert E. Lorton
Frederick R, Mayer

Donald A. Frey, Vice President
Cemal M. Pulak, Vice President

William A. McKenzie
Alex G. Nason
L. Francis Rooney
Ayhan Sicimoglu
Ray H. Siegfried II
William T. Sturgis
Robert L. Walker
Lew O. Ward
Peter M. Way
Carry A. Weber
Martin H. Wilcox
George O. Yamini


George F. Bass
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology/ George O. Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts
Kevin J. Crisman, Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Frederick R. Mayer Faculty Fellow
Frederick M. Hocker, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Faculty Fellow
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., Frederick R. Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology
Shelley Wachsmann, Meadows Assistant Professor of Biblical Archaeology

Birgil Akbulut
Mustafa Babacik
William H. Charlton, Jr.
Marion Degirmenci
Helen Dewolf
Adel Farouk
Michael A. Fitzgerald, Ph.D.
Sevil Gbkmen
Douglas Haldane, M.A.
Maria Jacobsen
Emad Khalil '
Sheila D. Matthews, M.A.
Selma Oguz
G6khan Ozagach, Ph.D.
Jane Pannell
Claire P. Peachey, M.A.
Robin C.M. Piercy
Cemal M. Pulak, Ph.D.
Sema Pulak, M.A.
Patricia M. Sibella, Ph.D.
Gilser Sinaci
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D.
Tufan U. Turanli
Patricia A. Turner
Howard Wellman

Elizabeth Robinson Baldwin
Jeremy Green
Elizabeth Greene
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D.
Robert S. Neyland, Ph.D.
Brett A. Phaneuf
Ralph K. Pedersen, M.A.
Donald Rosencrantz
Peter G. van Alfen, M.A.

Arthur Cohn, J.D.
Cynthia J. Eiseman, Ph.D.
John A. Gifford, Ph.D.
Cheryl W. Haldane, Ph.D.
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D.
Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
David I. Owen, Ph.D.
David C. Switzer, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., M.A.
James A. Goold

Christine A. Powell

Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology
Boston University
Brown University
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati
Cornell University
Coming Museum of Glass
Department de Arqueol6gia Subacuatica de
la I.N.A.H., Mexico
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Partners for Livable Places
University Museum, University of
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Texas A&M University
University of Texas at Austin

Mr, and Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried II
Graduate Fellow: Cemal M. Pulak
Marion M. Cook Graduate Fellows:
Eric Emery and Erika Washburn

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