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Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Fall 1996
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
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Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
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The INA Quarterly

Volume 23 No. 3 Fall 1996

3 Sadana Island Shipwreck
Excavation 1996 MEMBERSHIP
Cheryl W. Haldane Institute of Nautical Archaeology
P.O. Drawer HG
9 The Glass from Serge Limaru: College Station, TX 77841-5137
An Example of Mass Production
in the Eleventh Century Learn firsthand of the latest discov-
eries in nautical archaeology. Mem-
Berta Lled6 bers receive the INA Quarterly, sci-
15 Maritime Archaeology in entific reports, and book discounts.
15 Maritime Archaeology in
the Western Baltic Sea Regular ........... $30
George Indruszewski
Contributor ........ $60
19 Ships and Shipwrecks of the Americas
Now Available in Paperback Supporter........ $100
Benefactor ....... $1000
20 Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., Retiresnefactor$1000
George F. Bass Student/ Retired ... $20

22 News and Notes Checks in U.S. currency should be made
payable to INA. The portion of any do-
nation in excess of $10.00 is a tax-de-
23 In the Field ductible, charitable contribution.

On the cover The Sadana Island shipwreck continues to reveal its secrets; here, archaeologists Jostein Gundersen and Charles
Pochin raise a meter-high storage jar whose contents included cardamom. Photo: H. Wellman.

December 1996 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. All rights reserved.
INAwelcomes requests to reprint INA Quarterly articles and illustrations. Please address all requests and submissions to the Editor,
INA Quarterly, P.O. Drawer HG, College Station, TX 77841-5137; tel (409) 845-6694, fax (409) 847-9260.
The Home Page for INA and the Texas A&M University Nautical Archaeology Program on the WorldWideWeb is
The Institute of Nautical Archaeology is a non-profit scientific and educational organization, incorporated in 1972. Since 1976, INA
has been affiliated with Texas A&M University, where INA faculty teach in the Nautical Archaeology Program of the Department of
The editorship of the INA Quarterly is supported by the Anna C. & Oliver C. Colburn Fund.

The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsletter (vols. 1-18).

Editor: Christine A. Powell

Sadana Island Shipwreck
Excavation 1996

By Cheryl W. Haldane, Ph. D., INA Adjunct Professor

Nearly 40 archaeologists, students, and naval officers joined Mediterranean Sea ,.
INA-Egypt staff and representatives of the Supreme Council for rISRAEL
Antiquities of Egypt (SCA) for the second season of excavation on
the Sadana Island Shipwreck (see INA Quarterly 21.3 and 22.3).
The site, located on the Red Sea coast about 40 kilometers south of
Hurgada, lies 30-42 meters beneath the sea at the base of a coral Cairo
reef (Figs. 1 and 2). Suez
Almost 2,000 dives between 12 June and 24 August 1996
have more than doubled the amount of time that has been spent
excavating the ship. In addition to continuing our efforts to docu-
ment and remove objects broken and scattered by earlier "visi-
tors," we studied the ship's construction and excavated an area sinai
that contains about 2,000 qulal, small earthenware water vessels.
In addition to underwater finds, we were surprised and dismayed EGYPT
to find two large deposits of dry, shattered Chinese porcelain con-
cealed in our campground's sandy edges. More than 100 objects
from the wreck, including a matching lid for a large bowl found last year (Fig. 3), had been carefully buried, presumably by loot- Re
ers. Hurghad
All objects have been transferred to the INA/SCA Labora- Sadana
tory for the Conservation of Submerged Antiquities in the Alexan- Port Safga nd
dria Maritime Museum (see INA Quarterly 23.1). There Howard
50 0 50

Map: C. Powell

Fig. 1 (above). Sadana Island, Egypt.

Fig. 2 (left). Despite heavy seas, the ar-
chaeologists safely enter and exit over a
two-ton steel platform that allows them
to cross the boundary between reef edge
and open sea.

Photo: N. Piercy

INA Quarterly 23.3

Fig. 3. Crew members erecting the kitchen
tent uncovered this matching lid to a bowl
found last year in a looter's deposit.

Wellman, director of conservation for
INA-Egypt, and the SCA's conservators
supervise additional staff and volun-
teers working to clean and conserve

Four water dredges for sand re-
moval allowed us to study the largest
artifact at the site-the ship itself. In or-
__der to document its design, engineering,
Drawing: N. Piercy and the technology used to build it, we
laid out a line of 2-meter squares along
the top edge of the site in what would have been the upper part of the hull. Archaeologists also opened three additional
trenches specifically to examine the hull remains. The vessel continues to fascinate ship scholars because of its unusu-
ally heavy construction.
As in 1995, Chinese porcelain and earthenware water vessels (qulal) dominate the artifact assemblage (Fig. 4).
Approximately 80 porcelain finds excavated from the ship include several new styles of cups and bowls. As noted
above, we also located a large number of broken porcelain objects on land that had been buried by looters in the past.
This year, we found the first example of a cup decorated with bird or animal figures (cranes) rather than floral or
geometric motifs as in those found in 1995. It is thought that merchants who worked in Middle Eastern markets pre-
ferred the latter style of decoration because of proscriptions in Islam about representation of figures. Work by artists
Netia and Lara Piercy enhanced our understanding of the porcelain. They recorded the nearly invisible traces of enamel
overglaze, once brilliant red and gold, but now removed by the action of sea water. For instance, pieces that seem to be
undecorated were originally covered with floral sprays and elaborate designs (Fig. 5). A number of new types of porce-
lain were excavated, but usually only as isolated fragments.
More difficult to compare to firmly
dated examples are the water vessels from
the wreck. More than 725 qulal of many
different designs came from a small area
in the ship's stern. Despite efforts to find
comparative material, few archaeologists
have firmly dated examples of these thin,
fragile jars, all of which are made of a sim-
ilar gray-brown fabric (Fig. 6). Many are
decorated with incised linear designs and
applied plastic clay decorations. Several
large (55 cm tall) examples with lids also

Fig. 4. University of Alexandria archaeology
students Saad Ahmed and Taimour Ismail
joined in the painstaking process of manually
cleaning hundreds of clay and porcelain objects.
Photo: N. Piercy

INA Quarterly 23.3

Fig. 5. Geometric and floral gilt pat-
terns originally highlighted a handful
of brilliantly glazed blue porcelain
cups. More than 20 different kinds of -
cups, probably intended for coffee
drinking, have so far been recovered
from the Sadana wreck. Drawings: N. Piercy

Fig. 6. A number of new qulal types found this year include examples
Siwith handles and spouts.

were excavated. Other earthenware objects included fragments of
glazed bowls, amphoras of the "Ballas" type, flat bottomed basins,
and decorated tobacco pipes.
Copper finds included a large tray, several basins, the hasp
for a chest, tripod bases, and a bowl. Cooking pot 6-48 is particu-
S- larly exciting as it bears an inscription in Arabic associated with
i 1 A the numerals 1169, an Islamic year date (AH) equivalent to 1755/
56 CE. This date is significant because in the past, porcelain spe-
cialists have suggested that porcelain on the wreck dates to the
A period 1670 to 1740 CE. Thus, the Sadana Island collection dem-
onstrates the
longevity of
types that
were thought
to have been
some twenty
years before
the earliest
sinking date.
objects from
the Sadana
Drawing: L. Piercy Island Ship-
wreck includ-
ed both round and square bottles, and a lovely cut-glass perfume
flask found in the bilges above the keel at midships (Fig. 7). As in
1995, most glass artifacts were case bottles, i.e., green glass liquor
bottles with square bases. Also as in 1995, all case bottles excavat-
ed were broken previously, probably by looters.
Other finds of particular interest include a small bone or
ivory object (possibly a chess pawn), a stone mortar, and a small
brass or bronze lidded box.

Fig. 7. Some precious liquid once filled this cut-glass flask found in the
bilges of the Sadana ship.

INA Quarterly 23.3

Organic remains
Northbound Red Sea cargoes often were organic in
nature, so organic remains from the Sadana Island Ship-
wreck received a great deal of attention. One of the more
excruciating duties for team members this summer was
emptying the small-mouthed qulal and processing their
contents by bucket flotation to recover plant remains.
More than two dozen coconuts spilled from a stor-
age area in the stern provide unusually challenging prob-
lems of excavation and storage as they are whole, but lack
the fibrous husk and meat of a fresh fruit. We documented
coffee beans, pepper, and large quantities of the same aro-
matic resin discovered last year. Recovery of botanical re-
mains added cardamom, nutmeg, hazelnut, and olive to
the list of economically significant plant species carried on
the ship.
As we excavated layers closer to the ship's
hull, we found a variety of animal remains includ-
ing the remnants of a leather bag tied with a knot,
and bones of several animals, including young
sheep or goats. Butchering marks on several bones
prove their use as food; faunal analysis will be con-
ducted as part of the conservation process in Al-

The Hull
The ship itself is the largest and most tech-
nologically informative artifact on the site. By
studying its construction details and features, we
are producing a record of an unknown ship type.
Despite a long history of contact between Euro-
peans, Egyptians, and others who sailed the west-
ern Indian Ocean and Red Sea, separate
shipbuilding traditions continued. The Sadana Is-
land ship was an example of a type that is non-
European, non-Arab, and non-Mediterranean. The
massive timbers used to build it suggest ample
supplies near its home shipyard; wood identifica-
tion may help to pinpoint the geographical origin
of hull components.
The hull is characterized by the use of mas-
sive timbers joined by iron fastenings (Fig. 8). All
that remains of the fastenings are the empty molds
where the iron has completely decayed, but we
can recover the measurements and locations of
such fastenings. In so doing, we find the ship to

Fig. 8. Outer and inner planking, frames, massive
stringers, and a dagger piece or knee connected by large
iron fastenings create a hull bottom more than 90 cm

be fastened rather lightly. Frames and floor timbers also
are widely spaced in comparison to other contemporary
hulls, and the stringers that transverse the length of the
hull from keel to upper deck are unusual for their robust-
During the 1996 season, we identified three levels of
knees that probably supported deck beams and may indi-
cate that the ship had three independent decks. A separate
stowage compartment sectioned off by bulkheads was doc-
umented just aft of midships. At what seems to be the mid-
ships section, a curious arrangement of transverse planking
supported a large shaft fastened to it by two large iron
bands. Large quantities of rope up to 5 cm thick surround-
ed this assembly.

INA Quarterly 23.3

Historical Parallels
The Sadana Island Shipwreck is exciting to work
on because it reveals a mini-history of Red Sea trade that
dovetails into the greater scheme of international com-
merce between East and West. Richard Kilburn, a private
scholar who spends a great deal of time examining the
papers of England's famed East India Company, shared
with us an excerpt from a letter of instruction to the men
who would purchase the cargo for the Princess Amelia. The
supercargoes (cargo superintendents) bought Chinese por-
celain in Canton to be sold in Mocha-a principal port for
Red Sea and East African traders-in the fall of 1724.
CHINAWARE 300 to 350 chests. Tis impossible to give
particular or full Instructions for providing this
Article...One General Rule must always be observed,
and that is, never to pack a peice of Ware that hath the
figure of Humane Species, or any Animal whatsoever,
and asformerly the Color'd ware prevailed, so it is more
than probable that it still doth, the red and gold used to
be most in esteems, & three quarters of the colour'd
Sortments with one quarter of blew & white was the
customary package of the whole parcel.
This letter could be, with the exception of the
amount of porcelain, a description of the Sadana ship's
porcelain cargo as it exists today. Mocha, Princess Amalia's
destination, is one of two likely loading points for the
Sadana ship, the other being Jedda, the port of Mecca.
Contemporary accounts of Mocha conjure up ro-
mantic scenes of busy harbors and let us populate it with
"English Free Merchants, Portugueze, Banyans and Moors,
and by Vessels from Bossorah, Persia and Muskat in Ara-
bia petrea," all of whom sought to trade in coffee and
"some Drugs, such as Myrrh, Olibanum or Frankincense
from Cassin, and Aloes Soccatrina from Socotra, liquid
Storax, white and yellow Arsenick, some Gum Arabick and
Mummy; with some Balm of Gilead, that comes from the
Red Sea," according to Captain Alexander Hamilton, writ-
ing in 1723.
Carsten Niebuhr's travel records in the Red Sea in
1762 will be important in gaining perspective on the role
of vessels like the Sadana Island ship in the region's com-
merce. Niebuhr describes the ships of the Red Sea, and
notes that many were built in Suez shipyards of wood,
iron, and rope brought in from Cairo and Alexandria. Such
ships could carry up to 1,000 tons, and as many as 600
passengers (typically pilgrims to Jedda). Another traveler
notes the presence of Arab-run ships that were of Indian
construction and far more expensive to build than compa-
rable Nile or Mediterranean ships. Between 30 and 40 ships
made the trip between Suez and Jedda each year; of these,
15 to 20 could carry more than 900 tons.

Yet another traveler points out that French and other
European traders sent the red dye cochineal, paper, Eu-
ropean fabrics and foods, and bullion to the Red Sea in
exchange for coffee, spices, drugs, myrrh and incense, In-
dian cotton fabrics, and Chinese silk and porcelain. It is
thus clear that the Sadana Island ship was headed north
on its last voyage with a cargo intended for transship-
ment to Cairo and beyond.

The 1996 Sadana Island excavation campaign has
allowed us a far better understanding of the ship itself and
has provided critical information for understanding the
site. An inscribed copper basin with a date equivalent to
1755/6 CE gives us a firm link for exploring the historical
aspects of Red Sea trade during this period although slight-
ly earlier documents are also important in its study.
The 1997 excavation season will focus on removing
additional overburden from the wreck and documenting
the hull construction. In order to do this properly, we may
need to tunnel under one section of the hull and possibly
remove some of the large timbers from the site temporari-
ly. With the exception of qulal, few small artifacts remain
visible on the seabed although some of the deeper parts of
the site have pockets of glass and earthenware objects.
Large iron concretions and the iron anchors require fur-
ther documentation and study. Much was accomplished
this year, and we are hoping for an equally successful sea-
son in 1997.

Acknowledgments: We are grateful for the opportunity to
work in cooperation with the Supreme Council for Antiq-
uities (SCA) of Egypt, and thank its general secretary Ab-
del Halim Nur el Din and the Permanent Committee for
their generous assistance. Our gratitude to the sponsors
and volunteers for the 1996 season cannot be fully ex-
pressed here, but we would like to acknowledge the fol-
lowing supporters of the excavation: The Amoco
Foundation, the John and Donnie Brock Foundation, the
Institute of Nautical Archaeology and George F. Bass,
Danielle Feeney, His Royal Highness Prince Khalid Ibn
Sultan, Uwatec/Dynatron, Harry Kahn, Richard and Mary
Rosenberg, British Gas-Egypt, ScubaPro and Lucien
D'Hondt, Banyan medical suppliers, DHL, Kodak-Egypt,
Scubadoo Diving Center, Barbara Mertz, Dr. Samuel Rent-
sch, Dr. Alan Stein, Robert and Fran Vincent, Mark Scott,
Jim Bayuk, William Remsen, Jim Stewart, Dan and Ann
Coster, Mark Easton, and all our friends who brought and
sent care packages to the site.
Egyptian Naval Lts. Tarek Abu el Ela, Khalid Shiraki,
Ahmed O. Arafat, Muhammad Samir, Muhammad Riga'

INA Quarterly 23.3

and Ahred Rida Helmi joined SCA inspectors Maher Masoud Sidhom, Ahmed Sameh Ramses, Muhammad Mustafa
Mohammed Abd El Magid and Muhammad El Sayyid Muhammad El Sayed on site. INA-Egypt's co-director Douglas
Haldane worked tirelessly to ensure our safety, ability to work, and comfort, as did our general manager Adel Farouk,
Emad Khalil, and chef Shehat Saied Hilal. Conservator Howard Wellman and artists Netia and Lara Piercy added their
valued skills to the documentation and preservation of objects.
Thanks especially to volunteers Saad Ahmed Ahmed, Jan Borg, Julie Eklund, Louise Fischer, Josetein Gundersen,
Nicolle Hansen, David Haskiya, Taimour Muhammad Ismail, Meredith Kato, Benjamin Kaubisch, Michael Lambert-
son, Martin Mainberger, Colin Mckewan, Andreas Olsson, Ipek Ozkaya, Ibrahim Ozkaya, Leslie Perkins, Charles Pochin,
Robin Rentsch and Dr. Samuel Rentsch, Tanja Roskar, Dr. Alan Stein, Norman Thomas, Melissa Zabecki, and Maria
Zagoreos for unstinting devotion to the cause.

Fig. 9. Dr. Alan Stein briefs project volunteers on diving dangers and safety practices.

Suggested Reading

Haldane, Cheryl W.
1996 Sadana Island shipwreck, Egypt: preliminary report, IJNA 25.2: 83-94.
Hansen, T.
1964 Arabia Felix: The Danish Expedition of 1761-1767. London: Collins.
Krahl, R. and Ayers, J., eds.
1986 Chinese Ceramics in the Topkapi Saray Museum Istanbul II. London.

INA Quarterly 23.3

The Glass from Serge Limani:

An Example of Mass Production in the Eleventh Century

by Berta Lled6

It was in September 1993 that seven grad-
uate students-Carla Luna, Kay Ebel, Lynn Ran-
som, Summer Kenneson, Catalina Puche, Rachel
Wenstob, and myself-first came to Turkey. We
were joining the research project developed
around the glass raised during the excavation
of the Serce Limani shipwreck under the direc-
tion of George Bass. Many people had been
working on the glass in the Bodrum Museum of
Underwater Archaeology for the fourteen years
since the excavation ended in 1979 (INA Quar-
terly 15.3). We followed or worked with INA staff
including Sheila Matthews, Jane Pannell, Cemal
Pulak, Sema Pulak, and Gillser Sinaci, plus many
students from around the world who had al-
ready spent an unmeasurable amount of time on
cleaning, conserving, and cataloguing these very
delicate artifacts. The goal of my group of stu-
dents was to catalog and study specific catego- Fig.
ries of vessels in the collection for a few months
under the supervision of Sheila Matthews. The
amount of work and my interest in it was such that, after
three years, I am still here in Bodrum.
Our main objective was to prepare chapters for the
volume on glass in the final publication of the Serge Limanr
wreck. We were not only to provide a general typology of
the vessels themselves, but were also to study manufac-
turing waste, including production mistakes. For the lat-
ter, we have a vast amount of evidence in our collection.
The quantity and variety of waste glass is amazing, which
makes our work fascinating but slow, since we have to
deal with so many examples.
The nature of Serge Limaru glass is especially inter-
esting since all of the glass was already broken before it
was loaded into the ship's cargo hold. In other words, ex-
cept for eighty intact glass vessels from the ship's bow and
stem living quarters, the ship carried a cargo of cullet, or
broken glass intended to be recycled. Further, according
to an unpublished chemical analyses of glass samples by
Robert H. Brill of the Coming Museum of Glass, 90% of
the three tons of glass came from either one or a few neigh-
boring glassworks. From other evidence on the wreck, Dr.
Bass believes it is possible that these glassworks may have
been located somewhere on the Syro-Palestinian coast.
The condition and homogeneity of the glass from
the Serge Limani shipwreck allows us to suggest that it

.Blow-pipe crack-offs.

was not necessarily produced for export. Although some
of the glass was finely finished and decorated, much of it
was misshappen or had other defects that made it waste
glass before its manufacture was complete. There are many
examples of manufacturing mistakes, caused by human
error or production procedures, that are scarce in other
excavations. The assemblage of so much glass from one or
several closely associated factories has given us the chance
to learn about the production system and the industrial
spirit that determined the uses of tools and routines aimed
to make the work more sophisticated, productive, and eco-
nomically viable.
Here I would like to mention some of the techniques
used in the production chain and give possible explana-
tions for the different kinds of glass waste we encountered
at Serge Limaru.

Factory Waste
A great range of pieces can be found in a glassworks
dump. In the Serge Limaru cullet we have almost every
kind of waste glass that a glass factory can provide.
Glass fragments resulting from removing, or crack-
ing off, the vessel from the blow pipe are known as moils
or overblows. Those resulting from removing, or knock-
ing off, the vessel from the pontil are called knock-offs.

INA Quarterly 23.3

Fig. 2. Overblow or "candle holder" (GW 140). These are the waste
parts removed from the tops of the glass vessels to give them their final

Discoid pontil knock-offs are not very common in the Serqe
Limaru glass, but blow-pipe crack-offs or moils are extremely
plentiful as one can see in figure 1. Thousands of overblows, or
moils, the parts removed from the tops of glass vessels to give
them their final forms, were recovered during the excavation,
where they were nicknamed "candle holders" because of their
shape (fig. 2); they may be a good indicator of the total quantity
of open-mouth vessels produced in the factory or factories from
which the glass was exported.
Other examples of glass waste include the common test
drops that allowed the glassmaker to learn about the viscosity
and stage of the glass in the furnace (fig. 3). Still others are the
discards from glass trails which had been used in forming deco-
ration or accessories like handles. These trails are very thin at
one end from being stretched from the vessels to which they had
been attached when molten, while their opposite ends are thick-
er, and occasionally rounded, but sometimes they are simply cut
off obliquely. From time to time the trails are of dark shades of
blue, green, or purple, which provided a color contrast against
the lighter glass to which they were applied.

Drawings: S. Oguz

Drawing: N. Piercy

Another group of waste glass comprises vessels that were deformed
or misshapen during the blowing process. These are quite numerous
among the cullet and are composed of irregular necks, dented bodies,
unfinished bases, and odd rims (fig. 4). Vessels blown into patterned
molds, for example, could become waste because of poor definition or
imperfection in the pattern. Many of these pieces, especially the large
ones, have radial fractures which are an indication that they were inten-
tionally hit to break them into smaller shards so that they would take up
less space in a storage room or ship's cargo hold (fig. 5).
Some pieces, however, although perfectly formed, suffered dur-
ing the process of annealing, or slow cooling. Annealing took place in a
special furnace over a period of a day or longer. If the temperature was
not adequate or had variations during this time the pieces could suffer
contractions and break easily. This did not happen just during the an-
nealing process, but days or months later, since the glass became more
sensitive to natural temperature changes if the cooling process was not
properly completed. The characteristic fractures which are often curved,
sometimes appear only as surface cracks. It is noteworthy that many mis-
shapen pieces have annealing fractures, probably because the glassmaker
did not bother to cool them properly since they were already ruined. -
The process of engraving or cutting decorations was done after
the glass cooled and hardened. Being irreversible, it required much skill,
but flaws did occur. There are several pieces, for example, where it is
evident that the decoration was not well distributed, with parts of the

Fig. 3. Test drops (GW 1603 and an uninventoried item) used by the glassmaker
to determine the state of the glass in the furnace.

INA Quarterly 23.3

.:i: ; Drawing: B. Lled6
\ ..':. Fig. 4 (left). Deformed pieces (GW344 and GW 1560).

__ Fig. 5 (above). Vessel bottom with radial fractures
Drawings: N. Piercy and P. Pugsley (GW 1792).

design overlapping. On pieces decorated with cut bands
it is common that the beginning of the band does not meet
perfectly the opposite end (fig. 6). Such imperfections may
have been enough to render the glass waste.
In addition to these obvious examples of glass waste,
there are pieces among the cullet with no obvious defects.
We may never know why they were discarded. Perhaps
some were simply factory breakages.
All the types of waste glass described above became
cullet, glass destined to be recycled into new vessels and
to initiate the manufacturing cycle.

Examples of Mass Production
The quantity of waste glass mentioned above gives
an idea of the scale of the medieval mass-production sys-
tem we are facing when studying the Serqe Limaru glass.
This allows us to understand its economic implications for
the eleventh-century Eastern Mediterranean. There were
many different techniques to increase productivity and
make work easier, faster and cheaper. These are very im-
portant objectives of any industry, even today. The glass
cargo itself is an indication of the willingness to econo-
mize energy, since broken glass melts at a lower tempera-
ture than the raw materials needed to make new glass.
The scarcity of those raw materials in some areas could
also be a good reason to load three tons of glass in a ship
and transport it to a long distance with the sole aim being
to re-melt it.
There is some evidence in the Serge Limaru glass
for the use of cost effective manufacturing techniques. For

example, the use of simple patterned molds to decorate
vessels has long been considered by scholars as a substi-
tute for more expensive kinds of decoration like cut, carved,
faceted, etc. With the use of patterned molds the artisans
not only saved time, but had fewer broken pieces than if
they cut the glass, thus decreasing the cost of decorated
pieces in two ways (fig. 7).
Even when the glass was decorated by cutting, the
repetition of designs may be an indication of "serial" pro-
duction that either followed current fashions in decora-
tion or marked the style of the glass factory itself. In our
analysis of all the cut pieces it will not be surprising if we
conclude that only one person did each pattern, especially
very complicated ones that required much knowledge and
practice (fig. 8).
Undecorated pieces like table wares (bowls, cups,
bottles) or storage vessels (ars, demijohns) were common
throughout medieval times and accessible to many peo-
ple. In fact, table wares and storage vessels are the largest
groups in our collection. There were, for example, parts of
at least 290 plain jars cataloged by Key Ebel in the cullet
while approximately two-thirds of the 266 flared bowls
the author cataloged were plain or undecorated.
Decorated or not, the great number of pieces of each
shape allows us to speculate about them from many points
of view, such as cost, function, frequency, directions. Try-
ing to discern capacities and possible relations with mea-
surement systems of pieces of similar size, however,
requires that we must in general study their drawings.
Approximate direct measurements are difficult to take

INA Quarterly 23.3


Drawing: B. Lled6

INA Quarterly 23.3

Fig. 6. Bottoms with imperfect cut decoration (GW
1828 and GW 1856).

because of their incomplete state and the irregu-
larities of hand-made blown pieces.

General Reflections
As noted above, the Serqe Limani wreck
was carrying three tons of glass composed of two
tons of raw glass and one ton of broken glass
vessels and moils. This cargo has a great impor-
tance for future research on medieval glass, glass
production, and trade. The very few publications
relating to excavated medieval glass factories
make impossible precise comparison between
the waste glass that may have been carried on a
ship and that produced in situ at a factory. Nev-
ertheless, there are two sites that may be used
for comparison. One is Jalame, a late Roman
glass workshop excavated in Western Israel, al-
though its date is not close enough to that of
Serve Limani to consider it a parallel site. The
other is a medieval glass factory in Patlenia, Bul-
garia, whose ninth/tenth-century date is very
convenient for our research. In those two facto-
ries the raw and waste glass is quite similar to
that found at Serve Limani, with almost every
example of moils, misshapen forms, and other
discards having a parallel in our collection. Only
two kinds of factory waste seem to be missing at
Serqe Limanr. In the first instance are crack-offs
from the pontil that preserve the shape of the
instrument and (in some instances) even iron
oxide from it. It is possible that we will find some
of these during continuing research. In the sec-
ond instance, not surprisingly, we did not find
ceramic pieces from the crucibles in which glass
was melted.
We know from chemical analyses that
most of the Serqe Limani glass came from one or
a few very closely associated factories. It will be
interesting to estimate, when our research reaches
its end, the number of broken vessels the ship
was carrying as cullet, and the length of time it
took the medieval glass factory or factories to
accumulate that amount of broken, misshapen
and discarded glass. At the moment our estimate
of between 10,000 and 20,000 vessels is overly

Fig. 7. Five patterned bottoms which were decorated
using the same mold.

Fig. 8. Complicated cut decoration repeated in various pieces
(GW 264).

vague. We would also like to know if all the broken glass
vessels on the ship came from factory waste or if broken
pieces from private houses in the vicinity were collected
as well. The existence of 10% of the pieces with very dif-
ferent glass compositions supports this theory, although
most of the broken glass collected from nearby houses
would probably have also been produced in the area (and
so it would not be represented in that 10%).
Although the glass seems to have been carried
within the ship in baskets, nothing suggests that there
was any specific association of the pieces in any container.
After close study of site plans we could discern no dis-
tribution patterns based on color, shape, or quality of
glass, with the exception that the overblows we called
"candle holders" were accumulated in very restricted
areas in Square N4 of the excavation site (fig. 9). Further,
r.I we never found all the pieces of any particular vessel,
although some were of easily identifiable fabric. All this
suggests that the cullet had been shoveled into baskets
from a large mound of waste glass, or that some of the
cullet had already been sold before the ship sank.
Shipments of cullet like that excavated at Serce
Limani were not uncommon in the past. A document of
;4 1255 from Venice, for example, mentions the arrival at
the harbor of a ship carrying broken glass from Alexan-
dria that was to be remelted in local Venetian factories.
The Serge Limaun wreck is not the only known shipwreck
with a glass cargo; in its 1984 survey off the Turkish coast,
the Institute of Nautical Archaeology recorded another
shipwreck with similar cullet. On the Yassi Ada reef near
Bodrum, a few scraps of raw glass are all that remain of
Drawg: N. Piercy a ton of raw glass of unknown date raised by sponge
divers and sold to a glass factory in the 1950s, before
underwater archaeology was a discipline. The practice
of shipping raw glass dates back to the Late Bronze Age, as shown by the nearly two hundred cakes of blue and
turquoise glass found on the Uluburun shipwreck of ca. 1316 BCE (see INA Quarterly between 1983 and 1996). Later, in
Roman times glass factories in the Eastern Mediterranean produced raw glass specifically to be sent to other factories in
the Empire that specialized only in finished products. In this way, small local factories did not have to deal with the
process of acquiring and melting the ingredients for raw glass, and at the same time they could manufacture their
products following the fashions and demands of their own areas.
Cataloging and research continue in The Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology. It is hoped that a com-
plete study of the glass recovered from the Serge Limaru wreck will shed new light on many of the questions that are
already being considered and others still to be posed.

Acknowledgements: As in previous years the project was supported by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology and Texas
A&M University, both of which I would like to thank for making my research possible. I am especially grateful to
George F. Bass and Sheila D. Matthews for their constant support and assistance.

INA Quarterly 23.3


Fig. 9. Most of the glass overblows were found in Square N4. INA Archives

Suggested Reading

Bass, G. F.
1978 "Glass Treasure from the Aegean," National Geographic 153 (June): 768-93.
Bass, G. F
1984 "The Nature of the Serqe Limani Glass," Journal of Glass Studies 26: 64-69.
Bass, G. F., and F. H. van Doominck,
1978 "An 11th Century Shipwreck at Serqe Liman, Turkey," International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 7: 119-32.
Dzingov, D.
1963 "Medieval Glass Factory in Patleina," Bulletin de L'Institute d'Archaeologie 26: 47-69. Sofia: Academie des Sci-
ences de Bulgarie.
Janpoladian, H. M.
1974 The Medieval Glassware of Dvin (The Archaeological Monuments and Specimens of Armenia 7). Yerevan.
Lled6, Berta
1997 "Mold Siblings from the Serqe Limaru Shipwreck," Journal of Glass Studies, in press.
Weinberg, Gladys Davidson, ed.
1988 Excavations at Jalame: Site of a Glass Factory in Late Roman Palestine. Columbia: University of Missouri Press.

INA Quarterly 23.3

Maritime Archaeology in the Western Baltic Sea

by George Indruszewski

INA could not carry on its work without the cooperation of many other institutions and museums throughout the world.
Students and graduates of the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M are already associated with many of these programs,
and they provide important opportunities for future work. The following is a sequel to the author's article discussing the archaeolog-
ical research institutions on the southern Baltic coast that appeared in INA Quarterly 22.4.

Western Baltic is the DENMARK
generic name used to define 0 m 50
a relatively large area cover- km 80
ing the Danish archipelago,
the German Baltic coast, and
the Western Swedish coast up
to the Skagerrak Straits. The
Danish islands occupy a cen-
tral place in this context. Be-
cause of their geographic
position, the Danish islands
were for millennia nodal
points in the maritime traffic
between the Scandinavian a
Peninsula and the rest of Eu- *
rope, and between Eastern
and Western Europe. No C
wonder that it was here that F
maritime archaeology found o
fertile ground for research. In
the course of time, ships and
seafaring became part of ev- C D .
eryday life, and a strong mar-
itime tradition developed as
a major constituent of the
Danish cultural heritage. Fig. 1. Locations mentioned
Fig. 1. Locations mentioned
Starting with Engelhardt's ex- 6- . ,
cavation at Nydam in 1863- F. N ; H
F. Nydam; G. Ladby; H. Ko
1864, and continuing with
Rosenberg's work at Hjort-
spring on the island of Als in 1922, archaeology gradually
developed a genuine interest in the seafaring tradition man-
ifested on Danish territory. A decisive contribution was made
in 1958 when Olaf Olsen and Ole Crumlin-Pedersen, both
from the Danish National Museum, published their prelim-
inary report on the excavation of five sunken vessels found
in the Roskilde Fjord. Widely known as the Skuldelev ships,
the excavation of these sunken vessels marked the begin-
ning of a new era of archaeological research in Denmark.
The Skuldelev vessels
In 1957 and 1958, preliminary surveys in the Peber-
renden channel near Skuldelev detected an artificial ob-
struction on the seafloor formed by five sunken vessels

Map: C. A. Powell

in the article: A. Copenhagen;
). Hedeby; E. Hjortspring;
llerup; I. Ellinga.

from the 10th and 11th cen-
turies. During the following
excavation years, Olaf Olsen
was the archaeologist in
charge of the project and Ole
Crumlin-Pedersen was the
naval engineer in charge of
the interpretation and recon-
struction of the vessels. They
led a admirable team of en-
thusiasts on the tortuous path
of archaeological research
and reconstruction. A coffer-
dam built around an excava-
tion area of about 1600 square
meters allowed the water to
be pumped out of the pre-
cinct, although the wood was
kept wet and in a similar con-
dition to that in which it was
initially found. The general
public visited the site in ever-
increasing numbers, and
keenly followed the broad-
cast or printed news of the
The excavation re-
vealed the remains of five dif-
ferent vessel types. Skuldelev
I was shown to be a deep-

water cargo carrier, the grenlandknarr type that was used
in transatlantic voyages. Skuldelev 2 represents the re-
mains of a large oak warship, a true langskip. Skuldelev 3
seems to be one of the small traders, the austrfararknarr,
used in the Baltic trade. Skuldelev 5 was built as a small
warship, perhaps one constructed by a local community
for coastal defense. Skuldelev 6 appears to be the remnant
of a small vessel used either for fishing or for menial tasks
in coastal waters. Thus, the Skuldelev excavation revealed
not only the existence of different ship types at the end of
the first Christian millennium, but also the importance of
underwater sites for the study of seafaring history in the
Western Baltic region. This excavation led to a rebirth of
the Danish public's interest in maritime archaeology and

INA Quarterly 23.3

in seafaring history, and soon it became a landmark for
the student of nautical archaeology.

The Institute of Maritime Archaeology
After the exciting years of field research, the tedious
work of recording and reconstructing the Skuldelev ves-
sels began at a steady pace (fig. 2). In the meantime, Dan-
ish maritime archaeology started to change its early
amateur-like profile into that of a professional discipline
with a recognized scientific standard. In 1962, Danish aca-
demics founded the Institute of Maritime Archaeology
whose aim was to promote archaeological research in the
sphere of historical shipbuilding and seafaring. At the in-
itiative of Ole Crumlin-Pedersen, its scope was expanded
to include research into all human maritime activities. To
promote this work, the Danish government passed an "Act
Concerning the Protection of Historical Shipwrecks" in
1963 to promote the work of the newly established institu-
tion. The act stipulated in clear terms the state ownership of
all submerged objects, including shipwrecks, and the State
Antiquary was appointed custodian of these materials.
After this promising beginning, the legal and aca-
demic infrastructure of Danish maritime archaeology con-
tinued to improve. The continuous collaboration between
different agencies interested in the maritime heritage cul-
minated in 1983 with the establishment of a maritime ar-
chaeological reference group that included representatives
from the National Museum, the Maritime Museum, the
Royal Naval Museum, and the University of Copenhagen.
The group also included representatives from various re-
gional museums and environmental agencies. Since then,
the group has acted not only as a liaison among this di-
verse spectrum of research institutions, but has also pro-
moted the awareness of Denmark's rich maritime history
among the general public.

Fig. 2. Sune Villum-Nielsen working on the final draw-
ings of the Skuldelev vessels.

Although the Institute of Maritime Archae-
ology began with a minimum of personnel and
funding, its research results reflect the importance
this institution has gained in the Danish research
context in particular, and more generally in the
Western Baltic international context. Its research
program has concentrated on older finds such as
the Iron Age Hjortspring boat and the Roman Pe-
riod Nydam vessels, and on new significant sites.
The excavation at Nydam, directed by Flemming
Rieck, continues to occupy a central place on the
ews research agenda of the Institute. The artifactual
material uncovered from Nydam will enable a
more complete picture of the site. This will throw light on
the historical significance of bog war-offerings in relation
to the migrations occurring in the Western Baltic at the
end of the Roman period.
The new work in the Institute's research program
has led to the excavation, preservation and reconstruction
of several notable finds. These include the 11th- or 12th-
century Kollerup vessel, considered to be one of the old-
est cog finds; the Early Medieval traders from Lynaes and
Selling ; the small 12th-century vessel found at Gislinge in
Lammefjord, which shows characteristics common to finds
from Norway and from the Southern Baltic region; and
the late 13th-century Gedesby vessel, which exemplifies a
unique combination of Early and Late Medieval shipbuild-
ing techniques. The area of research soon escaped the con-
finement of Danish territorial waters and extended to other
parts of the Western Baltic region. Between 1977 and 1980,
Ole Crumlin-Pedersen collaborated with the Schieswig
Archdiologische Landesmuseum in the excavation and
reconstruction of ship remains from Haithabu/Hedeby,
Germany. In 1981-1982, the Institute was involved in the
excavation and recording of an artificial barrage constructed
from at least five vessels found on the seafloor near Fote-
vik, Sweden. Despite these and other new finds, however,
the Skuldelev vessels have always occupied a central place
in the Institute's work.

The Viking Ships Museum
As the recording and conservation of the Skuldelev
ship remains continued at Brede, it was realized that the
reconstructed vessels should be housed in a museum that
could also house the newly-created Institute of Maritime
Archaeology. A museum building was therefore a sine qua
non not only for the continuation of the research process,
but also for public access to the reconstruction phase of

INA Quarterly 23.3

the Skuldelev project. After much debate, Roskilde-
medieval seat of the Danish bishops and first capital of
the kingdom of Denmark-was selected as the future site
of the Viking Ships Museum.
Erected between 1966 and 1969, the Museum's
building was built so that its northern facade is continu-
ously washed by Roskilde Fjord. This location on the edge
of the fjord is not just to provide an esthetic connection
between the exhibits and their initial environment. It also
facilitates two main components of nautical research: ship
reconstruction and ship replication. By assuring a fruitful
cooperation between sailing clubs, shipbuilding guilds,
school teams, and other nautically-minded organizations,
the museum has increased its fleet over the years. It now
includes full-scale replicas of vessels discovered through
archaeological investigation, such as the Skuldelev vessels.
It also incorporates ethnographic finds such as the jekter
built in 1901 in Northern Norway. The visitor cannot but
remain fascinated by the visual combination of the ships
on display with the replicas moored outside the large win-
dows of the northern facade.
Today, the Museum admirably fulfills one of its
major purposes: that of educating the younger generation
in the maritime aspects of Danish history in particular, and
of the world maritime history in general. Special arrange-
ments are made with various school districts for children
to come to the museum. They learn and practice different
aspects of maritime activities and sail full-scale replicated
vessels in the fjord.
At the same time, the museum retains its research
capability. One of its upper galleries houses a display of
artifacts recently excavated at Fribredre A, on the island

Fig. 3. Christian Lemie at work with a cardboard model of the
excavated Gedesby vessel.

of Faster. The site is thought to represent a shipyard that
employed both Scandinavian and Southern Baltic/Wendish
shipbuilding traditions. The director of the Viking Ship
Museum, Jan Skamby Madsen, hopes that a new exten-
sion of the museum's facilities will provide not only an
aquatorium for the fleet of replicated vessels, but also suf-
ficient exhibition space for the thousands of artifacts from
Fribredre A and other potentially-important sites. The
Viking Ship Museum continues to attract the attention of
both the general public and the maritime specialist,
although most Danish maritime research is channeled to-
day through the Institute of Maritime Archaeology and
the newly-created Center for Maritime Archaeology.

The Center for Maritime Archaeology
As a result of the enormous public interest in archae-
ology, the Danish Research Foundation approved the for-
mation of a new research institution, the Center for
Maritime Archaeology, in 1993. The Center focuses its re-
search efforts on three interrelated fields of study: nauti-
cal archaeology, maritime archaeology, and auxiliary
sciences such as conservation, naval architecture, and
marine geophysics. Nautical archaeology, concerned with
the study of ship remains found in the archaeological con-
text, occupies a central place on the research agenda. Sev-
eral young researchers, such as Jan Bill (recently a Visiting
Scholar in the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas
A&M University), Anne Christina Serensen, Christian
Philippe Lem6e (fig. 3), and others work toward the re-
construction and interpretation of both old and new
shipfinds. Jan Bill and Christian Lem&e are working on
the new shipfind from Gedesby, while Anne Sorenson is
trying to define new aspects of an old but impor-
tant find: the Ladby vessel. Ole Crumlin-Pedersen
is approaching the final stage in the analysis and
publication of the ship remains which changed the
course of his life and many others: the Skuldelev
ships. At the same time, he is preparing the final
publication of the Hedeby shipfinds.
Maritime archaeology, which researches
cultural aspects related to the maritime environ-
ment, has found broad support on the center's
agenda. In this context, Anne Norgard Jorgensen's
work on coastal defenses from the Viking Age and
the later Middle Ages tries to fill a gap in our
knowledge about the roots, organization, and size
of the Danish military leading organization and its
outreach in the Western Baltic region. No less im-
portant is the work of Jens Ulriksen on the study
of Late Iron Age and Early Viking Age harbors,
:ewski landing places, and stationary marine structures
in the Roskilde Fjord area. Culminating almost ten
zewly- years of assiduous research, the final publication
of the interdisciplinary research program on the

INA Quarterly 23.3

Fig. 4. Else Snitker smiling from her workdesk.

Photo: G. Indrusz

Fyn coastal region confirms not only the Center's commit-
ment to maritime archaeology, but also its capabilities for
collaboration with other Danish research institutions.
To benefit from the technological advances of other
maritime-related disciplines, the Center has formed a re-
search platform from its very beginning. Fields of study
include the conservation of wooden artifacts (where the
accent is put on finding new methods for solving old con-
servation problems of waterlogged organic material such
as shrinkage, deformation, and collapse), and naval archi-
tecture (with an emphasis on computerized hydrostatic/
strength calculation and CAD drafting of three-dimensional
ship models). The Center also does work in geophysics,
where the use of acoustic systems such as sub-bottom pro-
filers and swath sounding systems enables mapping large
tracts of seafloor in order to detect geophysical anomalies
such as shipwrecks and other human-made struc-
Teamwork and unselfish collegial spirit
dominate the atmosphere at the Center for Mar-
itime Archaeology. The unswerving support of
Else Snitker (fig. 4), secretary and fiscal coordina-
tor of the Center, provides the necessary link be-
tween so many people dedicated to give their best
in maritime research. In all respects, the new Cen-
ter seems to have been built with an inner balance
between the old and the young, between experi-
ence and experiment, and between collective goal
and personal achievement. In a word, it can stand,

Fig. 5. Klaus Pedersen (right) and Leif Hjetting at a
PC drawing-terminal.

as a model of a research institution as regards its
program, its organization, and its value to society.
In all fields, there is continuous coopera-
tion with other institutions from Denmark and
other countries. In this respect, the Center for
Maritime Archaeology and the Institute of Mar-
itime Archaeology provide an eloquent example
of two independent institutions with a proven
record of research cooperation. Morten Gotliche,
Sune Villum-Nielsen, Klaus Pedersen, Leif Hjet-
ting (fig.5), and others employed by the Institute
contribute also to the Center's projects. In return,
ewski Ole Gron and Ken Jensen from the Center are
working side-by-side with colleagues from the In-
stitute. A similar relationship has been established between
the Center and the Viking Ship Museum; Erik Andersen
and Jette Elkjaer divide their research time between these
two institutions. The interwoven research cooperation be-
tween the three institutions not only permits a cohesive
research effort in the field of maritime archaeology, but
also allows building up a new generation of maritime spe-
cialists. It is in this direction that the pioneering efforts of
Ole Crumlin-Pedersen and Olaf Olsen are best fulfilled.

Acknowledgments. I would like to express my gratitude to
Ole Crumlin-Pedersen, Jan Bill, Else Snitker, Anne Chris-
tina Sorensen, Jan Skamby Madsen, Erik Andersen, Hanne
Marie Myrhej, and all the others who-not in a small
way-have contributed to my first-hand impressions of
maritime research in the Western Baltic region.

Photo: G. Indruszewski

INA Quarterly 23.3

Suggested Reading

Crumlin-Pedersen, O.
1968 "The Skuldelev ships. A preliminary report on an underwater excavation in Roskilde Fjord, Zealand," Acta
Archaeologica 38: 74-174.

Rieck, F.
1995 "Institute of Maritime Archaeology-the beginning of maritime research in Denmark," Shipshape: Essays for
Ole Crumlin-Pedersen on the occasion of his 60th anniversary February 24th 1995. Roskilde, 19-37.

Skamby Madsen, J.
1995 "The Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde," Shipshape: Essays for Ole Crumlin-Pedersen on the occasion of his 60th
anniversary February 24th 1995. Roskilde, 37-59.

Ships and Shipwrecks of the Americas

Now Available in Paperback

Through special arrangements with the
publishers, Thames and Hudson, Ltd., INA
members and friends can purchase Ships and
Shipwrecks of the Americas, edited by Professor
George F. Bass, at a considerable savings off
the $24.95 retail price. An order form is en-
closed with this issue of the INA Quarterly of-
fering the book for $15.50 plus shipping and
handling ($3.50 within the U.S., $20.00 foreign
air postage, or $6.50 foreign surface postage).
When this work, subtitled "A History
Based on Underwater Archaeology," was first
published in 1988, a reviewer in Post-Medieval
Archaeology described it as "Profusely illustrated
with high quality photographs... a landmark
in publications on underwater archaeology."
Unfortunately, the very quality of the book
and its profuse illustrations meant that its
price reflected its value. Now, with the re-
lease of a paperback edition, the work of the
editor and his collaborators will be available
to a wider audience.

To reserve copies for yourself or
as a gift, mail your request to:

Book Order
Institute of Nautical Archaeology
P.O. Drawer HG
College Station TX 77841-5137

INA Quarterly 23.3

Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., Retires

by George F Bass
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology
George O. Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts

On September 1,1996, a major milestone was passed
in the history of shipwreck archaeology. That date marked
the retirement from the Texas A&M faculty of Frederick
van Doorninck, the Frederick-R. Mayer Professor of Nau-
tical Archaeology.
Van Doorninck revolutionized our field by show-
ing in the early 1960s, for the first time, that it was possible
to reconstruct an ancient ship's hull from fragmentary sea-
bed remains. Then he took it a step further. No one before
him had known how the change from shell-first to frame-
first ship construction took place (with its major techno-
logical, economic and historical implications), or even how
to look for it. But after years of gathering the necessary
measurements and other data from a seventh-century Byz-
antine ship we had just excavated off Yassiada, Turkey, he
understood the change. This was all new, yet a search
through literature since then shows that understanding and
tracing this change has become a major research concern-
all started by van Doorninck.
Then Fred moved on. How many dozens or hun-
dreds of references to the history of the warship ram were
wrong because no other scholar made the effort he made
to learn its true history? His discovery was not due to ser-
endipity but to thoroughness. He reviewed all published
representations of rams on pottery, and then turned to rep-
resentations on ancient fibulae, largely going over old
ground. When he found it difficult to make out the rep-
resentations on the fibulae, he went back to original ex-
cavation reports until he discovered the one fibula,
published almost 30 years earlier, that changed the date
of the introduction of the ram. He later dated the de-
mise of the ram.
I cannot overemphasize the length of time it takes to
gather the necessary data for such work. Van Doominck
spent the equivalent of a year of ten-hour days working
just on the anchors from the seventh-century Yassiada ship-
wreck, in the extremely complex process of restoring them
to a condition in which they could be studied. His work,
however, should not he measured by his physical tech-
niques, but by what he does with the information he re-
trieves. No other archaeologist I know could have reached

the same valid conclusions about the metallurgy and
weights and uses of ancient anchors. He had opened
another area of research. It is amazing how quickly his
approaches become commonplace.
Next, Fred turned to the study of amphoras, dem-
onstrating for the first time their re-use as transport jars,
gaining a new understanding of their capacities. This might
seem rather esoteric, but it strikes at the heart of the begin-
ning of the free-enterprise system, opening a new area of
research. To interpret graffiti on amphoras from the eleventh-
century Serce Limani wreck, Fred learned to read Russian,
Rumanian, and Bulgarian.
Fred's bibliography is not long, because his relent-
less preparation prohibits him from arriving more quickly
at publishable results, and he has no interest in spin-off
articles that would take time from his research. However,
each publication is a gem.
At the same time Fred has been a good teacher. As
many as 200 students would try to take his undergraduate
introduction to nautical archaeology, which had to be limit-
ed to 65. This was not because he graded easily, but be-
cause of the quality of the course.
Dr. van Doorninck has built a house in Bodrum,
Turkey, next to our Institute of Nautical Archaeology head-
quarters, and he plans to spend much of every year there
on his research and writing. It has been a great pleasure to
have had him as a colleague and friend for 35 years, at first
as a fellow graduate student at the University of Pennsyl-
vania and for the last 20 at Texas A&M University. I can
think of no archaeologist in the international community
of scholars who has accomplished more in so many differ-
ent areas. His creativity is always directed toward new
areas of research, areas that involve seeing things that no
one else has ever seen. He does not simply catalogue and
arrange facts, or synthesize other people's ideas. And he
does not continue with the same problem once he has
opened doors for others to follow.
On top of everything else, Fred and his wife B. J. are
lots of fun. Ann and I and the rest of the INA family look
forward to many more years with them in Bodrum and in
College Station.

INA Quarterly 23.3 20


A 35-Year Collaboration

George Bass and Frederick van Doorninck study plans
of the Yassiada 7th-century shipwreck in 1961.

)bert Goodman National Geographic Society

Bass and van Doorninck, 13 years later in 1974, once
again on Yassiada.

Bass and Van Doorninck, another 13 years later in 1987,
study plans of the INA complex, since built in Bodrum.

We now are looking forward to the year 2000, 13 years since the last picture, for the fourth in the set.

INA Quarterly 23.3

News & Notes

Update on the La Salle Shipwreck

The excavation of La Belle, the
310-year-old ship that belonged to
Rene Robert Cavalier, Sieur de La
Salle, began in early January 1996 and
(at press time) was scheduled for com-
pletion in early Spring 1997. This may
be the most significant underwater ex-
cavation in the history of North Amer-
ican archaeology. La Belle is the oldest
French shipwreck ever found in the
Americas and is associated with one
of the most important of the European
explorers; La Salle claimed Louisiana
and the entire Mississippi drainage on
behalf of France.
The La Belle excavation is being
conducted by the Texas Historical
Commission and is directed by the
State Marine Archaeologist, J. Barto
Arnold i, who spent 17 years look-
ing for the ship before its 1995 discov-
ery. The materials excavated from
Matagorda Bay are to be transported
to College Station and the Nautical
Archaeology Program at Texas A&M
University. There, the Conservation
Laboratory will be responsible for the
cleaning and preservation of the arti-
facts. It is estimated that the La Salle
Shipwreck Project will require around
$4 million, of which about $1 million
is still urgently needed to complete the
excavation and conservation.
The site in Matagorda Bay,
about 90 miles southwest of Houston,
has been surrounded with a coffer-
dam of 60-foot steel sheet pilings. This
allows the archaeologists to excavate
on dry land without the severe visi-
bility limitations of this part of the
The excavation suffered a set-
back on October 21 when a coastal
storm struck the work site. The work
barge broke loose from the cofferdam
with Texas A&M Nautical Archaeol-
ogy student and Historical Commis-
sion archaeologist Layne Hedrick
aboard. Fortunately, he had a cellular

phone and was able to call for help.
Because the electrical cables were sev-
ered, the cofferdam pumps stopped
operating and the site was flooded
with six feet of water. Despite the
storm, the excavation is largely back
on schedule.
The site has provided a rich
variety of finds already, including
well-preserved rope and cloth, as well
as human remains, pewter plates, lead
shot, pottery vessels, and many other
items. More than 20,000 glass beads
have been found at the excavation site
so far (as many as 1600 within a sin-
gle square meter). These blue, black,
white and occasionally red beads
were used for trade with the Native
Americans and as decoration on the
Frenchmen's clothing.
For the latest information on
the La Belle excavation, the Shipwreck
Project site on the WorldWideWeb is
updated weekly. The URL is httpd/

Dr. Bass Gives Scottish Lectures

Dr. George F. Bass, President of
INA and George T. & Gladys H. Abell
Professor of Nautical Archaeology
and Yamini Family Professor of Lib-
eral Arts at Texas A&M University,
gave the 1996 Dalrymple Lectures in
Archaeology sponsored by the Uni-
versity of Glasgow and the Glasgow
Archaeological Society. He gave four
lectures from 18 to 21 November on
"Marine Archaeology in the Eastern
Mediterranean." The lectures dealt
respectively with the Cape Gelidonya,
Yassiada, Serge Limani, and Uluburun

INA Faculty Participate in Greek

Several INA faculty and staff
participated in the Sixth International
Symposium on Ship Construction in
Antiquity in Lamia, Greece, from 28

to 30 August 1996. Mr. Richard Steffy
presented "A Mediterranean Ship
Construction Database-Dating and
Classifying Shipwrecks by their Hull
Remains." Cemal Pulak presented
"The Uluburun Shipwreck: An Up-
date." "The INA/CMS Joint Expedi-
tion to Tantura Lagoon Israel: Results
of the 1994 and 1995 Seasons of Exca-
vation," was presented by Dr. Shelley
Wachsmann, while Dr. Cheryl
Haldane presented "Heavy Transpor-
tation in Ancient Egypt."

Students Receive 1996-97 Honors

The following students in the
Nautical Archaeology Program at
Texas A&M University have received
non-teaching graduate assistantships
in the Nautical Archaeology Program:
Stephen Butler, Doreen Danis, Glenn
Grieco, Sam Mark, Tonka Ostoich,
and Kendra Quinn. Janalyn Gober
and Jeffery Royal were named non-
teaching graduate assistants with the
Institute of Nautical Archaeology.
INA Scholarships were awarded to
Ben An Liu and Thanos Webb, while
Erika Washburn and Eric Emery were
named as recipients of the Marion M.
Cook Graduate Fellowship. A Texas
A&M University Regents Fellowship
was awarded to Kristen Romey.

INA Receives Valuable Gifts

The Institute of Nautical Ar-
chaeology has recently been the recip-
ient of several gifts to further its work
in expanding knowledge of the history
of seafaring.
Nurettin Hasman of Istanbul,
Turkey, has given INA a Nikonos V
camera with a 15 mm lens. This model
is widely considered the ultimate for
underwater photography.
INA is also the recipient of
valuable photographic equipment
and film donated by Fujifilm-Turkey.

INA Quarterly 23.3

In the Field

All this equipment has already
seen yeoman service on the Turkish
survey this summer. The work of the
Institute would be impossible without
the generosity of patrons like these.

Turkish Survey finds Classical

The INA survey of the Turkish
coast in the summer of 19% found a
number of sites for possible future ex-
cavation. The most promising was a
shipwreck on the western coast of Tur-
key that appears to be from the first
half of the 5th century BCE. This wreck
seems to be well preserved by deep
sand at about 130 feet of depth. Dr.
Bass hopes to be closely associated
with the excavation of this ship, which
should provide valuable information
about seafaring in the opening years
of classical Greek civilization. This is
one of the most interesting periods of
ancient history, and one that was
strongly shaped by maritime trade,
but no previous ships have been found
from this era.

Nautical Archaeology Program
Welcomes Visiting Scholars

The Nautical Archaeology Pro-
gram at Texas A&M University has
been playing host to two international
visiting scholars.
Harun Ozdas of the Bodrum
museum staff is studying for his Ph.D.
He is the author of several scholarly
papers and co-author of a book on the
amphoras in the Bodrum Museum.
Mr. Ozdas will be working with Cemal
Pulak in the Old World Laboratory
and studying with various faculty
members over the next year.
Otto Uldum of the Danish Na-
tional Maritime Museum in Roskilde
is studying for his Master's degree and
was in College Station during the Fall
semester. He also was a member of the

Bozburun excavation team in the
summer of 1996.
All the members of the A&M
and INA communities welcome the
chance to work with such scholars.

DAN Membership Forms now
Available Online

Membership and insurance ap-
plication forms for the Divers Alert
Network are now available on the
WorldWideWeb. This convenience
will be appreciated by underwater ar-
chaeologists, since DAN is one of the
few readily-available sources for div-
er's insurance. The forms can be filled
out while online and payment made
by credit card. The URL is http://
Medical Oxygen Still Available to

After a review that lasted more
than ten years, the United States Food
and Drug Administration has ruled to
allow the continued sale of medical
oxygen to divers for use in emergen-
cies without a doctor's prescription.
Other uses of medical-grade oxygen
continue to require supervision by a
licensed practicioner. The federal rul-
ing follows a decision by the Florida
Department of Health and Rehabilita-
tive Services to allow certified divers
in that state to purchase medical-grade
oxygen and emergency oxygen deliv-
ery equipment without a prescription.
Both government agencies were per-
suaded by representatives of the
Compressed Gas Association and
Divers Alert Network that it was es-
sential to public health that properly-
trained personal be equipped to
administer oxygen to distressed
divers in emergency situations. It is
hoped that other authorities through-
out the world will follow these prece-
dents, which will greatly benefit
underwater archaeologists and other
professional divers.

1996 Tantura Excavation

Dr. Shelley Wachsmann, Mead-
ows Assistant Professorof Biblical Ar-
chaeology, has recently returned from
the 1996 excavation season at Tantura
Lagoon on the Mediterranean coast of
Israel. This is a joint project of INA and
Haifa University's Recanati Center for
Maritime Studies (CMS).
The Lagoon was the harbor for
the nearby city of Dor, and has been
an important refuge on the coast since
the Middle Bronze Age. The site has
an incredible wealth of shipwrecks lit-
erally piled up on one another. The
Tantura Project has been engaged in a
survey and selective excavation of this
rich treasure-trove of nautical materials.
The INA Quarterly hopes to pro-
vide extensive coverage of the 1995
and 1996 seasons in upcoming issues.

INA Quarterly 23.3



Rebecca H. Holloway, Secretary
James A. Goold, Treasurer

William L. Allen
John H. Baird
George F. Bass
Edward O. Boshell, Jr., Vice Chairman
Ray M. Bowen
John A. Brock
Gregory M. Cook, Chairman
Harlan Crow
John De Lapa
Frank Darden
Claude Duthuit
Daniel Fallon

George F. Bass, President and
Archaeological Director


Danielle J. Feeney
Donald G. Geddes I (Emeritus)
Woodrow Jones, Jr.
Harry C. Kahn II (Emeritus)
Michael L. Katzev
Jack W. Kelley
Sally R. Lancaster
Robert E. Lorton
Frederick R. Mayer
William A. McKenzie

Donald A. Frey, Vice President
Cemal M. Pulak, Vice President

Alex G. Nason
L. Francis Rooney
Ayhan Sicimoglu
Ray H. Siegfried II
William T Sturgis
Robert L. Walker
Lew O. Ward
Peter M. Way
Garry A. Weber
Martin H. Wilcox
George O. Yamini

George F. Bass
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology/ George O. Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts
Kevin J. Crisman, Nautical Archaeology Faculty Fellow
Donny L. Hamilton, Frederick R. Mayer Fellow
Frederick M. Hocker, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Faculty Fellow
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., Frederick R Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology
Shelley Wachsmann, Meadows Assistant Professor of Biblical Archaeology

Birgil Akbulut
Mustafa Baback
William H. Charlton, Jr.
Marion Degirmenci
Helen Dewolf
Adel Farouk
Michael A. Fitzgerald, Ph.D.
Sevil Gbkr~en
Douglas Haldane, M.A.
Ashraf Hanna
Maria Jacobsen
Emad Khalil
Claudia LeDoux
Sheila D. Matthews, M.A.
Selma Oguz
G6khan Ozagach, Ph.D.
Giine Ozbay
Jane Pannell
Claire P. Peachey, M.A.
Robin C.M. Piercy
Cemal M. Pulak, M.S., M.A.
Sema Pulak, M.A.
Patricia M. Sibella, Ph.D.
Gilser Sinaci
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D.
Tufan U. Turanh
Patricia A. Turner

Elizabeth Robinson Baldwin
Jeremy Green
Elizabeth Greene
George Indruszewski
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D.
Robert S. Neyland, Ph.D.
Brett A. Phaneuf
Ralph K Pedersen, M.A.
Donald Rosencrantz
Peter G. van Alfen, M.A.

Arthur Cohn, J.D.
Cynthia J. Eiseman, Ph.D.
John A. Gifford, Ph.D.
Cheryl W. Haldane, Ph.D.
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D.
Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
David I. Owen, Ph.D.
David C. Switzer, PhD.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., M.A.
James A. Goold
Christine A. Powell

Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology
Boston University
Brown University
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati
Comell University
Coming Museum of Glass
Department de Arqueol6gia Subacuatica de
la I.N.A.H., Mexico
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Partners for Livable Places
University Museum, University of
Shell of Turkey, Ltd.
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Texas A&M University
University of Texas at Austin

Mr. and Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried II
Graduate Fellow: Cemal M. Pulak
Marion M. Cook Graduate Fellows:
Eric Emery
Erika Washburn

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