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Title: The INA quarterly
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 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Spring 1996
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098800
Volume ID: VID00015
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
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Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))


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Spring 1996

Volume 23 No. 1

The INA Quarterly

Volume 23 No. 1 Spring 1996

3 President's Letter MEMBERSHIP
Institute of Nautical Archaeology
4 Continuing Study of the Uluburun P.O. Drawer HG
Shipwreck Artifacts: College Station, TX 77841-5137
4 Conservation Learn firsthand of the latest discov-
Claire Peachey series in nautical archaeology. Mem-
SAbers receive the INA Quarterly, sci-
7 Laboratory Research and Analysis bers receive the INA quarterly, sci
a ratr eer ad a i entific reports, and book discounts.
Michael Fitzgerald
9 The Copper Oxhide and Bun Ingots Regular ........... $30
Patricia Sibella
Patricia Sibella Contributor ........ $60
12 Dendrochronological Dating of the
Uluburun Ship Supporter ........ $100
Cemal Pulak
Benefactor ....... $1000
14 Linnet: A Brig from the War of 1812 Student/ Retired ... $20
Erika Washburn
Checks in U.S. currency should be made
20 Sailing into Adventure: payable to INA. The portion of any do-
nation in excess of $10.00 is a tax-de-
The 1995 Cutty Sark Tall Ships Races ductible, charitable contribution.
Gregory G. Cook

24 Yorktown Project Final Report Now Available
Christine A. Powell

26 News & Notes

27 In Memoriam: Richard A. Williford

On the cover: Peter Kuniholm, from the Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronol-
ogy at Cornell University, collects samples of Uluburun wood for use in dating the ship. Photo by Cemal Pulak.

April 1996 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. All rights reserved.
INA welcomes requests to reprint INA Quarterly articles and illustrations. Please address all requests and submissions to the Editor,
INA Quarterly, P.O. Drawer HG, College Station, TX 77841-5137; tel (409) 845-6694, fax (409) 847-9260.
The Home Page for INA and the Texas A&M University Nautical Archaeology Program on the WorldWideWeb is
http: / /
The Institute of Nautical Archaeology is a non-profit scientific and educational organization, incorporated in 1972. Since 1976, INA
has been affiliated with Texas A&M University, where INA faculty teach in the Nautical Archaeology Program of the Department of

The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsletter (vols. 1-18).

Editor: Christine A. Powell

President's Letter

We would like to take this opportunity to thank the following people and organizations for their Support, both
financial and in-kind, in 1995.

Alexandria Businessmen's Association
American Research Center in Egypt, Inc.
American University in Cairo
Amoco Foundation, Inc.
Arab Contractors
Bilkent University
Boorstein Family Fund
British Gas
John and Donnie Brock Foundation
Chais Family Foundation
California Community Foundation
CitiBank Egypt
The Anna C. & Oliver C. Colbum Fund
College of Liberal Arts, Texas A&M University
Commercial International Bank
The Community Foundation
Continental Airlines
Coming, Incorporated
Covington & Burling
Cressi-sub, Italy
Douglas R. DeCluitt Foundation
Epson America
INA Films
INA Foundation
The Institute for Aegean Prehistory
Head Sports, Inc.
International Diving Educators Association
Joukowsky Family Foundation
Jewish Communal Fund
The Lubrizol Foundation
Mares America Corp.
The Meadows Foundation
Philip Morris Companies, Inc.
The Nason Foundation
The National Endowment for the Humanities
The National Geographic Society
Ocean Research Equipment
The Palynology Lab at Texas A&M University
Pelican Products
The Recanati Center for Maritime Studies,
University of Haifa
Scuba Duba Corporation
The Seattle Foundation
J. E. Smothers, Sr. Memorial Foundation
Special Expeditions, Inc
Texas A&M University Development
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Texas A&M Hyperbaric Lab
Texas A&M University
Trimble Navigation
The Malcolm Hewitt Wiener Foundation, Inc.

Mr. John De Lapa
Mr. Billings K. Ruddock

Dr. Allan C. Campbell
Dr. John G. Cassils
Robert & Elise Haldane
Ted & Frances Halpem
Dr. Ernestine A. O'Connell

Dr. & Mrs. Fred B. Aurin
Baroline & Richard Bienia
Mr. & Mrs. Charles B. Collins
Mr. & Mrs. Maurice J. Duca
Ms. Chatten Hayes
Michael H. Hitchcock
George W. & Marilyn H. Lodge
Doris & Roy Matthews
Isaac A. Morris
David & Jenniffer Perlman
Alice & Howard Rankin
Mary & Richard Rosenberg
Mr. & Mrs. John L. Stem
Dr. Murad Sunalp

Ms. Carol Adler
Ms. Carole F. Alexander
Ms. Martha Ann Allovo
Mr. David A. Batchelor
Mr. Kurt F. Baty
Ms Sue S. Beaghler
David John Blackman
Mr. & Mrs. John P. Bledsoe
Janet A. Berckefeldt
Steve Berman
Dr. & Mrs. Gerald Branower
Andrew, Lauren, Andy, Daniel, & Josh Branower
Peter, Janelle, Alex, & Benjamin Branower
Richard Branower
Gloria G. Browne
Ms. Marianne Buchwalter
Mr. John M. C. K. Camp II
Mr. Kenneth Cassavoy
Dr. Lionel Casson
Dr. & Mrs. Bradford E. Colen
Mr. Robertson E. Collins
Mr. & Mrs. E. H. Cooley
Ms. Evelyn S. Cooper
Ms. Jean C. Cory
Mr. & Mrs. Frederick J. Cox
Donald J. & Irene M. Crane
John W. Crawford
Dr. & Mrs. Chester C. Danehower
Dona & William Dales
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas P. Deering
Ms. Carolyn B. Denney
Ms. Ruth L. Dugan
Dr. Cynthia J. Eiseman
Dr. Theresa M. Falcon
Mr. & Mrs. William F. Farr
Loma Fenenbock
Mr. & Mrs. Byron Ferris
Robert J. & Marilyn Frasca
Dr. & Mrs. Hudson D. Fowler
Mr. & Mrs. Gerald W. Grawey

Dr. & Mrs. Gerald S. Green
Robert C. & Dianne O. Gomez
Mr. Mike Hanna
Mr. & Mrs. Donald R. Hardin
James Harker
A. S. Hendricks
Mr. & Mrs. Frederick C. Jessop, Jr.
Ms. Janet H. Kelley
Norma Kershaw
Mr. James M. Kilend
Mr. Earl Kilpatrick
Mr. Jay R. Kingery
Mr. Martin Klein
Mr. J. Pierre Kolisch
Dr. Barbara M. Kreutz
Mr. & Mrs. Weldon D. Kruger
Dr. Christopher Law
Mr. & Mrs. Hugh R. Lehman
Mr. & Mrs.Terry R. Lock
Mr. Stanley R. Loeb
Mr. Thomas R. Mackenzie
Mr. T. H. McCasland, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Douglas J. McGrady
Mr. Brian McLaggan
Ms. Betty Hale McLaughlin
Ms. Judith G. McNeil
William H. & Nancy D. Marshall
Mr. & Mrs. William A. Meyer
Miss Margaret E. Morden
Mr. Isaac A. Morris
Mr. Thomas A. Mueller
Mr. & Mrs. Clay Myers
Ms. Madeline B. Nelson
Mr. James E. Nielson
Mr. & Mrs. Jerry L. Pridemore
Dr. & Mrs. L. J. Reeve
Dr. Leon & Claire E. Riebman
Mrs. Alice S. Riginos
Mr. Kurt Rosenberg
Mr. & Mrs. T. N. Russell
Mr. & Mrs. Allan M. Saunders
Naomi Schadt
Gary E. & Terese A. Schmidt
Paul J. & Corrine R. Schmidt
Mr. Paul D. Schneider
Mr. & Mrs. Ladd Seaberg
Mr. & Mrs. W. F. Searle, Jr.
Dr. Robert W. Seibert
Mr. Peter Smiley
Ms. Virginia S. Smith
Barbara N. Snow
Ms. Joanne G. Starr
Ms. Alison Stenger
Mr. & Mrs.Stephen Susman
John & Marie Taraska
Ms. Mary Ausplund Tooze
Mr. & Mrs. Robert K. Vincent, Jr.
Richard B. Vowles
Mr. Robert C. Vose III
Mr. & Mrs. Wilson C. Washkuhn
Dr. Shelley Wachsmann
William B. Wiener, Jr.
Ms. Sabine Wild
Elizabeth Will
Mr. & Mrs. Elwin R. Wilson
Mr. Patrick S. Wilson
Mr. Keating V. Zeppa

INA Quarterly 23.1

Continuing Study of the Uluburun Shipwreck Artifacts

Excavation of the 14th-century B.C. Late Bronze Age Uluburun Shipwreck
was completed in September 1994. Since then, all efforts have been concen-
trated on full-time conservation, study, and sampling for analysis in the con-
servation laboratory in the Bodrum Museum of Underwater A,,. ,.l,1,:l in
Turkey. The following accounts describe the work undertaken in 1995.

Claire Peachey

More than 18,000 complete and fragmentary artifacts
were raised during INA's excavation of the Uluburun ship-
wreck between 1984 and 1994. Although conservation by
INA staff and volunteers at the Bodrum Castle laboratory
has proceeded year-round since the first season of excava-
tion, the large number of artifacts and the long treatment
times required mean that work will continue for several
years after the final artifact was raised from the seabed. It
is INA's experience that every three-month season of ex-
cavation requires two years of conservation and study, so
we could be here until the year 2007!
Over the past year or so, conservation efforts have
been increased so that study and publication can proceed
in a timely manner. With the help of funds from the Na-
tional Geographic Society and the Institute for Aegean Pre-
history, several conservation students and professionals
were invited to Bodrum to help with the enormous task.
Over the course of the year, a total of 15 interns from many
different laboratories and institutions worked in the lab
for two to four months each: Paula Artal-Isbrand, Ayje
Atauz, Tania Collas, Serpil ubukqu, Diane Fullick, Leyla
Goldstein, Mona Korolnik, Lori McCoy, Mohamed Mosel-
hy, Axel Nielsen, Ticca Ogilvie, Meghan Thumm, Aylin
Tuncer, Barbara van Meir, and Howard Wellman. Paula
and Mohamed were returning to the laboratory after hav-
ing participated in INA's National Endowment for the
Humanities-funded course in marine conservation con-
ducted in Bodrum in the summer of 1994 (another two from

that course, Asaf Oron and Noreen Carrol, worked on INA
field projects). In addition, Birgfil Akbulut and Sevil G6k-
men began working in the laboratory on a long-term ba-
sis, joining eight-year INA veteran Giineg Ozbay. The
contributions of each of these people is gratefully acknowl-
Inviting conservation trainees and professionals to
participate in the Uluburun conservation project allows far
more artifacts to receive treatment than would otherwise
be possible. An equally valuable benefit of the system is
that many people can receive training and hands-on expe-
rience with the special problems of marine conservation,
which they cannot easily receive elsewhere. The Ulubu-
run shipwreck yielded a remarkable variety of materials
in different states of preservation, allowing conservators
to observe and treat a wide range of problems. In addi-
tion, this group of conservation interns, along with archae-
ology students and professionals working in the laboratory
and living together in the INA headquarters complex, made
for a lively community and a continuous exchange of ideas.
INA considers this to be an important aspect of its pres-
ence in Bodrum.
Starting in late December 1994, the Bodrum labora-
tory was reorganized to accommodate several additional
conservators and archaeologists. One intern has begun to
design a computerized database system to ease manage-
ment of the large number of Uluburun artifacts. All arti-
facts awaiting treatment in wet storage were inspected in

Photo: INA

Fig. 1. Carved ivory hinge,
probably belonging to a
wooden diptych, before
cleaning and conservation.

INA Quarterly 23.1

Fig. 2. A hippopotomus incisor
carved into a ram's horn-shaped
trumpet. Scale 1:2. Drawing by Sema

order to prioritize treatment and revise the long-term con-
servation schedule. New equipment included a binocular
microscope to bring the laboratory's total to four, and a
few books to augment our small but growing library.
A significant amount of time and space in the labo-
ratory is devoted to collection and production of pure wa-
ter, maintenance of the equipment and storage tanks, and
the regular monitoring of salinity and changing of water
in artifact containers. Purified water-producing machines
(a still and a reverse-osmosis "watermaker") were repaired
or improved, and a rainwater collection system was im-
plemented so that large volumes of rainwater can be stored
and fed into the laboratory as necessary. Large numbers of
ceramic sherds, glass ingots, copper ingots, ballast stones,
tin fragments, and other artifacts were desalinated in bulk
after this water supply was secured.
Uluburun shipwreck artifacts treated this year in-
clude copper and tin ingots; tin vessel fragments; whole
ceramic Canaanite jars, lamps, bowls, pilgrim flasks, and
juglets; coarseware and fineware ceramic sherds; worked
and unworked bone, shell, ostrich eggshell fragments, tor-
toise carapace, and ivory, the last including both hippo-
potamus and elephant tusks, as well as many delicately
carved objects; bronzes such as bowls and bowl fragments,
tools, balance pans, cauldron handles, pins, and blades;
whole and fragmentary glass ingots; zoomorphic and geo-
metric pan-balance weights of stone, lead, and bronze;
molded faience vessel sherds; wood fragments; lead and
tin-alloy jewelry; amber and stone beads; and stone tools.
Treatment usually involves removal of calcareous
marine encrustations, identification and removal of corro-
sion products to reveal original surfaces, desalination to
prevent corrosion or physical damage by salt crystalliza-
tion, and slow drying. Many materials also require appro-
priate strengthening with polymers, corrosion inhibitors,
or protective coatings.

Ivory and Bone Artifacts
One of the priorities this year was the conservation
of ivory and bone artifacts. A new treatment with a water-
based consolidant was tested in an attempt to reduce the
physical and chemical stresses to the objects, but it was
found that the "tried and true" organic solvent-based meth-
od was more consistently successful. Several unworked

hippopotamus and elephant tusks are in the final stages of
treatment, and several carved ivory and bone objects are
either completed or nearly completed. Objects include a
flat disk, hinges (fig. 1, probably belonging to a wooden
diptych), inlay strips with fastening pegs still preserved,
and a long, cylindrical rod, all of which are decorated with
incised circles, false spirals, and other geometric designs;
several partially worked or scrap pieces; unidentified but-
ton-like objects; pomegranate-shaped finials; and perhaps
two of the most unusual ivory objects on the shipwreck,
an acrobat carved in the round, and a trumpet in the shape
of a ram's horn carved from a hippopotamus incisor (fig.
2). This latter object and a few of the other ivories, includ-
ing two duck-shaped cosmetics containers conserved in
previous years, still require time-consuming reconstruc-
tion of their many fragments.


The laboratory also focused on the treatment of ce-
ramics this year, for two specific research purposes (fig. 3).
The first was to identify and quantify the utilitarian
coarseware vessels carried on the Uluburun ship, as a pos-
sible clue to the identity of the ship's crew. The second
was to quantify and sample the Cypriot White Slip II bowls
for neutron activation analysis, which may identify clay
sources. One conservation intern, Lori McCoy, of the Art
Conservation Program at the University of Delaware, is
performing accelerated aging tests on an adhesive formu-
lation being used on ceramics in the Bodrum laboratory
for the first time this year. Thousands of sherds were exca-
vated from the shipwreck and will require years to recon-
struct into vessels once they are cleaned, desalinated, dried,
and sorted.

Metal Ingots and Artifacts
Another 42 of the 354 copper oxhide-shaped ingots
(oblong with four, or occasionally two, protrusions like
handles from the long sides) were treated this year, as were
a total of 20 copper bun, copper oval, copper quarter-ox-
hide, and tin quarter-oxhide ingots. A large outdoor stor-
age tank was filled with rainwater and devoted to bulk
desalination of cleaned copper oxhide ingots, as an im-
provement upon desalination in individual basins.

INA Quarterly 23.1

Several small 1 ronze artifacts were also treated, but
only a fraction of the hundreds that
remain: fish hooks, spearheads, arrowheads, pins,
blades, bowl and cauldron fragments, three dag-
gers, a saw, a sword, and more. Most of the bronz-
es are heavily concreted and retain little metallic
strength, so are painstakingly slow to treat.

Wood Remains
It was planned that treatment of the wood
remains from the Uluburun shipwreck could be-
gin this year. However, repair and re-installation
of steel tanks for polyethylene glycol treatment
await construction of the building that will house
the tanks. The remains include logs of ebony and
cedar, a leaf of a folded wooden writing tablet,
the lid and base of two small containers, the "keel"
and planks of the ship's hull, the branches of what
Photo: INA may have been a woven bulwark, branches and
Fig. 3 (above). Two White Slip II bowls ofCypriot origin and one cari- twigs of dunnage, and many miscellaneous frag-
nated bowl, stacked in a way similar to that in which they were excavat- ments. All Uluburun wood that was in plain wa-
edfrom the inside ofa pithos. ter was put into a fungicidal solution of boric acid
and borax.
Fig. 4 (below). A leafofa wooden diptych still showing the incised criss- It is hoped that the laboratory will soon be
crossed pattern that once helped wax adhere to the tablet, able to acquire a freeze-dryer so that the wood can
be stabilized with a polyethylene glycol pretreat-
ment followed by freeze-drying, a method that has been highly successful
with waterlogged wood from other sites around the world. Meanwhile,
several fragments of wood raised from the early third-century B. C. Kurtoglu
Burnu site during an INA coastal survey in 1985 were treated with the
acetone-rosin method to determine this method's suitability for some of
the smaller fragments of Uluburun wood.

Samples of glass beads were provided to Catherine Magee, a con-
servation intern at the Smithsonian Institution, and to Diane Fullick at the
Art Conservation Program of the University of Delaware, to experiment
with a new consolidant and to investigate deterioration features of the
beads. These two former INA interns are helping to develop a treatment
for the hundreds of glass and faience beads from the shipwreck, as is INA
staff member Wayne Smith in College Station. His experimental silicon
bulking techniques have yielded outstanding results.

Cataloging and Study
Alongside and sometimes inseparable from the conservation work
performed this year, many archaeology students and professionals from
the Uluburun excavation team continued to catalog, study, and draw sev-
eral categories of artifacts in preparation for publication. Specific conser-
vation work associated with these activities included revealing or clarifying
decorative or technological features, restoring broken fragments, identify-
ing materials and corrosion products, and taking samples.
Also, as in past years, several visiting scholars of Late Bronze Age
archaeology visited the Bodrum conservation laboratory. Various experts
Photo: INA came to examine or study Aegean coarse-ware stirrup jars (Dr. Hal Haskell,

INA Quarterly 23.1

Southwestern University, Georgetown, Texas), incised
marks on Mycenaean and Canaanite ceramic vessels (Nic-
olle Hirschfeld, University of Texas at Austin), glass and
faience materials (Valerie Mat6ian, French School of Ar-
chaeology, Damascus), cylinder seals (Dr. Dominique Col-
lon, British Museum), glass beads and ingots (Torben Sode,
Royal Collection, Copenhagen), and copper and tin ob-
jects (Drs. Noel Gale and Sophie Stos-Gale, Oxford Uni-
versity). Others came simply to see the assemblage from
the Uluburun shipwreck and discuss its implications for
the history of the Late Bronze Age. In addition to these
specialists, dozens of other interested visitors were given
tours of the laboratory.

It is estimated that conservation of all the Ulubu-
run shipwreck artifacts will require a minimum of five
more years, provided the work can proceed as it did in
1995. Several conservation students have applied to come
to the laboratory to provide their invaluable help in 1996
and 1997. The Turkish Ministry of Culture and the Direc-
tor of the Bodrum Museum plan to open the display of the
Uluburun finds to the public in the year 2000, in a special-
ly designed building currently under construction. In ad-
dition, INA and the Ministry of Culture are planning a
traveling exhibit in the U.S. of many of the Uluburun finds,
to begin in 1998.

Laboratory Research and Analysis
Michael Fitzgerald

The Uluburun shipwreck materials received a great
deal of individual study during 1995. The following is a
report on a selection of this ongoing research.

The Uluburun and Cape Gelidonya Pan-Balance

Final drawings of the 151 domed, sphendonoid, dis-
coid, and zoomorphic Uluburun weights were completed
in the fall of 1995, while cataloging for final publication
began during the summer. Weights from the 13th century
B.C. Cape Gelidonya wreck (excavated by Dr. George F.
Bass in the 1960s and reexamined
by INA in 1987-89) are also be-
ing examined for comparison
purposes. Excavation data for the
weights from both sites were
compiled, and then each weight
was measured twice (to 1/100 of
a millimeter) and weighed three
to five times (to 1/100 of a gram).
All data were entered into com-
puter files and are being analyzed
by statistical programs designed
to ascertain the units common to
the mass standards that were in
use during the Bronze Age. For
this analysis, only weights pre-

Fig. 1. Stone pan-balance weights.

serving their originally intended masses are being consid-
ered. Preliminary descriptions of the Uluburun weights
were recorded and then supplemented by detailed exam-
ination under the microscope. The weights are now being
examined a second time, again under the microscope, as
the initial descriptions are edited and loaded into com-
puter files. The 65 weights from the Cape Gelidonya wreck
are also being examined in this way. This will constitute a
comparative data base that will permit a more compre-
hensive evaluation of the pan-balance weights from both
Bronze Age shipwrecks, indeed of all known pan-balance
weights from the period.

Photo: INA

INA Quarterly 23.1

Fig. 2 (left). Cedar plank with mor-
tise and tenon joint. A section of an
oak tenon is visible at the bottom (in-
dicated by the finger) and a wooden
peg can be seen in the center of the

Fig. 3 (below). Canaanite jar.
Scale 1:5.
Photo: INA

The Uluburun Hull Wood Drawing by Selma Oguz
Beginning in mid-June of 1995, we reorganized the Ulu-
burun hull remains, inventoried and mapped them, and then
began cleaning, recording, and drawing the wood at full scale
(fig. 2). Because this is the only appreciable quantity of wood from
a Bronze Age seagoing hull raised from the seabed, the work was
conducted with extreme care. Consequently, it took from mid-
June to early September to meticulously draw and record 15% of
the remains.
Since the first hull remains were exposed in the summer
of 1984, we had known that the ship's planking was assembled
with mortise-and-tenon joinery like that found on Greek and
Roman ships of more than a millennium later. That meant that
the use of this construction technique in the Uluburun hull is the
earliest known occurrence in the history of seagoing ship con-
struction. Thus, we had been afforded the unprecedented oppor-
tunity to compare details of this shipbuilding method with those
evident in Greek and Roman ships of similar size, i.e. some 15-18
meters in length.
The work in 1995 revealed several unexpected explana-
tions for what we had previously observed. It had been clear from
the beginning that the Uluburun ship's joinery was more robust
and more widely spaced than that found in similar Greek and
Roman hulls, which seemed consistent with our knowledge of
mortise-and-tenon shipbuilding concepts. Unlike most Graeco-
Roman mortise-and-tenon joints, those in the Uluburun hull re-
mains were found to be extraordinarily deep, extending from one
plank edge to within 1.5 or 2 centimeters of the opposite plank
edge. Secondly, each joint cut from one plank edge is positioned

INA Quarterly 23.1

immediately next to the nearest joint cut from the oppo-
site edge, so mortises often intrude on one another. Occa-
sionally, the edge surface of a tenon nearest the adjacent
mortise displays chisel marks made when the mortise from
the opposite plank edge was cut. This practice, which re-
quired removal of a volume of wood some 13-15 centime-
ters long and 1.5-2 centimeters thick over nearly the entire
width of the plank, would seem to have compromised se-
verely the structural integrity of the planks and thus the
hull. Yet it was observed so consistently that pairs of inter-
nal "frames" of tenons extended up the sides of the hull
planking every 24-26 centimeters, center to center. We do
not yet know if this was simply a convenient way of main-
taining consistent joint spacing, or if it represents a specif-
ic, conscientiously executed structural practice.
Several other construction features underscored the
importance of understanding these issues fully. During the
summer of 1995, we received the results of new wood spe-
cies analyses. They revealed that the hull was built of ce-
dar (Cedrus sp.), instead of fir (Abies sp.) as previously
identified and published. This new identification is not at
all surprising when we consider that Bronze Age referenc-
es often mention cedar as the timber most preferred for
building ships. Cedar is a shipbuilding material far differ-
ent from fir in its mechanical and physical characteristics,
including suitability to extended submersion in saltwater.

The summer's work did not yield evidence for the employ-
ment of either frames or metal fastenings in the Uluburun
hull. Work will resume in the spring of 1996.

The Uluburun Canaanite Jars (fig. 3)
Final drawings of 39 of the 95 intact or reconstruct-
ible jars recovered from the site are now complete, 30 hav-
ing been finished in 1995. Cataloging for final publication
will commence in spring 1996.
Capacity studies of the jars continued on a limited
scale. When several jars were ready to exit desalination
together during the summer, we developed a means of
measuring with precise repeatability (within less than plus
or minus 0.06%) the wet volume capacities of the jars, cor-
roborated by net water weight. Two to four separate
measurements of a jar's volume were taken at each of sev-
eral capacity levels (lip or brim, interior and/or exterior
neck features that could be associated with stopper loca-
tion or fill level, and the neck/shoulder junction). All jars
presently in water will be measured in this way before
drying and dry volumes will continue to be taken after
drying, with the hope of deriving correlations between wet
and dry volumes. In this way we may be able to apply a
correction factor to dry volumes obtained in previous years
and to those yet to be taken of jars already cleaned, con-
served, and in storage.

The Copper Oxhide and Bun Ingots
Patricia Sibella

Of the 354 complete copper oxhide ingots and 121 bun ingots found on the Uluburun wreck, 81 were cleaned,
drawn, recorded, and examined between June and November of 1995, bringing the total that have been studied to date
to 180. Particular attention was devoted to the modification of the oxhide ingot typology first established by H. G.
Buchholz, and later modified by G.F. Bass in his study of the 34 examples from the Cape Gelidonya shipwreck. There

Fig. 1. Examples of incised marks found in the surfaces of the Uluburun oxhide and bun ingots. The orientations of the marks are
in the direction of the ingots as found on the sea bed. The left side of the table corresponds to the upslope ends of the ingots. Drawing
not to scale. Drawing: P. Sibella.

INA Quarterly 23.1

are 31 ingots of a type unique to Uluburun, provided with
only two handle-like protrusions, one on each corner of
one of the ingot's long sides. We have designated these as
type 4. For the purpose of our research, the traditional type
3, as well as type 4, have each been divided into 4 sub-
types. These subdivisions are primarily based on the ra-
tios of the ingots' dimensions and on the shape of the
handle-like protrusions.
In addition to the morphological features of these
ingots, we have documented and studied the marks chis-
eled into their surfaces (fig. 1). Although most of the in-
gots still need to be cleaned of surface encrustation,
preliminary examination has revealed that at least half of
the oxhide ingots, or about 160 examples, are incised with
at least one, and possibly as many as three, marks on their
upper or rougher surfaces opposite their mold sides. In
addition, six oxhide ingots bear linear incisions along their
shorter edges, but only three of these six examples are also
associated with marks on the upper surface. In contrast,
only 28 out of the 121 bun ingots appear to be marked.
This is still a high percentage, considering that (so far as
we know) no marked bun ingots have been found in any
other land or underwater site. On the Uluburun bun in-
gots, these marks are always single marks on their lower,
or smoother mold sides. An exception is KW 1088, which
shows an incised mark on its rough surface (fig. 2).
In some cases, the incisions are preserved sufficiently
to document the individual chisel strokes in the mark,
thereby allowing us to determine not only the sequence in
which the strokes were made, but also the shape and size
of the chisel used and the angle at which it was struck (fig.
3). Close attention should be given here to the traces of
wear discernible on the chisels found on board the ship to

Fig. 2. Incised rectangular-shaped mark on the rough surface of a

determine if some of these tools may have been used to
mark the ingots. If so, this discovery may provide some
information about when these marks were made.
The 64 marks thus far examined on the surfaces of
oxhide and bun ingots comprise only 32 different shapes
(fig. 1). Of these marks, 13 appear more than once (fig. 1:
lb, Id, 2c-d, 3b, 4b-d, 5a, 6c-d, 7c-d) and one is repeated
at least six times (fig. 1: 4d). Some marks are common to
both the oxhide and bun ingots, but there are fewer types
of markings on the latter variety of ingot. Of the six types
of marks observed on the bun ingots, five are also found
on the oxhide shape (fig. 1: 2d, 3b, 4b, 4d, 6d). The sixth
mark, however, is found only on the oval bun ingots and
appears on all six of them. The precise location of the marks
on the surfaces of the oxhide ingots, and the diverse mark
combinations, do not appear to follow any specific pat-
tern. The specific marks cannot be associated with certain
ingot subtypes. The marks vary in complexity from a sim-
ple cross (fig. 1: 5a) or a fishhook (fig, 1: Ic) to a complicat-
ed trident (fig. 1: 2b), a fish-like shape (fig. 1: 7b) or a sailing
boat (fig. 1: 8b). At least 5 of them could be associated with
Cypro-Minoan writing (fig. 1: 2c, 3c, 6a, 7a, 7c). One of the
Uluburun marks (fig. 1: 3a), also seen on a copper oxhide
ingot from Ayia Triada in Crete, seems to find its parallel
in the later 11th-century B.C. northwestern Semitic sylla-
bary. In only one instance does a perfectly identical mark,
almost certainly made by the same hand (i.e. same orien-
tation of stroke, depth of incision, size of tool, etc.) appear
on two separate oxhide ingots (fig. 1: 2c). Each of the two
ingots thus marked also has a second V-shaped mark chis-
eled along one of its shorter edges. These two ingots do
not belong to the same ingot subtype, but future studies
may reveal identically-marked examples on the same sub-
type. Any markings of this nature
may have profound implications
for our understanding of ancient
metallurgical practices and the
mechanisms by which these in-
gots were distributed.
Although similar marks
are also observed on oxhide in-
gots from Ayia Triada in Crete
(fig. 1: 3a, 6a), San d'Antioco di
Bisarcio in Sardinia (fig. 1: 6d),
and Enkomi in Cyprus (fig. 1: 6d,
3c), their meaning and purpose
still elude us. That the Uluburun
marks were incised and not
stamped (as were the many ex-
amples from Cape Gelidonya)
leads us to believe that these
Photo: M. Fitzgerald marks probably were made at
bun ingot (KW 1088). some point of receipt or export

INA Quarterly 23.1

rather than at primary production centers. This supposi-
tion seems to find further confirmation in a similar mark
that appears on a tin ingot (fig. 1: 7a). As tin and copper
are mined in different geographical regions, it is highly
unlikely that the same mark was placed on ingots of dis-
similar metals and of diverse origins, unless they were in-
cised at a center that initially received both metals before
they were shipped.
Concerted efforts have also been dedicated to the
identification of mold siblings, ingots cast in the same
mold. This is an acknowledged but poorly attested phe-
nomenon in the archaeological record that could help us
better understand Bronze Age casting techniques. The
mold impressions of at least five ovoid bun ingots, bear-
ing identical incised marks (fig. 1: 7d), demonstrate that
they indeed are mold siblings, as are two pairs of small
type lb oxhide ingots studied and presented earlier. It
seems likely, therefore, that these ingots were cast in re-
usable stone or clay molds, rather than in perishable sand
molds. We have yet to discover siblings of full-sized ox-
hide ingots. There are indications that these ingots may
have been cast in multiple pouring of molten metal into
the mold. An indication of this practice may be observed
on the edges of oxhide ingots that frequently display what
we have provisionally termed as a "casting groove." Pre-
sumably, this groove results from the lower half of the
ingot being poured first and contracting slightly upon cool-
ing before the second pour was made. This groove, on the
other hand, usually does not appear along the perimeter
of bun ingots, which suggests that they were cast in single
Until the remaining Uluburun ingots are cleaned,
our comprehension of these marks will remain inconclu-
sive. Of interest in this connection is our continuing study
of the distribution of the incised marks and their associa-
tion with ingot types and subtypes. We are also searching
for possible patterns in the ingots' stacking within the
ship's hold. Such ingot clusterings, if they occur, may pro-
vide clues about whether the copper ingots were stacked
in specific batches that have common origins, ownership,
and quality of metal.
Lead-isotope analyses are being conducted by Noel
Gale and Sophie Stos-Gale of Oxford University Isotrace
Laboratory on 80 copper ingots recovered from the Ulu-
burun shipwreck, and 45 ingots from the Cape Gelidonya
shipwreck. The pending results of these analyses may help
us to answer some of the foregoing questions. Lead-iso-
tope analysis is also imperative for determining the
sources) of copper from which the ingots were most like-
ly cast, and establishing possible correlations between cop-
per source, ingot types, and incised marks. Samples for
lead-isotope studies were also taken from 71 other bronze
and copper objects from Cape Gelidonya, and 14 tin in-

gots from Uluburun. This may enable further correlations
between the sources of the ingots and the sources of the
metal in the artifacts.

Fig. 3. Incised mark from the rough surface of an oxhide ingot
showing the various strokes constituting the mark, as well as the
sequence of the chisel used (KW4374).

Photo: M. Fitzgerald

Suggested Reading
Buchholz, H. G.
1954 "Zur Herkunft der kyprischen Silbenschrift,"
Minos III, 133-151.

Buchholz, H. G.
1959 "Keftiubarren und Erzhandel im zweiten
vorchristlichen Jahrtausend," Prahistorische
Zeitschrift 37, 1-40.

Bass, G. F.
1967 Cape Gelidonya: A Bronze Age Shipwreck. Transac-
tions of the American Philosophical Society 57, part
8. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.

INA Quarterly 23.1

Dendrochronological Dating of the Uluburun Ship
by Cemal Pulak

A key question for the proper interpretation of the
Uluburun Shipwreck is obviously the date of the ship. The
artifacts studied until now yielded only a relative date with-
in the Late Bronze Age, specifically Late Helladic IIIA:2.
However, recent developments toward refining the Med-
iterranean master tree-ring sequence allow determining
an absolute date for some Uluburun finds with consider-
able certainty. This, in turn, has enormous implications
for Eastern Mediterranean chronology.
Ceramic sequences in the Mediterranean have been
established with some precision. The Bronze Age has been
divided into Early, Middle, and Late. Late Bronze Age
corresponds to the Mycenaean era on the Greek mainland,
known as Late Helladic (LH), and the Late Minoan (LM)
on Crete. The final phase, LH III, is subdivided into A, B,
and C. These sequences allow determining the relative date
of an archaeological locus on the basis of the pottery type(s)
found there. They also give a general indication of abso-
lute date. LH IIIA (including both IIIA:1 and IIIA:2) rough-
ly corresponds to the 14th century B.C., IIIB to the 13th,
and IIIC to the 12th and part of the 11th century.
The sequence of events in Egypt is well known be-
cause scribes kept detailed lists of the regnal years of their
kings. At the end of the 18th Dynasty, the long reign of
Amenhotep III was followed by the 16-year rule of Amen-
hotep IV (who changed his name to Akhenaten and moved
the capital from Thebes to Amarna). Akhenaten was briefly
succeeded by Tutankhamun (who transferred the capital
to Memphis in his third regnal year), after possibly others,
before his family died out. The general Horemheb (who
demolished Amarna) reigned for about 28 years before
Ramses I founded the 19th Dynasty. This established
framework allows the estimation of absolute dates
throughout the era if just one fixed date can be determined.
However, there has been considerable scholarly disagree-
ment concerning chronology.
There are several competing systems for dating
events in the second millennium. These differ both in the
way they synchronize events in Egyptian history with pe-
riods in the pottery sequence, and in the absolute dates
they assign to these events. A synchronism between
Akhenaten, the 18th Dynasty rulers who succeeded him,
and the LH IIIA:2 to IIIB:1 period is suggested by the quan-
tities of LH IIIA:2, and to a lesser extent of the newer style
IIIB:1, pottery found at Amarna. The "high" chronologies
would date Akhenaten's death as early as 1360 B.C., "mid-
dle" chronologies around 1347, the most common "low"
chronologies around 1336, and "ultra-low" chronologies
as late as 1324. Until now, there has been no published
evidence for dating any of the LH IIIB:1 pottery at Amar-
na more precisely than to the period from Akhenaten to
Horemheb, inclusive.

What, if anything, does the Uluburun material tell
us about Eastern Mediterranean relative and absolute chro-
nologies? The ceramics, jewelry, and wood provide invalu-
able evidence. J. Rutter, who is studying the Mycenaean
pottery from Uluburun for publication, notes the chrono-
logical homogeneity of the assemblage and dates it to the
LH IIIA:2 period. Although Rutter has yet to personally
examine the pottery, some of which is still in need of clean-
ing, he further notes that none of the Uluburun vessels
appears to have any morphological or decorative features
that require a LH IIIB:1 dating. Since the pottery on the
shipwreck shows the developed characteristics of LH
IIIA:2, but not of LH IIIB:1, it must predate the transition
between the two styles that occurred toward the end of the
brief occupation of Amarna (assuming that the Mycenae-
an pottery from the wreck is representative of its time and
was not a collection consisting exclusively of heirlooms).
The unique gold scarab of Egypt's Queen Nefertiti,
Akhenaten's beloved wife, appears to be fairly worn from
use, which suggests that it had been around for some time
before it was taken on board the ship. Furthermore, it may
have been part of a jeweler's hoard, as it was discovered
in the midst of complete, cut, and folded jewelry pieces
and other bits of scrap precious metals. If the scarab was a
part of the scrap hoard, which is debatable, it almost cer-
tainly arrived on the ship after Nefertiti's time, when her
scarab would have been worthless except for its gold val-
ue. Before the death of Akhenaten (or at latest the removal
of the capital to Memphis), a scarab of the Queen would
have been a venerated object unlikely to be discarded. On
the other hand, it is difficult to imagine that the scarab
would have long survived the eradication of all referenc-
es to Akhenaten's family under Horemheb without being
melted down.
In the hope of obtaining an absolute date for the
ship, seven wood samples taken from the keel-plank,
planking, and cedar logs were submitted to Peter Kuni-
holm of Cornell University for dendrochronological dat-
ing. While some samples did not have a sufficient number
of tree rings to match the established master sequence, oth-
ers with more rings appeared not to match at all. A large
log-like piece of undetermined purpose, but with its outer
layers trimmed, yielded a date of 1441 B.C. +37 years, the
uncertainty factor arising from the carbon dating of sam-
ples constituting the floating master conifer-ring sequence.
A small log or branch, presumably fresh-cut firewood,
however, yielded a date of 1356 B.C. 37 years, with an
additional unmeasurable ring on the exterior. Kuniholm
further reports that recent calibration curves, along with
several other factors, allow for the modification of these
dates by shifting the entire floating sequence to the ex-
treme recent end of the 37 years. This would then date

INA Quarterly 23.1

the most recent sample on the wreck to 1319 2 B.C. or
1318 2 B.C., after taking into account the unmeasurable
ring. It would appear, therefore, that the ship sank some-
time after that date, but probably not much later.
If the scarab, the collection of Mycenaean pottery
from the wreck, and the absolute sinking date are ad-
dressed in concert, they bear important implications for
Aegean chronology. The evidence indicates a relative date
for the sinking of the Uluburun ship very near the end of
LH IIIA:2 and within a few years, or at most decades, after
the death of Akhenaten. The shipwreck thus provides a
very valuable synchronism between the pottery sequence
and the kings list. The evidence supports moving the date
of the LH IIIB:1 pottery at Amarna forward from Akhen-
aten's time to nearer the end of the 18th Dynasty.
Of equal importance is that dendrochronology gives
an absolute date for the synchronization point in 1318 B.C.
2, or shortly after, which narrows to approximately 1320-
1295 B.C. the possible range of dates for the LH IIIA to IIIB
transition, and rules out the "high" chronologies and fa-
vors the lower chronologies for Egyptian history. Thus,
INA's Uluburun excavation will provide crucial assistance
in dating events in New Kingdom Egypt and throughout
the wide distribution range of Mycenaean ceramics.

Suggested Reading

Bass, G. F. et al.
1989 "The Bronze Age Shipwreck at Ulu Burun: 1996
Campaign." American Journal of A,,,.1i,.,.:l,-i 93: 1-

Bass, G. F.
1967 Cape Gelidonya: A Bronze Age Shipwreck. Transactions
of the American Philosophical Society 57, part 8.
Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.

Cline, E.
1994 Sailing the Wine-Dark Sea: International Trade and the
Late Bronze Age Aegean. BAR International Series 591.
Oxford: Tempvs Reparatum.

Kitchen, K. A.
1987 "The Basics of Egyptian Chronology in Relation to
the Bronze Age" in P. Astrom, ed., High, Middle, or
Low? Acts of an International Colloquium on Absolute
C1 ,,.i .1, '. i Held at the University of Gothenburg 20th-
22nd August 1987: 37-55. G6teburg: Paul Astroms

Fig. 1. A comparison of the master tree-ring sequence and the timber from Uluburun shows that both high-growth and low-growth
seasons match over a period of approximately 190 years. The last ring occurs in year 1165 of the floating sequence. The author
believes this translates to an absolute cutting date of 1318 B.C. 2. Chart courtesy Prof. P. I. Kuniholm, Cornell University.

INA Quarterly 23.1

A Brig from the War of 1812

Erika Washburn

In the summer of 1981, Art Cohn (founder
of the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum) and
Dr. Kevin Crisman (of the Institute of Nautical Ar-
chaeology at Texas A&M University) conducted
a survey of the Poultney River estuary, at the
southern end of Lake Champlain between New
York and Vermont (fig. 1). On July 23, they dis-
covered the remaining hull of the War of 1812 brig
H.M.S. Linnet. Preliminary measurements were
taken in 1981 and 1982. It was possible to confirm
the identification of the British brig by using a pro-
cess of elimination based on reported hull dimen-
sions. Linnet was the first large warship built on
Lake Champlain during the War of 1812 and is, to
date, the only known existing Royal Navy hull
from the British squadron on the lake. She had an
interesting, albeit short, career during the war as
the last great British warship to surrender on Lake
Champlain. During the summer of 1995, I was part
of an archaeological team that returned to study

H.M.S. Linnet in the War of 1812
In the fall of 1813, word of American ship-
building activity on Lake Champlain reached Ile-
aux-Noix, Quebec, the British base of operations
for the lake. Captain Daniel Pring, head of the
growing naval establishment, began to request
new vessels and sailors to man them. The war was
then eighteen months old and had been primarily
fought in the western theater-the Great Lake re-
gion. On November 7, 1813, after much bartering
between Pring and Canadian Governor General
Prevost, William Simons, a shipwright from King-
ston, Ontario, was awarded the contract to build
one brig, to be launched and completed by May 1
(fig. 2). The price of the contract: 6 pounds Hali-
fax currency per ton. This brig, Linnet, would be-
come the first large warship built on Lake
Champlain during the War of 1812. The British
government agreed to supply the spikes, bolts,
iron work, lodging, and rations for Simons' crew.
The start of construction signalled the beginning
of a shipbuilding race between the United States
and Great Britain.
During the winter of 1813-14, a dockyard
was built at Ile-aux-Noix, allowing Simons to con-
struct the brig. Everything from manpower to sup-

Map: K. Crisman

Fig. 1. Map of the Poultney River (East Bay of Lake Champlain), show-
ing the location of the British brig Linnet.

INA Quarterly 23.1

plies had to be shipped to the island, and
was in short supply. Very slowly, rein-
forcements arrived from the Navy and
Pring's fleet was augmented. Rumors of
American shipbuilding activity at Ver-
gennes caused the British to hurry the
building of Linnet (initially named Niaga-
ra). She was finally launched in April, 1814
and made ready for battle in May. Most
sources indicate she carried 16 long
twelve-pounders and would have been
approximately 350 tons burthen with a
complement of around 120 men. Linnet
was 85 feet (25.9 m) in length overall (82
feet 6 inches [25.14 m] on deck), with a
beam of 27 feet (8.2 m) and a depth of hold
of 6 feet 8 inches (2.03 m). The brig proba-
bly resembled the vessel depicted in fig. 3.
In early action as Pring's flagship,
Linnet harassed local residents on the New
York and Vermont shores of the lake. In
Drawing: E. Washburn May of 1814, Linnet accompanied a small
Fig. 2. Schematic i:in.: plan of Linnet. flotilla for an unsuccessful attack on Fort
Cassin, an American post on Otter Creek.
In mid-June, the American fleet reappeared on the lake. The British moved back into the waters of the Richelieu River,
to remain in Canada for the rest of the summer. The last time Linnet sailed up the lake was on September 11, 1814, in the
company of the Royal frigate and new flagship, Confiance, the sloops Chub, Finch, and Icicle, and 13 gunboats. All were
bound for Plattsburgh Bay to attack the American naval squadron waiting there. The ensuing British defeat was an
important turning point in the war and helped finalize the peace treaty in Ghent later that year.
At the British court martial held to investigate the defeat, several factors surfaced that revealed the British mili-
tary's ill state of preparedness in the Lake Champlain theater. Pring openly accused Prevost of failing to uphold his part
of the plan, which was to attack the American fortifications in Plattsburgh at the same time as the naval attack. The

Fig. 3. Lines drawing of an early 19th-century vessel similar in dimensions to Linnet (Chapelle, 1949:272).

INA Quarterly 23.1

British had always lacked manpower and
the Americans had, according to Pring,
prime seamen, some of whom (he said he
was sorry to observe) were natives of
Great Britain. The British squadron fought
under poor circumstances. Their vessels
had difficulty sailing around Cumberland
Head and into Plattsburgh Bay due to a
strong headwind. The court martial
blamed the lack of army support for the
loss and managed to exonerate nearly all
the naval officers.
Pring's actions aboard Linnet were
not among the factors that contributed to
the British loss of the Battle of Plattsburgh
Bay. Linnet's assignment was to take po-
sition at the northernmost end of the line
of battle and, together with Chub, to fire
upon the American brig Eagle. This Lin-
net did for over two hours. As a matter of
fact, she was the only ship to hold her po- Fig. 4. View ofLinnet's stern after 1949 raising (New York State Archives, 1949).
sition as ordered. Linnet did her job so well

that Robert Henley of the Eagle described
her fire as "raking and most destructive." Henley eventu-
ally cut the Eagle's bower anchor and, giving up his posi-
tion, sailed past the American flagship, Saratoga, to a new
position out of reach of Linnet's guns. The ill-prepared Con-
fiance bore the brunt of American fire, and her command-
ing officer was killed within the first 30 minutes of battle.
After Confiance surrendered, Pring kept up the fight for an
additional 15 minutes before succumbing to the guns of
the American flagship Saratoga. Linnet was the last British
warship to surrender that day-or ever-on Lake Cham-
plain. The two hour and twenty minute battle had ensured
American dominance.
After the battle, Linnet became the property of the
U.S. Navy and was in desperate need of repair. She was
riddled with 30 to 50 shot holes, most of which probably
came from the guns of the Saratoga in the last 15 minutes
of battle. Twenty men were killed and 30 wounded dur-
ing the engagement. In early October, Linnet was moved
south to Whitehall to be put in ordinary (noncommissioned
storage) with the rest of the squadron. There she remained.

In a relatively short time, the naval presence on the lake
dissipated. Equipment and vessels were either placed in
storage or auctioned off to help pay the war debt. By 1820,
shipping activity had increased in Whitehall and the rag-
tag fleet was blocking passage of commercial vessels. They
were moved to an area known locally as East Bay, actual-
ly the mouth of the Poultney River. Linnet sank at anchor
along the New York bank of the river around 1825 and
remained there for 124 years, attacked only by rot, ice, and
seekers of firewood.

The First Discovery, October, 1949
The October 20, 1949, edition of the Whitehall Times
reported an exciting event in local history: the hull of a
"colonial" warship had been raised from East Bay. Knowl-
edge of the Poultney River wrecks was nothing new for
Whitehall residents. It was locally believed that the ves-
sels were from the Revolutionary War. Many had known
about them or even played on them as children. In 1949, a
small group of farmers hooked two steel cables around
the timbers of an unidentified hull and, with hors-
es and three tractors, dragged her from the New
York to the Vermont side of East Bay (fig. 4). Over
300 people stopped by the Galick family farm to
look over the many relics on display there after
their discovery in the wreck. Among the visitors
were representatives from Fort Ticonderoga, New
York, and a furniture dealer from Rutland, Ver-

Fig. 5. A nine-pounder cannon, probably ballast, re-
covered from Linnet (New York State Archives, 1949).

INA Quarterly 23.1

mont, who intended to carve the
timbers into special furniture.
Recovered from the wreck
were two nine-pounder cannon
and over 350 cannon balls which
reportedly were filled with gun-
powder (fig. 5). One of the nine-
pounder cannon and a split mortar
were sold by three local families to
Fort Ticonderoga, the paper re-
ported. Another cannon, weighing
1200 pounds (545 kg) and 6.5 feet
(1.98 m) long, was acquired by Fort
Mount Hope, which later became
the property of Fort Ticonderoga.
Both cannon and mortar were un-
serviceable and used as ballast in
1814. Mount Hope also acquired
many of the ship's timbers which
were put on display as remnants
from a "colonial gunboat." In ad-
dition to the cannon balls, the
Whitehall Times reports that 38 bar Fig. 6. K. Crisman, R.
shot and 6 "exploding bombs" 1995field season.
were found within the hull. Ac-
cording to the Galicks, the area
between the ribs was filled with cannon balls. Shot was sold
by one local farmer for "two dollars a pop."
According to the Whitehall Times, the ship was iden-
tified as from the Revolutionary War and, oddly enough,
of French construction. This "colonial warship" was noth-
ing of the sort. She was, in fact, Linnet, although her iden-
tity would remain a mystery for an additional 32 years.
There was one important fact that the paper had not re-
corded: what happened to the hull when the farmers pulled
it from one bank to the other. In the process of raising the
ship, the bow broke off and the remaining hull spun
around. The forward end now faced down the Poultney
River, unlike the other wrecks from the former U.S. Naval
fleet on the opposite side.

The 1995 Archaeological Field Season in Whitehall,
New York
In contrast to the 1949 events, Linnet was scientifi-
cally excavated during the 1995 Lake Champlain Nautical
Archaeology Field School from July 11 through July 31.
The season's work concentrated on the hulls of Linnet and
the U.S. gunboat Allen (INA Quarterly 22.4). The main ob-
jective in the Linnet excavation was to record timber mea-
surements so an accurate reconstruction of the vessel could
be made through lines drawings and construction plans.
Approximately 160 hours of dive time were spent
recording features of the hull during the three week peri-
od, with a team of four divers excavating about 65% of the

Photo: P. Larocque
Vilczynski, and E. Heinold measuring Linnet's frames during the

remains. The team focused on the keel/keelson arrange-
ment, the frames, and mast step. They also searched for
the bow and stern sections. The highly disturbed nature
of the site prompted the use of the frames as an internal
reference system rather than setting up a grid over the site.
Few artifacts were expected, due to the thorough scour-
ing in 1949. Indeed, few were found, apart from iron spikes,
iron or copper nails, 3 lead musket balls, 2 iron grapeshot,
bird shot, canister shot, 2 copper alloy buttons, drift bolts,
staples and metal fragments. The canister and one grape-
shot were donated by the Galick family of Whitehall, New
During the first week, modern litter was cleared
from the wreck and an appropriate work area was created
by cutting back the riverside shrubbery. The site was ex-
amined and divers began dredging to clean up what was
then called simply the "Vermont side" of Linnet (this was
later determined to be the starboard side). A third of the
floor timbers on this side of the hull were in such shallow
water that their tops extended above the surface of the river
adjacent to the shore (fig. 6). Overburden became deeper
nearer to the bow of Linnet and was generally sterile ex-
cept for a few inches above the timbers. A combination of
tree limbs, decaying plant matter, fishing line and hooks,
broken beer bottles, cans, and other garbage was common
and evenly distributed over the entire length of the hull.
Visibility averaged 10 cm, although on "good" days divers
could see up to about 36 cm.

INA Quarterly 23.1

Fig. 7. The mast step as it appeared in the Whitehall Times in 0O
1949 (Whitehall Public Library).

The hull was generally not in a very good state of
preservation but it was evidently well-built. The wood
samples analyzed by Dr. Roy Whitmore, Professor Emer-
itus, University of Vermont, indicated that all the princi-
pal timbers were of white and red oak. The total length of
the existing hull is approximately 58 feet (14.7 m). Although
an extensive river bank and bottom search was carried out,
the bow and stern sections were not located. As previous-
ly noted, the bow appears to have been lost downriver in
1949. Most of the missing 25 feet (7.62 m) and other de-
tached hull timbers, however, ended up at Mount Hope.
These were examined after the conclusion of the field sea-
son. During the course of the excavation, cable used in the
1949 raising was found on shore, as
were several loose timbers.
The keelson averaged 6 to 8
inches (15-20 cm) sided and 11.25 to
12.5 inches (29-32 cm) molded. We
determined that the keel had broken
off in the forward section of the hull,
splintering the garboard strake. The
overburden was so deep here, and the
bank erosion rate so high, that a cof-
ferdam was constructed around the
last few frames to keep the sediment
from settling over the excavated tim-
bers. At the forward end of the hull,
the water depth was approximately
2.75 m. The last few forward feet of
the keelson consisted of a three-foot-
long (0.91 m) flat scarf. This was the
only scarf located in the keelson,
which also has slightly unusual con-
struction, first noticed in 1982. It is cut
out along the bottom to fit over the Fig. 8. Timbers display

frame sections for every frame except those im-
mediately surrounding the mast step (fig. 7).
About a third of the hull's length forward of the
stern of the ship, this step was probably intended
for the mainmast. It measures approximately 3 feet
long by 1 foot wide (0.91 by 0.3 m) and is an oak
block with a rectangular hole in the center for the
mast, laterally supported by iron bars on each side.
The step is connected to the keelson by six 7/8-
inch (2.22 cm) diameter iron drift bolts.
The frames on the starboard side were com-
pletely uncovered and excavated between every
other frame. No ceiling planking was located in-
tact on this side. Each frame section was measured.
A total of 23 floor timbers were discovered, with
futtocks (side frames) for the three at the forward-
most end of the hull. On average, the frames were

sided 7 to 9 inches (18-23 cm) and molded 9 to 10
inches (23-25.5 cm). A midship frame was not
identified during the excavation; there was no noticeable
difference in measurements between any of the frame sec-
tions. About 14 feet (4.26 m) of the keel, with stern dead-
wood, was discovered 2.44 meters upriver from the main
part of the hull. All the frames from this area are missing,
and are probably some of those on display at Mount Hope.
Furthermore, no evidence of lateral fastenings was locat-
ed in the floor sections or in the excavated futtocks.
By the end of week two, we realized that the initial
goal of excavating the port side could not be fulfilled. The
overburden there was even deeper than on the starboard
side and consisted of fine, thick clay which made dredg-
ing a difficult and lengthy process. With each of the four

yed at Mount Hope, New York, 1995.

Photo: E. Washburn

INA Quarterly 23.1

team members diving twice daily for nearly two
hours at a time, we estimated an additional three
weeks in order to mirror the full excavation on
the port side. Consequently, only one section of
the port side was excavated. The remainder of our
time was spent carefully analyzing specific con-
struction details.
After the official three-week field season
was over, remaining team members went to
Mount Hope and surveyed the timbers on display
there (fig. 8). These were in very poor condition,
having been subjected to the extremes of New En-
gland seasons for 46 years under a mere scrap-
wood shelter. Most timbers had the consistency
of a wet sponge and literally fell apart in our
hands. In three days, we recorded a total of 3
floors, fragments of approximately 8 futtocks, and
14 miscellaneous timbers and planks. All these
were measured and photographed. They were Fig. 9
safely stored away from the elements in a replica Ticon
blockhouse on Mount Hope property. After the
lines are drawn and a preliminary construction for Linnet
is suggested, some of these timbers may fit into the brig's
construction, making her less of a jigsaw puzzle.
Team members also visited Fort Ticonderoga to
identify and record two trunnion-less cannon and a split
mortar. These were removed from Linnet and sold to the
Fort in 1949. The mortar was found within the fort and the
cannon were located in a line of other cannon outside the
main entrance (fig. 9). The mortar's bore measures 13 inch-
es (38.2 cm) and the construction is of cast iron-not
bronze, as some Whitehall residents had suggested. Both
cannon are over 6 feet long and fired nine-pounder shot.

Conclusion and Future Study Goals
The current picture of Linnet is still a complicated
puzzle with pieces scattered over two states and three dif-
ferent locations. Future research goals include reconstruct-
ing the ship based on the archaeological data from the 1995
field season and comparing this with information from the
British Public Records Office and National Maritime Mu-
seum, as well as from the National Archives of Canada. I
also plan to follow up the 1995 season with a more thor-
ough investigation targeting residents of Whitehall and
vicinity who have knowledge pertaining to the 1949 rais-
ing. The final goal is to use this information to reconstruct
the complete story of Linnet, including her design and
building details.

Acknowledgments. Linnet was excavated during the 1995
Lake Champlain Nautical Archaeology Field School with
support from a Navy Legacy grant, the Naval Historical
Center, the Vermont Division for Historic Preservation,
the University of Vermont, Texas A&M University, the In-

Photo: E. Washburn
.Split mortar removed from Linnet on display at Fort
deroga, New York, 1995.

stitute of Nautical Archaeology, and the Lake Champlain
Maritime Museum. I would like to acknowledge Dr. Kevin
Crisman and Mr. Arthur Cohn for their guidance and as-
sistance, the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum, Mr. Har-
lan Crow for donating the hookah units, Dr. Robert
Neyland at the Naval Historical Center, and Craig Will-
iams at the New York State Archives. Thanks go to mem-
bers of the 1995 Lake Champlain Nautical Archaeology
Field School: Steve Bilicki, Steven Butler, Eric Emery, Erich
Heinold, Pierre LaRocque, Scott McLaughlin, Scott Pade-
ni, Cheryl Quinn, and Robert Wilczynski.. I would also
like to acknowledge the staff of these institutions who
made research simpler and more enjoyable: the Whitehall
Public Library, Canadian National Archives and Public Li-
brary, State University of New York Plattsburgh Special
Collections, Fort Ticonderoga, and Parks Canada of Fort

Suggested Reading

Crisman, K.J.
1987. The Eagle: An American Brig on Lake Champlain Dur-
ing the War of 1812. Shelburne, VT and Annapolis,

Everest, A.S.
1981. The War of 1812 in the Champlain Valley. Syracuse,

Lewis, D.M.
1994. British Naval Activity on Lake Champlain During the
War of 1812. Plattsburgh, NY.

INA Quarterly 23.1

Sailing into Adventure

The 1995 Cutty Sark Tall Ships Races

Gregory D. Cook

July 1994: St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica. My muscles screamed as I
dumped the last bucket of ballast stone into the excavation trench. I
paused for a moment to allow my breathing to slow down as I sur-
veyed the excavation site running along the bottom of the bay. Slowly I
rose to the surface, then signalled the boat tender to turn off the dredge
depositing backfill over the site. My friend Dorrick Gray, a Jamaican
archaeologist, ascended to the surface with a quizzical look on his face.
"That should do it," I replied wearily to his unasked question. Buried
under a blanket of sediment and ballast stone, we had once again put
the Reader's Point sloop to rest.
Despite our aching backs we were quite proud of our accom-
plishment. With the assistance of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology
and the Jamaican National Heritage Trust, we had excavated and re-
corded a 20 meter long sloop dating to the late eighteenth century. The
excavation had involved a crew of fifteen friends and colleagues who
had spent four months and hundreds of hours underwater working on
the site. Although the ship remains were to stay behind, we collected
volumes of data, bags of samples, thousands of measurements, scant-
lings, photographs, and slides. Nearly 700 artifacts from the site were
recorded in situ, conserved in our field laboratory, and given to the Trust.
Later that evening we celebrated the end of an exhausting yet
exhilarating project. Over toasts of dark Jamaican rum, we wondered
what it might have been like to sail the Caribbean more than 200 years
ago. My childhood in Indiana was spent surrounded by fields of soy-
bean and corn rather than the deep blue waves of the sea. Still, my fas-
cination with sailing ships and history had led me to pursue a career in
nautical archaeology. I regretted my lack of first-hand sailing experi-
ence. My feet had trodden the decks of numerous vessels lying on the
bottom of rivers, lakes and seas, but I yearned to sail living ships like
those I had explored underwater. I reached my bed early that night, a
victim of exhaustion as well as the potent Jamaican rum. Visions of
sails, water, and graceful ships filled my mind before succumbing to

Fig. 1. Dar Mlodziezy under sail.
Photograph courtesy of Cutty Sark Scots
I\7,/i y.

July 1995: Somewhere on the North Sea, on board the Polish sail training ship Dar Mlodziezy. My arms felt as if
they would separate from my shoulders. The callouses on my hands had turned into blisters. Groans of my shipmates
nearly drowned out the barrage of Polish curses coming from officers on either side of us. A line of twenty-five drenched,
shivering Polish merchant cadets (and a few equally cold Americans) attempted to turn the main yard on the foremast
by heaving together on the starboard brace. Although we had been pulling on lines for twenty minutes, it seemed like
hours, perhaps because it was three in the morning and the fourth time that night we had been called to task by the deck
officers. The frigid North Sea drizzle that made it difficult to get any rest on the cold, hard deck now made it impossible
to gain any footing. By bracing our feet against those of our mates in front and behind us, we managed enough leverage
for one mighty heave. Three sharp whistles from the deck officer signaled that the yard was adjusted sufficiently. After
securing the brace we were allowed to return to our sleeping spots on the deck, ready at any moment to jump up on
command. I couldn't help but smile as I lay down, resting my head on a coil of line. Although we weren't exactly sailing
an eighteenth-century sloop through the West Indies, I was beginning to understand what it was like to work on a ship
during the age of sail.
I was crewing on the 109-meter long Dar I I1 .d: i,.: i, or "Gift of Youth," a steel-hulled, three-masted square rigger
used as a training vessel for the Polish Merchant Marine Academy in Gdynia. She was one of nearly a hundred vessels
participating in the 1995 Cutty Sark Tall Ships Race. Cutty Sark Scots Whisky became the race's official sponsor in 1972,

INA Quarterly 23.1

ensuring the survival of the largest international sailing
event in the world. I was aboard courtesy of Cutty Sark,
which held a contest to recruit candidates for the first
American crew to participate in the Tall Ships Race since
its inception in 1956. Nearly two thousand candidates ap-
plied, but only eight were selected.
The race was divided into four stages: setting off
from Edinburgh, Scotland and sailing across the North Sea
to Bremerhaven, Germany; then to Frederikshavn, Den-
mark; next to Amsterdam; and finally finishing in Zee-
brugge, Belgium. To allow a maximum number of
participants, ships typically changed crews at each port.
The American crew sailed during the first stretch of the
race, 400 nautical miles from Edinburgh to Bremerhaven.
The objective of the Cutty Sark Tall Ships Race is
not necessarily to be the first ship to cross the finish line.
Instead, it is to provide men and women of all ages and
nationalities an opportunity to sail together in a spirit of
friendly competition. No previous sailing experience is
necessary. The Cutty Sark trophy is awarded to the crew
that is voted to have contributed the most to international
understanding and friendship.

Our adventure began at the South Street Seaport in
New York, where the American crew assembled for pre-
liminary sail training and promotional activities includ-
ing interviews on "Good Morning America." We arrived
in Edinburgh a few days later to begin training on Dar
Mlodziezy. The days before the race were filled with pa-
rades, celebrations, and receptions within the fleet as well
as the city.
Finally the day of the race arrived. The parade of
sail outside Edinburgh was impressive, with scores of full-
rigged ships, barks, brigs, schooners, and sloops from all
over the world saluting each other in a myriad of languages
and fashions. The haunting sound of bagpipes emanated
from a Scottish sloop. An Australian crew sang a vulgar
ditty while dancing the can-can as their schooner passed
nearby. One hundred well-disciplined Russian cadets on
the four-masted Kruzenshtern bellowed a Slavic challenge
with the force of a broadside. A final pass by the Queen
Elizabeth II led to the open sea and the beginning of the
The Americans were quickly integrated into the 200
member crew of Dar Mlodziezy. Our Polish mates proved

Map: C. A. Powell

Fig. 2. The routes for the Cutty Sark Tall Ships Races 1995.

INA Quarterly 23.1

Fig. 3 (left). Crewmembers relaxing
on deck. Photograph courtesy of
Cutty Sark Scots I\iil y.

Fig. 4 (below). The crew goes aloft
to unfurl the sails at the beginning
of the race.

extremely friendly and hospitable. They taught us the Pol-
ish terms for masts, yards, and common orders that we
needed to know, laughing at our awkward pronunciations.
I joined the first watch, which the cadets dubbed the vam-
pyre watch. Our day began at midnight, assembling on the
deck and standing by to haul on lines or going below to
peel hundreds of potatoes for the next day's meals. When
not working, we huddled on the deck and tried to sleep.
The second watch relieved us at 4 a.m., when we retired
to our bunks. At 7 a.m. the vampyre watch conducted their
daily ritual of climbing 50 meters up the ratlines for morn-
ing calisthenics. After breakfast, we spent time with the
crew until noon, when we assembled for our day watch.
Four hours of polishing brass fixtures, painting davits and
other chores ensued, punctuated by bursts of the officers'
whistles calling us to haul on lines for sail and yard ad-
justments. We ate a quick dinner, then relaxed and tried
to catch up on sleep before reporting at midnight for night
The work grew tiresome as our voyage continued.
The officers considered us to be normal crew, so we were
obligated to perform on the same level as any other mer-
chant cadet. It seemed impossible to get sufficient sleep.
Still, I spent the voyage in a constant state of fascination. I
strived to absorb every experience, regardless of how triv-
ial, during my stay on board this living ship. All too soon
we approached Germany. We assembled for the last mid-
night watch feeling melancholy as the voyage neared its
end, yet anticipating the activities awaiting us in Bremer-
Photo: G. D. Cook

INA Quarterly 23.1

Photo: Gregory D. Cook
Fig. 5. Ships of various types, sizes, rigs, and nationalities participate in the race every year.

The deck officer assigned me port watch. This meant
that I would be stationed on a small platform which ex-
tended outboard of the ship's side, constantly scanning
the horizon for any other vessels. The cadets hated this
post, since it was impossible to take a nap during the watch.
Many considered it a boring duty, but I'll never forget that
night. Just a slight wind propelled Dar Mlodziezy toward
Germany. I could look down between the boards of the
watch platform and see the dark water slipping by below
me. The gentle creaking of the rigging was all that dis-
turbed the silence. Only the dark, scattered forms of the
crew sleeping on the deck reminded me that I was not
alone. Due to our northern latitude the sun never quite
disappeared, but cast a continuous, beautiful glow on the
horizon. Eventually the second watch took over. I was re-
lieved of my position, and I spent the rest of the night
lounging on the deck, listening to the splash of water on
the bow and the sails flapping gently above.
By daybreak we had arrived in Bremerhaven. We
climbed high into the rigging one last time, inching out
along the yards to furl the sails. After docking, we set out
with our mates to explore Bremerhaven and attend par-
ties being held on ships which we had been racing against
only hours before. We spent the day and night celebrating
with crews from all over the world. Our bus arrived the
next morning, and we reluctantly packed our things and
headed to the airport. I took one last look at Dar Mlodziezy

before boarding the bus, as the vampyre watch took to the
shrouds for their morning climb up the masts without me.
It wasn't until our plane took off for New York that
I realized I hadn't slept for over forty-eight hours. As I
closed my eyes, my mind focused on things I had learned
on the voyage; the importance of teamwork and discipline,
the comraderie of crewing on a vessel, the drudgery of
peeling potatoes for hours in the middle of the night, and
the exhilaration of going aloft where the sounds of the deck
are drowned out by the wind flowing through the rigging.
And finally I thought about a small sloop lying in its Ja-
maican grave, and what it may have been like to sail her
two hundred years ago.

Acknowledgements. I would like to thank the officers and
crew of Dar Mlodziezy for taking us under their wing and
giving us the honor of sailing with them. It was a great
pleasure to share this experience with my American mates:
Colleen Burke, Todd Jarrell, Ramona Lum, Michael Mar-
tinsen, Tom Rickard, Greg Stark, and Thor Torgersen. I
am especially grateful to Mr. and Mrs. John Rudd, Paul
Bermudez, Ciaran Coakley, and Amanda Suckling of Cut-
ty Sark Scots Whisky as well as Joseph Block, Tracy
Garfinkel, and Beth Jabick of Block and Nardizzi for their
kindness and hospitality during every stage of the adven-

INA Quarterly 23.1

Yorktown Project Final
Report Now Available
by Christine A. Powell
For twenty years, faculty and stu-
dents from INA and the Nautical Archae-
ology Program at Texas A&M University
have played an important part in the study
of ships associated with the 1781 Battle of
Yorktown (see INA Newsletter 6.3, 7). They
now-finally-have the chance to see the
fruit of their labors.
In the recently published Final Report
on the Yorktown Shipwreck Archaeological
Project, John D. Broadwater has provided
nautical archaeologists an object lesson in
perseverance. From 1978 to 1990, he was the
Director of the Yorktown Project, an ambi-
tious effort to survey and excavate one of
the most significant historical sites in the Betsy
country. The Project itself was remarkable, Final reconstruction
but what followed is truly amazing. With-
out the determination of Broadwater and a number of other unpaid heroes, the Yorktown Project could have become a
tragic act of vandalism. The Final Report is noteworthy as proof that this disaster was averted, but is still more important
as a major resource for research into late 18th-century seafaring.
In the summer of 1781, the largest British army in the southern colonies assumed a fortified position on a penin-
sula at Yorktown, Virginia, flanked by the Chesapeake Bay estuaries of the York and James rivers. American control of
the countryside had forced Major General Charles, Earl Cornwallis, to retreat to the coast, where the Royal Navy could
provide supplies and protection. The fleet had been stretched very thin since France and Spain joined the war as Amer-
ican allies. By the end of August, 26 French warships under Admiral de Grasse had escaped the British blockade of
Brest and prevented entrance to Chesapeake Bay, while General Washington's army had moved south to block the land
approaches. Cornwallis was outnumbered nearly three to one.
Realizing that the French squadron prevented any hope of escape by sea, Lord Cornwallis scuttled a number of
his transports in the shallow water off the York River beach to hinder an anticipated amphibious landing. As it turned
out, a full-scale assault was unnecessary. By the time he had lost 156 dead out of his force of 5953, the combination of
naval blockade and artillery barrage had convinced Cornwallis that further resistance was futile. Equipment that might
be valuable to the enemy, including much of what remained of the supply squadron, was destroyed. The British army
surrendered on October 19 after roughly a month of siege. This defeat forced the British Government to seek peace with
its opponents, at the price of conceding independence to the United States. The Battle of Yorktown is thus one of the
most important events in all American history, and the naval aspects of that battle were crucial.
Under the terms of surrender at Yorktown, the French took possession of the British vessels. Some were still
afloat and were sold. A few more were salvaged, but as many as 26 remained on the bottom of the York River. Interest
in the ships bloomed in the 1970s. Virginia adopted a pioneering Underwater Historic Properties Act to protect the
wrecks, and they were among the first underwater sites in America named to the National Registry of Historic Places.
In 1976, an INA team under the direction of Dr. George Bass was the first to conduct a scientific investigation of
one of these wrecks (see INA Newsletter 3.4). This was a warship or large transport sunk just offshore from the cave on
the Yorktown waterfront where Cornwallis is believed to have had his final field headquarters. In 1978, Virginia hired
John Broadwater as State Underwater Archaeologist to direct the Yorktown Shipwreck Archaeological Project. Surveys
and test excavations located a total of eight additional surviving wrecks from the Battle of Yorktown. One was investi-
gated in 1980 by a field school team from the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M and identified as the 44-
gun warship HMS Charon (see INA Newsletter 7.4).
The other seven ships include three that have been eroded by tidal currents. These still badly need either stabili-
zation or a complete study before they disappear. The remaining four were buried in sediment and appear to have
survived for two centuries in relatively good condition. The best-preserved was selected for a complete excavation. The

INA Quarterly 23.1

site was daunting, with strong currents, visibility under
12 inches, high-speed powerboats, and stinging jellyfish.
On the suggestion of Dr. Bass, a cofferdam was built
around the site to protect it from currents, boats, and jelly-
fish; the enclosed water was filtered to improve visibility
to as much as 30 feet. Since the site was accessible via a
wooden pier, it was possible to offer thousands of visitors
an unusual close-up view of underwater archaeology. Be-
tween 1982 and 1988, Broadwater's team, including grad-
uate students from East Carolina University as well as a
number of students and former students from Texas A&M,
completed excavation within the hull. Ceiling was re-
moved from the starboard side, and about 95% of the hull
construction was recorded.
This research allowed identification of the wreck as
the collier brig Betsy, built in 1772 in Whitehaven, Cum-
bria, England. The excavation provided invaluable infor-
mation about 18th-century naval architecture and
merchant shipping. Sources for a study of cargo carriers
are scarce. British warships were extensively documented
by the Admiralty, but most contemporary merchant ves-
sels remain unknown. Betsy appears to have been an ordi-
nary example of a small ship built to carry bulk cargo, so
the excavation provides vital data for future research into
the ships that tied Europe to its colonies.
In 1990 the disturbed and partially dismantled
wreck was exposed on the bottom, many artifacts had been
removed but not given conservation treatment, and vol-
umes of raw data had been collected but neither studied
nor published. At precisely this sensitive moment, a bud-
get crisis led Governor Doug Wilder to abolish the state's
entire underwater archaeology program. It has proved
difficult to convince the public or their elected representa-
tives that archaeology involves more than just "digging
stuff up." A public project therefore runs the risk of de-
funding as soon as artifacts are recovered. It appeared like-
ly that Betsy, the best-preserved veteran of an epochal
moment in history, had been sacrificed, and 25,000 hours
of volunteer labor expended, to absolutely no purpose.

Fortunately, John Broadwater would not give up
the ship. While serving out his termination notice, he mo-
bilized volunteers and alternative funding sources to com-
plete excavation, recording, and backfilling of the site. The
cofferdam had been planned to provide a permanent in-
terpretive and teaching resource. Instead, it was cut up
and used to help cover and protect the remains. A local
museum agreed to fund conservation and perpetual cura-
tion of the artifacts. That left only the need for a definitive
study and publication of the Yorktown Project findings.
Virginia's first (and apparently last) State Under-
water Archaeologist had learned from Dr. Bass that "An
unpublished site is a looted site." Broadwater therefore
obtained individual funding from the National Endow-
ment for the Humanities to complete publication of the
1407-page Final Report. The report is designed to be as com-
prehensive as possible. This will allow professional archae-
ological readers to reach their own judgment as to whether
the data supports the conclusions suggested. Notwith-
standing the depth of detail, the report remains informa-
tive for even a non-specialist reader. The presentation is
extremely readable without compromising the scholarly
analysis. Broadwater did an excellent job of selecting and
editing the specialists whose 26 reports occupy three of
the five volumes (Volume I is a summary and Volume V
the catalog of artifacts). There are 333 illustrations and five
plates. It is amazing that Broadwater was able to accom-
plish all this in time off from his new job.
Because of its bulk, the complete Final Report on the
Yorktown Shipwreck Archaeological Project will be available
only in selected repositories around the world, including
the Nautical Archaeology library in College Station. It is
hoped that a condensed version of the report will be pub-
lished and more widely distributed in 1997. The editor of
the Final Report welcomes comments and inquiries. These
should be directed to: John D. Broadwater, 295 E. Queens
Drive, Williamsburg VA 23185, or e-mail:

INA Quarterly 23.1

Reconstructed lines drawing

News & Notes
Egyptian Survey reveals new sites
INA-Egypt, under the direction of Douglas Haldane, is
currently undertaking the first shipwreck survey of the Egyp-
tian Mediterranean coast. The survey extends along the north-
west coast from Sidi Abd al-Rahman to Ras Hawala, a distance
of about 130 kilometers. The purpose of the survey is twofold:
first, to investigate seventeen sites reported as containing am-
phoras for possible shipwreck remains, and, second, to devise a
survey strategy for future exploration in the Mediterranean.
To date, INA-Egypt has investigated twelve submerged
sites, including five ancient harbors and one anchorage, and sev-
en coastal land sites, two previously unknown. Material evidence
for seafaring discovered during the survey so far ranges in date
from the 4th century B.C. to the 7th century A.D. Eight intact
amphoras, a stone anchor, and six coins were returned for con-
servation to the Alexandria Conservation Laboratory for Sub-
merged Antiquities in the National Maritime Museum.
INA-Egypt plans to return in the fall of 1996 to investi-
gate several areas for shipwreck remains in its quest to find a
Bronze or Iron Age shipwreck in the Egyptian Mediterranean.
Prof. Wachsmann honored
Shelley Wachsmann, Meadows Assistant Professor of Bib-
lical Archaeology, recently received Level III status with the Ex-
plorers Club for the Tantura Lagoon Expedition, which is
excavating a Byzantine-era shipwreck in the ancient harbor of
Tel Dor, Israel.

Fig. 1 (above). A February preview of the Yassiada exhibit in the Bodrum
Museum of Underwater A, ,.I il, :ii. Left to right, Dr. Oguz Alpozen (Mu-
seum Director), Dr. Ogkan KaraDg (President of the Bodrum Lions Club,
which has supported the exhibit), Cevat Tarim (dressed as "Captain Geor-
gios"), and Dr. Frederick Hocker (INA President) examine the full-scale
replica of the 7th-century ship. Photo by D. Frey.
Albanian archaeological delegation visits Bodrum
Between 29 February and 3 March 1996 Dr. Namik Bodi-
naku, Director of the Institute of Archaeology in Albania and Dr.
Faik Drini, Chief of the Classical Archaeology Department of the
Institute visited INA's headquarters in Bodrum (Fig. 2). They were
accompanied by Elizabeth Greene, who has been spending the year
in Tirana on a Fulbright Grant studying Albanian prehistory and
making plans for a coastal survey along the Ionian and Adriatic
coasts of Albania this summer. The visit was arranged with an eye
towards clarifying INA's collaboration with the Albanian Institute
of Archaeology, and to demonstrate the potential development of
a similar museum and research facility in Albania.

Fig. 2 (right). INA at Bodrum played host to a delegation of Albanian
scholars. Back row, from left to right: Dr. Namik Bodinaku, Dr. Frederick
Hocker, and Dr. Faik Drini. Front row: Mrs. Nexhmije Bodinaku, Eliza-
beth Greene, and Mrs. Irma Drini. Photo by C. A. Powell.

INA Quarterly 23.1


Richard A. Williford, 1934-1996

It is with great sadness that we report
the untimely death of Richard Williford,
Chairman of the Board of Directors of INA, in
an aircraft accident on 25 April 1996. His wife,
Mollie, who was also in the accident, survived
with minor injuries. He is also survived by a
son, Richard, Jr., a daughter, Monica Williford
Powell, and three grandchildren.
Richard was born in Galveston, Texas
on 24 December 1934. He attended Texas
A&M University, graduating in 1955. He em-
barked on a career in business, and built a
group of successful companies in the fields of
energy, real estate, and aviation, headquar-
tered in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Richard and Mollie believed strongly in
public service, and were devoted to using their
success to help others. They were tireless in
support of important causes in the Tulsa area,
and passionately devoted to Texas A&M. They
endowed a professorship in the College of
Geosciences and Maritime Studies, as well as
a number of scholarships. Richard served the
University in a number of advisory posts over
the years, from President of the Association
of Former Students to Chairman of the Board
of Trustees of the Texas A&M University De-
velopment Foundation during its successful Capturing the Spirit Campaign to raise half a billion dollars for
the University.
It was through Texas A&M and his friendship with other Tulsa-based Directors that Richard became
aware of and involved in INA. An avid diver, he visited INA's Turkish operation with Mollie, where he
dived on the Uluburun wreck. Last year, he and Mollie participated in the dedication of the new headquar-
ters in Bodrum, and visited the Bozburun excavation for another dive. He joined the Board of Directors and
Executive Committee in 1993. His calm, reasonable approach to INA's needs was a welcome asset to the
management of the Institute in our recent years of expansion. When asked to serve as Chairman, he willing-
ly took on the task with the particular goal of assuring a stable financial future for the Institute. He hoped to
bring his extensive experience in fund raising to bear, and had already set to work building the necessary
infrastructure, as well as strengthening INA's ties with Texas A&M. In all of these activities, he saw clearly
where INA needed to go, and acted to take us there. As Jack Kelley, who preceded him as Chairman, said,
"He was exactly the right guy at exactly the right time."
In person, Richard was often quiet (although not at Aggie football games), friendly, and an excellent
listener, hearing not just the words spoken but the mood and intent of the speaker. He cared about making
the world around him a better place. When he died, he was on his way to College Station to help others. We
wish Mollie a speedy recovery, and offer our deepest sympathy to her and the rest of their family and

INA Quarterly 23.1

George F. Bass, Archaeological Director
Gregory M. Cook, Treasurer


Frederick M. Hocker, President
Rebecca H. Holloway, Secretary

Donald A. Frey, Vice President
Cemal M. Pulak, Vice President


William L. Allen
John H. Baird
George F. Bass
Edward O. Boshell, Jr.
Ray M. Bowen
John Brock
Gregory M. Cook
Harlan Crow
Frank Darden
Claude Duthuit
Daniel Fallon

Danielle J. Feeney
Donald G. Geddes III
Woodrow Jones, Jr.
Harry C. Kahn II
Michael L. Katzev
Jack W. Kelley
Sally R. Lancaster
Robert E. Lorton
Frederick R. Mayer
William A. McKenzie

Alex G. Nason
Ayhan Sicimoglu
Ray H. Siegfried II
William T. Sturgis
Robert L. Walker
Lew O. Ward
Peter M. Way
Garry M. Weber
Martin A. Wilcox
George O. Yamini


George F. Bass
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology/ Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts
Kevin J. Crisman, Assistant Professor
Donny L. Hamilton, Frederick R. Mayer Fellow
Frederick M. Hocker, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Faculty Fellow
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doominck, Jr., Frederick R. Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology
Shelley Wachsmann, Meadows Assistant Professor of Biblical Archaeology

Birgiil Akbulut
Mustafa Babacik
William H. Charlton, Jr.
Marion Degirmenci
Helen Dewolf
Adel Farouk
Michael A. Fitzgerald, Ph.D.
Sevil G6kmen
Douglas Haldane, M.A.
Ashraf Hanna
Maria Jacobsen
Emad Khalil
Claudia LeDoux
Sheila D. Matthews, M.A.
Selma Oguz
G6khan Ozagach, Ph.D.
Jane Pannell
Claire P. Peachey, M.A.
Robin C.M. Piercy
Cemal M. Pulak, M.S., M.A.
Sema Pulak, M.A.
Patricia M. Sibella, Ph.D.
Giulser Sinaci
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D.
Tufan U. Turanl
Patricia A. Turner

Jeremy Green
Elizabeth Greene
George Indruszewski
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D.
Robert S. Neyland, Ph.D.
Brett A. Phaneuf
Ralph K. Pedersen, M.A.
Donald Rosencrantz
Rezart Spahia
Peter G. van Alfen, M.A.

Arthur Cohn, J.D.
Cynthia J. Eiseman, Ph.D.
John A. Gifford, Ph.D.
Cheryl W. Haldane, Ph.D.
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D.
Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
David I. Owen, Ph.D.
David C. Switzer, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., M.A.

James A. Goold

Christine A. Powell

Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology
Boston University
Brown University
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati
Comell University
Coming Museum of Glass
Department de Arqueol6gia Subacuatica de
la I.N.A.H., Mexico
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Partners for Livable Places
University Museum, University of
Shell of Turkey, Ltd.
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Texas A&M University
University of Texas at Austin

Mr. and Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried II
Graduate Fellow: Cemal M. Pulak
Mr. and Mrs. J. Brown Cook
Graduate Fellows:
Brian A. Jordan, Glenn Grieco

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