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Title: The INA quarterly
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 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Winter 1995
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098800
Volume ID: VID00014
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
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Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))


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Winter 1995

Volume 22 No. 4

The INA Quarterly

Volume 22 No. 4 Winter 1995

3 The Byzantine Shipwreck at Bozburun, Turkey MEMBERSHIP
The 1995 Field Season Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Frederick M. Hocker P.O. Drawer HG
College Station, TX 77841-5137
9 Whitehall Project 1995: Learn firsthand of the latest discov-
A Preliminary Report on the Excavation series in nautical archaeology. Mem-
and Study of the U.S.N. Row Galley Allen bers receive the INA Quarterly, sci-
Eric B. Emery entific reports, and book discounts.

15 Nautical Archaeology in the Southern Baltic Sea Regular ........... $30
George Indruszewski Contributor ........ $60

19 INA Sonar Survey Locates Ancient Shipwreck Supporter ........ $100
Brett A. Phaneuf & Donald Frey
Benefactor ....... $1000
21 Review Student/ Retired ... $20
Potteryfor Spanish Shipwrecks 1500-1800
by Mitchell Marken Checks in U.S. currency should be made
Reviewed by Brian Jordan payable to INA. The portion of any do-
nation in excess of $10.00 is a tax-de-
ductible, charitable contribution.
22 INA Quarterly Submission Guidelines

23 News & Notes

On the cover: Amphoras from the Bozburun wreck prior to the beginning of conservation, shown still in the lifting
basket with temporary identification tags. Photo by D. Frey.

December 1995 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. All rights reserved.
INA welcomes requests to reprint INA Quarterly articles and illustrations. Please address all requests and submissions to the Editor,
INA Quarterly, P.O. Drawer HG, College Station, TX 77841-5137; tel (409) 845-6694, fax (409) 845-6399.

The Institute of Nautical Archaeology is a non-profit scientific and educational organization, incorporated in 1972. Since 1976, INA
has been affiliated with Texas A&M University where INA faculty teach in the Nautical Archaeology Program of the Department of

The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsletter (vols. 1-18).

Editor: Christine A. Powell

The Byzantine Shipwreck at Bozburun, Turkey

The 1995 Field Season
by Frederick M. Hocker
Sara W. & George O. Yamini Faculty Fellow

Thirty-six meters deep in the Aegean Sea, everything is blue and green. The amphoras in my excavation square
vary from a dark, brownish blue with black sea cucumbers festooning the handles to a medium gray-green. The con-
creted anchor Robin Piercy has just uncovered in the square to the right is a pale bluish-green. Behind me, there is a
mound of light blue sand, spoil hand-fanned out of my square and Robin's, that separates the lower end of the excava-
tion from the featureless sandy slope that disappears down into indigo murk. Even in this dimly-lit world the shape of
a medieval ship is clearly visible in the mound of amphoras running up the slope.
The site was one of several shipwrecks shown to George Bass and the first INA survey team in 1973 by Mehmet
Askin (profiled in Newsletter 6.4), a sponge diver from the nearby town of Bozburun (Fig. 1). The wreck first appeared
as a low mound of amphoras approximately 20 meters long and 8 meters wide in the sloping, sandy bottom at the base
of the cliff called Kiigiiven Burnu, outside the entrance to the harbor of Selimiye, a small village near Bozburun (Fig. 2).
The mound is oriented almost directly north-south, with the southern (upper) end lying at a depth of 26 meters, hard
against the base of the cliff, and
the northern (lower) end at 36
meters. In addition to the mound,
a number of whole and fragmen-
tary amphoras are scattered
about the bottom either side of
the mound and in the rocks of the
cliff above. Some of the scatter is
a result of the wreck, as the mate-
rial is firmly concreted into the
rocks in places, but some is
doubtless the work of visitors to
the site. A few other artifacts, in-
cluding ceramics, several pieces
of concreted iron, and one broken
cruciform anchor, were initially
visible in the wreckage and on the
The site has been the sub-
ject of regular monitoring by INA,
and was surveyed in 1973, 1982,
1992, and briefly in 1994 in prep-
aration for the excavation. In the
course of the surveys, three am-
phoras were recovered and de-
posited in the Bodrum Museum
of Underwater Archaeology.
These amphoras provided a pre-
liminary date for the wreck in the
later ninth or early tenth century,
and appeared to match jars found
on kiln sites in the Crimea,
Work in 1995 began with
the construction of an excavation
camp and dive platform. Because
the site lies very close to a lee Map: B. Jordan
shore (less than 5 meters from the Fig. 1. The INA excavation camp site is located in a small harbor called Sig (Shallow)
face of the cliff) in the prevailing Bay. The shipwreck is reached by a short boat ride along the cliffs.

INA Quarterly 22.4

summer winds, it was considered unsafe to moor
INA's research vessel Virazon over the wreck. A
spur of rock projecting from the cliff offered a pos-
sible location for a fixed platform, but required
extensive improvement. Project staff, wielding
sledges, chisels, and pry bars, terraformedd" a se-
ries of more or less level platforms out of the rock
and surfaced them with concrete. These platforms
support a 45 kW diesel generator (one of a pair
donated by INA Director Danielle J. Feeney) and
compressors to power airlifts. Three levels of
changing and work platforms, as well as a boat
landing, were constructed of wood (Fig. 3).
Early planning for the excavation
camp concentrated on Kameriye Island, to the west
Photo: W. H. Charlton of the site, but this proved to be impractical. Tu-
Fig. 2 (above). The cliff at Kiuuven Burnu before the erection of the dive fan Turanli, of INA's Bodrum staff, located a bet-
platform. ter camp site in Sig (Shallow) Bay, on the eastern
side of K iiven Burnu. An olive grove belonging
Fig. 3 (below). The cliff and dive platform. To the right of the picture to local farmer Diirmus offered access to the sea
can be seen the boat landing, while to the left is the three-level changing less than 1.5 kilometers from the dive platform.
and work area. This camp site had municipal water and electrici-
Photo: D. Frey ty, and a road connection to town. Tufan also
found an unfinished house nearby that could be
converted into a field laboratory and secure stor-
age for artifacts. Project staff, from graduate stu-
dents to physicians, dug water lines and septic
tanks, built bamboo-roofed dormitories, mixed
and poured cement, and even manufactured fur-
niture. The finished product is a camp that will
support the excavation for several years with min-
imal maintenance and maximum efficiency, and
that will free the Virazon for extensive surveying
during the summer.
Diving began on July 8. Using tables
developed specifically for the excavation (based
on similar tables developed for the deeper Ulubu-
run excavation) by Dr. Richard Vann of the Div-
ing Physiology Research Center at Duke Univer-
sity, archaeologists dived in teams of four for up to 25 minutes each morning and 20 minutes in the afternoon. Once the
tables have been validated by sufficient dives, dive times can be extended to 30 minutes morning and afternoon. Divers
decompressed on pure oxygen at 6 meters, which greatly reduced the risk of decompression sickness. Many divers
were involved in Project Dive Safety, a research effort by the Diving Physiology Research Center to collect data on
repetitive dives so that more reliable dive tables can be constructed. These divers wore dive computers that recorded
exact time and depth data that could be downloaded electronically for analysis. By the end of the season, 979 dives had
been accomplished without any incidence of diving-related illness, although a four-person, double-lock recompression
chamber was installed in camp (three minutes by boat from the platform) in case of emergencies.
Underwater work consisted initially of the creation of a safe working environment by placing a fixed safety
station (INA's well-known "phone booth") at the upper end of the site and several sets of spare tanks of compressed air
around the site perimeter. This was followed by the establishment of a network of datum points around the site. Thir-
teen points, consisting of iron pins, were driven into the rocks at the upper end of the site. Eleven points made of
galvanized iron pipe with stabilizing fins were driven into the sandy bottom outside the limits of the site (as deter-
mined by probing), although one of these points was removed almost immediately, as it obstructed two of the others.
These points provide sufficient coverage of the site to allow any artifact or feature within the mound or on the rocks

INA Quarterly 22.4

above to be located. We used Direct Survey Measurement (Quarterly 22.3), a mapping technique developed on the
excavation of the Tudor warship Mary Rose and first used by INA in mapping the bottom topography at Uluburun in
1994 (Quarterly 21.4). Once the primary datum points were set and mapped (with an average error of less than 1 cm), an
excavation grid of 2-meter squares was constructed of polypropylene line attached to galvanized pipe stakes driven
into the bottom outside of the wreck perimeter (Fig. 4).
Each excavator was assigned a single square. The squares around the edges of the amphora mound were
chosen for initial excavation, with more experienced staff assigned to two trenches across the mound. The upper trench,
across row F, and the lower trench, across row M, were chosen to allow deeper probing of the mound at its upper and
lower ends. It was expected that these
two trenches would provide a better
indication of which end of the wreck
is the bow, and allow a more detailed
evaluation of the range of material to
be found and the degree of preserva-
tion to be expected. Excavation pro-
ceeded by hand fanning, with heavier
spoil removed by airlift. All artifacts
encountered were tagged, bagged, and
removed to the surface for preliminary
cataloguing. Sediment samples were
taken for palynological and composi-
tion analysis on a regular basis and
whenever unusual sediments were
uncovered. For example, near the up-
per end of the site, in square E 12, a
pocket of charcoal and dark sand that
may be related to the ship's galley was
Artifacts were labelled by lot
number based on provenience, with
complete or nearly complete artifacts
assigned individual inventory num-
bers beginning with the prefix BK (for
Bozburun-Kuiiiven Burnu). All diag-
nostic artifacts, including individual-
ly inventoried objects and objects cat-
alogued by lot number only, were
stored in water until the end of the sea-
son, when they were taken to the Bo-
drum Museum of Underwater Archae-
ology for conservation and permanent
storage. On-site conservators accom-
plished preliminary cleaning and sta-
bilization of many objects before the
end of the season, which should light-
en the load on INA's Bodrum conser-
vation staff and reduce the amount of
storage space required. After catalogu-
ing, a number of non-diagnostic plain
ware sherds (almost all badly eroded
amphora body fragments from dis-
turbed areas at the upper end of the
wreck) were redeposited on the site in Drawing: F. M. Hocker
a depot dug in square M9. Fig. 4. Schematic plan showing the layout of the site and the major datum points.

INA Quarterly 22.4

The vast majority of recovered artifacts were trans-
port amphoras and amphora sherds-over 440 jars were counted
on the surface of the mound before excavation began. Excavation
has shown that at least two layers of jars survive, with the lower
layer and parts of the upper layer still stacked as they were in the
hold when the ship sank. Some of the upper layer has tumbled
down slope, and an exploratory dive has revealed a few amphoras
well down the slope, nearly 60 meters deep. At the upper end of
the site, there is a lot of broken material, partly caused by visitors
to the site in previous years, but the eroded nature of the sherds
suggest that much of the breakage is ancient, probably a result of
the ship bouncing down the face of the cliff and slamming into the
The amphoras are of two major classes. Class 1 jars
(Fig. 5), of which over 40 intact or nearly intact examples were
recovered, are fairly crudely made, of pyriform-ovoid shape, with
a round, toeless base, conical neck, heavy rim, and heavy, ellipti-
cal-section handles attached below the rim and to the mid-shoul-
der. Amphoras of this class, which account for the overwhelming
majority of jars visible on the site, are evenly distributed through-
out the mound. A large number of the recovered jars are from
squares D9, M10, and Mil, but this reflects the faster pace of exca-
vation in these squares rather than a bias in distribution. A num-
ber of types within this class are immediately apparent, including
Fig. 6. An example of a Class 2 amphora (27.5% of
original size). D in
Drawing: Selma Oguz

Drawing: Selma Oguz
Fig. 5. An example of a Class 1 Amphora (27.5% of
original size).

a fairly numerous group of dark brown jars made to a higher stan-
dard than the others, but there is surprisingly little variation in
size. Preliminary measurements indicate that the average capacity
is approximately 13 liters, which is relatively small as amphoras
go. The best parallels for Class 1 amphoras are from kiln sites in
the Crimea, dating to the later ninth and early tenth century, but
similar jars have also been found in the Balkans and in Istanbul.
Unfortunately, none of these sites are very closely dated, and a
more precise dating of the Bozburun shipwreck will have to wait
for either more easily datable artifacts, such as coins or coin weights,
or dendrochronological analysis of the hull timbers. One of the
problems facing researchers of Byzantine amphoras is that neither
the dating nor the geographic origin of many types is very clear;
we anticipate that close dating of the Bozburun wreck, combined
with a large number of intact jars, will go a long way toward solv-
ing at least the dating problem.

INA Quarterly 22.4

Class 2 amphoras are shorter and broader, with a
flat bottom, harder shoulder, and wider, flaring neck, but
have similar handles to Class 1. Although only a few have
been identified in the surface layer and only two examples
were recovered (Fig. 6), these jars appear to be concentrat-
ed in the central portion of the mound. No very close par-
allels have yet been found for the Class 2 amphoras, but
the shape is generally similar to a common type of middle
Byzantine amphora known to have been made on the
shores of the Sea of Marmara, among other places.
Although amphoras dominated the 1995 finds,
small amounts of other material offered intriguing clues
to what awaits us in 1996. In the upper part of the wreck, a
number of artifacts associated with food storage and prep-
aration were recovered. These
included 12 square, stone tiles
in squares Ell, F10, and Fll.
The tiles are similar in shape
and size to clay hearth tiles
found on the seventh-century
wreck at Yassi Ada, and were
found approximately in line.
Three tiles were recovered from
this area (the rest remain partly
buried, along with what looks
like a building stone), and a
third, similar tile was actually
recovered from the wreck ma-
terial scattered in the rocks
above the site. A large, slightly
crowned slate of unknown
function was recovered near the
tiles. A plain ware pitcher (Fig.
7) missing its handle was raised
from square D9, where it was
lodged between two amphoras.
The base of another pitcher was
recovered down slope, in
square F10. Several fragmen-
tary bowls were found in
squares F9 and F10. Taken to-
gether, this material, along with
the deposit of charcoal in Fig. 7. A plain ware pitcher
square E12, suggests the pres- have been used by the creu
ence of a permanent hearth and original size).
galley at one end of the ship.
Other catalogued artifacts found on the site were
lead fishing weights, of both the folded sheet type and the
solid, pyramidal type (Fig. 8). Both were found at the low-
er end of the site, in squares M9 and M10. It is possible
that these are from fishing equipment used aboard the ship,
as both were buried relatively deeply, but it is more likely

that they are intrusive, left by a fisherman who snagged a
line on the wreckage (local fisherman still frequent the
Kiigiiven Burnu cliffs).
In addition to the recovered objects, some inter-
esting material was revealed but left in situ. Two anchors,
of Byzantine cruciform type, were discovered at opposite
ends of the site. One broken anchor, concreted onto the
rocks above and to the east of the amphora mound, may
be intrusive, but the anchor buried under several ampho-
ras in square M9 is certainly one of the bowers, so called
because it was kept ready for use on one side of the bow.
A sounding next to this anchor revealed that it lies on ster-
ile sand, and that the amphoras in this square and Ml11 are
spillage from farther up slope.

Drawing: Selma Oguz

'r with a missing handle may
of the vessel (40% of

In several of the
squares of row D and col-
umn 12, wood fragments
were found relatively high
up in the deposit. These frag-
ments include both hard-
wood (possibly elm) and
softwood, and may be rem-
nants of either collapsed
deck or the upper portion of
the starboard side. Although
coherent hull remains were
not revealed in any excava-
tion unit, these fragments
suggest that the well-pre-
served hull remains discov-
ered in two soundings on the
earlier surveys are probably
well distributed over the site.
The stiff, organic-rich sedi-
ment that lies under the
loose, surface sand also
promises good preservation
The 1996 season,
which begins in late May,
will concentrate on three
major objectives. The first is
to remove as much of the
amphora cargo as is practi-

cal. The second is to investi-
gate the sand pockets in the
rock ledges above the amphora mound-many of the small
finds normally associated with the stern of Mediterranean
ships, such as coins, tools, and weights, probably lie in these
pockets. The third is to establish the extent of preservation
of the hull. After three months of excavation, we should
know much more about this medieval venture.

INA Quarterly 22.4

Fig. 8. Among the small artifacts recovered were lead
fishing weights, the solid pyramidal type (left) and the
folded sheet i! ', (right).

Acknowledgments: Primary external funding for the excavation season was provided by grants from the National En-
dowment for the Humanities (NEH) and Mrs. Doris Smothers. MARES, manufacturer of superior dive equipment,
provided in-kind support, and John Flynn, owner of Computer Access, Inc., offered assistance in obtaining computer
hardware. Drs. David Perlman and Tom Love volunteered their medical services to mend cuts, bruises and dinged
ears. Feyaz Subay, an old friend of INA in Turkey and proprietor of Fey Diving in Marmaris, provided invaluable help
with compressor repairs and technical support.

Special Offer to INA Members

sity of North Wales) in The International Maritime A,,. 1i,.. :l, Series.

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subjects. Fully cross-referenced, and a comprehensive Index (key words and authors) corrected up to
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Guide and Background Works: 7 sub-sections Artifacts: 5 sub-sections
Shipbuilding, Naval Architecture: 2 sub-sections Archaeological Sites: 11 sub-sections
Underwater Archaeology: 8 sub-sections Miscellaneous Topics: 9 sub-sections
Index of Key Words Index of Authors

Order direct from the publishers:
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international money order, Eurocheque, Giro-cheque.

INA Quarterly 22.4

Photo: M.G. Pridemore

Photo: D. Frey

Whitehall Project 1995

A Preliminary Report on the Excavation and Study of the U.S.N. Row Galley Allen
by Eric B. Emery

The winter of 1813/14 in the Lake Champlain Val-
ley was a season of strained vigilance for U.S. Navy Mas-
ter Commandant Thomas Macdonough. On June 18, 1812,
a fledgling United States government had declared war
on Great Britain over the issues of free trade and the im-
pressment of American sailors. By February, 1814, Mac-
donough's shipwrights at Vergennes, Vermont, were en-
gaged in an arms race with the British at Isle-aux-Noix,
Canada. The prize was control of Lake Champlain. This
strategic waterway was the key to supplying American
efforts to invade Canada, and to British plans for splitting
New England from the rest of the United States. Over the
course of their struggle, both sides adopted the use of a
variety of small war-craft, including the row galley.
Numerous reports from Canada in January, 1814,
told of British efforts to expand their gunboat flotilla. It
was believed that the British intended to resume raiding
in the Champlain Valley by early summer. This prompted
U.S. Navy Secretary William Jones to grant Macdonough
his request for a row galley squadron. The galleys were to
be built according to the plans and specifications of the
Chesapeake Bay row galleys designed by William Dough-
ty, Chief Naval Constructor at the Washington D.C. ship-
yard (fig. 1). Jones described the Doughty galley as "the
most perfect of [its] kind" measuring "75 feet long and 15
feet wide... carrying] a long 24 and a 42 pound carron-
ade, row[ing] 40 oars, and draw[ing] but 22 inches wa-

Row galleys boasted a number of advantages for
service on Lake Champlain. They could be quickly built
and were relatively inexpensive; they had a shallow
draught which allowed them to travel almost anywhere
on the lake. The galleys' low freeboard made them diffi-
cult to hit from a distance, and they were capable of being
operated by sails or sweeps.
On February 14, 1814, the Navy Department con-
tracted Noah Brown, one of New York's finest shipwrights,
to build Macdonough's galley squadron. In less than two
months, Brown constructed, armed, and launched a total
of six of these vessels: Allen, Borer, Burrows, Centipede, Net-
tle, and Viper. Allen was launched onto Otter Creek below
the falls at Vergennes in late April. It was immediately
employed in protecting Fort Cassin, a makeshift battery
at the river's outlet into Lake Champlain. Allen was
manned by 40 officers and seamen under the command of
Sailing Master William Robbins.
During the spring and fall of 1814, Allen cruised Lake
Champlain looking for smugglers, and assisted Macdon-
ough's fleet in its victory over the British at Plattsburgh
Bay on September 11th. When the war ended in Decem-
ber of 1814, the Navy's squadron was put in ordinary at
Whitehall, New York. Three years later, Allen was recom-
missioned for patrol duty on the lake under the provisions
of the Rush-Bagot Agreement. When the Navy Department
closed the Whitehall station in 1825 / 26, the vessel was sold.
Situated out of the way in the Poultney River-about a

Source: U. S. Archives, Washington DC and College Park MD
Fig. 1. Plans for a U.S. Row Galley, Oct. 11, 1813, approved by William D. ,llti, Chief Naval Constructor, Washington, D.C.

INA Quarterly 22.4

mile and a quarter northeast of Whitehall-
the exposed portions of Allen's hull were re-
moved by salvagers while the submerged por-
tions remained well-preserved.

The 1981-82 Survey and Investigation
The remains of a row galley-thought
to be Allen-were discovered and first inves-
tigated by Kevin Crisman and Arthur Cohn
(founder of the Lake Champlain Maritime
Museum) in August of 1981. The wreck was
situated on the New York side of the river (fig.
2), downstream from the remains of the U.S.
brig Eagle and the British brig Linnet. Approx-
imately fifty percent of the original hull was
determined to be intact. This included the keel
(roughly 70 feet [23 m] in length) and the keel-
son (67 feet [22.1 m] in length), portions of the
stem and sternpost assemblies, and most of
the starboard side. A full-scale investigation
of the wreck promised to yield a considerable
amount of new information on early naval life
and the design and construction of War of 1812
vessels on Lake Champlain. It was further con-
cluded that it would be possible to reconstruct,
in the form of lines drawings and construc-
tion plans, the hull's shape and appearance
from the existing remains.
An archaeological survey of the hull
was carried out in 1982. The project was sup-
ported by various local organizations, includ-
ing the New York State Education Depart-
ment, the Vermont Division for Historic Pres-
ervation, and the Champlain Maritime Soci-
ety. There was evidence at this time to sug-
gest that this wreck was in fact the row galley
Allen. First, the wreck was found in close prox-
imity to the remainder of Macdonough's
squadron in the Poultney River. Captain
James T. Leonard-commander of the White-
hall Station on Lake Champlain after 1814-
had the remaining vessels Eagle, Ticonderoga,
and Linnet moved into the Poultney River
where they would be less likely to obstruct
boat traffic heading north from Whitehall.
Allen was the only operating vessel from the Map: K. Crisman
1814 squadron at this time. When the station Fig. 2. The Champlain Valley was a center of activity for both the British
closed in 1825/26, Allen was probably taken and Americans during the War of 1812.
into the Poultney River and auctioned off to
local salvagers.
Secondly, the collection of ballast found in the wreck's stern suggested that it was being used to counterbalance
a large weight in the bow. This was unusual because ballast was typically placed on either side of the keelson along
most of its length. This kept the vessel trim in the water and added stability to the hull. When Allen was patrolling Lake

INA Quarterly 22.4

Photo: S. Butler

Fig. 3. Installation of the starboard side grid.

Champlain during the latter part of its career, it mounted
a long 12 pounder on its bow. The weight of this gun would
have required sufficient ballast in the galley's stern to float
the vessel on an even keel.
Finally, a silver-plated uniform button from the U.S.
Army's 13th Infantry Regiment was found between the
vessel's keel and keelson during the 1982 survey (INA
Quarterly 22.1). It was known through historical documen-
tation that Macdonough had used American soldiers sta-
tioned at Plattsburgh and Burlington to man the oars of
his row galleys. There were soldiers from the 13th Infan-
try on Lake Champlain during the Battle of Plattsburgh
Bay on September 11, 1814. An American soldier may have
lost this button from his uniform while bending oars for
Plattsburgh aboard Allen.

Whitehall Project 1995 Project Objectives
The second and final phase of Allen's study
was designed to gather the data needed to com-
plete the analysis of the hull (thereby permitting
its reconstruction). This needed to be done before
the arrival of the Zebra Mussel in the Poultney
River. The Zebra Mussel is a small mollusk that
was introduced into the American Great Lakes
roughly ten years ago (INA Quarterly 22.1). It is
indigenous to freshwater lakes and streams in
Europe. These creatures form colonies on both
wooden and metal shipwrecks and obscure the
details of their design and construction.
Five main objectives were defined for the
1995 project: (1) to gather sufficient information
to develop a complete site plan; (2) to complete
the documentation of the keel, keelson, and stem
and sternpost assemblies; (3) to record the con-

struction and shape of frame sections at as many
points as possible; (4) to conduct an intensive
study of the vessel's starboard side including its
ceiling planking; and (5) to map and record the
vessel's ballast arrangement in the stern on both
sides of the keelson and remove samples for con-
The 1995 fieldwork took place in the form
of a joint field school between Texas A&M Uni-
versity and the University of Vermont from July
10th to July 29th. There were ten field school divers
(in addition to the project directors, a local dive-
master, and the author) to assist with the excava-
tion and recording of the hull, removal and cata-
loguing of artifacts, and photography. Besides this
full-time staff, local dive instructor Ron Plouff and

Dr. Robert Neyland from the Navy Historical Cen-
ter assisted with some of the dredging and record-
ing at different stages in the project. The Lake
Champlain Maritime Museum provided logistical support,
and also housed a conservation lab for the treatment of
artifacts. The project additionally received INA support.
One of the primary objectives of the 1995 fieldwork
was to excavate Allen's starboard ceiling and frames which
were buried beneath the Poultney River's heavy clay
banks. A grid was constructed during the first week of the
project and placed over the wreck (fig. 3). This structure
was twenty feet long by five feet wide (6.6 m x 1.6 m) and
was divided into 5-foot-square excavation units. Trans-
versely, the grid extended from the starboard edge of the
keelson nearly to the top of the surviving starboard frames.
The units within the grid were numbered consecutively
from 1 to 4, with Unit 1 closest to the bow and Unit 4 to the
stern. A second grid (10 feet [3.3 m] long) was installed,
but left un-excavated.

Photo: S. Butler

Fig. 4. Arthur Cohn tends a diver dredging on Allen's starboard side.

INA Quarterly 22.4

Dredge work began during the first week
of excavation and continued until July 27th (fig.
4). The excavators started with Unit 1 and proceed-
ed from stem to stern. Heavy clay (up to 8 inches
[20.2 cm] deep in certain areas) was removed by
systematically peeling off the sediments in 4-inch
(10 cm) layers and hand-feeding them into the
dredge system. Tight-meshed dredge bags were
secured to the dredge exhaust and examined af-
ter each level was completed and between each
frame (fig. 5). Many iron nails, wood chips and
fragments, and pieces of pine ceiling were found
mixed into the clay.

Photo: N. Power Allen's keel was estimated to be between 68
Fig. 5. Arthur Cohn sifting through a dredge bag. ft. and 70 ft. in length (22.4-23.1 m) and probably
consisted of two timbers flat-scarfed together.
Analysis of the keel was restricted to a five-foot
section exposed in the bow, a three-foot section in the stern, and measurements of its top surface taken at fifteen frame
positions. Samples of wood from the keel could only be obtained forward of amidships. The samples revealed that the
forward keel timber was fashioned from white oak.
A rabbet was cut along the top of the keel to fit the outer planking. Its two grooves were at 40 degree angles and
were roughly 1 to 1 1/2 inches (2.5-4 cm) deep. They ran from stem to stern approximately 1/2 inch (1.5 cm) down
from the top of the keel. The rabbet started just forward of the after-end of the apron and could be recorded up to the
point where it was difficult to discern due to the outer planking.

Stem and Stern Assemblies

The stem was flat-scarfed to the keel. This timber measured 2 feet, 7
1/2 inches (83.5 cm) in length, and extended up from the horizontal plane
of the keel at approximately a 58 degree angle. The keel extended about 10
inches (25.5 cm) forward of the stem's base. The lower edge of the stem
was considerably worn and deteriorated. This suggested that the space
was not intended to hold an outer timber. Instead, the stem's original di-
mensions would have filled that space. However, the wood samples tak-
en during the excavation disagree with this theory. They show the exist-
ence of three different wood types: the section of the stem closest to the
forwardmost end of the keel was fashioned from red oak. The timber fas-
tened between this outer stem, or "false stem," and the apron was of Amer-
ican elm; and the apron was of white ash. Two plugs, or "stopwaters,"
were found in the scarf table where the stem and keel were attached. The
apron was fastened to the top of the stem with four 3/4 inch (2 cm) diam-
eter iron through bolts.
William Doughty's row galley plan of 1813-from which Allen was
believed to have been built-showed a double-ended vessel with its rud-
der hung from a curved sternpost. Allen's stern bore little resemblance to
that of Doughty's plan. There was a straight sternpost which was fastened
to the top of the keel by a long flat scarf and secured to the keelson and a
frame by means of two 3/4 inch (2 cm) diameter iron drift bolts. An iron
eye bolt with a 1-1/2 inch (3.6 cm) diameter hole was driven into the after
end of the sternpost. This makeshift gudgeon was a fast and easy way to
hold the lower rudder pintle.

Photo: K. Crisman
Fig. 6. Dr. Robert Neyland records a
starboard ceiling plank.

INA Quarterly 22.4


The galley's keelson was nearly intact. It consisted of two timbers flat-scarfed together 24 feet (7.92 m) abaft the
stem. The overall length of the keelson was 67 feet, 3 inches (22.3 m) and was accessible for documentation at all points.
The forwardmost end was considerably deteriorated. The top surface had stanchion mortises as well as two mast steps.
At 51 feet (16.8 m) abaft the stem a series of planks extended transversely across the top of the keelson. This
transverse decking, or planking, was above the level of the ceiling, and was perhaps intended to provide seamen with
a surface to walk on that was not cluttered with ballast.
An interesting bolt pattern along the keelson provided evidence that may help confirm the existence of two keel
timbers. At the stem, amidships, and the stern were a series of three 3/4 inch (2 cm) diameter bolts that had been driven
through the keelson and keel within a foot of each other. This provided additional rigidity to Allen's backbone at these
potential weak sites. Similar drift bolt patterns were found 20 feet, 4 inches (6.2 m) from the stem and 30 feet, 10 inches
(9.1 m). One of these locations coincided with the keelson scarf, and the bolts clearly were intended to secure the scarf.
The second grouping of bolts may define the location of the keel scarf.

Starboard Ceiling and Frames

The ceiling on the starboard side of Allen was generally well-preserved (fig. 6). Some strakes reached more than
14 feet (4.6 m). Their widths ranged between 7 inches (17.7 cm) and 15 inches (38 cm), and thicknesses between 3 /4 inch
(2 cm) and 1 inch (2.5 cm). Some of the notable features found on the ceiling included small wooden battens extending

Drawing: E. B. Emery
Fig. 7. Midship Section of the Allen showing the more pronounced deadrise than ,, ii':,i.1l specified in D. ', :1,,'s plan.

INA Quarterly 22.4

laterally from the starboard edge of the keelson toward
the bulwarks. It is possible that these battens were designed
to fix bulkheads in the hull's storage areas. Samples of both
ceiling and battens were removed for documentation on
shore. This also enabled divers to record the frames un-
Irregularities existed in Allen's frame construction
and composition. The frames appeared to have been as-
sembled with little regard for size and spacing. Allen's ship-
wrights were building in a hurry in 1814, and may have
allowed considerable leeway for error. For example, one
starboard first-futtock was attached to the wrong side of
the floor (it did not follow the pattern of the other frames
forward of amidships), drift bolts missed frames and sim-
ply passed through the keel and keelson, there were no
limber holes cut into the underside of the frames, and some
of the frames may have been produced from unseasoned
wood. One frame in particular was abnormally large and
soft. It was the largest frame in the entire vessel and was
fashioned from white pine, an unusually weak wood to
choose for a floor timber.

Preliminary Reconstruction
Reconstruction of Allen required close examination
of the archaeological data from the summer of 1995 and
educated conjecture. The vessel's starboard side was best
preserved and thus yielded the most information. The
missing portions of the hull were put together based on
comparisons with other contemporary vessels of a similar
class and information obtained from historical documents.
Brown mass-produced Allen and its sister galleys,
and it appeared as though he used Doughty's plan only as
a reference point during his work. The 1995 data revealed
a variety of deviations from Doughty's original design. By
looking at what construction details Brown chose to omit,
we can begin to understand the problems he faced while
building Allen, as well as his solutions.
Allen's hull shape was considerably different from
Doughty's plan. Doughty showed a series of sections with
a full turn of the bilge. Allen had a more pronounced
deadrise (fig. 7). Macdonough needed his galleys to be sail-
worthy. The sharper angle of Allen's hull would have al-
lowed it to cut through the water more easily and provid-
ed better lateral resistance. Doughty's galley was more
barge-like. It would readily have supported its guns, but
would not have been easy to handle under sail.

Archaeological study of the ship during the 1995
Whitehall Project yielded a wealth of information about

row galley construction on Lake Champlain during the
War of 1812. Once the hull analysis and artifact documen-
tation have been completed, we will have a better under-
standing of life aboard a Lake Champlain galley, and the
ability to identify the construction details unique to Noah
Brown-built vessels. Allen is the only known craft built by
this important 19th-century shipwright that is available
for study. Brown built simple, strong, and serviceable hulls
capable of satisfying the U.S. Navy's needs. Allen is a tes-
timony to the skills-and compromises-necessary to con-
struct and outfit an inland flotilla within a period of less
than two months.

Acknowledgments. The 1995 Whitehall Project was support-
ed by a Legacy Grant administered by the U.S. Navy His-
torical Center, the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum, the
Institute of Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M Univer-
sity, INA Director Harlan Crow. Additional support was
provided by the New York State Education Department
and the Vermont Division for Historic Preservation. The
knowledge and leadership of Dr. Kevin Crisman and
Arthur Cohn brought the project into being and kept it
organized, informative, and safe. Special thanks to Dr.
Robert Neyland from the U.S. Navy Historical Center, and
students Steve Bilicki, Steve Butler, Erich Heinold, Pierre
Larocque, Scott McLaughlin, Scott Padeni, Cheryl Quinn,
Erika Washburn, and Rob Wilczynski.

Suggested Reading

Chapelle, Howard
1949 History of the American Sailing Navy. New York.

Crisman, Kevin
1987 The Eagle: An American Brig on Lake Champlain dur-
ing the War of 1812, Annapolis: The Naval Institute

Dudley, William (ed.)
1985 Naval Documents of the War of 1812.2 Vols. Washing-
ton, D.C.

Naval Records Collection of the Office of Naval Records
and Library, Record Group 45
1813 Entry 149, Secretary of the Navy to Captains, "Sec.
Navy William Jones to Capt. Thomas Macdonough,
December 7, 1813," Microfilm Roll 11, Part 2, Letter
number 163.

INA Quarterly 22.4

Nautical Archaeology in the Southern Baltic Sea
By George Indruszewski

With the changing face of Europe, Western nautical
archaeologists have gained access to hitherto unknown ter-
ritories. The collapse of the Warsaw Pact has created the
opportunity for outside researchers to observe and work in
areas that were formerly ruled off-limits by the state securi-
ty apparatus. Perhaps even more important is a wider aware-
ness of the scholarly work that has been going on for de-
cades behind the former Iron Curtain. Poland and the south-
ern Baltic region (Fig. 1) host important centers which have
done, and are doing, crucial work on the history of seafar-
ing. A 1995 visit to Poland by a delegation from the Institute
of Nautical Archaeology offered insights into this continu-
ing scholarship. I was privileged to be a member of this del-
The Baltic maritime tradition deserves more attention.
In the medieval period, much of the land was covered by
thick forests, which separated the settlements of the West-
ern Slavs. These settlements were mentioned in the second
half of the 9th century by an anonymous "Bavarian Geogra-
pher" who recorded a list of people and "cities" situated north
of the Middle Danube. His account, together with other his-
torical sources, tells us about the existence of numerous tribes
who took or gave their name to the region they inhabited.
The Slavs took advantage of the highly developed river and
lagoon network, so characteristic of the territory between the
Elba and the Vistula basins, and established a network of
forts and strongholds connected and protected by bodies of
water. This natural situation made watercraft the only prac-
tical choice for long distance transport and communication.
According to historical sources, vessels built on the south-

Fig. 1. Poland and the Southern Baltic Sea area, showing the sites

ern shore of the Baltic seem to have reached a level of per-
formance and seaworthiness comparable with that of Scan-
dinavian vessels. The archaeological evidence provides im-
portant testimony about the intense seafaring activities which
once connected an entire network of trading centers along
the Baltic southern coast from the Schlei in the west to the
Vistula lagoon in the east.
In the 13th century, however, the indigenous south-
ern Baltic maritime tradition apparently entered a period of
irreversible decline. The Hanseatic presence brought not only
a drastic change in maritime trade but also new thinking in
shipbuilding. Nevertheless, the method of construction char-
acteristic of the southern Baltic coast in the early medieval
period seems to have survived the test of time. Ethnograph-
ic studies point to constructional details of small craft used
mainly for fishing and local transport. These show similar-
ities with the medieval craft of Poland and Mecklemburg.
The study of Baltic shipbuilding traditions has emerged from
a period dominated by political and nationalistic consider-
ations into an era of genuine scientific work.

Torun-the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography

The visit by the INA delegation started in Torun, home
of the Nicolaus Copernicus University and of the Institute
of Archaeology and Ethnography. The Institute remains to-
day the only academic institution in Poland-and through-
out Central and Eastern Europe-which offers a Master of
Arts degree in underwater archaeology and artifact conser-
vation. The director of the Institute, Prof. Dr. Andrzej Kola,
received the delegation with
characteristic Polish hospitali-
ty and declared at the end of
our stay in Torun that the In-
stitute of Archaeology and Eth-
nography is willing to cooper-
ate with our Institute on the ba-
sis of mutual respect and col-
laboration. Professor Kola
specified that the work of his
Institute is concentrated most-
ly on inland underwater ar-
chaeology, specifically on the
study of medieval stationary
structures in Poland and
abroad. The Institute is cur-
rently engaged in cooperative
research programs with the
Ukrainian Institute of Archae-
ology and with the Institute
for Ancient and Early History
Map: C. A. Powell from Christian Albrecht Uni-
mentioned in the text. versity in Kiel, Germany.

INA Quarterly 22.4

Fig. 2 (left). Built in 1442-4, this
crane was used to lift weights of up
to 4 tons. It now forms part of the
Central Maritime Museum in

Fig. 3 (below). Malbork Castle was
the headquarters of the Teutonic
Knights in the late Middle Ages. This
suspended bridge connects the upper
castle with the middle castle.

Photographs: G. Indruszewski

Szczecin-the National Museum
The next place visited by the INA delegation was
Szczecin, a major port on the Odra/Oder river and home
of the National Museum. Through the work of its research
staff the museum has grown from an unknown regional
institution into a center of Polish and world history. A
major contribution to this rapid development was brought
by the present director, Prof. Dr. Wladyslaw Filipowiak.
He directed massive excavations not only in Poland but
also in Mali and Ghana. The major work of Professor Fili-
powiak concentrated on the medieval town of Wolin, sit-
uated on the island with the same name, where in the
course of almost twenty-five years of excavations a large
collection of ship parts and ship-related fragments were
found. The site yielded fragments of five ships dated to
the early medieval period, as well as remains of an early
medieval trading center.
Professor Filipowiak's work did not consist of land
excavations only. He was among the first Polish archaeol-
ogists who learned to use a "hard-hat' diving suit to in-
vestigate underwater sites. As a result of a long-time in-
terest in the maritime aspects of Pomeranian history, the
National Museum is today in possession of a unique col-
lection of early medieval vessels. Two other vessels are
undergoing conservation treatment in the Museum's Con-
servation Laboratory. During my second visit to Szczecin
he cordially invited me to participate in the investigation
of a 15th-16th century merchantman sunk at Trzebiez in
the Zalew Szczecinski (Szczecin lagoon).

INA Quarterly 22.4

Gdansk-the Central Maritime Museum

A visit to Gdansk offered the INA delegation an op-
portunity to contact officials from the Central Maritime
Museum. The delegation was also able to admire the his-
torical splendors of the town, rebuilt from its ashes at the
end of the Second World War. Founded in 1960 by Prze-
myslaw Smolarek, the Central Maritime Museum has
grown in importance over the years thanks to the work of
its dedicated staff. The excavation of the "Copper Wreck,"
a merchantman sunk at the beginning of the 15th century
with a heavy load of copper and iron ingots, and the in-
vestigation of the Swedish warship Solen, sunk in the bat-
tle of Oliwa in 1627, ought to be accounted among its most
notable achievements. Today, the Museum's collections
comprise rare items ranging from hull remains and cargo
items to unique marine paintings and navigation instru-
ments. In addition to this, the Museum has custody of two
notable vessels: Soldek, the first steamship built in post-
war Poland, and Dar Pomorza, the former training frigate
of the Polish merchant fleet. An integral part of the Muse-
um's buildings, the Old Crane, was another point of at-
traction for us, the 15th century building being one of the
best preserved medieval port installations in Northern
Europe (Fig. 2).
The delegation's hosts took every care to ensure not
only a pleasant stay in the Museum's guest rooms but also
a busy travel schedule. Thus, the delegation visited Mal-
bork (Marienburg) castle, which was the seat of the pow-

Fig.4. Hel peninsula-looking for ship parts on the beach.

erful state of the Teutonic knights (Fig. 3). The next visit
took the delegation to the Hel Fishery Museum where Mr.
Miroslaw Kuklik made a brief but eloquent presentation
of the artifacts exhibited in the collection. We next walked
toward the tip of the peninsula. Amid pine thickets and
rusted gun emplacements aiming nowhere, Mr. Kuklik
pointed out to the delegation that they might be the first
foreigners to walk through what used to be one of the most
important military bases of the defunct Warsaw Pact. He
mentioned that the area seems to be a blessing for a ma-
rine archaeologist, since numerous ship parts are swept
periodically onto the shore by the powerful currents which
encircle the tip of the Hel peninsula (Fig. 4). Some of this
precious material is collected for fuel by local inhabitants
(Fig. 5), but some reaches the hands of Museum person-
The delegation's next visit was to Tczew, where we
visited the Vistula river museum where Dr. Dirka, the head
of the Conservation Laboratory, informed us of the tech-
niques used in the conservation of the excavated ship re-
mains. Here, we had the occasion to see the artifacts un-
dergoing conservation treatment. Some of them, such as a
17 meter long oak keel, were quite impressive.

Gdansk-the Archaeological Museum

At the end of my stay I had the opportunity to meet
with Dr. Henryk Paner, the director of the Archaeological
Museum in Gdansk, and with Mr. Zbigniew Borcowski.
On this occasion Dr. Paner in-
formed me of the Museum's re-
search activity, which ranges
from the preservation of the Old
Town historical heritage in Gdan-
sk to land excavations in more re-
mote corners of the province. Of
special interest seems to be the ex-
cavation started in 1991 on Gra-
nary Island, which is an integral
part of the Old Town. Following
in the footsteps of his predeces-
sors, K. Jazdzewski and J. L. Luka,
Dr. Paner declared his openness
to mutually advantageous terms
of collaboration and joint research
between our institutions. I left
Poland with the feeling that there
is great potential for research into
the complexities of North-Euro-
pean seafaring history.

Photo: G. Indruszewski

INA Quarterly 22.4

Acknowledgments. Our gratitude is offered to all who helped make this visit a reality: in Poland-A. Kola, W. Filipow-
iak, A. Zbierski, J. Litwin, P. Rutecki, Y. Pomian, H. Paner, Z. Borcowski, P. Swiderska, P. Agnieszka P., M. Kuklik, the
CMM chief administrator, P. Dirka, the skipper of Kaszubski Brzeg, NM-Szczecin library and Museum personnel, CMM-
Gdansk personnel, Archaeological Museum personnel, Czeslawa and Kazimierz Kusnierek, Slawomira and Karol Paw-
lak, and many others whose names momentarily escape our memory; in the USA-the directors of the Institute of
Nautical Archaeology, G. F. Bass, B. Holloway, and T. Mikela.

Suggested Reading

Filipowiak, W.
1994 "Shipbuilding at the mouth of the River Odra
(Oder)," Crossroads in Ancient Si, ia''i iling Proceed-
ings of A,,. ,i,,.1, 1.. Roskilde 1991 6/40) 83-96.
Kola, A.
1983 "Problems and perspectives of archaeological un-
derwater research in inland waters of Poland," Acta
Universitatis Nicolai Copernici IX / 1: 39-47.
Litwin, J.
1995 "The Puck Bay wrecks an opportunity for a Polish
Skuldelev," Shipshape-Essays for Ole Crumlin-
Pedersen on the occasion of his 60th anniversary-Feb-
ruary 24th 1995, Roskilde: 136-150.

Paner, H.
1993 "The industrial heritage of Granary Island,
Gdansk," Preservation of the Industrial Heritage-
Gdansk Outlook-Proceedings: 125-133.
Smolarek, P.
1983 "The Genesis, Present State and Prospects of Polish
Underwater Archaeological Investigations in the
Baltic." Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici IX/1: 5-
Zbierski, A.
1985 "The Development of the Gdansk area from the
Ninth to the Thirteen century," British Archaeologi-
cal Review 255(i): 289-334.

Photo: G. Indruszewski
Fig. 5. Ship parts stacked for fuel in the backyard of Hel Peninsula houses.

INA Quarterly 22.4

INA Sonar Survey Locates Ancient Shipwreck
Brett A. Phaneuf & Donald Frey

INA and the Nautical Archaeolo-
gy Program at Texas A&M University are
developing computer systems to docu-
ment sonar surveys for underwater ar-
chaeology sites. The sonar equipment,
provided by INA Director Martin Wilcox,
gathers data from the 20 to 100 meter-deep
bottom, converts them into graphic imag-
es, and sends them to a Epson 880C Ac-
tionNote notebook computer. The opera-
tor can then view the information, pin-
point areas of interest, and save the valu-
able data to a Geographic Information
System (GIS) database. This information
can be used to identify sites that merit a
physical survey by divers as a prelude to
full-scale excavation.
In October 1995, Don Frey, Brett
Phaneuf, and Murat Tilev conducted a
side scan sonar survey along the south-
ern coast of the Bodrum Peninsula (Fig.
1). Sponge divers had reported ship-
wrecks in the areas targeted for the sur-
vey, but a diver survey was deemed too Fig. 1. Bodrun
dangerous or expensive. Instead, sonar
was used to determine if the sponge fishermen's reports
were accurate and to locate the exact positions of poten-

Fig. 2. Don Frey examines incoming sonar data in Aspat Bay. Th
Technology, Ltd. Sonar system is fully PC and GPS integrated.

Sand surrounding area, including Aspat Bay.

Map: C. A. Powell

tial sites. The Marine Sonic Technology, Ltd., Sea Scan PC-
150 Khz sonar system provided by Wilcox was coupled
with a Trimble NT200D DGPS position-
ing system.
Much of the survey was spent
scanning the seafloor of Aspat Bay, half
an hour west of Bodrum (Fig. 2). Sever-
al divers, including our boat captain's
father, had reported seeing a large
mound of amphoras approximately 2
km offshore. Although this amphora
mound was not found, an ancient wreck
laden with roofing tiles was located just
outside the survey area, at a depth of
about 43 meters. The shipwreck was
difficult to identify at first because of its
extremely low profile (13 cm in height)
and the disposition of the individual
tiles, laying one on top of another near-
ly parallel to the bottom. The shipwreck
reflected enough sound to produce a so-
'hoto: B. Phaneuf nar image only when passed on a very
e Marine Sonic specific course (Fig. 3).

INA Quarterly 22.4

Many other targets that may be shipwrecks
were recorded as well. The authors are now re-
viewing their records to select the most promis-
ing candidates for further inspection. The MSTL
Sea Scan sonar makes it possible to find the length,
width, height and area of a site without diving,
making survey much more efficient in areas with
sand bottoms. It also allows manipulation of the
scanned images, both while collecting data in the
field and while reviewing it on land.
The MSTL side scan sonar has proved its
immense value and utility in archaeological sur-
vey. Therefore, we hope to use it as the principal
instrument in future surveys. As the INA sonar
survey crew becomes more accustomed to iden-
tifying targets as shipwrecks, we are confident
that our research will become ever more produc-
tive. Future plans include incorporating a video
camera in the sonar fish so that objects can be iden-
tified without sending divers to inspect a poten-
tial site. It should also be noted that in addition
to validating the usefulness of side scan sonar in
archaeological research, we also reconfirmed a
basic law of the universe, namely Murphy's Law:
"Generators will run out of gas at precisely the
moment a potential wreck appears in the record."
The Smithsonian Institution has selected
this Nautical Archaeology Excavation Project for
inclusion in its permanent research collection. The
Smithsonian's collection consists of descriptions
of the use and impact of information technology
across all areas of endeavor, including archaeolo-
gy. This is a major honor, as only a few dozen de-
scriptions are added annually in each category.
The description will also be accessible to millions
as an on-line information resource through a
Photo: B. Phaneuf WorldWideWeb site on the Internet, sponsored by
Fig 3. For the first time Murat Tilev sees the ancient tile wreck in Novell. The Home Page address on the Web for
Aspat Bay, sunk more than a millennium ago. The Innovation Network is In
addition, INA's application will be submitted to
the Computerworld Smithsonian Awards Program in the science category. Each year five applicants are selected that
epitomize the ability of science to advance knowledge and benefit society.

Acknowledgments. The authors wish to thank INA Director Martin Wilcox for his generosity in providing a sonar system
for the survey this past fall. Trimble Navigation provided the use of a differential global positioning system. This
enabled us to effectively plan and navigate survey routes, as well as to return to our survey area with extreme accuracy.
Thanks also to Epson America for providing laptop computing resources to review sonar records and process data.
Epson, a previous winner of a Computerworld Smithsonian Award, has nominated INA to receive this honor.

INA Quarterly 22.4


Potteryfor Spanish Shipwrecks: 1500-1800
by Mitchell W. Marken
264 pages, Gainesville: University Press of Florida,

Reviewed by Brian Jordan
Mr. And Mrs. J. Brown Cook Graduate Fellow

Dr. Mitchell Marken's Pottery for Spanish
Shipwrecks: 1500-1800 is a substantial new reference
tool for archaeologists interested in the Spanish
colonial period. The focus of his study is common
ceramic types associated with securely dated Spanish
shipwrecks of the American colonial period. Marken
has been able to refine and create topologies for both
olive jars and Columbian Plain wares that make up
the majority of ceramic finds on shipwreck and land
sites. The quality of his research over the course of
five years is evident in the detailed and precise
recording process and in the number of ceramic
assemblages studied.
Using body shape and rim styles, Marken has
developed a fairly precise chronology for olive jars
and Columbian Plain wares. The sections on each
ceramic type are filled with meticulous descriptions
and numerous illustrations that are invaluable for
dating of unassociated finds on land and in the sea.
Marken takes the reader through a detailed analysis
of the ceramic assemblages of 17 shipwrecks from
around the world. Each group of artifacts is first
discussed chronologically, and then grouped
according to type for easier referencing. Also included
are chapters on manufacturing techniques, markings,
contents, coverings, stowage, and volume relationships. By combining the attributes of olive jars with the attributes of
Columbian Plain, this book provides an excellent resource in which collections can be dated with confidence.
Marken discusses the delicate issue of "legally salvaged" wrecks with aplomb. This matter is of some importance
because the majority of the ceramic assemblages come from such excavations. "Unfortunately, until laws forbid the
private salvage for monetary profit of important historical sites, our role as students of the colonization periods will
remain a confusing one. In the meantime, should we sit back and ignore new information?" In this book, the answer is
a very definite "No!" Marken in no way condones the practices of treasure hunters or their techniques. He fully recognizes
that the pillage of underwater sites in the Caribbean has resulted in the loss of untold quantities of irreplaceable
knowledge. Marken cautions against using the numbers and volumes of the jars found on these wrecks as "gauges of
economic processes," because of the unsystematic recovery and lack of provenience data. Reliable information regarding
the stowage of cargo aboard Spanish ships from this period is also unattainable, because treasure hunters have scrambled
the remains. Still, Marken is unwilling to let what remains of the archaeological data go to waste. He concludes that
studying salvaged material is the lesser of two evils. Significant insights can still be gained from the systematic study of
artifacts from salvaged wrecks, despite the inexcusable loss of so much other information.

INA Quarterly 22.4

Archaeologists and historians will benefit from Marken's work for many years to come. His systematic and
detailed study of olive jars and common wares from 1500-1800 provides researchers with a standard typology from
which to launch their own studies. Marken sums up these views best in his conclusion,

"By combining traditional archaeological approaches to accurately dated shipwrecks with refined
techniques of fabric analysis, scholars will have the opportunity to bring order and confidence to
problems previously obscured by uncertainty and confusion. It is hoped that legislation and educa-
tion will help to curtail the salvage of historic vessels and that adequate funding will become avail-
able to study archaeologically the valuable resource represented by shipwrecks. As we learn to deal
with the large quantity of ceramic material involved ... the prospect for future study in this field is
almost unlimited."

INA Quarterly Submission Guidelines

The Editor invites all readers of the INA Quarterly to consider submitting material for possible publication. Pref-
erence will be given to articles closely related to the work of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology or the Nautical
Archaeology Program at Texas A&M University. Please remember that the Quarterly has both professional and general
readers. Neither excessively popular nor highly technical treatments are appropriate for this journal. Articles should
comply with the following guidelines, and will be edited to meet style and length requirements.
Authors are required to submit a completed typed or printed manuscript, together with illustrations, well in
advance of the publication date. Preliminary drafts should not be submitted, as it may not be possible to incorporate
later revisions. Whenever possible, articles should also be submitted in electronic form, as a formatted file from a
common Macintosh, DOS, or Windows word-processing program on a 3.25 inch diskette. Disks and original artwork
will be returned to the author after publication.
Spelling should conform with a standard American dictionary. Foreign words, ship names, and book titles should
be italicized (or underlined, if using a typewriter). Measurements should be metric, when possible. However, items built
or recorded in feet and inches may be given in that fashion, with a metric conversion in parentheses following. Draw-
ings, tables, and other graphic means of presenting information are preferable to long lists of measurements in the text.
Footnotes and formal in-text citations should be avoided, except when essential. Any necessary citations should
follow the form of the American Journal of A, ,.1,.l,, 1 :, A suggested reading list of at least three works (including all
those quoted in the article) may be included at the end.
Quarterly articles customarily include an "Acknowledgments" section at the end, above the reading list. This
should include all those who assisted the author with researching or writing the article. Persons or organizations that
helped finance the research with grants or in-kind assistance should be given particular credit.
Original illustrations should be submitted, together with a caption list. Mark all illustrations on the back with
the figure number in pencil so it will be possible to match them to the captions. The illustrations should be of the highest
possible quality, as there is unavoidable degradation during each step of the reproduction process. For example, blurred
photocopies cannot be used. Bear in mind that most illustrations will be reduced to meet space requirements, so line
thickness and lettering should be large enough to remain legible after reduction. Either photographs or slides are
acceptable, but should be of good quality.
It is essential that proper acknowledgment be given to the works of other authors. The source of all illustrations
must be provided. Where copyrighted material is used, permission from the publishers must be obtained. Any neces-
sary endorsement by your project director must be granted prior to submission.
If you have any questions, suggestions, or comments, feel free to contact the Editor.

INA Quarterly 22.4

News &Notes

Library Donations
INA wishes to thank Director
Donald G. Geddes, III, who has very
generously donated to the Institute his
extensive collection of books, journals,
charts, photographs, and manuscripts
related to New World seafaring, as
well as a selection of excavation equip-
ment and cameras. Mr. Geddes's li-
brary is a welcome and much-needed
addition to the research collections
now held by INA. It will see frequent
use by a number of scholars now in
residence in College Station, as well as
by scholars in the future.
The Institute is also extremely
grateful to Director Claude Duthuit,
who has donated two films he co-pro-
duced in the early 1960s. Pecheurs
1,I 4.,,. follows the work of Bodrum
sponge divers, and Chantiers sous le mer
chronicles the excavation of the Byz-
antine ship at Yassiada. These two
films, along with footage produced by
Director Jack Kelley on several INA
projects in the 1980s and 1990s, will
form the core of a new cinemateque, a
research collection of films concerning
nautical archaeology.

Recent A&M Graduates
The INA Quarterly congratu-
lates the following recent graduates
from the Nautical Archaeology Pro-
gram at Texas A&M University who
received Master of Arts degrees: Gail
Ernestine Erwin (Fall 1994); Carmen

Marquez, Claire Peachey, Mark Smith
(Spring 1995); Brinnen Carter (Sum-
mer 1995); and Peter van Alfen (Fall
1995). Michael Fitzgerald received a
Doctor of Philosophy degree in Spring,

Flower Gardens Mapping
This spring, the Institute of
Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M
University will be compiling a sonar
map for the United States National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis-
tration (NOAA) at the Flower Gardens
Marine Sanctuary, the northernmost
active tropical coral reef in the West-
ern Hemisphere. The team will be us-
ing a Marine Sonic Technology, Ltd.,
300 Khz sonar system, provided by
INA Director Martin Wilcox, to gath-
er the data for the study. This is yet
another exciting application of high
technology to the study of the seas.

Cincinnati Meeting of SHA
A strong contingent of scholars
associated with the Nautical Archae-
ology Program at Texas A&M Univer-
sity and the Institute of Nautical Ar-
chaeology participated in the recent
meeting of the Society for Historical
Archaeology. The Conference on His-
torical and Underwater Archaeology
was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, January
3-7, 1996. Papers on INA-sponsored
projects were given by Elizabeth Bald-

win, Arthur Cohn, Joe Cozzi, Kevin
Crisman, Eric Emery, Frederick Hock-
er, Stephen Paris, Erika Washburn,
and Rich Wills.

INA Technical Lectures
INA began its first season of
technical lectures this spring, designed
to stimulate interest in developing re-
mote sensing technology and alterna-
tive career opportunities for students
and professional nautical archaeolo-
gists. These lectures are scheduled bi-
weekly and are open to all members
of the INA and University communi-
ties, and to the general public. Write
to Brett Phaneuf, Research Associate,
at P.O. Drawer HG, College Station,
TX 77841-5137 for further information
or a schedule.

DAN on Web
DAN (Divers Alert Network)
now has a presence on the World Wide
W eb. Enter ittl ";i ,';,,' ; iJ.;- n to
find DAN's Web site on the Internet.
Presently, the home page links to ar-
eas describing DAN's benefits and ser-
vices; mission statement; contact infor-
mation; and DAN's Medical Line, an-
swers to frequently asked diving safe-
ty and medical questions published in
Alert Diver magazine. If you have
questions or comments about the
DAN Web site, contact Barry Shuster

INA Quarterly 22.4

Nautical Archaeology now on the WorldWideWeb

You can now contact the Home Page of the Texas A&M University
Nautical Archaeology Program on the WorldWideWeb segment of the In-
ternet. Enter

George F. Bass, Archaeological Director
Gregory M. Cook, Treasurer


Frederick M. Hocker, President
Rebecca H. Holloway, Secretary

Donald A. Frey, Vice President
Cemal M. Pulak, Vice President


William L. Allen
John H. Baird
George F. Bass
Edward O. Boshell, Jr.
Ray M. Bowen
John Brock
Gregory M. Cook, Vice Chairman
Harlan Crow
Frank Darden
Claude Duthuit
Daniel Fallon
Danielle J. Feeney

Donald G. Geddes III
Woodrow Jones, Jr.
Harry C. Kahn II
Michael L. Katzev
Jack W. Kelley
Sally R. Lancaster
Norma S. Langworthy
Robert E. Lorton
Frederick R. Mayer
William A. McKenzie

Alex G. Nason
Ayhan Sicimoglu
Ray H. Siegfried II
William T. Sturgis
Robert L. Walker
Lew O. Ward
Peter M. Way
Garry M. Weber
Martin A. Wilcox
Richard A. Williford, Chairman
George O. Yamini


George F. Bass
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology/ Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts
Kevin J. Crisman, Assistant Professor
Donny L. Hamilton, Frederick R. Meyer Fellow
Frederick M. Hocker, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Faculty Fellow
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., Frederick R. Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology
Shelley Wachsmann, Meadows Assistant Professor of Biblical Archaeology


Mr. and Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried II
Graduate Fellow:
Cemal M. Pulak

Mr. and Mrs. J. Brown Cook
Graduate Fellows:
Brian A. Jordan, Glenn Grieco


Marion Degirmenci
Helen Dewolf
Douglas Haldane, M.A.
Claudia LeDoux
Sheila D. Matthews, M.A.
Selma Oguz
Jane Pannell
Claire P. Peachey, M.A.
Robin C.M. Piercy
Cemal M. Pulak, M.S., M.A.
Sema Pulak, M.A.
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D.
Tufan U. Turanl
Patricia A. Turner


Jeremy Green
Elizabeth Greene
George Indruszewski
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D.
Robert S. Neyland, Ph.D.
Brett A. Phaneuf
Ralph K. Pedersen, M.A.
Donald Rosencrantz
Rezart Spahia
Peter G. van Alfen, M.A.


Arthur Cohn, J.D.
Cynthia J. Eiseman, Ph.D.
John A. Gifford, Ph.D.
Cheryl W. Haldane, Ph.D.
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D.
Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
David I. Owen, Ph.D.
David C. Switzer, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., M.A.

COUNSEL James A. Goold


Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology
Boston University
Brown University
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati
Cornell University
Corning Museum of Glass
Department de Arqueol6gia Subacuatica de
la I.N.A.H., Mexico
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Partners for Livable Places
University Museum, University of
Shell of Turkey, Ltd.
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Texas A&M University
University of Texas, Austin


Christine A. Powell

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