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 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Fall 1995
Frequency: quarterly
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Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
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Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
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Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))

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THE INA

QUARTERLY


Volume 22 No. 3


Fall 1995








The INA Quarterly


Volume 22 No. 3 Fall 1995



3 Sadana Island Shipwreck Excavation 1995 MEMBERSHIP
Cheryl W. Haldane Institute of Nautical Archaeology
P.O. Drawer HG
10 T.S.S. Zavala: College Station, TX 77841-5137
The Texas Navy's Steamship-of-war Learn firsthand of the latest discov-
Elizabeth R. Baldwin series in nautical archaeology. Mem-
bers receive the INA Quarterly, sci-
16 Riding a New Wave: entific reports, and book discounts.
Digital Technology and Underwater Archaeology
David A. Johnson & Michael P. Scafuri Regular ........... $30
Contributor ........ $60
21 To Dive for the Meaning of Words
George F. Bass Supporter ........ $100

23 Review: Nautical Shenanigans Benefactor ....... $1000
Ricardo J. Elia Student/ Retired ... $20

24 In the Field Checks in U.S. currency should be made
payable to INA. The portion of any do-
nation in excess of $10.00 is a tax-de-
25 17th Century Shipwreck, La Belle, ductible, charitable contribution.
Discovered in Matagorda Bay, Texas.
Barto Arnold and Brett Phaneuf

26 News & Notes




On the cover: Chinese export porcelain from the Saldana Island Shipwreck includes a variety of bowls, dishes, and
cups from the late 17th century AD. The peony scroll dish, one of 140 excavated this year, measures 35 centimeters
in diameter. Photo by N. Piercy.


October 1995 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. All rights reserved.
INA welcomes requests to reprint INA Quarterly articles and illustrations. Please address all requests and submissions to the Editor,
INA Quarterly, P.O. Drawer HG, College Station, TX 77841-5137; tel (409) 845-6694, fax (409) 847-9260, e-mail: nautical@tamu.edu


The Institute of Nautical Archaeology is a non-profit scientific and educational organization, incorporated in 1972. Since 1976, INA
has been affiliated with Texas A&M University where INA faculty teach in the Nautical Archaeology Program of the Department of
Anthropology.


The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsletter (vols. 1-18).


Editor: Christine A. Powell








Sadana Island Shipwreck

Excavation 1995

by Cheryl W. Haldane, Ph. D., INA Research Associate

INA-Egypt's first excavation season on the Sadana Island
Shipwreck logged just over 1,000 dives for a total of more than
260 hours on the seabed at depths of 22-42 meters. Our work fo-
cused on activities designed to protect the ship and its cargo from
casual visitors, to prepare the site for further study, and to begin
documenting its rich collection of Chinese porcelain and other
ceramic artifacts (fig.l).
Our first visit to Sadana Island had been made during the
1994 Red Sea shipwreck survey (INA Quarterly 21.3), and we were
excited to be returning for our first full-scale project this year.
Our excavation team included Egyptian archaeologists, a repre-
sentative of the Egyptian Navy, INA-Egypt staff, students in Tex-
as A&M University's Nautical Archaeology Program, long-time
INA illustrator Netia Piercy and a second-generation illustrator,
Lara Piercy (fig.2). We camped on the beach opposite Sadana Is-
land from 15 June until 28 August when a convoy of LandRovers
and police cars began the 700-kilometer-long drive to Alexandria's
Maritime Museum with the season's finds.


Photo: C. Haldane
Fig. 2 (Above). Two generations of NA art-
ists at work-Netia and Lara Piercy examine
some of their drawings of Sadana Island Chi-
nese porcelain.


Map: C. Powell


Fig. 1. Sadana Island, Egypt.
Excavation
This season, we had four primary excavation goals: to prepare the
site for future work, to evaluate mapping procedures for the kullal (juglet)
field at one end of the site, to recover all visible porcelain objects, and to
excavate test trenches for evaluating hull structure.
The size of the site (c. 50 x 25 m) made computer mapping the most
accurate means of recording site features relative to each other. By mea-
suring distances between fixed points, we were able to use the Web for
WindowsTM computer mapping system to position objects accurately in
three dimensions.
The ship lies along the base of a 27-meter-high coral reef. Stacked
grapnel anchors more than 4 m long mark the bow, and layers of earthen-
ware juglets and bottles cover the stern. Clusters of large storage and trans-
port jars called zilla in Arabic received a great deal of attention as they
obstructed our access to much of the central portion of the site (fig. 3).
Many dives were devoted to measuring and then moving approxi-
mately 30 zilla off the shipwreck and to the base of the reef. We suspect
that most of these carried a liquid cargo or were empty when the ship
sank. Some zilla, however, had been filled with objects by sport divers.
They told us last year that they had done this to protect artifacts from theft
by other sport divers. Objects recovered from zilla include copper wares,
glazed bowls, a nearly complete glass "case" bottle, earthenware pipes,
kullal, stacks of porcelain bowls concreted together, and a ceramic teapot
(fig.4).
Using a procedure developed and tested on site for sketch mapping
and measuring within the kullal field, we excavated more than 100 kullal
of at least 20 different types although all are of a similar thin, gray/brown
fabric. We believe we raised about 10% of the existing kullal-one small
section of the area showed that there are at least five layers of juglets over
a field approximately 7 x 6 m.


INA Quarterly 22.3










Teams working on measuring and
excavating porcelain objects dealt with two
different types of material: objects clearly
in context, usually locked to other site fea-
tures by coral growth or marine encrusta-
tion, and porcelain that had been recently
broken and dumped in mixed piles by loot-
ers. The large number of shattered porce-
lain objects suggests that unscrupulous
sport divers have been using hammers and
chisels to try to break porcelain free of en-
crustations. Their discards remain for us to
record and study, but we also noted sever-
al areas rich in porcelain that seem to be
undisturbed.

Materials
Porcelain
The Sadana Island Shipwreck's por-
celain cargo is unique among excavated or
salvaged materials from other wreck sites,
because it is a cargo intended for the Mid-
dle Eastern market. A number of Dutch and
other European ships have been excavated
in the Pacific Ocean, and the porcelain they
carried includes shapes and designs specific
to appeal to a western market. For example
human figures are common on western-ori
In contrast, all of the decorated pieces of po
Sadana rely solely on floral motifs. No anim
figures are present, and this is typical of sty
for sale in India and the Middle East.


Fig. 4. Archaeologists worked hard to recover all
tect the site from further looting. Here D. Haldan
porcelain dishes encased in marine growth from t


I


Fig. 3. More than 120 kullal and bottles provided us a glimpse of the complex
associations of these small earthenware objects stacked more than five deep in one
part of the hull. Meter-high zilla (storage jars) like those in the central area of the
photograph make up a substantial portion of the cargo as well.


illy intended Tracing porcelain trade networks from Istanbul to
e, images of China leads directly to Egypt and the Red Sea. Although
mted wares. the Ottoman Empire (which included Egypt) made a po-
rcelain from litical withdrawal from the Indian Ocean in 1635, mer-
al or human chants and ship owners from Arabic-speaking parts of the
les intended Ottoman Empire continued to trade in the Red Sea and
the Indian Ocean. Porcelain typically was carried from
China to southern India, and transshipped at ports
there. The trade routes between India and
Arabic-speaking parts of the Ottoman Empire re-
mained active.
The Sadana Island Shipwreck includes a great
deal of the Chinese Imari wares, a polychrome imi-
tation of Japanese-style porcelain decoration. When
porcelain is manufactured, only the rich cobalt blue
glazes are applied before firing underglazee). Ad-
ditional colors, including scarlet, green, yellow and
gold, were applied separately as overglaze. Unfor-
tunately, these are rarely preserved in marine envi-
ronments. This means that the porcelain we recov-
er from the ship has only part of its decoration pre-
served.
Sometimes we can get a glimpse of more com-
plex original decoration when dry porcelain is held
in raking light. Illustrator Netia Piercy first identi-
Photo: E. Khalil fied the "ghosting" where overglaze had preserved
visible objects to pro- the porcelain surface, leaving a thin glossy tracery
e raises a stack of 13 of the original designs. Recording the ghosting is
he wreck, slow and demanding work, and only one porcelain


INA Quarterly 22.3


Photo: A. Flanigan










object has had its "ghosting" recorded fairly thor-
oughly. We were pleased to find a virtually iden-
tical example of the type in the Topkapi Saray
collections to compare to the Sadana bowl and to
learn that the method we used to record the ghost-
ing successfully reveals the original designs. This
part of the study will require extensive work after
the porcelain has been desalted, cleaned, and dried
(fig. 5).
Nearly 300 different porcelain artifacts were
recorded and raised in 1995. We noted about 20
different object types, some of which Dr. Rose
Kerr, Curator of Chinese art at London's Victoria
and Albert Museum, tells us date to the middle to
late years of the 17th century. Curiously, we also
have porcelain bowls almost identical to some in
the Topkapi Saray collections of the Ottoman sul-
tans in Istanbul that are dated about 50 years later
by the individuals who have studied that materi-
al. Establishing the date for the porcelain cargo will
be an exciting aspect of future research.
The primary porcelain cargo components exc
ed this year were two sizes of dishes decorated with
ony scroll on the interior and an unidentified motif c
exterior. The dishes measure 34.4 cm and 37.8 cm in
eter. More than 140 dishes of this type were excavated
the wreck in 1995. Many of them were in the lowes
of the hull, concreted together in coral-covered sta
up to 20 dishes that weighed more than 100 pounds


Drawings a

Fig. 6. Coffee drinking in porcelain cups had become an
many people in the 17th century as contemporary Otton
trate. Celadon green, brown, and white cups with blue
glaze are common on the Sadana Island wreck.


Photo: N. Piercy
Fig. 5. Archaeologists spend hours each day cleaning and recording the
more than 400 objects raised in 1995. Emad Khalil, INA-Egypt's deputy
director, used pneumatic air scribes to remove coral growth and encrusta-
tion from this large clay bottle.

:avat- In addition to the peony scroll dishes, porcelain ar-
a pe- tifacts included a variety of plates, cups, small and large
n the bowls, and a single triangular-sectioned bead (fig. 6).
diam- Earthenware
from Nearly 160 earthenware objects were excavated
t part from the Sadana Island Shipwreck in 1995. Tobacco pipes,
cks of a kursi (charcoal holder for a water pipe) with bright red
slip and elaborate decoration,
glazed and unglazed bowls, spout-
ed containers with small mouths,
transport amphoras, bottles, pitch-
ers, and kullal will provide an in-
teresting corpus of material for
study (fig. 7 and 8).
Kullal are defined by the
presence of a filter at the junction
between neck and body and by the
fine, thin brownish-gray fabric used
in construction. There are 10 differ-
ent shapes and decorative types of
kullal excavated this year, three dif-
ferent bottle shapes, and two differ-
ent pitchers with handles. Fabric
types are similar, and most exam-
ples are decorated with bands of
incised linear and punctate designs.
Some also have applied plastic clay
& c by N. Piercy, b by L. Piercy decoration in more and less elabo-
rate arrangements. The kullal from
accepted part of daily life for Sadana Island bear strong similari-
nan miniature paintings illus- ties to those excavated more than 20
underglaze and colored under- years ago from the Sharm el Sheikh
shipwreck (see Raban, 1971).


INA Quarterly 22.3


a. b.


I










Cupreous objects
Excavators recovered a number of objects made pri-
marily of copper. These included cooking pots and lids,
handles, dishes, a coffee pot, a kettle, ewers, a single tool,
two hinged and linked loops, and two portable grills. In
addition, a well preserved sheave that may be bronze and
weighs at least 12 kilograms and a possible folding lan-
tern were retrieved.
Copper objects from the surface of the wreck have
suffered from exposure to the sea, and many are extreme-
ly fragile and broken. In some cases, we have identified
recent damage from previous site visitors. A copper plate
from the wreck that was returned to us by an anonymous
donor includes an inscription in Arabic that may help to
identify at least one member of the ship's complement on
its last voyage.
Glass
Glass objects from the Sadana Island Shipwreck in-
clude three types of bottles. All but two examples fall into


the category of case bottles. The exceptions are an 18-cm
tall, turquoise neck and mouth of a large, round, glass
bottle similar to examples from seventeenth-century Ot-
toman Turkey and a dark brown bottle base with a 10-cm
diameter. Case bottles are known to be a European-style
bottle intended for transporting liquor. Alcohol was an
important part of seaborne trade in the Far East. In the
Muslim world, wine drinking had been forbidden by
Mohammed, but debates about whether alcohol should
be considered forbidden also are well documented in writ-
ten documents of this period.
The best preserved example of a case bottle (3-3)
was retrieved from a zilla. About .s';' of the 28.5-cm-tall
body is present, but one-side is badly broken. Case bottles
are green glass bottles with square bases, walls that angle
slightly outward as they approach the rounded shoulders,
and a well defined neck and rim. The walls are very thin,
and thus fragile, a feature that resulted in tremendous
breakage (probably much of it recent) on the bottom. At
least 21 case bottle bases have been excavated so far; con-


Fig.7 (Left). A pitcher.

We recovered about 20 different kinds of small-mouthed containers, probably for
water, made of the same finely textured !''i .,ri;,-.:rii clay. This pitcher, kullal
(or juglet), and bottle are i!'pi,..i in shape and decoration of the more than 1,000
remaining on the bottom. Drawings by K. Burnett, of original size.

Fig. 8 (Below). Kullal (left) and bottle (right).


INA Quarterly 22.3










Fig. 9. Brief examination of hull con-
struction methods during the 1994 Red
Sea Shipwreck Survey had taught us
that the Sadana Island wreck was built
in a previously undocumented fashion.
Two test trenches opened this year
brought three very tiff it t;1 pi ; of the
ship to light, raising more questions
than answers about the technology used
to build the hull. Here, D. Haldane ex-
amines the hull.


servation and study will probably
allow us to join some of these to ex-
cavated body and shoulder sec-
tions.


Organic remains
The Sadana Island Ship-
wreck contains a rich variety of
waterlogged organic remains that
includes wooden jar and bottle stoppers as well as a sub-
stantial amount of wood charcoal. In addition to
hand-picking larger samples, including rope, archaeolo-
gists recovered seeds and other plant fragments through
bucket flotation of object contents.
Bucket flotation separates organic remains from
sand and shells by disaggregating the sediments and caus-
ing the organic component to be suspended in water, then
trapped in a sieve as the water is poured through it. Mi-
croscopic analysis of samples will teach us more about the
crew's diet and the ship's cargo, but already we know that
the ship carried coconuts, aromatic resin, pepper, corian-
der and coffee.
These products are among the most frequently cit-
ed spices in Ottoman archival documents, and they served
not only as spices but also as medicines. During the six-
teenth century, coffee had been introduced to the Arabian
peninsula from Ethiopia, probably by Sufis who seem to
have appreciated its stimulating qualities. The plant grew
well in Yemen, and Yemen became the world's leading
producer of coffee by the seventeenth century. Alexandria
was the major port for re-export of Yemeni coffee in the
late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, and cof-
fee was a high value cargo. The coffee arrived in Alexan-
dria after being shipped up the Red Sea, taken by caravan
across the desert, then by river boat from Cairo.
Pepper's value as a spice remains high today. More
than 4,000 years ago, pepper began to be traded westward
from India. Price studies show that it has long been con-
sidered as the most precious of spices. In addition to its
role in flavoring food, it is used as a preservative and was
thought to be a stimulant and an aid to digestion; dock-


Photo: E. Khalil
men unloading pepper ships were forbidden to wear
clothes with pockets in them for fear that they would steal
a few peppercorns.
The aromatic resin carried on the Sadana Island ship-
wreck has a strong and rich odor. Chemical analysis by
gas chromatography in order to define its chemical com-
position will allow a match to be made to known resin
types. This is the only way to tell which of the many plants
that produce aromatic gums and resins such as frankin-
cense, myrrh and storax and are native to India, the Far
East and the Red Sea shores is the source of the material
on the Sadana Island wreck.

The Hull
Two trial trenches excavated in the central part of
the ship and recording of the lowest portion of the hull
provided basic details of ship construction (fig. 9). In addi-
tion to moving sand in this area by hand, archaeologists
used induction dredges, large tubes that depend on water
suction, to make their job quicker and more efficient. One
trench measured about 1.5 x 1 m; the other is about 3 x 3
m.
The larger trench provided some interesting details
of construction, including a coating of resinous material
over the planking and an area that has had some of the
heavier timbers removed. As this was uncovered in the
last few days of excavation, we will be investigating this
further next year and trying to understand whether the
timbers were lost recently or at some time before the ship
sank.
The methods used to build this ship are not previ-
ously recorded, and the ship itself as an artifact is there-


INA Quarterly 22.3
































Photo: E. Khalil
Fig. 10. C. Haldane examines a 4-meter-long grapnel anchor. This is one of at least eight
anchors carried by the immense ship that wrecked against the reef near Sadana Island.


fore extremely important. What we have so far observed
shows us that the hull was not built according to standard
European methods. Its frames, though large (c. 20 x 20 cm)
and in some cases composite (built of two layers of wood),
are spaced fairly far apart in comparison to Dutch or Por-
tuguese hulls.
Also, some of the bottom components (either hull
planking or perhaps a sister keel) measure 20 cm in thick-
ness, which is much thicker than planking on comparable
European hulls. It was also clear that frames do not fit the
planking closely because many shims (thin wedges of
wood) have been found already.
Major hull components were fastened with iron
bolts and nails. As the iron has decayed, only the concre-
tion surrounding the fasteners or, in some cases, the
iron-impregnated wood is available for study. We did not
clear enough of the hull for a coherent pattern of fasten-
ings to be recorded.
The trial trenches did not provide conclusive evi-
dence for construction methods, but study of all notes,
measurements and descriptions of the areas, as well as
future seasons of excavation, will add to our understand-
ing of the hull's construction. In addition to large compo-
nents such as stringers and frames, archaeologists recov-
ered tiny chips of wood and bark that probably were left
from the hull's construction. Identification of wood types
used may provide a clue to the ship's origin.


Reef survey
In addition to excavating the
site, archaeologists also surveyed
the coral reef nearby. Four addition-
al anchors, probably from the same
ship, were located (fig. 10). One
team member spotted a single stack
of eight complete and clean dishes
decorated with peony scrolls at a
depth of 26 meters, probably placed
there by a sport diver planning to
raise them at another time. Five oth-
er plates, all with recent breaks,
were also found far from the ship-
wreck and also represent looting
activities.

Origin of the Ship
The first question asked by
archaeologists and other interested
people concerns the ship's origin:
Where is it from? We know that the
porcelain originated in China and
that the coffee undoubtedly came


from Yemen, but these were
cargoes that could have been loaded at any major
emporium such as Jidda.
As we expected, no conclusive answer can be given
this season. Personal items often provide clues to the na-
tionality of the ship's crew, and thus to its possible origin.
We found few objects this year that could be considered
personal items: the inscribed copper plate, smoking para-
phernalia and possibly incense burners, although these last
might be cargo.
As we excavate more deeply into the hull, we ex-
pect to reach levels undisturbed by sport divers that will
contain artifacts that can help us better address this ques-
tion.

Future Plans
We are extremely concerned about the presence of
looters at the site. The day we arrived, a dive boat also
came and sent more than 10 divers into the water above it
despite our repeated requests that they leave the site. We
could not dive that day, so there was no possibility of be-
ing able to observe them except from the surface. We do
not know if they took things from the site. Many people
have told us that they know about the site and have visit-
ed it or know someone who has "many things" from the
wreck in their home. The Egyptian Coast Guard will be
patrolling the area periodically, but we have also left a
warning sign on the sea floor (fig. 11).


INA Quarterly 22.3










The 1995 excavation season of the Sadana Island
Shipwreck has been a success, with more than 400 objects
raised and transported across the Egyptian desert and
through the Delta to Alexandria's Maritime Museum
where a new laboratory for wet objects is being prepared
by INA-Egypt with the assistance of the Supreme Council
for Antiquities and the Egyptian Antiquities Project. We
plan to have a larger international crew in 1996, in order
to work more effectively. It seems almost too long to wait
to return to this exciting and beautiful site.

Acknowledgments. The Supreme Council of Antiquities and
its director Dr. Abdel Halim Nur el Din provided a great
deal of support for the excavation, including archaeolo-
gists Sameh Ramses, Mohammed el Sayed, Mohammed
Mustafa, and Inspector Abdel Rigal. We also are grateful
to the Egyptian Navy for allowing Lt. Tarek Abu el Elaa to
join us for the entire season. The excavation also benefited
from the talents of INA-Egypt staff Douglas Haldane and
Emad Khalil, Illustrators Netia Piercy, Kendra Burnett, and
Lara Piercy, American University in Cairo student Mar-
ston Morgan, and TAMU Nautical Archaeology Program
students Elizabeth Greene, Alan Flanigan, Layne Hedrick,
Peter Hitchcock, and Christopher Stephens.


Funding and in-kind support for the 1995 Sadana
Island Excavation was generously provided by Billings K.
Ruddock, The Amoco Foundation, The Brock Foundation,
CitiBank- Egypt, CIB, Pepsi, Arab Contractors, British Gas,
Egypt, Scuba Doo in Hurgada, and INA-Egypt members.
The American Research Center in Egypt and its Cairo Di-
rector Mark Easton, Fran and Chip Vincent, and Richard
and Bari Biennia also contributed their efforts to the suc-
cess of the season. Our appreciation for your assistance is
unbounded.
Suggested Reading
Ayers. J. Ed.
1986 Chinese Ceramics in the Topkapi Saray Museum, vols.
1 and 3. Sotheby's.

Hattox, R. S.
1985 Coffee and Coffeehouses. Univ. of Washington.

Medley, M.
1989 The Chinese Potter. Third Edition, Phaidon.

Raban, A.
1971 The Shipwreck off Sharm-el-Sheikh. A 1,. ,i;,,., ..:i
24.2: 146-55.


Photo: E. Khalil
Fig. 11. Regrettably, the Sadana Island Shipwreck has been visited by too many divers unaware of the impor-
tance of taking only photographs with them when they leave the site. It is hoped that a blanket of sand and this
sign will protect the site in the coming year.


INA Quarterly 22.3







T.S.S. Zavala:

The Texas Navy's Steamship-of-War
by Elizabeth R. Baldwin


In February of 1839 the fledgling Republic of Texas
commissioned vessels for a new navy, a navy that would
be of immense strategic importance in the ongoing con-
flict with Mexico (fig. 1). The most controversial vessel of
the new navy was the sidewheel steamer Zavala. Original-
ly the Charleston, the vessel had been built as a coastal pack-
et and converted into a steamship-of-war for Texas.
Although much has been written about the Texas
War of Independence from Mexico, surprisingly little is
known about the actual design, construction, and arma-
ment of the ships, including Zavala. Because the financial
resources of the young Republic of Texas were severely
strained and the navy was in a rush to have the vessel
ready for potential confrontations with Mexico, the navy's
financial records for Zavala are incomplete and often con-
tradictory. No plans of her exist, nor was her extensive
refit to a warship documented in detail. Thus, there exists
a significant gap in our knowledge of the Texas Navy, its
capabilities and constraints in the hostilities with Mexico
that followed the War for Independence.
The Charleston was built in Philadelphia in 1836 as
a coastal steam packet for the Charleston and Philadel-
phia Steam Packet Company. The period from 1820 to 1840
was vital to the advancement and worldwide acceptance
of steamship technology. It was during this period that
steamships were able to correct and improve upon previ-
ous problems and inadequacies and present a serious com-
mercial threat to sailing vessels. In response to that com-
mercial threat, packet services, regularly scheduled sail-


ings that carried passengers and a variety of available car-
goes, were introduced. However, packet services proved
to be a natural market for steam vessels, which did not
need to rely on wind for motive power. The Charleston was
built for the coastal trade. While early packet routes had
typically run on sheltered waters, such as Long Island
Sound or the Hudson River, the Charleston would traverse
deeper, and often more treacherous ocean waters along
the Atlantic coast between Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and
Charleston, South Carolina.
The vessel's permanent enrollment documents state
that her length was 201 feet 9/10ths, her breadth 24 feet
1 / 10th, and her depth 12 feet. She measured 569 15/95ths
tons, and had a round stern, a flush deck and a scroll head
(fig.3). These measurements yield a length to breadth ra-
tio of 8.3 to 1, which appears to be the average ratio for
paddle steamers of the period. She was intended to carry
a maximum of 120 passengers, and had a complete com-
plement of furniture, bedding and crockery to service those
passengers in style.
The new vessel was fitted with a pair of beam en-
gines built by Levi F. Morris of Philadelphia. This type of
engine is also known as a "walking beam" engine, and
was common on early steam vessels. It is a simple recipro-
cating engine, characterized by a heavy, diamond-shaped
elevated lever that pivoted at its center and transmitted
the drive force from a vertical piston rod to a connecting
rod which in turn drove the paddlewheels. Originally de-
veloped in 1822, this type of engine was reliable, econom-




Fig. 1. Sketch of the Texas
Fleet at Galveston by Wil-
liam Bollaert. Zavala, the
only steam vessel in the
fleet, is pictured in the
lower left. The configura-
tion of one stack behind the
other reflects a failed at-
tempt at perspective on the
part of the artist. (Cour-
tesy of the Newberry Li-
brary, Clh.h.i '.


INA Quarterly 22.3










ical and easy to maintain, and it became the univer-
sal engine of the eastern coastal packet steamers. The
two boilers were most likely of copper, to prevent
corrosion from seawater, and probably sheathed in
iron for greater strength.
Unlike most packet steamers of her day,
Charleston was very heavily constructed. Such heavy
timbering was typically an attempt to strengthen the
vessel to carry the weight of her twin engines and
boilers and to prevent her from hogging. It may also
have been in response to the tough ocean conditions
that awaited on the coastal ocean route. Indeed, a
punishing encounter with the elements occurred only
months after she began her service.
The Charleston encountered a severe gale off Cape
Hatteras in October of 1837. A passenger gave a vivid ac-
count of the storm:
A little before two o'clock in the morning, a
sea broke over the stern of the boat like an
avalanche ... making an opening about one
inch wide the whole length of the boat,
through which the water poured ... every
time she shipped a sea. ... At half past ten,
A.M., a sea of immense volume and force,
struck our forward hatch, towered over the
upper deck, and swept off all that was on it.
It engulfed the fire under the boiler of the
engine on that side, and lifted the machinery
so as to permit the escape of a volume of
steam and smoke, that nearly suffocated us,
and so shifted the main shaft of the engine
that it no longer worked true, but tore away
the wood work ... The big bell tolled with the
shock, as though sounding the funeral knell
of all on board.

The staunch Charleston rode out the storm and limped
into Beaufort, South Carolina for repairs. Other vessels were
not as fortunate. The storm destroyed the steam packet Home
with the loss of about one hundred lives.
After these well-publicized wreckings, public con-
fidence in the Charleston route steam packets seems to
have been badly shaken, so much so that some of the lines
became financially untenable. Although the Charleston
fared relatively well in the gale, the Charleston and Phila-
delphia Steam Packet Company went bankrupt shortly
thereafter. Whether the bankruptcy was due to the public
lack of confidence in the coastal steam packets, or to the
depressed economic climate of 1837 is uncertain. The com-
pany's bankruptcy, and the ongoing national depression,
forced its trustees to sell the Charleston at a substantial loss.
The ship was purchased by agents for the naval com-
missioners for the Republic of Texas. The government of
the Republic, concerned that Mexico had the ability to


blockade Texas ports, had appropriated funds for the ac-
quisition of a new fleet for the navy in November of 1837.
Texas had maintained a fleet during its war of indepen-
dence from Mexico, but those vessels were no longer use-
ful. By December 1838 the newly elected President Lamar
wrote in favor of the popular pro-navy position: "The pro-
tection of our maritime frontier ... is a public duty. ... This
duty may effectively be accomplished by a naval force of
small magnitude though under present conditions of our
credit and finances not at a moderate expense." The com-
missioners promptly contracted for six sailing vessels. Yet,
the Navy Department also thought it imperative to pur-
chase a steamship, which would have an advantage over
sailing ships by being able to maneuver in and out of har-
bors and rivers regardless of the wind. Unfortunately, the
naval commissioners found themselves in strained circum-
stances: they had only bonds of the Republic of Texas with
which to pay for a ship.
Financial considerations seem to have weighed
heaviest in the decision to purchase the packet Charleston
instead of a steam vessel that had been purpose-built as a
warship. Steam warships had first been built for the U.S.
Navy in 1814 to designs by Fulton. In England the British
Navy had also taken to building steam warships, and be-
tween 1820 and 1840 about seventy steam vessels were
added to the fleet. Although the Texans would have pre-
ferred a purpose-built warship, they were not prepared to
pay the necessary price. In the Charleston the Texas Navy
agents had found an ideal compromise. She had been built
with extremely heavy timbers for a merchant vessel, she
could be had for a bargain price, and Texas bonds could
be used in the transaction. An interested, and politically
motivated South Carolinian, James Hamilton, arranged a
consortium to buy the vessel for cash in return for the Texas
bonds.
After the sale of the steamer to the Republic of Tex-
as the vessel was repaired and altered in New York City
by Hamilton's consortium. The type of work reported in
navy records in the Texas archives seem to indicate that
Charleston was in dire need of major repair as a result of
the extensive damaged suffered in the gale off Cape Hat-
teras. In fact, the high cost of repairing such heavy dam-
age may have helped to push the Charleston and Phila-
delphia Steam Packet Company into bankruptcy.
The necessary repairs were made by a battery of
different firms from New York City and environs, and in-
cluded extensive repair to the hull, masts, repair to the
engines and boilers and new copper sheathing. The vessel
was also fitted with new equipment which included drap-
eries, cushions and tassels for cabin decoration. Such dec-
oration seems inappropriate for a warship, but it reflects
Hamilton's assumptions about her future use. In a letter
to the secretary of the Texas Navy, Hamilton stated, "She
will be completely fitted out to answer the purposes both


INA Quarterly 22.3






































Fig. 2. Map showing the location of Galveston, Texas and the site of the Zavala.

of a marine frigate, and a mail and passenger boat ... commodore
[E]xcept as needed to transport troops, I should presume ic Edwin M(
it would be deemed expedient to keep her as a govern- on October 4
ment mail-boat between New Orleans and Galveston ... the alteration
and at the same time keep your coast clear of all blockade leans for fitt
and Mexican cruisers." Other administrative officers of the for that purl
Texas Navy were of similar opinion regarding the vessel's nishings to c
suitability; that is, she should be made a government pack- arose immec
et. Armament and equipment for the steamer were also to ing from the
be provided by Hamilton's consortium. It was proposed tion, deman
to "mount upon her one long eighteen or twenty-four Hinton's fre
pound gun in the forecastle, and one long twelve or eigh- cause the list
teen on the stern, and four or six waist guns, with mus- able cash. Ar
kets, pistols, pikes and sabres, powder and ball, and nec- request to au
essary munitions of war for a crew of one hundred men." a new berth
The Charleston steamed out of New York on February 19, components
1839 bound for Galveston, where she arrived sometime the wheels, t
around March 18, 1839 (fig. 2). The steamship was the first used again."
ship commissioned into the new navy, not as a govern- three month
ment packet, but as a steamship-of-war. She was renamed Zavala woulc
Zavala, in honor of Lorenzo de Zavala, the first Vice Pres- dlewheel tin
ident of the Republic of Texas. does it seem
A. C. Hinton, a former junior officer in the U.S. only one yea
Navy, was given command of the steamer. Hinton wrote fit in New Y
the secretary of the navy, outlining alterations he thought continued hi
necessary for Zavala to function well as a warship, along the secretary


with a plan for car-
rying them out. He
felt that as refitted
the vessel needed
further strengthen-
ing to bear the
weight and recoil of
the guns, and that
the engines were
exposed and vul-
nerable. By selling
the unnecessary
passenger furnish-
ings for approxi-
mately $10,000.00,
Hinton felt he could
finance the alter-
ations. Some pre-
liminary mainte-
nance work took
place in Galveston
where the paddle-
wheel arms and
buckets were re-
placed, but no fur-
Map: E. R. Baldwin other work was au-
thorized.


The new
of the Texas Navy, the energetic and dynam-
)ore, arrived in Galveston to take command
, 1839. He inspected the fleet and designated
is to be made. Zavala was ordered to New Or-
ing-out, and Hinton was allocated $9,000.00
pose. He was not authorized to sell the fur-
)btain additional funds. Financial difficulties
liately. New Orleans merchants, still smart-
nationwide depression and rampant infla-
ded payment in cash, refusing Texas notes.
quent letters convey frustration, mostly be-
of needed repairs quickly outgrew the avail-
id something was clearly amiss. Along with a
ithorize expenditures for a new foremast and
deck, he asked to replace the paddlewheel
. "I found that so decayed and shattered were
there was not a single arm that was fit to be
It is hardly possible that in the course of barely
s, most of which had been spent at anchor,
I have completely worn out the sixty oak pad-
nbers ordered in Galveston in August. Nor
Possible that new masts would be needed
r after they had been replaced during her re-
ork. Yet the repairs were made, and Hinton
s increasingly frustrating correspondence with
Seeking necessary funds.


INA Quarterly 22.3










The secretary appears to have ignored Hinton's re-
quests entirely, but eventually by February 1840, the re-
pair bills reached a total in excess of $21,000.00. The re-
pairs, including the new foremast, new engine parts, new
decking, new guns and the removal of all passenger ac-
couterments, were both beyond Hinton's authority and in
excess of the secretary of the navy's budget. Upon his re-
turn to Galveston, Hinton's commission was withdrawn
and he was dismissed from the Texas Navy. Hinton had
been ordered to make "necessary repairs," yet appears to
have been given no authority to carry them out. Those who
did have fiscal authority began to exercise it against the
new navy. Sam Houston, who had formerly been Presi-
dent of the Republic and would again be elected Presi-
dent after Lamar's term was up, was opposed to the new
navy. Houston had seized leadership of the Congress and
felt that Texas' economic and military troubles could be
solved by annexation to the United States. A strong mili-
tary would not help his cause. In an effort to economize
and halt the runaway expenditures of the new navy, the
congress passed a law on February 5, 1840 requiring the
president to withdraw the entire fleet from action. The act
was intended to put the navy on reserve status, to be called
upon only in a military emergency. President Lamar was
vehemently opposed to the act, and prevented its enact-
ment by executive privilege. Section four of the act stated:
"should Mexico make any hostile demonstrations upon
the Gulf, the President may order any number of vessels
into active service, that he should deem necessary for the
public security." Invoking this power, President Lamar
addressed Congress with the following explanation:
It is ... confidently believed here that the Mex-
ican government had made a contract in Eu-
rope for the purchase of several vessels of
war, and that she had actually procured an
armed steam ship from a commercial house
in England, with a view of making a descent
upon the coast of Texas ... Under these vari-
ous circumstances, I have considered it my
duty to keep the Navy at sea for a short peri-
od.... To have disbanded ... our naval ser-
vice, at the moment when we have reason to
believe our enemy was preparing a naval ar-
mament for our coast, would, in the opinion
of the executive, have not only been indis-
creet and impolitic, but would, as he believes,
have been contrary to the true intention and
meaning of congress.
By February 1840 the new navy was ready for ac-
tion. Zavala saw action only in the Yucatan Campaign of
1840-41, but was a major factor in victories there. The
Yucatan Campaign began in June of 1840 when the fleet
sailed out of Galveston, bound for Mexico with Commo-


dore Moore in command. Zavala sailed on June 27th as
part of that expedition. Moore planned to use Zavala to
patrol and seize ships in harbors where she could maneu-
ver regardless of the wind. The Commodore intended to
take prize vessels and in that way finance the navy and
keep his fleet afloat.
Moore formulated a plan to capture the city of San
Juan Bautista on the Tobasco river with General Anaya of
the Yucatan, for $25,000 in prize money. The city favored
the centralist government of Mexico, which both the Yucat-
an and Texas were fighting. On November 19, 1840 Zavala
towed three vessels up the river: the Austin, the San Ber-
nard, and a Yucatan brig. On November 20th Commodore
Moore took the city without firing a shot. Zavala was dis-
patched to Galveston, where she arrived on April 20th with
$8,460.00 in specie.
The Texas Navy was now at full readiness and fi-
nally had the funds necessary to ensure its survival. Yet
politics held the navy from combat. Instead of heading back
out to sea, Moore was ordered to remain in Galveston and
refrain from even routine maintenance of the fleet. Dur-
ing this time the Texas government had been engaged in
diplomatic negotiations with the British government for
official recognition of the Republic of Texas. Once Britain
offered both formal recognition and to mediate a truce with
Mexico, the Congress felt that the navy was no longer need-
ed as an offensive force. On September 18, 1841, Texas also
entered into a treaty of official alliance with the Yucatan.
This agreement was the official result of the informal mil-
itary partnership that Moore had formed with Yucatan
forces in the taking of San Juan Bautista.
Under the new alliance Moore was ordered to pro-
ceed to the Yucatan and to join forces in maneuvers against
Mexico's centralist government. Moore was to receive only
$8,000.00 for provisioning and routine needs, a direct fee
that the Yucatan had offered to pay for the Texan fleet's
assistance. Although the sum was hardly adequate to
maintain the fleet, it was all the Congress, under Hous-
ton's leadership, was willing to allow. Moore could take
only those vessels that were immediately ready, petition
for further funds, and rely on his ability to produce priz-
es. Under the alliance any prizes captured or any revenue
confiscated from Mexican Government sources was to be
divided equally after meeting the cost of the expedition.
Zavala needed too much work to participate in this
foray. She was laid up in ordinary. Without active mainte-
nance the hull quickly deteriorated. In January of 1842,
Commodore Moore made a special appeal to the secre-
tary that funds be made available to enable Zavala to reen-
ter action. "If I had the steamer Zavala to co-operate with
the Squadron, I could levy contributions on several of their
towns to a greater amount than the entire cost of the Navy
- without the Zavala little else can be effected but to pick
up any vessel that they hazard out" (Emphasis in origi-


INA Quarterly 22.3










nal). Again on April 5, 1842, Moore wrote the secretary of
the navy to no avail. "I feel it is my imperative duty to
urge upon the Department the necessity of fitting out the
steamer Zavala in order that we may keep the ascendancy
by sea ..." Although funds were authorized by Congress
for her further repair and return to service, Houston, now
president, never made the appropriation.
Zavala subsequently sank further into disrepair, and
in May 1842 she was run aground in Galveston to prevent
her from sinking. The deteriorating hulk was eventually
stripped and allowed to sink into the harbor's mud flats.
She eventually became part of the harborscape. The story
of Zavala began to fade from public memory.
That memory has been rekindled by archaeology.
On November 14, 1986, the remains of the steamship of
war Zavala were located and identified by the Underwa-
ter Archaeology Unit of the Texas Antiquities Committee,


under the direction of J. Barto Arnold, and the National
Underwater and Marine Agency (NUMA), a private or-
ganization under the direction of author Clive Cussler. By
careful study of historical maps that showed both the place-
ment of wharves and the pattern of infilling to enlarge the
island, the team located Zavala's remains beneath Pier 29
in Galveston (fig. 2). Coring and a test trench made by back-
hoe revealed various metal ship fittings and wooden hull
remains, as well as a large riveted iron boiler measuring
more than 15 feet in length. The archival background re-
search and the vessel remains together indicated that the
investigators had found Zavala. The survey confirmed that
significant portions of the hull remain, despite damage to
the hull incurred in her working life, and deterioration re-
sulting from her intentional grounding and abandonment.
INA has proposed a limited eight week excavation
of the hull remains to document the construction of Zava-


Fig. 3. Conjectural reconstruction of the Charleston, before being refitted as a warship.


INA Quarterly 22.3










la. Due to the paucity of data relating to the construction
and service of Zavala, and similar coastal steamships of
the period 1820 to 1840, this excavation will contribute sig-
nificantly to our knowledge of 19th-century steamship con-
struction and to our understanding of the role of the navy
and naval policy in the Republic of Texas.

Suggested Reading
Arnold, J. B.
1990 The Survey For the Zavala, a Steam Warship of the Re-
public of Texas. Underwater Proceedings from the Soci-
ety for Historical A,1,. .1, :l Conference 1990: 105-109.

Dienst, A.
1909 The Navy of the Republic of Texas. The Quarterly
of the Texas State Historical Association: Vol. XIII, July.


Hill, J. D.
1987 The Texas Navy: Forgotten Battles and Shirtsleeve Di-
plomacy. State House Press, Austin, Texas.

Morrison, J. H.
1958 History of American Steam Navigation. Steven
Daye Press, New York.

Smither, H. (Editor)
1931 Journals of the Fourth Congress of the Republic of
Texas. Vol. 3. Boekmann-Jones Company, Austin,
Texas.

Wells, T. H.
1960 Commodore Moore and the Texas Navy. Univer-
sity of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.


Drawing: E. R. Baldwin


INA Quarterly 22.3







Riding a New Wave:

Digital Technology and Underwater Archaeology.

By David A. Johnson & Michael P. Scafuri

There was an air of excitement in the sleepy
little town of Selimiye during the summer months
of 1995. INA was beginning its first new Turkish
excavation in eleven years, the excavation of the
Byzantine-period shipwreck at Kiictiven Burnu
near Bozburun. With this project, INA brought a
new cast of characters to Turkey, many of whom
had never been to INA's base in the Mediterra-
nean before, and many of whom were working
on their first underwater excavation. With these
different faces came fresh insights and ideas of
how to go about the business of performing ar-
chaeology in the field. The interaction of these in-
dividuals with the veteran staff of the Turkish arm
of INA made for a project where innovation and
experience mingled in a creative atmosphere of
Photo: Don Frey earning.
SAfter over thirty years of pioneering re-
Fig. 1. David Johnson using the technologies described in this article at search in the methods of archaeological excava-
the Bozburun site. tion, INA and its founders have established it as a
leader in the investigation of new technologies. It
is continually building upon the innovations of the past to remain at the forefront of the science of archaeology. Most
obviously, this has occurred in venturing into the hostile environment of the ocean floor to excavate through the use of
SCUBA. Additionally, in experimenting with sonar, magnetometry, and acoustical technology for use in underwater
survey and excavation, INA has pushed other technological envelopes since its inception.
With the digital age upon us, there has been much talk about the "information super highway" and the ever-
growing importance of computer technology in
our daily lives. The role of computers in archaeol-
ogy has had an increasingly significant presence
in recent years. From early on, INA has appreci-
ated the usefulness and validity of the computer
as a tool in managing the vast amounts of data
produced during excavation and analysis of ar-
chaeological finds. The Port Royal Project made
use of database and computer aided drafting pro-
grams when they were still in their relative infan-
cy (see INA Newsletter 12.4:10), and now that the
software and hardware is becoming increasingly
more powerful and sophisticated, there are more
innovative and exciting tasks being attempted
with computers, such as the topography and map-
ping of the Bronze Age shipwreck site at Ulubu-
run (see INA Quarterly 21.4:8-16).
From the earliest stages of planning the field
campaign to excavate the medieval wreck at
Bozburun, it was decided to rely more upon dig-
ital information management than any of INA's
past excavations (fig. 1). This commitment set us Photo: C. A. Powell
on the path of conducting a project that uses com- Fig. 2. A picture of the final Web results for the primary datum points
puters as the primary tools in cataloguing and con- from the Bozburun site.


INA Quarterly 22.3










trolling information both in the field and out.
Computers will also be used as the medium for
the wreck's final presentation. The intent of this
commitment is to increase efficiency in the col-
lection and analysis of archaeological data while
still in the field. This should facilitate the faster
communication of archaeological information to
our peers. It will also serve to bring archaeolo-
gy to more of the public through electronic me-
dia such as CD-ROM, the Internet, and the
WorldWideWeb.

Web
The root of computer applications in the
field at Bozburun lay in the use of a program,
developed by Nick Rule for the Mary Rose Project Photo: INA
in the 1980's, called Web. This program allowed
us to derive extremely accurate three-dimen-
sional positional information for artifacts on the
sea-floor using relatively simple tools. In es-
sence, the program uses a best-fit algorithm to
detect inconsistencies in measurement data that
usually go undetected when using traditional
methods of triangulation with a line and plumb-
bob (fig 2).
Several methods of measurement data are
accepted by Web, including offsets, bearings and
slopes, but the simplest method, called Direct
Survey Measurement (DSM) was selected for
implementation during the 1995 field season.
DSM makes the process of measuring underwa-
ter less complicated, using four direct lengths
from known points, or datums, to find an un- Ph :
known point in three-dimensional space (fig. 3,
4, and 5). Web manipulates the measurements
to find the solution, the point where the mea-
surements best agree. The program then reports
the average error among the measurements.
Over the course of the 1995 season, pro-
venience for nearly one hundred individual ar-
tifacts were computed using Web, with an ac-
cepted margin of error of under 2 cm. Using this
positional information, we were able to begin
the computer drafting of a three-dimensional

Fig. 3 (Top). AutoCAD drawing of the Bozborun
camp. The structure locations were determined by
taking tape measurements between the buildings and
iterating them in the Web program.
Fig. 4 (Middle). A reconstruction of the Bozborun
camp galley and tool shed in AutoCAD.
Fig. 5 (Bottom). Photograph of the Bozborun camp
pictured above. Photo: D. Frey


INA Quarterly 22.3


























Photc
Fig.6. Three-dimensional preliminary model of a Bozborun amphc


model of the site in the field. This site plan represents one
of the most exciting and innovative applications of com-
puters in the Bozburun project.

CAD and Modeling
The primary environment that we selected for the
construction of the three-dimensional plan was Au-
toCAD. This drafting program was selected because of
its high degree of accuracy and its compatibility with oth-
er database and design programs. It also enabled us to use
an AutoCAD programming language called LISP, within
which we could read the provenience data determined in
Web as the basis for inserting three-dimensional models
of artifacts into their appropriate locations. The modeling
routines of the animation and rendering package 3D-Stu-
dio were also used with great success to create realistic
and accurate wireframe images of the artifacts.
Through the application of these programs, archae-
ologists will be able to see an actual three-dimensional rep-
resentation of a submerged find while on the surface, rather
than dealing with a conventionally drafted two-dimension-
al plan or photomosaic (fig. 6 and 7). While the usefulness
of such a document for study and analysis has yet to be
seen, the production of the plan has been an insightful ex-
ercise in data collection and field analysis. The plan is in-
tended to provide a graphic interface into the databases
that hold the more detailed information about the indi-
vidual artifacts. This serves as a unique tool in studying
the finds of the site in a convenient manner and helps to
communicate detailed information about the spatial rela-
tionships of the artifacts more effectively than with con-
ventional methods.

Database Management
The underlying concern in building the field data-


base was to make the information management
system as user-friendly as possible. The informa-
tion had to conform to a format that would be con-
ducive to the convenient entry of useful data and
also to the effective extraction of necessary infor-
mation. Concurrent with this goal was the need
for expandability and easy file transfer.
FoxPro for WindowsTM was selected for
use due to its programmability and processing
speed, and also its convenient compatibility with
a number of other pieces of software. FoxPro was
programmed not only for more convenient data
entry and extraction, but also to link to AutoCAD
and Web in order to transfer information between
programs. In designing a system to solve the prob-
: INA lem of managing the data, it was thought that the
'ra. software and hardware used should be powerful,
yet not overly complicated or inaccessible to an
archaeologist. FoxPro, as well as the other software
packages used, offered a powerful PC-based solution that
was relatively inexpensive and easy to implement with a
moderate level of orientation.
A "multi-relational" database was constructed to
handle the provenience, registration, and cataloguing of
artifacts, using the system developed at Port Royal as its
basis. As the artifacts are studied during the period be-
tween excavation seasons, specific databases that contain
more detailed information will be constructed and related
to the field catalogue database. By incorporating graphi-
cal information, such as photographs and dimensioned
drawings, along with numerical and textual information
in the databases, all of the information necessary to study
the site from a number of perspectives will be at the user's
fingertips.

Next Steps
System development before next season is geared
towards refining the interaction between the database and
the AutoCAD site plan. Current avenues being pursued
for solutions include incorporating Web's algorithms with-
in the database program and using a data transfer pro-
gram such as structured query language (SQL) or direct
data exchange (DDE) between the database and the plan.
This would allow simultaneous interaction between the
programs and the cross-transfer of data. Several geograph-
ic information system (GIS) packages are also being tested
and considered for use in future seasons.
One of the major goals of the 1995 excavation sea-
son was to perform a detailed review of the wreck site to
assess the size of the task at hand and formulate an appro-
priate plan for the most efficient and effective completion
of the project. In conducting this review, some of our ini-
tially conceived systems and procedures, the digital infor-
mation management system included, were tested and


INA Quarterly 22.3










their merits and faults were assessed. It has been
determined that to complete the first phase of goals
in integrating computers into the field, certain im-
provements in systems and hardware must be
made. These improvements and upgrades will fa-
cilitate the excavation goals and help to increase
the efficiency of our data handling.
The most immediate problem to solve is the
excavation and cataloging of the large pile of
amphoras that covers the hull remains. Certain
tasks, such as excavation and conservation, act as
limiting factors in plotting an efficiency curve for
this problem, since both must proceed at a con-
trolled pace which is determined by individual cir-
cumstance. Computers can be used to accelerate
these and other time consuming processes in part
by establishing provenience for artifacts and by
reducing the time involved in recording and cata-
loging. While using digital technology to stream- Fig. 7
line these processes may involve an initial capital patter
investment for the necessary equipment, more use-
ful information will be produced in less time, giving a re-
turn on this investment that will be more than justified in
the post-season.
INA staff are working in various ways to solve this
task. To increase the efficiency of establishing provenience,
the feasibility of implementing the SHARPSTM acoustical
system, developed by INA board member Marty Wilcox,
is being assessed. The speed of taking "points" with
SHARPS, combined with the Web program, produces a
fast and efficient system for measuring artifacts. Addi-
tionally, labeling artifacts in the field with bar codes would
aid the registering, storing, and tracking of artifacts as they
are processed and offer another type of access into the da-
tabases. Also being considered is a personal computer that
is fully functional under water and is currently being de-
veloped by the Australian Institute of Marine Science.
In cataloguing artifacts, a search is being conducted
for affordable and accurate scanning and digital imaging
equipment which would provide three-dimensional sur-
face meshes or drawings of artifacts with relatively little
time and effort spent. While a field catalogue entry of an
amphora last season would take 45 to 90 minutes to com-
plete, performing the same task with a digital scanner
would produce an accurate recording in a fraction of the
time. In this way, every amphora taken off of the wreck
could be recorded in detail by scanning and photography,
and many could be redeposited on the seafloor at the con-
clusion of the field season. With a representative sample
retained for more extensive analysis and these recordings,
the data set of the amphoras from the Bozburun wreck
would be quite complete.


Photo: INA


. Several Bozborun amphoras arranged in a hypothetical scatter
n.

Future Presentation
The use of computers to collect and store archaeo-
logical data more efficiently represents the first phase in
this system. The second phase involves using computers
to communicate the findings of archaeological research to
a broad audience. Electronic publishing offers a medium
for communication that has unlimited versatility. As an
example, it should be possible to allow a scholar of Byzan-
tine trade to examine fabric samples of the amphoras for
intensive study while, at the same time, showing a curious
fourth-grader what a ship from the Middle Ages would
have looked like.
The final publication of the findings of the Bozbu-
run shipwreck project is intended to be partly in electronic
media. In partnership with the Visualization Laboratory
in the College of Architecture at Texas A&M University,
INA plans to make the information collected during this
excavation available as a multi-media digital library or
"data mine." Not only will hard data be available for in-
terested scholars and students, but also the analysis and
interpretation of finds, including presentations such as re-
alistically rendered and animated reconstructions of the
vessel and an interactive three-dimensional tour of the
wreck site as it appeared on the sea floor (fig. 8 and 9).
INA and the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M
University are currently preparing home pages for the
WorldWideWeb that will be continually updated with in-
formation concerning current and past projects as a first
step towards this type of electronic publication.
Computers, as with any other piece of equipment,
are tools to the nautical archaeologist that can be used in


INA Quarterly 22.3










the excavation, analysis, and interpretation of ar-
chaeological data. They are tools that are becom-
ing increasingly more vital to the efficient and suc-
cessful conduct of archaeological projects. In this
regard, any stigma concerning their involvement
and usefulness with archaeology surely must be
abandoned. As INA begins to seek funding to
equip itself for the digital age, these are consider-
ations that must be kept in mind.

Acknowledgments. Special acknowledgment is due
to Nick Rule and his wife, Carol, who joined the
Bozburun excavation for two weeks during the
1995 field season. His views, assistance, and ideas
continue be an integral part of applying comput-
ers to this project and nautical archaeology as a
whole. We would also like to thank INA presi-
dent and Bozburun excavation director Dr. Fred
Hocker, who provided continual support and en-
couragement for our goals and sometimes gran-
diose ideas. Without his assistance and willing-
ness to try a few new things, our system could
never have gotten off the ground. Additional ac-
knowledgments should be given to Professor Ri-
chard P. Skowronek of the Engineering Design
Graphics Department at Texas A&M University,
whose excellent instruction and advice over the
past year with AutoCAD and 3D-Studio proved
invaluable this summer. Lastly, we would like to
thank John Flynn of Computer Access in College
Station, who provided us with timely help, ad-
vice, and, more importantly, almost all of the hard-
ware used in the 1995 field season.

Suggested References

Hill, Roger W.
1994 Technical Communication: A Dynamic
Context Recording and Modeling
System for archaeology. IJNA 23.2: 141-
145.

Archaeological Computing Newsletter (ACN)
Published by the Institute of Archaeol-
ogy; 36 Beaumont Street; Oxford OX1
2PG; United Kingdom.

CSA Newsletter
Published by the Center for the Study
of Architecture.


Photo: C.A. Powell

Fig. 8. Complete and broken amphora models embedded in a hypothetical
mesh surface in 3-D Studio.


Photo: INA

Fig. 9. A fully rendered image of the amphoras in figure 8 with textures
and materials applied to their surfaces.


INA Quarterly 22.3







To Dive for the Meaning of Words

by George F. Bass
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology/Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts


When I learned to dive in 1960, while a doctoral
candidate at the University of Pennsylvania, it was to en-
able me to raise artifacts-tangible evidence of the past-
from a Late Bronze Age shipwreck located off Cape Geli-
donya, Turkey. I had no idea that the new field of under-
water archaeology might also aid philologists by clarify-
ing the meaning of words in ancient texts.
The excavation at Cape Gelidonya revealed mostly
the cargo of a modest merchant vessel that had sunk
around 1200 BC, approximately the time about which
Homer wrote. Thirty-four ingots of Cypriot copper, the
residue of tin ingots, and baskets filled with scrap bronze
weighed about a ton in all. Between this metal cargo and
the fragmentary remains of the ship's hull was a layer of
twigs with their bark still preserved.
Someone on the excavation staff had brought an
English translation of the OJd i;. ii so, looking for an ex-
planation of the twigs, I eagerly turned to the passage in
which Homer describes Odysseus building a wooden ves-
sel in order to leave Calypso's island. After completing
his hull, the translation said. Odysseus constructed a wick-
er fence to keep out the waves, and then backed up this
fence with brushwood. There was my answer: the twigs
were backing for a wicker fence, similar to the canvas
spray-shield on the Turkish sponge boat from which we
dived.
On my return to the University of Pennsylvania at
the end of the excavation, I was asked to deliver a report
on the excavation to members of the University Museum.
Just before going to the auditorium, I thought I should re-
fresh my memory by checking that passage in the OJ ; ;.. ii
and took another English translation from my shelf. It did
not say the same thing. So I opened a German translation,
and was surprised by a different reading. One said that
Odysseus, after constructing the wicker fence, had made
a bed of brushwood for himself, and the other said, in-
stead, that Odysseus had thrown in a lot of wooden bal-
last!
Although I was studying ancient Greek, I had far
more faith in professional classicists than in myself as a
translator, but at last I turned to Homer's own words in
Od. 5.257:
inoxirv 6eniexetaTo UATIV
Nothing about a backing for the fence, or wooden
ballast, or a bed of brushwood. What Homer said was
that Odysseus spread out a lot of brushwood. That's all.
The Cape Gelidonya excavation showed that the u~ l, the
brushwood, was simply dunnage, the cushion which mar-
iners use to keep cargo from damaging a ship's hull, and
possibly to keep it out of bilge water. Homer should have
been translated verbatim.


On a ship that probably sank in the late 14th centu-
ry BC off Uluburun, the next great cape to the west of Geli-
donya, my student and colleague Cemal Pulak has now
found an even better preserved layer of dunnage, this time
consisting of thorny burnet, a prickly bush that grows wild
throughout the eastern Mediterranean area. In this case,
he may also have found remains of the ship's wickerwork
fence, a type of spray shield that appears in 15th- and 14th-
century Egyptian tomb-paintings of Syrian ships as well
as in the Odyssey.
The Uluburun wreck has also helped clarify words
in a number of Near Eastern languages. In a paper deliv-
ered in 1972, the late Leo Oppenheim suggested that two
words found on cuneiform tablets of the 14th century BC-
i ,i / i and eblipakku-meant raw glass. If he was right, there
was written evidence that the major Syrian port of Ugarit
exported glass, that Ashkelon, Acco, and Lachish sent glass
ingots to Egypt, and that the pharaoh, in turn, sent glass
ingots to Babylon. There was, however, no archaeological
evidence to support Oppenheim's theory until excavators
from the Institute of Nautical Archaeology discovered at
Uluburun approximately 200 disk-shaped ingots of glass,
the first glass ingots known from the Bronze Age.
Most of the Uluburun ingots are cobalt blue, but
some are turquoise, and one is lavender. And this distinc-
tion throws light on Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions.
In a relief of Tuthmosis III, Syrians are shown bringing
baskets of blue and green cakes as tribute to the pharaoh.
The blue cakes are identified in Egyptian as "lapis lazuli"
and "genuine lapis lazuli," and the green cakes as "tur-
quoise" and "genuine turquoise." The Uluburun ingots
now allow Egyptologists to identify the blue and green
cakes as blue and green glass ingots, unless they are spec-
ified as being "genuine" in the inscriptions. This distinc-
tion was already known from Akkadian, which describes
lapis lazuli as being either genuine (literally "from the
mountain") or artificial (literally "from the kiln").
The Uluburun excavation may have allowed the
correct translation of another Egyptian word, one on which
Victor Loret published an entire book. Loret believed that
sonter (written sntr) was terebinth resin. If he was correct,
he could translate Egyptian texts to show the importation
of tons of this substance from the Syro-Palestinian coast
into Egypt, where it was burned as incense in religious
rites. Because only two possible samples of terebinth res-
in had ever been found archaeologically, and neither of
them identified with certainty, Loret's thesis did not gain
general acceptance.
The Uluburun ship carried more than a hundred
Canaanite jars filled with a resin chemically identified as
coming from the Pistacia terebinthus tree and weighing


INA Quarterly 22.3









about a ton. The reason that such resin had not been found
on land in such quantities is that shipments of resin that
did reach their destinations presumably were quickly
burned. When I looked at a storeroom scene from the tomb
of Rekh-mi-re' in Egyptian Thebes and recognized the
word sntr written in hieroglyphs on a Canaanite jar simi-
lar to those from Uluburun, my two years of struggling
through Egyptian as an M.A. student at the Johns Hop-
kins University suddenly seemed worthwhile-especial-
ly as the jar was stored with copper ingots, of which the
Uluburun ship carried ten tons.
The jars of resin at Uluburun also allow a new in-
terpretation of Linear B ki-ta-no as terebinth resin. Ki-ta-no
had earlier been translated by one scholar as being nuts
from the pistachio tree, but the vast quantities in which
they were used in Bronze Age Greece did not make sense.
Perhaps we have a new insight into Mycenaean religion.


Perhaps my greatest thrill on an underwater exca-
vation did not have to do with a new translation, but it
did have to do with the history of literacy. It came with
the 1986 discovery at Uluburun of a wooden diptych with
ivory hinge. In all of Homer there is only one mention of
writing. In the Iliad (VI.169) such a wooden diptych is men-
tioned, but it has been considered anachronistic by schol-
ars, for the earliest such writing tablet known previously
came from an 8th-century B.C. find at Nimrud. Unfortu-
nately, the wax writing faces of the Uluburun tablet had
disappeared, so we not only do not know the message it
carried, but what language it was written in!
Applicants to our Nautical Archaeology Program
at Texas A & M University often detail their diving experi-
ences. How much better if they tell us what ancient lan-
guages they have studied. A healthy linguist, after all, can
usually learn to dive in a week or two.


Dr. Bass's article is reprinted with permission from Texas Classics in Action (Winter 1994), the publication of the Texas
Classical Association. TCA can be contacted at 2535 Turkey Oak, San Antonio TX 78232.

Old World Excavation Directors

Visit New Bozburun Site


Photo: C. A. Powell
INA Old World Excavation Directors assembled for a historic meeting this summer at the new excavation
site at Bozburun, Turkey. Pictured from left to right are: Frederick M. Hocker (director at Bozborun),
Cemal M. Pulak (Uluburun), George E Bass (Cape Gelidonya to present), Michael L. Katzev (Kyrenia),
Cheryl W Haldane (Sadana Island), and Robin C. M. Peircy (Mombasa). Only Donald Frey (Secca di
Capistello) and Si,. 1.. Wachsmann (Tantura Lagoon) were not present.


INA Quarterly 22.3











Review


Nautical Shenanigans
by Ricardo J. Elia

Walking the Plank: A True Adventure Among Pirates
by Stephen Kiesling.
259 pages, Ashland, Oregon: Nordic Knight Press, 1994.

To be a successful underwater treasure hunter you must fol-
low a basic business strategy. First, you need a shipwreck that may
have contained treasure. You don't necessarily have to find the
wreck, at least at first; just claiming to find it will work for a while.
Next, you should invite a celebrity to join your search, preferably
one with political connections. That will help you get publicity,
which is not difficult since the media are attracted to treasure hunt-
ers like sharks to blood. The publicity will bring in investors, which
is the critical part of the whole enterprise-getting other people to
spend their money on your adventure.
No treasure hunter has applied this formula more success-
fully in the past decade than Barry Clifford, the discoverer of the
pirate ship IUyid.i, which sank off Cape Cod in 1717. Clifford
scored early with the media by inviting John F. Kennedy, Jr., to
dive with him in 1983; that year People magazine ran a feature arti-
cle on Kennedy and Clifford's "zany crew' of "golddiggers." The
next year, Clifford found the wreck, which he claimed was worth
$400 million. In 1985 Parade magazine ran a cover story that described Clifford as "the man who discovered a $400
million pirate treasure," a misleading description since, even after ten years of digging, the value of the recovered
artifacts is estimated at less than $10 million.
In 1987 a limited partnership took control of the project and raised some $6 million through the sale of shares to
investors eager to "own a piece of history." The salvage operation has been conducted under a federal permit, which
imposed some degree of archaeological involvement on the project, including a conservation program for treating the
artifacts.
To entice investors to put up the millions of dollars necessary to finance the project, the partners appealed to
Walter Cronkite, who featured the \7,iiy.ii salvage in a 1987 television segment produced by CBS News. They also
wanted to publish a book about the 1,ii,.1.;i, project, to be titled The Pirate Prince. The book was to tell the story of Black
Sam Bellamy, the I iyiii''s captain, with a swashbuckling Clifford cast as a modern version of the eighteenth-century
pirate.
In 1989 freelance journalist Stephen Kiesling was hired to write the 1\1,iid.;, book. He went to Cape Cod and
spent time with Clifford and members of his team, including divers, collaborating archaeologists, a historian, and
business associates. As he conducted interviews and researched the projects, Kiesling became disenchanted with Clif-
ford and the 1\ihyiJ.ii salvage and suspected that the project was not at all what was being portrayed to the public.
In the end, Kiesling could not bring himself to write the hagiography that was expected of him. He was sued for
breach of contract, countersued, and eventually settled the case. Kiesling ended up writing not The Pirate Prince, but
Walking the Plank, a scathing expos& of the \1i7yiJ.i project. (A novelist was later hired to write The Pirate Prince with
Barry Clifford; their book was published in 1993.)

Reprinted with the permission of ARCHAEOLOGY Magazine, Vol. 48, No. 1 (Copyright the Archaeological
Institute of America, 1995).

Walking the Plank may be ordered from the publisher, Nordic Knight Press, 160 Scenic Drive, Ashland, OR 97520
[telephone (503) 482-2012] for $12.95, plus $3.00 shipping and handling.


INA Quarterly 22.3











In the Field


The 1995 INA/CMS Joint Expedition to
Tantura Lagoon, Israel
This fall, INA will join with
Haifa University's Center of Maritime
Studies (CMS) to conduct the second
season of study of a ship that sank with
its cargo during the Byzantine period
in Tantura Lagoon on Israel's Carmel
coast.
The expedition is directed by
Meadows Assistant Professor of Bib-
lical Archaeology Shelley Wachsmann,
who discovered the shipwreck in 1983.
INA excavation veterans Michael
Halpern (Assistant Director) and
Patricia Sibella (Ceramicist) will assist.
Students from Texas A&M University
who will be participating in the exca-
vation include Steven Butler, Jaynie
Cox, and Jeff Royal. They will be
joined by Stephen Breitstein, Yaakov
Kahanov, and Ezra Marcus from the
CMS, as well as students from Haifa
University's Department of Maritime
Civilizations and volunteers.
This year, the expedition will
focus on completing the in situ study
of the section of hull discovered in


1994, as well as locating and record-
ing additional sections of the hull and
its cargo, while also being aware of
other possible finds. Professor Emeri-
tus Richard Steffy will be visiting the
excavation to assist in trying to under-
stand this enigmatic shipwreck.

Wilcox Gift Aids Turkish Coastal Survey
At the outset of October, Texas
A&M student Brett Phaneuf will be
joining Don Frey in Turkey to begin a
sonar survey. They will be using INA's
latest piece of equipment, a gift of
Marty Wilcox, INA Director and in-
ventor of the device. The Marine Sonic
Technology, Ltd. side-scanning sonar
is "state of the art," with the highest
resolution for a commercially available
unit.
It is hoped that the sonar unit
will assist surveyors to locate more
shipwrecks in less time. It will allow
determination of what is exposed on
the bottom before sending divers to in-
vestigate. This new sonar device will
accurately display amphoras or other
cargo, in addition to any hull structure


Photo: S. Breitstein
Fig. 1. Archaeologists clean and study a large portion of the shipwreck which was
discovered during the 1994 season of exploration at Tantura Lagoon.


available. It will also allow the deter-
mination of the extent of the wreck-
age. The computer which controls the
sonar can give length, width, height
above sea floor, and area of any object
on the bottom.
Marty Wilcox joined the Texas
Historical Commission team for a
weekend in July to conduct a side-scan
sonar survey of the La Belle shipwreck
site. The sonar images assisted the ar-
chaeological recording process by pro-
viding divers with a picture of the sea
floor in Matagorda Bay, where visibil-
ity rarely exceeds one foot.

Canary Island Survey
The Canary Islands Shipwreck
Survey is currently on hold due to po-
litical circumstances in the region.
Progress has been made, however. Ties
between INA and La Universidad are
growing. They are exchanging infor-
mation and looking forward to launch-
ing a joint-research project next season.
In the meantime, Brett Phaneuf, Peter
Hitchcock and archaeologists from the
Canary Islands will discuss the next
season. They will also be conducting
research concerning Phoenician and
Roman expansion into the Western
Mediterranean and the Atlantic coast
of Morocco.
In mid-November, Phaneuf and
Hitchcock will travel to Morocco to
conduct correlating research. Once
there they will be joined by Prof. Eliz-
abeth Lyding Will of Amherst College.
Mr. Thor Kuniholm (Director) has gen-
erously put the library and research
facilities of the Tangier American Le-
gation Museum at their disposal. Pha-
neuf and Hitchcock will be visiting an-
cient Phoenician and Roman sites
along the coast, e.g. Lixus, the oldest
Atlantic settlement (8th BC) and
Kuoass, a major garum production
site. Amphoras produced there are
found throughout the Mediterranean.


INA Quarterly 22.3














Phaneuf and Hitchcock will be
returning to College Station in Decem-
ber to begin planning the upcoming
season in the Canary Islands and fur-
ther research in Morocco.

INA Research in Albania Continues
In August, INA Research Asso-
ciate Peter van Alfen made a brief visit


to Albania to meet with Dr. Namik
Bodinaku, the director of the Albanian
Institute of Archaeology. The two
planned a survey of the Albanian
coastline to begin in June 1996. While
van Alfen was in Albania, he and Al-
banian archaeologist Rezart Spahia
continued their reconnaissance, begun
in January, of the southern coastline


between Butrint and Vlore. The 1996
survey will focus on this region.
With funding from a Fulbright
grant, INA Research Associate Eliza-
beth Greene will spend the upcoming
year in Albania. Greene will continue
research on known shipwrecks and
make preparations in Albania for the
survey.


17th Century Shipwreck, La Belle,

Discovered in Matagorda Bay, Texas
by Barto Arnold and Brett Phaneuf


Throughout June and July of this past year the Tex-
as Historical Commission, led by Barto Arnold (Texas State
Marine Archaeologist), conducted an archaeological sur-
vey of Matagorda Bay. This survey was a continuation of
a 1978 magnetometer survey conducted by Arnold, search-
ing for a range of wrecks. The most important of these was
the 17th century shipwreck, La Belle. This piece of history
had eluded treasure hunters for centuries, and Arnold him-
self for almost two decades. At the end of June the survey
team, comprising students from Texas A&M University,
University of Texas at Austin, and Florida State Universi-
ty, had located a variety of sites to be explored in the com-
ing month. On the first exploratory dive in July, the ship-
wreck La Belle was discovered.
La Belle was a small Frenchfragatta given to the ex-
plorer R&n& La Salle (1643-1687) by Louis XIV and was
part of a convoy of ships sent to colonize and explore the
Mississippi River. La Salle missed the mouth of the Mis-
sissippi and instead arrived in Matagorda Bay, Texas. He
established a settlement, Fort Saint Louis, near modern-
day Port Lavaca. This enabled the French to claim Texas.
Unfortunately, La Salle's colony suffered severe hardships,
augmented by the loss of the colony's supplies and ships.
The settlement succumbed to disease and Indian attacks
before the Spanish could locate and destroy the colony
themselves.
In 1685, La Belle was driven across Matagorda Bay
in a violent storm and run aground on the Matagorda Pen-
insula. A year later, Spanish explorers salvaged her guns
and part of the cargo. The account of this provides the only
clues about the size and type of the ship. La Belle is the


oldest known French shipwreck in the New World. It will
provide information about trade and exploration in the
Gulf of Mexico, as well as naval architecture and ship con-
struction in the late 17th century.
Artifacts recovered from the shipwreck include a
bronze cannon, brass pins, an abundance of pottery, pew-
ter plates, rope, hawk's bells, beads, and an exceptionally
well preserved portion of the hull. The Museum of Sci-
ence and History and Don Keith of Ships of Discovery in
Corpus Christi, Texas, along with the Conservation Re-
search Laboratory at Texas A&M University, are conserv-
ing the artifacts recovered during this past summer. Work
will resume at the wreck site in May of 1996 under the
aegis of the Texas Historical Commission, and will be di-
rected by Barto Arnold. More information about the site
and its historical background can be found on the World-
WideWeb at http://129.109.57.188/index.htm.

Suggested Readings

Boudriot, Jean
1993 History of the French Frigate 1650-1850.
Rottersfield.

Weddle, Robert S.
1987 La Salle, the Mississippi, and the Gulf: Three
Primary Documents. College Station: Texas A&M
University Press.

Texas Historical Commission
1995 La Salle Shipwreck. Special Issue of The Medallion.


INA Quarterly 22.3











News &Notes


INA dedicates new headquarters in Bodrum
On July 7, INA Directors and
staff formally dedicated the new head-
quarters facility in Bodrum. Over one
hundred guests, including representa-
tives from the Turkish Ministry of
Culture, the Mugla Provincial Gover-
nor's Office, the Municipal Authority
of Bodrum, the Bodrum Museum of
Underwater Archaeology, and the
American Embassy, along with over a
third of the
INA Board of
Directors,
were on hand.
The gala cele-
bration fea-
tured tradi-
tional Turkish
music and
folk dancing.
Although the
complex has
been in use in
an unfinished
state for over
a year, recent
donations
from INA Di-
rectors and
friends, along
with a con-
certed push
this spring
and summer, INA Director Danie
directed by facilities in Bodrum,
Robin Piercy,
Tufan Turanlh,
Cemal Pulak and George Bass, has al-
lowed the completion, including fur-
nishing, of the main administrative
building and both dormitory wings.
Directors and friends making
the trip to Turkey enjoyed a week of
festivities, beginning in Istanbul,
where Director Ayhan Sicimoglu host-
ed a reception with members of the
Turkish business community. The
group continued on to Bodrum for the


gala, as well as a moonlight dinner s.
This was served at the castle by staff
in in Ottoman costume (thanks to Mu-
seum Director Oguz Alp6zen) and
ending in Selimiye, where guests
dived on the Bozburun shipwreck and
enjoyed some hearty camp cooking.


Charlton Gives Presentations
Bill Charlton, a graduate stu-
dent in the Nautical Archaeology Pro-
gram and INA's Divemaster, spoke to
the Northwest Friends of INA in Port-
land, Oregon, on the 26 and 27 Sep-
tember 1995. Hosted by Mary and
Dick Rosenberg and Dr. David Per-
Iman, Charlton gave a talk and slide
presentation about this past summer's
activities at the first field season on the
Institute of
Nautical Ar-
chaeology's ex-
cavation of a
ninth-century
Byzantine mer-
chant vessel
found in the
northern Ae-
gean Sea near
Bozburun, Tur-
key.


Photo: INA
lle J. Feeney cuts the ribbon at the opening of the new INA
Turkey, as Archaeological Director George Bass looks on.


Charlton
then traveled to
the Wrigley
Marine Science
Center on
Catalina Island,
California,
where he at-
tended a Nitrox
diving course
conducted by
the American
Academy of
Underwater
Sciences


INA Scholarships Granted (AAUS). He will soon be certified as a
The Institute of Nautical Nitrox diving instructor by the Inter-
Archaeology is pleased to support the national Association of Nitrox and
education of several Texas A&M Technical Divers (IANTD). Lastly, he
Nautical Archaeology students attended the annual AAUS sympo-
annually. Ben an Liu, Tommi Makeli sium at Scripps Institute of Oceanog-
and Christine A. Powell were awarded raphy in San Diego, California where
INA Scholarships this year. Glenn he was co-author of a paper presented
Grieco and Brian A. Jordan were on the implementation of a new set of
named as Mr. and Mrs. J. Brown Cook dive tables at Bozburun, Turkey, this
Graduate Fellows. past summer.


INA Quarterly 22.3















Norwregian Maritime Archaeologists
Visit Texas A&M University
Marek Jasinski, Fredrik Sore-
ide and Bjorn Sortland of the Uni-
versity of Trondheim, Norway visit-
ed the faculty, students, and staff of
the Nautical Archaeological Pro-
gram at Texas A&M University on
the 5th of October 1995. An informal
presentation about underwater tech-
nologies as applied to research in
maritime archaeology in Norway
was given. Professor Marek Jasinski
is known for his work on Svalbard
as well as with the concept of the
maritime cultural landscape. Fredrik
Soreide is currently writing his dis-
sertation on underwater technology
for maritime archaeology and Bjorn
Sortland is a specialist in underwa-
ter operations.

Jordan Fellow Gives Lecture
David Johnson, who was
awarded a Leyland T. Jordan Fellow-
ship, gave a well-attended presenta-
tion entitled "Ships and Slaves of Co-
lonial Jamaica" on September 20,
1995, at Texas A&M University. The
lecture was intended to encourage
awareness on the University campus
of the work of the Nautical Archae-
ology Program and INA. The Jordan
Fellowships are awarded by the Jor-
dan Institute for International
Awareness at A&M.

Article Published
Texas A&M Nautical Archae-
ology Program student Matthew G.
Pridemore has published an article
in Issue 24.2 of the International Jour-
nal of NauticalA 1,, ., li.. i, "Are-ex-
amination of a ship on an ivory
plaque from Sparta." Mr. Pridemore
discovered the presence of a second-
ary ram on the ship portrayed on the
Greek plaque while conducting his
thesis research on naval rams in an-
tiquity.


Elizabeth Greene Receives Fulbright
Nautical Archaeology Pro-
gram student Elizabeth Greene is the
recipient of a 1995 Fulbright Fellow-
ship, which will help to fund her re-
search in Albania.

Visiting Scholars
The Nautical Archaeology
Program at Texas A&M University
is playing host to two international
Visiting Scholars for the 1995-96 aca-
demic year.
Jan Bill arrived in September.
He has been involved with the work
of the Center for Maritime Archae-
ology of the Danish National Mu-
seum in Roskilde.
In October, INA welcomed
Albanian archaeologist Rezart
Spahia, who hopes to become his
country's first nautical specialist.

"Hurricane Havoc" Exhibit
There is an exhibit of material
from the Nuevo Constante wreck
from October 8 to December 1, 1995,
at the Museum of the Gulf Coast, in
Port Arthur, Texas. The Nuevo
Constante was a Spanish plate ves-
sel sunk in 1766 just off Cameron,
Louisiana, carrying New World
goods to the Old World. For more
information, call the Museum at 1-
409-982-7000.

DAN Medical Guide now Available
DAN's Dive and Travel Med-
ical Guide is ready for fall release.
With an updated emphasis on dive
travel and safety, and extensive cov-
erage of dive safety and health is-
sues, the new DAN Dive and Travel
Medical Guide is an essential tool for
prevention, identification and treat-
ment of scuba diving injuries. The
guide will be available for purchase
in November 1995. For information,
contact DAN Membership Services
at (800) 446-2671.


Three Flags

Over

Turkey


Photo: S.W. Katzev

The flags of Turkey, INA, and Texas A&M
University fly proudly over the new excava-
tion site at Bozburun. 1995 marked the first
season of excavation at this ninth-century
Byzantine wreck near the town of Selimiye.
This was the first new Turkish project for INA
in eleven years. A varied contingent of INA
staff, A&M students, Turkish archaeologists
and students, and others conducted the sea-
son from May to August.


INA Quarterly 22.3





















George F. Bass, Archaeological Director
Gregory M. Cook, Treasurer


William L. Allen
John H. Baird
George F. Bass
Edward O. Boshell, Jr.
Ray M. Bowen
Gregory M. Cook, Vice Chairman
Harlan Crow
Frank Darden
Claude Duthuit
Daniel Fallon
Danielle J. Feeney


OFFICERS ADMINISTRATION

Frederick M. Hocker, President
Rebecca H. Holloway, Secretary


BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Donald G. Geddes III
Bengt O. Jansson
Woodrow Jones, Jr.
Harry C. Kahn II
Michael L. Katzev
Jack W. Kelley, Chairman
Sally R. Lancaster
Norma S. Langworthy
Samuel J. LeFrak
Robert E. Lorton
Frederick R. Mayer
William A. McKenzie


Donald A. Frey, Vice President
Cemal M. Pulak, Vice President


Alex G. Nason
Ayhan Sicimoglu
Ray H. Siegfried II
William T. Sturgis
Robert L. Walker
Lew O. Ward
Peter M. Way
Garry M. Weber
Martin A. Wilcox
Richard A. Williford
George O. Yamini


FACULTY


George F. Bass
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology/ Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts
Kevin J. Crisman, Assistant Professor
Donny L. Hamilton, Associate Professor
Frederick M. Hocker, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Faculty Fellow
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., Frederick R. Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology
Shelley Wachsmann, Meadows Assistant Professor of Biblical Archaeology


GRADUATE FELLOWS

Mr. and Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried II
Graduate Fellow:
Cemal M. Pulak

Mr. and Mrs. J. Brown Cook
Graduate Fellows:
Brian A. Jordan, Glenn Grieco

STAFF

Marion Degirmenci
Helen Dewolf
Sheila D. Matthews, M.A.
Selma Oguz
Claire P. Peachey, M.A.
Robin C.M. Piercy
Cemal M. Pulak, M.S., M.A.
Sema Pulak, M.A.
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D.
Tufan U. Turanli
Patricia A. Turner
Jane Pannell

COUNSEL James A. Goold


RESEARCH ASSOCIATES

Jeremy Green
Elizabeth Greene
Cheryl W. Haldane, Ph.D.
Douglas Haldane, M.A.
George Indruszewski
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D.
John C. Neville
Robert S. Neyland, Ph.D.
Brett A. Phaneuf
Ralph K. Pedersen, M.A.
Donald Rosencrantz
Peter G. van Alfen




ADJUNCT PROFESSORS

Cynthia J. Eiseman, Ph.D.
John A. Gifford, Ph.D.
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D.
Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
David I. Owen, Ph.D.
David C. Switzer, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., M.A.


SUPPORTING INSTITUTIONS

Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology
Boston University
Brown University
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati
Cornell University
Corning Museum of Glass
Department de Arqueol6gia Subacuatica de
la I.N.A.H., Mexico
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Partners for Livable Places
University Museum, University of
Pennsylvania
Shell of Turkey, Ltd.
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Texas A&M University
University of Texas, Austin

QUARTERLY EDITOR


Christine A. Powell




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