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Tantura Lagoon, Israel
"A Cove of Many Shipwrecks"
3 The 1994 INA/CMS Joint Expedition to Tantura Lagoon
8 The Recanati Center for Maritime Studies
9 A Preliminary Study of the Hull Remains
Yaakov Kahanov and Stephen Breitstein
12 How Old is the Shipwreck from Tantura Lagoon?
The Radiocarbon Evidence Yisrael Carmi and Dror Segal
13 The Ceramics
17 The Rope
William H. Charlton
18 Preliminary Pollen Analysis of Sediments Collected
from Tantura Lagoon Vaughn M. Bryant
19 Notes on the Architectural Marble
21 In the Field
23 Profile: Harry C. Kahn II
The articles in this issue describe the field work conducted at Tantura Lagoon, Israel by a joint team of INA and Israeli
nautical archaeologists. With this edition, we hope to familiarize our readers with the techniques of excavation and
preliminary analysis, including hull mapping, ceramic analyses, and organic studies, used on virtually all INA projects.
Note that the term "Byzantine period" used throughout this issue refers to the years between A.D. 324 and 638, ending
with the Moslem conquest of Byzantine Palestine.
On the cover Michael Halpern clears sand from the newly discovered portion of a hull that had been torn apart and scattered
across Tantura Lagoon. Photo: S. Breitstein.
June 1995 by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. All rights reserved.
INA welcomes requests to reprint INA Quarterly articles and illustrations. Please address all requests and submissions to the Editors,
INA Quarterly, P.O. Drawer HG, College Station, TX 77841-5137; tel (409) 845-6694, fax (409) 845-6399, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Institute of Nautical Archaeology is a non-profit scientific and educational organization, incorporated in 1972. Since 1976, INA
has been affiliated with Texas A&M University, where INA faculty teach in the Nautical Archaeology Program of the Department of
The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsletter (vols. 1-18). Editors: Elizabeth Greene
David J. Stewart
The 1994 INA/CMS Joint Expedition to
By Shelley Wachsmann, Meadows Assistant Professor of Biblical Archaeology
...about midnight the sailors suspected that they were nearing land. So they took soundings and found twenty fathoms;
a littlefarther on they took soundings again and found fifteen fathoms. Fearing that we might run on the rocks, they let
down four anchors from the stern and prayed for day to come...
In the morning they did not recognize the land, but they noticed a bay with a beach, on which they planned to run
the ship ashore, if they could. So they cast off the anchors and left them in the sea. At the same time they loosened the
ropes that tied the steering-oars; then hoisting the foresail to the wind, they made for the beach. But striking a reef, they
ran the ship aground; the bow stuck and remained immovable, but the stern was being broken up by the force of the
waves... the centurion ... ordered those who could swim to jump overboard first and make for the land, and the rest to
follow, some on planks and others on pieces of the ship.
So writes St. Paul concerning the wreck off Malta of the
Roman grain ship on which he was being escorted to trial
in-Rome. Such events must have been common in antiq-
Indeed, underwater surveys along Israel's Mediterra-
nean coast suggest that a shipwreck might be found for
every 50-100 meters of coastline explored (fig. 1). This is
not the result of a biblical 'Bermuda Triangle.' Their pres-
ence is simply the result of the law of averages. Israel's
sea lanes were among the most traversed routes of antiq-
uity. Of the many ships plying this route, a certain per-
For a ship's hull to be preserved it must be rapidly
buried in sediment after reaching the seabed. Unfortu-
nately for nautical archaeologists, most ships that sank
along Israel's coastline in antiquity suffered a fate similar
to the vessel of St. Paul. They were often stranded and
beaten to pieces by the waves, perhaps aided by coastal
Acts 27: 27-29, 39-41, 43-44
scavengers who plundered them. Of their hulls nothing
remains; their passing is recorded solely by the scatter-
ings of cargos that litter the seafloor. Only in regions where
the coastline offered some protection- an island, a pen-
insula or a bay, for example- could ships that sank be bur-
ied rapidly under the moving sands that carpet this coast.
Dor is one of the most imposing tels (ancient habita-
tion sites) in Israel. It was founded ca. 2000 B.C. Since that
time, with a few short gaps in occupation, the tel, or its
immediate vicinity, has been inhabited. Immediately south
of Dor stretches Tantura Lagoon, a narrow bay that served
as a natural anchorage (fig. 2). Combining four millennia :
of virtually uninterrupted maritime activity with geologi-
cal conditions favorable to shipwreck preservation, Tantura
Lagoon invites nautical archaeological research.
For many years I served as Inspector of Underwater
Antiquities for the Israel Department of Antiquities and
Museums (IDAM; now the Israel Antiquities Authority).
Fig. 1 (left): Map of the Mediterranean coast of Israel in the region of Dor/ Tantura Lagoon.
Fig. 2 (below): Map of Tantura Lagoon and Tel Dor. The shipwreck and cargo are spread out
between Tafat Island and the shore.
INA Quarterly 22.2
Drawing: P. Sibella
Fig. 3: Trench V. The timber fragments- ceiling planking and
frames-had been ripped from a hull and lay on a matrix of Byzan-
tine pottery and organic material. We found a marble slab directly
north of the timbers. Storms covered Trench IV with a blanket of
sand before it was possible for Patricia Sibella to complete the map-
ping of all artifacts. This will be one of the goals for the 1995field
After a storm in 1983, my colleague, Kurt Raveh, and I
were conducting a routine survey dive in the lagoon when
I happened to touch something 'spongy.' Looking down,
I realized that my fingers had grazed the protruding tip of
a ship's frame that was otherwise en-
tirely buried. Hand fanning revealed
strakes, frames and ceiling planks. -i
Intact jars, as well as large quantities :
of sherds, dating to the Byzantine pe-
riod (A.D. 324-638) lay atop the
planking. We did not have the op-
portunity to investigate the area thor-
oughly at this time as other ship- .
wrecked cargos revealed by the same
storm along the Carmel coast re-
quired our immediate attention. By
the time we could return to the hull,
it had disappeared again beneath the
In 1985, I returned to Dor with
Kurt, Stephen Breitstein and Yossi
Tur-Caspa of the Recanati Center for
Maritime Studies (CMS) at Haifa
University and a team of British
divers from the Nautical Archaeol-
ogy Society led by Vallerie Fenwick. Fig. 4: Expedition tea
We examined another part of a ship- with the hydraulic p
in, 0 =
.__?m ea 0
INA Quarterly 22.2
wreck, once again associated with quantities of identical
Byzantine ceramics. Most of our efforts were spent trying
to move a sandbank that had settled over the site. We
opened an area of the hull only the size of a small coffee
In the fall of 1994, I returned to excavate the shipwreck
that had so long eluded examination. Following George
Bass's philosophy of cooperation with archaeological in-
stitutions of host countries, INAjoined forces with the CMS
to conduct the excavation as a joint, multi-year study. Last
October, we began our search for the hull timbers and Byz-
antine pottery in Tantura Lagoon.
Coastal construction and a significant influx of sand
in the lagoon during the years since the hull's discovery
made relocating the hull somewhat problematic. To de-
termine the specific location of the hull, buried two meters
beneath the sand, we began excavating test trenches in our
target area. Although we all felt stymied by our initial
failure to find hull remains, ultimately the excavation of
these trenches proved serendipitous. Through them we
gained our first overview of the positioning of artifacts
beneath the sand. We discovered a 'flow' of Byzantine
artifacts extending along a north-south axis that we fol-
lowed for 60 meters. In our fourth trench, we found the
timbers studied in 1985. Until that time, I had been con-
vinced that these timbers and those revealed in 1983 were
portions of a single, coherent, hull.
I was wrong. As we enlarged the area around the tim-
bers we found that they ended abruptly at all sides. The
entire section consisted of a few ceiling planks and some
frames that had been ripped from a hull. These timbers
lay upon a thick matrix of pottery
dating primarily to the Byzantine
period. The surrounding area is rich
in organic materials and the spilled
contents of amphoras, some of which
were collected for palynological
analysis (fig. 3).
Employing a hydraulic probe,
we began to search for additional
parts of the hull, following the gen-
eral line of the pottery flow (fig. 4).
With this method, we located two
lead-filled stocks from wooden an-
chors. The second anchor stock lay
directly upon a mass of Persian peri-
od (sixth-fourth centuries B.C.) tor-
pedo and 'basket-handle' jar sherds.
While lead parts from wooden an-
chors are not uncommon in the Med-
iterranean and Black Seas, the
Photo:wooden portions of these anchors
Photo: K. Bowling
members hardat work rarely survive. The earliest datable
e. lead pieces appear in the late sixth
P- r-v -C
Fig. 5 (left): It looked like someone had boarded up the seabed. Photo: S Brettsecin
Fig 6 (right): The slip hlid clearly sut'ered a severe fire at some point prior to it- n-akmig Sim5lair charrmig Iwas recorded on the cedoil
planking found in 1985 Photo: S. Wachsmann
century B.C.; their use continued to about the mid-second
century B C. As these artifacts did not pertain to our pr-
mary objective, both were mapped, recorded and rebur-
led in situ for future retrieval and study. Our search for
the Byzantine hull continued
On November 2nd, the probe team found two adla-
cent wood anomalies at the north of the 'flow' line. Deep-
ening this area, expedition team members began to un-
cover planks neatly aligned on the seabed terminating on
their northern side with a large timber. No frames were
visible. At first glance it all looked rather strange. Texas
A&M University undergraduate student Chris Lee, who
was working in the area, described it aptly.:
"It looks like someone's boarded up the seabed," he
told me (fig. 5)
Until the day we found the remains, we had been en-
joying ideal weather and glass-smooth seas. Now, quite
suddenly, we were chased out of the water by a freak light-
ening and rain storm All work on the site ceased
After the stormy weather abated, we enlarged the
trench, revealing a significant peor, n of the hull The keel
and a post (either the stem or sterr o! the vessel) contin-
ued [or over six meters, Its southei' si de survived up to
about the turn of the bilge The hull lay on an approxi-
mately northwest-southeast ax \t the latter extremIity
the keel had been snapped off cle :-:I. a., i it were a match
stick Dislocated timbers con inu1d tl t \e southwest. Vir-
tually the entire northern portion ,' their hull had been torn
aware at the keel.
On the surv'iving southern '-die t!.' hull bore further
witness to the forces that had torn .i apart Chris's'boards,'
it transpired, were strikes from \, !-'Iih the frames had been
ripped awav in a /ipper-like efte,: taking along any su-
perstructure and cargo Only near the post were several
frames still in place Discolorations indicated framing po-
sitions, some of which contained concretions of the iron
nails that had once held the planking to the frames; in oth-
ers the nails had accompanied the frames, leaving behind
only holes in the strakes. Directly upon the strakes lav
sherds of Byzantine ceramics.
We discovered that the hull had been deeply charred
intermittently, similar charring appears on the ceiling
planks found in 1985 (fig. 6) Did the ship sink as a result
of a fire on board 7 As yet we are unable to determine when
in the ship's history the fire occurred At present, all we
can sav for certain is that the fire happened prior to the
sinking of the vessel and that the charring mav have weak-
ened the structural integrity of the hull. Nor can we yet
ascertain the fire's cause Was it the fault of a careless cook,
a lightening bolt, or perhaps due to damages sustained in
battle? Hopefully, future investigation of the pattern of
charring will elucidate this matter.
Whether or not the sinking was an immediate result
of the fire. :his ship clearly saw a traumatic end. There i,
\Irtuall\ no \\\a e action inside the cove, even duriiiing
stormirn we;thier. What might have torn her apart and have
spread he_-- cargo and hull acron-s the lagoon Iikc' a deck Io
Ihe ,on\'v ,-cenario that >cems to explain the evidence
is that the 'hlip sustained se"' ere damage and began break-
Ing up. perhaps while still in the open ~ea Possibly the
ship grounded like' St. Paul's ship, and was battered b\
the wave' 'tieforie it reached the lagoon if so, the current
inside th. lagoon du ring a storm could aci -ount for the dis-
persal I; the hull fragments and cargo During storms,
water ruh..'s into lTatuir1 Lagooii betw een the islands cr-
IN,,A QMirEcrl) 22 2
eating a powerful current that today, because the
lagoon is closed in the north by a sandbar, flows
from north to south. Considering their state of
preservation, the ship and its cargo must have
been buried rapidly after sinking.
Our curiosity about the vessel and its mysterious
fate was only compounded as we began to study
the construction of the hull. All indications sug-
gest that at least up to the seventh century A.D.
ships were built with mortise-and-tenon joinery,
although this ancient method was slowly being
replaced with a more frame-oriented construction.
The shipwrights of the seventh-century A.D.
Yassiada ship, for example, aligned the vessel's
strakes with unpegged mortise-and-tenon joinery.
We fully anticipated finding a similar arrange-
ment in our shipwreck'sconstruction. During the
limited time available to us, we studied the keel,
as well as all exposed strake edges for such joints.
We were unable to find a single one. This, to- Fig. 7:
gether with other constructional characteristics, that pn
suggests a later date for the hull than that which the seal
we assumed from the Byzantine pottery in the
area. Indeed, the vessel's construction displays close par-
allels to the eleventh-century A.D. Serce Limani hull.
This enigma led us to consider other scenarios. We
wondered whether there were two shipwrecks: one that
sank in the latter part of the Byzantine period and scat-
tered its cargo across Tantura Lagoon, and a second that
wrecked in the same location several centuries later and
then had Byzantine pottery washed into it. Such a sce-
nario, although unlikely, is not impossible due to the dy-
namic energy within the bay during storms. Because of
the apparent discrepancy in date between the Byzantine
pottery and the techniques used in the hull's construction,
it was clear that we needed an additional method for dat-
ing the hull. We still pondered these questions when, on
November 12th, the weather turned nasty again.
For weeks, the westerly storms continued relentlessly.
Every time the sea seemed to subside, a new weather front
would enter the area, raising the waves again and preclud-
ing work in the sea. Local newspapers claimed this to be
the rainiest November in the past fifty years. One evening
the storm became so severe that the water washed up the
beach as far as the sea-van container that served as our
shore base, requiring us to anchor it to the shore to ensure
that the waves did not carry it away. Thanksgiving came
and went with no let-up in the weather. Finally, on De-
cember 6th, fine seas prevailed. The waves had buried
the hull almost to water level with a sand bar. With four
days remaining, we moved the sand and continued our
preliminary study of the hull.
I now noticed that some of the Byzantine sherds lying
rnuTru: orelr siu
The ship's keel rests on the upside-down stone stock of a wooden anchor
dates the hull by about a millennium, creating a rare stratigraphy on
directly on the hull were stuck into what appeared to be
mastic, the putty like material- now rock hard -that the
ship's builders had placed between the frames and plank-
ing. It seems unlikely that the sherds could have become
embedded in the mastic after the ship sank. Here, then,
was a strong archaeological clue that the Byzantine period
pottery found on the hull did indeed belong to it.
Additionally, we removed sections of the keel for den-
drochronological and radiocarbon testing. The dendro-
chronological sample proved inconclusive. The three ra-
diocarbon tests, carried out on a single piece of wood, how-
ever, chronologically matched two previous ones done on
the timbers found in 1983 and 1985. All three hull por-
tions were dated to ca. A.D. 415-530, agreeing with the Byz-
antine date derived from the pottery.
In the upcoming field season, the expedition will fo-
cus on a thorough study of the known hull fragments and
on locating additional hull parts and cargo that may yet
remain beneath the shifting sands of Tantura Lagoon. Only
future study may resolve the enigmatic discrepancy be-
tween the dates given to the hull by the pottery and radio-
carbon on the one hand, and the construction techniques
used by the ship's builders on the other.
As Patricia Sibella points out below, in addition to ceram-
ics of the Byzantine period we uncovered pottery- some-
times in quantities-belonging to other chronological ho-
rizons. These sherds range in date from the Middle Bronze
Age II (ca. 2000-1550 B.C.; in biblical terms this is probably
the time of the Patriarchs) to the Late Iron Age (eighth-
INA Quarterly 22 2
sixth centuries B.C.- the period of the Divided Monar-
chy) and the Persian period (sixth-fourth centuries B.C.-
the time of the Return to Zion from the Babylonian Exile
and the establishment of the Second Temple). Two Iron
Age amphoras assigned to the eleventh-tenth centuries B.C.
(about the time of David and Solomon), which I discov-
ered during my previous IDAM surveys, add an additional
chronological weave to this 'cove of many shipwrecks.'
We witnessed, then, numerous indications of Tantura
Lagoon's archaeological abundance. One example in par-
ticular comes to mind. During the last days of the excava-
tion we discovered that the ship's keel lay directly upon
the upside-down hewn stone stock of a wooden anchor,
creating a rare stratigraphical sequence on the sea bottom
(fig. 7). Stone stocks were used from the late seventh to
the mid fourth centuries B.C. Thus, the stock predates the
hull by about a millennium. A rope lies pressed between
the two, spanning the centuries. Whether the rope belongs
to the stock, or to the hull, remains unclear.
In a small section excavated adjacent to the stock and
beneath the level of the keel, we found a layer of Late Iron
Age or Persian period sherds. These were mixed together
with ballast stones of non-local origin, similar to those
found on the late fifth century B.C. Ma'agan Michael ship-
wreck. These findings raise the possibility that another,
earlier, hull may lie nearby.
Whether or not this is the case, one thing is absolutely
certain- Tantura Lagoon will continue to surprise us.
The Tantura Lagoon Expedition is a joint project of the Institute
of Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M University and the
Recanati Center for Maritime Studies at Haifa University. This
research was made possible by the philanthropic support of the
following individuals: Mr. and Mrs. Harry C. Kahn, II of Phila-
delphia, Dr. and Mrs. Samuel J. LeFrak of New York, and Mr.
and Mrs. John L. Ster of Los Angeles. Additional funding was
provided by, the College of Liberal Arts and the Office of the
Vice President for Research and Associate Provost for Graduate
Studies of Texas A&M University and the National Geographic
Society. Thanks also to Mr. Edward O. Boshell, Jr. for his involve-
ment and support of INA Israel.
The collaboration between INA and CMS has benefited both
institutions as well as the individuals involved in the Tantura
Lagoon project. Special thanks to George E Bass and Avner Raban
for working out this inter-institutional agreement, as well as to
Frederick M. Hocker, INA's new president, and Yossi Mart, the
incoming Head of CMS, for continuing the process. Thanks also
to Stephen Breitstein, Yaakov Kahanov, Itzik Dagan and William
H. Charlton for their assistance in making this research a reality.
The success of the first field season was largely due to the
dedication and perseverance of the staff, many of whom assisted
in preparations before we went into the field. My special thanks
are due to the members of the excavation team: Kyra Bowling,
Vaughn Bryant, Stephen Breitstein, Norine Carroll, William H.
Charlton, Asaf Giveon, Elli Hadad, Michael Halpern, Yaakov
Kahanov, Tal Kesar, Tony Lachud, Andrew Lacovera, Chris Lee,
Eyal Bar-Maimon, Tommi Makeli, Taras Pevny, Carmela
Shimony, Patricia Sibella and Claude Tibi (fig. 8).
Numerous archaeologists were consulted on various aspects
of the excavation. They liberally gave of their time and knowl-
edge. In addition to those contributing articles for this issue of
the INA Quarterly, I note, with appreciation, the valuable advice
given the expedition by the following scholars: Trude Dothan,
Bracha Goz, Barbara Johnson, Ayelet Lewinson-Gilboa, Robert
Merrillees, Peter Kuniholm, Ephraim Stern, and Ella Werker.
Ehud Galili and Yaakov Sharvit of the Israel Antiquities
Authority's Marine branch were frequent visitors to the excava-
tion. I appreciate their support, help and pointers.
A kibbutz is a type of collective settlement, unique to mod-
em Israel. The expedition was based in beautiful Kibbutz
Nahsholim. A more delightful base of operations is difficult to
imagine. All the team members benefited greatly from the
warmth and kindness extended to us by all of Nahsholim's mem-
bers, who endeavored to help us in myriad ways. Special thanks
to Tammi Yitzchaki and the rest of the folks at the Nahsholim
Guest House who did everything possible to make our stay both
productive and pleasurable. I am also indebted to Ziv Gilboa for
his enthusiastic support of the project, to the staff of the Center
of Nautical and Regional Archaeology, Dora (CONRAD) for their
hospitality, and to Kurt Raveh for his assistance in locating the
hull fragment that we had worked on together in 1983.
I also thank the following individuals: Yitzchak Cohen, di-
rector of the Dor Holiday Village; Shlomo Nachmani and his staff
at the Express Garage in Haifa for voluntarily keeping our pumps,
which were quite literally the heart of the excavation, in good
working order, and to Pat Clingenpeel for keeping the expedi-
tion well supplied with surgical syringes used in attaching la-
bels to the hull's timbers.
The expedition benefited from National Geographic
Explorer's loan of a camcorder and underwater housing. I also
thank Frederick Campbell and Ronald M. Bural of Archaeoquest
Photo: V. Bryant
Fig. 8: The expedition staff show the INA and Explorers Clubflags
in Israel. Front row (left to right): William H. Charlton, Michael
Halpern. Center row: Yaakov Kahanov, Norine Carroll, Kyra Bowl-
ing, Patricia Sibelia. Back row: Tommi Miakeli, Andrew Lacovera,
Stephen Breitstein, Shelley Wachsmann. Missing: Vaughn Bryant,
AsafGiveon, Eli Hadad, Tal Kesar, Tony Lachud, Chris Lee, Eyal
Bar-Maimon, Taras Pevny, Claude Tibi.
INA Quanerly 22.2
Video Productions for their considerable time and effort in turn-
ing this rough footage into usable material.
Administrative support to a project in the field from a dis-
tant office is often a tedious, a difficult and a time-consuming
task. I thank Claudia LeDoux, Becky Holloway, Patrica Turner
and Clyde Reese for their assistance.
My appreciation also goes to INA Quarterly editors, Eliza-
beth Greene and David Stewart, for their considerable skill, time,
and effort, which are reflected in these pages.
I am grateful for the Meadows Assistant Professorship of
Biblical Archaeology, a position that permits me to carry out this
research in Tantura Lagoon; for this I thank George F. Bass, The
Meadows Foundation of Dallas, the Institute of Nautical Archae-
ology, and Texas A&M University.
The Materials for the History of Dor. New
The Harbor of the Sea Peoples at Dor.
Biblical Archaeologist 50: 118-126.
The Many Masters of Dor. Biblical
Archaeology Review 19/1: 22-31, 76, 78;
19/2: 18-29; 19/3: 38-49.
1994 Dor: Ruler of the Seas. Jerusalem.
Wachsmann, S. and K. Raveh
1984 A Concise Nautical History of Dor/
Tantura. International Journal of Nautical
Archaeology 13: 223-241.
- -- -.. -. r ---
Photo: K. Bowling
Conservator Norine Carroll commemorates the first joint INA/CMS
expedition on the sea van container that served as the expedition's
The Recanati Center for
by Stephen Breitstein
In 1960, a small group of divers founded the Israel Under-
sea Exploration Society (IUES) to conduct the first system-
atic survey of underwater archaeological sites, establish
guidelines for resource preservation, and encourage pub-
lic interest in the value of underwater archeological re-
search. Eleven years later, the directors of the IUES pro-
posed the establishment of the Center for Maritime Stud-
ies (CMS) as a means to offer academic training for ma-
rine archaeologists and historians in Israel. The CMS, along
with the Department of the History of Maritime Civiliza-
tions, opened in 1973. The curriculum of this department
is based on an interdisciplinary approach to the study of
maritime activity. It offers students the opportunity to pur-
sue classes in marine history, archaeology, geography, bi-
ology, geology, and geomorphology, as part of an M.A. de-
The CMS serves as the field research unit for faculty
and students of the Department of Maritime Civilizations
and for research staff indirectly connected to the depart-
ment. In 1973, the CMS established a workshop to serve
as a base for marine operations. This facility, known as
the University Maritime Workshop (UMW), was built at
the National Maritime Museum in downtown Haifa. To-
day, the UMW is the most advanced and best equipped
diving center in Israel. It is operated by a small but dedi-
cated staff that develops, maintains and adapts a broad
range of equipment for many research purposes. The
Workshop conducts field operations during about 150 days
of the year and devotes the remaining working days to
equipment development, maintenance and training.
Workshop personnel have invested significant thought into
making nearly every system "portable" so that their ser-
vices may be available to any research site in the field. The
role of the UMW has been to develop and maintain the
logistic and operational systems required by the research
objectives of the faculty and students in the Department
of Maritime Civilizations. Since 1973, the Workshop staff
has provided the operational support for nearly 50,000
hours of dive time at countless sites.
CMS research staff have conducted surveys and exca-
vations in dozens of sites along the Mediterranean and
Red Sea coasts. The list of sites studied includes Achziv,
Akko, Shikmona, Athlit, Ma'agan Michael, Caesarea, Ha-
INA Quarterly 22.2
dera, Tel Michal, Herzliya, Yaffo, and
Ashkelon on the Mediterranean and
Red Sea coasts as well as a wreck site
in the Sea of Galilee. This issue of the
INA Quarterly focuses on the newest
site on our list, Tantura Lagoon at Dor.
The CMS is also active in the field of
marine biology, but its activity in that
area is reported here only briefly.
CMS field research in marine biology
has included long-term studies on ar-
tificial reefs, fish breeding in offshore,
open water cages, and studies on lob-
sters and acoustic fishing.
The largest and longest project
undertaken by CMS has been the sur-
vey and excavation of the Roman har-
bor at Caesarea. This project, carried
out in cooperation with a group of
universities from the United States
and Canada, utilizes large teams of Fig. 1: An archaeolo
volunteer archaeologists from around surements of the M
the world. In 12 seasons of research, wreck.. This project
over 800 divers have participated in support from the U]
this project. Incorporating these large
groups of volunteers has been the key to completing the
large-scale excavation required by this site and is one of
the most important achievements of the Workshop staff.
Nearly 40,000 hours of bottom time have been carried out
on this site with no injury and little loss of equipment. The
ability to maintain this project with a minimum of down
time has been one of the keys to its scientific success.
The discovery of the Persian pe-
riod shipwreck at Ma'agan Michael
led to the development by the work-
shop staff of new technology for effi-
cient and cost effective excavation in
very shallow water. Notable among
several developments was the use of
a "sandbag retaining rampart," in-
stalled by divers around the wreck
site. This greatly reduced the flow of
sand onto the site and significantly re-
duced the time needed to uncover and
remove the wreck from the sea. The
operational experience gained at the
Ma'agan Michael site will be applied
to the Tantura Lagoon project. It was
the success of the Ma'agan Michael
excavation that encouraged Shelley
Wachsmann to initiate INA's collabo-
Photo: L Grinberg ration with the CMS (fig. 1). The Tan-
st takes timber mea- tura Lagoon project is a fine example
agan Michael ship- of the type of logistic support the Uni-
ew all of its logistic versity of Haifa's Maritime Workshop
/W. can place at the disposal of nautical
archaeologists anywhere in Israel.
Stephen Breitstein is the director of Operations of the CMS and
Head of the University Maritime Workshop staff. He received his
B.A. and M.A. degrees in History from UCLA and has had exten-
sive commercial diving training. He is a veteran diving instructor
and serves as the diving officer for most CMS field work.
A Preliminary Study of the Hull Remains
by Yaakov Kahanov and Stephen Breitstein
The preliminary study of the hull wood from the first sea-
son of renewed excavations in Tantura Lagoon suggests
some exciting possibilities for historical ship construction
theories. As far back as the fourteenth century B.C., as ev-
idenced by the Uluburun shipwreck, ancient Mediterra-
nean ships were constructed shell-first using pegged mor-
tise-and-tenon joints. The shell-first hull building tradi-
tion continued throughout Greek and Roman times. Al-
though both the fourth- and seventh-century A.D. Yassiada
vessels provide evidence for the beginning of the shell to
skeleton transition in the Mediterranean, neither was built
frame-first. At present, the earliest convincing evidence
for frame-first construction is provided by the 11th centu-
ry A.D. Serge Limaru wreck. The Tantura Lagoon ship-
wreck, however, may represent an earlier example of this
construction method. Further excavation and study are
needed to confirm the preliminary late Byzantine period
date for the Tantura Lagoon vessel. If the ship does in-
deed date to this time frame, and if future investigations
reveal no mortise-and-tenon joints, it will be the oldest
frame-first vessel known in the Mediterranean region.
For the 1994 season, our task was to relocate and re-
survey portions of the hull previously discovered by Shel-
ley Wachsmann. Six different areas were studied; in two
of them (Trenches IV and VI), about 60 m apart, divers
discovered shipwreck timbers and pottery. The pottery
[NA Quarterly 22.2
Drawing: K. Bowling and
Fig. 1: Two planks and two floor timbers were identified in Trench IV.
the drawing are nail holes marking probable frame positions, and t.
appearance of the ceiling planks at their northern extremity.
found below the wood dates to the Persian period (sixth-
fourth centuries B.C.), while that discovered above the
wood is Byzantine. We did not excavate any of the areas,
but instead limited ourselves to exposing wood that was
not covered by other artifacts. Except for some samples
taken for laboratory tests, none of the wood was removed.
In future seasons, we hope to discover more well-preserved
sections of the hull.
Over a 10 day period, we studied Trench IV and relo-
cated wood that had initially been exposed in 1983. Four
main elements were identified: remnants of two flat planks
parallel to each other, and two parallel, curved timbers,
perpendicular to the planks, which appear to be floor tim-
bers (fig. 1).
One plank has a preserved length of 2.76 m and a width
of 13 cm. The other is only slightly shorter in length, but is
much wider, with a maximum preserved width of 23 cm.
Both planks are 2.5 cm thick. They are made of soft, yel-
low wood that bears saw marks over the entire upper sur-
face of each plank. Signs of fire are evident on the eastern
ends of the planks. Parallel rows of nail holes running at
set distances across the width of both planks provide evi-
dence for the ship's framing pattern. Nails still attach the
planks to the upper surfaces of two of the frames. The
position of the planks indicates that they are the remnants
of the vessel's ceiling, or internal planking layer.
One of the two frame timbers to which the
ceiling planking is attached is quite well-pre-
served. while the other exists only as a frag-
ment. The well-preserved timber is 10 cm wide
and 15 cm thick and is curved to match the
shape of the hull. It contains a limber hole at
one end, indicating that it is probably a floor
9 timber. Both frame fragments are made of
hard, brown wood.
In Trench VI we discovered part of the keel
connected to one of the end posts, a knee, five
deteriorated frame fragments, and at least eight
planks. Our study of this area was interrupted
by a three-week-long storm, severely limiting
our recording time. For that reason, we con-
, centrated our efforts on the keel, post, and
frames (fig. 2).
The keel and post assembly is preserved
to a length of 6.47 m. It contains two scarfs,
the first a hook scarf at a point 3.5 m from the
end of the post. The second scarf may have
connected the post to the keel, but this is not
Syet certain, as the details are still hidden be-
R. Stdsng hind the garboards and beneath the sand. On
evi enh d n average, the keel is approximately molded
(high) 18 cm and sided (wide) 11 cm; these rela-
tively small dimensions suggest that this was
a small vessel. No sign of a rabbet was found
along the keel, nor was there any sign of a garboard at-
tachment to the keel. There is no false keel.
The post (we cannot be certain whether it is a stem or
stem post) awaits positive interpretation, but appears to
be made from two pieces. An outer piece, perhaps a gripe,
was molded (thick) only 6 cm on average; an inner post,
apron, or knee provided the rest of the thickness. The post
was sided about 9 cm. A rabbet, into which the ends of
the planking could be terminated more securely, com-
menced 13 cm beyond the post/keel scarf and continued
forward and upward for an unknown distance.
Five eroded frame fragments were found and num-
bered consecutively from east to west. We measured frame
1 (the longest) and part of frame 3 as representative
samples. On average, the frames were molded approxi-
mately 12 cm and sided 7.5 cm. Frame 3 appears to be
made out of two timbers, although the frame might have
been broken into two pieces after the ship sank. No rem-
nants of frames have yet been found to the north of the
keel, where they were cut or broken off flush at the north
face of the keel (fig. 3). The remaining frames continue
southward for about 1.3 m. Center-to-center distance be-
tween the surviving frame fragments is about 30 cm, and
concretions from nails at 30 cm intervals along the keel
mark the positions of frames that have disappeared. Each
frame was apparently attached to the keel by one iron nail.
INA Quarterly 22.2
Bigr M ick O0ec
iL.cn AM I.p m u -t
Top nVr *.....d
(lluctoels ts, uotlil
-----]- w ==^ = l == :::w
Drawing: R. Stidsing
Fig. 2: Preliminary plan of the hull section uncovered in Trench VI.
The floor timbers have a 1 cm recess cut into their under-
sides so that they could be fit over the keel. Square limber
holes 4 cm in diameter cut into the floor timbers allowed
water to circulate in the bottom of the hull. A cursory ex-
amination of frames 4 and 5 shows that they are curved in
a manner that gives the impression of poor quality wood
or wood that suffered considerable damage.
Remnants of eight planking strakes were found to the
south of the keel and one was found to the north; addi-
tional small pieces were discovered at the east end of the
trench. The ends of both the starboard and port garboards
were found near the post. In some places we found the
holes left by the nails that connected the planks to the
frames, three holes in each strake. The planks are fairly
narrow, with widths varying between 11 and 21.5 cm. Typi-
cal plank thickness is 2.5 cm.
As with the fragments from
Trench IV, signs of fire can be
seen everywhere, especially on
the east side. Near frame 3, we
identified remnants of a yellow
substance smeared on the inner
surfaces of the planks. This
may have been a resin or simi-
lar oily, protective material.
Near the connection of planks
to this frame we also noted a
putty which looked as if it
served to glue the planks to the
frame. We have found no evi-
dence of mortise-and-tenon Fig. 3: Floor climbers 1 (left
joints, frame-to-futtock scarfs, allowed water to flow freely
or plank scarfs, although some plank widths varied.
In conclusion, significant hull remains lie near and
beneath Byzantine pottery. This vessel seems to lack any
signs of mortise-and-tenon joints and suggests frame-first
construction. The general picture of the wreck site gives
the impression that the vessel suffered extensive damage
during or after the sinking. The surviving wood itself is :
well preserved. Only a small amount of teredo damage
can be seen and there are no signs of barnacles. The frames
are attached to the keel by means of one nail each. Planks
are narrow and thin and are connected to each frame with
several iron nails.
There are good reasons to believe that the timbers
found in Trenches IV and VI belongs to the same wreck.
The planks have similar dimensions and color, the frames
Drawing: R. Stidsing
t) and 3 (right). Note the square limber holes cut into them, which
in the bilge.
INA Quarterly 22.2
How Old is the Shipwreck from Tantura Lagoon? The Radiocarbon Evidence
by Yisrael Carmi and Dror Segal
Timbers from the Tantura Lagoon shipwreck have been dated by radiocarbon analysis. This method is applicable
to any archaeological material that contains carbon, such as wood. Radiocarbon, or carbon-14, is a very minor
constituent of carbon in the environment; of the three isotopes of carbon, the most abundant is carbon-12. Once
created, radiocarbon participates in the ongoing carbon cycle in the environment. It is assimilated in plants by
photosynthesis from the atmosphere. As long as a plant is living and inhaling carbon dioxide, the ratio of carbon-
12 to carbon-14 atoms in it remains constant. When a plant dies, however, this dynamic equilibrium process stops
and there is no further exchange of carbon between the plant and the environment. The radiocarbon clock begins
Radioactive carbon-14 decays at a stable rate in its transformation to non-radioactive nitrogen. In the atmo-
sphere, and in living organisms that continuously exchange carbon with the atmosphere as part of their biological
life processes, the number of carbon-14 atoms remains approximately constant. When an organism dies, however,
as occurs when a tree is cut for its wood, the biological exchange process stops and decay of carbon-14 proceeds
without replenishment from the atmospheric supply For any radioactive isotope, it is possible to measure its half-
life, or the time it would take for one-half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay to a stable form. The half-
life of carbon-14 is 5,700 years. Analysis of the ratios between carbon-14 and carbon-12 content within an archaeo-
logical sample can provide meaningful dates for organic materials.
Five separate radiocarbon tests were performed on wood samples from timbers discovered in Tantura Lagoon
in 1983 (RT-686A), 1985 (RT-801), and 1994 (RT-2162, 2163, and 2164). The final three tests analyzed wood from a
large splinter removed from the lower edge of the keel of the hull in Trench VI. The age of the shipwreck, aver-
aged over these five measurements, is 162025 ybp (years before present). The following dates were obtained
from the five samples:
Years Before Present (YBP)
Calendric Age (AD)
For samples RT-801 and RT-2162 there are two possible calendric age ranges with unequal weights (in parenthe-
sis) due to twists in the calibration curve. The two ranges are not combined because, in both cases, one of the
ranges has a very low probability in comparison to to the other.
The average date provided by carbon-14 analysis for the Tantura Lagoon timbers suggests that that the tim-
bers were cut between A.D. 415-530. Thus, radiocarbon dating furnishes a fifth or early sixth century date for the
shipwreck at Tantura Lagoon, and further confirms the theory that the scattered timbers in the lagoon belong to a
from both sites are also similar and are spaced the same
distance apart. Moreover, the method of attaching the
planks to the frames is the same in both areas and at both
sites, the wood is charred.
As stated above, we believe that the Tantura Lagoon
hull remains represent a small vessel that sank, perhaps in
the aftermath of a fire. Carbon-14 testing has dated this
shipwreck to the late Byzantine period (see box above).
This date is supported by the finds of Byzantine pottery in
and around the hull. Further analysis is still needed, but
if this date is accurate it raises fascinating possibilities for
refining our knowledge of ancient hull construction. INA
professor emeritus J. Richard Steffy has suggested that the
date for the introduction of frame-first construction should
be moved back. The shipwreck at Tantura Lagoon may
provide the first concrete evidence for this suggestion. It
may be the earliest seagoing ship yet found in the Medi-
terranean that was built without mortise-and-tenon joints.
It apparently predates the Yassiada seventh-century ship-
wreck, in which there are still some unpegged mortise-
and-tenon joints. We look forward to recording the hull in
more detail during the coming seasons of excavation (fig.
INA Quarterly 22.2
Bass, G.F and EH. van Dooninck, Jr.
1971 A Fourth-Century Shipwreck at Yassi Ada.
American Journal of Archaeology 75: 27-37,
Photo: S. Wachsmann
Fig. 4: Team member Andrew Lacavera cleans and records the
portion of the hull discovered during the 1994 campaign. Note
that frames are missing from the hull planking in the fore-
4). Only after detailed recording is complete will we be
able to say for sure whether this enigmatic vessel is in-
deed the oldest known ship constructed without mortise-
and-tennon joints in the Mediterranean.
Acknowledgements. We wish to thank Kyra Bowling for her part
in collecting field data on the hull and for her assistance in the
preparation of the illustrations.
by Patricia Sibella
During the 1994 season, we excavated six trenches (I-VI)
of varying size through the thick sand that blankets Tantura
Lagoon. In the course of these soundings some 140 m2 of
sea bed were excavated to approximately 2.5 m beneath
sea level, the depth at which the two hull sections studied
in 1994 lay. Significant amounts of pottery from various
periods were discovered, suggestive of the cove's rich mari-
time history. In all, we recovered and recorded 413 ce-
Of this pottery, I examined 79 sherds and seven frag-
mentary, but nearly complete, Palestinian bag-shaped am-
phoras dating from the later part of the Byzantine period.
These were left in situ for later removal. The majority of
the ceramics discovered represent well-known amphora
types ranging in date from Middle Bronze II (ca. 2000-1550
B.C.) to the Late Byzantine period. The following is a pre-
liminary evaluation of this material.
One of the first surprises of the excavation was the
recovery of two Middle Bronze II sherds of Cypriot White
The Reconstruction of the 11th century
Serqe Limani Vessel: A Preliminary
Report. International Journal of Nautical
Archaeology 11: 13-34.
Wooden Ship Building and the Interpretation of
Shipwrecks. College Station.
van Doorninck, F.H.
1982 The Hull. In: Yassi Ada I. Eds. G. E Bass
and F H. van Doorninck, Jr. College Station:
Yaakov Kahanov is the conservator and hull recorder of the Ma'agan
Michael ship which is now completing conservation at the Univer-
sity of Haifa. He is a lecturer in Ancient Ship Construction in the
Department of Maritime Civilizations at the University of Haifa.
Drawing: P. Sibella
Fig. 1: Cypriot sherd from the Middle Bronze II period.
Painted Ware with decorative patterns (fig. 1). The Per-
sian period (538-332 B.C.) is represented by two amphora
types widely distributed from northern Palestine to the
eastern Mediterranean shores including Cyprus, Rhodes,
and southern Anatolia. The first is a descendant of an Iron
Age II jar (1000-586 B.C.; fig. 2: A). It is characterized by a
biconical body that tapers to a pointed base, and a neckless
mouth consisting of a thick, straight sided rim. Broad,
INA Quarterly 22.2
Drawing: P. Sibella
Fig. 2: Reconstructed amphoras. A. Persian period amphora. B. Basket-handled amphora. C. Palestinian bag-shaped amphora. D. Gaza
amphora. E. Hourglass-shaped amphora.
straight shoulders form a sharp angle with the body, and
a pair of ear-handles are attached from the shoulder to the
upper body. The Tantura Lagoon examples have the high
and wide waist, typical of jars from the sixth to fourth cen-
turies B.C. One fragmentary example still retained its mud-
like bung in place (fig. 3).
The second amphora type is represented only by a toe
and the upper halves of two separate jars (fig. 2: B). Large
basket handles are attached to the shoulder, extending well
above a short neck capped by an everted rim; the cylindri-
cal body tapers to a stump toe. Although basket-handled
jars range in date from the seventh to the fourth centuries
B.C., the Tantura Lagoon examples seem to belong to the
later types. That this jar appears to be contemporaneous
with the first type may suggest that both are part of the
cargo of a yet undiscovered shipwreck in the lagoon.
Fig. 3: Bung of a Perstan amphora, associated with a wooden an-
Many vessels, including three types of amphoras, date
to the Byzantine period. Of the amphoras, the most fre-
quently encountered type is the Palestinian bag-shaped
transport jar (fig. 2: C). It has a lengthy history, beginning
as early as the second half of the first century B.C. and con-
tinuing up to the eighth century A.D. The jars may pos-
sess a variety of rim profiles and fabrics, the latter ranging
from sandy-buff to reddish, to gray with a reddish core.
Main features include a collar rim, narrow sloping shoul-
ders, ring handles on the upper part of the body, a rounded
bottom, and combing on the exterior of the body. The
combing patterns may be due to the use of combs with
different profiles. Some late examples have white-painted
decoration of criss-crossing wavy and curled lines (fig. 4).
They are found on virtually every site in Palestine in great
numbers. Outside Palestine, they have been found west
of the Black Sea, on land and under water in Turkey, Egypt,
North Africa, Cyprus, and Greece. The Tantura examples,
with their buff-red fabric, represent a type that occurs in
southern Palestine in the later centuries of the Byzantine
period, differing from those found in northern Palestine,
which have distinctly carinated shoulders and grayish fab-
The majority of the amphora sherds are lined with
pitch or resin, suggesting that some originally contained
wine. An incomplete amphora from Trench III was filled
with an unidentified organic material. A second bag-
shaped amphora of buff-reddish fabric from Trench IV con-
tains an unidentified brownish, semi-liquid substance.
Contents of both jars have been sampled for analysis, the
results of which are pending.
A second Byzantine amphora type, commonly known
as the Gaza jar, has a cigar-shaped body, ear-handles on its
INA Quarterly 22.2
Photo: K. B
Fig. 4: White-painted Palestinian bag-shaped amphora on the seafl
rounded shoulder, a small everted rim, and a pointed base,
which in some examples may be somewhat flattened (fig.
2: D). The smooth fabric is thick and light-brownish grey
to buff-brown in color. The body is combed on the shoul-
der, with some examples showing prominent zones of
combed lines alternating with widely-spaced blank re-
gions; combing may also cover the lower body and base.
This type has been found both on land and under water in
the entire Mediterranean basin, including France, Spain,
north Africa, north and west of the Black Sea, other areas
such as Nubia, and as far north as England. While the
general shape dates from the third to the late sixth centu-
ries A.D., those from Tantura are of the latest types. They
almost certainly were used for transporting the acclaimed
white wines of Gaza and Ashkelon, the fame of which may
have been due more to the wine's use in non-culinary pur-
poses than for its taste. In A.D. 324, when Emperor
Constantine proclaimed Christianity as the official religion
of Byzantium, pilgrims flocked to the Holy Land in quest
of relics and souvenirs; for them, Gaza wine was a popu-
lar commodity. Fifth- and sixth-century writers from the
western Mediterranean and Constantinople praised the
wines of Gaza; Gregory of Tours related its use for the Eu-
charists in Lyons. Gaza wine also was sought out for its
The upper half of yet another amphora type was found
in Trench I (fig. 2: E). This type, representing the second
most common jar on the seventh-century A.D. shipwreck
at Yassiada, has an hourglass-shaped body, a long neck, a
thickened rim with a slightly convex profile, a rounded
base with a small central button, and crudely fash-
ioned, double-ridged handles extending vertically
from below the rim to the shoulder. The body is
covered with pronounced ridges. A red dipinto
is painted on the shoulder of the Tantura example
(fig. 5); dipinti also have been found on examples
from Carthage and Istanbul (Sarachane). This
type is the most common and most widely trav-
eled amphora class of the sixth and seventh cen-
turies. Outside of the Mediterranean, it is found
in Nubia, the Black Sea and England. Cyprus or
Asia Minor (more specifically the region of
Antioch) have been proposed as its source.
Several amphoras show signs of reuse. Three
Palestinian bag-shaped amphoras from Trench IV
have damaged rims, almost certainly caused
when their stoppers were pried out. One jar con-
tained fig and grape seeds and an olive pit em-
bedded in its resinous lining. We hope that fu-
ture study will reveal whether these seeds are in-
trusive or represent remains of the jar's previous
'oor. The only amphora stopper found in the exca-
vation, made from a bag-shaped-amphora sherd,
had been fashioned into a roughly circular shape. This
method of sealing is well attested on the Yassiada Byzan-
tine wreck, where 165 such stoppers were recovered. The
near absence of amphora stoppers at Tantura suggests that
the jars probably were sealed with perishable materials.
A shallow, flat- based, conical jar lid (fig. 6) with a high
central knob similar to two found on the Yassiada seventh-
century shipwreck may have served as a cover to a large-
mouthed jar. Another close parallel for these lids comes
from the seventh-century A.D. deposit at Sarachane in
Only three sherds of Byzantine fine wares, ranging in
color from light brown to light orange and covered with a
Drawing P. Sibella
Fig. 5: Red dipinto painted on the shoulder panel of an amphora.
INA Quarterly 22.2
0 1 2 an
rhoto: V. Bryant
Fig. 6: Byzantine jar lid.
red slip, were discovered; all came from Trench I. Two are
from globular vessels, while the third belongs to a deep,
open bowl. The last sherd is incised with a pair of inter-
secting parallel lines made while the clay was still soft.
Four fragments of an Eastern sigillata plate came from
the southern end of Trench IV. Their buff-colored, well levi-
gated fabric is red-slipped on both surfaces. Plates of this
type are common throughout the eastern Mediterranean
during the sixth to seventh centuries, and probably are of
Syrian origin. Also found were two deep dishes with
straight sides, beveled rims, and a pair of twisted and up-
lifted horizontal handles, which date them to the end of
the sixth century. Known as casseroles, these pots were used
to improve the flavor of pre-cooked foods by simmering,
and for stewing and steaming meats and vegetables.
We found a total of sixteen pantile fragments in
Trenches I and III. Their fabric varies from sandy buff to
orange in color, and rims display a rectangular or rounded
profile. If these tiles are associated with the shipwreck
found in nearby trenches, they may have been used for a
roof over the ship's galley, as is reconstructed for the sev-
enth-century ship at Yassiada.
The unstratified nature of the Tantura Lagoon material
creates problems in interpretation. At times, we found
objects separated in time by as much as two and a half
millennia lying alongside each other, making it extremely
difficult to understand the excavated material. Byzantine
pottery, however, predominated in every trench, and con-
stituted approximately two-thirds of all uncovered sherds.
The bulk of the remaining pottery dates to the Persian pe-
riod. Trench IV, which yielded the smaller hull section, was
the only area where complete or nearly-complete bag-
shaped amphoras were found. Trench V yielded mixed
materials varying in date from the Middle Bronze II, Per-
sian, and Byzantine periods. The assemblage from Trench
VI, which contains the major hull section, presents the same
confusing occurrence of both Persian and Byzantine ma-
terial. Although both the bulk of Persian and Byzantine
finds appears to represent a homogeneous assemblage of
mostly transport jars, at this early stage of investigation it
is nearly impossible to ascertain whether they belong to
two or more shipwrecked cargos. The several small Byz-
antine sherds found embedded in the mastic on the ship's
hull, however, suggest that the seemingly homogeneous
and closely dated Byzantine ceramics (comprising prima-
rily amphoras and galley wares) are associated with the
Tantura Lagoon wreck. If such is the case, then we have
before us a unique opportunity to document the cargo of a
specific ship that sank as the Byzantine period was com-
ing to a close in the Holy Land.
Bass, G.E and FH. van Doominck, Jr.
1982 Yassi Ada. A Seventh-Century Byzantine
Shipwreck. College Station, Texas.
D&roche, V. and Speiser, J.M. Eds.
Recherches sur la ceramique byzantine.
BCH Suppldment XIII.
Levantine Storage Jars of the 13th to 4th c.
B.C. Opuscula Atheniensia 14.: 73-110.
Material Culture of the Land of the Bible in the
Persian Period 538-332 B.C. Warminster.
Storage Jars in Ancient Sea Trade. Haifa.
Patricia Sibella is an independent research archeologist specializ-
ing in ancient ceramics. She has worked on INA projects since
1991, most recently as the Staff Ceramicistfor the Tantura Lagoon
INA Quarterly 22.2
by William H. Charlton, Jr.
Rope was used on ancient ships for all manner of work:
tying!and binding, securing cargo, raising sails, and low-
ering the anchor. The cordage carried and used aboard
seagoing vessels would have varied greatly in size and
style, from small string to large, hawser-sized rope. Most
ancient shipwreck sites in the Mediterranean, however,
have yielded only small fragments of rope, providing few
hints about the types of cordage the ships would have car-
ried. The recent excavation of the Ma'agan Michael ship-
wreck, dating to ca. 400 B.C., only a few kilometers south
of Tantura Lagoon, presented unusually good preserva-
tion of rope and other organic materials and has given a
much truer picture of the types of cordage a ship's rope
locker would have contained. It was with this knowledge
that I anticipated the excavation at Tantura Lagoon, hop-
ing for similar preservation of rope on the Byzantine pe-
riod shipwreck remains there.
We discovered rope remains in two of our excavated
trenches in Tantura Lagoon: two interesting concentrations
in Trench IV, as well as two individual pieces near the keel
in Trench VI. Although storms prevented us from com-
pletely excavating any of the rope, we were able to re-
trieve two samples, one loose piece from each trench, for
submission to Carmela Shimoni of the Israel Fiber Insti-
tute for species identification. Knowing the species of plant
from which a ship's rope was made may aid in determin-
ing the ship's route of travel, and possibly even its origin.
The species identification testing had not been completed
in time for this publication.
AI L.LU. o LTUvWUIV
Fig. 1: Rope and basket remnants from south side of Trench IV,
On the south side of Trench IV we discovered a par-
ticularly interesting concentration of rope (fig. 1). Cover-
ing an area approximately 30 cm by 50 cm were a number
of short lengths of rope 40 mm in diameter that appeared
to be parts of rope coils, possibly stored inside a straw bas-
ket. Woven straw basket material adhering to a rock adja-
cent to the rope may continue down and under the rope.
This woven material was held in place by what may be
hardened resin spilled from broken amphoras and similar
to that discovered in other areas of Trench IV
On the northern side of Trench IV we discovered short
lengths of rope in two different sizes, 12 mm and 30 mm
in diameter, intertwined and apparently wrapped around
what appeared to be straw matting. One piece appeared
to end in a part of a knot. The rope in this area may have
been used to secure breakable items, possibly amphoras
that were padded with straw matting.
In Trench VI, wedged between our shipwreck's keel
(dated by radiocarbon tests to the fifth of early sixth cen-
turies A.D.) and a stone anchor stock from about a
millennium earlier, was a piece of rope approximately 25
mm in diameter, but of undetermined length (see p. 6, fig.
7). Not until we are able to remove the hull remains will
we be able to determine this piece's length and, more in-
terestingly, its context. Is it associated with the Byzantine
hull, or the earlier stone anchor stock? In Trench VI we.
also found a piece of 18 mm diameter rope approximately
50 mm in length resting in open sand on the northeast side
of the post, near the ends of the burned planking.
In future excavation seasons we hope to learn much
more about the rope in Tantura Lagoon, and perhaps find
examples of the knots used to secure these ropes. Few
knots from ancient times have been found, even fewer ref-
erences to specific knots occur in ancient literature. Any
knots we are able to find in Tantura Lagoon will contrib-
ute to a little known aspect of seafaring in this period.
In Press. The Rope and Lashings. Ma'agan Michael
Shipwreck Final Report.
1953 The Arts of the Sailor. New York.
William H. Charlton is a Nautical Archaeology Program graduate
student at Texas A&M University and INA's Divemaster. His M.A.
thesis will be titled, "Rope and the Art of Knot-Tying in the Seafar-
ing of the Ancient Eastern Mediterranean."
INA Quarterly 22.2
Preliminary Pollen Analysis of Sediments
Collected from Tantura Lagoon
by Vaughn M. Bryant
Fossil pollen found at the shipwreck
site in Tantura Lagoon, Israel, may pro-
vide a wealth of information about the
sunken ship, its cargo, and perhaps
even its original home port. All of this
is possible because pollen and spores
are dispersed in great quantities and
their airborne mixture becomes a plant
"Fingerprint" of each specific locale. In
addition, other pollen often becomes
incorporated with the seeds or fruits
of a plant when those products are
picked and stored for later use. Other
reasons that pollen studies prove use-
ful is that certain plants tend to grow
best in specific geographical locations,
thus their pollen and spores become
the dominant types found in the "fin-
gerprints" of those regions. Pollen and
spores are also very durable, and can
remain preserved for millions of years i
During the summer of 1994, I examine
pies that had been collected in Tantura L
1980's from the innermost bottom portion
od ceramic vessels. Preliminary indication:
ysis suggest that at least some of the fos
those vessels may represent the remnant
organic materials originally stored in the
I discovered that most of the pollen ar
samples was poorly preserved, and t
amount of fossil pollen was very low.
aspects surprised me because pollen pr
always ideal in some types of marine env
I found that many of the pollen types in
pies came from plants that produce ver
types, or from plants that produced poll
so uniquely distinctive in shape and de
they become highly degraded, they are s
Both of these findings, combined with th
different pollen types, suggest that fossil
tion in the lagoon environment is margi
ertheless, I am hoping that even the p
amounts of pollen may give us some p
nation about the ship's cargo.
Some of the fossil pollen types we fo
-i'. t;IP i.-
: 4 *:
in some types of few samples included: fir (Abies); pine (Pinus); oak (Quer-
Photos: V Bryant
Fig. 1 (left): Fossil barley or wheat pollen.
Fig. 2 (right): Fossil pollen frorn a PersLa n lar,
including: umbell, fern spore, and unidenht-
in some types of few samples included: fir (Abies); pine (Pinus); oak (Quer-
cus); a variety of different grasses (Poaceae), including some
ed six pollen sam- from cultivated cereals such as wheat (Triticum) and bar-
agoon during the ley (Hordeum); sumac (Rhus); olive (Olea); grape (Vitis); wil-
n of Persian peri- low (Salix); hornbeam (Corylus); plantain (Plantago); sev-
ns from that anal- eral types of umbells (Apiaceae), weedy plants that also
ssilized polleh in include certain types used for food and spices; composites
s of decomposed (Asteraceae), including at least three types of dandelions;
?m. and several types of chenopods (Chenopodiaceae), weedy
id spores in those plants that grow well in disturbed areas and trash dumps
he overall total often found near harbors (figs. 1, 2). In addition to the
Neither of these pollen, some of the same ceramic vessels also contained
reservation is not grape seeds and olive pits, confirming that at least these
ironments. Also, two food types may have been stored in some of the ce-
these initial sam- ramic vessels as either cargo or food and drink for the crew.
y durable pollen The initial pollen studies of these samples are not com-
en grains that are plete, yet they show the potential for recovering data from
sign that even if this type of study. Based on this realization, I traveled to
till recognizable. Israel in November of 1994 to assist the excavation crew in
-e low number of identifying and collecting additional samples for contin-
pollen preserva- ued fossil pollen studies from the wreck site.
nal at best. Nev- A number of new fossil pollen samples were collected
presence of small from the inside portions of ceramic jars, and from pitch or
preliminary infor- resin that was adhering to various ceramic containers
found during the excavation. When I returned to Texas
und in those first A&M University, we began processing the new samples
INA Quanerly 22 2
in hope of finding fossil pollen that might provide addi-
tional clues about the wreck site and its contents. Our
analysis, however, has been hindered by a new set of per-
plexing problems. All of the samples collected during the
1994 season contain tiny particles of resin or terebinth, that
have proven difficult to dissolve or remove from the sam-
ples. To date, we have not succeeded in removing enough
of this debris to analyze the remaining fossil pollen. We
remain hopeful that this is only a temporary setback and
that the problem soon will be resolved.
At present we are continuing our study of the pollen
recovered in the original set of samples, we are searching
for new ways to dissolve or remove the resins from our
1994 samples, and soon we will begin examining other
types of botanical samples collected from the wreck site.
We are hopeful that these studies will be able to provide
another avenue of data for understanding the sunken
wreck, its cargo, and perhaps even its port of origin.
Bryant, V.M. and R.E. Murray
1982 Preliminary Analysis of Amphora Contents.
In: Yassi Ada I. Eds. G.E Bass and .H. van
Doorninck. College Station: 327-331.
1990 Shipwrecked Plant Remains. Biblical
Archaeologist 53.1: 55-60.
Organic Goods from the Ulu Burun Wreck.
INA Newsletter 18.4: 11.
Vaughn M. Bryant is Head of Texas A&M University's Depart-
ment of Anthropology and a noted paleoethnobotanist.
Notes on the Architectural Marble
by Patricia Sibella
During the 1994 expedition, a number of marble architec-
tural elements were uncovered together with the Byzan-
tine pottery in Tantura Lagoon. This is hardly surprising.
Following the adoption of Christianity as the state re-
ligion of the Roman Empire by Constantine the Great,
churches became an important architectural form. As
Christianity spread and received official recogni-
tion, many churches were erected. When possible,
they were adorned with architectural elements.
During the Byzantine period, ships sailed to near
and far horizons, transporting marble in their hulls
for churches. Judging by the number of marble
wrecks (Mahdia, Crotone region, Marzamemi, St.
Pietro, and Methone, near Izmir) found in the
Mediterranean, it is clear that architectural ele-
ments were a cargo item during the Byzantine Pe-
riod. As marble is not found naturally in Israel, all
of it had to be imported, primarily if not entirely,
Identifying the sources from which marble
components were quarried can provide valuable
information about trade patterns, as well as for
economic studies and art history. Determining
these sources is not easily done, however. Visual
inspection may be deceptive, particularly if the
marble is weathered. Furthermore, marble speci-
mens with identical or nearly identical character-
istics may originate from different quarries. Several meth-
ods of scientific analysis must be employed to determine:
the origins of marble. These include petrographic,
geochemical, and isotopic analysis, as well as electronic
resonance testing. Any one of the methods alone is insuf-
ficient to allow us to assign marble to a particular source.
Photo: V. Bryant
Fig. 1: Marble architectural fragments.
INA Quarterly 22.2
As research has only begun on the marble we uncovered
in Tantura Lagoon, the following comments should be con-
sidered a preliminary overview of the material.
Marble architectural elements were uncovered in three
different trenches: a broken column, column base, and two
fragments of mosaic pavement were found in Trench III;
Trench IV contained another fragment of pavement and a
slab (see p. 4, fig. 3); Trench VI contained two slabs and
four small fragments. One of these is probably a piece of a
panel. The other three are unidentified thus far (fig. 1).
The slabs are the most generic type of marble product.
Those from Tantura are made of fine, white marble with
dark-blue, longitudinal veinings.
The column is in two pieces measuring 93 cm and 1.04
m in length and 22 cm in diameter (fig. 2). It is of a fine
marble with well-polished surfaces. The quality of the
marble, which is white with faint gray veins, may indicate
that it was quarried on the island of Proconnesus, in the
Sea of Marmara near Istanbul, but this is far from certain.
Similar columns may be seen in the entrance to the Church
of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
The column base is approximately 45 cm in diameter
and is composed of a coarser, gray marble. During the
Byzantine Period, marble elements were often transported
in an unfinished state and completed on site. However, a
similar base from Ephesus (St. John) in Turkey seems to
have been used intentionally in its rough, unfinished state,
either to emphasize a contrast with its well-polished shaft,
or to suggest a particular aspect evoked by the toolmarks.
We also found fragments of mosaic pavement consist-
ing of white, gray, and ivory-colored tesserae set in a gray-
ish mortar made of two distinct layers. The first, or upper
layer, is the setting bed and is composed of fine plaster
with few visible inclusions. The second
layer is coarser. The tesserae are of aver-
age size, and are set level with the bed-
The marble that we uncovered may
derive from structures on shore, or on one
of the islands enclosing the lagoon as, for
example, must be the case with the frag-
ments of mosaic pavement. However, the
column and base were found together
with the Late Byzantine ceramics near
Trench VI, where the main section of a
ship's hull was uncovered. This would
argue for the marble having been carried
by the ship. Also, two of the marble slabs
were found with this hull, and another
slab was associated with the hull fragment
in Trench IV. Many of the elements do not
appear to have been used, further sup-
porting the possibility that they were
brought by ship.
A Christian basilica was located northeast of the la-
goon. This edifice sat on the main coastal road and served
as a way station for pilgrims traveling from Egypt to Syria
and Anatolia. It was erected in the fourth century and
completely rebuilt at some point in the Byzantine Period;
the marble from the lagoon could be related to either the
original construction or reconstruction of this structure.
Plans for the next field season include raising of se-
lected marble elements for more detailed study. Samples
will be taken and submitted for scientific analysis. It is
hoped that information derived from this will enable us to
identify the source or sources for the material, and con-
tribute to the overall picture of marble trade during this
Dodge, H. and J.B. Ward-Perkins, Eds.
1992 Marble in Antiquity. Archaeological
Monographs of the British School at Rome 6.
Monna, D. and P. Pensabene
1977 Marmi dell'Asia Minore. Rome.
Throckmorton, P. and A.J. Parker
1987 Byzantine Ships. In: The Sea Remembers. Ed.
P. Throckmorton. London: 84-91.
van Dooninck, F.H.,
1972 Byzantium, Mistress of the Sea: 330-641. In:
A History ofSearfaring Based on Underwater
Archaeology. Ed. G.F. Bass. London: 134-158.
Fig. 2: Marble column and base found in Trench III
INA Quarterly 22.2
This summer, INA will conduct the
first season of a multi-year project to
excavate a ninth-century A.D. vessel
near Bozburun, Turkey. INA President
Fred Hocker will supervise this exca-
vation, with long-time INA staff mem-
ber Sheila Matthews as Assistant Di-
rector under the overall direction of
George Bass, who discovered the site
in 1973. The first part of the season
will be spent conducting a pre-distur-
bance survey and mapping the site.
Afterwards, excavation will begin,
using Direct Survey Measurement
(DSM) and computer-aided drafting to
record the location of each artifact.
INA staff members Don Frey,
Robin Piercy, and Tufan Turanh will
join the excavation team, as will INA
adjunct professor Faith Hentschel and
hyperbaric specialists David Perlman
and Tommy Love. Turkish archeolo-
gist Nergis Gunsenin of Istanbul Uni-
versity will bring several of her stu-
dents to assist in the excavation.
Bilkent University archaeology stu-
dents Tugba Tanyeri and Cagdas
Oralkan, and Istanbul University stu-
dent Ozlem Buyuran will also
work in the field. Texas A&M
University graduate students
will be well represented by Bill
Charlton, Clive Chapman,
Jaynie Cox, Gregory Gidden,
David Johnson, Brian Jordan,
Christine Powell, Matthew
Pridemore, Jeff Royal, Michael
Scafuri, David Stewart, and
Steven Thornton, from the Nau-
tical Archaeology Program, and
Georgia Fox, from the Depart-
ment of Anthropology.
Bodrum Museum Fig.
Cemal Pulak, INA Vice Presi- Ma
dent and Mr. and Mrs. Ray H. gate
Siegfried II Graduate Fellow, tion
will direct a six-month research com
In the Field
program devoted to the material from
the Bronze. Age shipwreck at
Uluburun. Archaeologists Michael
Fitzgerald, Faith Hentschel, Patricia
Sibella, Mark Smith, and Nautical Ar-
chaeology Program student Edward
Rogers will continue the documenta-
tion and study of the wooden hull re-
mains, Canaanite amphoras, copper
oxhide ingots, and pan-balance
George Bass will continue his
work on the glass from the eleventh-
century Serge Limaru wreck with an
international team of archaeologists.
Fred van Doorninck will also be in
Bodrum studying the amphoras from
the Serqe Limam shipwreck.
Nautical Archaeology Program
graduate students Glenn Grieco and
Taras Pevny, and INA benefactor John
DeLapa will continue their work on
the replica of the seventh-century ship-
wreck discovered at Yassiada.
Sadana Island Excavation
Under the direction of Cheryl and
Douglas Haldane, INA-Egypt will
begin the excavation of a seventeenth-
rnoto: u. rnai
1: Renovation of the outbuildings at the Alexar
ritime Museum began with the installation of a
* donated by the Alexandria Businessmen's Ass,
. The first wet objects to be treated in the lab
from INA-Egypt's Sadana Island shipwreck e
on this summer
century shipwreck in the Red Sea. The
wreck, discovered during INA-
Egypt's Red Sea Survey in 1994, con-
tains a diverse cargo that includes
Chinese porcelain, glass case bottles
(used for liquor), and numerous ex-
amples of coarseware ceramics. The
excavation team will comprise a joint
staff of American and Egyptian archae-
ologists. Texas A&M Nautical Archae-
ology Program graduate students
Elizabeth Greene (Assistant Director),
Alan Flanigan, Layne Hedrick, Peter
Hitchcock, and Christopher Stephens
will accompany Egyptians Emad
Khalil, Ashraf Hanna, Sameh Ramses,
Mohammed Sayed, Moham-med
Mustafa, and Mohammed Mah-rous el
Moselhy, who will be the conservator.
Kendra Burnett and Netia Piercy will
serve as illustrators for the project.
Marston Morgan, of the American
University in Cairo, will also join the
After the excavation season, which
will run from June through the end of
August, all raised artifacts will be
taken to the Alexandria Maritime Mu-
seum for conservation. The new con-
servation laboratory for water-
logged materials has been jointly
planned by the Supreme Coun-
cil for Antiquities and INA-
Egypt, with the assistance of ar-
chitects from Bechtel (fig. 1). A
$24,999 grant requested from the
Egyptian Antiquities Project
(funded by USAID) will support
the cost of creating storage, treat-
ment, and documentation facili-
ties on museum grounds.
dane In July of 1995 a five-week field
ddria school on Lake Champlain will
new explore the remains of two War
3cia- of 1812 vessels sunk near
will Whitehall, New York. These ves-
'xca- sels, a 75-foot U.S. Navy gun-
INA Quarterly 22.2
boat, or "row galley,"and the 16-gun
Royal Navy brig Linnet, participated
in the decisive Battle of Plattsburgh
Bay on September 11, 1814. The project
will be co-directed by Kevin Crisman
and Arthur Cohn, and will be assisted
by Texas A&M University students
Erika Washburn, Steven Butler, Eric
Emery, and Erich Heinold. The project
is being jointly sponsored by the In-
stitute of Nautical Archaeology, Texas
A&M University, the Lake Champlain
Maritime Museum, the University of
Vermont, the Vermont Division for
Historic Preservation, and the U.S.
Navy Depart-ment's Legacy Program.
Albanian Coastal Survey
INA Research Associate Peter van
Alfen will join a team of Albanian and
American archaeologists and marine
scientists in a survey of the southern
coast of Albania this summer. The
American contingent of the project is
headed by former INA director
Sumner Gerard and Dr. John Gifford
of the Rosensteil School of Marine and
Atmospheric Sciences at the Univer-
sity of Miami.
Monte Christi Shipwreck Project
Archaeologists from the Pan-Ameri-
can Institute of Archaeology (PIMA)
will return to Isla Cabrita off the north-
ern coast of the Dominican Re-
public to participate in the fifth
field season of the Monte Christi
Shipwreck Excavation. Texas
A&M Nautical Archaeology Pro-
gram Ph.D. candidate Jerome
Hall will be accompanied by Pro-
gram graduate Tina Erwin and
students Anne Lessmarn, Greg
Leibrand, and Richard Wills,
who will return as excavation di-
rector. Texas A&M University
Anthropology student Courtney
Carter will also join the team.
Cape Neddick River Project
This summer, graduate student
Stefan Hans Claesson, from the
Nautical Archaeology Program
at Texas A&M University, will ex-
cavate a late eighteenth-century
fishing schooner in the tidal flat
of Cape Neddick River in South-
ern Maine (fig. 2). Due to the ac-
cumulation of sediment in the
river and harbor of Cape Ned-
dick, hundreds of years of mari-
time history have been pre-
served. Results of the Cape
Neddick River Project will be
presented to the public at the Old
York Historical Society in York,
Maine on July 25, 1995.
Photo: S. Claesson
Fig. 2. Timbers from the late eighteenth-century fishing schooner in Cape Neddick
(continued from page 23)
part of a vision for greater INA in-
volvement in Israel. At the same time,
he is enthusiastic about the growing
diversity of INA projects and hopes to
see the trend continue.
Harry's interests are not limited to
nautical archaeology. He is a collector
of Chihuly glass sculpture, as well as
African art, a collection of which he
donated to Grinnell College. He and
Joan are involved in several museums
and art centers and are currently lead-
ing the drive to build a major cultural
center in southeastern Pennsylvania.
They support local hospitals and nurs-
ing homes, have created a foundation
to assist victims of accidents and di-
saster, and opened a home to help sup-
port displaced older women.
As George Bass notes, "They de-
fine kindness for others."
Institute of Nautical Archaeology
P.O. Drawer HG
College Station, TX 77841-5137
Learn firsthand of the latest discov-
eries in nautical archaeology. Mem-
bers receive the INA Quarterly, sci-
entific reports, and book discounts.
Regular ........... $30
Contributor ........ $50
Supporter ........ $100
Benefactor ....... $1000
Student/ Retired ... $20
Checks in U.S. currency should be made
payable to INA. The portion of any
donation in excess of $10.00 is a tax-de-
ductible, charitable contribution.
INA Quarterly 22 2
Harry C. Kahn II
To talk about underwater archaeology with Harry
Kahn of the INA Board of Directors is an exhilerating ex-
perience. Even through the phone line, across 1500 miles,
his palpable enthusiasm can sweep you up. Harry, as he
repeatedly requested I call him, describes himself as some-
one who wants to "try to make things happen Over the
past 23 years his support and energy have helped INA
grow into a world-class research institution.
Harry Kahn's interest in underwater archaeology goes
back decades. Following Explorers Club meetings, Harry,
Jacques Cousteau, and long-time friend James Dugan, who
wrote for Cousteau, would gather with their wives for late-
night talks about underwater exploration (Ruth Dugan has
been a member of INA since its inception) In 1960, Harry
attended a lecture on archaeology presented to an organi-
zation of Philadelphia businessmen by George Bass, a new
doctoral student at the University of Pennsylvania They
chatted briefly Shortly thereafter their paths crossed again
at a party given by David Stith, Dr. Bass's instructor in the
diving course he was taking in preparation for his first
underwater project, at Cape Gelidonya, Turkey, a site dis-
covered by Peter Throckmorton. For his work in Greece
and Italy that followed, Peter needed a research vessel,
and Harry Kahn helped finance Peter's purchase and over-
haul of Stormnie Seas, a beautiful sailing vessel. Harry's com-
mitment to nautical archaeology was confirmed
Twelve years after first meeting George Bass, i-larry
attended another lecture given by George, this time on un-
derwater archaeology. Harry enthusiastically offered his
support to further George's research and was surprised to
hear that George was planning to form a private institute
of nautical archaeology. Invited to the fledgling institute's
initial organizational meeting in the spring of 1973, Harry
was elected a founding member of its board of directors
Harrs has contributed much more than financial sup-
port; he has freely shared his infection powsiti e attitude
with the institute and its archaeologists in the field.
"' alwvavs love to see Harry and Joan at our projects,
Dr. Bass told me when I interviewed him for this profile
"You juit don't meet nicer or more supportive people."
H :-rv' and his wife Joan have traveled around the globe
to visit N\.A projects- to Mombasa in Ken a., and to S."'re
Limacm and Uluburun in Turkey Most recently he trav-
eled to Israel to visit the Tantura Lagoon project, which
forms; the subject for this issue of the IN A QmNi'crly/, and
which '.> of special interest to him.
Photo. S Wachsmann
Harry had been looking forward to diving on the ship-
wreck Unfortunately, his visit fell during a period of
stormy weather and rough waves that prevented anv work
in the sea. Nevertheless, his good cheer prevailed. Dur-
ing his stay, he exchanged more luxurious accommoda-
tions at the nearby kibbutz guest-house, preferring to re-
main close to the project team and share their rather Spar-
tan quarters, located in one of Kibbutz Nahsholim's old
children's ho uses
"As we could not di e on the site because of the
weather," Shelley W'achsmann relates, "we could only
show him the video footage we had shot of the portion of
the hull that had just been discovered before the storm
struck. After coming all that way, le never complained.
But he was %xiiblv moved bv what he saw on the screen."
Ia--rr% had mel Shelley Wachsmanin, INA's prolcct dc-
rector in Israel, at a board meeting in Dallas in 1994 They
soon developed a warm personal friendship
"Harrs is now a full-fledged partner in our intellec-
tual ad\ einture at Tantura Lagoon,' Shelley says. Recog-
ntizing the tremendous potenlital for nautical archaeology
in Israel, Harry s interest in the Tantura Lagoon project is
(C l min 'td on page1 22;)
IN \ iarincrIy 22 2
INSTITUTE OF NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY
George F. Bass, Archaeological Director
Gregory M. Cook, Treasurer
William L. AUen
John H. Baird
George F. Bass
Edward O. Boshell, Jr.
Ray M. Bowen
Gregory M. Cook, Vice Chairman
Danielle J. Feeney
Frederick M. Hocker, President
Rebecca H. Holloway, Secretary
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Donald G. Geddes [I
Bengt 0. Jansson
Woodrow Jones, Jr.
Harry C. Kahn II
Michael L. Katzev
Jack W. Kelley, Chairman
Sally R. Lancaster
Norma S. Langworthy
Samuel J. LeFrak
Robert E. Lorton
Frederick R. Mayer
William A. McKenzie
Donald A. Frey, Vice President
Cemal M. Pulak, Vice President
Alex G. Nason
Ray H. Siegfried II
William T. Sturgis
Robert L. Walker
Lew 0. Ward
Peter M. Way
Garry M. Weber
Martin A. Wilcox
Richard A. Williford
George O. Yamini
George F Bass
George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology/ Yamini Family Professor of Liberal Arts
Kevin J. Crisman, Assistant Professor
Donny L. Hamilton, Associate Professor
Frederick M. Hocker, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Faculty Fellow
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doominck, Jr., Frederick R. Mayer Professor of Nautical Archaeology
Shelley Wachsmann, Meadows Assistant Professor of Biblical Archaeology
Mr. and Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried U
Cemal M. Pulak
Mr. and Mrs. J. Brown Cook
Brian A. Jordan, Michael P. Scafuri
Sheila D. Matthews, M.A.
Claire P. Peachey, M.A.
Robin C.M. Piercy
Cemal M. Pulak, M.S., M.A.
Sema Pulak, M.A.
C. Wayne Smith, Ph.D.
Tufan U. Turanli
Patricia A. Turner
Cheryl W. Haldane, Ph.D.
Douglas Haldane, M.A.
Margaret E. Leshikar-Denton, Ph.D.
Kathleen McLaughlin-Neyland, M.A.
John C. Neville
Robert S. Neyland, Ph.D.
Brett A. Phaneuf
Ralph K. Pedersen, M.A.
Peter G. van Alfen
Cynthia J. Eiseman, Ph.D.
John A. Gifford, Ph.D.
Faith D. Hentschel, Ph.D.
Carolyn G. Koehler, Ph.D.
David I. Owen, Ph.D.
David C. Switzer, Ph.D.
Gordon P Watts, Jr., M.A.
Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinnati
Coming Museum of Glass
Department de Arqueol6gia Subacuatica de
la 1.N.A.H., Mexico
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Partners for Livable Places
University Museum, University of
Shell of Turkey, Ltd.
Texas A&M Research Foundation
Texas A&M University
University of Texas, Austin
COUNSEL James A. Goold
David J. Stewart