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Title: The INA quarterly
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 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Summer 1992
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098800
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
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Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))


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Volume 19, No. 2Summer 1992
Volume 19, No. 2 Summer 1992

Contents 3 An Expedition to the Bay of Christ's Colege Station, TX 77841-5137
Mountain, Dominican Republic Hear firsthand of our latest discov-
Jerome Hall series in nautical archaeology. Mem-
bers receive the INA Newsletter,
8 The Indiana: Pioneer Steamboat scientific reports, and book dis-
of the Great Lakes counts.
David S. Robinson Regular.......25
Regular . . . S25

12 "A Pharaoh's Fleet:" Early Dynastic Contributor .... S50
Hulls from Abydos
Cheryl Haldane
Life ........ $500
14 The North Beach Wreck: "A Solid
Wall of Timber" Benefactor .... s1000
J. Cozzi Student/Retired $15

17 In the Field Checks should be made payable to

This issue of the Quarterly features projects conducted by nautical archaeology graduate students from Texas
A&M University. The Institute of Nautical Archaeology and the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M
are independent entities, but they share office space and faculty, and einoy a symbiotic relationship. Part of that
relationship means that graduate students from the university work on INA projects as volunteers, where they gain
invaluable experience. While still students, some of them find themselves ready to go out on their own, even to
direct an excavation; some, in recognition of the quality of training at Texas A &M and INA, are invited by outside
agencies to act as specialists on a project that includes underwater finds or that requires the skills and knowledge
of a ship reconstructor. A few samples of the work conducted by these students appear in the following pages.
They and their peers represent the next generation of nautical archaeologists trained at Texas A&M and on INA

All article and illustrate in the NA Qurtnrly, with the exception of those indicated as excerprs, condeoations, or rrprin taken from copyrighted sources,
may be reprinted infull or in part without further pernmision simply by crediting the INA Quarterly and the author, photographer, or arst as the source.
Also, copies of the publication should be sent to the Intiae of Nautical Archaeology.
Photographsfrom the aride in this isue by David Robinson and the map and drawings from the article by Cheryl Haldane may not be reprinted without
permission. Inquiries should be directed to the appropriate author and sent to the NA address.
The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newsleter (voli. 1-18). Editor MagTarrt Lynch

Institute of Nautical Archaeology
PO Drawer HG

Jerome Hall is a Ph.D. candidate and a Cook Graduate Fellow in the
Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M University. He worked on
INA's Bronze Age Shipwreck excavation at Ulu Burun and conducted
research on clay pipes from the 17th-century Portuguese wreck at Fort
Jesus, Mombasa, (another INA project) before striking out on his own to
direct an excavation at the Bay of Monte Crirti in the Dominican
Republic. His project is funded by Earthwatch, and volunteers with little
or no excavation experience join his small staff of archaeologists each
summer. Below, he gives his account of life on expedition.

An Expedition to the Bay of

Christ's Mountain, Dominican Republic

by Jerome Hall

In Gabriel Garcfa Marquez's celebrated work, The Au-
tumn of the Patriarch, the protagonist, an eccentric military
dictator, swirling in the midst of his own confusion, opens
a bedroom window and casts his gaze to the sea. Beyond
"the usual battleship that the marines had left behind at the
dock," the reality of the 20th century slowly evaporates,
replaced by a vision of three caravels lying at anchor.
Countless evenings have passed here on our small island
when I have waited for that vision. It is usually at sun-
down, the sky swirling pink and orange, wheh I find

myself glancing seaward, falling under that spell that so
often haunts historical landmarks. Two of the most famous
15th-century caravels-the Pinta and the Nifa--sailed past
this very spot. I imagine what they must have looked like
as they headed east along the coast of Hispaniola, their
sails, taut with the wind, little more than black triangles
against the setting sun.
There was a time when the Nifa's anchor dropped just
a few hundred yards from where my tent is pitched. The
ship's boat was rowed ashore and, on January 5, 1493,

Ralph Pedersen, a doctoral student
in the Nautical Archaeology Program
at Texar A&M University, surveys
the Monte Cristi site before excava-
tion begins. The wreck dates from
the mid-1i 7th century, and while it
has not remained untouched over the
last few decades, archaeologists have
gleaned a wealth of information from
its surviWng artifacts.

rmoo: c. aBwe

INA Quarterly 19.2

Sam Turner measures in
artifacts within a 2-by-2-
meter grid square. Twen-
ty-two of these squares
were erected over the site
of the Monte Cristi ves-

when Christopher Columbus finished walking around this small spit of land
which we now call home, he entered in his journal the following:
Found afire and signs thatfishermen had been here. There I saw many
colored rocks, like a rock quarry, very beautiful and formed naturally.
They would be suitable for building churches or royal structures, and are
like those I found on the island of San Salvador. I also found on this
small island many mastic tree roots.
To the east of our island looms Monte Cristi, an enormous tent-shaped
mountain which bears the nickname "dromedario durmiendo"--the "sleeping
camel." In his same journal entry, Columbus wrote:
Monte Crttii is very beautiful and high and accessible, and has a pretty
shape. All this country near the mountain is low. forming a lovely plain,
and the mountain is so tall that when one sees it from a distance it looks
like an island.
Four hundred and ninety-nine years after the explorer surveyed this tiny
island, our small group of archaeologists and volunteers pitched camp in a
grove of trees on the southern shore. Called Isla Cabra (Goat Island), our
summer home is vacant year round, save for the rats, hermit crabs, and
scorpions who take every opportunity to remind us that we are visitors.
Our lives here are remarkably simple. We bathe in the sea, rinsing ourselves
from a barrel of unfiltered river water brought over from the mainland. Our
nylon tents, long faded by the harsh ultraviolet light rays, are huddled among
the trees, punctuated only by a crude darkroom built from scrap lumber and
tarpaulins. The camp "kitchen," like the "laboratory," is nothing more than a
collection of whitewashed cabinets and tables that sit beneath the shelter of the
trees. "Gelidonya Beach," a narrow strip of sand separating our tents from the
sea, recalls the pioneering efforts of nautical archaeologist George Bass, who
three decades earlier, while doing his doctoral research on a lonely Turkish
cape, worried that his camp, too, might wash away. Save for our inflatable boat,
we are isolated.
We have come to study a ship. It was not a ship from Columbus's era, rather,
one that sailed a century and a half later. Where it was from and what it was
doing in the shallow Bay of Monte Cristi we can, at this point, only guess. We
know that it sank sometime between 1630 and 1665, based on the remains of the
cargo. I say "remains" because the shipwreck has been visited, over the past
three decades, by more than 1,000 sport divers and souvenir seekers. Hardly a
day will pass that a fisherman or a local townsperson won't tell us the story of
a flintlock pistol or a beautiful ceramic jug that they remember removing from
the site some 20 years ago. We have yet to see any of these artifacts, of course,
but it is all part of the obligatory lore surrounding something as romantic as a
shipwreck. I find myself continually amazed at the artifacts that have been left
behind--ones which treasure hunters, in their haste, have overlooked. It is both
intriguing and exciting to think what this ship and its cargo may tell us about a
little known era of Dominican history.
The wonder and challenge of any archaeological excavation lies not in the
task of raising objects, but in the retrieval of historical information. Communi-
cating that idea is often challenging, especially when working with people who
have no formal archaeological training. Our team is composed, in large part, of
volunteers, members of the public who, during the nine-to-five race to earn a

INA Quarterly 19.2

living, dream of touching history through something
as tangible as moving sand from the sea floor. We
were fortunate during the 1991 season to work with
27 such people, sent to us by Earthwatch, a non-profit
scientific and educational organization based in
Watertown, Massachusetts.
While our volunteers did not always arrive with a
competency in things archaeological, they did bring
many years of collective experience in problem-solv-
ing, trouble-shooting, time management, corporate
direction, and personal communication, skills which
any principal investigator quickly learns are essential
to a successful operation. These volunteers ap- .-
proached our particular discipline with minimal to no -.
academic prejudices, and, save what they had seen of
cinematic cult heroes, maintained relatively open
minds on what it meant to practice archaeology. And
so we teach them what is, in our opinion, essential:
What can I learn from this artifact? How should it be
excavated? What does its position on the sea floor-
relative to other artifacts and to the ship itself--tell us
about the site? What does its presence tell about the
lives of the people aboard the ship? To pose a ques-
tion is to open the door to two or ten or a hundred
more, and our collective asking-realized in the
tracing of an artifact or the observation of an in situ
ship timber--unites 20 individuals into one team.
The "jejene," or "no-see-um," gnats roust us from
our sleep long before the sun rises from behind Monte Cristi. In the dark, we
ready the compressors and inflate the boat, waiting for the light to transport our
first group of divers (the "dawn patrol") to the wreck site. While one group of
workers passes the morning hours in the outdoor laboratory, divers spend two
to three hours excavating in 2-by-2-meter grid squares that have been assembled
over the ship. The afternoon winds, more often than not, swell the seas to a
moderate chop, making it difficult, if not nearly impossible at times, for workers
to tend the compressors anchored on the small platform positioned above the
wreck site.
Throughout the late afternoon and early evening we concentrate on cleaning
the dive gear and set about the task of recording the day's work--detailing
reports from the morning and afternoon dives, logging site data, drawing and
photographing artifacts. After our evening meal, one by one we slip down to the
shore to rinse our dinner plates in the seawater, pausing occasionally to view
electrical storms over the highlands of Haiti, just a few miles from our island.
After the dishes are stacked for washing, someone, be he staff or volunteer, will
scratch out an evening presentation on the small chalkboard hanging from our
sheltering stand of trees. These are our evening "chataquas," a comparatively
quiet time when staff and volunteers can share their thoughts and observations.
There may be a short lesson on ship construction, or on 17th-century European
history. Occasionally, one of our volunteers will present a talk on the life of
Edward Bird, the English pipe maker whose wares represent the major cargo on
board this ship. Many participants have had the experience of uncovering and

Mbo0o Kaowe

A small dive plaform, the
RV Rummy Chum, is an-
chored above the site. Di-
vers, using air supplied
by a surface-mounted
compressor, enter the
water through a rectan-
gular opening cut in the

INA Qurterly 19.2

Five large iron conglomerations encased in a shell of calcium carbonate cover the site of the 17th-century northern
European shipwreck in Monte Cristi Bay. The conglomerations have probably protected much of the ship's hull

raising a pipe whose bowl bears the heavily stamped "EB"
on its heel. Their enthusiasm in discovering Mr. Bird, both
through the study of historical texts and in the careful
excavation of their work area, is contagious, even to staff
The history of the north coast of Hispaniola throughout
the 17th century is scant indeed. What we do know of the
area suggests that the majority of trade was conducted by
English, Dutch, and French sailors, who illegally bartered
finished European wares for hides supplied by "bucca-
neers," wild men who roamed the grasslands in small but
somewhat organized communities, hunting wild cattle.
Sailing their vessels into clandestine ports to offload their
valuable cargoes, European merchant sailors kept a vigilant
eye for the Spanish military, which sought to regulate all
commerce on the island. Top on the Spanish economic
agenda was the ouster of the buccaneer hordes from the
northern shore.

But what were these cargoes? While the majority of our
site seems to have been picked clean by curious scaven-
gers, we have sufficient evidence from remaining artifacts
to piece together a partial cargo on board the Monte Cristi
vessel. Two major artifact groups excavated during the
1991 season include kaolin (clay) pipes and ceramic sherds
(Bellarmine, white-glazed ware, and blue-on-white delft-
ware). Additional diagnostic artifacts include lead musket
balls, a set of nested apothecary weights, pewter tankard
fragments, a three-legged cooking vessel, a mouth harp,
two pewter spoons, a lice comb, a pair of navigational
dividers, tongs, scissors, glass and metal fragments, a
hawk's bell, a sword, coins (two silver, one copper),
numerous brass tacks, and iron nails and fasteners. These
artifacts are being studied to see if distribution patterns
emerge, enabling the determination of trends in vessel lad-
Presently, data from the 1991 excavation are still in

INA Querterly 19.2

A set of nested apothecary
weights, most likely manufac-
tured in Nuremberg, was
excavated from the site of the
Monte Cristi vessel by the
author in 1987.

MaLao: J. H"i

need of interpretation, but a Dutch or English origin for the
merchant vessel is highly suspected. We have uncovered a
little over 40 feet (13.9 m) of keel, with accompanying
frames, ceiling planks, bottom planks, and wood sheathing.
The extent of the wooden bull remains is well defined by
five large concretions, which presently appear to be iron
slabs covered with a calcium carbonate patina. It is because
of these large concretions, possibly representing another
cargo from the ship, that the extant hull has been pre-
served. The weight of the massive structures has trapped a
portion of the hull, preventing it from breaking up and
drifting away, while at the same time burying it in sedi-
ment where it has been protected from numerous marine
borers. The thorough analysis of the hull will tell us not
only how, when, and where the ship was built, but how the
ship was used and operated during its lifetime. Was it an
old ship when it sank? Had it been repaired? Had the
vessel been refitted or modified? Answering these questions

will help us understand technological limitations inherent in
17th-century ship design and construction.
I try, as best I can, to find a few moments each evening,
to reflect on our excavation. This usually leads me down to
Gelidonya Beach, where, gazing at the stars or watching
the illuminated silhouettes of the Haitian mountains, I catch
myself often thinking of MArquez and his caravels. I look
back at our tents nestled among the trees. Seen from the
shoreline at evening, our camp is a small island of light
lying somewhere in the middle of a black sky and equally
black sea. There is a warm breeze, the kind the tropics are
famous for, amplifying the lively m&ingue music pouring
out of our small radio. I can see our workers scattered
around the table; they look exhausted as they write their
letters, or play chess, or simply talk quietly. But, tired as
we all are, our efforts seem worthwhile, and we will return
in 1992 to pursue both the vision and reality of a part of

Al'jandro Selmi Colominas and
Sam Turner carefully examine the
heetnark on one of the many Dutch
clay pipes accavated from the Mon-
te Cristi vesseL,

Mboo: J. Inl

INA Quarterly 19,2

David Robinson is earning a master's degree at Texas A&M Univer-
sity's Nautical Archaeology Program. He specializes in 19th-century
maritime history and ship reconstruction. In addition to his work on
the Indiana he has assisted in the recording of other 19th-century
vessels, including the Burlington Bay Horse Ferry, the North Beach
Sailing Canal Boat, and a Confederate submersible, the CSS Pioneer.

The Indiana: Pioneer Steamboat

of the Great Lakes

by David S. Robinson

Shortly after the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825 a
major shift in the direction of interstate commerce in the
United States occurred, rendering the entire Great Lakes
region an economic tributary to the port of New York.
Suddenly there was a need for vessels that could carry bulk
commodities from the nation's interior as well as transport
the waves of emigrant settlers bound for the uncertainty of
America's western frontier. In response to these demands
the number of steam-powered vessels being built at ports
around the Lakes increased dramatically.
Appearing on the Great Lakes in 1817, steamboats
competed with sailing vessels for a share of the growing
prosperity in the region. Paddle steamers, or "sidewheel-
ers," were the first to arrive and provided regular passen-
ger service to thousands of westbound pioneers. Expansion
of the railroads around the Lakes in the 1830s diminished
this passenger trade; by the late 1850s it had almost ceased
to be profitable, but steamboats did not vanish from the
Screw-propelled steamers, or "propellers," as they were
then referred to, arrived on the Lakes in 1841. Rather than
compete directly with the railroads for passenger service,
most propellers either served as freighters or were char-
tered by railroad companies, providing connections with
rail terminals at various locations. The first of these was
the Canadian-built propeller-barge Ericsson, launched at
Brockville, Ontario, and named after the famous Swedish
designer of screw-driven steamers. The Ericsson was built
as a freighter, like the majority of propellers that came
after her, and was dimensioned to fit through the narrow
locks of the Rideau Canal system in Ontario. Without the
added mass of paddlewheels on either side, screw-driven
vessels were better suited for traveling through the many

narrow canals and locks around the Lakes. Also launched
during that same year, at Oswego, New York, was the
American-built Vandalia. In contrast to the Ericsson, the
Vandalia resembled a sailing vessel and carried a sloop rig,
with an immense mainsail and mast. She had an overall
length of 91 feet, with a beam of 20 feet, and a depth of
hold of 8 feet, 3 inches, and was equipped with twin
propellers of Ericsson's design.
In 1972, Wisconsin wreck diver John Steele discovered
the nearly intact remains of the earliest example of a Great
Lakes screw-propeller known to exist. The Indiana, built
in 1848 at Vermillion, Ohio, by Joseph M. Keating, was
one of only 45 screw-steamers on the Lakes in 1849. Her
dimensions were recorded in her original enrollment at
Sandusky, Ohio; she had a length of 146.5 feet, 23 feet at
the beam, and a depth of hold of 10 feet, 10 inches. The
Great Lakes shipping magnate Alva Bradley is listed among
her original owners.
During most of her 10-year career the Indiana served as
a tramp steamer, traveling to almost all of the major ports
on the Lakes and hauling a wide variety of goods. Her
westbound cargoes were almost exclusively merchandise,
while on return trips east, bulk freights of grain and other
raw products were common. On several of the Indiana's
voyages, live hogs were carried as cargo, and in one
instance, over 700 porcine passengers traveled on board.

Photo above: David Robinson records deck beam spacing
at the Indiana's stern. Iron ore cargo is visible just below
and to the right of the clipboard. Photo: P. Johnston
Map on next page: The wreck of the Indiana lies in Lake
Superior 3.6 miles NNW of Crisp Point, Michigan.

INA Quarterly 19.2

Use of her steam whistle, to signal her arrival into port,
was probably not entirely necessary after that trip.
As was the case among many of the vessels navigating
the often treacherous waters of the Great Lakes, the
Indiana experienced several accidents during her years of
service, although none resulted in any serious damage.
These included a collision with another steamer, the Cam-

ans Patrick Labadie, of the Duluth Maritime Museum, and
the late Richard Wright, formerly of Bowling Green State
University. Recognizing the significance of Steele's
discovery, Dr. Wright contacted the Smithsonian Institution
in Washington, D.C., and in 1978 the wreck was declared
eligible for the National Register of Historic Places.
During the summer of 1979, under the direction of John

Mp: D. Robbaao

bria, on Lake Erie in 1851; two collisions with Cleveland's
west pier, once in 1854 and again in 1857; and two
groundings, first in the St. Marys River in 1854, and
another at Pt. Abino, on Lake Erie in 1856.
Chartered in the spring of 1858, the Indiana began
hauling iron ore from Marquette, Michigan, a newly
established mining town on Lake Superior's southern shore,
to the lower lakes. On the evening of June 6, 1858, while
downbound from Marquette, the Indiana developed a mas-
sive leak in the area of her stuffing-box, at her stern. She
settled quickly and her fires were extinguished in just 15
minutes. Her 17-man crew and four passengers, including
her owner, Frank Perew, escaped harm in the steamer's
two lifeboats. The group even attempted to save the
stricken vessel by towing her to shore but was forced to
abandon the effort because of the poor condition of one of
the lifeboats. The loss of the Indiana, with a 280-ton cargo
of iron ore, marked the first casualty of a vessel on the
Great Lakes carrying this important commodity. Ironically,
the remains of the most recent loss of an iron ore cargo lie
just 4 miles away from the Indiana at the wreck site of the
well known Edmund Fitzgerald.
John Steele made several underwater films of the
Indiana and showed them to Great Lakes maritime histori-

Stine, the Smithsonian Institution retrieved the vessel's
engine, boiler, propeller, rudder, and related machinery.
Today, elements of these recovered components are on
display in the National Museum of American History's
(NMAH) Hall of American Maritime Enterprise.
In the fall of 1990, Paul Johnston, curator of the
NMAH's maritime collection, contacted Kevin Crisman,
assistant professor of nautical archaeology at Texas A&M
University. Dr. Johnston asked whether or not Crisman
would be interested in studying the Indiana. Because of his
involvement in several of his own projects, Dr. Crisman
had to decline the offer, but he suggested that the task of
recording the vessel be given to one of the program's
graduate students. As the only student in the Nautical Ar-
chaeology Program whose primary interest was in steam-
boats, I was approached by Dr. Crisman.
Prom August 3 to 17, 1991, the Smithsonian Institution,
with logistical support provided by the Institute of Nautical
Archaeology, conducted a two-week-long archaeological
investigation of the Indiana's hull remains. The goals of
the project were to collect enough data to begin construct-
ing a site plan, lines drawing, and deck plan. To accom-
plish these goals the entire wreck was documented on video
tape, and hundreds of black and white photographs and

INA Quarterty 19.2

Finally, the location and dimensions of the stem,
sternpost, keel, deck beams, and other important
timbers were recorded.
The wreck of the Indiana lies 3.6 miles
NNW of Crisp Point, Michigan. Her remains
are well preserved, although the hull forward of
amidships has collapsed, and all of the upper
deck structures are gone. The fragmentary
condition of the Indiana's bow suggests that the
vessel nosed down into the water as she sank
and struck the lakebed stem-first. The heavy
cargo of iron ore, loaded on her deck, slid for-
ward during the sinking and formed a huge mass
of overburden that covers most of the forward
half of the wreck. The weight of this iron ore
has caused the deck to collapse into the hold and
the sides of the ship to splay outward. Aft of
Photo: P. ohnan, uey Smdueim dsi amidships the wreck rises approximately 13 feet
off of the lakebed and sits upright with a slight
hand measurements were taken. Running longitudinally list to starboard. The interior of the Indiana is accessible
down the center of the vessel, a datum line was established through openings in the deck for the engine and boiler, but
so that the locations of important deck features, such as the ceiling planking, iron ore cargo, and debris obscure details
openings for the engine and boiler, could be measured. To of construction. Lying 100 feet astern the main area of the
record the shape of the hull, offset stations were set up 5, wreck is the aftemost section of the vessel's fantail. This
10, 15, 20, 30, 50, and 70 feet forward of the sternpost. interesting wreckage has confirmed contemporaneous

Above: Joe Cozzi records the steam-
boat's stem, while the author, just
visible behind him, examines its con-
struction. The depth of the wreck is
approximately 118feet.

Right: A preliminary site plan of the
Indiana Iron ore cargo obscures much
of the deck, and the condition of the
bow suggests that the vessel went down
nose-first. Some of the steamboat's
machinery was recovered in 1979 by
the Smithsonian Institution and is on
display in the National Museum of
American History. The fantail wreck-
age, shown at the far right, was found
100 feet away from the main part of the
wreck (Drawing: D. Robinson)

Preliminary Plan

Based On 1991 Field Survey




INA Quarterly 19.2

accounts that the Indiana was employed in the towing of
barges; a large transverse towing cleat is mounted on deck.
Another notable aspect, and a rare piece of evidence for the
construction of the upper deck structure, is a single intact
stanchion rising up from the decking.
The discovery and subsequent archaeological investi-
gation of the Indiana's remains promises to provide
maritime historians with an excellent source of data on the
regional shipbuilding techniques used in the mid-19th
century. While the 1991 campaign proved to be educational
in every respect, a second season of fieldwork has been
scheduled for 1992. The 1991 season's results are being
prepared for publication in the Internaional Journal of
Naurical Archaeology, and data from both seasons' field-
work will be incorporated into my master's thesis on the
The 1991 Indiana fieldwork was funded in part by the
National Trust for Historic Preservation, the Smithsonian
Institution Research Opportunities Fund, and the NMAH
Division of Transportation's Ship Plans Fund. Logistical
support was provided by the Institute of Nautical Archaeol-
ogy, Arthur Cohn of the Lake Champlain Maritime
Museum, Thomas Farnquist and the Great Lakes Ship-




wreck Historical Society and Museum, Richard Anderson,
Jr., and Terence Conable. Also helpful were Dr. John
Halsey, Michigan State Archaeologist; the Michigan
Department of Natural Resources; and Patrick Labadie of
the Canal Park Museum in Duluth, Michigan. The project
would also like to thank Gerald Metzler, who was kind
enough to share his files on the Indiana's historical back-
My special thanks are extended to John Steele, who has
not only shared his discovery and knowledge of the
Indiana, but also his talents and his boat Lake Diver,
William Cohrs, who shared his time and expertise through-
out the project; and John Stine, who represented the
Smithsonian on the Indiana program from 1979 to 1989,
and came out of retirement to serve as shoreside support
and logistician for the 1991 team.
I would like to thank those who volunteered their
valuable time, effort, and skills to work on the 1991
project: Robert Adams, Joseph Cozzi, and Raymond
Siegfried II. Thanks also to diving supervisors Michael
Lang and Kimbra Cutlip of the Smithsonian Institution.
Finally, I would especially like to thank Paul Johnston
and Kevin Crisman for their encouragement and guidance
in my thesis research.

Suggested Reading
Dohrmann, D.
1976 Screw Propulsion in American Lake and Coastal
Steam Navigation, 1840-1860, A Case Study in
the Diffusion of Technological Innovation.
Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Yale Universi-
ty, New Haven.
Hall, H.
1970 Report on the Shipbuidling Industry of the
United States. Reprinted. Library Editions,
Ltd., New York. Originally published 1884.
Hodge, W.
1883 The Pioneer Lake Erie Steamboats. Paper
Concerning Early Navigation of the Great Lakes.
Bigelow Brothers, Buffalo, New York.
Neilson, R.
1987 The First Propellers at Kingston. Fresh Water,
A Journal of Great Lakes Marine History. The
Museum of the Great Lakes, Kingston, Ontar-
Wolff, Jr., J.
1990 Lake Superior Shipwrecks. Lake Superior Port
Cities Inc., Duluth, Minnesota.

INA Quarterly 19.2

50 Ft.

10 M.

"A Pharaoh's Fleet:" Early Dynastic Hulls from Abydos

by Cheryl Haldane

The discovery of 12 wooden boats buried beside the
funerary enclosures of the earliest kings of Egypt at
Abydos, one of the most sacred sites of ancient Egypt,
electrified ship scholars and Egyptologists throughout the
world when announced late in 1991. Dating to Egypt's
First and Second Dynasties (ca. 3000-2700 BC), the
Abydos hulls are the only boats found in association with
royal funerary monuments of the period.
The emphasis on boats in Egyptian religion and in the
more mundane affairs of daily life illustrates their impor-
tance in the rise of the Egyptian state. Even the Narmer
Palette, sometimes called the first historical document of
Egypt, includes a warship. The first pharaohs of Egypt
commanded immense resources and filled their tombs with
thousands of stone vessels holding perfume, unguent, and
wine; stone and copper tools; beads of many materials;
carved and raw ivory; and imported wood. Although single
burials of boats are reported from other early tombs of
nobles, we know little about their construction, and the
hulls have vanished.
Early expeditions to Abydos recovered ivory and

Above: More than 5,000 years ago, seals used to mark the
possessions of an Early Dynastic pharaoh included this
place name: The Ships of the King. The seal may be refer-
ring to a shipyard near Abydos.

wooden labels inscribed with early hieroglyphs and boat
representations, small models of boats made of clay and
ivory, and both pottery and rock crystal containers with
incised boats, but no actual boat remains.
In the fall of 1991, archaeologists from the University
of Pennsylvania-Yale University Expedition to Abydos and
the Egyptian Antiquities Organization uncovered plastered
mudbrick structures with rounded ends. These proved to be
boat graves, usually less than 50 cm above the ground
surface, but 24 to 29 meters long and reaching 2.5 meters
in width. The hulls are shallow, probably 75 to 100 cm
deep, and their profiles are similar to that of the Khufu
ship, which is about 500 years younger. The method of
fastening plank edges has not been determined, but planks
and timbers are 10 to 30 cm thick.
Dr. David O'Connor, of the University Museum of
Anthropology and Archaeology at the University of
Pennsylvania, heads the team that uncovered the world's
oldest planked boats. He invited me to join his archaeologi-
cal crew to supervise the recording and excavation of one
of the boats, the first complete Egyptian hull to be excavat-
ed since the Khufu ship in 1954. In April, I visited Phila-
delphia to review excavation data, and archaeologists Steve
Harvey, Joe Waggener, and Matthew Adams shared their
slides and detailed reports of the discovery as we planned
the 1993 excavation.

INA Quarterly 19.2

Cheryl Haldane's focus on Egyptian shipbuilding began in 1983 when
she and her husband, Douglas Haldane, recorded the Middle Kingdom
Dashur boat at Chicago's Field Museum of Natural History. Since
then, she has recorded and studied planks from the early Middle
Kingdom site of Lisht, Dashur boats at the Carnegie Museum of Natu-
ral History and the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, and plank fragments
from a Late Period boat at Mataria. She has also worked with the
National Geographic Society on the nondestructive examination of the
Old Kingdom Khufu hull and studied the reconstructed Ehufu ship. At
present, Cheryl is completing her dissertation, titled "Ancient Egyptian
Hull Construction. She and her family, including sons David and
Duncan, plan to move to Egypt next year.

The 12 Abydos boats illustrate the tremendous power
and wealth of Egypt's first kings. They represent a signifi-
cant investment to the society that buried them and an
invaluable legacy to us. The Abydos hulls will provide
evidence for ship construction techniques from the dawn of
pharaonic civilization. Since most of the mudbrick boat
graves are pitted by later burials, we will begin by clearing

the sand from those areas and evaluating the condition and
structure of each of the 12 hulls. Existing documentation of
the boats suggests that some hulls are quite well preserved,
possibly approaching 70 percent. But from a purely selfish
point of view, even 7 percent would provide us with an
unprecedented window into the technological achievements
of 5,000 years ago.

INA Quarterly 19.2

Joseph "Coz" Cozzi is pursuing a master's degree at Texas A&M
University's Nautical Archaeology Program, where he is a Cook
Graduate Fellow. He plans to become a doctoral student specializing
in nautical archaeology during the next year. Coz has worked on
INA's excavation of a horse-powered ferry in Burlington Bay, Ver-
mont. During that project, he participated in the survey of an unusual
canal boat whose remains were found in Lake Champlain. This sum-
mer (1992) he will supervise a survey and test excavation of the site.

The North Beach Wreck:

"A Solid Wall of Timber"

by J. Cozzi

During a field school held at the 1991 Burlington Bay
Horse Ferry Project (see INA Newsletter 18.4), students
conducted a preliminary survey at the nearby site of a sail-
ing canal boat. The wreck lies 15 feet deep in Lake
Champlain, offshore from North Beach in Burlington,
Vermont, and it proves to be constructed largely of edge-
fastened planking. The North Beach Wreck's frameless
construction method is similar to another shipbuilding
technique known from classical antiquity. This similarity
raises important questions involving the canal boat's
sequence of construction.
A vessel of classical antiquity (for example the Kyrenia
Wreck) was built shell-first with hull planking fastened on
the edges by pegged mortise-and-tenon joints. The histori-
cal development of this joinery technique has been docu-
mented by several Mediterranean excavations, including the
INA projects at Serge Limam and Ulu Burun in Turkey. In
the Middle Ages, due to concern for building economy, the
technique gave way to the modern wooden shipbuilding
method where hull planking is "through fastened" to a
sturdy pre-erected frame. The edge-fastened construction of
the North Beach Wreck was also employed for reasons of
economy, though the sequence of construction is at present
In 1987 a local sport diver discovered the remains at
North Beach protruding from the sand bottom and brought
them to the attention of Art Cohn of the Lake Champlain
Maritime Museum, who dived on the site in October of At the bottom ofLake Champlain, the North Beach canal
1987 and recognized the collapsed hull as belonging to a boat's edge-fastened planking has collapsed and deterio-
canal sloop. Cohn passed this information along to Kevin rated, exposing the drift pins used to fasten the planks
Crisman, assistant professor of nautical archaeology at together. The plank barely visible here beneath the
Texas A&M University, who mentioned it to me in protruding iron pins is from the vessel's port side.
reference to my research into sailing canal boats.

INA Quarterly 19.2

In June of 1991 the wreck was relocated by
Raymond "Tray" Siegfried Ill, son of INA
Board Member Ray Siegfried II. Burlington
Bay field school students John Bratten, Tina
Erwin, Tommy Hailey, Scott McLaugblin, and
David Robinson assisted in a survey of the
remains, making 37 dives for a total of 65
hours under water. w'
The entire site is about 85 feet long and
buried beneath 6 to 18 inches of sand. That
portion of the wreck visible without excavation
consists of a remarkably well preserved center- w,
board trunk and centerboard, along with por-
tions of the port and starboard sides, the for-
ward end of the keel, three futtocks, a stern
deadwood block, and a pair of knees. Fanning
the sand bottom by hand revealed more details
just below the surface, including the sternpost T
mortise and other features that cross the keel.
The keel is 76 feet, 9 inches long, which indicates a vessel
just under 80 feet in length.
The heyday of the Canal Era in the second quarter of
the 19th century helped Americans exploit the vast resourc-
es of northern and western North America. Timber, iron
ore, building stone, and farm products passed through the
Champlain Canal on their way to New York City and other
East Coast markets. Many innovative ideas for getting
goods to market were expressed through boatbuilding at
this time. Such ideas produced the sailing canal boat, a
unique vessel designed to both sail on Lake Champlain
and, upon reaching the southern end of the lake, enter the
canal at Whitehall after dropping its mast(s) and raising its
Current canal historians knew nothing about sailing
canal boats until the discovery of one, the General Butler,
in 1981 and its subsequent survey and recording by Cohn
and Crisman. The North Beach Wreck was initially sought
in the hope that it could provide information about other
sailing canal boats, including the O.J. Walker, whose
reconstruction for a class in the Nautical Archaeology
Program at Texas A&M University suffered from a lack of
data concerning the shape and construction of its bottom.
The North Beach Wreck, however, is constructed in a
manner unlike any other known sailing canal boat. A 50
foot run of each side is edge-fastened, with thick strakes
joined together by iron drift pins. The vessel has a molded
stem and stern exhibiting more traditional framed construc-
tion using floors and futtocks. The preliminary survey has
failed to reveal evidence of floors amidships in this flat-
bottomed craft, raising questions concerning the nature and
sturdiness of the construction of a vessel that carried heavy

cargoes such as building stone.
The wreck must postdate the 1831 patent for scow-sided
ship construction by Joseph R. Deming of New York City,
who, in the pages of the Journal of the Franklin Institute in
that year, described the method of planking as follows:
The improvement consists in uniting together what
may be called sundry horizontal frames of suitable
timber, placing them one upon another, in such a
manner as to make the hull or external part of the
ship or vessel, one solid wall of timber, with the
exception of the bolts and nuts of metal necessary to
secure the said frames firmly together.
The North Beach Wreck would have been built no later
than 1862, when the Champlain Canal's locks were en-
larged, permitting the construction of larger craft.
Lake Champlain produced a variety of sailing canal
boats as the canal and its locks increased in dimension and
builders tried new techniques of construction to overcome
the problem of hogging, a condition in which a long
vessel's ends droop over time. The original canal locks
completed in 1823 were 90 feet long and 14 feet wide,
while the canal itself was 4 feet deep. This led to the
building of sloop-rigged boats the length of the North
Beach Wreck, which would allow 10 feet for the mitered
doors of the canal lock to close after a vessel. The enlarge-
ment of the canal in 1862 led to a class of canal schooners
that would include the General Butler, which is 88 feet
long, with a beam of 14.5 feet.
The North Beach Wreck will be revisited in the summer
of 1992 in conjunction with the final phase of the Bur-
lington Bay Horse Ferry Project. Two weeks of excavation

INA Quarterly 19.2

hoto: Cotom y special Colectiwm, UnAvenomy of Vermant

A 19th-century photograph shows a canal sloop next to the
steamboat Adirondack.

and recording are planned in which a 5-foot-wide grid will
be placed along the centerline of the wreck. A moveable 15
foot by 5 foot grid will be attached to this base grid at key
locations on the side exhibiting the best preservation.
We plan to record the edge-fastened planking and the
sequence of construction, and to examine several features,
including what is possibly an internal keel with a rabbet
along the bottom cheek and whose forward end may be
carved from a tree trunk. The bottom construction amid-
ships will be examined closely to verify the lack of floors
and the existence of stringers to which transverse hull
planking may be attached.
The North Beach Wreck provides an example of
frameless construction somewhat analogous to that of the
ancient Kyrenia ship whose edge-fastened construction,

according to J. Richard Steffy (INA's premier ship reconst-
ructor), lends hull strength by means of thousands of ten-
ons that act like tiny frames within the planking. The North
Beach Wreck is strengthened by sides that are made of
very thick planking drifted together by iron pins over a
significant portion of the vessel's length. These sides
counteract the natural hogging experienced by such a long
and narrow craft.
The hull of this vessel also provides a glimpse of
shipbuilding economics at a time when the price of large
curved timbers was increasing and iron fastenings had
become more readily available. The reason for scow siding
must be seen as a result of the need for a strong, capacious
vessel that could both sail the lake and fit within the
confines of the canal system, while remaining economical
to build. The very reason for the demise of edge-fastened
planking in the medieval period also caused its return in the
mid 19th-century when different materials became avail-

Suggested Reading
Crisman, K.
1984 General Butler Project. In A Report on the
Nautical Archeology of ake Champlain: Results
of the 1982 F eld Season of the Champlain
Maritime Society, edited by Arthur Cohn, pp.
19-29. Burlington.
Cohn, A., and M. True
1992 The Wreck of the General Butler and the
Mystery of Lake Champlain's Sailing Canal
Boats. Vermont History 60:31.

INA Quarterly 19.2

Dmn bP J. C.aul 4 May lst

D-r-- - -. CEE--
S' i ~ = C_ . Cozz

Ulu Burun
INA archaeologists hope to com-
plete excavation of the Bronze Age
Shipwreck at Ulu Burun during the
summer of 1992. More than 200 of
the site's approximately 350 ingots
have been raised in previous seasons,
as have nearly half of the wreck's 24
stone anchors and all intact pithoi,
along with a wealth of other artifacts.
Work will begin on May 20 and con-
tinue to September 30.
Principal Investigator George Bass
and Field Director Cemal Pulak plan
to remove the remaining ingots and
expose extant hull timbers during the
present season. The hull will be stud-
led, mapped, and removed. Several
other areas, including two at the
deeper end of the wreck (ca. 190
feet), will be excavated in order to
expose material scattered down the
site's steep slope. If the excavators
can not finish the work planned for
this season, an abbreviated 1993
season may take place.
INA staff members Don Frey,
Robin Piercy, Tufan Turanh, Sheila
Matthews, and Murat Tilev will rejoin
the expedition. Texas A&M Universi-


ty nautical archaeology graduate stu-
dents Claire Calcagno, Bill Charlton,
Jerry Lyon, Roxani Margariti, Sam
Mark, Brendon McDermott, Stephen
Paris, Claire Peachey, Lillian Ray,
Edward Rogers, and Mark Smith,
along with volunteers Helen van der
Molen, G6khan Ozaganh, Patricia
Sibella, and Cai Thorman plan to
participate in the 1992 campaign.
Archaeologists Faith Hentschel and
Michael Halpern, and physicians
David Perlman and Tom Sutton will
also return to Ulu Burun for the final
Funding for the 1992 season comes
from the National Endowment for the
Humanities, the Institute for Aegean
Prehistory, INA, Texas A&M Univer-
sity, the National Geographic Society,
and INA's Board of Directors.
Cemal Pulak will spend the fall and
early winter of 1992 in Bodrum, at
INA's Turkish headquarters, to study
and analyze artifacts from the Bronze
Age Shipwreck. The site will be the
subject of his dissertation. Cemal is
the Mr. & Mrs. Ray H. Siegfried
Graduate Fellow at Texas A&M Uni-

Ottoman Wreck
Drawings of wooden hull remains
from the 16th-century Ottoman Wreck
found near Yassi Ada, Turkey, were
recently completed. Several hundred
iron concretions have been cast in the
last three years, and castings of the
ship's 6-foot-long pintel and its gud-
geon are nearing completion.
Cemal Pulak and G6khan 6zagacli
will continue the conservation and
laboratory work during the present
year. They plan to make radiographs
of two complex concretion piles re-
moved from the 16th-century wreck.
The two conglomerations may contain
chain pump parts or other ship's
The last campaign at the Yassi Ada
site took place in 1983; it has not
been fully excavated, although most of
the wreck's structural wood (keel and
frames) along with about one-third of
its planking have been raised. One
summer season is needed to complete
the excavation.
The project is supported by the
Institute of Nautical Archaeology.

Archaeologists plan to finish the
excavation of the Bronze Age Ship-
wreck at Ulu Burun by the fall of

rano: U. rfry

INA Quarterly 19.2

The third season of the Columbus
Caravels Archaeological Project will
take place in St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica,
from May 7 through September, 1992.
Once again, a field school will be
conducted as part of the project.
Director James Parrent will exam-
ine seven shipwreck sites discovered
during the 1991 field season, and
project staff will simultaneously
search other areas of the bay for
additional wrecks. The main goal of
the CCAP continues to be the location
of the two caravels abandoned there
by Columbus.
The CCAP's principal staff in-
cludes Maureen Brown, Clive Chap-
man, Greg Cook, Georgia Fox, Mari-
anne Franklin, Karl Gottschamer,
David Grant, Derrick Gray, Billy Ray
Morris, and Amy Rubenstein. Volun-
teer Kelly Bumpass joins the staff for
the summer field season. Field school
students will come from all over the
United States, Great Britain, and
Funding for the 1992 season is
supplied by the John Brown Cook
Foundation, the JFM Foundation,

Several caissons from a bridge I
by American troops during the I
lutionary War were discovered i
water in a 1983 survey of Lake
Champlain. Each was constructed
log-cabin fashion and weighted

Cambridge Seven Associates, Ameri-
can Way magazine, the National Geo-
graphic Society, the Meadows Foun-
dation, INA Board Members Don
Geddes, Bruce Heafitz, and Robert
Lorton, and INA's Chairman, Ray H.
Siegfried II.

Burlington Bay
Horse Ferry Project
The Burlington Bay Horse Ferry
Project continues in 1992. The project
will be run as a Texas A&M Univer-
sity/University of Vermont Nautical
Archaeology Field School. During the
season, Joe Cozzi, a nautical archaeol-
ogy graduate student, will supervise a
preliminary survey and test excavation
of the North Beach Sailing Canal Boat
Wreck, located near the horse ferry in
Lake Champlain, Vermont (see pages
14-16 in this issue of the Quarterly).
Kevin Crisman, from INA, and Art
Cohn, from the Lake Champlain
Maritime Museum, will co-direct the
Burlington Bay Horse Ferry Project.
They plan to complete excavation and

documentation of the horse ferry.
They will also investigate and rec-
ord 20 to 26 Revolutionary War-era
caissons (which were part of a floating
bridge built ca. 1776-1777). The
caissons are located between Fort
Ticonderoga, New York, and Mt.
Independence, Vermont. They were
originally found during a 1983 survey
in Lake Champlain.
The field school begins June 8 with
a week of historical background,
excavation training, and check-out
dives. The project concludes on July
17, after archaeologists backfill exca-
vation areas.
Nautical archaeology graduate
students from Texas A&M, including
John Bratten, Joe Cozzi, Alan Flani-
gan, Curtis Hite, David Robinson, and
Liz Robinson, and volunteer Tray
Siegfried, will be joined by four to six
University of Vermont field school
students on the expedition.
The Institute of Nautical Archaeol-
ogy and the Vermont Division for
Historic Preservation are funding the
field season.

INA Quarterly 19.2

Sea of Qalilee
Research Project
Shelley Wachsmann, an INA facul-
ty member and Texas A&M Univer-
sity's Meadows Visiting Assistant
Professor of Biblical Archaeology,
plans a field season in the Sea of Gali-
lee during the fall of 1992. The Sea of
Galilee Research Project is the natural
continuation of the Galilee Boat exca-
vation carried out by the Israel Antiq-
uities Authority in 1986. That boat's
survival indicates that ancient hulls
can, and do, survive in the lake. The
5,000-year history of seafaring on the
Sea of Galilee makes a search for
wrecks there both promising and
Due to a recent rise in the level of
the Sea of Galilee, emphasis will be
placed on surveying for wrecks using
sub-bottom profiling and vibracore
techniques. Archaeologists will also
attempt to create a database of poten-
tial wreck sites in the Sea of Galilee.
The place where the Galilee Boat
was found, now believed to have been
an area of boatbuilding in antiquity,
will be a primary site of investigation.
In addition, several other sites that
may shed light on the nautical phase
of the Battle of Migdal will be sur-
veyed. In this AD 67 confrontation,
Jews and Romans clashed on the lake.
The entire Jewish fleet was destroyed.
Project staff includes Director
Shelley Wachsmann and Texas A&M
graduate student Bill Charlton. Zvi
Ben Avraham will act as remote-sens-
ing technician, and Michael Jenkins as
Chirp sonar technician. Sedimentation
and geological aspects of the survey
will be studied by Yaakov Nin. Nauti-
cal archaeology graduate students
from Texas A&M are scheduled for
Funding for the project will be
provided through the Meadows Visit-
ing Assistant Professor of Biblical
Archaeology endowment.

Plantation Vessel
Archaeologists from INA plan a
single season of excavation, from June
I to August 15, 1992, on a mid-18th-
century coastal vessel buried in a river
levee near Savannah, Georgia. Fred
Hocker, assistant professor of nautical
archaeology at Texas A&M Universi-
ty, will direct INA's newest project.
He and his staff intend to excavate,
record, and stabilize the vessel's
remains. The project will also include
investigation of the levee and a pier
built over the hull. According to
maps, the levee dates to before 1753,

The Clydesdale Plantation
vessel, buried in a river levee,
will be excavated by conven-
tional land methods during
low tides.

the early years of the Georgia colony.
The vessel is built of local wood
and appears to be one of the oldest
American-built watercraft found in the
Southeast. Investigation of the re-
mains, which were used as cribbing in

Pha4o F. Hacker
the construction of the levee and pier,
should provide new information about
colonial American shipbuilding, com-
merce, and plantation organization.
The vessel is located in the intertid-
al zone, so excavation will be by
conventional land methods at low tide.
Project staff will include Emma
Hocker as conservator and Tina Er-
win, a Cook Graduate Fellow at Texas
A&M University, as finds manager.
Texas A&M nautical archaeology
graduate students Noreen Doyle and
Betsy Rosenthal also plan to partici-
pate. Texas A&M undergraduates
Leslie Brown and Charles Harris, and
volunteer Christopher Horsford will
assist them. In addition, the staff of
the Underwater Archaeology Division
of the South Carolina Institute of
Archeology and Anthropology
(SCIAA), under the direction of for-
mer Texas A&M nautical archaeology
graduate Chris Amer, will join the
excavators from INA. (The site is
actually in South Carolina, but the
project staff will live in Savannah.)
Equipment will be supplied by the
Institute of Nautical Archaeology and
SCIAA, co-sponsors of the project
with Texas A&M University.

INA Quarterly 19.2


George F. Bas, Archaeologicl Director
Donald 0. Geddes I. Treasurer

John H. Baird
Georg F. Bas
J.E.R. Chilton
Gregory M. Cook
Harlan Crow
Claude Duthuit
Daniel Fallon
Donald 0. Geddes 1
William Graves
Nixon Griffis
Bruce Heafitz

Robert K. Vincent, Jr., President
Rebecca H. Holloway, Secretary

Benet O. Jtnlon*
Harry C. Kahn II
Michael L. IKtev
Jack W. Kelley
Sally R. Lancaster
David C. Langworthy
Samuel J. LcPrak
Robert B. Lotno
Fredcrick R. Mayer
Wiliam A. McKenzie

Donald A. Frey, Vice President,

Widliam H. Mobley
Alex G. Nason
Ray H. Siegfried I, Chairman
William T. Sturgis
Robert L. Walker
Lew O. Ward
Peter M. Way
Garry A. Weber
Martin A. Wdicox
George O. Yamini

George P. Bau, George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology
Kevin I. Crisman, Assistant Professor
D. L. Hamilton, Associate Professor
Prederick Hocker, Assistant Professor
I. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Bmeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., Frederick R. Mayer Professor in Nautical Archaeology
Shelley Wachasnmu Meadows Visiting Assistan Professor of Biblical Archaeology

Joseph Cozzi, Mr. & Mrs. 1. Brown Cook
Graduate Fellow
Tina Erwin, Mr. & Mrs. J. Brown Cook
Graduate Fellow
Jerome Hall, Mr. & Mrs. J. Brown Cook
Graduate Fellow
Cemal Pulak, Mr. & Mrs. Ray H.
Siegfried, Jr. Graduate Fellow

Edwin Doran, Jr., Ph.D.
Cynthia J. Eiscman, Ph.D.
John Gifford, Ph.D.
Faith HentIcbel, Ph.D.
Carolyn Koehler, Ph.D.
David I. Owen, Ph.D.
David C. Switzer, Ph.D.
Gordon P. Watts, Jr., M.A.

Selma Karan
Sheila Mathews, M.A.
Jane Pannell
James Parrent, Ph.D.
Robin C.M. Piercy
Cemal Pulak, M.A.
Sema Pulak, M.A.
Murat Tilev
Tufan Turnanl
Patricia Turner

Jeremy Green
Margaret E. Leshikar, M.A.
Kathleen McLaughlin Neyland
Robert Neyland
Ralph Pedersen

Ausralian Institute of Maritime Archaeology
Boston University
Brown University
Bryn Mawr College
University of California, Berkeley
University of Cincinati
Cornell University
Corning Museum of Glas
Department de Arqueologia Subacuatica de la
I.N.A.H., Mexico
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
New York University, Institute of Fine Arts
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Partners for Livable Places
University Museum, University of
Shell of Turkey, Lid.
Texas A&M Reseach Foundation
Texas A&M University
University of Texas, Austin

James A. Goold

On the cover: Nautical archaeology graduate student David Robinson records deck beams at the stern of the 19th-century
steamboat Indiana. He is recording and studying the vessel as part of a project conducted by the Smithsonian Institution.

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