Group Title: INA quarterly
Title: The INA quarterly
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 Material Information
Title: The INA quarterly
Alternate Title: Institute of Nautical Archaeology quarterly
Abbreviated Title: INA q.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.)
Donor: unknown ( endowment )
Publisher: Institute of Nautical Archaeology
Place of Publication: College Station TX
College Station TX
Publication Date: Spring 1992
Copyright Date: 1992
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Underwater archaeology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Archéologie sous-marine -- Périodiques   ( rvm )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 19, no. 1 (spring 1992)-
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 23, no. 2 (summer 1996).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098800
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26536606
lccn - sf 94090290
issn - 1090-2635
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Preceded by: INA newsletter (Institute of Nautical Archaeology (U.S.))


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The INA Quarterly

Volume 19, No. 1 Spring 1992 MEMBERSHIP
Institute of Nautical Archaeology
PO Drawer HG
Contents 4 Maryland's Maritime Archaeology College Station, TX 77841-5137
Program: The Formative Years
Bru F Thompon Hear firsthand of our latest discov-
Series in nautical archaeology. Mem-
bers receive the INA Newsletter,
10 The Brown's Ferry Vessel: scientific reports, and book dis-
A River Transport of the Early counts.
Eighteenth Century
Fred Hocker Regular .. .... 25
Contributor ... 50
15 Review: The Short Life of an Unlucky
Spanish Galleon. Los Tres Reyes, Supporter .... $100
1628-1634 Life ........ .s500
Kevin Crisman
Benefactor ... $1000
16 Profile: Dr. William Fife Student/Retired 15
Cheryl Haldane
Checks should be made payable to
18 News & Notes INA.

All articles and Illustrations in the NA Quarterly, with the exception of those indicated as excerpts, condensations or reprins taken from copyrighledsources,
may be reprinted in fiul or in parr without further permission simply by crediting the INA Quarterly and the author, photographer, or ariist as the source.
Also, copies of the publication should be sent to the Institue of Nautical Archaeology.
The illustrations in the Thompson and Hocker articles in this issue come from copyrighted sources and may not be reprinted without further permnnion.
Inquiries concerning reprints should be directed to the author of the article in question: both of the authors may be reached through the INA address.
The INA Quarterly was formerly the INA Newrletter (vols. 1-18). Editor: Margaret Lynch
Contributions and inquiries from members are welcome. Please address any submissions to: The Editor, INA Quarterly, Institute of Nautical
Archaeology, PO Drawer HO, College Station, Texas 77841-5137 The Quarterly can not be responsible for original photographs or drawings;
accompanying illustrations sent with articles should be copies.
Cover: Volunteers from the Maryland Maritime Archaeology Program consortium and terrestrial archaeologists from the Maryland Historical Trust
test an uroderwater component of a Woodland Aspect site called the Adena Site. Erosion in this part of the Rhodes River has caused destruction of
the extensive upland site. Maryland's underwater archaeology program has emphasized cooperation among nautical archaeologists, spor divers,
citizens interested In archaeology, and archaeologists from other fields. Photo: T. Bastion

The INA Newsletter

has become

the INA Quarterly.

Since it first appeared in 1974, the Newsletter has
developed into a more professional publication, and we
are renaming it to reflect that change.

Librarians should note that the Newsletter began in
1974 with volume 1, number 1 and continued
publication under that name through 199.1, volume 18,
number 4. The Quarterly begins with this issue, volume
19, number 1, and is the first issue of 1992.

Maryland's Maritime Archaeology Program:

The Formative Years

by Bruce F. Thompson

Introduction by Richard Hughes, Chief of Archaeology for the State of Maryland

In 1988 the General Assembly of Maryland passed the
Submerged Archaeological Historic Properties Act, estab-
lishing the Maryland Maritime Archaeology Program
(MMAP) within the state's Historical Trust. In that same
year, the U.S. Congress passed the federal Abandoned
Shipwreck Act, clarifying the states' title to historic
shipwrecks in their waters and placing responsibility for
managing those resources with the individual states.
More than that of almost any other state, Maryland's
history reflects the critical influence of maritime trade,
resources, and traditions. It is therefore not surprising that
even prior to the passage of the 1988 laws Governor
William Donald Schaefer recognized the need to protect
Maryland's rich maritime heritage and appointed a blue-
ribbon Advisory Committee on Underwater Archaeology.
The committee was made up of underwater archaeologists,
conservators, commercial and private divers, and preserva-
tionists from Maryland and around the country. The
committee's task was to assist the state in developing a
model underwater archaeology program--a program which
would benefit from both the successes and the failures of
programs elsewhere that had come before it. The 1988
legislation creating the MMAP reflects many of the
advisory committee's recommendations, including the
program's responsibility:
* to regulate archaeological activities in state waters;
* to focus on the identification, study, and management of
thefull range of maritime sites in Maryland waters, and
not solely on conducting single-site excavations;
to actively involve the public, particularly the sport
diving public, by providing opportunities for education,
training, and direct participation in program activities;
to develop cooperative research and education programs
with universities and colleges in the state.
Passage of the 1988 state law was only the first step;
since that time the MMAP, with a staff of three--Paul

Hundley' (state underwater archaeologist), Bruce Thomp-
son' (assistant state underwater archaeologist), and Steve
Bilicki (underwater archaeologist)--bas worked to make the
recommendations a reality. It is a challenging task; a few
numbers help put the job in perspective:
* Maryland has over 4,430 miles of shoreline bordering
the Chesapeake Bay, the Atlantic Ocean, and their
The Chesapeake Bay includes 1,726 square miles of
State waters represent over 20 percent of Maryland's
total area.
There are 23 rivers and bays in Maryland with a com-
bined length of over 400 miles.
Sixteen of the state's 23 counties and Baltimore City
border on tidal waters.
Maryland's maritime history stretches back for thou-
sands of years, to the Indian people who first gathered the
rich food resources of her rivers, bays, and coastal regions.
Colonists depended on the waters for much of their
sustenance, and these same waters formed their highways
and their links with the larger world. Maryland-built ships
have fought in every American war since the Revolution,
including the World Wars. This history has left a rich
legacy that cannot be taken for granted. Both natural
forces, such as shoreline erosion, and man-made activities
like dredging threaten the fragile and irreplaceable remains
of the maritime past. Only with the support and help of the
diving and general public can the program hope to find and
preserve these remains. MMAP's experience during the last
three years demonstrates that this critical public support is
strong. Last year, over 200 people participated in field
projects. This year, we hope that many more can join us,
both in the field and in the laboratory.

SPaul Hundley and Bruce Thompson have earned master's degrees
from the Nautical Archaeology Program at Texas A&M Univerity.

INA Quarterly 19.1

Poto: D. Shomee
Governor William Donald Schaefer, here visiting a
Patuxent River site known as the "Turtle Shell Wreck"
(which dates to the War of 1812), recognized the need to
protect maritime sites even before passage of the 1988
federal and state laws.

During the first four years of its existence, the MMAP
has progressed steadily.

MMAP 1989
The greatest portion of our first year was spent forming
the specific language for regulations implementing the
Submerged Archaeological Historic Properties Act of the
previous year. This process included several public meet-
ings and untold in-house meetings with lawyers and
officials. Only in recent months, January and February
1992, has the process come to fruition. With the regula-
tions now in place we can establish guidelines for forms,
records, criteria and collections policy.
Our primary mission between August of 1989 and the
spring of 1990 was to acquire the necessary equipment to
meet the program's statutory mandates. It took nearly 10
months to complete the purchases allowed by our $181,000

start-up budget. Besides a work boat, dive gear, dredges,
compressors, and recording gear we were able to acquire
an array of electronic remote-sensing equipment. We can
now produce accurate survey maps of field activity through
the use of a Racal microwave positioning system. This
device uses line-of-sight remote transponders to place our
survey vessel within 50-centimeter accuracy, depending on
conditions, over a 7-mile area. The information from the
measuring unit is collected and then transferred to a plotter
which displays our vessel's movement over a pre-deter-
mined survey grid.
All of this mapping accuracy is necessary to annotate
magnetic and sonar images produced by our magnetometer
and side-scan sonar. The Barringer magnetometer, which
includes a chart recording unit and underwater sensor,
provides data on magnetic changes occurring within the
background magnetic signature for the particular area under
study. These changes reflect the presence of iron, either
buried or lying on the bottom. Iron cannons, anchors,
fasteners, and tools have been located by these devices.
To detect objects lying on the bottom we use an EG&G
side-scan sonar, which sends out acoustic signals that
reflect off the bottom and return to a sonar "fish". In some
cases, these reflections are so clear that we receive a visual
picture of shipwrecks and other debris. The side-scan
image of a 19th-century ship called the Maxwell, which
wrecked just off Kent Island, shows hatch covers, bow-
sprit, and gunwales still intact.
Field activities were limited in 1989 due to an initial
lack of boats and gear; however, we did manage to record
a historic period canoe at Blackwater National Wildlife
Refuge, to test cribbing from a 19th-century canal turning
basin at Havre de Grace, to verify wreck remains at Rock
Creek, and to partici-
pate in field trials of
(INA Board Member)
Marty Wilcox's new-
est sonar device on
the Patuxent River.

A magnetometer and
side-scan sonar allow
archaeologists to vi-
sualize riverfeatures,
wreck debris, and
otherwise hidden char-
acteristics of river and
bay bottoms.

roato: u. IDompson

INA Quarterly 19.1

roo:. m. Il ompoio
Left: The Army Corp of Engineer's permit process offers the
MMAP opportunities to recommend archaeology in areas of
development and dredging. As many as 20 wrecks have been
found through the system. This centerboard wreck was located by
Lee Cox, of Dolan Research, during a survey in Rock Creek.

MMAP 1990
The early, wintery months of 1990 found us field
recording wreck remains recovered from Watts Creek in
Martinak State Park. Park Service staff had discovered the
wreck in 1972 while placing a bulwark along the river's
edge. Vessel remains include the keel, stem and stern
posts, 26 frames, and 17 outer planks. With the help of
retirees from a group in St. Michaels we made 1:1 draw-
ings of all the timbers and planks. Construction features
and fasteners indicate that this vessel may well have been
built in the 18th century, but the lack of diagnostic artifacts
has prevented a confirmation of this assumption.
In May 1990 our work boat, christened Bay MMAP,
arrived at long last in Maryland. This vessel, along with its
tender River MMAP, a 16-foot inflatable, was outfitted with
electronics and equipment over a four month period.
Testing began in earnest in the fall of 1990. By November,
MMAP staff had completed a remote-sensing survey of
what is referred to as the "Medallion Site" just south of
Matapeake Pier, Kent Island. The site is named after what
may be the oldest historic period pot sherd ever discovered
in Maryland. The Rhenish, brown stoneware sherd is
decorated with a crown, a scepter, a two-headed eagle, and

4bove: MMAP staff and volunteers record the construction
features of a possible 18th-century vessel discovered during the
building of a bulwark at Martinak State Park. Volunteers from a
ocal retirement club produced several 1:1 drawings ofplanks and

a date of 1593. Our survey of the area where Darren
Lowery (a student of archaeology in Delaware) found the
sherd has produced a number of anomalies. Probably, the
sherd was associated with a land site which has been
inundated in recent years by the rising water levels and
ongoing erosion process in the bay.
Other projects accomplished in 1990 include the recov-
ery, with the help of the Coast Guard cutter Red Cedar, of
an 18th-century anchor; a reconnoiter of Smith Island;
analysis of the canoe from the Blackwater National Wildlife
Refuge Park; a test dive on a federal Section 106 permit
process site called the Rangelight Project, which is being
conducted by the Coast Guard off Curtis Bay; a reconnais-
sance of the Snowhill area, where the earliest shipbuilding
in Maryland may have occurred; and a preliminary survey
of the Three Sisters Islands area at the mouth of the West
River. The Totness, an 18th-century English merchant ship
burned by patriots during the Revolution, is believed to be
in that area.

MMAP 1991
After almost three years of development and preparation

INA Quarterly 19.1

I .nw. U. I uupu3

this was the year of our first complete survey season. We
now had three full-time staff, an active internship program,
equipment for activities ranging from remote sensing to
report writing, and a preliminary data-base inventory of
Maryland's underwater sites.
Our survey efforts did not focus on shipwrecks alone.
River and bay studies included the recording of historic
piers, landings, wharves, shipyards, and other related land-
based sites. Prehistoric sites were surveyed with the use of
side-scan sonar, shoreline inspections, and diver searches.
Fifty-three volunteers provided over 2,150 field hours, 200
laboratory hours, and an unrecorded amount of research
time to enable the MMAP to complete its first full-year
survey schedule. Over the 45 days of actual field time, we
covered 168.2 miles of Maryland's water systems, recorded
56 new sites, and collected 459 diagnostic artifacts.
The 1991 field season produced nine reconnoiters, six
intensive surveys, two site-specific data recoveries, and
several miscellaneous one-day projects. An important by-
product of our work was the collection of side-scan data for
several rivers, creeks, and lakes. Data for bay waters off
the west coast of Kent Island, Curtis Point, and Cove Point
were also collected.
We tried our "Consortium" effort for the first time in
1991. The consortium is an ad hoc committee of represen-

Below: Bay MMAP is a 25-foot Buxton work boat customized to]
remote-sensing surveys and limited diving operations. A 16-foot it
is used both as a tender and field reconnaissance vessel.

Right: This field drawing of Feature A, the first set of ways dis
at an 18th-century shipyard, illustrates some major construction
of the underwater portion of the launching slope. Timbers j
inundated ways reach under the soil on the chore for about 3f

tatives from various organizations and groups whose main
goal is the sharing of resources and information. Along
with MMAP staff, project participants include Anne
Arundel County archaeologists, University of Maryland at
College Park students, members of the Maritime Archaeol-
ogy and History Society, University of Maryland at Balti-
more County students, members of the Archaeological
Society of Maryland, and private citizens.
Our consortium concentrated on the West and Rhodes
rivers, where we knew there were many prehistoric and hi-
storic sites to be studied. Besides recording three 19th-
century landings, one possible 18th-century landing, an ex-
posed cistern, and numerous prehistoric oyster middens,
the consortium also combined efforts on a Woodland
Period ceremonial site in the Rhodes River. This Classic
Del Marva Adena site (c. 200 BC) has produced hundreds
of prehistoric artifacts in the past, but erosion has caused
most of it to fall into the river. We were able to initiate
tests of the submerged site remains, and we planned to
return for further tests in the next year.
A local inhabitant of the West River, Emil Hartge, was
instrumental in pointing out a number of historic areas in
the West and Rhodes rivers. Mr. Hartge remembered his
grandfather's stories of a shipyard in the area of Norman's
Creek. His memory served him well; he pointed us to a

INA Quertery 19.1

This diorama of an early 18th-century ship-
yard illustrates the simplicity and efficiency
of the work area. The Steward Shipyard
would have had two sets of launching ways
and numerous outbuildingsfor slaves, inden-
tured servants, and skilled workmen.

site only 20 meters from what turned out
to be a pre-Revolutionary shipyard and
from what we later called Feature B, the
second set of ways (inundated wooden
structures constructed for the launching of
ships) discovered that summer. Feature A,
the first set of ways, located during a
brief visit on July 25, 1991, led us to the
realization that the site was relatively
intact. The yard, called the Steward Ship-
ewpo New Mum yard after the shipwright known to have
built ships there, turned out to be the most
prolific of all sites visited in 1991.
We have begun systematic recording of the two sets of
ways and have completed test trenches into the upper yard.
The yard itself may have contained an unfinished 20-gun
galley at the time of its destruction by the British in 1781.
We have yet to locate evidence of the ship's whereabouts;
however, a burn level was noted above Feature B, the
second set of ways, on the last day of trench testing. A
surface collection from plowed tobacco fields above the
ways has further revealed possible outbuildings associated
with the yards.
Artifacts recovered from the trench and field include
iron fastenings, an iron strap hinge, a white bead, scratch
blue salt-glaze stoneware sherds, brick fragments, and
pieces of wood. No consolidated burn layers were detected,
thereby lessening the possibility of a burnt 20-gun galley on
the stocks of Feature A. Fifteen artifact concentrations
were located in the plow zone of the upland area, and at
least seven artifact concentrations were recorded under wa-
ter. The ground level assemblage likely represents store-
houses, servant quarters, and activity areas associated with
the yards. All but one of the above-ground artifact concen-
trations were diagnostic of the 18th century. At present the
artifacts are undergoing conservation at an artifact process-
ing facility in Crownsville, Maryland. Upon completion of
conservation the artifacts will be stored in Annapolis, at the
Old State Archive Building, which has been converted into
an interim curation facility.
For most of the 17th century, Maryland shipbuilding
was limited to the construction of small craft for fishing,
hunting, and local trading; however, by the end of that

INA Quarterly 19.1

period (in 1698) at least two locally built ships of approxi-
mately 400 tons apiece were recorded by the Annapolis
sheriff. The early part of the 18th century saw English
merchants financing the construction of equally large
vessels on both eastern and western shores of the Chesa-
Construction seriously lagged between the 1720s and
1740s despite Maryland's numerous stands of excellent
shipbuilding timber. At the time Stephen Steward opened
his yard on the West River in the 1740s a renewed demand
for merchant vessels was on the rise. Local merchants
began to appreciate the need for independent merchant
fleets and so became partners with established shipwrights
throughout Maryland. With the onset of America's separa-
tion from England in the late 18th century, naval contracts
took over most of the shipbuilding efforts, with only a few
yards actually benefitting from the new business. The West
River yard was one of those that benefitted while the
Annapolis yards went into decline. Shipyards of note
during this period include those at Baltimore, Chestertown,
Fells Point, Snowhill, and Joppa.
By 1756 Steward had joined local financier Samuel
Galloway III to produce some of the finest vessels of the
time. As can readily be seen by a preliminary list recorded
from the Annapolis Port Records (see box at left), vessels
owned and possibly built by Steward and Galloway include
the whole gamut of 18th-century ship types, from the 20-
ton schooner to the 270-ton ship.
Shipyards may tell us more about Maryland's history
than any single shipwreck. From the Steward yard alone
we are collecting information about 18th-century technolo-
gy, vessel types, labor, social functions, commerce,
politics, timber resources, and environment; and research

into the Steward yard has already pointed us to period
wreck sites. In 1992 we hope to locate other yards of the
18th century and perhaps even of the 17th century.

MMAP 1992
With the lessons of the 1991 field season we are able to
project the 1992 schedule so that we can re-visit important
sites discovered during past surveys as well as initiate new
surveys. This year's schedule allows us to perform nine
two-week surveys with interim two-week office stays to
collect and then formalize field data. With alternating
supervisory assignments no single person will be over-
taxed by the end of the season. We hope that this system
will allow us to cover, at least in cursory fashion, all of
Maryland's waterways by 1995. The resulting data can then
be entered into a database that will become the basis for the
preservation, detailed study, and management of submerged
historic and prehistoric properties.
The Maryland Maritime Archaeology Program is
attempting to meet its mandates and at the same time to
develop practices that might be adopted by other states
wishing to preserve their maritime heritage through
archaeology. So far, the Maryland program has been
extremely successful. A significant amount of archaeology
has been accomplished, and, perhaps most important,
Maryland's citizens continue to display enthusiasm for
participating in the program's surveys and research.
Archaeologists have long been saying that archaeological
remains should be for the benefit of the public, and the
MMAP has shown that it is possible to directly involve
private citizens while preserving our maritime heritage in
a professional manner.


Mar. 16 to Mar. 27
Apr. 13 to Apr. 24
May 11 to May 22
Jun. 08 to Jun. 19
Jul. 06 to Jul. 17
Aug. 03 to Aug. 14
Aug. 31 to Sep. 11
Sep. 28 to Oct. 09
Oct. 26 to Nov. 06


Steward Shipyard
Kent Island
Chester River
Totness Survey
West/Rhodes Consortium
Magothy River
Wye River System
Patuxent River
Whitehall River System

Bruce Thompson
Paul Hundley
Bruce Thompson
Steve Bilicki
Bruce Thompson
Paul Hundley
Bruce Thompson
Paul Hundley
Bruce Thompson

INA Quaterly 19.1

The Brown's Ferry Vessel:

A River Transport of the Early Eighteenth Century

by Fred Hocker

Long-time readers of the INA Newsletter may remember
an article from 1979 (volume 6.1) about a colonial vessel
found in South Carolina, at Brown's Ferry. INA had not
participated in its excavation, but Richard Steffy of the
INA faculty had traveled to South Carolina to record the
remains and had built a 1:10 scale model of a preliminary
reconstruction. Soon after, the remains went into a large,
purpose-built treatment tank for conservation and there lay
in polyethylene glycol (PEG) for nearly a decade. The cy-
press, pine, and live oak timbers of the vessel were
removed from the tank in the fall of 1990, and INA has
resumed its involvement in the project, directing the
recording and reconstruction of the hull remains.
The vessel was discovered in 1971 by Mr. Hampton
Shuping, a sport diver and diving instructor. He reported
the find, near the coastal city of Georgetown, to the South
Carolina Institute of Archeology and Anthropology
(SCIAA), which excavated and raised the remains in 1976
under the direction of Alan Albright, then the state under-
water archaeologist. The vessel lay parallel to the bank of
the Black River with its stern exposed, but was largely
covered by its last cargo, nearly 12,000 bricks. It was also
covered by a large amount of 19th- and 20th-century
debris, since the site bad been the location of a cable ferry

(Brown's Ferry) between the 1780s and 1954. Included in
the debris were the remains of at least one automobile (a
1912 Maxwell, according to witnesses) and several ferry
barges. This rubbish complicated the excavation and made
dating the site difficult, although it was eventually learned
that all of the material found below the bricks and wedged
between the frames could be comfortably placed in the first
half of the 18th century, around 1740. This made the
Brown's Ferry hull the oldest American-built vessel yet
discovered and offered archaeologists and historians a new
perspective on shipping and shipbuilding in the colonial
The site was mapped largely by touch, as the Black
River is nearly opaque, but SCIAA artist Darby Erd was
able to make astonishingly accurate perspective drawings
of the hull as it was found. As excavation progressed, it
became apparent that a large portion of the hull survived,
although it had been distorted and damaged by the brick
cargo. The starboard side, while broken off at the turn of
the bilge, survived to its full height over much of the
vessel's length, and the port side was almost as complete.
The bow had decayed somewhat, but the stem was pre-
served to a height of nearly 4 feet (1.2 m). Only the stern
had suffered serious decay, as it lay slightly up slope and

Left: The lower part of the hull of the
Brown's Ferry vessel being lifted from the
Black River in 1976. As can be seen here,
the bottom of the vessel was still solidly fas-
rened together when excavated. The hull
timbers have undergone nine years of con-
servation; after the vessel has been
reconstructed it will be displayed in the Rice
Museum of Georgetown, South Carolina.

Above, right: The vessel and itsfinal cargo
of bricks, as found imbedded in the bank of
the Black River, South Carolina. Archaeolo-
gists had to remove a great deal of 19th-
and 20th century debris from the site before
the vessel and its cargo could be excavated.

INA Quarterly 19.1

had been exposed to erosion by river currents and destruc-
tion by gribbles (wood-eating organisms that live in the
surface of the bottom mud). The steropost and transom
were missing entirely, and the ends of planks protruding
from the bottom had been severely damaged in places.
Fortunately, the damage did not extend very far forward,
and several detached frames from the stern were found, so
it has been possible to reconstruct the shape of the stern, if
not its structure.
The detached starboard side was dismantled and its
components removed to temporary storage with other loose
timbers. The bottom of the bull, which was still solidly
fastened together, was lifted from the river as a single unit.
A steel frame was constructed and the vessel suspended
from it on nylon straps. A heavy crane could then lift both
frame and vessel from the river and onto a waiting truck.
The remains were taken to temporary storage until a
conservation facility could be built.
Richard Steffy was invited to record the remains while
they lay in temporary storage. During a brief visit, he was
able to take enough measurements in adverse conditions (he
informs me that parts of the bottom were not accessible, as
they were inhabited by a fierce-looking snake) to produce
the preliminary reconstruction and model described in the
1979 Newsletter. At the same time, SCIAA staff made full-
sized tracings of many of the loose pieces on clear plastic.
By 1981, funds had been appropriated to build a
conservation facility in Columbia, South Carolina. This
included a large tank, with an interior length of 55 feet, a
breadth of 15 feet, and a depth of 8 feet, in which the
remains could be immersed during the lengthy conservation
process. Although the vessel twice had to be removed to
allow repair of leaks in the tank walls and installation of a

stainless steel liner, its wood was
eventually stabilized with polyeth-
ylene glycol. A medium weight,
rather than the heavier PEG used
to conserve the Kyrenia and Serge
Limanm hulls, was chosen because
much of the wood, especially the
live oak stem and frames, was in
excellent condition. Most oaks are
difficult to conserve, due to their
density; and, paradoxically, the
better preserved excavated wood
is, the harder it is to conserve,
since the PEG can not easily
penetrate the whole structure.
Live oak (Quercus virginiana) is
Drwin: D. Ed; couny SCA the densest of oaks, and it was
feared that impregnating it with
anything except a light-weight PEG would be extremely
difficult. Unfortunately, the lighter the PEG, the softer it
is when dry and the less strength it imparts to the timber.
This was not a great worry with the oak, as it was still
very strong, but the pine and cypress planking was already
quite soft. In the end, the medium-weight PEG was chosen
as a compromise.
The results are mixed. The pine and cypress, though
still slightly soft, came through treatment in nearly perfect
condition, with little if any shrinkage, distortion, or
damage. Unfortunately, the live oak proved impenetrable
and emerged from treatment shrunken, twisted, and
cracked, although still mechanically sound in many places.
After the nine years (from 1981 to 1990) of conserva-
tion, detailed recording and reconstruction of the vessel
could begin. SCIAA contacted Mr. Steffy about completing
the study of the hull, but he had by then retired and asked
me if I would like to take it on as I was writing a disserta-
tion on similar European flat-bottomed boats. I made
arrangements with SCIAA to spend October of 1990 in Co-
lumbia and to work with the staff on completing the
conservation and recording the hull in detail.
I arrived in late September and found the coherent
bottom of the vessel lying on low blocking in the empty
conservation tank. The plan was to raise the vessel and
erect braced trestling under it to support it at a height of 4
feet. This would allow even circulation of air around the
hull during the controlled drying of the PEG and would
give access to the-bottom of the hull for recording. The
work was accomplished in less than a day. The same crane
company (now called The Crane Co.) that had lifted the
vessel out of the Black River in 1976 and put it into the
tank in 1981 returned to raise the vessel and hold it off the

INA Ouarterly 19.1

Left: The hull remains in the stainless steel conservation
tank in Columbia, South Carolina. The wood was
immersed in polyethylene glycol, a water soluble wax,
until the waterlogged timbers were thoroughly saturated.
As the PEG hardens it imparts strength to the weakened
wood structure.

Right: Preliminary lines drawings of the Brown's Ferry
vessel. Note the exaggerated hollows in the bow and
stern, evident in the body plan at the far right. The
hollows result in a wine-glass shape, also seen in the
body plan, at the vessel's ends. While the vessel's
construction seems to follow conventional British boat-
building, it also exhibits unusualfeatures that may derive
from Native American dugouts.

bottom of the tank while a crew of more than 10 conserva-
tors and archaeologists rapidly erected pre-fabricated
supports under the hull. The vessel was then lowered care-
fully onto the trestles and shored up where necessary. The
trestling can later be converted into a frame for moving the
remains to their eventual home, the Rice Museum of
Georgetown, South Carolina.
Before recording could begin, the top of the tank had to
be covered and a climate-control system installed, so that
the drying process could be controlled and monitored. Even
though the wood had been impregnated with PEG, the PEG
still contained a substantial amount of water which had to
be removed slowly to prevent distortion or damage. SCIAA
had purchased a climate-control unit that would allow the
conservator, Dr. Jon Leader, to adjust both temperature
and humidity, but this had to be wired and ducting run
from the unit to the tank.
With the inside of the tank at a clammy 72 degrees and
90 percent humidity, it was possible to begin recording the
remains. The job was divided into two parts: the coherent
hull, and the "fragments". Many loose timbers had been
removed from the site during excavation, and the starboard
side had been dismantled at the same time. In addition,

some of the less rigidly connected components of the
coherent hull had been removed prior to conservation to
prevent damage in the tank. Altogether, over 150 frag-
ments, some in excess of 14 feet long, were removed from
the tank for recording. These had all been tagged with
identifying numbers at one time, but few of the tags were
legible after nine years in hot PEG. After careful scrutiny
of tags and site plans, we were able to identify many of the
timbers, but others will have to be compared to the 1977
fragment drawings, and still others will only be identified
after trial and error fitting to adjoining pieces. In addition,
preliminary examination of the loose pieces indicated that
not all were from the Brown's Ferry vessel (several large
timbers were from the Mepkin Abbey wreck, a 19th-
century vessel from the Cooper River), nor were all of the
fragments ship timbers (quite a few were tree branches and
other wooden debris from around the Brown's Ferry site).
In the end, 134 loose timbers were selected for detailed
recording. These were drawn directly at 1:10 scale and
photographed by the staff of the Underwater Archaeology
Division of SCIAA.
Inside the tank, Jon Leader, Harold Fortune, and I
began to record the bottom of the hull. Harold and I took
a number of sections, both longitudinal and transverse,
using plumb bob and tape measure, and recorded the
dimensions of the different components, while Jon recorded
details of fastenings and tool marks.
At the end of October, I returned to College Station to
begin the reconstruction, while Jon and Harold continued
to monitor the hull and made preparations for transporting
the remains and reassembling them in Georgetown, where

INA Quarterly 19.1


Drawing: P. Hocker

they will go once they have stabilized. The reassembly
should be fairly straightforward, as few of the individual
components have broken up and the fastening patterns are
distinctive enough to allow rapid location of original
positions. The vessel will be reassembled in its new home,
the third floor of the Rice Museum, after the bottom
structure has been lowered into place through a hole cut in
the museum's roof.
Now that I have bad time to look at the recorded
information, the measurements, drawings, and photographs,
I am quite impressed by this little river vessel. Much of the
construction seems to follow conventional British boat-
building, but some aspects are unusual and may be derived
from Native American dugouts. As reconstructed, the
vessel is 50 feet, 3 inches long (15.32 m), with a beam of
14 feet, 2 inches (4.32 m) and a sheer height of 4 feet
(1.22 m) amidships. The 25 tons of bricks found in the
hold represent the absolute maximum cargo capacity and
left less than 10 inches (25.4 cm) of freeboard.
The basic element of both the vessel's shape and its
construction is a flat bottom, made up of three straight
planks 3 inches (7.6 cm) thick, with an overall length of 46
feet (14 m) and a maximum breadth of 4 feet, 6 inches
(1.37 m). The bottom is leaf-shaped, with bevels along the
outboard edges to seat the lower edges of the garboards,
the first side planks; in many ways the bottom is a cross
between a dugout bottom and a very wide keel. The stem
assembly, made up of three timbers, is fastened directly to
the upper surface of the bottom, as were the missing
sternpost and transom.
Over the bottom structure, a conventional carvel boat
was built by whole molding, the dominant method of ship

design in post-medieval Europe. The shapes of the midship
frame and of four other frames, spaced more or less evenly
over the length of the vessel, were determined by simple
alterations of a single, basic sectional shape. In its simplest
form, as seems to have been used here, whole molding
consists of moving the basic midships curve upward and
inward as the frames approach the ends of the vessel, and
connecting these curves to the keel or bottom by straight
lines or hollows. A section taken from the ends of a boat
built in this manner will often have a wine-glass shape. The
advantage of the method is its simplicity; the disadvantage
lies in the hull shape produced. Extreme hollows often
result in the bow and stern, limiting capacity, and the
method cannot accurately predict bow and stern shapes that
can be easily planked, so some adjustment is always
required at the ends of the hull.
The five key frames were made up out of floor timbers
and paired futtocks, fastened together by nails and tree-
nails. These five frames were then fastened to the bottom
to tie the bottom planks together and serve as guides for
shaping the rest of the hull. Battens were probably fastened
to the first frames, along with the garboards, and the rest
of the frame shapes taken off the battens. The remaining 15
frames were also made of floor timbers and pairs of
futtocks, but not fastened together. Once all the frames
were installed and held in place by a wide, flat keelson, the
wale, a heavy timber nearly 4 inches (10.2 cm) square,
could be fastened to the tops of the frames to keep the
framework rigid. The rest of the planking would then be
laid out and fastened. Alternatively, the wale may have
been fastened to the first five frames and used to shape the
hull. In a curious departure from traditional practice, the

INA Quarterly 19.1

frames were not trimmed to allow the planking to lie flush,
instead hollows were carved out of the inboard surfaces of
the planks to fit the irregularities and curvature- of the
frames. Later in the vessel's working life, extra, free
futtocks were added between every third pair of frames to
strengthen the sides.
Eighteenth-century travelers' accounts indicate that such
vessels, called periaugers (from pirogue or periagua,
"dugout"), often had a small deck forward and a cabin aft,
but were otherwise open. No remains of deck or cabin
have survived on the Brown's Ferry vessel, except for an
oddly-shaped knee, but a windlass and its bitts were
recovered from the bow. The construction of the bitts
strongly suggests that they were mounted on a deck, rather
than in the hold.
The keelson had two mast steps cut into it, one just
abaft midships and the other in the bow. Contemporary
illustrations indicate the use of a short-gaffed schooner rig
on such vessels, and the extreme forward location of the
foremast step suggests that a bowsprit and headsail may
have been rigged as well. Nothing survives of spars or
rigging, but two vertical holes in the preserved section of
the starboard wale near the mainmast may be the attach-
ment points for the mainmast shrouds.
Contemporary accounts tell us that peri-
augers were the primary form of commercial
river transport, in addition to dugouts and
extended dugouts used at the local level.
The relatively fine lines of the Brown's
Ferry vessel suggest that it was capable of
short passages in the more open coastal

Harold Fortune (left) and the author taking the
lines off the coherent hull remains.

A Davis quadrant, a navigator's instrument
that predates the octant and sexiant, found
near the Brown's Ferry vessel. ls presence on
an inland and coastal vessel is something of a

waters between the major ports of colonial
South Carolina, such as Charleston and
Georgetown. In fact, the sharp ends and
round bilges are decidedly unusual for a
river barge, especially for one built on a flat
wB-. bottom. Flat bottoms are typically used
o:CoaySCIAA either to simplify construction (clearly not
the case here) or to provide the maximum interior capacity
for a given beam and draft (also not the case; a barge of
similar overall dimensions to the Brown's Ferry vessel
could easily carry more than twice the load). I believe the
relatively narrow flat bottom was a response to the lack of
piers and quays along the Carolina rivers during the early
period of settlement. Most of the rivers are tidal quite far
inland, and a flat-bottomed boat could be grounded to load
and unload along an undeveloped bank. This type of vessel
is not known from later periods, and was probably ren-
dered obsolete by the construction of piers by plantation

I would like to thank SCIAA and INA for sponsoring
the recording and reconstruction of the Brown's Ferry
vessel, and the director, Bruce Rippeteau, and staff of
SCIAA, particularly Jon Leader, Harold Fortune, Steve
Smith, and the entire Underwater Archaeology Division for
their invaluable assistance in recording the hull remains.
The contribution of the Crane Co., of Columbia, South
Carolina, should not be minimized: they have lifted the
vessel out of and into rivers, ponds, and tanks with
extraordinary care and efficiency over the last 15 years.

INA Quarterly 19.1


The Short Life of an Unlucky Spanish Galleon:
Los Tres Reyes, 1628-1634
by Carla Rahn Phillips
ISBN 0-8166-1811-9, $14.95, 80 pages, University of Minnesota Press, 1990

by Kevin Crisman

Los Tres Reyes might be termed a timberr, treenail, and
bolt" look at a galleon built for King Phillip IV of Spain in
the second quarter of the 17th century. Much like Carla
Rahn Phillips's earlier and lengthier masterpiece Six
Galleons for the King of Spain, this volume uses documeo-
tary sources to examine in detail the material aspects of
ship construction and seafaring life that are so near and
dear to nautical archaeologists.
Inspiration for the book was provided by a set of
manuscript ships' inventories purchased in 1978 by the
James Bell Ford Library at the University of Minnesota.
The inventories describe the contents of six newly-complet-
ed galleons as they lay at Bilbao in 1628 and were intended
to ensure that builder Martin de Aranha fulfilled the terms
of his contract with the crown. Phillips chose to focus her
attention on one of the six galleons, Nuestra Sefrora de los
Tres Reyes (Our Lady of the Three Kings), because this
vessel alone left an unambiguous documentary record from
her construction to her loss.
Los Tres Reyes and her five sister ships entered the
royal fleet at a particularly critical time for Spain and its
century-old New World empire. In the year 1628 Spain--
for the first and only time--lost an entire fleet to its
enemies when a Dutch fleet trapped and destroyed 15 ships
of the New Spain flota at Matanzas Bay, Cuba. The decade
that followed the Matanzas disaster saw Spain stretching its
naval resources to their limit to maintain the flow of New
World gold and silver across the Atlantic, expel invaders
from the West Indies, and fight a major war in Europe.
The galleon Los Tres Reyes played a critical role in this
struggle by carrying treasure and escorting merchant craft
until 1634 when she accidently ran aground off the Colum-
bian port of Cartagenia, was stripped of cargo and fittings,
and sold to wreckers.
Only 80 pages in length, the book Los Tres Reyes
nevertheless fairly bulges with information on early 17th-
century Spanish galleon design, construction, and outfitting
practices. Part one deals with the construction and prepara-
tion for service of Los Tres Reyes by Martin de Aranha be-

tween 1625 and 1628. Part two contains facsimiles of the
Bell Library's inventory of the galleon's equipment, along
with typeset transcriptions of the inventory in Spanish and
English. The third and final part of the book tells the-story
of Los Tres Reyes's six-year career in the service of the
Spanish crown, including her part in the 1629 expedition
that evicted French and English settlers from the islands of
San Cristobal and Nieves in the Caribbean. Sources for
information in the text are cited in several pages of end-
notes, and the book is rounded off with a thorough index.
The book's plates include five fold-out pages and
endsheets of ink-and-watercolor drawings from the unpub-
lished Diccionario Maritirno, a maritime dictionary com-
pleted in 1756 by Captain General the Marques de la
Victoria of the Spanish Navy. The 133 plates of the
Diccionario currently reside in the collections of the Museo
Naval in Madrid. Phillips notes on the copyright page that
the Marques de la Victoria's work deserves to be more
widely known, and I wholeheartedly agree with her. The
six illustrations included in the book form a veritable
shopping list of hull components and ship's stores: compass
timber and tree crooks for construction; keel, stern, and
frame construction; shipbuilders' tools; anchor cables;
blocks and other rigging elements; and interior views of
stem and stern construction. Although the Diccionario dates
to the first half of the 18th century, its illustrations would
be a valuable reference for all nautical archaeologists with
an interest in the period dating from the 16th to the 19th
century. This gem should be published in its entirety.
Spanish shipbuilding and seafaring in the 16th and 17th
centuries have for decades been neglected by maritime
historians and distorted by the "look at all this loot"
publications of treasure hunters. Los Tres Reyes and the
other published works of Carla Rahn Phillips are changing
all that by building a solid, scholarly foundation of infor-
mation on these subjects, a foundation that will serve
historians, archaeologists, and interested readers for years
to come.

INA Quarterly 19.1


Dr. William Fife

by Cheryl Haldane

Few people have contributed as much to the success of
the Institute of Nautical Archaeology's excavation programs
as Dr. William Fife, professor of Hyperbaric Medicine at
Texas A&M University. His contributions of equipment
and maintenance, initial supervision of diving standards,
and readiness to provide information to INA excavators
have resulted in more than 25,000 dives without serious
Chip Vincent, INA's president, noted, "I think we all
feel his presence is with us during each season, particularly
since his daughter Caroline has been a project physician at
Ulu Burun for three years."
INA has one of the safest and most competent scientific
diving programs in the United States, according to Dr.
Fife, who describes the program at national meetings as
"the epitome of scientific diving." At the Ulu Burun
shipwreck excavations, where archaeologists routinely work
140 to 180 feet below the surface, the record of the twice-
daily diving routine with oxygen decompression has more
than matched statistical predictions of diving safety. Dr.
Fife proudly states that the Institute's use of in-water
oxygen decompression is ahead of the state of the art.
He is quick to credit the conservatism and dedication of
INA's archaeological director George Bass, long-time staff
member Don Frey, Ulu Burun excavation director Cemal
Pulak, and other hyperbaric physicians, including daughter
Caroline Fife and Yancey Mebane, with achieving such
high standards, but his own role is also clear.
Before George Bass and the Institute were contacted to
join Texas A&M, Dr. Fife, as supervisor of the University
Scientific Diving Program, had to evaluate INA's diving
practices. He reports giving a positive endorsement, then
providing equipment for use in excavating the Glass Wreck
at Serge Limam. In addition to sending a compressor to
Turkey, Dr. Fife sent over high pressure tanks (still in use)
that enabled divers to work more freely on the seabed.
He also served as the Serge Limani excavation hyper-
baric physician for two years. Although Dr. Fife had spent
28 days under water in saturation diving in the Bahamas,
he had not participated in archaeological diving or visited
Turkey before. He notes gleefully that he stayed on the

.lmO: ILNA Areuvce

Dr. Fife at Serge Limani.

barge repairing compressors and rebuilding the recompres-
sion chamber and regulators while other crew members
busted rocks on shore, and one of his favorite memories is
of trying to pump out the bilge on the old diving barge.
The boat crew depended on a one-lung diesel engine
pump for the task, and Dr. Fife reports standing on the
edge of the barge trying to start the pump about the time a
Turkish gunboat arrived to inspect the excavation. He got
knocked overboard when the pump kicked in and had to
band over a dripping passport to the amused boat captain.
Dr. Fife speaks of his time in Turkey fondly and
remembers his fascination with excavating 1000-year-old
artifacts from the seabed, but says that the comradeship of
the excavations was most important. He maintains a
friendship with his diving partner Oguz Alp6zen, now
director of the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeolo-
gy and another longtime contributor to the Institute's
"I'll never forget Bill telling me, when he saw me
carrying a load of lumber to help build our camp at Serge
Limani, that at my age I should take it easy. For the rest
of the day I saw Bill, several years my senior, rowing
boats, starting engines, and carrying equipment under the
hot sun. What a guy!" recalls George Bass.

INA Quarterly 19.1

Dr. Fife's position
as supervisor of the
Hyperbaric Labora-
tory at Texas A&M
University first
brought him into
contact with INA,
but his contributions
to the Institute have
gonefar beyond his
professional duties,
and members of the
INA staff speak of
him with great
affection and re-

Photo: KI Poden

Another friendship forged at Serge Limam was with Ulu
Burun excavation director Cemal Pulak and INA staff artist
Sema Pulak, then newlyweds, who now regard the Fifes as
second parents. Dr. Fife recently treated Sema's father, a
surgeon, in the Texas A&M Hyperbaric Medicine Labora-
tory in a way not available elsewhere and substantially
improved his health. Many stories like this can be told, but
it still would be difficult to communicate the affection and
respect he commands from the people who work with him.
"Dr. Fife is a dynamo, sheer energy, a source of
inspiration for us all," commented Cemal Pulak. "Unfortu-
nately his responsibilities to his patients at Texas A&M
prevent his further assistance in the field, but we know we
can always count on him for technical and diving support."
As supervisor of the Hyperbaric Laboratory at the Texas
A&M University Health Science Center, Dr. Fife runs the
laboratory and trains students in the treatment of carbon
monoxide poisonings, non-union bone fractures, failing
skin grafts, diabetic ulcers, and the very few diving
accidents that occur in this landlocked area. About 130
treatments are given each month, and the lab also conducts

research in migraine headaches, post-polio syndrome, and
chronic fatigue disorder.
Texas A&M has acknowledged bis contributions to
hyperbaric medicine and to students through the Academic
Achievement for Teaching Award for courses in physiolo-
gy, anatomy, and aerospace/hydrospace physiology. The
Undersea Medical Society presented him with its Outstand-
ing Research Award, and he has received many other
honors in recognition of his pioneering work in diving
For 10 years, Dr. Fife held the record for deep diving
with hydrogen-oxygen systems. He also has developed
quite a few decompression tables for diving with mixed
helium and oxygen to 425 feet in the Gulf of Mexico, and
for air diving to 160 feet for an hour bottom time.
One of Dr. Fife's greatest hopes is that he can return to
Turkey for a few more dives on INA excavations "before
he gets too old." His contributions to the Institute, which
he sees as quite small, have ensured that many divers will
be able to say the same thing.

INA Quarerly 19.1

I _


Bass Lectures
George Bass has been invited to
speak at the University of Victoria in
British Columbia, Canada, as part of
the Lansdowne Lecture program. The
talks are scheduled for the period
September 28 to October 2, 1992. Dr.
Bass will deliver three public lectures
and will also give a specialized talk
not open to the general public. At the
public meetings, he plans to speak on
the Bronze Age Shipwreck at Ulu-
burun, the 11th-century Glass Wreck
at Serge Limani, and on the develop-
ment of techniques of nautical archae-
On October 16, Dr. Bass will give
the 1992 Filix Neubergh Lecture at
the University of G6teborg in Sweden.
Later in the year, he will deliver the
keynote address and a lecture during
an international maritime archaeology
conference at the Australian National
Maritime Museum in Sydney.

Cooperative Program
in the Netherlands
Bob Neyland and Kathleen
McLaughlin Neyland, INA Research
Associates, are assisting with the
excavation of a 16th-century vessel in
the Netherlands. The excavation is
being conducted during the summer of
1992 as a cooperative effort between
the Museum voor Scheepsarcheologie,
located in Ketelhaven, the Nether-
lands, and INA. The site is located in
the polders, new land reclaimed from
the draining of the Zuyder Zee, where
the Dutch have carefully preserved
and recorded numerous shipwreck

Proceedings Available

Copies of the Underwater Archaeology: Proceedings from the Society for
Historical Archaeology 1991 meetings in Richmond are now available. The
volume,-edited by John Broadwater, contains a wide range of papers. Topics
include shipwrecks from the 16th to the 19th centuries; educational programs
in underwater archaeology; management of Navy wrecks; excavation of the
submerged 17th-century city at Port Royal, Jamaica; underwater archaeo-
logical preserves; and international research. The book is recommended for
libraries, underwater archaeology societies, historic preservation offices,
maritime museums, and interested sport divers, as well as nautical ar-
chaeologists. The SHA advises that the printing of this volume was limited,
so orders should be made as soon as possible.
Copies of the 1991 Proceedings are sold for $15.00, plus $1.75 for post-
age and handling (for the first copy). Add $.25 postage and handling for
each additional copy. For foreign surface mail add $2.25 to the price of the
book; add $7.00 for foreign air mail. Send orders with checks (in U.S
dollars) or purchase orders to: The Society for Historical Archaeology, PO
Box 30446, Tucson, AZ 85751-0446, USA. Volume discounts are offered.
The Proceedings from 1978 through 1990 also are available,

Texas A&M University's Nautical
Archaeology Program has also worked
in cooperation with the Dutch muse-
um, having established a formal in-
ternship there in 1988 for Texas A&M
nautical archaeology students interest-
ed in research on Dutch ships and
shipping. The 1992 project, however,
is the first cooperative excavation
conducted by the museum and archae-
ologists from INA.

CCAP Activities
Part of any archaeological project
includes educating the public about the
excavations and research conducted by

project staff. Participants in the Co-
lumbus Caravels Archaeological Pro-
ject have been doing just that since
returning from their 1991 field season
at St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica. James
Parent, director of the project, assist-
ed in the opening of an exhibit, "In
Search of the Caravels of Columbus:
The Fourth Voyage," at the new
University Center Galleries at Texas

The cover photo for the last issue
of the Newsletter (volume 18, no.
4) was not credited. It is by Don
Frey and is of the Bronze Age
Wreck site.

INA Quarterly 19.1


A&M University. The exhibit, which
was displayed from February 20 to
April 15, 1992, was created by the
Office of University Art Collections
and Exhibitions. It included maps,
diaries, artifacts, and taped narration
on Columbus, 16-century seafaring,
caravel design, and recent excavations
at St. Ann's Bay. In conjunction with
the exhibit, a number of lectures were
sponsored by the university galleries.
Jim Parrent spoke at the exhibit's
opening about the CCAP's search for
Columbus's last ships. On March 12,
1992, Paul Willoughby, a nautical
archaeology student and project partic-
ipant, delivered a second talk on the
CCAP at the University Center Gal-
Noted historian Mauricio Obregon
of the University of the Andes, flew
from Bogota, Columbia, to deliver a
special, university-wide lecture enti-
tled "The Voyages of Christopher
Columbus" on April 3.
Archaeologists from the project
have been reaching a much broader
audience as well. Jim Parrent lectured
on the final voyage of Columbus at a
meeting on February 28, 1992, of the
Natural Science Council of the Palm
Springs Desert Museum and Coachella
Valley Archaeological Society. Greg
Cook, a CCAP staff member, spoke at
the Library Symposium for the Hunts-
ville High School in March 1992.
On April 14, Dr. Parrent gave a
slide presentation on his search for the
caravels believed to have been aban-
doned by Columbus in St. Ann's Bay
to the Conference for Protective Relay
Engineers, which was held at Texas
A&M University's Memorial Student
Center. He then went on to deliver the
Fourth Annual Distinguished Lecture
in Archaeology at the University of
St. Thomas on April 26, speaking
again about the search for Columbus's
last caravels.
The project also has appeared in a
segment of a PBS series entitled "Co-

lumbus and the Age of Discovery,"
which aired October 6 to 9, 1991.

The Kinneret Boat
An article about the Kinneret Boat
appeared in the Science column of
Newsweek's October 14, 1991, edi-
tion. "Finding the Real Ship of Zion?"
touches on what biblical archaeologists
have learned from the boat. Shelley
Wachsmann, an Institute of Nautical
Archaeology faculty member and the
director of the Kinneret Boat excava-
tion, is featured in the article, where
he mentions plans to return to the Sea
of Galilee for further surveys and
The Kinneret Boat project has
attracted attention elsewhere. Excava-
tion Director Shelley Wachsmann was

invited to speak about the project at
the 29th Annual New Horizons in
Science Briefing, sponsored by the
Council for the Advancement of Sci-
ence Writing. The council, a nonprofit
educational corporation run by distin-
guished journalists and scientists,
brings together scientists and science
writers each year for a four-day meet-
ing. Its purpose is to give the journal-
ists the background and perspective
necessary in understanding new devel-
opments in the sciences and technolo-
gy. Shelley Wachsmann spoke at the
November 5, 1991, meeting.
On May 3, 1992, he gave a presen-
tation on the Kinneret Boat to the
Milwaukee Area Biblical Archaeology




You will find this shirt smart.
comfortable, and a pleasure to
wear. The INA logo is embroi-
dered into the material. The shirt
comes in white with the embroi-
dery in dark blue.

Supplied by Hanes in high quali-
ty, 100% cotton interlock.
Price: $30.00, including shipping
in the U.S. Please send a check
(in U.S. dollars) or money order
with your order. Allow 4 to 6
weeks for delivery.
Unisex sizes: Small, Medium,
Large, Extra Large

INA Quarterly 19.1


George F. Bass, Archaeological Director
Donald G. Geddes 1l, Treasurer

John H. Baird
George F. Bas
J.E.R. Chilton
Gregory M. Cook
Harlan Crow
Claude Duthuit
Daniel Fallon
Donald 0. Geddes MI
William Graves
Nixon Griffu
Bruce Heafitz

Robert K. Vincent, Jr., President
Rebecca H. Holloway, Secretary

Bengt O. Januson
Harry C. Kahn II
Michael L. Katzev
Jack W. Kelley
Sally R. Lancaster
David C. Langworthy
Samuel J. LePrak
Robert B. Laron
Frederick R. Mayer
William A. McKenzie

Donald A. Frey, Vice President,

William H. Mobley
Alex G. Nason
Ray H. Siegfried [I, Chairman
William T. Sturgis
Robert L. Walker
Lew 0. Ward
Peter M. Way
Garry A. Weber
Martin A. Wilcox
George O. Yamini

George F. Bass, George T. & Gladys H. Abell Professor of Nautical Archaeology
Kevin J. Crisman, Assistant Professor
D. L. Hamilton, Associate Professor
Frederick Hocker, Assistant Professor
J. Richard Steffy, Sara W. & George O. Yamini Professor of Nautical Archaeology, Emeritus
Frederick H. van Doorninck, Jr., Frederick R. Mayer Professor in Nautical Archaeology
Shelley Wachsrnann, Meadows Visiting Assistant Professor of Biblical Archaeology

Joseph Cozzi, Mr. & Mrs. J. Brown Cook
Graduate Fellow
Tina Erwin, Mr. & Mrs. J. Brown Cook
Graduate Fellow
Jerome Hall, Mr. & Mrs. J. Brown Cook
Graduate Fellow
Cemal Pulak, Mr. & Mrs. Ray H.
Siegfried, Ir. Graduate Fellow

Edwin Doran, J., Ph.D.
Cynthia 1. Biseman, Ph.D.
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