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Title: A Letter to William Wilberforce, Esq., by Philo-Africanus
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098725/00001
 Material Information
Title: A Letter to William Wilberforce, Esq., by Philo-Africanus
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: Candidus
Mansfield, William Murray, Earl of
Publisher: J. Desrett
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1790
Copyright Date: 1790
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098725
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 65345422


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Page 1
        Page 2
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    Back Matter
        Page 63
        Page 64
Full Text




L E 'r T E R

T 0


11 V



11tirntc (0: 3. DEOBRLTT, oppofive lint1ington H~ouk, Pkead~ily.

16L) CC. X c


I HA VE obferved, with great concern,
thie growing inattention of the public to-
wards the difcuflion of the flave trade, a
fIbjct in which, as you jufily obferve,
" the interefts, not only of this country,
" nor of Europe alone, but of the whole
" world, and of poft;rity, are involved."
You only, Sir, have fill the virtue to per-
fevere in your exertions; to abftrad your
attention from the paltry revolutions of
Europe, and to employ your precious time
an1d abilities in favour of the unfortunate
Africans, even while they ungratefully re-
fule to think themselves unfortunate, or to
tiLke any notice of your unfolicited exer-
B tions.

fions. You, therefore, Mr. Willcrfiorce
ire the natural patron of all fpeculatorr on
the fubje& ; and it is in this quality that
I prefume to claim a part of your atten-

I am, Sir, a plain Englifhman, and, like
moft of my countrymen, have fome know-
ledge and rome prejudices. I believe that
the French ate frogs and wore wooden
(hoes, until their glorious revolution had
left them nothing to eat, and no fhoes to
bhn, I hate (flvery and having con-
vinced myfelf, by the reafnitgs of our
friend Mr. Chlrkron, that Guinea captains
are in the habit of poisoning their crews,
and that Weft-India planters are very fond
of maiming and fiarving the negroes, on
whom they depend for fubliflance, I be-
Caiun an early convert to the proje& of
:abolilhing the African flave trade. I might
,ldd, that m y zeal has not been ufelefs, and

that I have made fume proflytes, even
among thofe who, from their total igno-
rance with rCljJptI to Africa and the Weft
Indies, wtre leaI intercfled in the 11cc=ef
of our undertaking. But I will not take
the glory to myfblf. Human rcafon had
little fhare in dfileminating our opinions,
pnd the moft profane ;nd dcfperate unbe-
lievers cannot attribute to fuch a force,
the numerous petitions to parliament that
have appeared in our bchalf.

Unfortunately, Sir, the egiflature took
time to refle&: I fay unfortunately,, be-
caufe fuch a delay could only tend to dif-
turb and confound the underflandings of
His Majefty's loving fubjcits. I, alas !
have had more than my fhare of the gene-
ral perplexity. You will fIarcely believe
it, Sir, but my confufioia of mind came
upon me immediately after that glorious
difplay of eloquence, which will immor-
B talize

(4 )
ii usr the name of Wilberforce. While
vyou were 1fpeaking, Sir, I participated in
,11l your feelings, entered into all your ar-
gunlents, and adopted all your conclusions.
When you faid to the Houfe of Commons,
** wherever the fun (hines, let us go round
the world with him diffufing our benefi-
coce.," I could bear it no longer, but
IrrA the IH fo, in order to medicare in
filene, on what I had heard. A committee
ofr litir funds a legiflativc conftcllation !
oil embarking on a voyage through the
siplle ImIb wo amoft tranl porting idea.
"'lTe Npa' tour Wi tho Crim was a
jke to B lbut when I refleled on the
ignty members--on the married members
-when I considered that the old fun, who
might he fuppofid to know his bufinefs,
h.id done to little for the emancipation of
AMrica-I began to doubt whether it would
le piadicable to abolish flavery by tranf-
porliig the Houfc of Commons.
3 Sir,

Sir, fince this firfi moment of confusion,
I have never been able to reafon straightt
forward, or to my own lfinfattiun. Even
when I rudlcavoured to follow tip your
moll vitlorinue arguments-wlhen I fct off
from the uime prcmilis-I found myfelf
infenfibly led to opposite canclulions.
This, however, I conceived to be neither
your fault nor mine, but the natural effect
of folitary meditation. A man, I appre-
hend, ought never to difcufi any point
with hinkfclf: he has fuch a natural parti-
ality for all the fuggeftions of his own un-
derflanding, he has fuch a deference for
the objections that himfelf has raised, and
makci allowances on all fides to much be-
yond what he is in honour bound to do,
that if hlie is no0t of t wrong counlitution,
lir may probably dic without forming any
opinion .t all. But whe li he is engaged
with a gooAd ulibiantial antagonift, he has
only one lile of the Largumentc to attend to,

.4M. no ceremonies to observe ; lie may
tscat his advcrfary as you treat Mr. Norris ;
he may pervert lIis reafonings, and diftort
hisfads; and however unequal he mayprove
in the conflid, he muff be very unlucky,
or very ignorant in the pradlicc of difpute,
if he does not remain at laft ini full poffef-
lion of his own opinion. For thefe weighty
caules, having provided mylcif with as
much logic as I could conveniently carry,
I went in fearch of an enemy againli
whom I might difcharge it; and I foon
found one at a neighboring coffee houfe,
in the person of a tall tiun-burnt Weft
Indian, whom, from the blacknefs of his
eyes and the whitencis of his teeth, I
firongly fufpc& of being what they call an

After fome converfation, which was
only intended to introduce my fubjet, I
prncccded to make a panegyric on civiliza-

tion, the parent of humanity. I obferved,
.as you have dour, Si, that European
Princes itever go to wtr but from the beft
motives, a sal for the maintenance of cor-
aerce, a am tender Ave fir ther fiubjetis:
that thefr their royAl virws were fully ap-
parent from their royal manifertoes, by
which they in their mercy make known to
the world, the times and feafons at which
the (lfolatiosl of Europe becomes neceffary
to its happinefi : but that in Africa the
viims of war had the additional mifery
of knowing, .that their deftruftion was
owing to refentment or jealoufy, or fome
equally unnatural paflion, the existence of
which muft ncceffarily be attributed to the
accurfkd flave trade. I then repeated the
third relulution proposed by you to the
I lonfe of Commons, and waited with an'
Lin of triumph for the anfiver of my anta-


Sir, the ugly man in the coffee houfc
replied as follows :

Since you tell me that the flave trade
" has necejfarily a tendency to deftroy the
" political happinefs of Africa by pro-
" moting wars, and its domeflic happinefs
" by perverting the courfe of justice, I
" mufl fuppole that you infer this ten-
" dincy from paft experience, or that you
" think it perfectly demonfirable byargu-
" ment.

The appeal to experience may be lbon
" decided. Are wars more frequent in
" Africa now than formerly ? You will
" tell me, that this cannot be afccrtained
" for want of sufficient data to ground
" the comparison. But, of the numerous
" wars which have come to our know-
" ledge, can you prove that any one has
" been excited by the operation of the

" flave 1i'k I Certainly not. Is not this
" trade a voluntity trul ol tn he part of
Sthe Aftit A1R, 41141 lhave they not the
or | it'f iutpfng an end to it whenever
they (hall tr.ife i think it advantageous ?
" Mull aflhfrcdly. I low then do you
piove that A (;Aur ii nIcccffarily produc-
t |ive of ratkIu which it has never pro-
*' iucetd ? It" the Africans feol the many
evils you have defcribcd, why do they
Sot cld them ? If they do not feel
t* hem, how do you prove that fuch evils
cxim1 ?

I do not aflhrt that the Africans are
" ether very happy, or very wife; I only
taM oad, tht their mifcrics are not aug-
s inred by our trade, and that, in their
Si(mtrcourlc with us, they realbo july.

The practice of cnllaving prisoners of
War ppears to prevail very generally
C through,

( to )
" throughout Africa ; and fucli a cufloin,
4 though contrary to juffice, is cafily ex-
j' plained on motives of policy. What
" conduct are we to expe& from a barba-
" rous conqueror to his prifoners ? By re-
Stfloring then on the fpot, he might lofe
Sthe fruits of his vi&ory; and, to keep
t them till the return of peace, and after-
Swards liberate them, may not be pra&i-
" cable, as few uncivilized countries pro-
'duce any considerable excefs of provi-
fioti. By cnflavihg his prifoners, he
ubaint the double advantage of weaken-
ing the enemy, and of adding to his
" avn army as many soldierss as can be
replaced at home by the labour of the
captives. The adoption of this policy
among the neighboring nations will
produce in each a flock of domeflic
" flaves : this flock will form a part of
their wealth; men will become pro-

( 21 )
w prty, aiul, like All othqr property, 'Will
Lw I a sliifrtr,ibl,. i

In thln fltAs og tlntgs, liIMpporc a fos
Srtlan ina1kct ipenldt, what will be tw.
Siuleqniqucitr ? Slave, you Cly, will con.
i* wiahily in'ucali, in valuc-trie; an4
** wnus wiJl therefore become lefs bloody
" than hcforc. But you contend, -that
* they will likewife become more freo
Squant, because they will become profit.
*' abl; and lierc we difr.

If one nation in Africa poffeffed ex-
eluftrvly any article of commerce, I cat
c noncCivc that the neighboring nations
46 might endeavour to procure by violence
4, what they could not obtain in any other
way : but slaves in Africa are the umi-
'" veifal merchandise. When a nation wants
Euurpcan commodities, it feems more
** naturl to purchafc thefe with its fuperA
C 2 fluous

( Iz )
fluous flock, than to endanger thi. fu.
perfluity in a war with its neighbours.
Wars may be frequent in countries
where men are of little or no value;
but I do not underfland why an increase
of their value should make a nation more
eager to ritk their deftrualion,

Let us now consider the machinations
* of our traders, whom we will fuppofe
" totally void of humanity, and regardless
* of every dating but their interest. We
" know that the principal part of the
" flaves is brought from the interior coun-
" try, which is inaccellible to Europeans,
a and where their intrigues can have no
" influence. They might, perhaps, fuc-
" ceed in exciting a war on the coat ; but
" by bo doing they would completely de-
" feat the purpofe of their voyage, becaufe
" we know that, during every fuch war,
4* all trade is fufpended: and fur this rca-

( '3 )
* ton ll *utihor agree, that in every dif.
Section aming lihc tiaves., (he Europ n
trader aIe rnjmplnv'rd m mneditoirs, ib-
" r.ue dthy have thr firungct ihntcrcfl In
" the relloialu n, of trai(quillity.

** The lr'onid charge agaiiift the flqve
** trade refts lolely on allegations, unfqp-
** ported by proof. The Africans are n-
civilized, and their penal laws may be
** absurd; but we know that our own ex-
** cellent code originated in a period of the
" grofflft barbarifm. We may call witch-
* craft an imaginary crime; but would
4* not the African consider in the fame
** light the crimes of coining and forgery ?
"* We are told, on the authority of the
"* convifts themselves, that many of themn
" were unjuffly condemned; but do our
, own convi&s always acquiefcc in the
*' juflicc of their condemnation ? Every
' witnefs who has refided in Africa affures
4 uS,

( '4 )
u ,. that the laws arc moil frictly adni.
niflcrcd. The reward held out in Eng-
" land for the detection of crimes is not
" lUcf likely to operate as a temptation to
" perjury than the value of a flave in
" Africa; and we have no means for its
" prevention, fo formidable as their teft
" or Fetchb, which produces the infant
" dtflrufion of the fuppofcd offender.

As a proof of the a4s of violence which
" the flave trade has a necceffary tendency
" Iu produce. Mr. Wilberforce has told us
*a ry of a King of IBarbeflin, who got
" drunk by Dr. Spaarman's bed-fide, and
" then burnt a village of his own in order
* to procure a flock of flaves, whom he
" proposed to exchange with the Euro.
Spca;is for brandy. The fal may, per.
" haps, be true, for there is no crime of
' whikh a drunken defpot may not be
" guilty ; but upon what principle can
6 his

( 15 )
hii excill' Ii inipurrd to the European
"fltir tr.uid ? << us Itippoef that this
t" Irdlr htdt mi.n roll-d, but tLht the Euro-
" plA4it i4l ut A I tr, t (.irglo nf gum, O9
Sally othri (Jiillnmity y, i it $lnt cviKLdet,
Ithl flavit 1 In-ig It Il valuable, he muff
have burnt more villages, and have fold
to hii.,ineighlours a greater number of
Shis lubjecs, in order to procure fuch a
quaiintity of gum as might be fufficicnt
" to Cxchange for the brandy he wanted ?

It is the fyflem of flavery fo univer-
SIAlly prevalent in Africa, which is the
real evil. While that continues, while
flave., are a transferrable property, every
tiade that we can devife with Africa
Smuft operate as a flave trade, and it will
" operate more fatally than the present,
Secaufe, in proportion as men become
e IcrfN valuable, their lives will be lefs care-
i fully preferred. The evil is inveterate,

( r6 )
" and, I am afraid, cannot easily be extir-
* pated, because, in a country wheremen
" are not incited to labour by wants, they
" can only be compelled to it by violence.
" It is impoffible to forefee what will be
" effe6ed by the million of Mr. Wadfilrom
" and the e(lablifhment of the new Jeru-
" fidln ; but in the mean time, as it is
" probable that the Africans do not con-
* demn to fl.tvcry the moft virtuous of
" their countrymen, nor export the molt
" trirabic of their flaves and captives, it
" ficrm natural to infer, that little ad-
* vantage can acrue from the abolition
" of the prfrent tradc, and that the civili-
* zation of Africa would not be much
" promoted by the annual difperfion of
e eighty tlioufind prifotcrs tand con-
" vits."

In this place, Sir, my antagonist flopt
fo abruptly that I had no time to rally my

( '7 )
idca, md mrfhul dhirm h order of argu-
mnths I isher noe cNitIteird myfilf i4th
,ellkag him, Othw I Jdifieted from his opl-
nmin I tihat Ilit (Ie tulCde had been found
by flximiencfI to carry nmihlry and defolal-
muon wherever it hadil extniemd, and that
thefi evUil welr ieterwoven with its tirft

*t To this repliedd he) I can only an-
*' (wer, that your firil aflrtion is unfup.
** portd by proof, and the second an evi.
** dent absurdity. Thic principle of the
" flave trade, and of every trade, is the
Sdefire of gain ; this frequently may,
** and probably does, produce, in both par-
" tie., a dilpultiron to evade or infringe
" the laws of their refpedivc communi.
** tics. Were it otherwise, all cornmer-
* cial regulations would be abfurd, be-
*.caufc every fuch regulation is known to
* operate as a check on commercial inter-
D course.

( is )
c..url. Abuftes may have prevailed in
* (he flavce trade, and you have certainly a
* right to declare your own incapacity to
'* uggeft a remedy against them ; but to
< declare them without remedy, is to
" af;irt, that the Legiflature of your couni-
t try is totally deficient, either in power
" or in wifdom."

Sir, I hope you will admit, that this
way of treating me was very provoking
I determined to be contemptuous in my
turn, and, becaufn I thought my answer
would 1hund the better for a claflical allu.
lion, I told him, that I had rather be mif-
taken with fuch a man as you, than be in
the right with fuch a man as he, whom I
could not but fufpe6t of being fleeled
againifl the tender feelings of humanity by
the habit of living among the victims of
ipprcilion : and lafly, that whatever might
he tdlc licccfs of your efforts bere, I truffed

( 19 )
that the fcmli flinel of liberty would fooqr
,reak npi i1i Aluica asd in the Weft Indies.
Tl'ht, Br, I Ititiught woulti nettle him;,
but, to my grrl luiprilC, he only rmilcd,
sad quwtlly #rlumrd his ditourle, as fol-

"* uppofo you fiould addrelt to the
"* Eglifh army a letter couched in theIe
" terms- My friends, I have been fludy-
" ing the principles of liberty, and find
" thet you are all flaves. You arc fubjeft
" to laws which are hot recognized by
" your fellow citizens ; you are liable to
" be beaten for getting drunk, which is ia
' pleasant action, and not naturally cri-
" manual or fir ingloting to hold up
*I your heads, or to walk in a particular
" direction ; neither of which things are
" naturally virtuous. If you think fit to
change your profellion, you will be
whipped, or, perhaps, thot, although
D z every

( to )
Secrry man has a natural right to quit
" nne profeflion for another. I think
" your pay very infifficient, nd am con-
" vinccd that you muflbe' extremely mife4
* rable, because you will naturally make
" the fame refledions as I have done.
Perhaps fme deceit has been employed
" in order to trepan you into the fervice;
" hut even if you have voluntarily enlifted,
Sthe compact is void, because no man has
" a right to part with his liberty.

Such a letter, Sir, would probably be
" confidcred #s a proof of indifcretioo ra.
4 tler than of humanity ; but in holding
" the 4mc language to the negroes your
44 motive is admitted as a fifficiejit juflifi-
" cation, because an infurreaion in the
Weil Indies could lead to no wodrfe cou-
" fiquences than the imafhecre of a few
p linters, with their wives and families.
" he, Sir, your mode of judging there

( 38 )
Spluntes h a w erftaly greblate to the
4" 08suoMn ru n of jPuftfi. You may
" sate in a iMtdM Is*d to the halber%
*" *4 w Ihiueg adsM thO 6(1h I will yoa
* h#.Aee. nuctwlud. that the Britilh offi-
"** w.. eo aid o hunanity I or would it
*' Ie s'y ageMmalois of fch a calumny
* ni au d A gmhey are ue t naturally hard-
Slarted, but become fo by the frequent
Siifplrcituii of thefe Tanguinary execu,-
"** as ? No man anims his opinion of the
" Kelaih nation from the concen of an
z nglifh fefious paper; and yet it was
" on (inilar materials'that it was pr4pofed
" to ground our condemnation, if a fuffi-
i dent quantity could have been coliedted
" by the malignmit induflry of our revo,
" rend inquititors.

With refpe&t to Mr. Wilberfoice, I
know nothing but what I have Iirnt
from his speech; you will therefore
p rmit

( ZZ )
* permit me to make fome remarks on
that performance before I fubfcribe to
the panegyric which you are pleaded to
" blow ot his character.

The flave trade had long been the
Sfubjet of public difcuffion : a regulating
Sat had pnflcd, for the purpose of cor-
recting fuch abufes as were thought to
have prevailed in the mode of trazfport-
" ing negroecs to the Weft Indies: it had
bean declared, that the fituation of the
ne~ran in the iflands was greatly im-
Sproved during the laft thirty years ; and
" at this period Mr. Wilberforce came
finrward to prbve, that the regulating at
" had regulated nothing, that a palliative
" was in the nature of things impoffible,
and that the humanity of the planters,
*$ which had been hitherto voluntary,
ought to become in future the effect of

( 23 )
* including 1hUt every member has
rjil iwe vlununous report of the Privy
L .t.jl, hie tirnilheM dhim with a rule
SoJking f the iW mily ,11' it' con-

*< I mIn (lays ho) so lay it down as
*my pFki$e thlat evklnces, and ofpe-
c411ly maitr /d evidence, are not to be
iudgir.i of the argument. In matters of
1f&l, I adithi tlihir cumpetency-but in
rwumsnag about eimft and sfedh, I hold
hinm to be totally incompccenc. I will
not helicvc the mere opinions of African
traders concerning the nature and con-
frulucias; of the fLive trade, &c."

1* Now. Sir, I conceive that I gain very
hide information by learning afatl, un
1r1' I know whether it is ani ufual event,
or a4l exception to general cuflom : and
Io( (hi. I inuft truly to the opinion of the
3 1" witnefs,

( 24 )
* i w tvif, formed by reafoning on caufis and
"* efetis. But as all the djflntrefed wit-
n* effes on this queftion have contented
" themselves with only vifiting'the confis
" of Africa, and thofe who have' reded in
" the country have done fo from interefled
" motives, it follows that their credibility
" will be in an inverfe ratio to their know-
" lcdge and expericitc."'

go In general, I believe, mankind are
" much lets ferupulous in admitting opi-
" nionjt, which they can afterwards cor-
" ret, than fans, in which the error can-
" not be fo cafily leteted. For inflance;
" when Mr. Wilberforce declared that, in
" bis opinion, the culture of indigo would
" greatly contribute to the wealth and po-
" pulation of Africa, the Houle very quit.
" etly acquicfeed : but if he had aferted
" at fail that the culture of this plant is
Snout particularly pernicious to health,

( as )
lthey wouM have riqulred fooe confir-
w** w ofl i afiuriwmes, lnud would
hoew fw"I thuI Ida liropotrl was thp
".d .0.004 suip Ie wt that could be
** dnlkeI b Tih itgoody dIpopulation of
" t*1 4OUlIIIf .

** Mo plain underftandings will
*' rumpare evidrnces with each other, and
** with huch notions as they know to be
** wtll frnrudcd. When a wituers from
** nie st1 us that It is the prafice of
** the Moors to crofs the Niger, and to
** fizo the women and children in the
** villages whilft the men are at work in
** tie floWs, we (hall fufpcnd our belief,
'* aaulo tatw is no fudch river as the
* Niger on the weftern coaft of AfricR,
" and hecaufe, in the country which he
d* defcribcs, the women, and not the meg,
* @tC employed in agriculture. When
" Mr. WadNrorn tells us, that the French
1 '' Captainq

( 0 )
Captains take Out a quantity of mer-
" cury, which they mix with tht food of
" the flaves, we ntay fiifpea that a na-
" tion fto famous for gallantry might take
" out a ftock 6f mercury for very different
" purposes. When a fill rrbore refpettable
" person, when Mr. Wilberforce himfvlf
" aflhres us, that it is the comaiftt prac-
* i ct,' hi the African trade, to fet fall
" in the night, left the flaves flould be
" fenfible of their departure,' \ve fall
* humbly r<-prefcnt to hith that fhips do
" int uualty ft fall without the previous
Scerrmnity of weighing anchor. That
this ceremony, as well as that of fafu-
" ti'g, mufft feearily awaken the atteh-
" tion of the flaves to the' tnotenet of their
" departure-that, being cotilined in the
" hold, they would nto observe muth al-
" terition in the profpe&t, though they
" should fail at rnid-Alay-and iafly, that
" in tropical climates the wind bl6ws off

( .7 )
"* wen Oup 4s.4g ,0* Uort am. before
of d 40m4 turn W IeI, Ai e Alt a 11 fett
'* pN I4 l*g guaaMit thll r wind is
" hfiosh was kd t4l eM 9o porvrfity as
. a8mO f *1v 61ieAs hledA0. sv, n on the
6* l0t0.m us Me, Wl4btel ,e.

*' )ut lslppofling his principle eftabliihed,
* what k hli prn&ice ? He relates to the
" |Io(S., flogi the tcftimony of Captain
o" hll, what he calls the trogsdy of Ca-
I str, containing a fa&, viz. a war be-
*twecii two towns, and a patter of ppi-
nion, viz. that this war wp9 ecgate4 by
" tn Enoglith traders, Here Mr. Wilber-
" li e, in diroa oppofihioa to his own
principle, blends the f4Z jnd opinion,
and fates them as equally isconceftible.
You will fay, perhaps, that he hiJ, ia
this inftauce, particular cevfolsf .or be-
ing fu prodigal of belief? Not .at all.
" Captain 1-all relates a gircumftance
E 2 which

( 28 )
* which he heard fifteen years ago, and
" which happened five years before his ar-
" rival in Africa : the conduct that he at-
'4 tributes to the traders is not lefs abfurd
" than atrocious, because (as I have al-
" ready observed) during a war on the
* coat all trade is fufpended : and the wit-
" neli confdas that the Englifh were re-
" coived, after their pretended treachery,
" with as much cordiality as before.

Mr. Wilberforco is very fond of nar-
" ration. Having told us the hillory of
" a King of Barbflin, and the tragical
' flory of Calabar, he proceeds to tell
" another ftory about a Captain Bibby and
" a King at the river Cameroons,. The
" Captain, it -fecnms, had advanced goods
" to the computed value of eighty flaves,
" on the credit of thirty hoflages, who
" were allcdged to be relations of the
" King, and other perfibs of difindlion in
S't "the

( 29 )
U' the country ; and, when the nativesre-
fuifd to redeem them, lie carried them
offwith him to 1,tubdiorn. The people
Sof thlie country, in return, feized rome
English Captaidi whom they found on
" thorc, .nd cxtortcd from them the value
" of the pawns carried ofl by Capt. Hibby;
" in confequence of which theff Captains
tranfinitted a petition to Governor Parry,
" requefting that Captain Bibby should be
compelled to reflore his pledges, as it
was juft that he alone Thould fuffer by
" his own mifconduS. So far the flory
fuited Mr. Wilberforce's purpofe; but
" he very wifely omitted to relate, that
Sthe African Prince, having gained all
4 the advantages he had proposed to him-
" felf by his artifices, refused to receive
his pretended children and relations, and
" defired that they might be carried back
" and fold in the Weft Indies, which was
accordingly done.
"I do

( 30 )
4" I do not mean to cWfwre Mr. Wilber.
Force for omitting fuch circurmftances as
" may not fuit his argument, nor fpr em-
" playing famples of ftories instead of the
" whole: he is deeply interested in the
fuccefs of a question by which he has
gained a kind of celebrity; and it is
" natural that he shouldd employ every
means of obtaining a favourable deoi-
fion. I only with that his manner may
be understood, and that the profeffions
" of candour and impartiality by which he
" prefaced hil fpotch may obtain ,ns much
" credit as their proofflions of diffidence
" wlich made a part of the fame pre-

1 Let us now consider the second part
* of the fpeech, which relates to the mode
of ranifporting flaves to the Weft Indies.

" This

( 31 )
This part of the qultion Ofems fib-
Sjc to no difficulty, for if it be poffibN
for the Britiflh Lgilhturc to infuro the'
aft conveyance of our own convita to
" Botany Bay, ind to provide agaift dithe
d" cifeafes naturally retiilig from f6
" Inay changes of climate, it is evidently
as eafy to fecuree lc health of the ne-
groes during a flort pafage of fix weeks.
The charges exhibited against the for-
mer mode of conveying slaves may
prove tlin regulations are neceffiry, but
" cannot prove that they are impraficablc.
" Mr. Wilberforce therefore would have
aed rhore witily in fuppreffing thofe
wild and extravagant descriptions which
could not have obtained a moment's
credit, even if they had not been pofi-
" tively contradited by the whole body'of
" evidence. But it is nccdlefs to detet
" the falfchood of hi dtclcriptions, fince

( 33 )
he has here thought fit to flake his crc-
dit on the exac hncfs of his calculations.

He fays, t it will be found on an
" average of all the fhips, of which evi-
dece has been given at the Privy Coun-
cil, that, exclusive of thofe who perith
before they fail, not lefs than 2si per
" cent. perifh in the paffige.' To thefo
" he adds 41 per cent. who die or fhorc
in the Well Indies before the day of
" ale : and he quotes Mr. Long's hiflory
to prove that one third of the remainder,
or 33 per cent., die in the feafpning.
Upon the whole fayss he) here is a
mortality of about 50o per cent.'

This would be, indeed, a moft for-
midable mortality But in the firil

" The

( 33 )
The avenrge mnmbr of flaves 4to
" oilh in tihe ji.ll.ig, r appear by, he
" report ul thi I'lm Connut ig not ta2
Sper cgit., but Itllier lclf (l1h.1 ft.

Secondly. 'This cuniprchcund the
whola dicltrence between thr number
i" hipped and the number bld : confe-
uctitly we mull not add to thefe the 4f
per cent. lfuppofled to pcrifli between
" their arrival in tie iflandi and thie tie of

Thirdly, Mr. Long does not, fay that
" one third of the negroes imported die in
ithe iaforting, but that one third of thofe
who arrive in a difji/jd jlate may pro-
bably die during the three firf years.
" Mr. Wilberforce has told us, that none
" but healthy negroes are purchased -in
" Africa; but we will luppofe, if you
t pleafe, that one fifth 'of thefe contract
F mortal

( 34 )
" mortal diforders during their paffage,
" 41 per cent. die, before the fale, there
" remains therefore 15 per cent., of
l which about a third, or 5 per cent.,
may be fuppofed to die in the feafoning.
" The total lofs, therefore, amounts, on
" thefe fuppofitions, to 15 per cent., and
" not to 5o, as Rated by Mr. Wilber-
" force.

Such an instance of exaggeration re-
** uires no comments : we will therefore
a low proceed to the third division of his
pijccli, in which he treats of the effTeds
that would follow in the Wefl Indies
from the abolition of the flave trade.

Mr. Wilberforce tells us, that having
advanced thus far, he was DETER-
St NF.)D never to reft till he had accom-
plifhed the abolition of the flave trade.'
SBut hlie adds, that his mind was ex-

( 35 )
** tremely harraffecd by the reproaches of
the merchants and others interested iII
the trade, and that it' the ruin of the-
Weft Indic% thrcatecilCl us on one hand,
while this load of iniquity prcfltd upon
us on the other, the alternative, indeed,
was awful. I amn happy, Sir, to prailf
Mr. Wilberforce where .I can, and I fin-
cer.ely applaud him for having felt a
momentary regret while he devoted the
Well Indies to ruin, and their negroes to

In the midft of this embarraffment lie
" fortunately refle6tedf hoiw ftliange it .was
that Providence should have fo confli-
* tuted the world as to make one part of it
" depend for its exiltencc on the dcpopu-
" nation of the other.' Such a reflection,
" indeed, would have done little honour to
" a man of lets approved piety, because it
"' is evident that Providence was in no
F 2 way

( 36 )
wV iy accieiry to the evil in quctlion,
4 except in permitting the Spaniards to
" deilroy the native inhabitants of the
i4 iflands, and thus to induce the neceffity.
* of repeopling them from Africa: but,
" fuch as it was, it anfwcred Mr. Wilber-
" force's'purpofe. From this time the
t likht broke in upon him," and he has
" kindly communicated to the world a
" view of the queflion in this ltate of illu-

'* The decrcafe of the ncgroes in tit:
" ifland ksarfis from fur caufes :

Sift. The disproportion of fexes.
ad. The diforders contraCted in the
middle paflfge.
3d. Exceffivc labour joined with im-
proper food : and,
4th. The dreadful diflblutenefs of
" thcir manners.

( 37 )
All thefe causes may be remedied;
and if we abolish the Ilave .trade, they
Smuf be remeied: and then bltheha wll
" be incrcaltd : or rol tlhe deficiency may
" be made up by the upernuimerury houfe
negroes. or elfk w, will introduce the
PLOvI a.1d other nmachipery : or elfe, if
the population shouldd docreace, and the
produce with it, the prices of produce
" will increase.

"' Now this is an irrefragable argu-
" ment, Ergo, &c.

Such is the generAl sketch of the
" queflion: we will now examine it in

The obflaclc to population, arifing
from the difparity of xcs, muff, as
Mr. Wilbcrforce obferves, eventually
cure itif'lf. But the remedy is diftant,

( 38 )
Jnll tihe evil is prefling. The fupcriIu-
,mcrary males, amounting in the island
Iof Jamaica to 30,000, not only do not
contribute to population, but they are a
fatal check to it, by greatly increasing
the profligacy among the females.

On the fubjeSt of the second obftacle
there can be no doubt. If we put an
end to the flave trade, no negroes can
contract difbrders in the middle paffhge.

The third obflacle is exceflive labour,
joined with improper food. The labour
* of a negro in the island by no means
' equals that of a day-labourer in Europe,
not bccaufe the negro is weaker, but be-
catifle it is impoflible to exaLt from a
Save the fame exertions that will be
voluntarily made by a free-man but if
we add the immoderate labours of the
n eight to the work of the day, the fum
11 becomes

( 39 )
'becomes excefive, and is deflrudivea of
" the conflitution. A negro will fre
" quently walk inii, or vven liflcctn, miles
1in all Cevening to vil it t4vouritc wifir'
" and return bl)re i un-riltr tn his hut, ill
" fpitr of the utmotf vigilaucc that cani be
" exerted to prevent hinm ; and as lie is, o-
" thefc occasions, particularly anxious to
" avoid fufpicion, he will refume his la-
" bours after this fatiguing journey with
Sincreafed alacrity. This is certainly a
" very frequent caufe of mortality among
" the negroes; but it should feem that this
" pradice cannot be attributed to the feve-
I" ity of their field labour, or to canty or
" improper food. Exceflive labour can
u never, I apprehend, be exakle/ from nte-
" groes, because they are the molt iinpa.
" tient of mankind under what they con-
" fider as injuffice, and will inflantly free
" themselves from it by fulcide, when un-
" able to take vengeance on the aggreflor.

( 40 )
* There may, indeed, be fome cafes where
" they will make great, and, perhaps,
" much too great exertions in favour of a
* matter, whom they know to be in dif-
" trefs : but I fuppofe that liich cafes have
" nor hitherto been fufficiently frequent
" to be considered as a general caufe of the
" decreafc experienced in the population of
- the islands.

With refpe& to their food, I believe,
" that wherc this is either infufficient or
* improper, it will he found to arite either
" from hurricanes, or from long-continued
" drought, or from fuch extremities of pe-
*' cuniary diffrefs in the mailer as will not
* frequently occur. Mr. Wilberforce
" cannot ferioufly believe his own affer.
" tion, that there is a conflant tendency
" to the minimum with refpc6t to flave('
" *allowance ; nor can he be ignorant that,
f' except in times of great calamity, out
'1 mi;rkcts

( 41 )
markets arc univerfally fupplied with
46 fruit, vgectalhe, poultry, and vuarlo
other artic lr by the leaves, who there-
"4 fore mitu pmllcl, htmeitrhmig tyondwhac
is nrfrttary ftrt their own fubiiftcnce.
But, even it' it wrre othelnvwi, popula-
tion could Inot cfily be at9fcted by k,
because the unprodufive nogroOe, who
comporc above two thirds of every gang,
would be the firft vidims of their maf'
ter's brutality, while his own interefl
would plead for thoib who were able to
increase his profits, and to recruit the
flock by frefl population.

The fourth caufe of mortality among
the negroes is the diffolutenefs of their
manners. This may be, in a great mea.
*.4 fure, afcribed to polygamy, which po..
" bably muft operate as a check to popu-
", nation, even in Africa, but which is a
" moft prepofterous custom in the Weft
G Indies,

( -~- )
ldirc, where it incrcafes to an enor-
rn ous degree the difproportion between
t the fcxes4 and has a moll fatal influence
" on the health of the husbands. Befides,
the negroes, though extremely jealous
of their wives, are perfefly indifferent
to tle conduct of their daughters. There,
"t therefore, become proflitutes almoff
" from their childhood, and feldom think
" of attaching themfclves to one man till
4$ they arc worn out by excefles with
'6 many. The children generally perifh
during infaucy from the effects of a dif-
o rder trannhlitted to them by the mo-
ihers, who ftudioufly conceal thefe ef-
" feels of their liccntioufnifs until the
difeafe' becomes iricurablc; and hence
it h-appens that, on many estates, no
negroes can be raised, excepting fuch as
are the produce of African mothers.

"* Thefr

( 43 )
,, Thefe evils, and many othcir arifijn
from the lnic (nIrcc, halvc becon long
felt and deplored lby tlie plaiiRrs, and
every expedient that their ingenuity,
't quickened by intcrcll aidu cnlightencd
by cxpcricncr, could dcvilL, liha boei
employed to check the disorder. It is
*" Cafy to lay that regular marriages have
not been properly encouraged ; and if by
properly we mean fcce/sfully, the affer,
tion is true. But Mr. Wilberforce dupc
not make any allowance for that frenzy
of defire that boils in the veins of ail
African, and renders him infenfible to
every other allurement, and superior to
the dread of feverity. Thofe who rear
"1 fon about slavery on b4flrad principles
fee nothing but qulimited power on oZn;
"' fide, and unlimited fubmiilion op the
" other, and form to thcmfelves the idea;
" of a situationn ,which docp no0 and can.
f' not cxi t in nature. Oqe of the ablefl
G 2 monarchs

( 44. )
Smonarchs of the present century, at the
" head of the moft-docile and fabmiffive
nation in the universe, exhauffed all the
" refources of defpotifm in an attempt to
induce or compel his fubjetls to part
with their beards; but the Ruffians
continued, and fill continue, inflexibly
attached to this ornament, though pro-
ribcd by their favourite Emperor, and
" considered as the charateriflic fymbol
" of flavery. Can it be fuppofed that a
plurality of wives affords fewer forces
(of enjoyment than a long beard, or that
the power of our colonial aflimblies is
" equal to that of Peter the Great ? To
" legiflate for flaves is not eafy, because,
having fewer'rights, they are more per-
tinacioufly attached to their cufloms,
" even where thefc are the refult of ca-
price, and not founded on the firongeft
propenfties of human nature: besides,
having no confidence in their governors,

( 45 )
" they arc jealous of every innovation,
" and frequently palir at once from the
" cxjremcr f i bmiilion to tie moll dcfpe-
" rate iciflranc.

On this view of the quction it will
" appear that you ought to point out the
means of removing the obflacles above
mentioned, before you fay that they
may and mutt be removed-; but as I
" have given a flatement of them rather
different from that exhibited by Mr.
" Wilberforce, you may fuppofe that I
wifh to evade his argument. I will
therefore meet him on his own grounds,
and prove to you, from his own reafon-
ings and aflirtions, that the abolition of
" the flave trade would and nmul have an
Cffe& direfly contrary to that which
" he feems to expcL from it. He flip-
pofes that tle decrcafe of the negroes
" arile's from the rigorous treatment of tho

( 46 )
til.uters, or rather of the managers : we
will, if you pleafei, take this fur granted.

1' Now, fays he, the abolition of the
trade will produce an inability of mak-
ing any addition to the flopk by pur-
chafe, or by any other means, except
the encouragement of population,
Granted. Henceforward, therefore, a
Smilder treatment muf? be adopted. Not
" at all. Provided this inability exifts, it
is evidently indiffcrentr whether it be
produced by an a'& of the Lcgiflature, or
" by ;ny other caufe. Now there are
already many planters who are unable
" to purchase flaves; and, if you will ex-
" canine all the iflands, you will uni-
formly find'that it is onl the cflates of
the pooreft and moft ditreAtWd planters
that the decreafe is greareft. The rigo-
Sous treatment of (lives always arifes
" from the diiftrefl of the master, and Mr.
3 Wilber-

( 47 )
," Wilbcrforce has givrn us an excellent
reafon why it muff he fo. 1 Tnteret
" (fys he) i undoubtedly the grcrt fpritg
I of lfion in the alThirs of mankind ; but
*1 it is iwm/ediate atil prfernt, not d'flant
Future inrterril, however rr;el, tht is. apt
to att1atc u.' The dif1reffeil planter
" know, that. by rigorous treatment his
f" lave will dccreafe, and that his ruin
" will probably ie the ultimate confe-
quence; but he perfeveres, becaufe he
" prefers future to prefeut diflrcfs. Is it
, not evident that the greater part of man-
** kind would reason in the fame way, if
they were placed in the fame situation ?
Some &fw planters who unite opulence
and economy would probably diminish
" their culture with a view to future ad-
" vantage; but in all clafls of men the
majority are prodigal and inconfiderate.

* After

( 48 )
After having endeavoured to convhic,
" us by argument that the abolition of the
s have trade will be rather advantageous
" than prejudicial to the iflands, Mr. Wil-
berforce produces a long calculation to
" prove the flourishing late to which they
" have arrived during the continuance of
" that trade, and infifts, that the births
" and deaths are now equal, and that
therefore any farther importation is un-
" neccffary. Now on this point I (hall
" beg leave to make three obfervations :
Firfl ; if we admit both his faFs and
Shis inferencei, it will iitallibly follow
That the abolition is unneceflary, and
<, that the evil mutt cure itself; fince it is
evident that the iflands will ceafe to
t buy negroes whenever they (hall ceafe
" to want them. Secondly ; his infer-
" ences do not follow from his fals ; for,
let us fuppofe that an island has annu-
Sally imported a thoufand lavess, and that

( 49 )
," this importation flhall ccnc in the ptre-
" lhrt year, but thi i a Ithouland childitg
Sfliall Iac li,1n n i, evidi in, iliAt though
"* the iiinIlr ,,I litnl. will lie there fame,
'" tlhe power will It vray diflitcknt, and
" that the illand will br weaker Ity a thou-
" Cfnul iaiNurers thik year than it wau the
" laL. Thirdly 1 the fuLS o91 which hir.
0 calculation is grounded are fale-.

Mr. Wilberforcc flames, in the tenth
" refolurion, that

46 In the year 1768 the number
of negroes living in the island
"' of Jamaica was about 67,000

" In the year 1774 about 193,000

" And in the year 1787 about ?56,poo

Now Mr. Wilberforce bsrw becausee
it was fated in the paper from which
H he

( so50 )
he copied thefe numbers) that they were
all incorrect. The laft is a mere gucs,
and declared to be fuch.: the two former
" are too finally, because they are taken
from the tax-rolls, in which agl the ne-
groes are not rated. There tax-rolls,
however, though they do not give ex-
" aaly the positive number of negroes at
any one period, are the only authentic
record by which we can judge of the
" relative numbers at different periods:
" but Mr. Wilberforce contented himself
with following them where they fiited
Shi purpose, and rejected them in the
Slit iuflance, becaufii they did not fur-
nith a number large enough for 'his
hypothesis. By their flatement the
" number of negroes in 1787 was only

If Mr. Wilberforce chufes to take the
" two firfi numbers from the tax-rolls, it
a a" is

( S5 )
"i eviticnt that we muff take the third
from thie Iine authority i or if he
c" luri rtO .uld 45,00-) to ti h liftl nm.-
ber, wi: mull niAk proptortionl.d addi.
Sition t tihe OtlIt' rw0; aild, illn oth
' cafes, it i cvidrnt thliit his flcrtions aro
f" Fll, and that the iflands catmut keep
up their flock of negroes without tho
" continuance of the trade.

Mr. Wilberforcc, imnded, is prepared
for this conclusion, and therefore kindly
offers us the ufo of the plough, as an
" indemnification for all our loffes. But,
Sir, I muff fuppofe that this is a bad
joke ; for to confider it as the fuggeftion
" of tblemn quackery would be too de-
grading to our little Triptolcmus.' It
muft have occurred to him, that of the
thoufands who have fucceflively mi-
graced from Europe to the Weft Indies
fincce the difcovery of the iflands, no one
H :1 indivi-

1. 52 ]
Individual can poflibly have been igno-
' rant of the ufes of the plough he muff
" have heard that it has been employed
Suniverfally, and almost as univerfally
o abandoned; and it required no great
4 stretch of imagination to conceive that
a ah instrument, fo neceflhry to agriculture
" in one climate and country, might, from
" loc.l circumflances, be inapplicable to
" the fame ufes in another. Becides, if
" ploughs aie 'geheralljr introduced, by
' what artifice could we induce them to
" cut vur cancu, to pafa them through the
" nill, to boil our fug.ar, or dillil our rum ?
at From what does he infer that horfes or
,, cattle might be ufefully employed for
44 thefe -purpofes ? He certainly knows
'S that the mere operation of planting
'" forms only a part of the labour, and
" that on thofe etl'.tcs, where this opera&
" tion takes place only once in twenty

( 53 )
" years, the rame flock of negroes is ne-
" ceffiry.

AXi a ttthelir fiuccedaniium, Mr. WiN
" hrfirte ,ulvad>ici tint cenploymncit of our
o dtoci llice ilavc in firld l.aLour. Thefe,
' I 'liicvr, do not amount to uon fourth
'" of tdw number that lhe fuppofrc : many
" of our fervants are free men; others
" have been taken into tie houfe from
" their inability to fiipport the labour of
" the field and others as a reward for
" their docility and fidelity. This re-
' fou rce, therefore, would prove extremely
" inadequate, and the advantages of the
Scxperitncit would by no means com-
" p-ntite its cruelty.

But (fays Mr. Wilberforce) I if it be
" inifled that the deicliency cwi in lit)
" way be supplied, and that the quantity
" of produce muff diminish, I then revert

( 54 )
1t1 that irrefragable argument, that t'ih
incrcafe of price will make up the lol;
" to the planters, and is a clear ultimate

This irrefragable argument, however,
is by no means universally admitted,
even in questions of taxation, to which
it is peculiarly applicable; but, in the
prcfent inflatnce, it is no argument at
" all. The abolition would not, in the irft
inflance, produce any diminution of
produce, because the poorer planters be-
ing generally under contrail to furnilh a
" determinate annual quantity, would con-
Stinue to do fb until the increaflg weak-
" nefs of their negroes shouldd render a far-
ther compliance with their agreement
" absolutely impoffible. From this pe-
riod, indeed, the diminution would be
rapid, and it is probable that the price
" would for a time increase in the fame
49 propor-

( 55 )
proportion ; but this would be no in.
demnification tn the lul ercrs, it would
only l a profit .iccruii g to the opulent
Splan lcr' frnim thr dithrelli- of ite- inccef-
f itrms. Thi.) (L1te of thing:, however,
* could not be tilling. I*thcer the con-
f lumptiom would diminifli, or the con*
L fiumer would infift on being freed from
the monopoly of the Bricifh planters,
" and would receive the articles of Weff-
Indian produce at a cheaper ratce from
the foreign colonies.

I have now difcuffed the moil impor-
tant parts of Mr. Wilberforce's fpeech,
" fo that the remainder may be dispatched
in a few word. I should, indeed, have
paffed it over in filencec, but that it may
[not be amnits to ihow how uniformly he
mifrcprcfents every part of the fubje&.
SHc fay, it i:; ablird to pretend that
" Livcrpoul will be teniibly affe&ed by the

( 56 )
abolition, becaulc the Hlave trade cc(cu-
pies only one fifteenth part of the out-
Sward-bound tonnage at that port.' Now
" the total outward-bound tonnage of
Liverpool amounts to 56,0oo. tons, of
which 14,000 are occupied by the Afri-
" can trade. This, I conceive, is one'fourth,
" and not one ftfeenth, part of the whole.

He tells us, that all the hips dif-
' charged in confequence of the abolition
might be ufefully employed in our
fl/.eries, or other trades. But I believe
it would he found inconvenient to cm-
ploy large fhipA infcad of boats in our
fifherics. Besides, our negroes in the
iffinds principally fubfift on falted fifth :
and there fcems no reafon for fuppofing
that the demand for this article will be
Sihcreafed by the defalcation of 17,060
consumers, Who are annually imported
into the feveraliflands.

C 57 )
He gravely defends the accuracy of
" Mr. Clarklfun' calculation, and aflhres
" us, that more fal'or die in a, yar in thie
" Jkft traid than in tuKs yea, i si// M#w
" trades put togibter ~nd that the five
" thouniaid 1ailor cniployed in this trade
" arc no: a kmfiul tu our iavy, asfuure hw
* ignorany rgued.

He then proceeds to ridicule the weak
" and atbard opinion of certain perfons,
f who thought that France would con-
tiuue to carry on their trade, whenever
it should be reliuquifhed by the Engli(h.
" It is true that fome miflionaries, from
" thofe benevolent and confcientious fbci-
etics whom he lb highly prailfs, had
" exerted thlcmfelves with great effcd ia
France, and had nearly iaucceeded inJ
lfveriig for ever the colonies from the
mother country : but the final decision
of the National Aflcmbly has confirincd
I "* the

( sS )
** the weak and abfurd opinion fo ably re*
futed by Mr. Wilberforce.

Lafily, he forefees, from the abolition
"' of the present trade, the eftablithmetit
of an extenfive, advantageous, and
b" a harmlefs commerce with the Africans.
This, indeed, were devoutly to be
wifted but on what grounds we can
hope for fuch an event, I cannot under-
Sfltand. All the dying wood that Britain
is able to eonfume, and all the gold duft
that can be procured, would not employ
more than one twentieth part of the
flipping now lent to Africa. The cut-
ture of indigo and tobacco requires more
4' intelligence than can be at present ex-
t pealed from negroes. Rice, indeed,
"'4.might be produced to almofl any
" amount; but it could no where find a
" market to advantageous as that which is
" offered by the flave merchants, who
: would

( 59 )
" would gladly purchase even or eight
" times the quantity that has ever beez
" railed on the coaft. Befides, though we
a" have certainly a right to determine what
" articles we will import from Africa, our
" exports muff be left to the choice of the
0' Africans : by what art then can mora.
" lity and virtue be infufed into the
'* brandy, or mixed, up with the gun,
%* powder, which they are always fo eager
" to purchafo ? And if we cannot do this,
" how can our trade be frarmlefs and inof-
'* fenfive ? Be aflured, that if civilization
" ever take place in Africa, it will be there,
" as it has been every where elfe, the ef-
" feE of internal regulation,; and that it
" will be very little advanced by the
' dreams of Meffrs. Wilberforce, Wad.
A" fltom, and Co. The abolition of flavery
" is not any where the work of a day,; the
" enfranchifernent of Ruflia har been the
" favourite object of the prefent Emprefs,
I z. *' and

( 6o )
" and it is the only project, the fuccefs of
" which is fill wanting to complete her

I (hall now conclude, by intreating
you to pardon any expreffions that you
may have thought difrefpedful to the
" chaira&ter ofyour favourite orator. I am
" not the enemy of Mr. Wilberforce, nor
do I afcribe to him, or to the harmlefs
" fanatics by whom he is surrounded, the
i original projeCt for abolifling the flave
" trade. The paroxylin of humanity firft
"4 appeared among the Americans. Their
" fagacity firfl pointed out the wicked ten-
Sdncy of a trade, with which it was
i their intereft to difgulf the Europeans,
<" in order to fecure to themselves a natural
"i and permanent connedion with the
is Weft Indies: and it did not efcape them
" that the difcuflion of fuch a meafure
Od was very likely to produce a considerable

( 6t )
degree of jealouly between the mother
" country and the colonies. Many of their
" profclytes, I am perfuadcd, have been
atuated by the pureft and moft confci-
cntious motives, but their zeal has long
fince abated. The language of exagge-
ration, having called to inflame, begins
" to be heard with difguft, and crimes are
110no longer considered as credible in pro-
portion as they are atrocious. We
are now told, that after having been fo
long held out to public execration for
doing what the laws of our country per-
mitted and encouraged us to do, we may
" hope to fee our caufe fpeedily configned
to oblivion, although it is impraaticable
to afford us tlhe means of exculpating
" ourfclves, or to limit the duration of a
trial, which operates as a punishment,
by annihilating our credit, and endan-
gering our properties and our perfons."


( 6z )
After thefe words, Sir, my antagonist
suddenly disappeared, notwithflanding my
endeavours to flop him. Do not fuppofe
that I was conviTced .: no, Sir; that is a
weakncfs with which I have never had rea-
fon to reproach myfelf. Old opinions are
like old friends : and a man of humanity,
fir from abandoning them in diftrefs, will
consider their helplcfs (Ituation as an addi-
tional claim this prote&ion.

Now as you, Sir, are. equally interested
in their welfare, and as I am perfuaded
that you can tfifh up from the depths of
your undcrilanding a variety of arguments
which I should Iairch fur in vaitn, I hum.
bly beg leave to request a conimunicatioa
of fuch as you Thall think me able to ma-
nage ; in the hope of which I remain,
S I R,
Your moft rcfpeeCful hu mblefervant,

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