Lankesteriana

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Title:
Lankesteriana la revista científica del Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Physical Description:
v. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Jardín Botánico Lankester
Publisher:
Jardi´n Bota´nico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Place of Publication:
Cartago Costa Rica
Cartago, Costa Rica
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Frequency:
three times a year[2002-]
irregular[ former 2001]
three times a year
regular

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Subjects / Keywords:
Botany -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Epiphytes -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Orchids -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Plantkunde   ( gtt )
Botanische tuinen   ( gtt )
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periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Costa Rica

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Language:
In English and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
No. 1 (mayo 2001)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issues for May 2001-Oct. 2003 designated no.1-8; issues for Apr. 2004- designated vol. 4, no. 1-
General Note:
Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 1 (abr. 2004).
General Note:
International journal on orchidology.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
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University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 48491453
lccn - 2001240973
issn - 1409-3871
System ID:
UF00098723:00036


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ISSN 1409-3871 V OL 14, N o 2 A UGUST 2014 Taxonomic validation of a well-known Odontoglossum (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) ghost STIG DALSTRM Notes on Costa Rican Pterichis (Orchidaceae) new taxa and additions to MARTA KOLANOWSKA Rediscovery of Malaxis nana (Orchidaceae: Malaxideae) in Costa Rica, with an updated description OSCAR A. PREZ-ESCOBAR and MARIO A. BLANCO Nuevos registros de Orchidaceae para Honduras HERMES VEGA WILLIAM CETZAL-IX, EDGAR M, DANIEL GERMER and KATYA SOLER Contributions to the genus Hetaeria (Orchidaceae: Goodyerinae) in Vietnam JAN PONERT, T B VUONG, N HAN H, T T TH AN H, N T VY, R RYB K O V and T .Q. TAM Books INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGY 95 99 109 115 123 129 LANKESTERIANA

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LANKESTERIANA INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGY Copyright 2014 Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica Effective publication date: August 21, 2014 Layout: Jardn Botnico Lankester. Cover: Hetaeria youngsayei Ormerod. Photo by J. Ponert. Printer: MasterLitho. Printed copies: 500 Printed in Costa Rica / Impreso en Costa Rica R Lankesterian a / International Journal on Orchidology No. 1 (2001)-. -San Jos, Costa Rica: Editorial Universidad de Costa Rica, 2001-v. ISSN-1409-3871 1. Botnica Publicaciones peridicas, 2. Publicaciones peridicas costarricenses

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2): 95 2014. Odontoglossum wyattianum by Gurney Wilson was exhibited by Frederick Sander at a meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society on January 3, 1928. Later the had been obtained by Sander from Reverend Paul Wyatt, Bedford, England, who in turn had received it from a friend in Peru (Wilson 1928). Since then this description was ever made and no type specimen was ever designated, or has ever surfaced. It also vanished from cultivation shortly after its introduction together with Odm. harryanum Rchb.f., which appears to be its closest relative. Due to the earlier rarity of Odontoglossum wyattianum in cultivation, in addition to its close visual resemblance to primarily Odm. harryanum these species have been mixed-up in both literature and horticulture. Charles Schweinfurth included a collection of Odm. wyattianum by the Polish collector Felix Woytkowski ( Woytkowski 35352 UC-Berkeley = holotype), from the Tarma area in Junn, central Peru, as Odontoglossum harryanum in Orchids of Peru (Schweinfurth 1961). This was probably the reason why plants of Odm. wyattianum subsequently and for years were imported from Peru under the name of Odm. harryanum . An attempt to clarify the situation was made by Jack Fowlie, who explained that the imports were made prior to the re-discovery of the long lost Odm. harryanum in Colombia (Fowlie 1973). Another reason for the continuation of this confusion was the treatment of the Ecuadorean form of Odm. harryanum as Odm. wyattianum by Leonore Bockemhl (1989). Mark Chase added to this by treating Odm. wyattianum as a variety of Odm. harryanum in The Pictorial Encyclopedia of Oncidium (Chase in Zelenko Odm. wyattianum next to the other species in the Odm. harryanum complex (Fig. 1), however, it is easy to recognize the morphological differences in the column shape, which displays a more distinct curve, and with much larger and serrated wings, versus straighter columns with forward projecting minute wings for other and closely related species, such as Odm. deburghgraeveanum Dalstrm & G.Merino, Odm. harryanum and Odm. helgae Kniger. Species of Odontoglossum have been transferred to Oncidium this treatment is explained in more detail elsewhere (Dalstrm 2012, 2014). TAXONOMIC TREATMENT Odontoglossum wyattianum A.G.Wilson ex Dalstrm, spec. nov TYPE: Peru. Junn, Tarma, Utcuyaco, 1900 m, upon a rotten tree trunk in low forest, 20 Feb. 1948, F. Woytkowski 35352 (holotype and isotype: UCBerkeley). Fig. 2. TAXONOMIC VALIDATION OF A WELL-KNOWN ODONTOGLOSSUM (ORCHIDACEAE: ONCIDIINAE) GHOST STIG DALSTRM 2304 Ringling Boulevard, unit 119, Sarasota FL 34237, USA Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica National Biodiversity Centre, Serbithang, Bhutan stigdalstrom@gmail.com ABSTRACT. Odontoglossum wyattianum by Gurney Wilson was exhibited at a no type specimen was ever designated, or has surfaced, hence making this distinct species a taxonomic ghost. The taxonomic validation of Odontoglossum wyattianum is made here through the designation of a holotype, together with a diagnosis, a brief taxonomic history and comparison with similar and closely related species. KEY WORDS : Odontoglossum, Oncidiinae, Cymbidieae, Epidendroideae, Peru taxonomic validation

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. 96 LANKESTERIANA Diagnosis: Odontoglossum wyattianum differs from the closely related and morphologically similar Odm. deburghgraeveanum Odm. harryanum and Odm. helgae in that Odm. wyattianum has a more distinctly curved column carrying much larger, triangular, serrate wings, and frequently with a serrate column hood, winglets for the other species. Epiphytic herb Pseudobulbs caespitose, oblongovoid to pyriform and apically variably truncate, ancipitous and slightly compressed, bifoliate, 6 2.5.0 cm, subtended basally by 7 to 9 distichous sheaths, the uppermost foliaceous. Leaves subpetiolate, conduplicate, elongate obovate, obtuse-acuminate, to ca. 44 2.5.0 cm. axillary from the base of the uppermost sheath, erect and arching, to ca 1 m long, ca raceme; bracts appressed, scale-like, ca 1.0.5 cm long. Flower campanulate, showy and fragrant; dorsal sepal light to dark brown with a white transverse bar or markings near the base, and a yellow apex, ellipticoblong to elliptic, acute to acuminate, 4.5 1.3.5 cm; lateral sepals similar and slightly oblique; petals similar to the sepals but slightly smaller and slightly oblique; lip white to pale purplish heavily marked with purple near base, fading towards the middle of the lamina and often white near the apex, rigidly attached to the base away from the column in a 90 angle, with basal erect, rounded lobes, then unguiculate and broadly laminate, pandurate to trilobate with rounded, slightly concave lateral lobes, and a wavy, bilobed to retuse, slightly convolute, apiculate front lobe, ca 3.5 2.5 cm; callus white, spotted with purple, emerging from the base as less developed erect digitate denticles or tendrils near the base of the expanded lamina; column basally white then yellow with variable reddish brown markings, clavate, erect, and straight for ca 2/3 rd of the length, then strongly curved towards the lip, ventrally canaliculate with low angles, or lobes below the stigma, and with a large, triangular and slightly falcate wing on each side, 1.2.7 cm long; anther cap white to pale yellow, campanulate and rounded rostrate, dorsally weakly lobulate; pollinarium of two cleft/folded pyriform pollinia on an oblong-rectangular, ca 3 mm long stipe, on a slightly hooked, pulvinate viscidium. FIGURE 1. Comparison of species in the Odm. harryanum complex, lip and column views. A Odm. harryanum ; B Odm. wyattianum ; C Odm. velleum ; D Odm. helgae ; E Odm. deburghgraeveanum Plants cultivated and photographed by G. Deburghgraeve.

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. DALSTRM Validation of Odontoglossum wyattianum 97 FIGURE 2. Odontoglossum wyattianum Holotype, F. Woytkowski 35352 (UC-Berkeley).

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98 LANKESTERIANA ADD ITIONAL MATERIAL S EEN : Peru. Huanuco, Leoncio Prado, Cuevas de Las Pavas, m [probably 1950 m], collected by E. Jara Mar. 1989, ex D. E. Bennett 4532 (MO). Junn, Tarma, Agua Dulce near Utcuyaco, collected by F. Woytkowski 27 dried specimen prepared Oct. 1951 by P. C. Hutchison s.n. (UC-Berkeley; accession number 50.1517-1). Same area, San Ramn, Quebrada Carmen, 17 Feb. 1964, collected by D. E. P. C. Hutchison & J. K. Wright 4127 (UC-Berkeley). Between San Ramn and Tarma, ca. 22 Aug. 1979, W. Gann 27 ; OIC 3131 (SEL). Cusco, Paucartambo, Pilcopata, Kosipata, [probably 1700] m, 30 Dec. 1961, C. Vargas 014996 (CUZ). Paucartambo, Pillawata, Yanamayo-Tambo, 2200 m, 3 Nov. 1965, C. Vargas 016736 (CUZ). DISTRIBUTION: Odontoglossum wyattianum is only known from the seasonally wet cloud forests of central Peru, at altitudes of ca. 1700 m. EPONYMY: Named in honor of Rev. Paul Wyatt, of Bedford, England, to whom the plant had been forwarded by a friend in Peru, which is assumed to be the plants origin. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. I thank Wesley Higgins for reviewing and commenting on the manuscript, Guido Deburghgraeve for lending his color photographs, and the curators of the UC-Berkeley and SEL herbaria for providing the opportunity to study the type specimen. FIGURE 3. Odontoglossum wyattianum Plant cultivated and photographed by G. Deburghgraeve. LITERATURE CITED Bockemhl, L. 1989. Odontoglossum a monograph and Iconograph. Brcke-Verlag Kurt Schmersow, D-3200 Hildesheim, Germany. Dalstrm, S. 2012. New combinations in Odontoglossum (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) and a solution to a taxonomic conundrum. Lankesteriana 12(1): 53. Dalstrm, S. 2014. A new and striking Odontoglossum (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) from Peru. Lankesteriana 13(3): 401. Fowlie, J. A. 1973. A prediction come true The discovery and rediscovery of Odontoglossum harryanum Orchid Digest: 223. Schweinfurth, C. 1961. Odontoglossum harryanum Fieldiana: Botany 30(4): 816. Chicago Natural History Museum. Wilson. G. A. 1928. Odontoglossum wyattianum Orchid Rev. 36: 47. Zelenko, H. 1997. The Pictorial Encyclopedia of Oncidium ZAI Publications, New York City. LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014.

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2): 99 2014. Introduction The Neotropical orchid genus Pterichis was described by John Lindley (1840) based on Peruvian P. galeata. The author considered this species similar to Sarcoglottis C. Presl, but subsequent Salazar et al. 2003) studies revealed that the two genera are not closely related. Another orchid genus which Lindley found similar to his newly established Pterichis in the gynostemium structure was Cryptostylis Rutkowski (2000) in different subfamilies based i.a. on their anther form and position. Molecular data (Salazar et al. 2009) indicates that Pterichis is sister to other Cranichidinae (e.g., Cranichis Sw. Ponthieva R. Br. and Baskervilla Lindl.). Morphologically representatives of Pterichis are easily distinguished from other cranichid orchids based gynostemium is observed also in Cranichis, Fuertesiella Schltr. Pseudocentrum Lindl. and Ponthieva. From the two latter genera Pterichis differs in the petals and lip being free from the column part and from other two by the scape developing separately from leaves. Plants of Pterichis produce tuberous, clustered congested). The tepals of Pterichis are subsimilar, with the petals narrower than the dorsal sepal and often adnate to it. The sessile lip is concave, usually with a pubescent disc and ornamented with swollen cells or knob-like projections along the margins. The gynostemium is short and erect, and the motile anther is much longer than the rest of the column. Four oblong-ovoid pollinia are produced. The rostellum is (Szlachetko & Rutkowski 2000). The plants of Pterichis grow terrestrially and they are usually found in grassy slopes or shrubby paramo above 2800 m of elevation. Most of the currently recognized 25 species are distributed along the Andes; however, some species occur in Jamaica, Panama and Costa Rica (Cribb 2003, Dueas Gmez & Fernndez Alonso 2009). Dressler (2003) reported two species of Pterichis from Costa Rica: P. habenarioides (F. Lehm. & Kraenzl.) Schltr. and P. galeata Lindl. considering P. costaricensis Ames & C. Schweinf. and P. leo L.D. Gmez & Gmez-Laur. as their respective synonyms. The Costa Rican populations are found in the elevations above 2250 m, often in wet montane forest and paramo. During recent studies of herbarium specimens a new species of Pterichis was found and is described here. Moreover, an unusual form of P. habenarioides recognized in Costa Rican material is proposed here as a new variety. Two species of Pterichis, Schltr. and P. parvifolia (Lindl.) Schltr. are reported Material and Methods Dried herbarium specimens of Pterichis over 180 in total, deposited or borrowed from AMES, COL, CUVC, F, FLAS, FMB, HUA, K, NOTES ON COSTA RICAN PTERICHIS (ORCHIDACEAE) NEW TAXA AND ADDITIONS TO NATIONAL ORCHID FLORA MARTA KOLANOWSKA martakolanowska@wp.pl ABSTRACT. A new species of the orchid genus Pterichis, P. herrerae and a new variety of P. habenarioides P. habenarioides var. costaricensis are described and illustrated based on Costa Rican material. Information about new Costa Rican records of and P. parvifolia is provided. An updated key to Costa Rican species of Pterichis is presented. KEY WORDS : Costa Rica, new species, Orchidaceae, Pterichis taxonomy

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MO, NY, P, PSO, SEL, VALLE and W were examined. Every studied specimen was photographed and the data from the labels were recorded. The presence and shape of the leaf as well as the length and the surface of the scape were studied. The examination of the vegetative structures included the form and number of the tubular were examined. The perianth parts were studied after NEW TAXA Pterichis herrerae Kolan., sp. nov. TYPE: Costa Rica. Puntarenas. Cantn de Buenos Aires, Ujarrs, cumbre y ladera Atlntica de Cerro Drika, 9N 83W, 3280 m, 12 Oct 1989, G. Herrera 3665 (holotype, F!; isotypes, F!, MO, SEL). Fig 1. DIAGNOSIS This species resembles P. habenarioides and P. triloba (Lindl.) Schltr., but it is distinguished by the cordate lip base, obliquely ovate, rounded lip lateral lobes and lip margins ornamented with prominent, knob-like projections. Plant up to 32 cm tall. Leaf basal, long-petiolate; blade 9.5 cm long, linear-lanceolate, acute; petiole 12 cm long. Scape up to 27 cm long, with 4 glabrous, tubular sheaths, pubescent in the upper part. Spike 2.7 5.0 cm long, pubescent, subdensely 4 Flowers green with yellowish-green lip. Floral bracts up to 8 mm long, 3 mm wide, pubescent, narrowly ovate, subobtuse. Ovary 9 mm long, pubescent. Dorsal sepal 7.0 1.5 mm, externally sparsely ciliate, lanceolate, obtuse, 3-veined. Petals 6.8 1.2 mm, adnate to dorsal sepal, sparsely ciliate along margins, linear-lanceolate, unguiculate at the base and constricted in the upper third, acute, 3-veined. Lateral sepals 6.5 2.5 mm, 100 LANKESTERIANA LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. FIGURE 1. Pterichis herrerae A. Lateral sepal. B. Petal. C. Dorsal sepal. D. Lip. Scale bars = 3 mm. E. Scape, spike and leaf.

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FIGURE 2. The holotype of Pterichis herrerae Courtesy of the Field Museum of Natural History. LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. KOLANOWSKA Pterichis in Costa Rica 101

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externally sparsely ciliate, obliquely ovate, subacute, 2-veined. Lip about 5 7 mm, 3-lobed, cordate at the triangular-ovate, acute, densely glandular-pubescent; lateral lobes obliquely triangular-ovate, rounded; disc 5-veined, veins branching, margins ornamented with knob-like projections and swollen cells in the basal part. Gynostemium 2.5 mm long. Fruit not seen. ETYMOLOGY Dedicated to collector of the type specimen. DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY So far this species is known exclusively from Costa Rican province of Puntarenas, where it was found growing terrestrially at the altitude of over 3200 m. Flowering occurs at least in October. TAXONOMIC NOTE S This species resembles P. habenarioides (F.Lehm. & Kraenzl.) Schltr. and P. triloba (Lindl.) Schltr. (Fig 3). From the latter species P. herrerae is easily distinguished by the cordate lip base (vs. truncate in P. triloba ), the 5-veined lip disc (vs. 7-veined) and presence of numerous (over 30 in total) knob-like projections along the lip margins (vs. P. habenarioides are glabrous, its dorsal sepal is ovatelanceolate (vs. lanceolate in P. herrerae ), the petals are obovate-lanceolate, not unguiculate (vs. linear-lanceolate above, unguiculate basally), and the lip is transversely triangular-elliptic in outline (vs. cordate in P. herrerae ). Another similar species is the South American P. diuris Rchb. f., which has petals free from dorsal sepal, the lip base is truncate and disc lacks any knob-like projections. Pterichsis habenarioides var. costaricensis Kolan., var. nov. DIAGNOSIS : Distinguished from P. habenarioides var. habenarioides by the glabrous dorsal sepal and petals, the sparsely ciliate, 2-veined lateral sepals, and the lateral lobes of the lip form auricles. TYPE: Costa Rica. Limon. Cordillera de Talamanca, Atlantic slope, Kmuk massif, pramo north-east of the main Kmuk peak, 9N 83W, G. Davidse & G. Herrera 29296 (holotype, F!; isotype: CR). Fig 4. FIGURE 3. Perianth segments of Pterichis habenarioides (I, Pedraza & al. 247 COL) and P. triloba (II, Jameson s.n. W ). A. Dorsal sepal. B. Petal. C. Lateral sepal. D. Lip. Scale bars = 3 mm. Drawn by A. Krl and S. Nowak 102 LANKESTERIANA LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014.

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. KOLANOWSKA Pterichis in Costa Rica 103 Plants up to 40 cm tall. Leaf basal, petiolate; blade 5.5-6.0 cm long, linear-lanceolate, acute; petiole 4.56.5 cm long. Scape up to 36 cm long, scape with 3-4 tubular sheaths. Flower greenish-yellow, lip yellow with green or brown veins. Floral bracts up to 13 mm long, 4 mm wide, pubescent. Ovary up to 13 mm long, pubescent. Dorsal sepal 6.5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, glabrous, lanceolate, obtuse, 3-veined. Petals 5.9 1.2 mm, adnate to dorsal sepal, glabrous, ligulatelanceolate, obtuse, 2-veined. Lateral sepals 5.5 1.8 mm, ovate, obtuse, sparsely ciliate, 2-veined. Lip 6 mm long and about the same wide, indistinctly 3-lobed; middle lobe broadly ovate, short, densely obliquely ovate, rounded; disc 5-veined, lateral veins branching, ornamented with numerous swollen cells along the margins. Gynostemium 2.5 mm long. Fruit not seen. FIGURE 4. Pterichsis habenarioides var. costaricensis

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. 104 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 5. The holotype of Pterichis habenarioides var. costaricensis Courtesy of the Field Museum of Natural History.

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. KOLANOWSKA Pterichis in Costa Rica 105 ETYMOLOGY : In reference to the origin of the type specimen. DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY So far this variety is known exclusively from Cordillera de Talamanca. The population was found growing in Blechnum shrub association in Chusquea-Hypericum paramo. Flowering occurs in September. EXAMINED SPECIMENS OF P. HABENARIOIDES VAR. HABENARIOIDES : Colombia. Boyac. Mpio. de Chinavita. Cerro Mamapacha. Vereda Mundo Nuevo, Laguna La Jarilla, paramo, 3300 m, 26 Jul 2001, H. Duenas, F. Cortes, J. Farfan, E.C. Buitrago, M.F. Rodriguez & J. Puentes 3107 (COL!), CAUCA Mpio. de Purace. Parque Nacional Natural de Purace. Cercanias de la Laguna San Rafael, 3300 m, 6 Oct 1984, G. Lozano, O. Rangel, L.F. de Turbay, A. Sanabria & N. Espejo 4654 (COL!), Macizo Colombiano. Paramo de Las Papas. Colinas al SE de la Laguna La Magdalena, vertiente del rio Magdalena, 3350-3450 m, 12 Sep 1958, Idrobo, Pinto & Bischler 3249 (COL!), Macizo Colombiano. Paramo Las Papas. Filo entre el Boqueron y el cerro de Penas Blancas, 3330 m, 14 Sep 1958, Idrobo, Pinto 7 Bischler 3321 (COL!), Macizo Colombiano. Valle del Cauca, cerca de su nacimiento, 3000 m, 19 Sep 1958, Idrobo, Pinto & Bischler 3460 (COL!), Macizo Colombiano. Valle de Las Papas, alrededores de Valencia, Los Andes. Alt. 3150 m. Wet cienga between scrub patches, an extension of Station 4, approx. 3 km from casa of Hacienda Los Andes, 1 Oct 1958, Barclay & P. Juajibioy 5892 (COL!), Paramo Guanacas. Lehmann 6419 (K!), Cundinamarca. D.C., localidad 20, Parque Nacional Natural Sumapaz, vereda Santa Rosa, arriba de la laguna Casa Blanca, 3500 m, 7 Aug 1998, P. Pedraza, P. Franco, D. Stancik & A. Neira 247 p.p. (COL!), Bogot. Paramo de Cruz Verde, 3200 m, 6 Sep 1977, G. Morales & Flenley 30 (COL!), San Miguel. Schneider 673 (COL!), Huila. Mpio. de Gigante. el Campamento 1, en bosque andino de Winmannia, Brunellia, Clusia hasta el subparamo (3050 m), con Dipostephium, Brachyotum, Gynoxis, Weinmannia, 12-16 Aug 1997, J.L. Fernandez Alonso, E. Linares, P. Balcazar, R. Vasquez, J. Velez & G. Salazar 14851 (COL!), Meta. Macizo de Sumapaz. Alrededores de la Laguna La Guitarra, alt. 3380-3420 m, 4 Jul 1981 S. Diaz P. 2404 (COL!), Nario/Putumayo. Mpio. de Santiago Vereda. Paramo del Bordoncillo. 11N, 77W, 3200-3400 m, 17 Apr 1993, A. Munoz & D. Ramirez 414 (COL), Quindio. Pijao. Paramo del Chili, km 28, paramo, 3600 m, 17 Sep 1998, Gil-Correa 115 & N. Ocampo, M. Piepenbring, C. Velez (COL!), Sine loc. Lehmann 6419 (K!). NEW RECORDS Schltr. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg., Beih. 8: 41. 1921. TYPE(Garay 1978): Ecuador. Loja, in Andibus Lehmann 7111 (holotype: B, lectotype, K!). Plant Leaf basal, petiolate; oblong-lanceolate, acute. Scape up to 58 cm tall, erect, pubescent sheaths. Spike Flowers yellowish-orange to yellowish-brown according to the herbarium label. Floral bracts up to 8 mm long, mm long, densely glandular. Dorsal sepal glabrous, 3-veined. Petals adnate to dorsal sepal, obliquely linear-lanceolate, acuminate, margin sparsely ciliate, l-veined. Lateral sepals to ovate, concave, acuminate, glabrous or sparsely Lip 5 ,0 indistinctly 3-lobed; basal part triangular-elliptic; papillose; disc 7-veined, margin ornamented with swollen cells. Gynostemium 2.3 mm long. Fruit not seen REPRESENTATIVE S PECIMENS : Costa Rica. Puntarenas. Cantn de Coto Brus. P.N. La Amistad, Cuenca Trraba-Sierpe, Cerro Echandi, 9N Gamboa & al. 1718 (FLAS!); Cartago. Carretera Panamericana Sur, 2700 m, 17 Ju l 1963, A. Jimenez 849 (F!, Fig 6). DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY Until now this species was reported from Ecuador and Colombia. In Costa Rica it was found growing terrestrially in paramo, forest edges and vegetation with Sphagnum at the altitude

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. 106 LANKESTERIANA above 2700 m. Flowering occurs in July and August. OTHER SPECIMENS EXAMINED: Colombia. Boyac. Mpio. Arcabuco. Santuario de Flora y Fauna de Igauque. Camino a la Laguna. Paramo dominado por Espeletia, Calamagrostis, Hypericum, Lupinus, Monnina, Cavendishia, Castilleja, 3600 m, 24 Sep 2002, H. Duenas, F. Cortes & N. Aranguren 3130 (COL!), Mpio. Villa de Leyva. Parque Nacional Natural santuario de Iguaque, 3700 m, 20 Jul 1979, M. Melampy 207 (COL!), Mpio. Pesca. Paramo de la Cortadera. Vereda La Pena, 3600 m, 21 Aug 1982, M. Bejarano B. 245 (COL!), Cundinamarca. D.C., localidad 20, Parque Nacional Natural Sumapaz, vereda Santa Rosa, arriba de la laguna Casa Blanca, 3500 m, 7 Aug 1998, P. Pedraza, P. Franco, D. Stancik & A. Neira 247 p.p. (COL!), Bogot. Paramo de Monserrate, 3000 m, 26 Jul 1943, Schneider 243 (COL!), Carretera Paramo de Palacio a Rio Chuza, cabeceras Valle Chocolatel. Vertiente pedregoso con Calamagrostis effusa y Oreobolus obtusangulus, 3700 m, 9 Sep 1972, A.M. Cleef 5435 (COL!), Paramo entre Cogua y San Cayetano. Laguna Verde y alrededores Paramo seco con Calamagrostis effusa, 2 km al NW de la Laguna, 3600 m, 19 Aug 1972, A.M. Cleef, M.T. Murillo & van der Hammen 5164 (COL!), Meta. Macizo de Sumapaz. Alrededores de la Laguna El Sorbedero, 3550 m, 4 Jul 1981, S. Diaz P., A.M. Cleef, van der Hammen, O. Rangel & S. Salamanca 2472 (COL!), Upland E of Sesquile, 3300 m, 5 Jul 1947, Haught 5929 (COL!). Ecuador. Loja. Lehmann 7111 (K!). Pterichis parvifolia (Lindl.) Schltr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Acraea parvifolia Lindl., Pl. Hartw.: 155. 1845. TYPE: Ecuador. Loja. Hartweg 50 (K-Lindl.!). Plant about 37 cm tall. Leaf basal, petiolate; Scape about 25 cm tall, pubescent, with 5 sheaths decreasing in size distally along the scape, pubescent in upper half. Spike Flowers greenish with yellow lip with brownish veins. Floral bracts up to 9 mm long, glabrous, ovatelanceolate, acute. Pedicellate ovary up to 13 mm long, pubescent. Dorsal sepal 7 2 mm, ovate-lanceolate, subacuminate, obtuse, glabrous, 3-veined. Petals 7.0 1.5 mm, ciliate along margins, unguiculate in lower Lateral sepals 5.5 2.5 mm, glabrous, obliquely ovate, subacuminate, 2-veined. Lip 7 mm, glandular-pubescent, ovate-triangular, subobtuse; lateral lobes obliquely ovate; disc 5-veined, lateral lobes branching, margin ornamented with a row of prominent papillae. Gynostemium 2 mm long. Fruit not seen. REPRESENTATIVE SPECIMEN : Costa Rica. San Jose and Cartago. Below the highest point of Interamerican Highway, northwest of La Asuncion, 9N 83W, 3000-3200 m, 27 Oct 1975, W. Burger & R. Baker 9505 (F!, Fig 7). DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY Until now this species was reported from Peru, Ecuador and Colombia. In FIGURE 6. A. Lateral sepal. B. Petal. C. Dorsal sepal. D. Lip. Scale bars = 3 mm. Drawn by N. Jimenez 849 (F).

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Costa Rica it was found in steep wet grassy slope at an altitude of about 3000-3200 m. Flowering occurs at least in October. OTHER SPECIMENS EXAMINED: Colombia. Nario. Mpio. Guachucal-Cumbal. Paramo de Infernillo. The ridge in direction to Vulcan Cumbal. Grassy paramo with Calamagrostis effusa, Cortadera, Diplostephium, Espeletia, Puya. Flowers yellowish, 3700 m, 5-9 Mar 1999, Stancik 2687 (COL!), Mpio. MallamaPiedrahancha. Vereda Pueblo Viejo. Paramo del Infernillo. Reserve Natural Pueblo Viejo. Km 97 via Pasto-Tumaco, desvio a la izquierda viajando hacia Tumaco y ascenda de 2 km por la carretera via Pueblo Viejo Coleccion entre la Cabana principal de la reserve y el sitio La Lagunetas, 1.9-1.2N, 77.7-77.8W, 3318-3739 m, 8 Jan 2009, L.M. Caballero, O. Rivera Diaz, G. Silva, C. Leguizamo, M. Ayala, J. Gil & M. Rodriguez LMC3 (COL!). Ecuador. Loja. Hartweg 50 (K-Lindl.!). KEY TO COSTA RICAN SPECIES OF PTERICHIS 1. Petals free from dorsal sepal P. galeata 1a. Petals adnate to dorsal sepal 2 2. Lateral lobes of the lip not forming auricles P. habenarioides var. habenarioides 2a. Lateral lobes of the lip forming auricles 3 3. Petals glabrous P. habenarioides var. costaricensis 3a. Petals ciliate on margins 4 4. Petals sessile, 1-veined P. 4a. Petals unguiculate, 2-veined 5 5. Petals constricted in the upper third, sepals externally ciliate P. herrerae 5a. Petals not contricted in the upper part, sepals glabrous P. parvifolia ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. The Curators and staff of the cited herbaria are thanked for providing access to their collections. I am grateful to Professor Dariusz L. Szlachetko for his valuable comments on the manuscript. The research described here was (538-L150-B065-13). LITERATURE CITED Cribb, P. 2003. Pterichis Pp. 53. in : A. M. Pridgeon, P. J. Cribb, M. C. Chase & F. N. Rasmussen (eds.), Genera Orchidacearum New York, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Dressler, R. L. 2003. Orchidaceae. Pp. 1. in : B. E. Hammel, M. H. Grayum, C. Herrera & N. Zamora (eds.), Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, vol III: Monocotiledneas (Orchidaceae-Zingiberaceae) Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 93: 1. Dueas Gmez, H.C., Fernndez Alonso, J.L. 2009. Sinopsis de la Subfamilia Spiranthoideae (Orchidaceae) en Colombia, parte II. Rev. Acad. Colomb. Ci. Exact. 33( 127): 157-181. Garay, L. A. 1978. 225(1) Orchidaceae, Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae, Neottioideae. Pp. 1. in : G. Harling & B. Sparre (eds.), Flora of Ecuador 9. University of Goteborg, Stockholm, Sweden. Lindley, J. 1840. The Genera and Species of Orchidaceous Plants Part 7(1): 441. der Orchideen. Carl Winters Universittsbuchhandlung, Heidelberg, Germany. Salazar, G. A., M. W. Chase, M. A. Soto & M. Ingrouille. 2003. Phylogenetics of Cranichideae with emphasis on LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. KOLANOWSKA Pterichis in Costa Rica 107 FIGURE 7. Pterichis parvifolia A. Lateral sepal. B. Petal. C. Dorsal sepal. D. Lip. Scale bars = 3 mm. Drawn by N. Burger & Baker 9505 (F).

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. 108 LANKESTERIANA Spiranthinae (Orchidaceae, Orchidoideae): evidence from plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Am. J. Bot. 90: 777. Salazar, G. A., L. I. Cabrera, S. Madrin & M. W. Chase. 2009. Phylogenetic relationships of Cranichidinae and Prescottiinae (Orchidaceae, Cranichideae) inferred from plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Ann. Bot. 104(3): 403. Szlachetko D. L. & P. Rutkowski. 2000. Gynostemia Orchidalium 1. Acta Bot. Fenn. 169: 1-380.

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2): 10914 2014. Introduction The genus Malaxis Sol. ex Sw. (1788: 119; Orchidaceae) encompasses ca. 300 species (Todzia 1995, Dodson 2002, Dressler 2003, Cribb 2005) distributed worldwide, with at ca. 100 species in the Western Hemisphere (Dodson 2002) and 21 reported so far for Costa Rica (Pupulin 2002, Dressler 2003). According to a preliminary molecular phylogenetic analysis (Cameron 2005) the genus is at least diphyletic in its traditional circumscription. Malaxideae Lindl. of Cribb (2005; 13 genera), as well as his circumscription of Malaxis Szlachetko segregates of Neotropical Malaxis sensu Cribb (2005) (i.e., Microstylis (Nutt.) Eaton and Tamayorkis Szlach.); however, their rationale is not explicit, and the species treated here would still be included in their narrow circumscription of Malaxis Tropical species of Malaxis occur in a great variety of environments, ranging from lowlands rain forests to paramos (and reportedly also from semiarid environments; Gonzlez-Tamayo 2002), from sea level to 3500 m elevation (Gonzlez-Tamayo 2002). Plants of Malaxis are easily recognized by their herbaceous, sympodial habit, rhizomatous stems often with small pseudobulbs or corms covered by membranaceous cataphylls, one or two non-articulated leaves produced racemes or corymbs), and small, usually green transversally divided by a longitudinal ridge) located at the base of the labellum. de Plantas Tropicales (OET 2013-18) at Las Cruces Biological Station (southern Fila Costea, Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica), a small epiphytic plant of Malaxis was found growing in late secondary forest at the base of a mature tree with ca. 50 cm of diameter at breast height (DBH); this plant was eventually M. nana C. Schweinf. (1938: 89). REDISCOVERY OF MALAXIS NANA (ORCHIDACEAE: MALAXIDEAE) IN COSTA RICA, WITH AN UPDATED DESCRIPTION OSCAR A. PREZ-ESCOBAR 1,4 & MARIO A. BLANCO 2,3 1 Department of Botany, Systematics and Mycology, Ludwig-Maximilians Universitt, 2 Escuela de Biologa, Universidad de Costa Rica, 11501-2060, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, San Jos, Costa Rica 3 Research Associate, Jardn Botnico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica, 4 Corresponding author: oapereze@yahoo.com ABSTRACT. Malaxis nana C. Schweinf. is known from two herbarium specimens collected in 1925 in San Ramn, Alajuela province, and three additional specimens without detailed locality data collected in the late 1800s, all of them in Costa Rica. This species had not been registered since. Malaxis nana Cruces Biological Station, Puntarenas province, in southern Costa Rica. An updated description, illustration, photographs and distribution map for this taxon are provided. RESUMEN. Malaxis nana C. Schweinf. se conoce de dos especmenes recolectados en 1925 en San Ramn, provincia de Alajuela, y tres especmenes adicionales sin datos de localidad detallados y recolectados en informamos por vez primera sobre la existencia de Malaxis nana en la Estacin Biolgica Las Cruces, provincia de Puntarenas, en el sur de Costa Rica. Se presenta una descripcin actualizada, ilustracin, fotografas y mapa de distribucin para este taxn. KEY WORDS : Alberto M. Brenes, Auguste R. Endrs, Las Cruces Biological Station

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. 110 LANKESTERIANA After studying specimens from six herbaria in Costa Rica (CR, HLDG, INB, JBL, LSCR, and USJ) and other important herbarium databases available on-line (AMES, K, MO, NY and W), only three additional specimens of M. nana were found ( Endres 138 and Endres s.n. [2 specimens], both at W, collected somewhere in Costa Rica between 1866 and 1874; see discussion). Because of the dearth of information on Malaxis nana we provide an updated description, illustrations, a distribution map, and brief commentaries on the ecology of this taxon. Materials and methods Live plants of Malaxis nana were collected on July 2013 in the forest preserve of Las Cruces Biological Station (see detailed locality data under additional specimens examined, below). with the protologue (Schweinfurth 1938). A dry also preserved in liquid (70% ethanol, 20% water, 10% glycerol). The updated description below was prepared based on all six collections of M. nana available to us (either as physical specimens or as digital images) by early 2014. Distribution maps were generated using DIVA-GIS. TAXONOMIC TREATMENT Malaxis nana 89. 1938. (Figs. 1, 2) Type: COSTA RICA. [Alajuela: San Ramn,] bois San Pedro de San Ramn, epiphyte, de 7 cm. haut., alt. 850 m, 27 June 1925, Brenes ( 96 ) 1301 (holotype: AMES [image!], mounted on same sheet as paratype). Epiphytic, sympodial, cespitose herbs (usually with only 2 consecutive sympodial units present at any given moment), 2 cm tall (to the top of the Roots 1.0.9 mm in diameter, whitish, pilose, growing from the base of each pseudobulb. Pseudobulbs 5 4 mm, green, ellipsoid to ovoid, heteroblastic, covered by 1 membranaceous cataphylls 0.5.0 cm long. Leaves 2 per sympodial unit (produced from the apex of the pseudobulb), present only in the most recent sympodial unit, shortly pseudopetiolate; pseudopetioles (sheaths of the foliage leaves) U-shaped in cross section, 5 3 mm (folded), erect, enveloping each other and anisophyllous, horizontal to ascending, subopposite, broadly lanceolate to ovate, basally cuneate to round, apically acute, shiny green with crystalline texture adaxially, matte greyish green abaxially, herbaceous, 9 veined, the midvein impressed. 22 mm long (including peduncle), erect to arcuate; peduncle 23 mm long, minutely ribbed, of a single visible internode; rachis 2 mm long, and ca. 12 developing buds. Floral bracts up to 2 1 mm, spreading, membranaceous, green, triangular, 1-veined. Pedicel plus ovary 5 mm long, seemingly increasing in length with age during both before and during anthesis. Flowers relatively big for the size of the plant (open perianth ca. 9 mm long), secondarily non-resupinate (by 180 degree twisting and upward bending of the pedicel), emerald green, turning coppery orange when old (or chestnut brown according to one herbarium collection), membranaceous, sepals and petals lustrous and somewhat translucent. Dorsal sepal 6.0.6 1.2.0 mm, spreading, adpressed to the ovary, narrowly lanceolate, acute to longacuminate, entire, retrorse towards the apex, 3-veined. Lateral sepals 6.1.0 1.8 mm, free, spreading, obliquely narrowly lanceolate, acute to acuminate, entire, margins slightly revolute, 3-veined. Petals 6.0 7.0 0.5.0 mm, spreading, slightly recurved upon the middle part, narrowly triangular to linear, acute, entire, 1-veined. Labellum 5.1.5 2.1.0 mm, spreading, ovate to lanceolate, long-acuminate, entire, divided, somewhat darker than the rest of the labellum. Column 1.1 2.0 mm (wider than long), dorsiventrally compressed, emarginate. Anther dorsal, with 2 divergent thecae. Pollinia 4 in 2 hemipollinaria (1 per theca), each pollinium ca. 1 mm long, yellow, narrowly ovoid; the two pollinia in each hemipollinarium tightly appressed to each other, sharing a single apical caudicle ca. 0.2 mm long. Rostellum concave. Stigma ventral, transversally bilobed, ca. 0.7 1.5 mm. Fruit a capsule, 5 mm long when dehisced, apparently with 2 narrow valves and 1 wider valve separating at apex.

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. PREZ-ESCOBAR & BLANCO Rediscovery of Malaxis nana 111 FIGURE 1. Malaxis nana A. Flower, front view. B. Flower, side view. C. Flower, oblique view. D. Dissected perianth. E. Column, dorsal view, with hemipollinaria removed. F. Hemipollinaria. Drawn by O. Prez from Prez 1412

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. 112 LANKESTERIANA ADDITIONAL SPECIMENS EXAMINED : COSTA RICA. Without additional data: Endrs s.n. (W no. 188939091, image!), 1867, Endrs 138 (W no. 19521 [image!] & 1889-40326 [image!]). [Alajuela: San Ramn,] Bosquet du Cerro de San Isidro de San Ramn, 1175 m, 10 July 1925, Brenes (131) 1334 (AMES [image!, mounted on same sheet as holotype], CR!). Puntarenas: Coto Brus, San Vito, Estacin Biolgica Las Cruces, sendero Ro Java, 1200 m, lat.: 8.786788, long.: -82.965540, 14 July 2013, Prez 1412 (USJ!, JBL-liquid!). DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY: Malaxis nana is considered endemic to Costa Rica and so far it is known only from Alajuela Province, San Ramn County (type locality and San Isidro Hill) and Puntarenas Province, Coto Brus County (Las Cruces Biological Station) (Fig. 3). The last locality is only 6 km away from the Panamanian border; thus, it is highly likely that the species also occurs in Panama. Plants of Malaxis nana grow as epiphytes in the lower strata of premontane wet forests, in an elevational range of 850 m. In Las Cruces Biological Station, plants of M. nana were observed growing on mature trees of ca. 50 cm DBH. When the present manuscript was in press, we learned that M. nana was collected again in Las Cruces Biological Station in June 2014, this time during the course Tropical Plant Systematics (voucher: Bonifacino & Damin 5001 to be deposited at USJ; from the very same colony as Prez 1412 Flowering plants have been collected at least in June and July (the Endrs specimens do not indicate a collecting date). COMMENTARY: Malaxis nana was described by Charles Schweinfurth (1938: 89) from a plant collected FIGURE 2. Malaxis nana Photos by M. A. Blanco & O. Prez.

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. PREZ-ESCOBAR & BLANCO Rediscovery of Malaxis nana 113 in San Ramn county, Alajuela province, and from another record from a nearby locality (San Isidro Hill); both plants were collected by Alberto M. Brenes (for information about Breness collecting activities and the numbering of his collections see Barringer 1986). Three other herbarium specimens (unknown to Schweinfurth) were collected by Auguste R. Endrs in Costa Rica sometime between 1866 and 1874 (during his stay in that country; Ossenbach et al 2010) at least two of them in 1867 (see below). Endrs sent his specimens to H.G. Reichenbach in Hamburg, and they are currently deposited in the herbarium of the Naturhistorische Museum in Vienna (W). These three specimens lack additional locality information; however, they were possibly collected in the region of San Ramn, where Endrs lived during most of his time in Costa Rica (Ossenbach et al 2010). Like many other collections that Endrs sent to Reichenbach, these represented a then-undescribed species but Reichenbach never described it (see Pupulin et al Malaxis nana by Robert L. Dressler in 2001. Images of these and other Endrs collections are available through the Virtual Herbaria website (http://herbarium.univie. ac.at/database/search.php). Two of the Endrs specimens have attached pieces of rag paper with the handwritten annotation [] N 138 year of collection. The second number is the species number; Endrs did not use collection numbers in the modern sense (i.e., to designate gatherings), but he used these numbers to correlate drawings and descriptions with plants that in his opinion belonged to the same species (Pupulin et al 2011). It is interesting chestnut brown, in contrast to the plant from Las color. FIGURE 3. Distribution of Malaxis nana (based on available herbarium specimens with locality data)

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. 114 LANKESTERIANA In spite of more or less constant and intensive botanical explorations in Costa Rica ever since, no additional collections of this species were known until now. After 73 years of its description, hereby another population is reported, growing on a premontane wet forest from Puntarenas province, Coto Brus County (ca. 220 km SE from the type locality). Malaxis nana can be recognized from other Costa Rican congeners by the small size of the plant, very short pseudobulbs bearing two leaves each, very short rhizome segments, thyrsoid inflorescences, relatively large flowers, the entire, acuminate labellum without auricles or lobes at the base, and the non divided disc cavity. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank the Organization of Tropical Studies for the logistical support provided for the course Sistemtica de Plantas Tropicales, OET 2013-18, during which the plant of Malaxis nana was documented. To the curators of the herbaria CR, INB, JBL, LSCR and USJ, for making specimens available for study. To Alexander Damin Loaiza for informing us of their collection of M. nana in Las Cruces Biological Station. Plants were collected under the permit number 026-2013-SINAC, granted by the Sistema Nacional de reas de Conservacin to O.A. Prez. LITERATURE CITED n.s. 17: 1. Cameron, K.M. 2005. Leave it to the leaves: A molecular phylogenetic study of Malaxideae (Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 92: 1025. http://www.amjbot.org/content/92/6/1025.full Cribb, P.J. 2005.Tribe Malaxideae. In: A. Pridgeon, P.J. Cribb, M.W. Chase & F.N. Rasmussen (Eds.), Genera Orchidacearum, volume 4: Epidendroideae (Part One). Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 453. Dodson, C.H. 2002. Native Ecuadorian Orchids, Volume III: LepanthopsisOliveriana. Dodson Trust, Sarasota, 231 pp. Dressler, R.L. 2003. Malaxis In: Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) Manual de plantas de Costa Rica, Volumen III: Monocotiledneas (OrchidaceaeZingiberaceae). Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 93: 269. http://www.botanicus.org/item/31753003149553 Gonzlez-Tamayo, R. 2002. Malaxis mexicanos. Ibugana 10(1-2): 67. ibugana.cucba.udg.mx/pdf/ibugana_10(1-2).pdf Ossenbach, C., F. Pupulin & R.L. Dressler. 2007. Orqudeas del Istmo Centroamericano: Catlogo y Estado de Conservacin / Orchids of the Central American Isthmus: Checklist and Conservation Status Editorial 25 de Mayo, Sabanilla, Montes de Oca. Ossenbach, C., F. Pupulin & R. Jenny. 2010. Orchid itineraries of Augustus R. Endrs in Central America: a biographic and geographic sketch. Lankesteriana 10: 19. http://www.epidendra.org/LITERATURE/Ossenbach%20et%20al%20 2010/lit.html Pupulin, F. 2002. Catlogo revisado y anotado de las Orchidaceae de Costa Rica. Lankesteriana 4: 1. http://www. epidendra.org/LITERATURE/Lit_Pupulin_2002b_Catalogo/lit.html Pupulin, F., C. Ossenbach, R. Jenny & E. Vitek. 2011. Typi Orchidacearum ab Augusto R. Endresio in Costa Rica lecti. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien. Ser. B, Bot. Zool. 112: 265. http://www.epidendra.org/LITERATURE/Pupulin et al http://www. jstor.org/stable/41762660 Solander, D. & O. Sawrtz. 1788. Malaxis Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus 8: 119. http://www.botanicus. org/title/b1199485x Malaxis Sol. ex Sw. and Microstylis (Nutt.) Eaton Todzia, C.B. 1995. Malaxis chica a new species of Orchidaceae from Nuevo Len, Mexico. Brittonia 47: 24. http:// www.jstor.org/stable/2807244

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2): 115 2014. En la actualidad Honduras no cuenta con un informacin actualizada sobre nomenclatura, conservacin y ejemplares de respaldo. Las primeras obras de referencia para conocer la diversidad de Orchidaceae en el pas fueron los estudios de Williams (1956) y Molina (1975) donde registraron 63 y 366 especies, respetivamente. Otra contribucin es la de Ossenbach et al (2007) donde registraron 621 especies para Honduras, pero cuyo objetivo fue listar el nmero de especies de orqudeas en Centroamrica. El estudio especies y 146 gneros de Orchidaceae para Honduras (Nelson Sutherland 2008). Sin embargo, esta lista requiere una revisin para actualizar y corregir muchos de los nombres considerados. Por otro lado, para obtener un mayor conocimiento de la riqueza orquidolgica de Honduras, se requiere tambin la revisin de las colecciones nacionales y la realizacin albergan la mayor biodiversidad de Honduras. Por otra parte, en revisiones sistemticas y base de datos internacionales (p. ej., w3Tropicos, revisado en enero 2014) en ocasiones se ha sealado para algunas especies de orqudeas centroamericanas los puntos extremos de sus distribuciones (desde del sur de Mxico (o Guatemala) hasta Costa Rica (o Panam)) mitad de su distribucin (Honduras, Nicaragua); lo anterior hace suponer su presencia en todo el amplio rango distribucional a pesar de que en ocasiones se carece de material de herbario de respaldo para algn pas particular. Tambin hay estudios en donde con material de herbario de respaldo aun cuando las especies poseen un rango distribucional amplio. Por ejemplo, Pupulin et al (2012) citan con especmenes de herbario a Specklinia spectabilis en Mxico, Nicaragua, Costa Rica y Panam, pero no incluyen en su distribucin a Guatemala y Honduras por falta de material de respaldo. NUEVOS REGISTROS DE ORCHIDACEAE PARA HONDURAS HERMES VEGA 1,6 WILLIAM CETZAL-IX 2 EDGAR M 3 DANIEL GERMER 4 & KATYA SOLER 5 1 Grupo de Investigacin de Biodiversidad de Honduras BALAM (GIBH-BALAM), Tegucigalpa, Honduras 2 Col. Chuburn de Hidalgo, Mrida 97200, Yucatn, Mxico 3 Orquideario Agronoma-CUNOR-USAC, Carrera de Agronoma, Centro Universitario del Norte, Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Cobn, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala 4 Direccin de Proteccin Ambiental, El Platanar S de RL, Honduras 5 Herbario Paul C. Standley, Zamorano EAP, Honduras 6 Corresponding author: hermesve_77@yahoo.es; rolito22@hotmail.com ABSTRACT. Goodyera major (Santa Brbara department), Lophiaris oerstelurida (Atlntida), Maxillaria reichenheimiana (El Paraso), Microchilus killipii (Corts), Mormodes nagelli (Ocotepeque), M. sotoana (Choluteca), Specklinia spectabilis (Corts), and Triphora debilis (Santa Brbara). We provide photos of these species and their habitats, and a map for their known localities in Honduras. RESUMEN. Goodyera major (Departamento Santa Brbara), Lophiaris oerstelurida (Atlntida), Maxillaria reichenheimiana (El Paraso), Microchilus killipii (Corts), Mormodes nagelli (Ocotepeque), M. sotoana (Choluteca), Specklinia spectabilis (Corts) y Triphora debilis (Santa Brbara). Incluimos ilustraciones de las especies y los hbitats y un mapa de distribucin KEY WORDS : Atlntida, Corts, Choluteca, El Paraso, Ocotepeque, Santa Brbara, Parques Nacionales, Orchids

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. 116 LANKESTERIANA En este sentido, cuando se estudia la biodiversidad en trminos geopolticos (pases, departamentos, con especmenes de herbario de respaldo en lugar de tratarla como esperada o probable. La ausencia de informacin en especies con amplios rangos de distribucin se debe en algunos casos posiblemente a la falta de nichos adecuados para que se establezcan o por la falta de informacin disponible a travs de colecciones vivas o de material de herbario disponible. El corroborar la presencia de una especie a travs de testigos (fotografas, material de herbario) permite a otros usuarios estudiar y entender la variacin morfolgica, el patrn de distribucin de las poblaciones, los tipos de vegetacin donde crece, prioritarias de conservacin de la biodiversidad. Como parte de la preparacin de un estudio sistemtico de las orqudeas de Honduras y como un esfuerzo por contribuir a un mayor conocimiento de y recoleccin botnica en diversos departamentos del pas (Atlntida, Corts, Choluteca, El Paraso, Ocotepeque y Santa Brbara, Figura 1). Durante este trabajo se localizaron especies de orqudeas no su hbitat (Figuras 2-3), herborizados y depositados en los herbarios de la Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Honduras (TEFH) y Paul Standley de la Escuela Agrcola Zamorano (EAP). A continuacin se presentan los nuevos registros: 1. Goodyera major FIGURA 1. Ubicacin de los nuevos registros en Honduras. 1. Islas de Baha. 2. Corts. 3. Atlntida. 4. Coln. 5. Gracias a Dios. 6. Copn. 7. Santa Brbara. 8. Yoro. 9. Olancho. 10. Ocotepeque. 11. Lempira. 12. Intibuc. 13. Comayagua. 14. Francisco Morazn. 15. El Paraso. 16. La Paz. 17. Valle. 18. Choluteca.

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. VEGA et al. Nuevos registros de Orchidaceae para Honduras 117 10(4): 68, t. 4. 1942. TIPO: Guatemala. Zacapa: cloud forest in ravine bordering Quebrada Alejandra, summit of Sierra de las Minas, vicinity J. A. Steyermark 29886 (holotipo: AMES; isotipo: F). DISTRIBUCIN : Mxico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua y Costa Rica. HBITAT EN HONDURAS : Terrestre (Figura 2A-B), crece sobre capas de hojarasca entre los bordes del sotobosque y zonas abiertas del bosque nuboso en la zona ncleo del Parque Nacional Montaa de Santa Brbara (Figura 3A), a 2,200 m de elevacin. Esta especie es de amplia distribucin en Centroamrica, en Honduras slo se encontr un individuo en la zona ncleo del parque. FENOLOGA : Florece en julio. MATERIAL EXAMINADO : Santa Brbara: Campamento Wells, Parque Nacional Montaa de Santa Brbara, 14.39N, 88 8.40O, 2,200 m, 17 Julio 2011, H. Vega 355 (TEFH). 2. Lophiaris oerste lurida Cetzal & Balam, J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 139(1): 20, f. 4A1C4. 2012. TIPO: Mxico. Chiapas: Colonia Reforma, Acacoyagua, en cultivo en marzo del 2009, C. R. Beutelspacher s.n. (holotipo: HEM). DISTRIBUCIN : Mxico, Guatemala y Honduras. H BITAT EN HONDURAS caf-rojizo (Figura 2C) en la selva baja caducifolia (departamento Atlntida) y el bosque mixto subtropical (departamento El Paraso), entre 31 y 700 m de elevacin. Esta notoespecie previamente se conoca solo de especmenes restringidos a la frontera de Mxico, estado de Chiapas y Guatemala, departamento Huehuetenango (Cetzal-Ix & Balam 2012). Las dos colecciones aqu citadas de la vertiente atlntica y Mxico y Guatemala, estos registros incrementa su rango de distrib ucin conocido. FENOLOGA: Florece en Julio. MATERIAL EX AMINADO : Atlntida: Cerca de Jutiapa, 31 m, 29 abril 2013, P. House s.n. (TEFH). El Paraso: Bosque Mixto de km 73 entre El Ojo de Agua y Ro California, 700 m, 11 Julio 1964, A. Molina 14486 (EAP) 3. Maxill aria reichenheimiana Endrs & Rchb.f., Gard. Chron. 1871: 1678. 1871. TIPO: Costa Rica: Discovered by M. Endres in 1867, alt. 5500 ft, and was gathered later by Mr. Zahn, A. R. Endres s.n. (holotipo : W). DISTRIBUCIN : Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panam, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador y Per. HBITAT IN HONDURAS : a rosado salmn (Figura 2F), en el bosque nublado en el Parque Nacional Patuca (Figura 3B) de la cordillera Entre Ros, a 1,519 m de elevacin. Se trata de una especie de amplia distribucin en el norte de Centroamrica y la regin de los Andes en Sudamrica. Este registro incrementa el rango de distribucin de la especie hacia el norte de Centroamrica. FENOLOGA: Florece de Junio a Julio. MATERIAL EXAMINADO : El Paraso: Cordillera Entre Ros, Parque Nacional Patuca, bosque nublado, 14.42N, 85.34O, 1519 m, 1 Julio 2013, K. Soler 839 (EAP). 4. Microchilus killipii (Ames) Ormerod, Lindleyana 17(4): 217. 2002. Erythrodes killipii Ames, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 34: 150. 1921. TIPO: Panam. Chiriqu: valley of the Ro Caldera, from El Boquete to the Cordillera, 1 Feb 1918, Killip 3561 (holotipo: AMES; isotipos: AMES, US). DISTRIBUCIN : Honduras, Costa Rica y Panam HBITAT IN HONDURAS : Terrestre (Figura 2D-E) sobre capas de humus muy denso en el bosque lluvioso tropical. La localidad aqu registrada se encuentra aproximadamente a 600 km de distancia de las poblaciones ms prximas de Costa Rica (Dressler 2003a; w3Tropicos, revisado en abril 2014 ). FENOLOGA: Florece en Marzo. MATERIAL EXAMINADO : Corts: Sendero Los Vencejos, Parque Nacional Cerro Azul Membar, 14.47N, 87.38O, 2 marzo 2012, 835 m, H. Vega 1966 (TEFH).

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. 118 LANKESTERIANA FIGURA 2. Nuevo registros de Honduras. A-B. Goodyera major C. Lophiaris oerstelurida D-E. Microchilus killipii F. Maxillaria reichenheimiana G-H. Mormodes nagelli I. Mormodes sotoana J. Specklinia spectabilis K. Triphora debilis.

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. VEGA et al. Nuevos registros de Orchidaceae para Honduras 119 5. Mormodes nagelii L.O.Williams, Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 9: 153 (1940). TIPO: Mxico. Chiapas: shore of Lake Xalhueche near San Jos del Arco, 1350 m, 24 Marzo 1936, O. Nagel 5554 (holotipo: AMES; isotipo: MO). DISTRIBUCIN : Mxico, Guatemala y Honduras. HBITAT EN HONDURAS rojizo o amarillas (Figura 2G-H), en cafetales dentro del bosque mixto cerca de los lmites con Guatemala y El Salvador a 1,512 m de elevacin. La especie previamente solo se conoca de Chiapas, Mxico (Salazar 2002) y en los departamentos de Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz y Zacapa, en Guatemala. FENOLOGA : Florece de Mayo a Julio MATERIAL EXAMINADO : Ocotepeque: Parque Nacional Quesera, cafetal en bosque mixto. 14.21N, 89.30O, 1,512 m, 1 julio 2011, P. House, H. Vega & I. Rivera s.n. (TEFH). 6. M ormodes sotoana Salazar, Orqudea (Mexico City), n.s., 12(2): 261, f. 1. TIPO: Guatemala. Alta Verapaz: Aldea Choval, ca. 10 km de Cobn por el camino al Ro Sachichaj, 1100 m, G. A. Salazar & M. A. Soto 4450 (holotipo: AMO; isotipos: AMES, BR, CAS, K, MEXU, NY, UVAL). DISTRIBUCIN : Mxico, Belice, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua y Costa Rica. HBITAT EN HONDURAS caf rojizas a caf amarillentas o rojo ladrillo (Figura 2I), sobre rboles de sombra dentro de cafetales y en fragmentos de bosque mixto perturbado, a 1,300 m de elevacin. Esta especie requiere de regmenes de perturbacin del hbitat para su establecimiento E s de amplia distribucin en Centroamrica, incluyendo Chiapas, Mxico. En Mxico se encuentra catalogada como en peligro de extincin debido a la reduccin de su 2001). En Honduras se encontr creciendo en cafetales de sombra alta y en fragmentos de bosque mixto perturbado, a una altitud de 1,300 m. Aparentemente crece en lugares perturbados con vegetacin emergente. En la zona donde se observaron los individuos es una zona protegida de la Reserva La Botija (Figura 3E), sin embargo, est muy fragmentado por potreros y cafetales. FENOLOGA : Florece en Noviembre. MATERIAL EXAMINADO: Choluteca: Las Mesas Duyusupo, San Marcos de Coln, bosque mixto en cafetal, 13.39N, 86.19O, 26 de noviembre de 2013, 1350 m, H. Vega 1866 (TEFH). 7. Specklinia spectabilis (Ames & C.Schweinf.) Pupulin & Karremans, Phytotaxa 63: 15, f. 3B, 4, 5D, 101. 2012. Pleurothallis spectabilis Ames & Schweinfurth, Sched. Orch. 8: 34. 1925. TIPO: Panam. Veraguas: Santa F, Feb. 1924, 1500 ft, Powell 382 (holotipo: AMES; isotipo: MO). DISTRIBUCIN : Mxico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua y Costa Rica. HBITAT EN HONDURAS mixto, a 1,016 m de elevacin. Es una especie de amplia distribucin en Centroamrica, desde Oaxaca y Chiapas en Mxico, hasta Panam. Sin embargo, hasta colecciones de herbario en Honduras. El espcimen aqu registrado se encontr en bosque mixto en el Parque Nacional Cerro Azul Membar, a 1,016 m de elevacin. FENOLOGA : Florece en Enero. MATERIAL EXAMINADO: Corts: Parque Nacional Cerro Azul Membar, Sendero Sina, cerca de la cascada, 14.38N, 87.17O, 1,016 m, 28 enero 2014, H. Vega & J. Hernndez 1966 (TEFH). 8. Triphora debilis (Schltr.) Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17(481/485): 139. 1921. Pogonia debilis Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 15(427/433): 196. 1918. Eremophila debilis (Schltr.) Chinnock J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 15(1): 77. 1992. TIPO: Guatemala. Chilion, locis umbrosis, Aug. 1867, Bernoulli & Cario 520 (holotipo: B, destruido, isotipo: RENZ-50154). DISTRIBUCIN : Mxico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica y Panam. HBITAT EN HONDURAS : Terrestre (Figura 2K) sobre rocas calcreas en bosque seco (Figura 3F), a 700 m

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. 120 LANKESTERIANA FIGURA 3. Hbitats donde crecen los nuevos registros de Honduras. A. Goodyera major B. M axillaria reichenheimiana C. Microchilus killipii D. Mormodes nagelli E. Mormodes sotoana F. Triphora debilis

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. VEGA et al. Nuevos registros de Orchidaceae para Honduras 121 de elevacin. La localidad aqu reportada se encuentra en la sierra de Atima, Santa Brbara, cuya vegetacin se encuentra severamente fragmentado debido a la actividad minera ah realizada. FENOLOGA : Florece en Agosto, septiembre y octubre. MATERIAL EXAMINADO : Santa Brbara: Pencalige, Atima, 700 m, bosque seco maduro, Septiembre 2012, D. Germer 201 (TEFH). AGRADECIMIENTOS. El primer autor agradece a Jos Linares S. spectabilis El segundo autor agradece al CONACYT por la beca otorgada para una estancia posdoctoral en el CICY. A Eliana NogueraSavelli por sus comentarios y sugerencias al manuscrito. A Rodolfo Solano y al comit editorial por los comentarios y sugerencias que enriquecieron el manuscrito. LITERATURA CITADA Cetzal-Ix, W. & R. Balam. 2012. The identity and distribution of Lophiaris carthagenensis (Orchidaceae, Oncidiinae): two centuries of confusion. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 139: 9. Dressler, R.L. 2003a. Erythrodes Pp. 170-178 in: B.E. Hammel, M.H. Grayum, C. Herrera & N. Zamora (eds.), Manual de plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen III: Monocotiledneas (Orchidaceae-Zingiberaceae), Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 93. Dressler, R.L. 2003b. Triphora Pp. 579-581 in: B.E. Hammel, M.H. Grayum, C. Herrera & N. Zamora (eds.), Manual de plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen III: Monocotiledneas (Orchidaceae-Zingiberaceae), Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 93. Molina, R.A. 1975. Enumeracin de las plantas de Honduras. Ceiba 19: 118. Tegucigalpa. Ossenbach, C., F. Pupulin & R.L. Dressler. 2007. Orqudeas del Istmo Centroamericano. Catlogo y estado de conservacin. Editorial 25 de Mayo, Montes Oca. Pupulin, F., A.P. Karremans & B. Gravendeel. 2012. A reconsideration of the empusellous species of Specklinia (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) in Costa Rica. Phytotaxa 63: 1. Salazar, G.A. 2002. Mormodes nagelii L.O.Williams. Pp. 625, in : E. Hgsater & M.A. Soto-Arenas (eds.), Icones Orchidacearum 5-6, Orchids of Mexico Parts 2-3. Herbario AMO. Mxico, D.F. Soto Arenas, M.A. 2001. Diversidad de orqudeas en la regin El Momn-Margaritas-Montebello, Chiapas, Mxico. proyecto N0. R225. Mxico, D.F. Williams, L.O. 1956. An enumeration of the Orchidaceae of Central America British Honduras, and Panama. Ceiba 5: 1.

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LANKESTERIANA

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2): 123 2014. Introduction Hetaeria Blume is a genus of about 30 species (Pridgeon et al. 2003, Chen et al. 2012) belonging to the Goodyerinae subtribe of family Orchidaceae (subfamily Orchidoideae, tribe Cranichideae; Pridgeon et al. 2003). It is distributed from tropical Africa through tropical Asia to the et al. 2003, Chen et al. 2012). There are 5 species reported to-date from Vietnam (Averyanov 2008); however, this number may not individuals which can be easily overlooked by with its very high diversity is still poorly explored (Averyanov et al. 2009). Hetaeria finlaysoniana Seidenf. is a species similar to other taxa in which the labellum is narrowed toward the apex, often with a poorly differentiated epichile. It was first mentioned in 1832, in Wallichs catalogue as Etaeria elongata but not validly described until 1840 when Lindely named it Goodyera elongata. Eventually Trimen made the combination Hetaeria elongata in 1885 but he overlooked the earlier use of the same epithet in 1859 by F.A.W. Miquel for a New Guinea species, now known as Vrydagzynea elongata Blume. Since Hetaeria elongata (Lindl.) Trimen is a homonym, and thus illegitimate, Seidenfaden proposed the new name H. finlaysoniana in 1997. To date, this species has been recorded from Thailand, Myanmar (Ormerod & Sathish Kumar 2003 ) and southern China (Guangxi, Hainan; Chen et al. 2012). Material and methods Plants were collected in until planted in Prague Botanical Garden (CITES permission No: 12CZ022452). Plants were growing in a mix of Seramis, perlite, pumice and peat in a plastic pot and kept slightly shaded in a glasshouse with day / night temperature (20 30) / (18 25)C. Pots were in cultivation, photographs were taken using a digital camera with a macro lens (Canon EOS 60D with Canon Macro EF 100mm 1:2,8 L IS USM) or a digital camera mounted on a stereomicroscope (Canon EOS 60D on Olympus SZ X7). CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE GENUS HETAERIA (ORCHIDACEAE: GOODYERINAE) IN VIETNAM JAN PONERT 1,2,5 T B. VUONG 3 N. HANH 4 T T THANH 4 N. T VY 3 R. RYBKOV 1 & T Q. TAM 3 1 Prague Botanical Garden, Ndvorn 134, CZ-171 00, Prague, Czech Republic 2 Department of Experimental Plant Biology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, 3 Institute of Tropical Biology, Viet Nam Academy of Science and Technology, 9/621 Hanoi highway, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam 4 Hon Ba Nature Reserve, 28 Hung Vuong, TT Dien Khanh, Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam 5 Author for correspondence: ponert@natur.cuni.cz ABSTRACT. As a result of Hon Ba nature reserve survey, previously recorded from Thailand, Myanmar and southern China, is newly recorded from Vietnam. Description of studied plants is presented together with notes on ecology and photographic documentation. These plants were collected in southern Vietnam (Hon Ba Nature Reserve, Khanh Hoa), which is located quite far from other known localities and thus a larger distribution of this possibly overlooked species could be expected. Additionally, H. youngsayei is newly recorded from the same reserve, 540 km from the nearest previously known locality. Distribution of Hetaeria is presented KEY WORDS : new record, distribution, Hon Ba, Khanh Hoa

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. 124 LANKESTERIANA Results and discussion Seidenf., Contr. Orchid Fl. Thailand 13: 10. 1997 Etaeria elongata Lindl., Wall. Cat. 1832, No. 7384, 18. nom. nud. Goodyera elongata Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 494. 1840 Hetaeria elongata (Lindl.) Trimen, Syst. Cat. Fl. Pl. Ceylon: 10, 1885 [not (Blume) Miquel 1859]; Seidenf., Dansk Bot. Ark. 32(2): 99, Rhamphidia elongata (Lindl.) Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 1: 181, 1857. TYPE : Origin unknown, possibly Thailand, Surat Thani province (Seidenfaden 1997) (K 000873768 & 000387653, Finlayson s.n. in Herb. Wallich 7384, Photo!). F IG 1, 3. Plants terrestrial, creeping, 40 to 50 cm tall. Rhizome elongate, creeping, glabrous. Stem erect, brown, 2.3.7 mm in diameter, bearing 4 to 5 leaves, scattered along stem while growing, clustered at stem apex when Leaves oblong to elliptic, base obtuse, apex acute, blade 4.5.0 2.5.0 cm, glabrous, green with distinctly darker reticulate veins. Petiole-like base 1.5.0 cm long (including tubular sheath). Peduncle pubescent, pale green to brownish yellow, 20 cm long, 2 mm wide, with 3 sterile bracts 11 mm long. Rachis pubescent, Floral bracts pubescent, pink, lanceolate, cymbiform, 5 mm long, shorter than ovary. Flowers not resupinate, half open, spaced on rachis into four sides, Ovary pubescent, 8 mm long, 2 mm wide, placed nearly parallel to the Sepals sparsely pubescent at outer side, oblong to ovate-oblong, 5 2.8.0 mm. Lateral sepals pink to reddish pink. Dorsal sepal pink to white. Lateral petals white, thin and translucent, rhombic-obovate, 5 3 mm. Lip yellow, oblong-lanceolate, 4.5 2.2 mm, hypochile saccate, epichile attenuated into acuminate apex with involuted parts of margins. Column 2.0.5 mm long. DISTRIBUTION So far, this species has been recorded from tropical evergreen forests in Chantaburi, Kanchanaburi and Surat Thani provinces in Thailand (Seidenfaden 1997, Pedersen 2011), Myanmar (Ormerod & Sathish Kumar 2003) and provinces Guangxi and Hainan in southern China (Chen et al. 2012), nevertheless common confusion of taxa in this group (reviewer note). Material presented here was collected in Hon Ba reserve in Khanh Hoa province of southern Vietnam which is located relatively far from other collections and thus larger distribution could be proposed for this taxon, perhaps including also Cambodia. FLOWERING TIME. Perhaps from January to the beginning of March in Hon Ba, February to April in Thailand (Pedersen 2011), March in Myanmar. POLLINATION We have not observed fruit production hand-pollinated. Based on this we propose that these plants are allogamous. ECOLOGY Plants were growing in leaf litter on a ground in evergreen tropical lowland primary forest with granite bedrock. The locality is in close proximity to the river, however prominently above the water dry slope in the broad-leaved forest. Other terrestrial orchids growing in the same place are Erythrorchis altissima (Blume) Blume and Zeuxine glandulosa King & Pantl. On more wet places along stream grows Neuwiedia zollingeri var. javanica (J.J.Sm.) de Vogel. SPECIMENS SEEN Czech Republic, cultivated in Prague Botanical Garden, 13 March 2013 (originally collected in Vietnam, Khnh Ha province, Cam Lm District, Hn B Nature Reserve, lowland evergreen forest near the Day river (Song Day), alt. 250 m, 4 March 2012), J. Ponert 523 (PRC!). Hetaeria youngsayei Ormerod, Oasis Suppl. 3: 7, 2004 Hetaeria shiuyingiana L.Li & F.W.Xing, Novon 19: 187, 2009. Hetaeria nitida auct. non Ridl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 32: 404, 1896 FIG 2. This species has been recorded from the province Ha Giang in northern Vietnam and province Quang Tri in central Vietnam under the name Hetaeria nitida Ridl. (Averyanov 2008) which was misapplied for this taxon many times (see Ormerod, 2004). Our collection was made in Khanh Hoa province, about 540 km as part of Vietnam. Interestingly this species has been

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. PONERT et al. Hetaeria in Vietnam 125 FIGURE 1. A. Flower from the front. B. Flower. C. Flower from the side. D. Leaves. E. Habit. F. H = 1 cm. Photo J. Ponert. Cultivated in Prague Botanical Garden (Leg. J. Ponert 523, PRC!).

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. 126 LANKESTERIANA reported from Thailand, Hainan and Hong Kong but not yet from Cambodia or Laos which lie between Vietnam and Thailand. Our collection shows that this species may be distributed not only in northern part of Vietnam, but more likely in nearly the whole country, because of the long distance between available records. Similarly as in mentioned above we hypothesize a larger distribution area which may extend from Thailand through Laos and Cambodia to Vietnam, Hainan and Hong Kong. FIGURE 2. Hetaeria youngsayei Garden (Leg. J. Ponert 524, PRC!).

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. PONERT et al. Hetaeria in Vietnam 127 FIGURE 3. Lip of A. Lip from above in native shape. B. Top view of a cluster of glands when lip is (Leg. J. Ponert 523, PRC!) FLOWERING TIME. Flowering specimens were observed from January to February in Hon Ba what is the same as reported from other places (Pedersen 2011). POLLINATION. We have not observed fruit production previously hand-pollinated. Based on this we propose that these plants are allogamous. ECOLOGY. Plants were growing in leaf litter on a ground in evergreen tropical primary forest with granite bedrock at elevations from about 600 m to 1000 m on slopes of the Hon Ba massive. Other terrestrial orchids growing in the similar places are Didymoplexis sp., Erythrorchis altissima (Blume) Blume and Zeuxine (Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook.f.. SPECIMENS SEEN. Czech Republic, cultivated in Prague Botanical Garden, 17 March 2013 (originally collected in Vietnam, Khnh Ha province, Cam Lm District, Hn B Nature Reserve, trail in evergreen tropical forest near the road, alt. 836 m, 14 March 2012), J. Ponert 524 (PRC!). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Authors express their sincere trip of 2012. Special expression of thanks belongs to Prague Botanical Garden, Czech Republic, which is sponsoring the and the Charles University in Prague (SVV 265203 / 2012) where detailed study of plant material was done. Special improved the manuscript. Hetaeria* 1a. Lip dividend into hypochile, mesochile and epichile. Epichile large, two-lobed, c. 2.5 mm wide H. anomala 1b. Lip without distinguishable mesochile, epichile entire and very small 2 2a. Epichile dilated and broadly ovate, apex obtuse 2b. Epichile linear, abruptly attenuate, sometimes with a small terminal lobule 3 3a. Lip basal part inside with 1 to 2 simple or multiarmed glands on either side H. alta 3b. Lip basal part inside with 3 to 8 separated (sometimes connate at base) glands on either side 4 rather lax H. youngsayei 5a. Dorsal sepal 3 mm long, petals 0.8.3 mm wide, leaves 3 cm long H. oblongifolia 5b. Dorsal sepal 5 mm long, petals 1.6.1 mm wide, leaves 81 cm long This key is based on data from Seidenfaden & Wood (1992), Ormerod (2004), Averyanov (2008), Lin & Fu-Wu (2009), Pedersen & Ormerod (2009), Pedersen (2011) and Chen et al. (2012).

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. 128 LANKESTERIANA LITERATURE CITED Averyanov, L. 2008. The orchids of Vietnam, Illustrated Survey, part 1, subfamilies Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae and Spiranthoideae. Turczaninowia 11: 5. Averyanov, L. V., A. L. Averyanova, P. K. Loc & N. T. Hiep. 2009. Orchid Flora of Vietnam, New Discoveries and some of their Characteristics. Adv. Nat. Sc. 10: 353. Chen, S., Gale, S. W., Cribb, P. J. & P. Ormerod. 2012. 16. Zeuxine Lindley. Pp. 7176 in: Chen S., L. Zhongjian, Z. Guanghua, L. Kaiyong, J. Zhanhe, L. Yibo, J. Xiaohua, P. J. Cribb, J. J. Wood, S. W. Gale, P. Ormerod, J. J. Vermeulen, mss/volume25/FOC_25_Orchidaceae_all.pdf, accessed 22 July 2013]. Lin, L. & Fu-Wu, X. 2009. A New Species of Hetaeria (Orchidaceae) from Hainan, China. Novon 19: 187. Ormerod, P. 2004. Notulae Goodyerinae. Oasis, Suppl. 3: 3 19. Ormerod, P. & C. Sathish Kumar. 2003. Orchidaceous additions to the Flora of Burma (Myanmar). Rheedea 13: 43. Pedersen H. 2011. 19. Hetaeria Pp. 156 in: Pedersen H. ., H. Kurzweil, S. Suddee & P. J. Cribb (ed.), Flora of Thailand, Volume 12, Part 1: Orchidaceae 1 (Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae, Vanilloideae). The Forest Herbarium, Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation, Bangkok. Pedersen, H. & P. Ormerod. 2009. Notes on the Orchid Flora of Thailand (I). Taiwania 54: 213 218. Pridgeon, A. M., P. J. Cribb, M. W. Chase & F. Rasmussen. 2003. Genera Orchidacearum: Volume 3: Orchidoideae (Part 2), Vanilloideae. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Seidenfaden, Seidenfaden, G. & J. J. Wood. 1992. The Orchids of Penninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Olsen & Olsen, Fredensborg, Denmark, pp. 8996.

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2): 129 2014. BOOKS The Greater Antilles, which extend from Cuba in the west to Anegada (in the British Virgin Islands) the West Indies. As several of the largest islands were botanized at the beginning of modern botany, the oldest plant names, whose scrutiny is necessary to understand their correct application throughout the entire Neotropical region. A systematic treatment long ago, to update the knowledge about the islands previously covered by local monographs (i.e., Jamaica, Puerto Rico and, in part, Cuba), and to reveal overall diversity in one of the worlds biodiversity hotspots. Renown orchidologist and main author, Dr. James Ackerman (director of the Herbarium and Zoology Museum at the University of Puerto Rico Ro Piedras) has to be acknowledged for assuming the commitment over 20 years ago and for producing an outstanding monograph that will surely resist the test of time. With collaborations by Paul M. Brown, Marta A. Daz, the late Ed Greenwood, Eric Hgsater, Carlyle A. Luer, Ernesto Mjica Bentez, Mark Nir, Gustavo Romero-Gonzlez and Victoria Sosa, the treatment offers clear and detailed accounts of almost 600 orchid species in more than 100 genera (594 species according to Ackermans account; the number of genera largely depending on the preferred circumscriptions), 70% of which endemic to the archipelago. With 117 recorded species, the most diverse genus is Lepanthes a species of which (the Jamaican L. ovalis ) embellishes the cover of the book, followed by Pleurothallis (sensu lato) with 71 species, and Epidendrum with 45 species. to the genera is provided at the beginning of the monograph. It is clear that the monographers adopt most of the phylogenetic circumscriptions revealed by recent molecular systematics, with some notable exceptions where traditional approaches have been followed, particularly in the most contentious cases (i.e., Pleurothallis ). Latest generic assignments are polite approach to be highly esteemed. For each genus, bilingual keys to the species are provided. Whilst the genera are presented in alphabetical order, making it orchid genera of the Greater Antilles. Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles James D. Ackerman and collaborators. New York Botanical Garden Press ( Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 109), New York, 2014. ISBN: 978-0-893275-12-9. Hardcover, 200 273 mm, 640 pages, 159 plates (line

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LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. 130 LANKESTERIANA Species treatments include complete synonymy with type citations, description, relevant taxonomic literature (mostly generic treatments), popular names, discussion of taxonomy, distribution, ecology, and conservation status. In several cases, spread throughout the treatment, the discussion chapter is nothing less than a short taxonomic paper on the given topic (see, for example, the discussions of Campylocentrum jamaicense on pages 69, Platythelys querceticola on page 366, or Trichocentrum undulatum on pages 537). drawings of the highest quality, almost entirely provided by renown illustrator Bobbi Angell (others are by C. A. Luer and Arlee M. Montalvo). With the exceptions of Goodyera, Heterotaxis, Maxillariella, Pseudogoodyera, Pterichis, Pteroglossaspis, Stenorrhynchos and Tomzanonia all the genera are illustrated by one ore more botanical drawings (21 species are depicted in Pleurothallis 15 in Lepanthes 8 in Epidendrum ). In particular, it is noteworthy that, with a few exceptions, all the specimens used to prepare the illustrations were effectively native to the studied area, something that makes the work an invaluable source for real comparison of the taxonomic concepts used in the West Indies against at the beginning of the treatment particularly useful, as well as the initial reference to the only new combination, Antilla denticulata A new species, Acianthera stenzelii is described at the end of Appendix 1, on page 575. extensively researched and unexceptionable work is the lack of color photographs. Considering the high this information in order to have a clearer concept of species that are often limited in distribution to a single island. I warmly recommend the book to any orchidologist, the serious orchid librarian, and the naturalist interested quality treatment to stand for many years. Franco Pupulin

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LANKESTERIANA 14(1), April 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. Books 131 A long-standing question in orchidology Who the Foreword of Volume 1 of this two-volume work. The question is answered here to a large degree through the efforts of several individuals dedicated to botanist, author and illustrator of orchids. Although brief sketches of Endrs have appeared in print over the years, the nearly universal lament in these has been how little is known about the person who made such remarkable collections and illustrations of orchids in such a short time in Central and South America. Through a collaborative effort and diligent search of both primary and secondary sources of information, a remarkable story of the life and work of the short-lived Endrs has emerged. Gaps still remain regarding his education and acquisition of such an extensive knowledge of orchids in his early years but incompleteness is not an unusual problem for biographers. In such cases, the life and work of the subject is pieced together to the extent possible based on bits of available and often diverse information. The authors of this biography of Endrs have accomplished this job very effectively. Moreover, they have skillfully set his life and work within context of the culture, politics, economics, and science of the times. The basic biography of Endrs presented in Chapter 1 Auguste R. Endrs (1838-1874) his life by Carlos Ossenbach traces him from his birth in French Alsace, his emigration to the United States and eventual move to Costa Rica where most of his death in Colombia at the age of 36. At an early age, Endrs became acquainted with several prominent orchidologists and others who helped him in various ways in his success as an independent collector and development as a knowledgeable and productive botanist in his own right. He emigrated to Costa Rica Orchids in the life and work of Auguste R. Endrs Volume 1. The texts. Carlos Ossenbach, Franco Pupulin and Rudolf Jenny (eds.), with contributions by Christa Riedl-Dorn and Ernst Orchids in the life and work of Auguste R. Endrs Volume 2. The illustrations and the catalogue. Carlos Ossenbach, Franco Pupulin and Rudolf Jenny (eds.), with contribution by Ernst Vitek. [6], iv, 536 pages, Vienna, Naturhistorische Museum Wien, 2013. ISBN: 978-3-902421-77-7. Hardcover, 19 27 cm. 2 volumes in

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132 LANKESTERIANA LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. in 1866 to collect orchids for European botanists. His work there is reviewed with emphasis on the of orchids and how he managed to sustain himself often dire circumstances. In this regard, his is a story that has been repeated many times for other pioneer collectors of plants and animals. In 1874, as his health he considered as failure and left Costa Rica. Others, however, question Endrs personal view of the lack of his own accomplishments. For example, in the chapter on assessment of Endrs as a botanist, Franco Pupulin states: It is no exaggeration to say that Endrs was Costa Rica during the nineteenth century. After the United States, in late 1874 Endrs accompanied Benedict Roezl, the famous orchid collector, to Colombia to collect orchids. He died shortly after arrival in the country. Additional details of Endrs life and work are presented in the following chapters: Orchid collecting in that rich coast (Ossenbach and Pupulin); Endrs the botanist (Pupulin); Endrs as an illustrator Endrs life (Ossenbach and Jenny); Endrs legacy at the Reichenbach Herbarium, Natural History Museum in Vienna (Vitek); On Endrs traces: The Departmental Archives of the History of Science at the Natural History Museum in Vienna (Riedl-Dorn); and, Species Endresianae (Pupulin, Ossenbach, Jenny and Vitek) The remarkable amount of supplemental information included in these chapters greatly expands our knowledge of the man who previously was so little known yet who under often less than favorable circumstances accomplished so much for botany. Volume 1 is extensively illustrated with 150 panoply of mostly color images ranging from maps, portraits, drawings and paintings of orchids, historical photographs, and pages copied from notebooks. Perusal of these illustrations alone would provide a substantial view into the history of tropical American orchidology. The volume concludes with an extensive bibliography section but, unfortunately, without a much-needed index, at least one to the many individuals covered. In addition to the Foreword and Introduction, Volume 2 contains two major sections: The Illustrations, and The Catalogue. The 407 illustrations included here represent just part of the unbelievable output of Endrs. Preparatory sketches constitute the largest number of illustrations, followed by pencil tracings of individual species ready for printing, apparently not meant for publication. The Catalogue, assembled by Pupulin, Ossenbach, Jenny and Vitek, provides a large amount of information on Endrscollected orchids that should constitute a valuable resource for orchidologists. Arranged under the present valid names, the list includes notes on localities, dates, habitats and ecology that are cross-referenced to his many illustrations and descriptions. An appendix includes similar data for Endrs-collected specimens contained in the Oakes Ames Orchid Herbarium at Harvard University. Volume 2 concludes with an index to the orchid genera included in the volume. This is a remarkable work devoted to the life and work of Auguste (Augustin, Augustus) R. Endrs, a talented and productive student and collector of orchids in tropical America. Although he died at a relatively young age, the extent of his accomplishments in orchidology deserve the effort expended here to make them better known. These volumes are a testament to the value of collaborative work by a group of likeminded persons. Their dedicated search for any scraps of biographical information available on Endrs as well as their assessment of his collections and his thousands of illustrations and descriptions of orchids is impressive. The physical beauty of the book and its hundreds of illustrations further enhance the effort. This is a major contribution, not only to the life and work of the heretofore elusive Auguste Endrs but to the history of orchidology in general.. Horace R. Burke Professor Emeritus, Department of Entomology Texas A&M University, U.S.A.

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LANKESTERIANA 14(1), April 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014. Books 133 The author of this small, and almost familiar book, the right balance in reviewing the work of a friend is Even though it presents itself as still another howto-grow-orchids manual, Pozzis booklet, available both in Italian (its original language) and in Spanish genera. According to the authors own introductive words, it is like a tale that guides the reader to explore the beautiful orchid world in any of its many aspects: what they are, where and how they live and reproduce [...] and how to grow them at home. It includes classic, discursive chapters on orchid fever and familial hyperdiversity, as well as an inevitable text on What is an orchid, which precede the illustrated dictionary of the more commonly cultivated orchid genera and intergeneric hybrids. What makes the book special, however, are the stories. The main text is interspersed with short portraits of a heterogenous group composed of past and present characters of the orchid world, always presented in a very personal way. Many of the stories are typically anecdotic, but some of the short portraits, dedicated to orchid people who the author met personally along his long career as an orchid grower and breeder, are true tales that delicately portray characters of modern orchidology, presented by a talented pen and with a gifted prose. Many of the portrayed characters are Italians, but there are important exceptions (i.e., Sir Peter Smithers, of the secret agent 007), and most are growers of any representatives of great orchid dynasties like Marcel an interesting and fun picture that is more about Giancarlos life and beliefs in orchids than about the people he interacted with. To be honest, I found that at least for those pictured people who I also personally know , Pozzis short portraits are very accurate and close to capture the particularity of the individual characters and some spots of their orchidologic soul. This is particularly noteworthy for those characters that are otherwise pretty unknown to the broadest orchid community and help creating a new fresco of the contemporary orchid world and all its variegated nuances. With an extraordinarily simple and direct prose, Pozzi brings the reader inside his world and quickly makes him share with the author a sentiment of sympathy and friendship for each of the portrayed people. Orchidee Storie & Personaggi (Italian Edition) Orquideas Historias & Personajes (Spanish Edition) Giancarlo Pozzi. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2013 (Italian); 2014 (Spanish, translation by

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All in all, I doubt that the extension of the relationships and the space dedicated to each of the concerned characters would be enough to provide this someway detracts from the merits of the booklet as a source for orchid history. Nonetheless, the freshness of the writing, the original authors approach, and the make the reading of this work a grateful experience. I strongly recommend it to anybody interested in the human and epochal aspects of orchidology. Franco Pupulin 134 LANKESTERIANA LANKESTERIANA 14(2), August 2014. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2014.