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Lankesteriana

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Title:
Lankesteriana la revista científica del Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Physical Description:
v. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Jardín Botánico Lankester
Publisher:
Jardi´n Bota´nico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Place of Publication:
Cartago Costa Rica
Cartago, Costa Rica
Publication Date:
Frequency:
three times a year[2002-]
irregular[ former 2001]
three times a year
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Botany -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Epiphytes -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Orchids -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Plantkunde   ( gtt )
Botanische tuinen   ( gtt )
Genre:
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Costa Rica

Notes

Language:
In English and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
No. 1 (mayo 2001)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issues for May 2001-Oct. 2003 designated no.1-8; issues for Apr. 2004- designated vol. 4, no. 1-
General Note:
Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 1 (abr. 2004).
General Note:
International journal on orchidology.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 48491453
lccn - 2001240973
issn - 1409-3871
System ID:
UF00098723:00032

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Lankesteriana la revista científica del Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Physical Description:
v. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Jardín Botánico Lankester
Publisher:
Jardi´n Bota´nico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Place of Publication:
Cartago Costa Rica
Cartago, Costa Rica
Publication Date:
Frequency:
three times a year[2002-]
irregular[ former 2001]
three times a year
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Botany -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Epiphytes -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Orchids -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Plantkunde   ( gtt )
Botanische tuinen   ( gtt )
Genre:
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Costa Rica

Notes

Language:
In English and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
No. 1 (mayo 2001)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issues for May 2001-Oct. 2003 designated no.1-8; issues for Apr. 2004- designated vol. 4, no. 1-
General Note:
Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 1 (abr. 2004).
General Note:
International journal on orchidology.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 48491453
lccn - 2001240973
issn - 1409-3871
System ID:
UF00098723:00032


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Vol 12, No. 3 December 2012 VOL. 12, No. 3 DECEMBER 2012 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGY INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGY VOL. 12, No. 3 DECEMBER 2012A new and extraordinary Cyrtochilum (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) from Colombia GIOVANNY GIRALDO and STIG DALSTRM A new Cyrtochilum (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in Colombia STIG DALSTRM Cyrtochilum species (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) from Colombia and Peru, and one new combination STIG DALSTRM and SAUL RUIZ PREZ Odontoglossum (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) from Ecuador STIG DALSTRM Ponthieva hermiliae a new species of Orchidaceae in the Cordillera Yanachaga (Oxapampa, Pasco, Peru) LUIS VALENZUELA GAMARRA Species differentiation of slipper orchids using color image analysis ERNESTO SANZ, NOREEN VON CRAMON-TAUBADEL and DAVID L. ROBERTS Alta Verapaz, Guatemala EDGAR ALFREDO M M and EDGAR ARMANDO RUIZ CRUZ Index of nex taxa and combinations published in Lankesteriana, vol. 10 (2010) Reviewers of the manuscripts submitted to Lankesteriana, vol. 10 137 143 147 155 161 165 175 191 193

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The Vice-Presidency of Research UNIVERSITY OF COSTA RICA is sincerely acknowledged for his support to the printing of this volume

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGYISSN 1409-3871VOL. 12, No. 3 DECEMBER 2012 A new and extraordinary Cyrtochilum (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) from Colombia GIOVANNY GIRALDO and STIG DALSTRM A new Cyrtochilum (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in Colombia STIG DALSTRM Cyrtochilum species (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) from Colombia and Peru, and one new combination STIG DALSTRM and SAUL RUIZ PREZ Odontoglossum (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) from Ecuador STIG DALSTRM Ponthieva hermiliae a new species of Orchidaceae in the Cordillera Yanachaga (Oxapampa, Pasco, Peru) LUIS VALENZUELA GAMARRA Species differentiation of slipper orchids using color image analysis ERNESTO SANZ, NOREEN VON CRAMON-TAUBADEL and DAVID L. ROBERTS Alta Verapaz, Guatemala EDGAR ALFREDO M M y EDGAR ARMANDO RUIZ CRUZ Index of nex taxa and combinations published in Lankesteriana, vol. 10 (2010) Reviewers of the manuscripts submitted to Lankesteriana, vol. 10 137 143 147 155 161 165 175 191 193

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGY Copyright 2012 Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica Effective publication date: December 28, 2012 Layout: Jardn Botnico Lankester. Cover: Odontoglossum furcatum Dalstrm (Ecuador. A. Hirtz 368). Photograph by S. Dalstrm. Printer: MasterLitho Printed copies: 500 Printed in Costa Rica / Impreso en Costa RicaR Lankesterian a / International Journal on Orchidology No. 1 (2001)-. -San Jos, Costa Rica: Editorial Universidad de Costa Rica, 2001-v. ISSN-1409-3871 1. Botnica Publicaciones peridicas, 2. Publicaciones peridicas costarricenses

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Visit the new webpage at www.lankesteriana.orgOriginally devoted to the publication of articles on general botany, with special attention to epiphytic plants and orchid systematics, ecology, evolution and physiology, along with book reviews and conferences on these subjects, since 2007 LANKE S TERIANA focused exclusively on scientific papers on orchidology. LANKESTERIANA is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes original works in English and occasionally in Spanish, and it is distributed to more than 350 libraries and institutions worldwide. LANKESTERIANA is indexed by B IOSIS Latindex, Scirus, and W ZB it is included in the databases of E-journals, Ebookbrowse, F AO Online Catalogues, CiteBank, Mendeley, WorldCat, Core Electronic Journals Library, and Biodiveristy Heritage Library, and in the electronic resources of the Columbia University, the University of Florida, the University of Hamburg, and the Smithsonian Institution, among others. In order to increase visibility of the articles published in LANKESTERIANA the journal maintains since 2009 a web page with downloadable contents. Since November, 2011, the journal has a new and improved interface of at www.lankesteriana.org. Please bookmark the new address of the webpage, which substitutes the previous ad-dress hosted at the internal server of ucr.ac.cr. Readers can now browse through all the past issues of LANKE S TERIANA including the currrent issue, and download them as complete fascicles or, via the Index to the single issues, only the articles of their interest. According to the Open Access policy promoted by the University of Costa Rica, all the publications supported by the University are licensed under the Creative Commons copyright. Downloading LANKESTERIANA is com-pletely free. At the home page of LANKESTERIANA names, key words or any other word which should appear in the text you are looking for. The editors

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The Global Orchid Taxonomic Network at a click www.epidendra.orgNow with a new user interface, the online database on taxonomic information by Lankester Botanical Gar-den includes more than 7,000 orchid names, completely cross-referenced and with evaluated synonymies. free, im-mediately downloadable protologues, type images, illustrations of the original materials, historical and modern illustrations, photographs, pertinent literature and, when available, digital images of species pollinaria. An index (under the button List of species) allows the users to search for any published name, indepen-dently if it is accepted or not by the taxonomic compilers. Synonyms are linked to their accepted name, where additional materials (including images) are available for download. Hundreds-cations and other materials relative to orchid systematics, distribution and history are added to the database on a monthly basis (new entries can be searched by clicking on the New records button). Since March, 2012, new pages are devoted to the orchid species recorded in the rich system of national parks Central American countries (Floras button) and to interesting aspects of orchid history. Under the button Collectable plates, the research staff at Lankester Botanical Garden makes available to the public the most detailed images of orchids from the collections at the Center, organized in a series of collectable plates that can be downloaded for free. New ones are added each week. Supported by the University of Costa Rica and the Darwin Initiative, EPIDENDRA The Global Orchid Taxonomic Network counts with the collaboration of respected taxonomists and leading botanical institutions worldwide.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3): 137. 2012.A NEW AND EXTRAORDINARY CYRTOCHILUM (ORCHIDACEAE: ONCIDIINAE) FROM COLOMBIA GIOVANNY GIRALDO 1 & STIG DALSTRM 2,31 Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison WI 53706-1381, U.S.A. 2 2304 Ringling Boulevard, unit 119, Sarasota FL 34237, U.S.A. Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica and National Biodiversity Centre, Serbithang, Bhutan3 Corresponding author: stigdalstrom@juno.com ABSTRACT A new species of Cyrtochilum from Antioquia, Colombia, is described and illustrated, and compared with the similar Ecuadorian C. cryptocopis and C. trifurcatum, but differs in having a different ventral structure and much narrower wings of the column, and also by the much broader frontlobe of the lip KEY WORDS : Cyrtochilum Colombia, Oncidiinae, new species, taxonomy Despite two centuries of intense hunting for orchids in the Colombian wilderness, as well as extensive deforestation and urbanization, new and extraordinary species are found rather frequently. New and attractive species of Phragmipedium Rolfe have recently been described, and large numbers of showy pleurothallids in genera such as Dracula Luer, and Masdevallia Ruiz & Pav., as well as a plethora of other types of orchids never seem to stop appearing in the botanical literature. This paper describes a new Cyrtochilum Kunth, from the western cordillera where it was initially discovered by one of the authors (GG) as his attention was caught national preserve. Cyrtochilum betancurii G.Giraldo & Dalstrm sp. nov. TYPE: Colombia, Antioquia, Mun. Urrao. Parque Nacional Natural las Orqudeas, in cloud forest at 1600-1800 m elevation. February 2, 2011. J. Betancur 14882 (holotype, COL). Fig. 1. DIAGNOSIS : Cyrtochilum betancurii is most similar to the Ecuadorian C. cryptocopis (Rchb.f.) Kraenzl. (Fig. 4), and C. trifurcatum (Lindl.) Kraenzl. (Fig. 5), but has a different ventral structure and much narrower wings of the column, and also by the much broader frontlobe of the lip. Epiphytic herb. Pseudobulbs distant on a creeping, bracteate rhizome, oblong ovoid and slightly compressed, ca. 4.3 2.1 cm, unifoliate or bifoliate, surrounded basally by four to six distichous foliaceous sheaths. Leaves subpetiolate, conduplicate, obovate, acute, to ca. 40.0.0 5.0.0 cm. axillary from the uppermost sheath, erect then wiry, ca. 2.80 m long panicle, with a basal longer branch, and then several widely in total 16 to Floral bracts appressed, scale like, ca. 1.0 0.6.7 cm. Pedicel with ovary ca. 4.5 cm long. Flowers stellate and showy; dorsal sepal dark brown with yellow border, basally auriculate, spathulate, broadly cordate, distinctly undulate, obtuse to acute and slightly oblique, 3.6 2.4 cm; lateral sepals dark brown, basally auriculate and connate for 6.0.0 mm, then spreading, elongate and narrowly spathulate, then cordate, slightly undulate, obtuse to rounded and slightly oblique, ca. 7.4 2.3 cm; petals dark brown with a yellow border, broadly linear and shortly spathulate, then truncate to cordate, distinctly undulate, obtuse to acute and slightly oblique, ca. 2.5 1.8 cm; lip dark brown with yellow border and callus, rigidly attached to the base of the column through a narrow and terete claw, then truncate, distinctly pandurate with spreading, slightly oblique, broadly auriculate, slightly serrate lateral

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FIGURE 1 Cyrtochilum betancurii. A. Plant habit. B. Flower, front view. C. Lip, ventral view. D. Column and lip, lateral view. E. Flower dissected. Drawn from holotype by Sarah Friedrich.lobes, and a ca. 4 mm broad isthmus below the widely spreading and broadly dolabriform, obtuse to acute, emarginate, revolute frontlobe, 1.8 1.8 cm; callus lateral lobes and extending for ca. 5 mm, consisting of an erect, table-like, tricarinate structure with several lateral, spreading denticles, with additional series of spreading tubercles or denticles on each side, and an apical, central, longitudinal and triangular keel, with column purplish brown, stout, erect in a ca. 90 angle from the base of the lip then slightly curved towards the lip near the apex, with a complex, protruding, terete, trilobate concavity on the ventral side below the stigma, and with a pair of clavate to obliquely and narrowly deltoid, or bilobed, spreading blackish purple LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.138 LANKESTERIANA

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. GIRALDO and DALSTRM A new Cyrtochilum from Colombia139wings on each side below the stigma; anthercap yellow and purplish, campanulate; pollinarium not seen. DISTRIBUTION : Colombia, Antioquia, Mun. Urrao. Parque Nacional Natural las Orqudeas on the western cordillera. EP ONYMY : Named in honor of Julio Betancur, leader of the expedition to Parque Nacional Las Orquideas, and a renowned Colombian botanist with great experience and passion for tropical plants that has botanists. Cyrtochilum betancurii is only known from the type collection in the cloud forests of the western cordillera in Colombia. Because of its restricted location the authors recommend its protection until FIGURE 2 Cyrtochilum betancurii A) and lateral (B) views. Photo by G. Giraldo. FIGURE 3 Cyrtochilum betancurii, detail of the column and lip, lateral view. Photo by G. Giraldo.A B

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.140 LANKESTERIANA FI G URE 4 Cyrtochilum cryptocopis. A. Column and lip, lateral view. B. Column, lateral and frontal views. C. Column, ventral view. D. Anther cap and pollinarium. E. Lip, spread. F. Flower dissected. Drawn from Dalstrm 2800 (SEL) by Stig Dalstrm.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. GIRALDO and DALSTRM A new Cyrtochilum from Colombia141 FIGURE 5. Cyrtochilum trifurcatum. A. Column and lip lateral view. B. Column lateral view. C. Column ventral view. D. Anther cap and pollinarium. E. Lip, spread. F. Flower dissected. Drawn from Dodson 14034 (SEL) by Stig Dalstrm.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.142 LANKESTERIANAmore information about the species distribution can be gathered. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors wish to thank the NSF funded project; Flora of Las Orquideas National Park (DEB specimens available, and also the New York Botanical Garden, Universidad Nacional de Colombia and Unidad de Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia. In addition we especially thank Hector Velsquez and the park rangers for assisting in the logistics and successfully executing the Specialist in the botany department at UW-Madison for thanks the botanists Julio Betancur, Paola Pedraza, Maraa Fernanda Gonzlez, and the photographer Fredy Gmez unforgettable and enriching experience. LITERATURE CITED Dalstrm, S. 2010. Cyrtochilum Kunth, in Flora of Ecuador 225(3): Orchidaceae; genera Cyrtochiloides Epibator, by Calaway H. Dodson and Carl A. Luer. Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3): 143. 2012.A NEW CYRTOCHILUM (ORCHIDACEAE: ONCIDIINAE) FROM SIERRA NEVADA DE SANTA MARTA IN COLOMBIA STIG DALSTRM 2304 Ringling Boulevard, unit 119, Sarasota FL 34237, U.S.A. Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica and National Biodiversity Centre, Serbithang, Bhutan stigdalstrom@juno.com ABSTRACT A new species of Cyrtochilum from the isolated region of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in Colombia is described and illustrated, and compared with similar species. It is distinguished from other Cyrtochilum species by the violet color of the sepals and petals, in combination with the pandurate lip lamina with a large and protruding nose-like central callus keel KEY WORDS : Cyrtochilum, Orchidaceae, Oncidiinae, new species, Colombia, Santa Marta, Sierra Nevada, taxonomy During a past visit to the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens (MSBG) in Sarasota, Florida, Mariano Ospina brought a large number of dried orchid specimens for Herbarium of Colombia (COL) in Bogot. The herbarium batch consisted of species that today are placed in many different genera, including Cyrtochilum Kunth, Erycina Lindl., Heteranthocidium Szlach., Mytnik & Romowicz, Oncidium Sw., Otoglossum (Schltr.) Garay & Dunst., and Trichocentrum Poepp. & Endl. (the names of the genera vary depending on which taxonomist is consulted). During this project, which was a collaboration between Ospina and MSBG, I had the opportunity to analyze the material and encountered a Cyrtochilum species that was unknown to me. A drawing was made at the time of this unusual looking and most certainly quite attractive species. Eventually it became clear that it represented an undescribed species, which is described herein. Cyrtochilum violaceum Dalstrm, sp. nov. TYPE: Colombia, Magdalena, Sierra Nevada de Sta. Marta, Transecto del Alto Rio Buritaca, Cuchilla at 2900 m, Lev. 29. Proyecto Desarrollo, 5 August 1977; R. Jaramillo M. et al. 5366 (holotype, COL). FIG 1. DIAGNOSIS : Cyrtochilum violaceum is distinguished from other Cyrtochilum species by the violet color of the sepals and petals, in combination with a pandurate lip lamina with a large and protruding nose-like central callus keel, which is similar to the not closely related Oncidium mantense Dodson & R.Estrada. Cyrtochilum violaceum differs from the similarly colored and closely related Cyrtochilum undulatum Kunth [syn: C. orgyale (Rchb.f. & Warsc.) Kraenzl.] by the pandurate lip lamina, the cleft and distinct frontal angles of the stout column, and the pair of digitate or narrowly clavate wings on each side below the stigmatic surface, versus a triangular lip lamina, and a more slender and sigmoid column of the latter species with short angular knobs only, or without wings altogether. Epiphytic herb. Pseudobulbs caespitose to creeping on a bracteate rhizome, ovoid, ca. 5 2 cm, bifoliate, surrounded basally by 7 to 8 distichous sheaths, the uppermost foliaceous. Leaves subpetiolate, conduplicate, elliptic to slightly obovate, narrowly acute, ca. 16 2 cm. axillary from the uppermost sheath, an erect to arching, to ca. 70 on an additional specimen). Floral bracts large and conspicous, involute and cucullate, ca. 10 mm long. Pedicel with ovary 20 mm long. Flowers apparently open and stellate; dorsal sepal violet, shortly spathulate, then truncate and broadly ovate to elliptic laminate, obtuse, slightly undulate, ca.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.144 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 1. Cyrtochilum violaceum A. Plant habit. B. Column and lip lateral view. C. Lip dorsal view. D. Column lateral view. E. Pollinia and stipe. F. Flower dissected. Drawn from holotype by Stig Dalstrm.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. DALSTRM A new Cyrtochilum from Santa Marta, Colombia14525 18 mm; lateral sepals similar in color, slightly obliquely spathulate, then obliquely cordate, broadly and weakly pandurate laminate, obtuse, ca. 25 15 mm; petals similar in color, almost sessile, truncate to cordate, then broadly ovate and rounded obtuse with a canaliculate acute, almost folded apex, ca. 20 13 mm; lip rigidly attached to the base of the column and angled downwards, truncate to cordate, pandurate with obtuse triangular lateral lobes, and a rounded and slightly concave, weakly bilobed to minutely apiculate frontlobe, ca. 10 8 mm; callus yellow, of and extending to almost half the length of the lamina, with several spreading lower lateral denticles and a dominating, projecting, laterally compressed, noselike central keel; anthercap not seen; pollinarium of two globose cleft pollinia on a ca. 2 mm long and narrow stipe on a pulvinate viscidium. PARATYPE : Colombia, Magdalena, Sierra Nevada de Sta. Marta, Transecto del Alto Rio Buritaca, Cuchilla at 2700 m, Lev. 27. Proyecto Desarrollo, 2 August 1977, R. Jaramillo M. et al. 5352 (COL). DISTRIBUTION : Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. ETYMOLOGY : Named in reference to the main color of Cyrtochilum violaceum is so far only reported from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta region in northern Colombia. The poorly explored forests of this isolated mountain are likely to contain a large number of endemic species, both in the fauna and described from there that are found nowhere else, such as Odontoglossum naevium Lindl., and O. nevadense. Rchb.f. ACKNOWLEDGMENT I wish to thank Mariano Ospina for bringing the specimens to the US, and thus making them available to the author. I also wish to thank Wesley Higgins for reviewing and commenting on the manuscript.

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LANKESTERIANA

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3): 147. 2012.THREE NEW SMALL-FLOWERED CYRTOCHILUM SPECIES (ORCHIDACEAE: ONCIDIINAE) FROM COLOMBIA AND PERU, AND ONE NEW COMBINATION STIG DALSTRM 1,3 & SAUL RUZ PREZ 21 2304 Ringling Boulevard, unit 119, Sarasota FL 34237, U.S.A. Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica and National Biodiversity Centre, Serbithang, Bhutan2 Allamanda 142, Surco, Lima 33, Peru 3 Corresponding author: stigdalstrom@juno.com ABSTRACT Cyrtochilum species from Colombia and Peru are here described, illustrated other Cyrtochilum species by the curved horn-like structures on the lip callus. The second species differs from by the three horn-like knobs at the apex of the column KEY WORDS : Cyrtochilum Orchidaceae, Oncidiinae, new combination, new species, Colombia, Peru, taxonomy The Andean orchid genus Cyrtochilum Kunth, is rapidly growing in number of species as previously unexplored areas are targeted for botanical inventories, sometimes into areas that have been, or still are, considered dangerous by governments for various reasons. In other cases, new species are found in herbaria where they have been laying undetermined in peaceful anonymity for years. This article presents two new species from the Cusco and Ayacucho regions in Peru, which has been terrorized by the Maoist guerilla known as Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) for many years. Today smaller factions of this violent group apparently still control remote bases in the mountains between the city of Ayacucho and the Apurimac river to the east. What is left of the terrorist-like organization is suspected to work as mercenaries for the illegal cocaine drug industry, also established in the region. In other words, this particular area is best given a wide berth! The third species described in this article is also from an area that until very recently was considered very dangerous to visit due to the activities of the FARC guerilla in Colombia. Great work has been done by the Colombian government, however, to clear most of the country from the dangers caused by this group. Cyrtochilum corniculatum Dalstrm, sp. nov. TYPE: Colombia. Antioquia, Yarumal, Km 87 along road Medelln-Yarumal, Llanos de Cuiba [Cuiva], 2750 m, 12 Sep. 1984, C. Dodson et al. 15264 (holotype, RPSC; isotype, MO). FIG 1. DIAGNOSIS : Cyrtochilum corniculatum differs from Cyrtochilum species by the combination of a column with two large ventral, lamellate angles, and a cordate, cupulate lip with a callus of two basal, falcate corniculate denticles. Epiphytic herb. Pseudobulbs apparently caespitose, subtended basally by 8 to 10 distichous sheaths, the uppermost foliaceous, ovoid, unifoliate or bifoliate, 8.0.0 2.5.0 cm. Leaves subpetiolate, conduplicate, obovate, acuminate, ca. 36.0.0 2.8.0 cm. multiple, axillary from the bases of the uppermost sheaths, wiry to ca. 1.5 m Floral bracts appressed, scale-like, 5.0.0 mm long. Pedicel with ovary 7.0.0 mm long. Flower stellate; dorsal sepal pinkish brown, shortly unguiculate to cuneate, elliptic to obovate laminate, obtuse to acute, 10.0.0 6.0.0 mm; lateral sepals similar in color, shortly unguiculate to narrowly cuneate, obovate laminate, acute, 12.0.0 5.0.0 mm; petals similar in color, unguiculate, slightly obliquely ovate laminate, obtuse to acute, 10.0.0 5.0 mm; lip similar in color,

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.148 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 1. Cyrtochilum corniculatum A. Plant habit. B. Flower lateral view. C. Column, lateral and ventral views, and pollinarium. D. Flower dissected. Drawn from holotype by Stig Dalstrm.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. DALSTRM and RUZ PREZ Three new species of Cyrtochilum from Colombia and Peru149rigidly fused to the base of the column and angled downwards in a ca. 135 angle, cordate to weakly trilobate, with spreading, rounded side lobes, and a cupulate involute, emarginate front lobe, ca. 10.0 5.0 mm; callus yellow, of a low basal swelling with a pair of forward projecting, falcate corniculate denticles; column stout, erect, with a pair of ventral, forward angles, and a truncate apex, ca. 5.0 mm long; anther cap not seen; pollinarium of two globose, cleft, or folded, pollinia on a minute ca. 0.7 mm long stipe, on a 0.5 mm long, pulvinate viscidium. PARATYPE : Colombia. Cundinamarca (?), Bogota, Falkenberg s.n.; the quoted information is marked with question marks on the herbarium sheet (W 15932). DISTRIBUTION : Recorded from the Llanos de Cuiva area in the central cordillera of the Colombian Andes, at an elevation of 2750 m, and once (questionable) from the eastern cordillera, possibly somewhere near Bogota. ETYMOLOGY : Named in reference to the falcate, hornlike denticles of the lip callus. Cyrtochilum corniculatum is only known from two collections, which is remarkable since it comes from rather heavily collected regions. The habitat is epiphytic in patches of upper elevation cloud forest, have contributed to the plant not being observed or appreciated by previous collectors. Cyrtochilum russellianum Dalstrm & Ruz-Prez, sp. nov. TYPE: Peru. Ayacucho, La Mar, Aina, Calicanto, humid cloudforest at 2500-2600 m, collected by S. 2010, S. Dalstrm 3415 (holotype, USM). FIG 2. DIAGNOSIS : Cyrtochilum russellianum is most similar to the sympatric Cyrtochilum carinatum (Kniger & Deburghgr.) Dalstrm, comb. nov. (Basionym: Trigonochilum carinatum Kniger & Deburghgr., Arcula 19: 430. 2010), but differs primarily in having a ridge, which ends in a distinct apical knob, typical for C. carinatum. It differs from the also sympatric C. sharoniae Epiphytic herb. Pseudobulbs caespitose, ovoid, unifoliate or bifoliate, surrounded basally by distichous, foliaceous sheaths. Leaves subpetiolate, conduplicate (no vegetative parts exist in the type specimen. The relatively large type plant was examined but unfortunately not measured). axillary from the uppermost sheaths, erect, then more or less wiry, to ca. 1.8.0 m long panicle with widely spaced Floral bracts appressed, scale-like ca. 3.0.0 mm long. Pedicel with ovary triangular in cross-section and slightly winged, ca. 25 mm long. Flower stellate with more or less dorsal sepal white almost covered by pale rose blotches, spathulate, elliptic laminate, acute, slightly undulate, 12.0 5.0 mm; lateral sepals similar in color, spathulate, ovate laminate, obtuse, slightly oblique ca. 12.0 4.0 mm; petals similar in color, shortly spathulate, obliquely obovate to rotund laminate, acuminate, 10.0 6.0 mm; lip whitish to pale yellowish with pale brown to purple spots, rigidly attached to the base of the column, hastate, triangular with distinctly angled side lobes and an obtuse slightly revolute, recurved and apically convolute front lobe, ca. 10.0 7.0 mm; callus pale yellowish with brown from the base to about half the length of the lamina, with spreading, rounded knobs, and ending in a central, slightly larger rounded denticle, with two lateral, spreading, short, knoblike denticles; column lilac, erect, almost straight to slightly sigmoid, with a basal, ventral knoblike swelling, and then with two spreading ventral angles below the stigmatic surface, ca. 4.5.0 mm long; anther cap red, globular; pollinarium of two elongate pyriform, cleft, or folded pollinia on a minute linear stipe, on a micro-minute pulvinate viscidium. DISTRIBUTION : Cyrtochilum russellianum is only known from a single locality; the upper elevation cloudforests near the village of Calicanto, east of Ayacucho, Peru, in the centre of the former terrorist controlled area, at ca 2500 to 2600 m, where it is protected by some very suspicious and probably battle hardened villagers. EPONYMY : Named in honor and gratitude of Russell F. Stephens Jr., of Sarasota, Florida, who has supported

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.150 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 2. Cyrtochilum russellianum. A. Flower lateral and frontal views. B. Column lateral and ventral views. C. Anther cap and pollinarium. D. Flower dissected. Drawn from holotype by Stig Dalstrm.

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orchid research by establishing the Friends of Orchid Research Fund (with a particular interest in the orchid Community Foundation of Sarasota County. Cyrtochilum russellianum is similar to and C. carinatum, but differs in the larger C. sharoniae also grows sympatrically in the same area C. carinatum and C. russellianum, but differs in the dark purple to almost a very unusual and interesting circumstance. The vegetative differences, however, are clear between the three species. The pseudobulbs in C. russellianum are normally green, while in C. carinatum the base of the pseudobulbs as well as the base of the new growths are dark purplish in the wild. The pseudobulbs in C. sharoniae are typically dark green and the leaves have a whitish wax-like coating, similar to some unrelated plants with a pendent habit, such as Euchile citrina (Lex.) Withner, and Masdevallia caesia Roezl. Cyrtochilum tricornis Dalstrm & Ruz-Prez, sp. nov. TYPE: Peru. Cusco, Quillabamba, Rio Chullapi Valenzuela and his team from the Cusco University, with J. Snnemark and S. Dalstrm, 9 Dec. 2002, S. Dalstrm et al. 2699 (holotype, CUZ). FIG 3. DIAGNOSIS : Cyrtochilum tricornis is most similar to C. cimiciferum (Rchb.f.) Dalstrm, and Cyrtochilum macropus (Linden & Rchb.f.) Kraenzl., but differs pandurate lip lamina and the three distinct horn-like structures at the apex of the column. Epiphytic herb. Pseudobulbs caespitose, ovoid, bifoliate, 9.01.0 1.5.0 cm, surrounded basally by 6 to 8 distichous sheaths, the uppermost foliaceous. Leaves subpetiolate, conduplicate, elliptic to obovate, narrowly acute to acuminate, 29.0.0 1.0.0 cm. 1 or 2, axillary from the uppermost sheaths, erect to arching, almost straight to slightly ca. 130 cm long panicle, with many Floral bracts appressed, scale-like, ventrally pubescent, acute, 5.0.0 mm long. Pedicel with ovary 20.0.0 mm long. Flowers dorsal sepal yellow with brown spots, unguiculate to spathulate, obovate to elliptic laminate, obtuse, weakly undulate, and slightly revolute, ca. 10.0 4.0.0 mm; lateral sepals similar in color, spathulate, narrowly and obliquely ovate to elliptic laminate, obtuse, 15.0 6.0 mm; petals similar in color, broadly unguiculate, broadly and slightly obliquely ovate, almost rotundate laminate, obtuse, ca. 10.0 6.0 mm; lip similar in color, rigidly attached to the base of the column, basally hastate, trilobate and pandurate with distinct lateral angles, and a rounded, ca. 10.0 6.0 7.0 mm; callus emerging from the base of the lip and longitudinally extending for about 4.0.0 mm, the lateral ridges being shorter and ending in blunt, slightly spreading angles, and the central ridge ending in a slightly swollen, rounded knob; column basally green, then purplish or brownish, apically yellow, erect in a ca. 90 angle from the base of the lip, stout, straight, with two keel below the stigmatic surface, and three apical horn-like structures, 4 mm long; anther cap dark orange to red, with a yellow dorsal stripe, campanulate and minutely papillose; pollinarium of two elongate pyriform, cleft, or folded, pollinia on a minute, less than 0.5 mm long broadly linear, or rectangular, stipe on a minute, almost triangulate, pulvinate viscidium. PARATYPES : Peru. Pasco, Paucartambo, Ulcumayo, Anexo Yaupi, ca. 2000 m, humid forest at ca S. Dalstrm 3493 (USM). Same area, 5 km south of Oxapampa, ca. 1800 m, 30-31 Jan. 1979, C. & J. Luer 3817, 3837 (SEL). Same area. Oxapampa, Chontabamba, 1200 m, 17 July 1996, J. del Castillo s.n., ex D. E. Bennett 7672; illustration in Icones Orchidacearum Peruviarum, pl. 533 (1998), as Oncidium saltabundum (No preserved specimen found). DISTRIBUTION : This species is only known from montane areas in the departments of Pasco and Cusco LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. DALSTRM and RUZ PREZ Three new species of Cyrtochilum from Colombia and Peru151

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.152 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 3. Cyrtochilum tricornis. A. Plant habit. B. Flower lateral view. C. Column lateral and ventral views, and anther cap. D. Pollinarium, with front and lateral views of the stipe. E. Flower dissected. Drawn from holotype by Stig Dalstrm.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. DALSTRM and RUZ PREZ Three new species of Cyrtochilum from Colombia and Peru153in central Peru where it occurs as an epiphyte in open and humid forests at 1200-2200 m elevation. ETYMOLOGY : The name refers to the three horn-like structures at the apex of the column. Cyrtochilum macropus has in previous treatments been considered as a synonym of C. cimiciferum (Dalstrm, 2001), but recent examinations of additional should be treated as a distinct species. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors wish to thank the staff at the Instituto Recursos Naturales (INRENA), and Betty Milln at the Universidad de San Marcos, Museo de Historia Natural, Lima, for aiding in providing the necessary collecting permits. We also wish to thank the staff at the herbaria of CUZ, MO, MOL, SEL and USM, for their assistance in the examinations of preserved plant specimens. We also thank Wesley Higgins for viewing and commenting on the manuscript, Jan Snnemark of Halmstad, Sweden, together with the Manuel Arias family in Lima for generous logistic support. LITERATURE CITED Dalstrm, S. 2001. A synopsis of the genus Cyrtochilum (Orchidaceae; Oncidiinae): Taxonomic reevaluation and new combinations. Lindleyana 16(2): 56-80.

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LANKESTERIANA

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3): 155. 2012.A WELL-KNOWN BUT PREVIOUSLY MISIDENTIFIED ODONTOGLOSSUM (ORCHIDACEAE: ONCIDIINAE) FROM ECUADOR STIG DALSTRM 2304 Ringling Boulevard, unit 119, Sarasota FL 34237, U.S.A. Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica and National Biodiversity Centre, Serbithang, Bhutan stigdalstrom@juno.com ABSTRACT Odontoglossum (Orchidaceae, Oncidiinae), from the botanically well explored western slopes of mount Pichincha in Ecuador is described and illustrated, and compared with similar species. The new species is most similar to O. cristatum, but differs in a larger plant habit with larger column with triangular, falcate column wings of O. cristatum. KEY WORDS : Orchidaceae, Oncidiinae, Odontoglossum, new species, Pichincha, Ecuador, taxonomy The genus Odontoglossum Kunth, (treated by some authors as Oncidium) consists of some of the most stunningly beautiful orchids that exist, and that have appealed to, and mesmerized not only orchid people around the world for almost two centuries. Odontoglossum species are also some of the most of reasons. Their impressive natural variation and so attractive to growers but also turn taxonomy into a serious befuddlement. The species described here has been known to orchid collectors and growers for a long time but hiding under a different name, Odontoglossum cristatum (e.g. Bockemhl 1989: 56). Although our new species resembles the true O. cristatum Lindl., and a couple of other similar species in several aspects, it can be distinguished by a unique combination of features. Each feature may be shared by one or several other species but not in the same combination. Odontoglossum furcatum Dalstrm, sp. nov. TYPE: Ecuador. Pichincha: Near Tandapi, at 1800 m, Oct. 1982. A. Hirtz 368 (holotype, SEL). FIG 1,, 2, 3C, 2C1. DIAGNOSIS : Odontoglossum furcatum is most similar to O. cristatum Lindl. (Fig. 3A, 3A1, 4), which occurs further to the south in Ecuador, near the towns of Zaruma and Paccha at a similarly low elevation (1200 1500 m), but differs in a larger plant habit with larger the typical bifurcated wings, versus a more slender and falcate column wings of O. cristatum. Odontoglossum hallii Lindl. (Fig 3D, 3D1, 5), has similar bifurcate column wings but occurs at much higher elevations, generally around 2800 m, and exhibits larger lacerate lip. Odontoglossum cristatellum Rchb.f. (Fig. 3B, 3B1, 6), also exists at a higher elevation, generally between 2500 m, and has a shorter and stouter column with broad, usually rectangular wings. Epiphytic herb. Pseudobulbs caespitose, ancipitous, slightly compressed, glossy, ovoid, bifoliate, ca. 7.0 2.5.0 cm, surrounded basally by 7 to 9 distichous sheaths, the uppermost foliaceous. Leaves subpetiolate, conduplicate, narrowly obovate to elliptic, acuminate, 20.0.0 1.8.0 cm. axillary from the base of the uppermost sheaths, suberect and arching to subpendent, to ca. 45 cm long, weakly ca Floral bracts appressed and scale-like, 5 mm long. Pedicel and ovary 20 mm long. Flowers relatively large, stellate to slightly campanulate, showy and scented but not overly pleasantly; dorsal sepal pale yellow with brown spots and markings, ovate to elliptic, slightly obliquely acuminate, entire, 40 12 mm; lateral sepals similar in color, unguiculate,

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.156 LANKESTERIANA FIGURE 1. Odontoglossum furcatum. A. Plant habit. B. Column and lip lateral view. C. Lip front view. D. Column lateral view. E. Column ventral view. F. Anthercap and pollinia dorsal, lateral and back view. G. Flower dissected. Drawn from holotype by Stig Dalstrm.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. DALSTRM A new Odontoglossum from Pichincha, Ecuador157obliquely ovate, acuminate, entire, ca. 40 12 mm; petals similar in color, unguiculate, obliquely ovate, acuminate, entire, ca. 40 mm; lip similar in color, ca. ca. 2 mm long claw, then widening into short erect lateral lobes, then distinctly angled downwards into a large, cordate to broadly ovate, slightly crenulate or serrate, obtuse, apically convolute and acuminate lip lamina, ca. 35 16 mm; callus white to pale yellow with red-brown longitudinal stripes and spots, consisting becoming larger towards the center and with additional with some brown markings apically, erect, elongate, slightly curved downwards towards the apex, with lateral keels emerging basally and extending to, and angled just beneath the stigma, and with generally distinct and slightly variable bifurcate apical wings, ca. 20 mm long; anthercap campanulate rostrate with a dorsal lobule; pollinarium of two cleft/folded pyriform pollinia on an elongate rectangular, apically obtuse ca. 3.5.0 mm long stipe, on a conspicuously hooked pulvinate viscidium. PARATY P E S : Ecuador. Carchi: Maldonado, 1800 m, without date, A. Andreetta 0230 (SEL). Pichincha: Andes of Quito, ca. 2300 m, August without date, W. Jameson 35 (K). Mt. Pichincha, 4100-4500 m [?; improbable altitude-probably feet], 17 Aug. 1923, A. S. Hitchkock 21934 (US). Above Tandapi, 1550 m, 14 Mar. 1982, S. Dalstrm 161 (SEL). Km 80 along road QuitoSanto Domingo, 1500 m, 27 Sept. 1980, C. H. Dodson et al. 10557 (MO, RPSC, SEL). Same area, 1800 m, 20 June 1985, C. H. & T. Dodson 15855 (MO). Tandayapa, road NonoNanegal, 2000 m, collected C. H. Dodson 12859 (SEL). Ca 6 km SE of Nanegal, 2000 m 6 Sept. 1993, G. L. Webster et al. 30382 (UC-Davis). by J. Snnemark in 1993 without date, S. Dalstrm 2065 (SEL). Imbabura: Above Garcia Moreno, 1800 m, collected S. Dalstrm et al. 2070 (SEL). Cotopaxi: Pujil, Reserva Ecolgica Los Illinizas, sector 11, sector Chuspitambo, W of Choasilli, 0 S, 79W, 1760 m, 3 Aug. 2003, P. Silverstone-Sopkin et al. 9736 (CUVC, SEL). La Man, Reserva Ecolgica Los Illinizas, sector El Oriente, access from Carmela, 0S, 78W, 1572 m, 14 July 2003, P. Silverstone-Sopkin et al. 9155 (CUVC, SEL). DISTRIBUTION : Northwestern slopes of the Andes in Ecuador, at 1500 m. ETYMOLOGY : The name refers to the furcated (forked) column wings. The earliest examined documentation of Odontoglossum furcatum is a nineteenth century collection by William Jameson from the Andes of Quito, deposited at Kew. It shows a compact plant with mounted between two specimens of O. hallii. This O. furcatum specimen was determined as Odontoglossum cristatum by Bockemhl in 1985. Indeed, these two species are closely related and resemble each other in several ways. The type of O. cristatum was collected by Theodore Hartweg in southern Ecuador near the town of Paccha, perhaps contemporary with the Jameson collection, and it has been observed in recent years by Dalstrm, growing at 1200 m, an uncommonly FIGURE 2. Odontoglossum furcatum plant that served as the holotype. Photo by S. Dalstrm.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.158 LANKESTERIANA O. cristatum are smaller in general and the column more slender and with differently shaped wings than O. furcatum. Although some natural variation occur in both species and occasional plants have been found that resemble intermediate forms, plants displaying the typical morphology of O. cristatum are not sympatric with O. furcatum. The bifurcate column wings of O. furcatum strongly resemble the wings of O. halli, which is a with a very different looking lip that easily separates the two taxa. Odontoglossum cristatellum may O. furcatum but is distinguished by the stout column with broad, generally rectangle column wings. Occasionally O. cristatellum can have more triangular column wings, resembling those of O. FIGURE 3. A. Odontoglossum cristatum (C. Dodson 13168 B. Odontoglossum cristatellum (S. Dalstrm 556 Odontoglossum furcatum (A. Hirtz 368 Odontoglossum hallii (S. Dalstrm 650

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. DALSTRM A new Odontoglossum from Pichincha, Ecuador159 FIGURE 4. Odontoglossum cristatum. Ecuador. El Oro, S. Dalstrom 962. Photograph by S. Dalstrm. FIGURE 5. Odontoglossum hallii Ecuador. Imbabura, S. Dalstrom 738. Photograph by S. Dalstrm. FIGURE 6. Odontoglossum cristatellum. Ecuador. Loja, S. Dalstrm 2772. Photograph by S. Dalstrm.

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cristatum and occasionally some intermediate forms are seen, possibly resulting from natural hybridization in areas where the two species occur in reasonably close proximity, a phenomenon often reported in Odontoglossum. ACKNOWLEDGMENT I wish to thank Wesley Higgins for viewing and commenting on the manuscript. LITERATURE CITED Bockemhl, L. 1989. Odontoglossum, a monograph and iconograph. Brcke-Verlag Kurt Schmersow, Hildesheim, Germany.LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.160 LANKESTERIANA

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3): 161. 2012.PONTHIEVA HERMILIAE, A NEW SPECIES OF ORCHIDACEAE IN THE CORDILLERA YANACHAGA (OXAPAMPA, PASCO, PERU) LUIS VALENZUELA GAMARRA luis_gin@yahoo.es ABSTRACT A new species of Ponthieva was found in the mountains of Yanachaga Chemilln on a pre-montane forest at 1400 m in the central jungle of Peru. It is similar to P. pilosissima, but can be distinguished by the presence of a callus on the lip and by the color of the petals, which are boldly veined in P. pilosissima and inconspicuously striped in P. hermiliae. KEY WORDS : Orchidaceae, Orchidoideae, Ponthieva new species, Peru, Yanachaga The Orchidaceae family amazes most researchers because of its great diversity, with more than 28,000 species worldwide (Govaerts et al. 2012). Just below 2,900 have been reported to grow in Peru (Zelenko & Bermudez 2009), however, considering the vastness of the territory and diversity in complex ecosystems, those numbers will probably increase. The Cordillera Yanachaga Chemilln, located in the Oxapampa province, is a region that has remained unexplored and is likely to host orchid species not yet known to science. Globally there are a little over 3600 species of Orchidoideae (Bateman et al. 2003), which mainly share terrestrial habits. Members of the subfamily are characterized by a single fertile upright anther with sectile pollinia. The genus Ponthieva was named in honor of Henri Ponthieu, a French merchant who was sending plant collections from the West Indies to Mr. Joseph Banks in 1778. The genus is distributed from the southern United States, Mexico, Caribbean to southern Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. They are mainly terrestrial plants but occasionally covered by long soft hairs and a stem that develops dorsal sepal is apically fused to the petals, which may or may not be fused to the sides of the column (Dodson & Escobar 2003). Ponthieva hermiliae L.Valenzuela, sp. nov. Type: Peru. Pasco, Oxapampa, Yanachaga Chemilln National Park, 1400 m. 10S 075W. L. Valenzuela 20064, M. I. Villalba, J. Mateo & R. Rivera (holotype, HOXA). Fig. 1, 2 AC Species Ponthievae pilossimae (Sengh.) Dodson similis, petalibus distincte callosis in parte basali dilute brunneo striato-maculatis, labello basaliter exauriculato, calli margo proximalis rotundato non exciso praecipue recedit. Epiphytic herb, up to 46 cm tall including the Leaves 26 2.0.5 cm, covered by clavate, glandular hairs 1 mm long. Floral bracts 1.5 cm long, hairy. Pedicellate ovary covered with trichomes, 3 cm long including the pedicel. Sepals lanceolate, the lateral falcate-lanceolate, covered externally with glandular trichomes, yellowish green marked with brown at the insertion point, 1.0-2.0 0.4 0.5 cm. Petals oblong-lanceolate, 1.9.0 0.25.30 cm, whitish green with a faint, parallel, light brown venation, provided with an ellipsoid callus located in the lower quarter. Lip yellowish-green to greenish-white, 6 mm long, lanceolate-triangular, slightly concave in the proximal half and at the rear, with a 6-toothed callus arranged horizontally in front of the basal cavity. Anther cap ovate-triangular, cucullate, verrucose, dark green. Pollinia 4 in two pairs, clavate, 1 mm long, supported DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY : Epiphyte found on the where it is apparently restricted to constantly foggy,

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FI G URE 1. Ponthieva hermiliae Column and lip, frontal view. F. Column and lip, lateral view. G. Anther cap, ventral view. H. Anther cap, dorsal view. I. pollinarium. J. Floral bract and pedicel. K. Hair. Drawn by the author from the holotype. LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.162 LANKESTERIANA

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D ). The plants are growing mainly on the root stem of tree ferns (Cyathea spp). EPONYMY: The name honors Gina Hermila Gamarra Muiz, the authors mother. Ponthieva hermiliae is similar to P. pilosissima (Senghas) Dodson, but differs in exauriculate base of the lip (vs. with distinct retrorese lobes), the shape of the callus on the lip (rounded vs. excise), and the petals distinctly callose at the base, faintly striped with light brown (vs. obscurely callose, boldly striped with redish brown). Furthermore, the sepals of P. hermiliae are subsimilaar in size, whereas in P. pilosissima the dorsal sepal is much smaller (Senghas 1989). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. The author wishes to thank Missouri Botanical Garden for the economic contribution and are discovered and described to science. To Stig Dalstrm for help with the translation; to Rodolfo Vsquez M., Roco del Pilar Rojas G. and Mara Isabel Villalba V. for their additions to the manuscript. LITERATURE CITED Bateman, R. M., P. M. Hollingsworth, J. Preston, L. YiBo, A. M. Pridgeon & M. W. Chase. 2003. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution of Orchidinae and selected Habenariinae (Orchidaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 142: 1. Dodson C. H. 1996. Nuevas Especies y Combinaciones de orqudeas ecuatorianas 4 / New orchid species and Combination from Ecuador 4. Orquideologa 20 (1): 9011. Dodson, C. H. & R. Escobar. 2003. Orqudeas Nativas del Ecuador. Volumen IV. Oncidium-Restrepiopsis. Editorial Colina, Medelln. Govaerts, R., J. Pfahl, M.A. Campacci, D. Holland Baptista, LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. VALENZUELA Ponthieva hermiliae163 FI G URE 2. Ponthieva hermiliae.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.164 LANKESTERIANAH. Tigges, J. Shaw, P. Cribb, A. George, K. Kreuz & J. Wood. 2012. World Checklist of Orchidaceae. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Senghas, K. 1989. Die Gattung Chranichis, mit einer neuen Art, Chranichis pilosissima, aus Ekuador. Orchidee (Hamburg) 40 (2): 44-51. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG III). 2009. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society (161): 105-121. Peru. ZAI Publications. Quito, Ecuador.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3): 165. 2012.SPECIES DIFFERENTIATION OF SLIPPER ORCHIDS USING COLOR IMAGE ANALYSIS ERNESTO SANZ 1 NOREEN VON CRAMON-TAUBADEL 2 & DAVID L. ROBERTS 3,41 Departamento de Biologa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autnoma de Madrid, C/Darwin, 2, E-28049 Madrid, Spain2 Department of Anthropology, School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Marlowe Building, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NR, U.K.3 Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Marlowe Building, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NR, U.K.4 Corresponding author: d.l.roberts@kent.ac.uk ABSTRACT A number of automated species recognition systems have been developed recently to aid nontechniques, however issues surround their wider applicability due to the need for homologous landmarks. Here we investigate the use of color to discriminate species using the two horticulturally important slipper orchid genera of Paphiopedilum and Phragmipedium as model systems. The ability to differentiate the various taxonomic groups varied, depending on the size of the group, diversity of colors within the group, and the should be extended to vegetative parts, particularly as this is the form in which they are most often traded internationally. RESUMEN Una gran cantidad de sistemas de reconocimiento automtico de especies se han desarrollado en los sistemas han utilizado sistemas de reconocimiento automtico basados en geometra morfomtrica, sin embargo existen lmites debido a la necesidad de encontrar puntos de georreferenciacin en los diferentes organismos. En este artculo investigamos el uso de los colores para diferenciar especies en los gneros Paphiopedilum y Phragmipedium, ambos con gran importancia en la horticultura. La capacidad de discriminacin vara entre los grupos taxonmicos, dependiendo del tamao del taxn, la variedad de colores entre las especies y el fondo de ya que es en estado vegetativo la forma en la que se suele comerciar internacionalmente ms a menudo. KEY WORDS : digital, discrimination, Orchidaceae, Paphiopedilum photograph, PhragmipediumIntroduction a taxonomic crisis. Linnean shortfall, a euphemism for the hole in our knowledge of biodiversity, cannot be estimated to within an order of magnitude (May 1988). Faced with the vast number of species yet to be discovered, coupled with the diminishing training of new taxonomists (Hopkins & Freckleton 2002) and accelerating extinction rates (Pimm et al. 2006), the task of cataloguing Earths biodiversity is immense. Accurate For some species, routine assessments, such as counting can result in accuracies as high as 95%. For others more experience is required, and in some cases inconsistent et al. 2010). To reduce such errors we rely on expert opinion for are interested in identifying species controlled under CITES, agriculturalists in pest species, building developers in legally protected species, the horticultural industry in difference between new hybrids, as well as

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.166 LANKESTERIANA the amateur naturalist communities general interest. society as a whole. Computer-based automated species recognition has therefore been suggested as a potential particularly taxa that form part of routine investigations (MacLeod et al. 2010). Automated species recognition largely focused on using geometric morphometic-based techniques, such as the elliptic Fourier description and landmark analysis (MacLeod et al. 2010). The problem is that, at least for landmark analysis, they rely on homologous points. For example in face recognition (Shi et al. 2006), the tip of a nose may be considered homologous (in the sense of evolutionary origins, growth and development etc.) as that of another human, however the further we move away from the same species or taxon the more would you place the same landmark on an insect or an orchid?). The issue surrounding homology of landmarks reduces their applicability, resulting in the proliferation of individual bespoke systems. Color of species recognition (Das et al. 1999; Nilsback & Zisserman 2008). Here we investigate whether orchids look the slipper orchid genera, Paphiopedilum and Phragmipedium, due to their importance within the orchid horticultural industry and the fact that, being on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, they are of particular concern to inspectors at border posts. Material and methods. A checklist of the two slipper orchid genera, Paphiopedilum and Phragmipedium, was constructed using the online World Checklist of Selected Flowering Plant Families (http://apps.kew. org/wcsp), and following the sectional delimitations of Cribb (1998; pers. comm.) and Pridegon et al. internet using a search engine (http://www.google. com/ from the two genera that had approximately a black and minimal other parts of the plant. These images were then downloaded and a database was collated in Microsoft Excel. The downloaded images were analyzed using the online Image Color Summarizer v0.5 (http://mkweb.bcgsc.ca/color_summarizer/). For pixel frequencies for red (R), blue (B), green (G), hue (H), saturation (S) and value (V). The setting extreme precision control was used. Factor analysis was performed to decompose the resultant variables obtained from the image analysis into principal components. Components which explained at least 1% of the total variance were extracted and used as input variables for a multivariate Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA). DFA was used in order to assess the extent to which the pixel frequency data could be employed to correctly classify individual specimens back to correct group. The analysis was conducted for all species, grouping by subgenus (in the case of Paphiopedilum) and by taxonomic section (in the case of Phragmipedium and each subgenus of Paphiopedilum). From these analyses which determines if the images were properly named, and (b) the percentage cross-validated grouped cases to recognize the image as it was labeled. Analyses to determine the potential impact of background color on discrimination were also conducted by cropping the image and placing it on a white background. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 19.0. Results. From a search of the internet, 703 images representing 84 species of Paphiopedilum and 214 images representing 25 species of Phragmipedium were acquired (Tables 1 and 2). This represents 96% coverage of both genera. Paphiopedilum. Cross-validation within sections and subgenera illustrated that some species were easier to distinguish than others (Table 3). For example, Paphiopedilum glaucophyllum and P. liemianum have broadly similar colors and therefore even within an analysis of species just from the section Cochlopetalum, only 18.2% of images of P. liemianum could be assigned to correct species and in the case of P. glaucophyllum no images could be placed within the species. As mentioned this could be due to the similarity in color of the two species and others

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. SANZ et al Species differentiation using image analysis166 Species Subgenus Section No. images P. acmodontum M.W.Wood Paphiopedilum Barbata 3 P. adductum Asher Paphiopedilum Coryopedilum 4 P. appletonianum (Gower) Rolfe Paphiopedilum Barbata 8 P. aranianum Petchl. Paphiopedilum Paradalopetalum 0 P. argus (Rchb.f.) Stein Paphiopedilum Barbata 11 P. armeniacum S.C.Chen & F.Y.Liu Parvisepalum Parvisepalum 12 P. barbatum Paphiopedilum Barbata 13 P. barbigerum Tang & F.T.Wang Paphiopedilum Paphiopedilum 5 P. bellatulum (Rchb.f.) Stein Brachypetalum Brachypetalum 6 P. bougainvilleanum Fowlie Paphiopedilum Barbata 7 P. bullenianum Paphiopedilum Barbata 5 P. callosum Paphiopedilum Barbata 10 P. canhii Aver. & O.Gruss Paphiopedilum Barbata 3 P. charlesworthii Paphiopedilum Paphiopedilum 12 P. ciliolare (Rchb.f.) Stein Paphiopedilum Barbata 9 P. concolor Brachypetalum Brachypetalum 3 P. dayanum (Lindl.) Stein Paphiopedilum Barbata 11 P. delenatii Guillaumin Parvisepalum Parvisepalum 10 P. dianthum Tang & F.T.Wang Paphiopedilum Paradalopetalum 4 P. druryi (Bedd.) Stein Paphiopedilum Paphiopedilum 12 P. emersonii Koop. & P.J.Cribb Parvisepalum Parvisepalum 13 P. exul (Ridl.) Rolfe Paphiopedilum Paphiopedilum 4 P. fairrieanum (Lindl.) Stein Paphiopedilum Paphiopedilum 16 P. fowliei Birk Paphiopedilum Barbata 12 P. gigantifolium Braem Paphiopedilum Coryopedilum 2 P. glanduliferum (Blume) Stein Paphiopedilum Coryopedilum 4 P. glaucophyllum J.J.Sm Paphiopedilum Cochlopetalum 7 P. godefroyae (God.-Leb.) Stein Brachypetalum Brachypetalum 11 P. gratrixianum Rolfe Paphiopedilum Paphiopedilum 10 P. guangdongense Z.J.Liu & L.J.Chen Paphiopedilum Paphiopedilum 0 P. hangianum Perner & O.Gruss Parvisepalum Parvisepalum 8 P. haynaldianum (Rchb.f.) Stein Paphiopedilum Paradalopetalum 5 P. helenae Aver Paphiopedilum Paphiopedilum 12 P. hennisianum (M.W.Wood) Fowlie Paphiopedilum Barbata 6 P. henryanum Braem Paphiopedilum Paphiopedilum 9 P. hirsutissimum (Lindl. ex Hook.) Stein Paphiopedilum Paphiopedilum 9 P. hookerae (Rchb.f.) Stein Paphiopedilum Barbata 16 P. inamorii P.J.Cribb & A.L.Lamb Paphiopedilum Barbata 1 TABLE 1. A list of speciesa from the genus Paphiopedilum taxonomy and the number of images used within the study. (continues)

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.168 LANKESTERIANA TABLE 1. Continues. Species Subgenus Section No. images P. insigne Paphiopedilum Paphiopedilum 13 P. javanicum Paphiopedilum Barbata 8 P. kolopakingii Fowlie Paphiopedilum Coryopedilum 1 P. lawrenceanum Paphiopedilum Barbata 12 P. liemianum (Fowlie) K.Karas. & K.Saito Paphiopedilum Cochlopetalum 11 P. lowii (Lindl.) Stein Paphiopedilum Paradalopetalum 6 P. malipoense S.C.Chen & Z.H.Tsi Parvisepalum Parvisepalum 20 P. mastersianum (Rchb.f.) Stein Paphiopedilum Barbata 11 P. micranthum Tang & F.T.Wang Parvisepalum Parvisepalum 18 P. niveum (Rchb.f.) Stein Brachypetalum Brachypetalum 17 P. ooii Koop Paphiopedilum Coryopedilum 1 P. papuanum (Ridl. ex Rendle) L.O.Williams Paphiopedilum Barbata 12 P. parishii (Rchb.f.) Stein Paphiopedilum Paradalopetalum 4 P. parnatanum Cavestro Paphiopedilum Barbata 6 P. philippinense (Rchb.f.) Stein Paphiopedilum Coryopedilum 2 P. platyphyllum T.Yukawa Paphiopedilum Coryopedilum 1 P. primulinum M.W.Wood & P.Taylor Paphiopedilum Cochlopetalum 9 P. purpuratum (Lindl.) Stein Paphiopedilum Barbata 7 P. randsii Fowlie Paphiopedilum Coryopedilum 4 P. rothschildianum (Rchb.f.) Stein Paphiopedilum Coryopedilum 2 P. sanderianum (Rchb.f.) Stein Paphiopedilum Coryopedilum 1 P. sangii Braem Paphiopedilum Barbata 12 P. schoseri Braem & H.Mohr Paphiopedilum Barbata 9 P. spicerianum Paphiopedilum Paphiopedilum 14 P. stonei (Hook.) Stein Paphiopedilum Coryopedilum 4 P. sugiyamanum Cavestro Paphiopedilum Barbata 4 P. sukhakulii Schoser & Senghas Paphiopedilum Barbata 14 P. supardii Braem & Lb Paphiopedilum Coryopedilum 2 P. superbiens (Rchb.f.) Stein Paphiopedilum Barbata 14 P. thaianum Iamwir Brachypetalum Brachypetalum 16 P. tigrinum Koop. & N.Haseg Paphiopedilum Paphiopedilum 9 P. tonsum (Rchb.f.) Stein Paphiopedilum Barbata 19 P. tranlienianum O.Gruss & Perner Paphiopedilum Paphiopedilum 7 P. urbanianum Fowlie Paphiopedilum Barbata 15 P. venustum Paphiopedilum Barbata 16 P. victoria-mariae (Sander ex Mast.) Rolfe Paphiopedilum Cochlopetalum 6 P. victoria-regina (Sander) M.W.Wood Paphiopedilum Cochlopetalum 4 P. vietnamense O.Gruss & Perner Parvisepalum Parvisepalum 18(continues)

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. SANZ et al Species differentiation using image analysis169 be a confounding factor. Conversely in the subgenus Parvisepalum, P. armeniacum was correctly assigned to the species 61.5% of the time, while P. malipoense distinctive color of this species, relative to the diversity of colors within this subgenus. Subgenus Parvisepalum with seven species was found to have the highest crossvalidation at 52.0%, while for the section Barbata, with 31 species, cross-validation was 15.5%; although this was not the lowest (Table 3). Moving to a higher taxonomic level, section cross-validation was 39.5%. When the genus was analyzed as a whole, only two of the 84 species of Paphiopedilum at least two-thirds of the time; P. wentworthianum (66.7%), and P. dianthum (75.0%). Phragmipedium. Similar to the situation seen in the genus Paphiopedilum, there was considerable variation in the ability to correctly identify species in the genus Phragmipedium (Table 4). Species such as P. caricinum from the section Himantopetalum had a low percentage of cross-validation (12.5%), with P. longifolium from the section Lorifolia being the lowest (0%). At the opposite end of the spectrum P. lindenii from the section Phragmipedium had 100% cross-validation. The section Platypetalum showed the highest cross-validation at 53.3% due to the low number of species in this section (only 2 species), whereas the section Lorifolia only had 18.9% crossvalidation. In Phragmipedium when all the species were analyzed by grouping them by section, section slightly below that seen for the section Platypetalum (53.3%). When looking at the genus as a whole, three of the 25 species analyzed had cross-validation percentages above 60%; P. bessae with 61.1%, P. schlimii with 73.7% and with 75%; being mistaken with only one other species in the case of P. bessae and in the case of P. schlimii, all of them having an equal percentage of cross-validation. Image manipulation. When images were manipulated in an attempt to control the background color variation mixed results were seen (Table 5). For subgenus Parvisepalum and section Paphiopedilum substantial increases in the ability to differentiate species was seen (52.0 to 67.7% and 24.6 to 47.8% respectively), however for subgenus Brachypetalum and section Cochlopetalum differentiation of species decreased (38.6 to 15.5% and 24.3 to 18.9% respectively). Discussion to science, Paphiopedilum vietnamense was declared Extinct in the Wild due to over-collecting for the horticultural trade (Averyanov et al. 2003). Those involved in CITES, particularly within the EU and USA, were quick to identify trade in this species, however as a result the species started being traded as the vinicolor form of the more widely and legally available P. delenatii (anon. pers. comm.). These species are easy to tell apart, but only with knowledge and training; key distinguishing characters are in the staminode and leaves (Averyanov, pers. comm.). In this study, color image analysis was used to determine if it is a potentially useful tool for differentiating species. Based on the analysis of over Species Subgenus Section No. images P. villosum (Lindl.) Stein Paphiopedilum Paphiopedilum 11 P. violascens Schltr. Paphiopedilum Barbata 17 P. wardii Summerh. Paphiopedilum Barbata 18 P. wenshanense Z.J.Liu & J.Yong Zhang Brachypetalum Brachypetalum 4 P. wentworthianum Schoser & Fowlie Paphiopedilum Barbata 6 P. wilhelminae L.O.Williams Paphiopedilum Coryopedilum 3a P. cornuatum Z.J.Liu, O. Gruss & L.J. Chen is excluded as it is considered to be a variety of P. villosum (Cribb pers. comm.). P. qingyongii Z.J.Liu & L.J.Chen is excluded as it is believed to be a natural hybrid (Averyanov pers. comm.) TABLE 1. Continues.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.170 LANKESTERIANA900 images from 109 species of slipper orchids, the results suggest that color image analysis does have the potential to differentiate certain species, however only a few can be differentiated with any degree of accuracy (>66.6%). As one may expect, as the number of species decrease the ability to differentiate species increases, coupled with this is the diversity of major colors within a taxon; as the color to species ratio increase so does species differentiation. This therefore begs the question why would such as system be useful if it can only differentiate species that are obviously different? Paphiopedilum armeniacum and P. malipoense are obviously different from species within the section Parvisepalum, certainly to an orchid taxonomist or a grower with knowledge of orchids. However, correct a priori instant to differentiate them from other species. Even not 100% accurate. Our analyses suggest that using image analyses reduced the likelihood of errors; rather than looking through all 80+ species of Paphiopedilum species. Sixty-seven percent of species from the genus Paphiopedilum were confused with only eight or fewer other species, thereby reducing the options to less than 10% of the original number of species. By doing so this reduces the time spent by those involved in trying Species Section No. images P. andreettae P.J.Cribb & Pupulin Micropetalum 8 P. besseae Dodson & J.Kuhn Micropetalum 19 P. boissierianum Lorifolium 19 P. brasiliense Quen & O.Gruss Lorifolium 5 P. caricinum (Lindl. & Paxton) Rolfe Himantopetalum 7 P. caudatum (Lindl.) Rolfe Phragmipedium 8 P. christiansenianum O.Gruss & Roeth Himantopetalum 5 P. exstaminodium Phragmipedium 5 Braem & H.Mohr Micropetalum 8 P. hartwegii Lorifolium 1 P. hirtzii Dodson Lorifolium 5 P. klotzschianum (Rchb.f.) Rolfe Himantopetalum 4 P. kovachii J.T.Atwood Schluckebieria 9 P. lindenii (Lindl.) Dressler & N.H.Williams Phragmipedium 3 P. lindleyanum (M.R.Schomb. ex Lindl.) Rolfe Platypetalum 7 P. longifolium Lorifolium 14 P. manzurii Micropetalum 1 P. pearcei (Rchb.f.) Rauh & Senghas Himantopetalum 13 P. reticulatum (Rchb.f.) Schltr. Lorifolium 2 P. richteri Roeth & O.Gruss Himantopetalum 15 P. sargentianum (Rolfe) Rolfe Platypetalum 6 P. schlimii (Linden ex Rchb.f.) Rolfe Micropetalum 19 O.Gruss Himantopetalum 4 P. vittatum Lorifolium 4 P. warszewiczianum (Rchb.f.) Schltr. Phragmipedium 7 P. warscewiczii (Rchb.f.) Christenson Phragmipedium 0 TABLE 2. A list of species from the genus Phragmipedium, taxonomy and the number of images used within the study .

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. SANZ et al Species differentiation using image analysis171to identify individuals to the species level who may not have same in-depth knowledge, such as border of enquiries that pass through to the small number of specialist taxonomists. Several factors are likely to impact on any system to differentiate species, such as orientation of the subject, quality and settings of the camera used to take the image, distance from subject, the the subject. In this study we tried to control some of these by using approximately forward facing Further, we attempted to reduce the impact of the background with mixed consequences. In some cases this increased the ability to differentiate species, while in others it reduced the ability to differentiate. What was interesting is that it increased accuracy in those taxonomic groups that were generally singled away from the vegetative parts, while controlling illustrates how the background of the image can not necessarily be a source that can precipitate error. Subgenus Section No. spp. No. images Original grouped (%) Cross-validated grouped (%) Parvisepalum Parvisepalum 7 100 98.0 52.0 Brachypetalum Brachypetalum 6 57 100.0 38.6 Paphiopedilum Coryopedilum 13 31 100.0 9.7 Paphiopedilum Paradalopetalum 4 19 100.0 36.8 Paphiopedilum Cochlopetalum 5 37 97.4 24.3 Paphiopedilum Paphiopedilum 14 143 89.4 24.6 Paphiopedilum Barbata 31 316 71.5 15.5 All (sections)aAll 7 (sections) 703 66.4 39.5 All (species)bAll 84 703 31.9 8.3Analysis conducted using all species grouped by asections and bspecies. TABLE specimens in the genus Paphiopedilum. Section No. spp. No. images Original grouped (%) Cross-validated grouped (%) Phragmipedium 4 24 100.0 37.5 Himantopetalum 6 51 100.0 25.5 Platypetalum 2 15 100.0 53.3 Lorifolia 7 53 100.0 18.9 Micropetalum 5 56 100.0 25.5 Schluckebieria 1 10 All (sections)a6 (sections) 214 84.1 46.6 All (species)b25 214 83.2 31.7Analysis conducted using all species grouped by asections and bspecies. TABLE specimens in the genus Phargmipedium.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.172 LANKESTERIANA Taxonomic Groups Discrimination Unaltered Altered Subgenus Brachypetalum Original grouped (%) 100.0 100.0 Cross-validated grouped (%) 38.6 15.5 Subgenus Parvisepalum Original grouped (%) 98.0 100.0 Cross-validated grouped (%) 52.0 67.7 Section Cochlopetalum Original grouped (%) 97.4 100.0 Cross-validated grouped (%) 24.3 18.9 Section Paphiopedilum Original grouped (%) 89.4 95.6 Cross-validated grouped (%) 24.6 47.8 TABLE 5. Results of the Discriminant Function Analysis comparing the manipulated images against the unaltered images of the subgenera Brachypetalum and Parvisepalum and the sections Cochlopetalum and Paphiopedilum of the subgenus Paphiopedilum. Increased accuracy may be achieved through the use or addition of shape analysis, and for the majority of species recognition systems this is what it is based on (MacLeod et al. 2010). Phragmipedium exstaminodium and P. warszwewiczianum to differentiate based on color but are quite obviously different when one looks at the shape of the staminode. Further it is possible to differentiate most species of Phragmipedium using geometric morphometrics based only on the shape of the staminode (unpublished data). However, as mentioned in the introduction, the problem arises when one tries to expand the system from a small group of morphologically similar species, due to homology. In the case of staminode morphology in Phragmipedium, it is unlikely to have wider application beyond the Cypripedioideae. Further, such taxonomically focused tools for automating species recognition are also only likely to be developed for those species that are of particular commercial concern, e.g. timber and ivory. This also includes DNA-based technologies, where although costs are continuing to economically practical for commercially important species and items that have DNA to start with (e.g. not treated items such as leathers or objects such as photographs). If automated species recognition systems are to be developed for taxonomic groups that are not commercially important, and/or taxonomic groups that are extremely species rich (as is the case for orchids), then more generalizable methods such as color image analyzes are needed. Further work is required into image analyzes systems to understand such as the environment in which they are grown (e.g. temperature, fertilizer regime), photographic system expansion to other taxa including hybrids and color forms. Returning to the case of Paphiopedilum vietnamense, which is similar to P. delenatii, but can, as mentioned earlier, be easily distinguished on the basis of their leaves (Averyanov, pers. comm.; Cribb, pers. comm.). A logical progression to this line of research would be to investigate species differentiation using color image analyzes on vegetative parts of the plant. This is the form in which orchids are more often confronted with. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank Drs. provided helpful feedback. ES was funded through an EU Erasmus placement grant. LITERATURE CITED Averyanov, L., P. Cribb, P.K. Loc & M.H. Hiep. 2003. Slipper Orchids of Vietnam Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK. Cribb, P. 1998. The Genus Paphiopedilum 2nd Ed. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Malaysia. Das, M., R. Manmatha & E.M. Riseman. 1999. Indexing Intell. Syst. 14: 24-33. Hopkins, G.W. & R.P. Freckleton. 2002. Declines in the

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. SANZ et al Species differentiation using image analysis173numbers of amateur and professional taxonomists: implications for conservation. Anim. Conserv. 5 : 245-249. MacLeod N., B. Mark & P. Culverhouse. 2010. Time to May, R.M. 1988. How many species are there on Earth? Science 241: 1441-1449. McGough, H.N., D. L. Roberts, C. Brodie & J. Kowalczyk. 2006. CITES and Slipper Orchids. An introduction to slipper orchids covered by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK. Nilsback, M.-E. & A. Zisserman. 2008. Automated Proceedings of the Indian Conference on Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing 6: 722-729. Ehrlich. 2006. Human Impacts on the rates of recent, present, and future bird extinctions. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103: 10941-10946. Pridgeon, A. M., P. J. Cribb, M. W. Chase & F. Rasmussen (eds.). 1999. Genera Orchidacearum, Vol 1: Apostasioideae and Cypripedioideae. Oxford University Press, UK. Shi, J., A. Samal & D. Marx. 2006. How effective are landmarks and their geometry for face recognition? Comput. Vis. Image Und. 102: 117-133.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3): 175. 2012.ESTUDIO DE LA ORQUIDEOFLORA DE LA RESERVA PRIVADA CHICACNAB, AL TA VERAPAZ, GUATEMALA EDGAR ALFREDO M M 1 & EDGAR ARMANDO RUIZ CRUZ 11 Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala ( USAC ), Carrera de Agronoma, Centro Universitario del Norte ( CUNOR ), Cobn, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala2 Orquideario AgronomaCUNOR-USAC Carrera Agronoma, Centro Universitario del Norte ( CUNOR ), Cobn, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala3 Autor para la correspondencia: alfredomo2@hotmail.com RESUMEN Chamelco, Alta Verapaz. La metodologa de trabajo se bas en un muestreo referencial para elegir las parcelas y rboles, dependiendo de la densidad del bosque y su elevacin. El mtodo que se utiliz para muestrear los especmenes. Se detectaron 46 especies, pertenecientes a 22 gneros de la familia Orchidaceae, entre ellas 4 especies endmicas de Guatemala, 10 registros nuevos para Alta Verapaz y un nuevo registro para Guatemala. ABSTRACT Chicacnab private preserve, located in San Juan Chamelco, Alta Verapaz. The methodology was based on referential sampling in order to choose the locations and the trees up into 5 strata, was used for sampling. Samples were collected from 421 trees and 7 areas for terrestrial and lithophytic plants with a total of 6 743 species. We found 46 species and 22 genera of the family Orchidaceae, of which 4 Guatemalan endemics, 10 new records for Alta Verapaz and one new record for Guatemala. The most frequent habit was the epiphytic KEY WORDS : Orchidaceae, Lepanthes, Epidendrum, Stelis, Guatemala, Alta Verapaz, Introduccin. Los bosques nubosos se caracterizan elevaciones de 1,300 a 3,500 metros sobre el nivel del mar. Desgraciadamente estos bosques se han ido perdiendo por el avance de la frontera agrcola y la tala desmoderada de rboles, y con ello la extincin familias de plantas que tienen una distribucin a nivel mundial, a excepcin de los polos y los desiertos; en Debido a la nubosidad, estos bosques permiten el crecimiento de muchas plantas, especialmente de la familia Orchidaceae; la mayor parte de ellas crece en la copa de los rboles. La reserva privada Chicacnab (RPC), San Juan Chamelco, Alta Verapaz, cuenta con un rea de bosque de aproximadamente 89.6 hectreas; no cuenta con un inventario ni determinacin botnica de la familia Orchidaceae, aunque en esta reserva se encuentran grandes cantidades de orqudeas, entre las cuales probablemente se encuentren algunas poco frecuentes o hasta desconocidas. Planteamiento y delimitacin del problema. La RPC cuenta con un rea de bosque nuboso para proteger el Quetzal, Pharomachrus mocinno. Sin embargo, que sera de gran relevancia considerando que dichos bosques son el hbitat de una gran diversidad de plantas, especialmente de la familia de Orchidaceae. La amenaza de este bosque nuboso es el avance de la frontera agrcola, y la deforestacin de las reas que colindan con la reserva por parte de algunos comunitarios que entran a cortar lea a la propiedad privada, provocando una alteracin en los ecosistemas. La RPC es un rico banco de germoplasma de la familia Orchidaceae. Actualmente se desconoce qu especies

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.176 LANKESTERIANAse protegen en la reserva, su distribucin natural, cules son endmicas as como cuales son los gneros predominantes. La RPC no cuenta con la determinacin de gneros y especies de la familia Orchidaceae, as mismo se desconoce la distribucin de sus hbitats. una determinacin botnica y como resultado, los comunitarios podrn tener otro motivo para el cual proteger la reserva. Podrn as no solo conocer todas las especies de Orchidaceae, sino que conocer sus nombres y las caractersticas que las distinguen. El inventario es importante para los comunitarios, ayudndolos a que puedan as proteger y dar a conocer a los visitantes las riquezas con que cuenta la reserva. La reserva trabaja en conjunto con dos econmicamente del ecoturismo y eso los insta a valorar sus propios bosques. Marco referencial Ubicacin geogrfica El municipio de San Juan Chamelco, pertenece al departamento de Alta Verapaz ubicado en la regin norte de Guatemala. Posee una extensin superficial de aproximadamente 80 km su cabecera municipal est localizada en las coordenadas geogrficas 15 25 20 N y 90 19 45 W (Rodrguez Sandoval 2003). La RPC se localiza en Caquipec en la comunidad Nuevo Chicacnab posee una extensin superficial de 89.6 hectreas, a un intervalo de elevacin de 1,250 a 2,460 m. De acuerdo a la clasificacin de Zonas de vida de J. R. de la Cruz, la mayor parte del municipio corresponde al Bosque Pluvial Montano Bajo Subtropical (bpMB) (fig. 1). La temperatura oscila entre los 14.9 y los 18.7 C; caracterizndose por un clima templado. La humedad relativa promedio anual es de 80%; distribuyndose la precipitacin entre los 200 a 210 das del ao, lo anterior da como resultado que el volumen de lluvia en promedio oscila entre los 3,000 a 4,000 mm anuales (Rodrguez Sandoval 2003). Metodologa. El reconocimiento del rea de estudio se hizo mediante observacin directa del rea de investigacin, se realiz una aproximacin de las condiciones actuales del bosque, apoyndose en el uso de la hoja cartogrfica Guatemala 2161 II a escala 1:50,000 y GPS. Se delimit el rea de estudio mediante la densidad del bosque y la cantidad de especmenes que se pudieron observar en los arboles, se marcaron las reas de muestra en la parte norte, sur, este y oeste, y a diferentes elevaciones de la reserva. El mtodo de muestreo utilizado fue de manera referencial, se tomaron con respecto a la orientacin de la luz, la densidad poblacin y la altitud. Los tipos de muestreo fueron: (1) para las el rea de muestreo fueron los rboles y arbustos. FIGURA 1. Composicin del bosque de la Reserva Privada Chicacnab. A. Vista de las copas. B. Vista del sotobosque. Fotografas por E. A. M M.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. M M & RUIZ CRUZ 177 2). Los rboles y las parcelas fueron debidamente correlativa. Los especmenes fueron debidamente observados y contabilizadas en cada estrato de los rboles. Intensidad de muestreo rboles se determin dependiendo de las elevaciones y la densidad de orqudeas que se encuentran en la reserva. Se tom en cuenta la cantidad de especmenes sobre los rboles, eso fue un factor para la seleccin de las reas de muestreo. En cada parcela y rbol de individuos por especie que se localizan en el en zonas. Los arboles se dividieron en 5 estratos. El tronco es dividido en dos secciones, la primera corresponde a una pequea porcin cercana al suelo (zona A) y la segunda porcin ms grande, incluye (zona B); las ramas son divididas en tres estratos: D, respectivamente) y la copa (zona E), siguiendo las terrestres se hicieron parcelas de 1,500 m2. Se colectaron 2 especmenes vegetales de cada una de las especies presentes en las parcelas y rboles. Tom a de muestras para herbario Para facilitar la determinacin de las especies se preservaron en frascos semillas en solucin: glicerina 5%, agua destilada 25% un cdigo personal, para la tabulacin de datos e ingreso a los herbarios. Tom a de muestras para el Orquideario Si la especie de orqudea era pequea o de tamao mediano, se recolect todo el espcimen; si la especie era muy grande, se tom solamente una porcin de ella. Las Agronoma del Centro Universitario del Norte. Las con herramientas como lupas, estereoscopios y microscopio. FIGURA metodologa de Johansson (1974). Fuente: Meja Rosero et al. 2008. se realiz tomando en cuenta hojas, pseudobulbos, pseudotallos, semillas, tamao de la planta, para aff.) y con forma a (cf.). Se ordenaron las especies alfabticamente, igualmente se le asign un cdigo de colecta y de herbario. Las plantas colectadas para el Orquideario se etiquetaron con paletas plsticas de color amarillo y blanco, que llevan el nombre de la especie y la fecha de colecta. Las muestras de herbario se etiquetaron con un cdigo la muestra con datos como; departamento, municipio, elevacin a la que fue encontrada, familia, gnero, Entrega de material para herbario El material para herbario ser trasladado para las instalaciones del Herbario de la Facultad de Biologa de Guatemala (BIGU), la Facultad de Agronoma de Guatemala (AGUAT) y Centro de Datos para la Conversacin

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(CDC) del Centro de Estudios Conservacionista (CECON). Las Facultades y el Centro son parte de la Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala. El material vivo se entreg con toda la informacin para el Orquideario de AgronomaCUNORUSAC del Centro Universitario del Norte de la Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala. Resultados. Se determinaron 46 especies, las cuales se desglosan en los siguientes modus vivendi; 40 especies Hbito de las orqudeas en la Reserva Se determinaron dos tipos de hbito y dos combinaciones; dndonos como el modus vivendi dominante, lo cual es de esperarse, ya que por la densidad del bosque es (tabla 2). La falta de luz promueve que algunas que son terrestres hayan cambiado su hbito, volvindose Camaridium cucullatum, Epidendrum santaclarense y Stelis aeolica fueron encontradas en el suelo, pero estas plantas no se tomaron en cuenta como terrestre ya que se encuentran tiradas por condiciones climticas o humanas que pudieron quebrar las ramas de algunos rboles. Estas plantas tienen una mnima posibilidad de sobrevivir. Se determinaron 46 especies pertenecientes a 22 gneros; el gnero ms abundante fue Epidendrum, que con 10 especies suma el 21,74% del total de especies determinadas por gnero. Datos del muestreo Plantas epfitas: Los rboles se escogieron de manera referencial, observando los que posean gran cantidad de especmenes, Hbito No. de plantas % Terrestre 2 4.35 TABLA 2. Modus vivendi de las orqudeas de reserva privada Chicacnab.LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.178 LANKESTERIANATaxn Hbito Anathallis platystylis Arpophyllum cf. alpinum Arpophyllum giganteum Arpophyllum medium Bletia purpurea Terrestre Calanthe calanthoides Terrestre Camaridium cucullatum Camaridium hagsaterianum Camaridium meleagris Coelia bella Dichaea trichocarpa Elleanthus cynarocephalus Epidendrum aberrans Epidendrum badium Epidendrum beharorum Epidendrum cerinum Epidendrum chloe Epidendrum laucheanum Epidendrum polyanthum Epidendrum santaclarense Epidendrum trachythece Goodyera striata Helleriella nicaraguensis Isochilus aurantiacus Leochilus johnstonii Lepanthes doeringii Lepanthes fratercula Lepanthes matudana Lepanthes mittelstaedtii Lepanthes quetzalensis Lepanthes tactiquense Malaxis maianthemifolia Pachyphyllum hispidulum Ponera juncifolia Ponera pellita Prosthechea pseudopygmea Prosthechea varicosa Rhynchostele cordata Rhynchostele stellata Stelis aeolica Stelis jalapensis Stelis megachlamys Stelis ornata Stenorhynchos speciosum TABLA 1. Especies determinadas de la reserva privada Chicacnab.

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Taxn A B C D E Anathallis platystylis 3 7 169 141 48 Arpophyllum cf. alpinum 1 3 Arpophyllum giganteum 23 55 3 Arpophyllum medium 134 45 7 Camaridium cucullatum 5 107 175 29 Camaridium hagsaterianum 9 4 Camaridium meleagris 20 34 2 Coelia bella 17 4 Dichaea trichocarpa 3 1 3 2 Elleanthus cynarocephalus 13 5 Epidendrum aberrans 43 93 23 Epidendrum badium 85 55 23 12 Epidendrum beharorum 26 19 Epidendrum cerinum 11 3 Epidendrum chloe 167 173 44 Epidendrum laucheanum 2 13 Epidendrum polyanthum 5 9 Epidendrum santaclarense 3 48 35 14 Epidendrum trachythece 5 80 104 31 Goodyera striata 2 9 Helleriella nicaraguense 1 1 1 Isochilus aurantiacus 6 170 63 12 Leochilus johnstonii 4 1 Lepanthes doeringii 8 12 32 43 10 Lepanthes fratercula 332 466 7 13 80 Lepanthes matudana 130 260 8 5 Lepanthes mittelstaedtii 6 4 Lepanthes quetzalensis 142 160 56 Lepanthes tactiquense 61 137 22 Malaxis maianthemifolia 2 9 Pachyphyllum hispidulum 1 Pleurothallis matudana 9 14 10 Ponera juncifolia 1 11 4 Ponera pellita 49 42 76 21 Prosthechea pseudopygmaea 5 2 Prosthechea varicosa 18 63 108 26 Rhynchostele cordata 6 3 18 12 9 Rhynchostele stellata 381 485 167 Stelis aeolica 57 102 23 Stelis jalapensis 10 Stelis megachlamys 20 18 3 Stelis ornata 4 12 3 Stenorrhynchos speciosum 36 48 8 TABLA 3. Datos de nuestras de 421 rboles, divido en 5 estratos. LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. M M & RUIZ CRUZ 179diversidad de especies y altitudes. Los estratos se dividieron basndose en la metodologa de Johansson (1974) (Fig. 2), distribuidos de la manera siguiente; el tronco est dividido en dos secciones, la primera corresponde a una pequea porcin cercana al suelo de 20 cm (estrato A) y la segunda porcin, incluye el resto del tronco antes de la primera ramificacin (estrato B); las ramas son divididas en tres estratos: las primeras y segundas ramificaciones (estratos C y D, respectivamente) y cada estrato, se recolectaron significativamente ms especmenes en los estrato C y D, contribuyendo juntos a ms de 70% de los especmenes (tabla 4). Por otro lado, fueron los estratos C, D y E los que contabilizaron mayor cantidad de especies, con ms de 20% en cada uno (tabla 5), un patrn similar se cada estrato, que fue alrededor del 20% para los estratos B, C, D y E (tabla 6). Cabe destacar que el estrato D fue constantemente donde se encontr mayor diversidad. Estrato Especies % A 8 6.20 B 18 13.95 C 35 27.13 D 39 30.23 TABLA Estrato Gnero % A 6 8.96 B 13 19.40 C 14 20.90 D 19 28.36 TABLA Estrato No. de especmenes % A 485 7.76 B 946 15.14 C 1939 31.03 D 2257 35.54 TABLA

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Comentarios de las especies determinadas 1. Anathallis platystylis (Schltr.) Pridgeon & M.W. Chase, Lindleyana, 16: 250. 2001. Es una de las especies ms abundantes en la reserva, distribuida en toda el rea. Se localiza en los estratos C, D y E. 2. Arpophyllum cf. alpinum Lindl., Benth. Pl. Hartw. 93. 1842. Las hojas y rizomas coinciden con la descripcin de A. alpinum, pero no hay reportes existentes de esta especie para Alta Verapaz, los departamentos donde han sido colectados son Huehuetenango, Jalapa, Quetzaltenango, San Marcos y Totonicapn, estos departamentos poseen zona vida similares a algunas partes de Alta Verapaz, la cual es Bosque Pluvial Montano Bajo Subtropical (bp-MB), la coincidencia de las zonas de vida, tambin se encuentran entre el rango de las alturas que es de ha sido colectada la especie en Miramundo, Jalapa a una altura de 2,400 m, los encuentros, Totonicapn a una altura de 2,900 m, la cual coincide con la altura (2,420 m) que fue localizada la especie en la Reserva. Ames y Correl (1952-1953) reportan la colecta 1140; II 1632 de Tuerckheim para Alta Verapaz en Cobn. de la especie en la colecta realizada en dicha reserva. Su abundancia es rara en su distribucin localizada. Se localiza en los estratos B y C. 3. Arpophyllum giganteum Hartw. ex Lindl., Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 4: 384. 1840. Su abundancia de su distribucin en la reserva. Se localiza en los estratos C, D y E. 4. Arpophyllum medium Rchb.f., Beitr. Orch. Centr.Amer. 89. 1866. Una planta con gran poblacin alrededor de la reserva a una altura de 1 800 a 2 200 m, en las ramas primarias y secundarias de los rboles grandes. En grandes macollas en las ramas, abundante dentro de una amplia distribucin en localiza en los estratos C, D y E. 5. Bletia purpurea (Lam.) DC., Men. Soc. Phys. Hist. la reserva, se localiza en la parte donde ya no existe dentro su amplia distribucin en la reserva. 6. Calanthe calanthoides (A. Rich. & Galeotti) Hamer & Garay, Orqud. El Salvador 1: 90-91. 1974. Especie muy rara en la reserva. Las reas de muestreo de 30 50 utilizado para las orqudeas terrestres solo se localizaron 1 o 2 plantas.. Esta especie puede localizarse no slo en suelo si no tambin en rboles cados, que se encuentran en descomposicin. 7. Camaridium cucullatum (Lindl.) M. A. Blanco, Lankesteriana 7: 520. 2007 (Fig. 3 B ). Especie muy de colores. Abundante dentro de una amplia Se localiza en los estratos B, C, D y E. 8. Camaridium hagsaterianum (Soto Arenas) M.A. Blanco, Orqudea (Mx.) 12(2): 252-253. 1992 (Fig. 3 C ). Su abundancia es rara dentro de su distribucin localizada en la reserva. Se localiza en los estratos C y D. 9. Camaridium meleagris (Lindl.) M. A. Blanco, Lankesteriana 7: 520. 2007 (Fig. 3 D ). Especie son muy variables, al igual que el tamao de las plantas, se localizan en pequeos rboles, en los estratos C, D y E. 10. Coelia bella (Lem.) Rchb.f., Ann. Bot. Syst. 6: 218. 1861. Su abundancia es rara dentro de su distribucin amplia en la reserva de 1 a 2 plantas por cada rbol, pero en grandes macollas en las bellas en reserva. Se localiza en los estratos C y D. 11. Dichaea trichocarpa (Sw.) Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 209. 1833. Coexistente con lquenes, gracias a esto son muy difciles de ver en los troncos, forman grandes alfombras, muy fcil de confundir con algunas especies de Lycopodium en la reserva. la reserva y raro en los estratos donde se pudo observar. Se localiza en los estratos A, B, C y D. 12. Elleanthus cynarocephalus (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f., Walp. Ann. Bot. Syst. 6: 476. 1862. Su abundancia en la reserva y raro en los estratos donde se pudo observar. Se localiza en los estratos C y D 13. Epidendrum aberrans Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 15:206. 1918 (Fig. 3 E ). Especie bien distribuida en toda el rea de la reserva. Su LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.180 LANKESTERIANA

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localizada en la reserva y rara dentro de su distribucin amplia. Se localiza en los estratos C, D y E. 14. Epidendrum badium Hgsater, Icon. Orchid. 2: t. 110. 1993 (Fig. 3 F, 3G ). Se observaron y colectaron individuos de esta especie con coloraciones distintas al del tipo, se pudo constatar colores como rosado y una variacin albina. Las poblaciones de esta especie se encuentran distribuidas en la mayor parte de la reserva. Su abundancia es rara dentro de su distribucin amplia en la reserva y es una planta muy escasa en su localidad tipo que es Baja Verapaz y es un nuevo reporte para Alta Verapaz. Se localiza en los estratos B, C, D y E. 15. Epidendrum beharorum Hgsater, Icon. Orchid. 2: t. 112 .1993 (Fig. 3 H ). Especie observada en el estrato C y D de los rboles, su abundancia es rara dentro de su distribucin amplia. 16. Epidendrum cerinum Schltr., Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 36(2): 402. 1918. Su abundancia es escasa en su distribucin en la reserva, se localiza en pequeos arbustos del sotobosque, puede confundirse muy fcil con lianas o algunas otras plantas de crecimiento pndulo. Se localiza en los estratos D y E. 17. Epidendrum chloe Rchb.f., Bonplandia (Hannover) 4: 327. 1856 (Fig. 3 I ). Localizadas en los estratos C, D y E de los rboles, se observo que las plantas mientras se encontraban a mayor alturas las hojas eran de color verde y las que se encontraban a menor altura era de color rojizo. En un rango de mayor de 2300 m, hojas verdes, menor de 2300 m, hojas distribucin y en los estratos localizados es muy abundante. Se localizo una forma alba dentro de la coloracin tpica de la descripcin. 18. Epidendrum laucheanum Rolfe, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1893: 63. 1893 (Fig. 4 A ). Solo se observ 1 individuo en cada rbol en donde se localiz la especie, se pudieron observar en pequeos arbustos y en los rboles grandes en las ramas primarias, su abundancia es rara y muy escasa. Se localiza en los estratos C y D. 19. Epidendrum polyanthum Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 106. 1831. Los especmenes vistos son muy variables, tanto en el tamao de las plantas, como de ores, con diferentes tonalidades. Su abundancia reserva. Se localiza en los estratos C y D. 20. Epidendrum radicans Pav. ex Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 104. 1831. Se localizaron individuos ya que crece a la orilla de los senderos o veredas, cuando las limpias pasan cortando las plantas. 21. Epidendrum santaclarense Ames, Sched. Orch. 4: 49-50. 1923 (Fig. 4 B ). Especie muy distribuida en toda la reserva, los individuos se localizaron en los estratos B, C, D y E de los rboles, es abundante dentro de una amplia distribucin. No se encontraron reportes preexistentes de esta especie para Alta Verapaz, los departamentos donde se reportan son Guatemala, Jalapa y Zacapa, estos departamentos poseen Zona Vida similares a algunas partes de Alta Verapaz, la cual es Bosque Pluvial Montano Bajo De la Cruz. Adems de la coincidencia de las zonas de vida, tambin se encuentran entre el rango de las Ya que ha sido colectada la especie en Miramundo; Jalapa, Guatemala en el Volcn del Pacaya, la cual coincide con la altura (2,300 a 2,460 m) que similara al intervalo altitudinal en la que la especie fue localizada dentro de la reserva. Se localiza en los estratos B, D y E. 22. Epidendrum trachythece Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 3: 249. 1907. Especie que se localiza tanto en pequeos arbustos y rboles grandes, es abundante dentro de una amplia distribucin. No se encontraron reportes existentes de esta especie para Alta Verapaz, los departamentos donde se reportan son Chiquimula, Guatemala, El Progreso, Jalapa y Zacapa, estos departamentos poseen zona vida similar a algunas partes de Alta Verapaz, la cual es Bosque Pluvial Montano Bajo Subtropical (bpAdems de la coincidencia de las zonas de vida, tambin se encuentran entre el rango de las alturas que es de colectada la especie en Sierra de la Minas; Zacapa, Guatemala en el Volcn de Pacaya, la cual coincide con la altura (2,340 a 2460 m) que fue el rango en que se localiz la especie en la reserva. Se localiza en los estratos B, C, D y E.LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. M M & RUIZ CRUZ 181

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LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.182 LANKESTERIANA FIGURA 3. A. Bletia purpurea. B. Camaridium cucullatum C. Camaridium hagsaterianum. D. Camaridium meleagris. E. Epidendrum aberrans. F. Epidendrum badium. G. Epidendrum badium f. alba. H. Epidendrum cerinum. I. Epidendrum chloe Fotografas por E. A. M M.A B C D E F G H I

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. M M & RUIZ CRUZ 183 FIGURA 4. A. Epidendrum laucheanum. B. Epidendrum santaclarense. C. Isochilus aurantiacus. D. Lepanthes fratercula. EI. Lepanthes matudana. Fotografas por E. A. M M.A B C D E F G H I

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LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.184 LANKESTERIANA23. Goodyera striata Rchb.f., Linnaea 18: 409. 1845. Los libros hacen mencin que esta planta es de hbito terrestre pero se pudieron observar algunas una especie abundante en los estratos localizados y rara dentro de su distribucin amplia. Por la densidad del bosque pueda ser que sea el factor Se localiza en los estratos D y E. 24. Helleriella nicaraguensis A. D. Hawkes, Phytologia 14: 4. 1966. Especie que se localiza en pequeos arbustos, su distribucin es escasa y rara dentro de la reserva. No se encontraron reportes existentes de esta especie para Alta Verapaz, los departamentos donde se reportan son Escuintla y Guatemala, estos departamentos posee zona vida similar a algunas partes de Alta Verapaz, la cual es Bosque Pluvial Montano Bajo Subtropical muchas personas no conocen a esta especie ya que la confunden con un Epidendrum. Se localiza en los estratos B, D y E. 25. Isochilus aurantiacus Hamer & Garay, in Hamer Orq. El Salvador 3: 118. 1981 (Fig. 4 C ). Es una la reserva. Se localiza en los estratos B, C, D y E. 26. Leochilus johnstonii Ames & Correll, Bot. Mus. muy rara en la reserva fueron pocos individuos que se pudieron observar y en una sola poblacin. Se localiza en los estratos D y E. 27. Lepanthes doeringii Archila, Revista Guatemal. 5(3): 5. 2002. Es una especie muy rara en la reserva. Las poblaciones se encuentran en las ramas secundarias. Si la especie se encuentra sin L. tactiquense Archila y L. verapacensis Archila, cuando posee coloracin naranja es fcil de confundir con L. guatemalensis Schltr. Se localiza en los estratos A, B, C, D y E. 28. Lepanthes fratercula Luer & Bhar, Lindleyana 5(3): 182-198. 1990 (Fig. 4 D ). Es una especie ampliamente distribuida en la reserva, en un mismo rbol se encuentran cantidades considerables, pero como todo Lepanthes tipo L. guatemalensis son susceptibles a los cambios del clima, es muy vulnerable, en la poca de verano, as como se encontr rboles llenos especmenes vivos y tambin se encontraron rboles con especmenes muertos. Las poblaciones se localizaron en los estratos A, B, C, D y E en alturas de 20 cm del suelo hasta 12m. Se observ en las poblaciones localizadas la convivencia con L. matudana. 29. Lepanthes matudana Salazar & Soto Arenas, Orqudeas (Mex.) 14: 74-77. 1996 (Fig. 4 EI ). Es una especie ampliamente distribuida en la reserva, en un mismo rbol se encuentran cantidades considerables. Es una especie muy variable en forma de sus spalos y ptalos en sus poblaciones. Se observaron en las poblaciones localizadas la convivencia con L. fratercula. Se localiza en los estratos A, B, C y D. 30. Lepanthes mittelstaedtii Luer & Bhar, Lindleyana 5(3): 182-198. 1990 (Fig. 5 A ). Es una especie muy rara en la reserva, pero uno de los Lepanthes los estratos D y E. 31. Lepanthes quetzalensis Luer & Bhar, Lindleyana 5(3): 182-198. 1990 (Fig. 5 B ). Es una especie ampliamente distribuida en la reserva. Las poblaciones se encuentran en alturas de 5 a 20 m. Es una planta que confunde mucho con L. scopula pero son dos especies distintas y nunca se encuentras estas dos especies en el mismo hbitat. Convive con L. tactiquensis. Se localiza en los estratos C, D y E. 32. Lepanthes tactiquensis Archila, Revista Guatemal. 1(1): 19. 1998. Como explica en sus comentarios el investigador que describi la especie L. tactiquense como una planta endmica y en peligro de extincin debido a que sus poblaciones son muy pequeas y adems los bosques donde se localiza estn siendo daados severamente por el avance de la frontera agrcola. Este trabajo da otro reporte de una nueva localidad para esta especie, donde las poblaciones son estables en toda la reserva, comparte su hbitat con L. quetzalensis. Se localiza en los estratos C, D y B. 33. Malaxis maianthemifolia Schltdl. & Cham., Linnaea 6: 59. 1831 (Fig. 5 C ). Pudimos encontrar a la especie tanto de manera terrestre como de manera las orqudea terrestre, poblaciones muy distantes de la una a la otra. Muy variable en el tamao de la planta. Se localiza en los estratos A y B.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. M M & RUIZ CRUZ 18534. Pachyphyllum hispidulum (Rchb.f.) Garay & Dunst., Venez. Orchids Ill. 3: 236. 1965. Es una especie no reportada para Alta Verapaz, fue colectada en Guatemala en el departamento de Jalapa, a una altura de 2,600 m, que posee una similitud de Zona Vida con el lugar de colecta en donde se encontr, la cual corresponde al Bosque Pluvial Montano Bajo Subtropical (bp-MB); podemos adems mencionar que se colect en la reserva a elevacin muy cercana, que es de 2460 m. Es muy difcil de observar, ya que es muy fcil de confundir con algunos lquenes y puede gnero que se afn a la morfologa de esta especie. Planta muy rara y el gnero poco conocido en Guatemala. Se localiza en el estrato D. 35. Pleurothallis matudana C.Schweinf., Bot. Mus. se localiz las poblaciones en los estratos C, D y E de los rboles, bien distribuida en toda la reserva. 36. Ponera pellita Rchb.f., Gard. Chron. n.s. 14: 8. 1880. Se encuentra distribuida en toda la reserva, es una especie muy llamativa y grande. No reportada para Alta Verapaz, fue registrada para los departamentos de Chiquimula, Guatemala, Quetzaltenango, Sacatepquez. Se localiza en los estratos B, C, D y E. 37. Ponera juncifolia Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 114. 1831. Especie que fcilmente se confunde con las plantas pequeas de Isochilus aurantiacus. Especie poco conocida y muy rara, las poblaciones fueron FI G URA 5. A. Lepanthes mittelstaedtii. B. Lepanthes quetzalensis. C. Malaxis maianthemifolia. D. Prosthechea varicosa. E. Stelis jalapensis. F. Stelis megachlamys f. alba. Fotografas por E. A. M M y R. Hernndez (A).A B C D E F

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.186 LANKESTERIANAde 3 a 6 plantas por rbol. Se localiza en los estratos A, B y C. 38. Prosthechea pseudopygmaea (Finet) W.E. Higgins, Phytologia 82: 381. 1997 [publ. 1998]. Especie no C y D. 39. Prosthechea varicosa (Bateman ex Lindl.) W.E.Higgins, Phytologia 82: 381. 1997 [publ. 1998] (Fig. 5 D ). Se pudieron observar plantas tanto epfitas como terrestres; las de hbito epfito se pudieron observar en pequeos arbustos, en los troncos y ramas primarias, mientras que las terrestres se observaron en lugares ya sin bosque entre maleza de la familia Poaceae. Se localiza en los estratos B, C, D y E. 40. Rhynchostele cordata (Lindl.) Soto Arenas & Salazar, Orqudea (Mxico), n.s., 13: 148. 1993. Poblaciones localizadas en pequeos arbustos, en los troncos, especie bien distribuida en toda la reserva, en pequeas poblaciones de 2 a 3 plantas por rbol. Esta especie se encuentra en peligro de extincin en Alta Verapaz, ya que los bosques donde habita estn siendo talados para reas de cultivo. Pudimos observar que sus poblaciones en la reserva son estables, eso nos indica que la especie en la reserva no se encuentra en peligro, por lo que puede considerarse como un santuario para esta especie. Se localiza en los estratos A, B, C, D y E. 41. Rhynchostele stellata (Lindl.) Soto Arenas & Salazar, Orqudea (Mxico) 13(1-2): 151. 1994. Nuevo reporte para el municipio y departamento, especie solo localizada en la parte occidente del pas y Jalapa, se pudo observar una gran poblacin de esta especie en la reserva, la cual se localizaron en los estratos C, D, y E. 42. Stelis aeolica Solano & Soto Arenas, Orqudea (Mx.) 13(12): 320. 1993. Nuevo reporte tanto para el departamento, como para el pas, una especie que se encontraba restringida para Mxico y El Salvador. En tres de cinco estratos (C, D y E) estudiados se localizaron los especmenes, el D es el dominante. En el rea de estudio se colect una forma viridis de esta especie. 43. Stelis jalapensis (Kraenzl.) Pridgeon & M. W. Chase, Lindleyana 16(4): 263. 2001 (Fig. 5 E ). Nuevo reporte para el departamento, planta restringida para Jalapa y San Marcos. Planta muy rara en la reserva. Se localiz slo en estrato D. 44. Stelis megachlamys (Schltr.) Pupulin, Lankesterialocaliz una forma alba dentro de la poblacin (Fig. 5 F ). Se localiza en los estratos C, D y E. 45. Stelis ornata (Rchb.f.) Pridgeon & M.W.Chase, Lindleyana 16(4): 265. 2001. Poco distribuido en la reserva. Especie poco conocida en la regin de las Verapaces, muy rara y se conocen pocas localidades. Localizada en los estratos B, D y E. 46. Stenorrhynchos speciosum (Jacq.) Rich ex Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3: 709. 1826. Los especmenes solamente se localizaron en una sola especie de rbol que es Erythrina sp., se encontraban distribuidas en los estrados C, D y E. Comentario general de la recoleccin Se determinaron 46 especies y 3 formas, en las cuales las especies que se determinaron forma fueron Epidendrum badium fo. alba, Stelis aeolica fo. viridis y Stelis megachlamys fo. alba. Se observ que la mayora de las especies que se determinaron en el rea de estudio se encuentran de manera ampliamente distribuida. Se fueron: Camaridium cucullatum, Lepanthes matudana y Rhynchostele stellata. Discusin de resultados. En los 421 rboles estudiados se encontraron en total 6,743 orqudeas en 421 rboles, distribuidas en 22 gneros, 46 especies y 3 formas. El gnero Lepanthes es el ms abundante con 1,994 especmenes y cuya presencia fue dominante en los estratos A y B de los rboles. Siguindoles los gneros Rhynchostele con 1,081 especmenes y Epidendrum con 1,038, que habitan principalmente en los estratos C, D y E (tabla 7). Diez de las 46 especies determinadas pertenecen al gnero Epidendrum, reuniendo 21.74%, seguido por Lepanthes con el 13.04%, Stelis con el 10.87% y el resto con porcentajes de 1 a 3% (tabla 8). Cuarenta Los rboles se dividieron en 5 estratos. En el estrato D fue donde se pudo contabilizar ms especmenes, y

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. M M & RUIZ CRUZ 187 TABLA 7. Consolidado de especmenes por gnero de hbito Taxn Especmenes Lepanthes 1994 Rhynchostele 1081 Epidendrum 1038 Camaridium 385 Anathallis 368 Arpophyllum 271 Stelis 252 Isochilus 251 Prosthechea 222 Ponera 204 Stenorrhynchos 92 Pleurothallis 33 Coelia 21 Elleanthus 18 Goodyera 11 Malaxis 11 Dichaea 9 Leochilus 5 Helleriella 3 Pachyphyllum 1 Gnero No. de especies % Epidendrum 10 21.74 Lepanthes 6 13.04 Stelis 5 10.87 Arpophyllum 3 6.52 Camaridium 3 6.52 Ponera 2 4.35 Prosthechea 2 4.35 Rhynchostele 2 4.35 Anathallis 1 2.17 Bletia 1 2.17 Calanthe 1 2.17 Coelia 1 2.17 Dichaea 1 2.17 Elleanthus 1 2.17 Goodyera 1 2.17 Helleriella 1 2.17 Isochilus 1 2.17 Leochilus 1 2.17 Malaxis 1 2.17 Pachyphyllum 1 2.17 Pleurothallis 1 2.17 Stenorrhynchos 1 2.17 TABLA Taxn Especmenes % Rhynchostele stellata 1033 16.48 Lepanthes fratercula 898 14.32 Lepanthes matudana 403 6.43 Anathallis platystylis 368 5.87 Lepanthes quetzalensis 358 5.71 Camaridium cucullata 316 5.04 Epidendrum chloe 296 4.72 Isochillus auranthiacus 251 4.00 Epidendrum trachythece 220 3.51 Lepanthes tactiquense 220 3.51 Prosthechea varicosa 215 3.43 Ponera pellita 188 3.00 Arpophyllum medium 186 2.97 Stelis aeolica 182 2.90 Epidendrum badium 175 2.79 Epidendrum aberrans 159 2.54 Lepanthes doeringii 105 1.67 Epidendrum santaclarense 100 1.59 Stenorrhynchum speciosum 92 1.47 Arpophyllum giganteum 81 1.29 Camaridium meleagris 56 0.89 Rhynchostele cordata 48 0.77 Epidendrum beharorum 45 0.72 Stelis megachlamys 41 0.65 Pleurothallis matudiana 33 0.53 Coelia bella 21 0.33 Stelis ornata 19 0.30 Elleanthus cynarocephallus 18 0.29 Ponera juncifolia 16 0.26 Epidendrum laucheanum 15 0.24 Epidendrum cerinium 14 0.22 Epidendrum polyanthum 14 0.22 Camaridium hagsaterianum 13 0.21 Goodyera striata 11 0.18 Malaxis majanthemifolia 11 0.18 Lepanthes mittelstaedtii 10 0.16 Stelis jalapensis 10 0.16 Dichaea trichocarpa 9 0.14 Prosthechea pseudopigmea 7 0.11 Leochilus johnstonii 5 0.08 Arpophyllum cf. alpinum 4 0.06 Helleriella nicaraguense 3 0.05 Pachyphyllum hispidulum 1 0.02 TABLA 9. Consolidado de especmenes por taxn de hbito

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.188 LANKESTERIANA (35.54%). El siguiente estrato con mas individuos fue el C con 1,939 (31.03%). El estrato que contena ms gneros fue D la cual contena 19 gneros (28.36%). Siguindolo E, C, B y A. El estrato que contena mas especies fue D observndose 39 especies (30.23%). Siguindolo C con 35 y D con 29 especies. Rhynchostele stellata fue la especie ms abundante con 1,033 especmenes (16.48%), siguindola Lepanthes fratercula con 898 (14.32%). Pachyphyllum hispidulum aparentemente es la especie ms vulnerable ya que slo se pudo encontrar una planta Epidendrum radicans es el taxn dominante en el hbito terrestre con 123 individuos (36.39%). Siguindole Goodyera striata Epidendrum radicans (tabla 11). En referencia a la situacin de conservacin de las 42 de categora 3 (tabla 12). Se pudo determinar 4 especies endmicas y un nuevo reporte para Guatemala. Epidendrum badium, Lepanthes doeringii, Lepanthes mittelstaedtii y Lepanthes tactiquensis son las especies endmicas de Guatemala, mientras Stelis aeolica es un nuevo reporte Se registran 10 reportes nuevos para Alta Verapaz. Siendo Arpophyllum alpinum, Epidendrum badium, E. santaclarense, E. trachytece, Isochillus auranthiacus, Pachyphyllum hispidulum, Rhynchostele stellata, Stelis aeolica, S. jalapensis y S. ornata. FIGURA

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. M M & RUIZ CRUZ 189Conclusiones. En la reserva se estudiaron un total de 6,743 especmenes de 46 especies y 2 formas pertenecientes a 22 gneros de Orchidaceae. Los Epidendrum(10), Lepanthes(6) y Stelis(5). Las especies Rhynchostele stellata(1033) y Lepanthes fratercula(898). De la especie Pachyphyllum hispidulum tan solo se pudo encontrar una sola planta la cual podemos decir que la planta es vulnerable y muy rara en la reserva. De las muestrearon 6308 especmenes, donde el estrato D fue el dominante contabilizndose la mayor parte de los especmenes. Las especies endmicas de Guatemala que se encuentran en la reserva son Epidendrum badium, Lepanthes doeringii, Lepanthes mittelstaedtii y Lepanthes tactiquensis (Luer 1990; Archila 2001, 2002; Hgsater & Soto 2003), mientras que Stelis aeolica, anteriormente reportada para Mxico y El Salvador, se reporta aqu por primera vez para Guatemala (Solano 1993; Ossenbach et al. 2007). Se reportan por primera vez para Alta Verapaz, Arpophyllum alpinum, Epidendrum badium, E. santaclarense, E. trachytece, Isochillus auranthiacus, Pachyphyllum hispidulum, Rhynchostele stellata, Stelis jalapensis y S. ornata (Dix & Dix 2000). En total se prepararon 55 muestras de herbario de las que 22 fueron depositadas en BIGU (Herbario de la Facultad de Biologa de Guatemala), 18 en AGUAT (herbario de la Facultad de Agronoma de Guatemala) y 15 en el Centro de Estudios Conservacionistas del TABLA 10. Consolidado por taxn de hbito terrestre.Taxn Especmenes % Bletia purpurea 45 13.31 Calanthe calanthoides 32 9.47 Epidendrum radicans 123 36.39 Goodyera striata 75 22.19 Malaxis majanthemifolia 18 5.33 Prosthechea varicosa 45 13.31 TABLA Taxn Especmenes Epidendrum radicans 97 TABLA criterios de Consejo Nacional de reas Protegidas ( C ONA P ). llegar a estarlo si no se regula su aprovechamiento.Taxn Categora Anathallis platystylis 3 Arpophyllum cf. alpinum 3 Arpophyllum giganteum 3 Arpophyllum medium 3 Bletia purpurea 3 Calanthe calanthoides 3 Camaridium cucullata 3 Camaridium hagsaterianum 3 Camaridium meleagris 3 Coelia bella 3 Dichaea trichocarpa 3 Elleanthus cynarocephalus 3 Epidendrum aberrans 3 Epidendrum badium 2 Epidendrum beharorum 3 Epidendrum cerinum 3 Epidendrum chloe 3 Epidendrum laucheanum 3 Epidendrum polyanthum 3 Epidendrum radicans 3 Epidendrum santaclarense 3 Epidendrum trachythece 3 Goodyera striata 3 Helleriella nicaraguense 3 Isochilus aurantiacus 3 Leochilus johnstonii 3 Lepanthes doeringii 2 Lepanthes fratercula 3 Lepanthes matudana 3 Lepanthes mittelstaedtii 3 Lepanthes quetzalensis 3 Lepanthes tactiquense 2 Malaxis maianthemifolia 3 Pachyphyllum hispidulum 3 Pleurothallis matudana 3 Ponera pellita 3 Ponera juncifolia 3 Prosthechea pseudopygmaea 3 Prosthechea varicosa 3 Rhynchostele cordata 3 Rhynchostele stellata 3 Stelis aeolica 3 Stelis jalapensis 3 Stelis megachlamys 3 Stelis ornata 3 Stenorrhynchos speciosum 3

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.190 LANKESTERIANAJardn Botnico de la Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala. Se recolectaron 75 especmenes de 46 de especies como Camaridium cucullatum, Lepanthes matudana y Rhynchostele stellata. Se encontr convivencia entre las especies de Lepanthes fratercula con L. matudana y L. quetzalensis con L. tactiquensis. Los descriptores y fotografas que se presentan en esta investigacin se constituyen en especies que se determinaron en la reserva. AGRADECIMIENTOS Los autores quisieran agradecer a Sandra Ninet del Cid, Eduardo A. Prez-Garca, Daniel Jimnez, Rolando Paredes Requena, Rodolfo Hernndez y Gabriela Samayoa de Hernndez por sus observaciones en la investigacin. LITERATURA CITADA Ames, O. & D. S. Correll. 1952-1953. Orchid of Guatemala and Belize. Fieldiana 26(1, 2): 1. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. Archila, F. 2001. Lepanthes de Guatemala, Monografa del Genero Lepanthes Sw. (Orchidaceae) para Guatemala. Guatemala. Editorial Kamar, S.A. 281p. Consejo Nacional de reas Protegidas CONAP. 2009. Listado de especies amenazadas de Guatemala LEA y Listado tcnico 67.15 p. Dix, M. A. & M. W. Dix. 2000. Orchids o Guatemala. A Revised Annotated Checklist. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79. San Juan Chamelco, Alta Verapaz. Tesis Ing. Agr., USAC, Facultad de Agronoma. Guatemala, Guatemala. 22 p. Hgsater E. & M. A. Soto. 2003. Icones Orchidacearum. Fascicles 5 and 6. Orchids of Mxico. Parts 2 and 3. Mxico D.F., Mxico. Instituto Chinoin. 685 p. Luer, C. 1990. New Species of Lepanthes from Guatemala. Lindlenyana 5(3): 162-198. Meja Rosero, H., T. Pino Andrade & N. Pino Bentez. 2008. Biodiversidad y Desarrollo. Distribucin vertical de orqudeas Ossenbach Sauter, C., F. Pupulin & R. L. Dressler. 2007. Orqudeas del istmo de Centroamrica. Sabanilla, Montes Oca, Costa Rica: Editorial 25 de Mayo. 242 p. Solano, R. 1993. El gnero Stelis Sw. (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) en Mxico. Orqudea (Mx.) 13 (1-2): 1-11.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3): 191. 2012.INDEX OF NEW TAXA AND COMBINATIONS PUBLISHED IN LANKESTERIANA, VOL. 10 (2010)1Aa aurantiaca D. Trujillo, sp. nov. 12. 2011. Campylocentrum palominoi M. Kolanowska, O. Prez & E. Parra, sp. nov. Cyrtochilum betancurii G.Giraldo & Dalstrm, sp. nov. 12( Cyrtochilum carinatum (Kniger & Deburghgr.) Dalstrm, comb. nov. 12(3): 149. 2012. Cyrtochilum corniculatum Dalstrm, sp. nov. 12(3): Cyrtochilum deburghgraveanum Dalstrm & S. Ruz, sp. nov. Cyrtochilum dunstervilleorum G. Morillo & Dalstrm, sp. nov. Cyrtochilum fernandezii G. Morillo & Dalstrm, sp. nov. Cyrtochilum ruizii Dalstrm & Deburghgraeve, sp. nov. Cyrtochilum russellianum Dalstrm & Ruz-Prez, sp. nov. Cyrtochilum tricornis Dalstrm & Ruz-Prez, sp. nov. Cyrtochilum violaceum Dalstrm sp. nov. 12(3): 143 145, Fig. 1. 2012. Cyrtochilum xanthocinctum Dalstrm & S. Ruz, sp. nov. Encyclia nizanburyi PrezGarca & Hgsater, hyb. nat. nov. C 2012. Epidendrum alieniferum Karremans & Bogarn, sp. nov. B p. 45. 2012. Epidendrum sandiorum Hgsater, Karremans & L. Snchez, nothosp. nov. 44. 2012. Lepanthes erubescens Bogarn, Karremans & Pupulin, sp. nov. A 2012. Lepanthes kabebatae Bogarn, Karremans & Mel. Fernndez, sp. nov. F 14 G p. 45. 2012. Lepanthes sandiorum Bogarn & Karremans, sp. nov. B 2012. Lepanthes sanjuanensis Bogarn & Karremans, sp. nov. Myrosmodes gymnandra (Rchb.f.) C. Vargas, comb. nov. 11(1): 5. 2011. Myrosmodes inaequalis (Rchb.f.) C. Vargas, comb. nov. 11(1): 5, 7. 2011. Odontoglossum furcatum Dalstrm sp. nov. 12(3): Odontoglossum galianoi (Dalstrm & P. Nuez) Dalstrm, comb. nov. 12(1): 57. 2012. Odontoglossum koechlinianum (Collantes & G. Gerlach) Dalstrm, comb. nov. 12(1): 57. 2012. Odontoglossum mixturum (Dalstrm & Snnemark) Dalstrm, comb. nov. 12(1): 57. 2012. Odontoglossum peruvianum (Schltr.) Dalstrm, comb. nov. 12(1): 58. 2012. Odontoglossum vulcanicum (Rchb.f.) Dalstrm, comb. nov. 12(1): 59. 2012. Ponthieva hermiliae L.Valenzuela, sp. nov. 12(3): Teagueia barbeliana L. Jost & A. Shepard, sp. nov. Teagueia puroana L. Jost & A. Shepard, sp. nov. 11(1): Telipogon amoanus Bogarn, sp. nov. 12(2): 11519, 1 A cumulative index of new taxa and combinations appeared in Lankesteriana, vol. 1, was published in Lankesteriana 10(1): 49-59.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(3): 193. 2012.REVIEWERS OF THE MANUSCRIPTS SUBMITTED TO LANKESTERIANA, VOL. 10 The Editor-in-Chief, Managing Editor, Editorial Committee, Editorial Board and Editorial staff of LANKESTERIANA acknowledge the reviewers listed below for their willing cooperation. It is greatly appreciated that they have generously invested their time and competence in providing valuable comments and advice, for LANKESTERIANA James D. ACKERMAN Department of Biology and Center for Applied Tropical Ecology and Conservation, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR, U.S.A. Joseph ARDITTI Developmental & Cell Biology School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, U.S.A. Rafael ARVALO BURBANO University Of Wisconsin, Madison, U.S.A. Manfred AYASSE Institute of Experimental Ecology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany. Cssio VAN DEN BERG Univ. Estadual de Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana, Brazil. Mario A. BLANCO Biology School, University of Costa Rica. Diego BOGARN, Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica. Germn CARNEVALI Centro de Investigaciones Mark W CHASE Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, U.K. Benjamin J. CRAIN Department of Biology, University of Puerto RicoRio Piedras, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Phillp J. CRIBB Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, U.K. Stig DALSTRM Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica, and National Biodiversity Centre, Serbithang, Bhutan. Robert L. DRESSLER, Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica. Melania FERNNDEZ, Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica. Kanchi N. GANDHI Harvard University Herbaria, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A. Gnter GERLACH Botanischer Garten Mnchen Nymphenburg, Mnich, Germany. Alberto GMEZ GUTIRREZ Javeriana, Bogot, Colombia. Barbara GRAVENDEEL Naturalis Biodiversity Center NHN Leiden University, The Netherlands. Olaf GRUSS In der Au 48, Grassau, Germany. Eric HGSATER Herbario AMO, Mxico D.F., Mxico. Wesley E. HIGGINS The American Orchid Society, West Palm Beach, U.S.A. Rudolf JENNY Jany Renz Herbarium, University of Basel, Switzerland. Vctor JIMNEZ Centro de Investigacin en Granos y Semillas, University of Costa Rica. Ernesto MUJICA Centro de Investigaciones y Servicios Ambientales E COVIDA Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Pedro ORTIZ VALDIVIESO Javeriana, Bogot, Colombia. Carlos OSSENBACH Orquideario 24 de mayo, Sabanillas de Montes de Oca, Costa Rica. Joel Tupac OTERO OSPINA Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Alec M. PRIDGEON Sainsbury Orchid Fellow, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, U.K. David A. ROBERTS Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, University of Kent, U.K. Gustavo A. ROMEROGONZLEZ Harvard University Herbaria, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Gerardo A. SALAZAR CHVEZ Instituto de Biologa, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico.

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LANKESTERIANALuis SNCHEZ SALDAA Herbario AMO, Mxico D.F., Mxico. Jyotsna SHARMA Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, U.S.A. Rodrigo B. SINGER Depto BotnicaInstituto de Biocincias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brasil. Christina M. SMITH, Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica. Raymond TREMBLAY Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico Ro Piedras, PR, U.S.A. Ernst VITEK Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien, Austria. Jorge WARNER, Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica. W. Mark WHITTEN Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, U.S.A. Gerhard ZOTZ Institute of Biology and Environmental Sciences, University Oldenburg, Germany, and Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama.LANKESTERIANA 12(3), December 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.194