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Lankesteriana

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Material Information

Title:
Lankesteriana la revista científica del Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Physical Description:
v. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Jardín Botánico Lankester
Publisher:
Jardi´n Bota´nico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Place of Publication:
Cartago Costa Rica
Cartago, Costa Rica
Publication Date:
Frequency:
three times a year[2002-]
irregular[ former 2001]
three times a year
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Botany -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Epiphytes -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Orchids -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Plantkunde   ( gtt )
Botanische tuinen   ( gtt )
Genre:
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Costa Rica

Notes

Language:
In English and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
No. 1 (mayo 2001)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issues for May 2001-Oct. 2003 designated no.1-8; issues for Apr. 2004- designated vol. 4, no. 1-
General Note:
Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 1 (abr. 2004).
General Note:
International journal on orchidology.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 48491453
lccn - 2001240973
issn - 1409-3871
System ID:
UF00098723:00031

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Lankesteriana la revista científica del Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Physical Description:
v. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Jardín Botánico Lankester
Publisher:
Jardi´n Bota´nico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Place of Publication:
Cartago Costa Rica
Cartago, Costa Rica
Publication Date:
Frequency:
three times a year[2002-]
irregular[ former 2001]
three times a year
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Botany -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Epiphytes -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Orchids -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Plantkunde   ( gtt )
Botanische tuinen   ( gtt )
Genre:
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage:
Costa Rica

Notes

Language:
In English and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
No. 1 (mayo 2001)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issues for May 2001-Oct. 2003 designated no.1-8; issues for Apr. 2004- designated vol. 4, no. 1-
General Note:
Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 1 (abr. 2004).
General Note:
International journal on orchidology.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 48491453
lccn - 2001240973
issn - 1409-3871
System ID:
UF00098723:00031


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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGYISSN 1409-3871VOL. 12, No. 2 AUGUST 2012 Obituario. Padre Pedro Ortiz Valdivieso (1926-2012) ALBERTO GMEZ GUTIRREZ Obituary. Father Pedro Ortiz Valdivieso (1926-2012) ALBERTO GMEZ GUTIRREZ Orchidaceae Ortizianae Bibliographia orchidologica Ortiziana Three new showy but endangered Cyrtochilum species(Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) from Peru STIG DALSTRM, GUIDO DEBURGHGRAEVE and SAUL RUIZ PREZ Cyrtochilum species (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae)from Venezuela GILBERTO MORILLO and STIG DALSTRM Three new Lepanthes (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae)from south-east Costa Rica DIEGO BOGARN, ADAM P. KARREMANS and FRANCO PUPULIN A new Telipogon from Mexico close to Telipogon standleyi(Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) DIEGO BOGARN for more than half a century in a herbarium in Bogot, Colombia LAURA C. MAZO, ALBERTO GMEZ, SONIA R. QUINT ANILLA, JAIME E. BERNAL and PEDRO ORTIZ VALDIVIESO Micropropagation of Dendrobium aggregatum by green pod culture S. VIJA Y AKUMAR, G. RAJALKSHMI and K. KALIMUTHU 77 79 81 83 93 101 107 115 121 131

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The Vice-Presidency of Research UNIVERSITY OF COSTA RRIcCA is sincerely acknowledged for his support to the printing of this volume

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INTERNATiIONAL JOURNAL ON OORCHiIDOLOGY Copyright 2012 Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica Effective publication date: August 30, 2012 Layout: Jardn Botnico Lankester. Cover: Telipogon standleyi Ames (Costa Rica. D. Bogarn 5138). Photograph by F. Pupulin. Printer: MasterLitho Printed copies: 500 Printed in Costa Rica / Impreso en Costa RicaR Lankesteriana / International Journal on Orchidology No. 1 (2001)-. -San Jos, Costa Rica: Editorial Universidad de Costa Rica, 2001- v. ISSN-1409-3871 1. Botnica Publicaciones peridicas, 2. Publicaciones peridicas costarricenses

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Visit the new webpage at www.lankesteriana.org Originally devoted to the publication of articles on general botany, with special attention to epiphytic plants and orchid systematics, ecology, evolution and physiology, along with book reviews and conferences on these subjects, since 2007 LLaA Nk K Es S TERIa A Na A focused exclusively on scientific papers on orchidology. LLaANkKEsSTERIaANaA is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes original works in English and occasionally in Spanish, and it is distributed to more than 350 libraries and institutions worldwide. In order to increase visibility of the articles published in LLaANkKEsSTERIaANaA the journal maintains since 2009 a web page with downloadable contents. Since November, 2011, the journal has a new and improved interface of at www.lankesteriana.org Please bookmark the new address of the webpage, which substitutes the previous address hosted at the internal server of ucr.ac.cr. Readers can now browse through all the past issues of LLaA Nk K Es S TERIa A Na A including the currrent issue, and download them as complete fascicles or, via the Index to the single issues, only the articles of their interest. According to the Open Access policy promoted by the University of Costa Rica, all the publications supported by the University are licensed under the Creative Commons copyright. Downloading LLaANkKEsSTERIaANaA is completely free. At the home page of LLaANkKEsSTERIaANaA words or any other word which should appear in the text you are looking for. We take the opportunity to acknowledge our authors, reviewers and readers, who help us making a better The editors

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The Global Orchid Taxonomic Network at a click www.epidendra.orgNow with a new user interface, the online database on taxonomic information by Lankester Botanical Gar den includes more than 7,000 orchid names, completely cross-referenced and with evaluated synonymies. free, im mediately downloadable protologues, type images, illustrations of the original materials, historical and modern illustrations, photographs, pertinent literature and, when available, digital images of species pollinaria. An index (under the button List of species) allows the users to search for any published name, indepen dently if it is accepted or not by the taxonomic compilers. Synonyms are linked to their accepted name, where additional materials (including images) are available for download. Hundreds cations and other materials relative to orchid systematics, distribution and history are added to the database on a monthly basis (new entries can be searched by clicking on the New records button). Since March, 2012, new pages are devoted to the orchid species recorded in the rich system of national parks Central American countries (Floras button) and to interesting aspects of orchid history. Under the button Collectable plates, the research staff at Lankester Botanical Garden makes available to the public the most detailed images of orchids from the collections at the Center, organized in a series of collectable plates that can be downloaded for free. New ones are added each week. Supported by the University of Costa Rica and the Darwin Initiative, EPIDeENDRA The Global Orchid Taxonomic Network counts with the collaboration of respected taxonomists and leading botanical institutions worldwide.

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O B I T U A R I O ad e ed O t a divie S (1926) El Padre Pedro era un hombre de pocas palabras: pero cada frase que pronunciaba estaba llena de aforismos. Tal vez su dominio de lenguas pretritas y contemporneas le hizo entender bien el sentido de cada trmino, y su verdadera utilidad. Conoc al Padre Pedro precisamente por su dominio de lenguas que algunos llaman muertas, como parece ser hoy el caso an del latn, que fue excluido hace apenas unos meses como lengua de referencia en la taxonoma biolgica. Hace 4 aos, Alma Nohra Miranda, subdirectora la persona que podra ayudarnos en la transcripcin y traduccin de un manuscrito indito en latn que reposaba en el Archivo, y que Jaime Bernal y yo consideramos podra ser original de Jos Celestino Mutis, precursor de la botnica en nuestro pas en el siglo XVIII. Como la tarea era dispendiosa, y el Padre Pedro era en ese momento director de la Biblioteca de Teologa y Filosofa, le pedimos solamente que nos ayudara a contactar a algn estudiante que pudiera hacer la tarea: en un gesto de inmensa generosidad, l mismo se ofreci de inmediato. Ese trabajo conjunto fue la base del primer libro que publicamos con l en el ao 2009, bajo el ttulo Filosofa Natural Mutisiana , segundo de una triloga que cerramos con la obra Academia Mutisiana, tambin con la colaboracin del Padre Pedro. Pero esto no fue lo nico que hicimos con l en estos 4 aos que para nosotros sern inolvidables: en medio de ires y venires, mientras el Padre result visitndonos ms a nosotros en el Instituto que nosotros a l en la Biblioteca, surgi una lnea de investigacin interdisciplinar que es buen modelo de las virtudes de la Universidad. A partir de un encuentro fortuito en un dominio transdisciplinario estuviramos indagando en los prodigiosos fondos del Archivo Javeriano, naci un proyecto de investigacin insospechado. El padre Pedro, en una de sus primeras visitas al Instituto de Gentica, sac de su maletn la tarea cumplida: era la Oracin Inaugural leda por Mutis en el ao 1764 en Santaf, titulada Oratio pro philosophia newtoniana contra peripateticos, transcrita y traducida, con la cual pudimos iniciar la redaccin de la segunda que lo caracteriz, sac tambin una USB que cargaba siempre con l, y nos pidi si la podamos ver en algn computador. Al abrir uno de sus archivos, apareci una orqudea. LANKESTERIANA 12(2): 77. 2012.Repositorio Institucional PUJ

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Santanderella amado-rinconiana, y que quera, ms all del fenotipo, fue el inicio de una lnea de investigacin que ya tiene entre sus productos una tesis de pregrado en Biologa (de la estudiante Laura publicados en el Gene Bank, gracias al juicio de Sonia Quintanilla que nos ha acompaado en los ltimos 2 aos atendiendo a cada inquietud del Padre Pedro sobre la taxonoma de las Orquidceas. El Padre Pedro, a quien registramos como naturalista emblemtico de la Compaa de Jess en nuestra obra Scientia Xaveriana que trata sobre los jesuitas y el desarrollo de la ciencia en Colombia en los siglos XVI a XX , se convirti para nosotros en eje ms esencial en la botnica de lo que nosotros fuimos para l en la gentica molecular. Y es que el Padre Pedro Ortiz Valdivieso representa para la historia de la ciencia un nuevo y brillante eslabn en la cadena de personajes histricos que se inici precisamente con Mutis, y se continu en el tiempo con su paisano santandereano Eloy Valenzuela, luego Francisco Javier Matis, Jos Jernimo Triana, Ezequiel Uricoechea, Florentino Vezga, Enrique Prez Arbelez, Lorenzo Uribe Uribe y que termina en l, en lo que tiene que ver con la Compaa de Jess. Autor de la coleccin Or qudeas de Colombia, publicada por Colciencias y ya con tres ediciones (una de ellas por reimpresin), editor de uno de los tomos en gran formato de la Flora de la Expedicin Botnica publicados en Madrid, principal aportante de ejemplares tipo del herbario de la Universidad Javeriana y referencia mundial en el campo de las orqudeas (soy testigo del aprecio que le tuvo Mark Chase, director de los Laboratorios Jodrell en los Kew Gardens en Londres, y de la admiracin que le demostr el ms renombrado botnico disciplinar en Colombia, Santiago Daz-Piedrahita), el Padre Pedro deja una huella muy honda en la ciencia mundial. Esperemos que algn miembro de la comunidad tenga el rigor y la capacidad de seguir la lnea. Por mi parte, debo agradecer el haber tenido la oportunidad de conocerlo en vida. ALBERTO GMEZ GUTIRREZ Instituto de Gentica Humana, Facultad de Medicina Bogot Colombia78 LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. RREfFERENCIasAS BIBLIOgGRfFICasAS CITadas ADAS EN EL TEXTO (en orden de aparicin):Ortiz Valdivieso, P., Bernal Villegas, J. & Gmez Gutirrez, A. 2009. Filosofa Natural Mutisiana Universidad Javeriana, Bogot. Gmez Gutirrez, A., Uribe ngel, J. T., Ortiz Valdivieso, P. & Bernal Villegas, J. 2011. Academia Mutisiana. Editorial Gmez Gutirrez, A. & Bernal Villegas, J. 2008. Scientia Xaverian Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1995. Orqudeas de Colombia Corporacin Capitalina de Orquideologa, Bogot. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Orquidceas V. En: Flora de la Real Expedicin Botnica del Nuevo Reyno de Granada, Tomo XII. Madrid: Ediciones Cultura Hispnica.

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O B I T U A R Y R ed O t a divie S 1(1926) Father Pedro was a man of few words: but every as though he spoke only in aphorisms. Perhaps his dominion of ancient and contemporary languages allowed him to understand well the meaning of each word and its true utility. I knew Father Pedro precisely through his dominion of ancient languages that some call dead, as in the case now of Latin, that was excluded only a few months ago as reference languge in biological taxonomy. Four years ago, Alma Nohra Miranda, subdirector of the Javeriana Historical Archive, referred Father Pedro to us as the person who could help us in the copying and translation of an unpublished manuscript in the Archive, that Jaime Bernal and I thought might be an original of Jos Celestino Mutis, precursor of botany in our county in the 18th Century. As the task was expensive, and Father Pedro was at that time director of the Library of Theology and Philosophy, we take on the task. In a gesture of immense generosity, he offered to do it himself. that we published with him in the year 2009, with the title Filosofa Natural Mutisiana (Mutisian Natural Philosophy), the second of a trilogy that we closed with the work Academia Mutisiana (Mutisian Academy), also with the collaboration of Father Pedro. But this was not the only thing that we did with him in those 4 years that were unforgettable: in the middle of coming and going, while Father Pedro visited us more in the Instituto than we visited him in the Biblioteca, a new line of interdisciplinary investigation appeared that is a good model of the virtues of the University Starting with a chance encounter in a transdisciplinary domain such as that we geneticists were researching in the prodigious holdings of the Javeriana Archives, an unsuspected research project began. Father Pedro, in speech read by Mutis in the year 1764 in Santaf, with the title Oratio pro philosophia newtoniana contra peripateticos, written and translated, with which we could begin the writing ot the second mutisian work. At the end of the meeting, with the discretion that was typical of him, he took out a USB memory stick which he always carried, and asked if we could see it in some computer. On opening one of his archives, there appeared an orchid. Santanderella amado-rinconiana, and which he told us he wanted to classify with molecular tools, rather than just based on the phenotype, was the beginning of a line of investigation that has among its products an undergraduate thesis in biology (by student Laura published in Gene Bank, thanks to Sonia Quintanilla, who accompanied us en the last 2 years, dealing with Father Pedro, whom we consider an emblematic naturalist of the Compaia de Jess in our work Scientia Xaveriana (Javerian Science) which treats the jesuits and the development of Science in Colombia in the 16th to 20th century , has become for us the essential axis in botany just as we were for him in molecular genetics. And it is that Father Pedro Ortiz V aldivieso represents for the history of science a new and brillant link in the chain of historic persons that started precisely with Mutis, and continued in time with his santanderian countryman Eloy Valenzuela, then Francisco Javier Matis, Jos Jernimo Triana, Ezequiel Uricoechea, Florentino Vezga, Enrique Prez Arbelez, Lorenzo Uribe Uribe and that ends in him, in what has to do with the Company of Jesus. Author of the collection Orchids of Colombia, published by Colciencias and now with three editions (one of them to be reprinted), editor of one of the tomes in large format of the Flora of the Botanical Expedition published in Madrid, main contributor LANKESTERIANA 12(2): 79. 2012.1 Translated by R. L. Dressler.

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of type specimens of the Javeriana University and seen how much Mark Chase, director of the Jodrell Laboratories in Kew Gardens in London, respects him, and of the admiration shown for him by the most renowned botanist in Colombia, Santiago DazPiedrahita), Father Pedro leaves a very deep print in world science. We hope that some member of the community has the energy and the capacity to follow in his footsteps. For my part, I must thank having had the opportunity to know him in life. ALBERTO GMEZ GUTIRREZ Institute of Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine Bogot Colombia80 LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. RREfFERENCEsS CITEdD IN THE TEXT (in order of appearance):Ortiz Valdivieso, P., Bernal Villegas, J. & Gmez Gutirrez, A. 2009. Filosofa Natural Mutisiana Universidad Javeriana, Bogot. Gmez Gutirrez, A., Uribe ngel, J. T., Ortiz Valdivieso, P. & Bernal Villegas, J. 2011. Academia Mutisiana. Editorial Gmez Gutirrez, A. & Bernal Villegas, J. 2008. Scientia Xaverian Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1995. Orqudeas de Colombia Corporacin Capitalina de Orquideologa, Bogot. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Orquidceas V. In: Flora de la Real Expedicin Botnica del Nuevo Reyno de Granada, Tomo XII. Madrid: Ediciones Cultura Hispnica.

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OR O t Z El nombre del Padre Pedro Ortiz V aldivieso, S.J., queda permanentemente consignado al mbito de la botnica y la orquideologa neotropical, a travs de los 105 taxones que llevan su autora y de las especies de la familia Orchidacea que fueron dedicadas a su persona. The name of Father Pedro Ortiz V aldivieso, S.J. will remain permanently associated with the botany and the orchidology of the Neotropics, through the 105 taxa that bring his autorship and the species of the Orchidaceae dedicated to him. New genera Eloyella P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 13(3): 234. 1979. Notyliopsis P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 20(2): 184. 1996. Santanderella P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 27: 169-170. 2010. New species and varieties Acostaea campylotyle P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 13(3): 240, 246. 1979. Catasetum tricorne P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 20: 314. 1997. Chondrorhyncha andreae P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 19 (4): 13. 1994. Chondrorhyncha antonii P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 19 (2): 14. 1994. Chondrorhyncha carinata P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 19 (2): 18. 1994. Chondrorhyncha manzurii P.Ortiz, Revista Acad. Colomb. Ci. Exact. 24(90): 57. 2000. Comparettia ignea P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 19: 10. 1993. Cyrtochilum misasianum P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 25: 15. 2007. Dracula niesseniae P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 19(3): 3, 15. 1994. Epidendrum caeciliae P.Ortiz & Hgsater, Orquideologa 24: 3, 2005. Epidendrum campyloglossum P.Ortiz & Hgsater, Icon. Orchid. (Mexico) 3: pl. 319, 1999. Epidendrum guillermoi P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 25: 18. 2007. Epidendrum rocalderianum P.Ortiz & Hgsater, Icon. Orchid. (Mexico) 3: pl. 379. 1999. Houlletia conspersa P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 19(3): 4. 1994. Huntleya caroli P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 23: 26. 2004. Kefersteinia lehmannii P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 20: 234. 1996. Kefersteinia niesseniae P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 20: 239. 1996. Kefersteinia oscarii P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 20(2): 240. 1996. Lepanthes alvarezii P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 24: 115. 2006. Lepanthes calimae P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 21: 69. 1998. Lepanthes debedoutii P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 24: 116. 2006. Lepanthes montis-rotundi P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 20: 318. 1997. Masdevallia chimaera var. robledorum, P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 10: 222. 1975. P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 13: 75. 1978. Masdevallia orchipayanensium P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 23(2): 73. 2004. Masdevallia strumosa P.Ortiz & E.Caldern, Orquideologa 22: 120. 2002. Masdevallia sumapazensis P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 14(3): 223. 1981. Masdevallia wuellneri P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 24: 4. 2005. Maxillaria deuterocaquetana P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 99. 1991. Maxillaria deuterocaucana P.Ortiz, Orchidophile 18(1): 99. 1991. Maxillaria deuteropastensis P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 100. 1991. Maxillaria friderici-caroli P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 100. 1991. Maxillaria rolfei P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 99. 1991. Maxillaria strictifolia P.Ortiz, Orq. Colombia, ed. 2, 284. 1995.LANKESTERIANA 12(2): 81. 2012.

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Myoxanthus montanus P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 20: 320. 1997 Notyliopsis beatricis P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 20(2): 184. 1996. Odontoglossum alberti P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 24: 5. 2005. Odontoglossum alvarezii P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 22: 7. 2001. Odontoglossum povedanum P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 20: 321. 1997. Ophidion carrilloi P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 24: 6. 2005. Pachyphyllum debedoutii P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 13: 13. 2009. Phymatidium antioquiense P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 11(1): 6. 1976. Phymatidium cundinamarcae P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 11(1): 7. 1976. Platystele beatricis P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 22: 126. 2002. Platystele calantha P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 12: 138. 1977. Platystele cuculligera P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 14(3): 210. 1981. Platystele dasyglossa P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 14(1): 18. 1979. P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 12(2): 140. 1978. Platystele microglossa P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 14(3): 212. 1981. Platystele misasiana P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 14(3): 214. 1981. Platystele orchestris P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 14(1): 20. 1979. Platystele orectoglossa P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 14: 22. 1979. Platystele porphyroglossa P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 14(3): 216. 1981. Platystele schneideri P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 14(1): 24. 1979. Platystele umbellata P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 12(2): 136. 1978. Pleurothallis nellyae P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 20: 325 1997. Porroglossum meridionale P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 11(3): 223. 1976 [1977]. Porroglossum sergioi P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 10: 215. 1975. Santanderella amado-rinconiana P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 27:170-173. 2010. Sigmatostalix putumayensis P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18: 178. 1991. Sigmatostalix sergii P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18: 174. 1991. Sobralia mutisii P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 23: 50. 2004. Sobralia uribei P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 19: 10. 1994. Sphyrastylis tsubotae P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 20: 242. 1996. Sphyrastylis urceilabris P.Ortiz & R. Escobar Orquideologa 18: 183. 1991. Stenia uribei P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 23: 29. 2004. Telipogon berthae P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 19(3): 13. 1994. Warczewiczella timbiensis P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 24: 7. 2005. Warreopsis purpurea P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 19(2): 19. 1994. New combinations Crossoglossa kalbreyeriana (Kraenzl.) P.Ortiz, Orq. Colombia, ed. 2 25. 1995. Crossoglossa longissima (Kraenzl.) P.Ortiz, Orq. Colombia, ed. 2 252. 1995. Eloyella antioquiensis (P.Ortiz) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 13(3): 236. 1979. Eloyella cundinamarcae (P.Ortiz) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 13(3): 236. 1979. Encyclia expansa (Rchb. f.) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 99. 1991. Encyclia gilbertoi (Garay) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 99. 1991. Encyclia glandulosa (Kunth) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 99. 1991. Encyclia kermesina (Lindl.) P.Ortiz, Orq. Colombia, ed. 2 258. 1995. Encyclia megahybos (Schltr.) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 99. 1991. Encyclia parallela (Lindl.) P.Ortiz, Orq. Colombia, ed. 2 258. 1995. Epidendrum gratissimum (Rchb. f.) P.Ortiz Orq. Colombia, ed. 2, 261. 1995, nom. illeg., non (Rchb. f.) Hgsater & Dodson, 1992. Epidendrum heterothonaeum (Rchb. f. & Warsz.) P.Ortiz, Orq. Colombia, ed. 2, 261. 1995, nom. 82 LANKESTERIANA LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.

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illeg., non (Rchb. f. & Warsz.) Hgsater & Dodson, 1992. Erythrodes colombiana (Garay) P.Ortiz, Orq. Colombia, ed. 2, 265. 1995. Erythrodes umbraticola (Garay) P.Ortiz, Orq. Colombia, ed. 2, 266. 1995. Hormidium gilbertoi (Garay) P.Ortiz, Orquideas Ornament. Colombia 150. 1982. Hormidium vespa (Vell.) P.Ortiz, Orquideas Ornament. Colombia 150. 1982. Malaxis kalbreyeriana (Kraenzl.) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 99. 1991. Malaxis longissima (Kraenzl.) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 99. 1991. Malaxis mucronulata (Schltr.) P.Ortiz, Orq. Colombia, ed. 2, 277. 1995. Malaxis sneidernii (Garay) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 99 1991. Maxillaria compacta (Schltr.) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 99. 1991. Maxillaria cyperifolia (Schltr.) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 100. 1991. Maxillaria lamprochlamys (Schltr.) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 100. 1991. Maxillaria luteobrunnea (Kraenzl.) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 100. 1991. Maxillaria luteo-brunnea (Kraenzl.) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18: 100. 1991. Maxillaria olivacea (Kraenzl.) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 100. 1991. Maxillaria quercicola (Schltr.) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 100. 1991. Maxillaria rhodoleuca (Schltr.) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 100. 1991. Maxillaria semiscabra (Lindl.) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 101. 1991. Maxillaria sterrocaulos (Schltr.) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 101. 1991. Maxillaria strictissima (Kraenzl.) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 101. 1991. Maxillaria torifera (Schltr.) P.Ortiz, Orquideologa 18(1): 101. 1991. Myrosmodes paludosa (Rchb. f.) P.Ortiz, Orq. Colombia, ed. 2, 286. 1995.Orchidaceae Ortizianae83 LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.Dracula ortiziana Luer & R. Escobar, Orquideologa 19(1): 40. 1993. Lepanthes ortiziana O.Prez E.Parra & Kolan, Orquideologa 27(2): 222. 2010 [2011]. Maxillaria ortizii Christenson, Orchid Rev. 119(1294): 94. 2011. Neooreophilus ortizianus S.W.Uribe & Thoerle, Orquideologa 28(2): 139. 2011. Oliveriana ortizii A.Fernndez, Orquideologia 4: 86. 1969. Platystele ortiziana Luer & R. Escobar, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard.38: 80. 1990. Telipogon ortizii Dodson & R.Escobar, Orquideologa 18(3): 242. 1993. Orchid species dedicated to him

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L O R OR OLO O t Z Se presenta, ordenado por fechas de publicacin, un listado de la publicaciones del Padre Pedro Ortiz Valdivieso, S.J., relativas a la botnica y la orquideologa. We pr esent here, ordered by publication date, a checklist of the publications by Father Pedro Ortiz Valdivieso, S.J., dealing with botany and orchidology.LANKESTERIANA 12(2): 84. 2012.Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1975. Rediscovery of a lost species: Sievekingia reichenbachiana. Orquideologa 10(1): 115. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1975. Etimologas de los nombres de los gneros de las orqudeas de Colombia. Orquideologa 10(2): 132. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1975. Nueva especie Colombiana de Porroglossum. Orquideologa 10(3): 215. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1975. Hofmeisterella, a lovely andean genus. Orquideologa 10(3): 229. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1975. Ms sobre Masdevallia chimaera y su variedades. Orquideologa 10(3): 220. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1976. Notes on Mendocella colombiana Garay. Orquideologa 11(2): 115. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1976. The genus Phymatidium in Colombia. Orquideologa 11(1): 3. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1976. Orquideas de Colombia (Gneros). Asociacin Bogotana de Orquideologa, Santaf de Bogot. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1976. A new Porroglossum from Peru. Orquideologa 11(3): 223. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1976. The genus Dipteranthus in Colombia. Orquideologa 11(3): 243. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1977. Orchids of Santadercito, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Orquideologa 12(1): 51. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1977. New species of Platystele from Colombia. Orquideologa 12(2-3): 135-141. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1979. Eloyella, a new genus in the Ornithocephalinae. Orquideologa 13: 233. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1979. New colombian species of Acostaea. Orquideologa 13: 239. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1979. New species of Platystele from Colombia, II.Orquideologa 14: 18. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1979. New species of Platystele in Colombia, III. Orquideologa 14: 209-215. Ortiz Valdivieso, P., Martnez, A. & Misas Urreta, G. 1980. Orqudeas ornamentales de Colombia. Carlos Valencia Editores, Bogot. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1981. Two new Masdevallias from Colombia. Orquideologa 14: 223-226. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1982. New species of Acostaea from Colombia. Orquideologa 15: 165. Ortiz Valdivieso, P., Martnez, A. & Misas Urreta, G. 1982. Orqudeas ornamentales de Colombia. Segunda edicin. Carlos Valencia Editores, Bogot. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1988. Introduccin al genero Maxillaria. Orquideologa 17: 232. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1990. What is an orchid? Pp. 7 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 1. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1990. Acacallis Lindl. Pp. 16 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 1. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1990. Acineta Lindl. Pp. 18 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 1. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1990. Arpophyllum La Llave & Lexarza. Pp. 36 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 1. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1990. Aspasia Lindl. Pp. 38 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 1. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1990. Batemania Lindl. Pp. 42 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 1. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1990. Brachtia Rchb.f. Pp. 48 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 1. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1990. Brassavola R.Br. Pp. 50 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 1. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1990. Caucaea Schltr. Pp. 70 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 1. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1990. Caularthron 73 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 1. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1990. Chrysocycnis Linden & Rchb.f. Pp. 82-83 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 1. Colina Editores, Medelln.

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Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1990. Chysis Lindl. Pp. 85 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 1. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1990. Cryptocentrum Benth.& Hook. Pp. 98 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 1. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1990. Cyrtidiorchis S.Rauschert. Pp. 104 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 1. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1990. Cyrtopodium R.Br. Pp. 11011 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 1. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1990. Dimerandra Schltr. Pp. 11617 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 1. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. New names in Colombian orchids. Orquideologa 18: 98. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. New species of Sigmatostalix from Colombia. Orquideologa 18: 174. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. & R. Escobar. 1991. A new species of Sphyrastylis from Colombia. Orquideologa 18: 183. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Elleanthus Presl. Pp. 160 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 2. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Eriopsis Lindl. Pp. 180 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 2. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Eulophia R.Br. ex Lindl. Pp. 182 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 2. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Eurystyles Wawra. Pp. 184 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 2. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Fernandezia Ruiz & Pavn. Pp. 186 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 2. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Galeottia A.Rich. Pp. 192 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 2. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Govenia Lindl.ex Lodd. Pp. 200 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 2. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Habenaria. Pp. 202 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 2. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Hexisea Lindl. Pp. 206 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 2. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Hofmeisterella Rchb.f. Pp. 2101 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian orchids, Vol. 2. Editorial Colina, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Houlletia Brongn. Pp. 212 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 2. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Koellensteinia Rchb.f. Pp. 226 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 2. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Lueddemannia Linden & Rchb.f. Pp. 250 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 2. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Lycomormium Rchb.f. Pp. 258 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 2. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Malaxis Sw. Pp. 266 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 2. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Macradenia R.Br. Pp. 260 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 2. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Maxillaria Ruiz & Pavn. Pp. 310 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 2. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Mesospinidium Rchb.f. Pp. 328 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 3. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Mormolyca Fenzl. Pp. 344 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 3. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Neomoorea (Rolfe) Rolfe. Pp. 350 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 3. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Oliveriana Rchb.f. Pp. 374 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 3. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Orleanesia Barb.Rodr. Pp. 390 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 3. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Ornithocephalus Hooker. Pp. 392 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 3. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Pelexia Poit.ex Lindl. Pp. 402 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 3. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Peristeria Hook. Pp. 404 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.Bibliographia Orchidologica Ortiziana85LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.

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Orchids 3. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Plectrophora Focke. Pp.418 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian orchids, Vol. 3. Editorial Colina, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Polystachya Hook. Pp. 442 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 3. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1991. Ponthieva R.Br. Pp. 444 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 3. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Prescottia Lindl. Pp. 474 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 3. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Pterostemma Lehm.& Krzl. Pp. 480 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Reichenbachanthus Barb. Rodr. Pp. 482 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 3. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Hoehne. Pp. 504 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Scaphyglottis Poepp.& Endl. Pp. 510 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Schlimia Planch. & Lind. ex Lindl.& Paxt. Pp. 518 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Schomburgkia Lindl. Pp. 520 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Scuticaria Lindl. Pp. 524 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Sigmatostalix Rchb.f. Pp. 528 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Solenidium Lindl. Pp. 540 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Sievekingia Rchb.f. Pp. 526 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Sobralia Ruiz & Pavn. Pp. 534 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Sphyrastylis Schltr. Pp. 544 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Stenia Lindl. Pp. 558-559 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian orchids 4. Editorial Colina, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Stenorrhynchos L.C.Rich.ex Spreng. Pp. 560 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Teuscheria Garay. Pp. 576 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Trichocentrum Poepp.& Endl. Pp. 580 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Trigonidium Lindl. Pp. 592 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Trizeuxis Lindl. Pp. 596 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Vanilla Mill. Pp. 598 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Warrea Lindl. Pp. 600 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Warreella Schltr. Pp. 602 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Xylobium Lindl. Pp. 604 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1992. Zygosepalum Rchb.f. Pp. 6101 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1993. Nueva Comparettia de Colombia. Orquideologa 19(1): 9. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1994. New species from Colombia. Orquideologa 19(2): 13. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1994. Note on the name Cattleya quadricolor Lindl. ex Bateman. Orquideologa 19(2): 64. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. & G. Arango. 1994. A new species of Catasetum from Colombia. Orquideologa 19(2): 29. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1994. Aganisia Lindl. Pp. 642 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 5. Supplementary volume, part 1. Aa Lepanthes. 86 LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.

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Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1994. Anthosiphon Schltr. Pp. 648 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 4. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1994. Baskervilla Lindl. Pp. 652 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 5. Supplementary volume, part 1. Aa Lepanthes. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1994. Beloglottis Schltr. Pp. 654 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 5. Supplementary volume, part 1. Aa Lepanthes. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1994. Bulbophyllum Thou. Pp. 668 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian orchids 5. Supplementary volume, part 1. Aa Lepanthes. Editorial Colina, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1994. Cleistes L.C.Rich. ex Lindl. Pp. 690 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 5. Supplementary volume, part 1. Aa Lepanthes. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1994. Cranichis Sw. Pp. 704 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 5. Supplementary volume, part 1. Aa Lepanthes. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1994. Cryptarrhena R.Br. Pp. 708 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 5. Supplementary volume, part 1. Aa Lepanthes. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1994. Cyclopogon Presl. Pp. 712 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 5. Supplementary volume, part 1. Aa Lepanthes. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1994. Duckeella Porto & Brade. Pp. 730 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 5. Supplementary volume, part 1. Aa Lepanthes. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1994. Eloyella Ortiz. Pp. 742 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 5. Supplementary volume, part 1. Aa Lepanthes. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1994. Eltroplectris 744 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 5. Supplementary volume, part 1. Aa Lepanthes. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1994. Erythrodes Bl. Pp. 778 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 5. Supplementary volume, part 1. Aa Lepanthes. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1994. Gomphichis Lindl. Pp. 786 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 5. Supplementary volume, part 1. Aa Lepanthes. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1994. Isochilus R.Br. Pp. 800 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 5. Supplementary volume, part 1. Aa Lepanthes. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1994. Jacquiniella Schltr. Pp. 802 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 5. Supplementary volume, part 1. Aa Lepanthes. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1994. Kegeliella Mansf. Pp. 806 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 5. Supplementary volume, part 1. Aa Lepanthes. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1994. Lankesterella Ames. Pp. 808 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 5. Supplementary volume, part 1. Aa Lepanthes. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1995. Orqudeas de Colombia. Corporacin Capitalina de Orquideologa, Bogot. Colombia. Memorias de la XX Exposicin Internacional de Orqudeas: 17. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1995. Nuevas orqudeas de Colombia. Orquideologa 19(3): 3. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1996. Nuevas especies de orqudeas de Colombia. Orquideologa 20(2): 234. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1997. New orchids from Colombia. Orquideologa 20(3): 314. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1996. Notyliopsis, un nuevo genero Notylia. Orquideologa 20(2): 183. Beckendorf, S., Bergstrom, W., Toscano de Brito, A., Dalstrm, S.R., Glasscock, P., Halbinger, F., Hirtz, A., Hunt, D., Kopte, A.R., Castro Neto, V.P. de, Ortiz Valdivieso, P., Stewart, J., Warshaw, J., Wilson, K., Withner, C.L. & Zelenko, B.D. 1997. The pictorial encyclopedia of Oncidium (edited by M. W. Chase). ZAI Publications, New York City. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1998. A new interesting species of Lepanthes. Orquideologa 21(1): 68. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1998. Resena de libros: F.Halbinger & M.Soto. Laelias of Mexico. Orchids of the Tropical New World, CD-ROM. Lghtbinders. Orquideologa 21(1): 10911. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1998. Lyroglossa Schltr. Pp. 870 871 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids Bibliographia Orchidologica Ortiziana87LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.

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6. Supplementary volume, part 2. Leucohyle Zootrophion. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1998. Mesadenella Pabst & Garay. Pp. 906-907 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian orchids 6. Supplementary volume, part 2. LeucohyleZootrophion. Editorial Colina, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1998. Oeceoclades Lindl. Pp. 930 931 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 6. Supplementary volume, part 2. Leucohyle Zootrophion. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1998. Otostylis Schltr. Pp. 938 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 6. Supplementary volume, part 2. Leucohyle Zootrophion. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1998. Pinelianthe S.Rauschert. Pp. 948 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 6. Supplementary volume, part 2. Leucohyle Zootrophion. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1998. Ponera Lindl. Pp. 976 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 6. Supplementary volume, part 2. Leucohyle Zootrophion. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1998. Pseudocentrum Lindl. Pp. 980 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 6. Supplementary volume, part 2. Leucohyle Zootrophion. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1998. Psilochilus Barb.Rodr. Pp. 982 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 6. Supplementary volume, part 2. Leucohyle Zootrophion. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1998. Sauroglossum Lindl. Ponera Lindl. Pp. 996 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 6. Supplementary volume, part 2. Leucohyle Zootrophion. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1998. Selenipedium Rchb.f. Pp. 1002 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 6. Supplementary volume, part 2. Leucohyle Zootrophion. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1998. Sertifera Lindl.& Rchb.f. Pp. 1004 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 6. Supplementary volume, part 2. Leucohyle Zootrophion. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1998. Tropidia Lindl. Pp. 1052 1053 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 6. Supplementary volume, part 2. Leucohyle Zootrophion. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1998. Xerorchis Schltr. Pp. 1060 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 6. Supplementary volume, part 2. Leucohyle Zootrophion. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 1998. Wullschlaegelia Rchb.f. Pp. 1058 in: R. Escobar (ed.). Native Colombian Orchids 6. Supplementary volume, part 2. Leucohyle Zootrophion. Colina Editores, Medelln. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Una nueva especie Colombiana de Chondrorhyncha. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales 24(90): 57. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Lista de especies de orqudeas registradas para Colombia: adiciones y correcciones. Orquideologa 21(3): 341. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Las orqudeas del gnero Masdevallia en Colombia (in English and Spanish). Asociacin Bogotana de Orquideologa, Santaf de Bogot. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Orquidceas V. In: Flora de la Real Expedicin Botnica del Nuevo Reyno de Granada, Tomo XII. Ediciones Cultura Hispnica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Dichaea histrio Rchb.f. Sub tab. 1(1) in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Dichaea morrisii H.S.Fawcett & Rendle. Sub tab. 1(2) in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Dichaea pendula (Aublet) Cogniaux. Sub tab. 1(3) in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid.88 LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.

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Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Hofmeisterella eumicroscopica (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f. Sub tab. 4 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Ornithocephalus. Sub tab. 5 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Telipogon falcatus Linden & Rchb.f. Sub tab. 6 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Telipogon. Sub tab. 5 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Telipogon nervosus (L.) Druce. Sub tab. 8 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Fernandezia lanceolata (L.O.Williams) Garay & Dunsterville, Maxillaria ruberrima (Lindl.) Garay. Sub tab. 9 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Pachyphyllum crystallinum Lindl. Sub tab. 10 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Pachyphyllum. Sub tab. 11 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Ada aurantiaca Lindl. Sub tab. 12 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Ada glumacea(Lindl.) N.H.Williams. Sub tab. 13 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Ada ocanensis (Lindl.) N.H.Williams. Sub tab. 14 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Brachtia brevis Kraenzl. Sub tab. 15 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Caucaea radiata (Lindl.) Mansfeld. Sub tab. 16 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Odontoglossum crispum Lindl. Sub tab. 17 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Odontoglossum distans Rchb.f. Sub tab. 18 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Odontoglossum ixioides (Lindl.) Lindl. Sub tab. 20 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Odontoglossum lindenii Lindl. Sub tab. 21 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Odontoglossum lindleyanum Rchb.f. & Warsc. Sub tab.23 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso Bibliographia Orchidologica Ortiziana89LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.(ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Odontoglossum luteopurpureum Lindl. Sub tab. 24 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Odontoglossum megalophium Lindl. Sub tab. 25 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Odontoglossum naevium Lindl. Sub tab. 26 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Odontoglossum revolutum Lindl. Sub tab. 27 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Odontoglossum weirii Rchb.f. Sub tab. 28 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Odontoglossum. Sub tab. 29 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Oncidium adelaidae Kniger. Sub tab. 30 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Oncidium annulare Rchb.f. Sub tab. 31 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Oncidium ascendens Lindl. Sub tab. 32 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Oncidium carthaginense (Jacq.) Sw. Sub tab. 33 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Oncidium globuliferum H.B.K. Sub tab. 34 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Oncidium meirax Rchb.f. Sub tab. 35 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Oncidium murinum Rchb.f. Sub tab. 36 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Oncidium orthotis Sub tab. 37 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Oncidium orgyale Rchb.fol. & Warsc. Sub tab. 37 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Oncidium pyramidale Lindl. Sub tab. 39 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Trizeuxis falcata Lindl. Sub tab. 40 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Trichocentrum pulchrum Poepp.& Endl. Sub tab. 41 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso 90 LANKESTERIANA

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(ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Comparettia falcata Poepp.& Endl. Sub tab. 42 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Comparettia macroplectron Rchb.f. Sub tab. 43 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Rodriguezia lanceolata Ruiz & Pavon. Sub tab. 44 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Scelochilus ottonis Klotzsch. Sub tab. 45 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Macroclinium sp. Sub tab. 46 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Notylia incurva Lindl. Sub tab. 47 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Notylia sagittifera (H.B.K.) Link & Klotzsch. Sub tab. 48 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Notylia sp. Sub tab. 49 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Psychopsis krameriana in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Trichopilia fragrans (Lindl.) in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Trichopilia laxa (Linden) Rchb. in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Lockhartia sp. Sub tab. 54 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2000. Campylocentrum micranthum (Lindl.) Rolfe. Sub tab. 55 in: P. Ortiz Valdivieso (ed.). Flora de la Real Expedicion Botanica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, Vol.11. Microspermae: Orchidaceas, V. Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, Madrid. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2001. Una nueva Oerstedella de Colombia, a new Oerstedella from Colombia. Orquideologa 22(1): 3. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. & E. Caldern-Saenz. 2002. Una nueva especie de Masdevallia de la Cordillera Occidental de Colombia; a new species of Masdevallia from the Western branch of the Colombian Andes. Orquideologa 2(2): 120. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2005. Nuevas especies de orqudeas de Colombia; New orchid species from Colombia. Orquideologa 24(1): 3. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2005. Dos nuevas especies de Lepanthes de Colombia; Two new species of Lepanthes from Colombia. Orquideologa 24(2): 115. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. & C. Uribe. 2007. Gallery of Colombian orchids, CD-ROM. Da Vinci Editiones, Bogot. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2008. Tres nuevas especies y dos nuevos nombres de orqudeas de Colombia. Orquideologa 25(2): 119.Bibliographia Orchidologica Ortiziana91LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.

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Ortiz Valdivieso, P., Bernal Villegas, J. & Gmez Gutirrez, A. 2009. Filosofa Natural Mutisiana. Ortiz Valdivieso, P., Prez-Escobar, O. A. & Snchez, E. 2009. Una especies nueva e interesante de Lepanthes de Colombia. A new and interesting species of Lepanthes from Colombia. Orquideologa 26(2): 137. Ortiz Valdivieso, P., Prez-Escobar, O. A. & ParraSnchez, E. 2010. Una nueva especie de Acianthera de Colombia; A new species of Acianthera from Colombia. Orquideologa 27(1): 55. Prez-Escobar, O. A., Parra-Snchez, E., Ortiz Valdivieso, P. & Thoerle, L. 2010. Primer reporte de Lepanthes stellaris Luer & Hirtz para Colombia. Orquideologa 27(1): 96. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2011. Santanderella, un nuevo genero Colombiano de las Oncidiinae; Santanderella, a Colombian new genus in the Oncidiinae. Orquideologa 27(2): 167. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2011. Nuevas especies de Telipogon H.B.K. de Colombia; New species of Telipogon H.B.K. from Colombia. Orquideologa 27(2): 179. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2011. Nuevas especies de orqudeas de Colombia, new Orchid species from Colombia. Orquideologa 28(1): 5. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. & Jenny, R. 2011. Una nueva especie de Otoglossum de Colombia. Orquideologa 27(2): 194. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. & Parra-Snchez, E. 2011. Una nueva y peculiar especie de Lepanthes de Colombia, A new and distinctive species of Lepanthes from Colombia. Orquideologa 28(1): 22. Prez-Escobar, O. A., Parra-Snchez, E., Kolanowska, M. & Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2011. Primer reporte de Telipogon lankesteri Ames para Colombia. Orquideologa 28(1): 36. Quintanilla-Quintero, S., Ortiz Valdivieso, P., Bernal, J. & Gmez, A. 2011. Phylogenetic relationships among genera of the subtribe Oncidiinae (Epidendroideae: Orchidaceae) and a new genus: Santanderella. Phytologia 93(3): 388. Gmez Gutirrez, A., Uribe ngel, J. T., Ortiz Valdivieso, P. & Bernal Villegas, J. 2011. Academia Mutisiana Javeriana, Bogot. Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2012. Especies colombianas del Genero Cleistes; Colombian species of the genus Cleistes. El Orquidelogo, Suplemento 1: 2 (electronic journal). Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2012. Dos especies singulares de Cyrtochilum de Colombia; Two singular species of Cyrtochilum from Colombia. El Orquidelogo, Suplemento 1: 11 (electronic journal). Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2012. Una nueva especie de Oncidium seccion Serpentia; A new species of Oncidium section Serpentia. El Orquidelogo, Suplemento 1: 23 (electronic journal). Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2012. Una especies poco conocida de Telipogon de Colombia; A little known species of Telipogon from Colombia. El Orquidelogo, Suplemento 1: 31 (electronic journal). Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2012. Una nueva especie de Zootrophion de Colombia; A new species of Zootrophion from Colombia. El Orquidelogo, Suplemento 1: 37 (electronic journal). Ortiz Valdivieso, P. & C. Uribe. 2012. Una nueva especie de Huntleya de Colombia; a new species of Huntleya from Colombia. El Orquidelogo, Suplemento 1: 20 (electronic journal). Mazo, L. C., Gmez, A., Quintanilla, S. R., Bernal, J. E. & Ortiz Valdivieso, P. 2012. Extraction and conserved for more than half a century in a herbarium in Bogot, Colombia. Lankesteriana 12(2): 121.LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.92 LANKESTERIANA

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2): 93. 2012. R S O R CYRTOCHILUM S S Oncidiinae O chidaceae RO R STIgG DaALsSTRM 1,4 GUIdDO DEBURgGHgGRaAEVE 2 & SaAUL RRUZ PEREZ 31 2304 Ringling Boulevard, unit 119, Sarasota FL 34237, USA Research Associate, Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica and National Biodiversity Centre, Serbithang, Bhutan2 Meersstraat 147, 1770 Liedekerke, Belgium3 Allamanda 142, Surco, Lima 33, Peru4 Corresponding author: stigdalstrom@juno.com ABsSTRaACT Three new Cyrtochilum species from Peru that are endangered by habitat destruction, are here described, illustrated and compared with similar species. KEY WORdsDS : Cyrtochilum, endangered species, Orchidaceae, Oncidiinae, new species, Peru, taxonomy The genus Cyrtochilum Kunth has gone through quite a taxonomic turmoil during its two centuries long history. The trouble has mainly been caused morphology alone, and to separate it from genera Odontoglossum Kunth (considered as Oncidium by some) and Oncidium Sw. Other species have been placed in various smaller genera, such as Buesiella C.Schweinf., Neodryas Rchb.f., and Rusbyella Rolfe. Thanks to molecular work with DNA sequencing (Williams et al. 2001a, 2001b) we now know a lot more about how these plants are related to each other, although the controversy of how to treat them taxonomically probably will remain for some time this paper, however, are most certainly considered as typical cyrtochilums by most people, so little controversy should arise from their descriptions. TTaAXONOMIC TREaA TMENT Cyrtochilum deburghgraeveanum Dalstrm & S.Ruz, sp. nov. TYPE: Peru, Amazonas, Jumbilla, Florida, Gualulo, alt. ca 2200 m, collected by S. Ruz and G. Deburghgraeve, Nov. 2010; S. Dalstrm 3498 (holotype, USM). FIgG 1. Cyrtochilo cordato (Lindl.) Kraenzl. similis, sed lobulis lateralibus et callo labelli recedit. Epiphytic herb. Pseudobulbs caespitose or slightly creeping on a bracteate rhizome, oblong ovoid, ca. 10 5 cm, distantly bifoliate (terminal leaf ca. 2 cm above lower leaf), surrounded basally by 7-8 distichous sheaths, the uppermost foliaceous. Leaves subpetiolate, conduplicate, narrowly elliptic to slightly obovate, narrowly acute to broadly acuminate, 3045 1.5-2.5 cm. axillary from the to ca. 160 cm long panicle, with widely spaced 3-5 Bracts appressed, involute and cucullate, 10-15 mm long. Pedicel with ovary, 2035 mm long. Flower stellate to slightly campanulate, showy; dorsal sepal brown with white to yellow edges and apex, spathulate with basal auricles, then laminate, ovate, obtuse to acute, undulate, 13-24 11-12 mm; lateral sepals similar in color, spathulate with basal auricles, laminate, elongate ovate, obtuse to obliquely acute, 25-30 9-10 mm; petals similar in color, broadly spathulate, ovate, obtuse to acute, oblique, undulate, 23-24 10-13 mm; lip white with pale brown front-lobe, rigidly attached to the base of the column, cuneate, trilobate with erect, broadly linear and elongate, obliquely rounded side-lobes, and a narrowly triangular, ligulate, apically slightly convolute, obtuse to acute, recurved front-lobe, 22 extending to the front-lobe, then spreading, with the keels, and with an additional emerging pair of erect,

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FIgGURE 1. Cyrtochilum deburghgraeveanum. A Plant habit. B Flower. C Column-lip lateral view. D Column-lip frontal view. E Pollinarium and anthercap. F Flower dissected. Drawn from the holotype by Stig Dalstr m.LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.94 LANKESTERIANA

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. DaALsSTRM et al. Three new species of Cyrtochilum95 placed on each side of the rectangularly angulate central keel; column basally white with pale yellow on the ventral side, then brown, erect in a ca 90 angle from the base of the lip, slender and clavate, slightly sigmoid, with a slight swelling near the middle on the ventral side, with two parallel longitudinal keels below the stigma, where a pair of lateral, erect and falcate, slightly unequally bilobed to digitate and pointed wings emerge, ca. 11 mm long; anther cap yellow to purplish brown, campanulate with a pale green dorsal lobule; pollinarium of two pyriform, folded pollinia on a broadly obovate, slightly concave, ca. 1 mm long stipe, on a pulvinate viscidium. EEpPONYMY : Named in honor of Guido Deburghgraeve of Liedekerke, Belgium, whose support and contributions to the knowledge of Oncidiinae orchids has been substantial for many years. Cyrtochilum deburghgraeveanum is similar to C. cordatum but differs in the rounded and white sidelobes of the lip versus pointed and brown to purple ones, bordered with white for C. cordatum. The callus of C. cordatum is also more elaborate with additional lateral teeth next to the main central structure. Cyrtochilum deburghgraeveanum is only known from the heavily deforested montane area of northern Peru, where its existence is severely threatened by senseless destruction of the natural habitats and the depletion of the countrys rich biodiversity. Cyrtochilum ruizii Dalstrm & Deburghgraeve, sp. nov. TYPE: Peru, Cajamarca, Incahusi, alt. ca 2700 m, S 06 26,700; W 079 01,177, collected by Saul Ruiz, May 23, 2011, S. Dalstrm 3495 (holotype, USM). FIgG. 2. Cyrtochilo cordato (Lindl.) Kraenzl. et Cyrtochilo deburghgraeveano Dalstrm & S.Ruz similis, sed colore petalibus, lobulis lateralibus et callo labelli differt.   Epiphytic or terrestrial herb Pseudobulbs caespitose, ovoid, unifoliate or bifoliate, surrounded basally by distichous, foliaceous sheaths. Leaves subpetiolate, conduplicate, obovate, obtuse to acuminate (no vegetative parts were included in the type specimen, diagnosis based on observations only). axillary, from the base of the uppermost sheaths, erect, panicle (tip broken off on type specimen, but much Bracts appressed, involute, cucullate, 10-12 mm long. Pedicel with ovary 20-30 mm long. Flowers stellate to slightly campanulate, sometimes irregular but showy; dorsal sepal brown with whitish edges and apex, spathulate with basal auricles, then laminate, broadly ovate, obtuse, widely undulate, 22-28 ca. 15 mm; lateral sepals similar in color, spathulate with basal auricles, then laminate, broadly ovate, obtuse, widely undulate and slightly oblique, 27-28 ca. 13 mm; petals basally whitish to pale pink, then with brown irregular mottling and a white apical third, shortly and broadly spathulate, then laminate, broadly ovate, obtuse, widely undulate, 21-23 ca. 15 mm; lip yellowish brown with yellow around the callus, rigidly attached to the base of the column, cuneate, then hastate to cordate, trilobate with erect, obovate, weakly serrate and oblique side-lobes, and a narrowly triangular, ligulate, apically slightly convolute and recurved, acute to slightly acuminate front-lobe, ca. 22 22 mm; callus yellow, of three low, longitudinal keels, emerging from the base and extending to near the frontlobe, spreading, the lateral pair ends in raised, blunt, angulate keels, while the central keel continues with two new emerging, lateral, spreading keels on each side of the angular, nose-like apex; column basally pale yellow then brownish with brown wings with yellow edge, erect in an almost 90 angle from the basal part of the lip, slender and clavate, slightly sigmoid, with a slight swelling and two parallel short keels at the middle of the ventral side below the stigma, and with a pair of falcate, digitate wings on each side of the stigma, ca. 13 mm long; anther cap reddish brown, campanulate, with a pale green dorsal lobule; pollinarium of two pyriform, folded pollinia on a broadly rotund and slightly concave, ca. 1.5 mm long stipe, on a ovate, pulvinate viscidium. AddDDITIONaAL spSPECIMENsS sSEEN : Ecuador, Loja, Rio Zenen, color transparency by R. Thompson (Dalstrm photo archives). EEpPONYMY : Named in honor of Saul Ruz Perez, a resident of Lima who collected the type plant and

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.96 LANKESTERIANA FIgGURE 2. Cyrtochilum ruizii m.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. DaALsSTRM et al. Three new species of Cyrtochilum97 FIgGURE 3. Cyrtochilum xanthocinctum A Plant habit. B Flower. C Column-lip lateral view. D Column-lip frontal view. E Pollinarium and anther cap. Drawn from holotype by Stig Dalstr m.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.98 LANKESTERIANAwho tirelessly continues to contribute knowledge of Peruvian orchids. Cyrtochilum ruizii dif fers from both C. deburghgraeveanum and C. cordatum by the large and widely rounded, slightly spreading, unicolored brown lateral lobes of the lip, and by the attractive white petals, covered basally by a large brown blotch. This apparently very rare species was previously known only from a color transparency, photographed deforested area north of Loja, Ecuador. No plant material ever surfaced. The second observation, and species, which was found in a similarly deforested montane area in northern Peru. Only fractions of the rich and lush cloud forest that once covered the Peruvian Andes remain today, particularly in the northern regions. These remnants will, no doubt, be altogether gone within a few years. Fortunately, a propagation will soon ensure the survival of this highly endangered and attractive orchid. Cyrtochilum ruizii is similar to Cyrtochilum cordatum (Lindl.) Kraenzl., and Cyrtochilum deburghgraeveanum but is most easily distinguished by the brightly patterned petals, and the solid brown lip with a yellow callus. Cyrtochilum xanthocinctum Dalstrm & S.Ruz, sp. nov. TYPE: Peru, Amazonas, Chachapoyas, Molinopampa, alt. ca 2400 m, collected by S. Ruz in March 2011, S. Dalstrm 3450 (holotype, USM). FIgG. 3. Cyrtochilo macrantho Lindl. similis, sed color e petalibus, lobulis lateralibus et callo labelli differt. Epiphytic herb Pseudobulbs caespitose, broadly ovoid, ca 7.5 4.5 cm, bifoliate, surrounded basally by 4 to 6 distichous, sheaths, the uppermost foliaceous. Leaves subpetiolate, conduplicate, obovate, acute, 13-17 ca. 3.5 cm. axillary, from the uppermost sheaths, erect then wiry, to ca 150 cm long. Bracts large and conspicous, involute cucullate, ca. 1015 mm long. Pedicel with ovary ca. 5 cm long. Flower stellate and showy; dorsal sepal brown, spathulate with basal auricles, then cordate laminate, broadly ovate, obtuse and apiculate, widely undulate, ca. 28 23 mm; lateral sepals similar in color, spathulate with basal auricles, then cordate laminate, ovate, rounded obtuse, widely undulate, 35 x 20 mm; petals basally white, then with a large brown blotch, bordered with yellow, broadly and shortly spathulate, then cordate laminate, ovate, rounded obtuse, densely undulate, 27 22 mm; lip basally pale lilac, then white, and then brown with a lighter apex, rigidly attached to the base of the column, cordate, trilobate with a pair of basal, erect and slightly incurved denticles, and widely spreading semi-erect and slightly convcave, angular side-lobes, with or without additional erect minor denticles, and a narrowly triangulate, ligulate, slightly recurved, acute frontlobe, 23 20 mm; callus whitish, an erect structure near the base of the front-lobe, similar to some strange aircraft with spreading double pairs of wings; column basally yellow then brown, stout, erect in a ca 90 angle from the base of the lip, slightly sigmoid, with a pair of parallel longitudinal ventral keels below the stigma, and with lateral, oblique obdeltoid, wine-red spreading wings, ca. 12 mm long; anther cap brown, campanulate, with a slight, purple dorsal lobule; pollinarium of two pyriform/globose cleft (or folded) pollinia on a broadly rotund, slightly concave ca. 1.5 mm long stipe on an oval, pulvinate viscidium. AddDDITIONaAL spSPECIMENsS sSEEN : Only a color transparency of a cultivated plant has been seen of this elusive and attractive species. The plant apparently died shortly after the photo was taken. EETYMOLOgGY : In reference to the attractive yellow borders of the petals. Cyrtoc hilum xanthocinctum is only known from the heavily deforested area near the town of Molinopampa in northern Peru. Only small patches remain of the forest and the fate of this beautiful orchid is gloomy to say the least. Two plants were rescued from a scrubby patch of previously burnt vegetation and hopefully species survival. Although morphologically similar to the sympatric Cyrtochilum macranthum (Lindl.) Kraenzl., Cyrtochilu m xanthoxinctum is easily recognized by

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. DaALsSTRM et al. Three new species of Cyrtochilum99the brown petals with strikingly contrasting yellow borders. Also the lateral callus keels on the lip are more laterally spreading in our new species. ACkKNOWLEdgDGMENTsS The authors thank the staff at the Instituto Recursos Naturales (INRENA), and Betty Milln at the Universidad de San Marcos, Museo de Historia Natural, Lima, for aiding in providing the necessary permits. We thank Wesley Higgins and Franco Pupulin for assistance with the manuscript, Ricardo Fernndez for assistance at the USM herbarium, and a gracious thank you to Manolo Arias, his family and staff for generous logistic support. All plant material involved in this article was acquired in accordance with collecting permit 0283-2010-AG-DGFFS-DGEFFS. LLITERaA TURE CITEdD Williams, N.H., M.W. Chase, T. Fulcher and W.M. Whitten. 2001a. Molecular systematics of the Oncidiinae based on evidence from four DNA sequence regions: expanded circumscriptions of Cyrtochilum Erycina, Otoglossum, and Trichocentrum and a new genus (Orchidaceae) Lindleyana 16(2): 113. Williams, N.H., M.W. Chase and W.M. Whitten. 2001b. Phylogenetic positions of Miltoniopsis, Caucaea, a new genus, Cyrtochiloides, and Oncidium phymatochilum (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) based on nuclear and plastid DNA data. Lindleyana 16(2):272.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2): 101. 2012. O S LL LO R CYRTOCHILUM S S O chidaceae Oncidiinae RO Z L GILBERTO MMORILLO 1 & STIgG DaALsSTRM 2,31 Departamento de Botnica, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales, Universidad de Los Andes, Mrida 5101 A, Venezuela2 2304 Ringling Boulevard, unit 119, Sarasota FL 34237, U.S.A. Research Associate: Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica, Cartago, Costa Rica, and National Biodiversity Centre, Serbithang, Bhutan3 Corresponding author: stigdalstrom@juno.com ABsSTRaACT During ongoing research on the genus Cyrtochilum Kunth in the Venezuelan Andes, two new species have been found, which are described, illustrated and compared with similar species here. KEY WORdsDS : Cyrtochilum, new species, Oncidiinae, Orchidaceae, taxonomy, Venezuela The number of new orchid species that are year is impressive. Some of these are the result of explorations into previously unknown habitats of isolated regions. Often enough though, new species are found in herbaria where they have been hiding under a misapplied name or simply as an undetermined species, sometimes for a century or more. Two such new species are described here. TTaA XONOMIC TREa A TMENT Cyrtochilum dunstervilleorum G.Morillo & Dalstrm, sp. nov. TYPE: Venezuela. Tchira, headwaters of Ro Quinimari, on felled tree in rainforest clearing on trail to Alto de Tierra Negra, at ca 2500 m, March 1968, G. C. K. Dusterville 1064 in alcohol, SEL; dried specimen unknown but illustration at K). Fig. 1. Cyrtochilum dunstervilleorum is similar to C. megalophium (Lindl.) Kraenzl., but differs in C. megalophium. The lip of C. dunstervilleorum is rather uniformly cordate versus a distinctly trilobate lip for C. megalophium, which also has a much simpler callus. Epiphytic herb. Pseudobulbs more or less caespitose to repent on a bracteate woody rhizome, ovoid and slightly ancipitous, bifoliate, to 8 4 cm, surrounded basally by up to 8 distichous, foliaceous sheaths. Leaves subpetiolate, conduplicate, fairly rigid with a midvein that is distinctly sulcate above and carinate below, elliptic to obovate, narrowly attenuate obtuse, to 24 4 cm. Inflorescence axillary from the uppermost sheath, erect, to at least 60 cm long panicle with strongly fractiflex side-branches and 3to 4-flowered fractiflex branchlets. Bracts appressed and scale like (dimensions unknown). Pedicel with ovary 16-22 mm long. Flower slightly campanulate; dorsal sepal light brown, heavily overlaid with dark brown markings, unguiculate, basally sulcate, lamina broadly elliptic, obtuse, slightly apiculate, 9-11 4 mm; lateral sepals similar in color, spathulate, basally slightly sulcate, lamina elliptic and slightly oblique, obtuse to acute, 12-13 4 mm; petals similar in color, slightly spathulate, lamina weakly oblique, obtuse to acute, 9.0-10.0 3.5 mm; lip bright yellow with some dark spots basally, rigidly attached to the base and gradually curved away from the column, cordate to truncate, laminate, obtuse, slightly undulate and microscopically papillate, with a weakly involute apex, 8.0-9.0 5.5 mm; callus bright yellow, of two erect, fleshy, parallel longitudinal keels emerging at the base and abruptly truncate near the middle of the lamina, with multiple, spreading variably sized denticles in front; column light brown with large dark brown marks on the basal part, then velvety

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FIg G URE 1. Cyrtochilum dunstervilleorum A Plant habit based on Dunstervilles drawing at Kew. B Column-lip, lateral view. C Column lateral view. D Column ventral view. E Anther cap, dorsal view. F. Pollinarium with one G. C. K. Dunsterville 1064 (SEL). Flower details drawn from holotype by Stig Dalstr m. LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.102 LANKESTERIANA

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dark brown, straight, clavate, ventrally canaliculate (or sulcate), with a small, blunt, thumb-like wing on each side of the stigma, apically truncate with a pair of lateral, short and projecting angles, ca. 6 mm long; anther cap brown with maroon marks, campanulate and weakly rostrate; pollinarium of two pyriform, folded pollinia on a laminate, ca. 0.5 mm long stipe, on an ovoid, pulvinate, ca 0.5 mm long viscidium. AddDD ITIONa A L spSP ECIMENs S sS EEN : A plant of unknown origin on a color transparency (G. Escobar 147, Dalstr m photo archives) presumably from Colombia. Collections have also been made by C. Fernndez et al., near Andr s Bello in Tchira at 2500 m, but the whereabouts of any preserved specimens is unknown (color photo in Orqudeas nativas del Tchira, by C sar Fernndez; C. Fernndez 450). EETYMOLOg G Y : Named in honor of Ellinor and Galfrid Clement Keyworth Stalky Dunsterville, for their immense contribution to the knowledge of Venezuelan orchids. Cyrtochilum dunstervilleorum is only known from the upper elevation Andean region in western Venezuela, and most likely eastern Colombia (G. Escobar 147). Cyrtochilum fernandezii G.Morillo & Dalstrm, sp. nov. TYPE: Venezuela. Tchira: El Portachuelo, 3080 m, N08 10,817, W071 54,298. Jan.-Feb. 2010, C. Fernndez s.n. (holotype, MER). Fig. 2. Cyrtochilum fernandezii appears most closely related to C. ramosissimum (Lindl.) Dalstrm and (Lindl.) Kraenzl. It differs from the and from the latter species by slightly larger and and more elaborate callus on the lip. Cyrtochilum fernandezii is also morphologically similar to C. leucopterum (Rchb.f.) Dalstrm, but differs in having a lip callus that is glabrous near the base and column without distinct lateral lobes or ridges, which makes it narrower at the base than at the apex, versus a callus that is pubescent throughout and a column that has broad lateral-ventral column lobes for C. leucopterum. Epiphytic herb Pseudobulbs caespitose to slightly creeping on a bracteate rhizome, ovoid, ca 7 3 cm, surrounded basally by several distichous, foliaceous sheaths, unifoliate or bifoliate. Leaves subpetiolate, conduplicate, elliptic, obtuse, apiculate, ca 28.038.0 2.0-2.5 cm. axillary from the Bracts appressed, scale-like 5-15 mm long. Pedicel with ovary ca. 10-15 mm long. Flower pale yellowish to whitish with purple to brown markings basally on all segments; dorsal sepal spathulate, lamina elliptic, obtuse, apiculate, ca 10 4 mm; lateral sepals elongate sub-spathulate, lamina obovate, rounded obtuse and broadly apiculate, ca.18.0-20.0 3.5-4.0 mm; petals broadly truncate, linear to slightly obovate and slightly oblique, obtuse, forward projecting, ca. 8.0 3.5 mm; lip fused rigidly to the base of the column, then forward projecting basally and parallel with the column, then abruptly recurved near the middle, cordate, weakly trilobate with erect and concave lateral lobes and a broadly obtuse, apically canaliculate front lobe, ca. glabrous, erect, rounded keels, ending in a digitate spreading denticles; column straight, stout and clavate, sulcate ventrally with a low median ridge, truncate, with a minute lateral denticle on each side of the stigmatic surface, ca 4 mm long; anther cap globular; pollinarium of two folded pyriform pollinia on a ca. 0.5 mm long linear stipe, on an equally long, ovoid, pulvinate viscidium. AddDD ITIONa A L spSP ECIMENs S sS EEN : Venezuela. Merida, Km. 52 from La Victoria to La Grita, just below the top of Pramo la Negra. On large Podocarpus tree by roadside, in a fairly isolated position, elevation close to 3300 m (10,000 ft), June 1962, G. C. K. Dunsterville 706 (dried specimen unknown, illustration and at K).LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. MMORILLO and DaALsSTR M New Cyrtochilum from Venezuela103

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FIg G URE 2. Cyrtochilum fernandezii A Plant habit. B Flower, lateral view. C Column and lip, lateral view. D Lip holotype, Fernndez s.n. (MER). Drawn by Stig Dalstr m. LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.104 LANKESTERIANA

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EETYMOLOg G Y : Named in honor of C sar Fernndez, who has contributed substantially to the knowledge Venezuela. ACk K NOWLEdg DG EMENT The authors thank Wesley Higgins for reviewing and commenting on the manuscript.LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. MMORILLO and DaALsSTR M New Cyrtochilum from Venezuela105

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2): 10714. 2012. h ee new L epanthesEP ANTHES O chidaceae eu tha idinae f m SO ea t ta ica DIEgGO BBOgaGARN 1,2,5 AdaDAM P. KaARREMaANsS 1,3 & FRaANCO PUpPULIN 1,41 Jardn Botnico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica, P. O. Box 302-7050 Cartago, Costa Rica. 2 Herbario UCH, Universidad Autnoma de Chiriqu, P.O. Box 0427, Chiriqu, Panam.3 NCB Naturalis NHN Universiteit Leiden, The Netherlands. 4 Harvard University Herbaria, 22 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.; Marie Selby Botanical gardens, Sarasota, FL, U.S.A.5 Corresponding author: diego.bogarin@ucr.ac.cr ABs S TRa A CT. Three new species of Lepanthes from south-east Costa Rica are described and illustrated. Lepanthes erubescens resembles L. limbellata, from which it can be distinguished by the pendent plants, with lobe, and the ovate lip. Lepanthes sandiorum resembles L. dolabriformis, however it can be distinguished by rounded, entire and glabrous. Lepanthes sanjuanensis is similar to L. elegans, but it is distinguished by the green-purple, un-reticulated leaves, the petals with the upper lobe oblong, rounded, with the margins red, the lower lobe oblong, rounded, divergent at apex, and the pinkish or orange-red lip. Additional comments on the species are provided. KEY WORdsDS : Orchidaceae, Pleurothallidinae, Lepanthes erubescens, Lepanthes sandiorum, Lepanthes sanjuanensis, new species, taxonomy Lepanthes comprises about 120 species in Costa Rica. The taxonomic history of the genus in the counry began with the arrival of the explorers A. Oersted and H. Wendland in the second half of the nineteenth century. They collected Lepanthes between 1855 and 1857, mostly at El Desengao and Cartago, along the mountains of the Valle Central. H.G Reichenbach f. described 8 new species from among their collections (Reichenbach 1866). From that same year and up to 1874, botanist Auguste R. Endrs thoroughly explored Costa Rica, documenting almost half of the known species of Lepanthes now reported from the country. Endrs gathered more than 250 specimens, corresponding to 63 species and prepared 201 illustrations (Pupulin et al. 2011). Unfortunately his work was never published and at least 55 species of Lepanthes remained undescribed until Luer (1995) studied his material kept at W. Between 1912 and 1923, R. Schlechter published 18 species based on material collected in Costa Rica. The material was gathered mostly by G. Acosta, the brothers A. and C. Brade, A. Brenes, H. Pittier, A. Tonduz and C. Werckl (Schlechter 1923). Contemporarily, O. Ames, who received material from C. Lankester also added about 22 species to the genus (Ames 1923). After the pasing of O. Ames and R. Schlechter, the description of new orchid species in Costa Rica declined considerably. No Lepanthes species were described during the next 53 years. Luer (1983) began to describe new Lepanthes 1981, but mainly from studying Endrs material that remained forgotten for over a century. Indeed, even with the contributions of Reichenbach, Schlechter and Ames, the diversity of Lepanthes was far from being understood. Luer (1996) added 70 species (almost doubling the number of species known to date) to the the collections by Endrs (Luer 1995). After Luer (1995, 1996), and with the turn of the century research at Lankester Botanical Garden (JBL) has revealed some 22 new species of Lepanthes. Those studies mostly covered areas not visited by the traditional collectors mentioned previously (Pupulin

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et al. 2010). The area that comprises the Southern from the foothills of Cerro de la Muerte and Chirrip, neighboring the Valle de El General, Fila Costea and up to the border with Panama, in the Costa Rican south-east, is very rich in Lepanthes species. Here we propose three new species from this region of Costa Rica: Lepanthes erubescens Bogarn, Pupulin & Karremans, sp. nov. TTYpPE : Costa Rica. San Jos: Prez Zeledn, Santa Elena de El General, Quebrada Los Granados, 710 m, collected by Vicente Jurez-Prez, 17 March 2002, 29 June 2002, F. Pupulin 4027 (holotype, JBL). FIgG 1, 4A. A Lepanthes limbellata Endrs ex Luer similis, adaxialibus, lobo superno petalorum ovato acuto latiore lobum inferum superantibus et lobulis labelli ovatis. Plant epiphytic, caespitose, pendent, up to 15 cm tall. Roots Ramicauls slender, pendent, 4.5-12 cm long, enclosed by 8 minutely ciliate, lepanthiform blackish sheaths, the ostia minutely ciliate, ovate, acute, adpressed. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic to ovate or suborbicular, acute to subacuminate, emarginate, with a short apiculus, purplish-green, 2.5.0 1.5.6 cm, the rounded base narrowing into a petiole less than 3 mm long. racemose, distichous, glabrous, than the leaves, up to 2.7 cm long, peduncle 1.9 cm long, rachis 0.8 cm long. Floral bracts ovate, acuminate, conduplicate, membranaceous, 1 mm long, muriculate. Pedicels 2 mm long, persistent. Ovary to 2 mm long, glabrous. Flowers with yellowish-orange sepals, the petals scarlet red, the upper lobe with a yellow stain, the lip reddish-pink, the column scarlet. Dorsal sepal ovate, acute, entire, dorsally with three keels, connate to the lateral sepals for about 0.6 mm, 3.6 2.2 mm. Lateral sepals narrowly ovate to elliptic, acute, entire, dorsally with three ciliate keels, connate for 0.8 mm, 3.6 1.8 mm. Petals transversely bilobed, entire, 5.0 1.3 mm, the upper lobe ovate, acute, the lower lobe ovate, narrowly triangular, narrower and shorter than the upper lobe. Lip bilobate, adnate to the column, the blades ovate with rounded ends, embracing the column 1.3 1.7 cm, the connectives terete, oblong, to 0.3 mm long, the body thick, oblong, rounded, connate to the base of the column, the appendix thick, oblong, pubescent, cylindric. Column cylindric, to 2 mm long, mucronate, the anther apical and the stigma ventral. Pollinia two, ovoid. Anther cap, triangular, cucullate. PaARaA TYpPEsS : Costa Rica. Puntarenas: Buenos Aires, Volcn, 09N, 83W, ca. 450 m, bosque muy hmedo premontano transicin a basal en bosque secundario muy alterado a orillas de un riachuelo, 17 abril 2012, A.P. Karremans 5312, J. Cambronero & J. Gemmel (JBL-Spirit!) Same locality and date, A.P. Karremans 5314 (JBL-Spirit!). San Jos: Prez Zeledn, El Alto de San Juan, ca. 1300 m, collected by the collection of Daniel Jimnez at Paraso de Cartago, 12 Julio 2012, J. Quesada s.n. (JBL-Spirit!). DIsSTRIBUTION : known from south-east Costa Rica, range. HHaABITa A T aANdD ECOLOgGY : epiphytic in secondary forest in premontane wet forest, basal belt transition, premontane wet forest and premontane moist forest, at 450-1150 m of elevation. EEpPONYMY : from the Latin erubescens reddening, blushing in reference to the scarlet red color of the petals. Lepanthes erubescens resembles L. limbellata Endrs ex Luer. However, it can be distinguished mainly by the the pendent plants (vs. erect), with the upper lobe ovate, acute, 1.3 mm wide, larger than the lower lobe (vs. narrowly ovate-triangular, narrowly obtuse, 0.6 mm wide, equal in length to the lower lobe) and the ovate lip blades (vs. narrowly oblong). Lepanthes sandiorum Bogarn & Karremans, sp. nov. TTYpPE : Costa Rica. Puntarenas: Coto Brus, Sabalito, LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.108 LANKESTERIANA

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. BBOgaGARN et al. Three new Lepanthes109Figure 1. Lepanthes erubescens Bogarn, Pupulin & Karremans. A Habit. B Ramicaul. C Flower. D Perianth fFLaA TTEN E Apex of petal. F Lip, front view with the column and spread without the column. G Lip and column, lateral view. Drawn by D. Bogarn and F. Pupulin from the holotype.

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LANKESTERIANAZona Protectora Las Tablas, 13 km al noreste de Lucha, Sitio Coto Brus, entre Ro Sur y Quebrada Sut, Finca de Miguel Sand, 8.1 N 82.9 W, 1778 arbolados, 6 junio 2010, D. Bogarn 7773 & A.P. Karremans (holotype, JBL-Spirit!). FIgG 2, 4B. Species Lepanthi dolabriformi Luer similis, petalorum oblongo, rotundato, glabro. Plant epiphytic, caespitose, suberect, up to 5.5 cm tall. Roots Ramicauls slender, erect, 2.3.5 cm long, enclosed by 7 glabrous, lepanthiform sheaths, the ostia minutely ciliate, ovate, acute, adpressed. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic to ovate or suborbicular, obtuse, emarginate, with a short apiculus, purplish beneath, 1.3.7 0.6 1.4 cm, the rounded base narrowing into a petiole less than 1 mm long. racemose, distichous, exceeding the leaves, up to 3 cm long, peduncle 1.5 cm long, rachis 1.5 cm long. Floral bracts ovate, acuminate, conduplicate, membranaceous, 1 mm long, muriculate. Pedicels 2 mm long, persistent. Ovary to 1 mm long, glabrous. Flowers with orange sepals, the petals scarlet red with the margin yellow, the lip scarlet with the apex yellow, the column red. Dorsal sepal ovate, acute, denticulate, slightly lateral sepals for about 0.4 mm, 2.6 1.4 mm. Lateral sepals narrowly ovate, acute, denticulate, dorsally with three ciliate keels, connate for 0,4 mm, 2.6 1.3 mm. Petals transversely bilobed, entire, glabrous, 0.4 long, rounded, the lower lobe smaller than the upper lobe, to 0.6 mm long, ovate, obtuse. Lip bilobate, adnate to the column, the blades oblong with rounded ciliolate ends, embracing the column 1.5 1.2 cm, the connectives terete, oblong, to 0.4 mm long, the body thick, oblong, rounded, connate to the base of the column, the appendix thick, oblong, cylindric. Column cylindric, to 2 mm long, mucronate, the anther dorsal and the stigma apical. Pollinia two, Anther cap, oblong, cucullate. PaA Ra A TYp P Es S : Costa Rica. Puntarenas: Coto Brus, Sabalito, Zona Protectora Las Tablas, 13 km al noreste de Lucha, Sitio Coto Brus, entre Ro Sur y Quebrada Sut, Finca de Miguel Sand, 8.1 N 82.9 W, 1778 arbolados, 20 abril 2012, A.P. Karremans 5350 & J. Gemmel (JBL-Spirit!). Same locality and date, A.P. Karremans 5381 & J. Gemmel (CR!). Coto Brus, Sabalito, Zona Protectora Las Tablas, 13 km al noreste de Lucha, Sitio Coto Brus, entre Ro Sur y Quebrada Sut, Finca de Miguel Sand, 8.1 N 82.9 potreros arbolados, 6 junio 2010, D. Bogarn 7786 (JBL-Spirit!). Coto Brus, Sabalito, Zona Protectora Las El Capricho, 8.1 N 82.9 W, 1778 m, epiphytic, mostly on Quercus sp. in pastures and along the river Sut, wet premontane forest, 6 October 2010, F. Pupulin et al. 7929 (JBL -Spirit!). Same locality and date, F. Pupulin et al. 7930 (JBL -Spirit!). Same locality and date, F. Pupulin et al. 7934 (JBL -Spirit!). Same locality and date, F. Pupulin et al. 7951 (JBL -Spirit!). DIsSTRIBUTION : Endemic to Costa Rica, however, most probably found also in Panama, as the large populations were found growing very close to the border. It is known only from the south-east Costa Rica, on the Talamanca mountain range. HHaABITa A T aANdD ECOLOgGY : plants were found growing epiphytically in disturbed lower montane rain forest, at around 1800 m elevation. EEpPONYMY : dedicated to Miguel Sand and his family, pioneers in the region of Las Tablas and owners of the farm where this species was found. Lepanthes sandiorum resembles L. dolabriformis Luer, however it can be distinguished mainly by the smaller plants, less than 5.5 cm tall (vs. up to 7.5 cm), 1.4 mm (vs. 4.0 2.3 mm (vs. 3.5.75 mm) with the upper lobe oblong, rounded, entire, glabrous (vs. obtusely angled with a hatchet-shaped appearance, minutely ciliate, pubescent). Both species are related to L. blepharistes Rchb.f. but they can be easily distinguished by the petals with the lower lobe smaller than the upper lobe (vs. equal in length).110LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. BBOgaGARN et al. Three new Lepanthes111 FIgGURE 2. Lepanthes sandiorum Bogarn & Karremans. A Habit. B Flower. C Lip, spread. E Column and lip, lateral view. Drawn by D. Bogarn from the holotype.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.112 LANKESTERIANA FIgGURE 3. Lepanthes sanjuanensis E Column and lip, lateral view. F Pollinarium and anther cap. Drawn by D. Bogarn from the holotype.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. BBOgaGARN et al. Three new Lepanthes113Lepanthes sanjuanensis Bogarn & Karremans, sp. nov. TTYpPE : Costa Rica. San Jos: Prez Zeledn, San Isidro de El General, carretera a Dominical, desvo hacia el Alto de San Juan, 2 km al noroeste de la antena, 9.8N 83.8W, 1187 m, bosque hmedo premontano, sobre rboles en bosque secundario y primario, 3 setiembre 2011, D. Bogarn 9234 & A.P. Karremans (holotype, JBL!; isotype, CR!). FIgG 3, 4C. Species habitu cum L. elegans Luer optime congruens, sed foliis purpureis-viridis non reticulatis, lobulis supernis petalorum oblongis, rotundatis, marginibus petalorum rubris, lobulis inferis oblongis, rotundatis, in apice divergentibus et labello rubroaurantiaco differt. Plant epiphytic, caespitose, pendent or suberect, up to 30 cm tall. Roots diameter. Ramicauls slender, suberect, 5 cm long, enclosed by 7 minutely ciliate, blackish, tightly adpressed lepanthiform sheaths, the ostia minutely ciliate, ovate, acute, not dilated. Leaves coriaceous, ovate to elliptic, acute to acuminate, emarginate with a short apiculus, conduplicate, adaxially purplish, abaxially purplish-green, not reticulate, 6.0.5 3.0 3.4 cm, the rounded base narrowing into a petiole less than 3 mm long. racemose, distichous, shorter than the leaves, up to 4 cm long, peduncle 2.5 cm long, rachis 1.0.5 cm long. Floral bracts ovate, acuminate, conduplicate, membranaceous, 1 mm long, muriculate. Pedicels 5 mm long, persistent. Ovary to 2 mm long, glabrous. Flowers with yellow sepals, stained, the petals yellow stained with red along the margin of the upper lobe, the lip pinkish, the column purple-pink basally, yellow apically. Dorsal sepal ovate, acute, entire, dorsally with three keels, connate to the lateral sepals for about 1 mm, 1.9 3.7 mm. Lateral sepals narrowly ovate to elliptic, acute, entire, dorsally with three ciliate keels, connate for 1 mm, 3.2 1.2 mm. Petals transversely bilobed, 1.1 3.5 mm, the upper lobe oblong, rounded, entire, the lower lobe oblong, rounded, ciliate. Lip bilobate, adnate to the column, the blades oblong, ciliolate with rounded ends, the apex of each lobe provided with conspicuous bristles, 0.8 1.2 cm, the connectives terete, oblong, to 5 mm long, the body thick, oblong, rounded, connate to the base of the column, the appendix pubescent, inconspicuous. Column cylindric, to 1.5 mm long, mucronate, the anther dorsal and the stigma ventral. Pollinia two, pyriform. Anther cap, oblong, cucullate. DIsSTRIBUTION : only known from south-east Costa Rica, range. FIgGURE 4. Flowers of the new species of Lepanthes. A L. erubescens (F. Pupulin 4027). B L. sandiorum (F. Pupulin 7929). C L. sanjuanensis (D. Bogarn 7773). Photographs by F. Pupulin (A, B) and D. Bogarn (C).

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.114 LANKESTERIANA HHaABITa A T aANdD ECOLOgGY : a population was found epiphytically in premontane moist forest in secondary vegetation, at around 1000-1200 m of elevation. EETYMOLOgGY : named after the type locality of Alto de San Juan, along the road from San Isidro de El General to Dominical. Lepanthes sanjuanensis is similar to L. elegans Luer. Both are characterized by the relatively large to the plant habit, produced below the leaf, and the lip is minute with conspicuous long-ciliate apexes. However, L. sanjuanensis is mainly distinguished by the greenpurple, not reticulated leaves (vs. reticulated), the petals with the upper lobe oblong, rounded, with the margins red (vs. obliquely ovate, with a red blotch at the middle of the upper lobe), the lower lobe oblong, rounded, divergent at apex (vs. obliquely triangular, acute, converging) and the pinkish or orange-red lip (vs. yellow). ACkKNOWLEdgDGEMENTsS We are thankful to the Ministerio del Ambiente, Energa y Telecomunicaciones de Costa Rica (MINAET) and Sistema Nacional de reas de Conservacin N. 1862 under which wild specimens treated in this study were collected. To Daniel Jimnez for sharing material and knowledge of the species described. This paper is part of de la subtribu Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae) en Costa Rica, 814-BO-052, sponsored by the Vice-Presidency of Research, University of Costa Rica. LLITERaA TURE CITEdD Luer, C.A. 1983. New species of Lepanthes. Phytologia 54: 325-378. Luer, C.A. 1995. New species of Lepanthes (Orchidaceae) from Costa Rica (with a Biographical note on A.R. Endr e s). Lindleyana 10(3):133. Luer C.A. 1996. New species in the Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae) from Costa Rica. Lindleyana 11(2):5413. Pupulin, F., D. Bogarn & C.M. Smith. 2010. Two new species of Lepanthes (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) close to Lepanthes schizocardia. Lankesteriana 9(3): 423-430. Pupulin, F., C. Ossenbach, R. Jenny & E. Vitek. 2011. Typi Orchidacearum ab Augusto R. Endresio in Costa Rica lecti. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, Ser. B, Bot. Zool. 112: 265-313. Reichenbach, H.G. 1866. Beitrge zu einer Orchideenkunde CentralAmerikas. F. Pritzel, Hamburg. Schlechter, R. 1923. Beitr ge zur Orchideenkunde von Zentralamerika, II. Additamenta ad Orchideologiam Costaricensem. Repert. Sp. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 19: 3.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. Williams et al. (2005) evaluated the phylogenetic relationships of Telipogon Kunth and related genera by using molecular datasets. Their results showed that Stellilabium Schltr. was embedded within Telipogon, which consists of one Central American and two South American clades. Traditionally, Stellilabium Williams et al. (2005) that condition has arisen at least twice, once in South America and once in Central America. Stellilabium was treated taxonomically by Braas and Lckel (1982), Garay and Romero-Gonzlez (1998) and Dressler (1999). Telipogon ranges from Mexico, through Central America and the Caribbean to Bolivia, but the highest species diversity is found in the Andes. In Central America the majority of species are concentrated in Costa Rica and Panama, with few members from Mexico to Nicaragua. Only two species were Stellilabium. Salazar & Hgsater (1991) published Telipogon (=Stellilabium) standleyi Ames from Guerrero. The second record is Telipogon helleri (L.O. Williams) N.H.Williams & Dressler, recently documented by Solano et al. (2011) from Chiapas. Oakes Ames described T standleyi from a plant collected by Paul Standley in 1924 in Costa Rica between Tarbaca and Aserr, southeast of San Jos locality of T. standleyi for documentation and cultivated at Lankester Botanical Garden. In revising the specimen reported by Salazar and Hgsater (1991), I realized that it markedly differs from the Costa Rican specimens. The Mexican species is treated here as a new to science and it is described hereafter: Telipogon amoanus Bogarn, sp. nov. T ypeYPE : MMXICO Guerrero: Camino ChilapaHueycatenango km 22. Preparado de material cultivado, 15 de noviembre de 1975, E. H a gsater 4641 (holotype, AMO). FIgG 1. roseis, sepalis oblique ovatis subfalcatis, petalis LANKESTERIANA 12(2): 11519. 2012. new T elipoELIPO G onON f m e ic c e t T elipoELIPO G onON standleyiST ANDLEYI O chidaceae Oncidiinae DIEgGO BBOgaGARN Jardn Botnico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica. P.O. Box 302-7050 Cartago, Costa Rica, A.C. Herbario UCH, Universidad Autnoma de Chiriqu, P.O. Box 0427, Chiriqu, Panam. diego.bogarin@ucr.ac.cr ABsSTRaACT A new Telipogon from Mexico, previously confused with T. standleyi from Costa Rica, is described and illustrated. Telipogon amoanus sepals, the elliptic, entire petals, the triangular sagittate lip, densely pilose column with short basal hairs, and the pollinarium with the stipe obtrullate. Telipogon standleyi is illustrated based on Costa Rican material to facilitate species comparison. Additional comments on both species are provided. RREsSUMEN Se describe e ilustra un nuevo Telipogon de Mxico, previamente confundido con T. standleyi de Costa Rica. Telipogon amoanus ovados, subfalcados, los ptalos elpticos, enteros, el labelo triangular sagitado, densamente piloso, la columna densamente pilosa, con pelos cortos en la base y el estpite del polinario obtrulado. Para facilitar la comparacin entre especies se ilustra Telipogon standleyi basado en material de Costa Rica. Se proporcionan comentarios adicionales sobre ambas especies. KEY WORdsDS : Stellilabium, Telipogon amoanus, new species, taxonomy

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.116 LANKESTERIANA FIgGURE 1. Telipogon amoanus anther cap. Drawn by E. Hgsater from the holotype.

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. BBOgaGARN New Telipogon from Mexico117ellipticis integris, labello triangulato sagittato dense piloso, columna confertim pilosa basaliter pilis brevis vestita, stipite pollinarii obtrullato. Epiphytic, acaulescent herb, ca. 9 cm tall Roots ca. 1.5 mm in diameter. Leaves (very thin and translucent when dry), 7.5.0 1.5.0 mm. several (5 in our material), simultaneous, developed from leaf axils, simple or branched, up to 90 mm long, scape compressed, green, 0.5.0 mm thick, with 2-3 spaced and small, triangular-ovate, acute-attenuate, green, translucent bracts, with a thickened vein 2.4.5 0.8.5 mm. Floral bracts very small, broadly ovate-deltate, acute to shortly acuminate, green, translucent, with a thickened vein, 1.2.5 1.0.6 mm. Ovary slightly curved, terete, 2.0.5 mm long and 0.5.7 mm thick. Flowers small, inconspicuous, 5 mm in diameter, sepals and petals rose slightly yellow towards the apex, the lip pink with some yellow apical spine and purple anthers, a few scatter idioblasts containing crystalline Dorsal sepal ovate, obtuse-rounded, concave, 1-nerved, glabrous, 2.5.0 1.6.0 mm. Lateral sepals obliquely ovate, acute, concave, 1-nerved, glabrous, 2.5-3.0 1.8.1 mm. Petals elliptic, obtuse to subacute, mm, dense and shortly pilose internally in the basal third, the margins glabrous to conspicuously ciliate on the basal two-thirds, the cilia retrorse. Lip sessile, with a shallow basal groove clearly separated from triangular-sagitate, acute, the inner surface densely and shortly pilose, the margins ciliate (cilia and hairs retrorse), outer surface glabrous, 3.0.5 mm in total length, including the basal auricles, 2.0.5 mm wide between the basal auricles; basal auricles retrorse, free, triangular, subacute, 0.5-0.8 mm long. Column sessile, very short, lobed, 1.5.8 mm in diameter, densely and shortly pilose, with slightly longer hairs on the ventral surface and a bundle of very long, rigid, septate hairs at the apex of each lobe (i.e. one apical and one on each side). Anther cordate, apparently bilocular without obvious septa, ca. 0.8 1.2 mm. Pollinia 4, subclavate, slightly compressed and overlapping more or less dorsiventrally, in two pairs, yellow, united to a short, obtrullate, translucent stipe terminating into a large, hooked viscidium, rostellum laminar, projected on a narrowly triangular extension. Stigma suborbicular, slightly concave. Capsule not seen. HHaABITa A T : Acccording to Salazar and Hgsater (1991), plants grow epiphytic on branches with lichens, in mixed forest of pine and oak approximately between 1500 and 2000 m elevation. Other orchids growing in the area include: Hintonella mexicana Ames, Oncidium ghiesbreghtianum A.Rich. & Galeotti, Epidendrum marmoratum A. Rich. & Galeotti and Encyclia atrorubens (Rolfe) Schltr. DIsSTRIBUTION : Known only from Guerrero, Mexico. EETYMOLOg G Y : it is a pleasure to name this species after the staff and researchers of AMO Herbarium, in recognition of their outstanding contributions to the knowledge of the orchids of Mexico and the Neotropics. PHENOLOgGY and February. Com parison of the material collected in Mexico with living plants of T. standleyi from the type locality in Costa Rica lead to reconsider the application of the name T. standleyi for the Mexican populations (Salazar & Hgsater 1991, see picture in Hgsater et al. 2005, p. 246). Ames (1925) recognized T. standleyi as having the glandular hairs of the column much abbreviated and tinged center, the base of the petals and labellum are more deeply colored than the upper half, with a deep purple column. All these characters are consistent with the material studied from the type locality and the type specimen kept at AMES (Fig. 2). Telipogon amoanus can be recognized from T. standleyi yellow with a dark purple or crimson center), the sepals obliquely ovate, subfalcate (rather than triangular, acute), the elliptic, entire petals (rather than ovate, ciliate), the lip triangular sagittate, densely pilose (rather than oblong, basally glandular and glabrous towards the apex), the column densely pilose with short hairs basally (rather than with few abbreviated hairs, basally glabrous) and the pollinarium with the

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.118 LANKESTERIANA FIgGURE 2. Telipogon standleyi Margin of lip. F Bristles of the column. G Anther cap and pollinarium. Drawn by D. Bogarn based on Bogarn 5138 (JBL-spirit).

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.119 BBOgaGARN New Telipogon from Mexico Telipogon amoanus is also similar to Telipogon helleri which is distinguished by having a fringe of hairs in front of the column and lacking the hairs at the apex of the column (present in T. amoanus and T. standleyi) (Hamer 1985; Solano et al. 2011). ACkKNOWLEdgDGEMENTsS To the Ministerio del Ambiente, Energa y Telecomunicaciones de Costa Rica (MINAET) and Sistema Nacional de reas de Conservacin (SINAC) of which wild specimens treated in this study were collected. I am grateful to Franco Pupulin and Adam Karremans for their useful comments on the manuscript. This paper is part of the Project 814-A7-015, Inventario y taxonoma de la sponsored by the Vice-Presidency of Research, University of Costa Rica. To Eric Hgsater for granting permission to publish his drawing and photograph. FIgGURE 3. Photo of: A Telipogon amoanus (from Hgsater 4641). B T. standleyi (from Bogarn 5138). Photographs by E. Hgsater (A) and D. Bogarn (B). LLITERaA TURE CITEdD Ames, O. 1925. New or noteworthy species of orchids from the American Tropics. Schedul. Orch. 9: 1. Braas, L.A. & E. Lckel. 1982. Die Gattungen mit Bestimmungsschlssel der Telipogon-Verwandtshaft (Subtribus Telipogoninae Schltr.: Telipogon Kunth., Trichoceros Kunth, Stellilabium Schltr., Dipterostele Schltr., Darwiniella Braas & Lckel. Orchidee (Hamburg) 33: 170-176. Dressler, R.L. 1999. A reconsideration of Stellilabium and Dipterostele Harvard Pap. Bot. 4: 469-473. Garay, L.A. & G.A. Romero-Gonz a lez. 1998. Schedulae Or chidum. Harvard Pap. Bot. 3: 53-62. H a gsater E., M. A. Soto Arenas, G. A. Salazar Ch a vez, R. Jim e nez Machorro, M. A. L o pez Rosas & R. L. Dressler 2005. Las orqu i deas de M e xico. Instituto Chino i n M e xico, D.F 304 pp. Hamer, F. 1985. Stellilabium helleri L. O. Wms. Icones Plantarum Tropicarum 13: PI. 1293. Salazar, G.A. & E. Hgsater. 1992. Stellilabium standleyi nico representante mexicano de la subtribu Telipogoninae (Orchidaceae). Orqudea (Mexico City) 12(2): 231-236. Solano Gmez, R., R. Jimnez Machorro & A. A. Damon. 2011. Two new records and one rediscovery for Orchidaceae of Mexico. Act. Bot. Mex. 96: 59-72 Williams, N.H., W.M. Whitten & R. L. Dressler. 2005. Molecular systematics of Telipogon (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) and its allies: nuclear and plastid DNA sequence data. Lankesteriana 5: 163-184.

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LANKESTERIANA

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. The term ancient DNA (aDNA) refers to the DNA extracted from fossil remains and individuals preserved in musea and herbaria (Andreasen et al. 2009). Plant tissue from herbarium specimens contains DNA that is eventually degraded (Gugerli et al. 2005) with fragments not bigger than 500 base pairs (Audic et al. 2002). Moreover, the genetic material of those specimens can be: aContaminated with DNA of microorganisms such as fungi or bacteria (Deagle et al. 2006); bAccompanied with precipitated chemical material, including polyphenols, terpenoids, tannins and polysaccharides (Huang et al. 2002), which can act as inhibitors of Taq DNA polymerase in plant working with ancient DNA is a process called cytosine deamination, which creates erroneous DNA sequences (Hofreiter et al. 2001). Achieving adequate taxon sampling can often be challenging in order to perform molecular phylogenetic studies in plants, due to various reasons such as: to genetic resources; c) inaccessibility to politically unstable regions; e) local or global extinction of the species; and f) old name bearing type material lacking diagnostic characters may be included in molecular phylogenetic studies to investigate links with more recently collected specimens (Puillandre et al. 2012). ABsSTRaACT. Plant tissue from herbarium specimens contains DNA that has undergone post-mortem degradation. Only small amounts of possibly degraded genetic material free of chemicals and impurities can be extracted from these samples. The aim of the present work was to compare and determine which one of three previously published plant DNA extraction protocols would extract good quality DNA from orchid herbarium specimens optimal DNA / protein purity relationship. RREsSUMEN. Los tejidos vegetales provenientes de muestras de herbario contienen ADN que ha sufrido degradacin post-mortem. Solo pequeas cantidades de material gentico eventualmente degradado, libre de qumicos e impurezas, puede ser extrado de dichas muestras. El presente trabajo busc comparar y determinar cul de los tres protocolos de extraccin seleccionados, que haban sido publicados previamente para ADN vegetal, pureza ADN / protena. KEY WORdsDS : DNA, aDNA, Orchids, matK, Exsiccates, HerbariumLANKESTERIANA 12(2): 121. 2012. t acti n and amp ificati n f f m chid e iccate c n e ved f m e than ha f a centu y in a he ba ium in g t mbia LLaAURaA CC. MMaAZO 1 ALBERTO GMEZ 1,2,4 SONIaA RR. QUINTa ANILLaA 1,2 JaAIME EE. BBERNaAL 1,2 & PEdDRO OORTIZ V VaALdDIVIEsSO 2,31 2 Bogot D. C., 110231, Colombia3 Asociacin Bogotana de Orquideologa, Avenida calle 63 # 68G-14, Bogot D. C., Colombia4 Corresponding author: agomez@javeriana.edu.co

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.122 LANKESTERIANA Collections found at herbaria are a potential source of DNA for improving taxa sampling, and thereby improve current phylogenetic understanding when there is no recent material available (Bebber et al. 2010). In addition, herbarium specimens are considered material with a high historical value due to the antiquity of the samples, and also to their character of taxonomic and biogeographic reference. Small amounts of tissue can be removed from the samples without causing damage to their global integrity. For this reason, the revision of extraction methods to recover as much DNA as possible from the minimum amount of tissue is crucial (Rohland & Hofreiter 2007). A wide range of techniques have been published to date, seeking to increase the amount of DNA available these, two main methods have been widely used on both fresh and herbarium samples: aCetyl-TrimethylAmmonium Bromide or CTAB (Doyle and Doyle 1987) and bDNeasy Plant Mini Kit from Qiagen (CotaSnchez et al. 2006). Silica gels have been included by Van Geel et al. (2008), as a useful supplementary These protocols have been proposed for the extraction of ancient DNA free of chemicals and impurities from herbarium specimens, but have not been widely tested on orchids and are limited to particular groups of plants (Cota-Snchez et al. 2006). Along these lines, this study aimed to compare and of which were CTAB based, on the following species Prosthechea grammatoglossa, Epidendrum secundum and Oncidium ornithorrhynchum, collected between 1948 and 2011, to determine the best protocol for preserved in herbaria, according to previous reports which were applied to newly collected plants. Material and methods Selection of plant material. DNA was extracted from 7 samples belonging to 3 species of orchids. Of these, 5 were dry tissue (Table 1) and the other 2 corresponded to fresh tissue samples of the species Prosthechea grammatoglossa and Epidendrum secundum. The reason why these specimens were chosen, was to include in our protocols preserved orchid samples with the longest available period of conservation, stored in the Universidad Javeriana Herbarium, to be compared with fresh material of the same species. We worked with 2 mg and 5 mg of tissue corresponding to the homogenization of subsamples of petal, stem and leaves, due to the small amount of material available. DNA extraction. with distilled water, sodium hypochlorite and absolute ethanol before being used and when switching from one sample to another. Then, 2 mg and 5 mg of tissue were weighed and pulverized by means of a surgical blade. Subsequently three (3) different plant DNA extraction protocols were assessed: Quintanillas et al. (2011), Cota-Snchezs et al Ethanol 70% and 99%, no addition of RNAse) and Jobes et al. by Ammonium Acetate). The reason why these the variables to be considered, second, to employ TTaABLE 1. Exsiccates information of the 3 species of orchids studied and preserved in the Herbarium Lorenzo Uribe Uribe, Species Description Location Elevation Collector Date Epidendrum secundum Jacq Different colors according Villa blanca 1400 m C. Ortiz, S.J 17 Oct 1948 to the land or varieties of (Sasaima, Cundinamarca) the species Epidendrum secundum Jacq. ( Santandercito, Cundinamarca) Oncidium ornithorrhynchum Oncidium ornithorrhynchum Prosthechea grammatoglossa

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. MMaAZO et al. DNA from old orchid exsiccates123different reagents for DNA extraction such as CTAB in conjunction with Beta-Mercaptoethanol (ME), used in Cota-Snchez et al. (2006) and Quintanilla et al. (2011) with different periods and incubation times, and Sodium Dodecyl-Sulfate (SDS), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Dithiothreitol (DTT), Proteinase K (PK) used in Jobes et al. (1995), third, to minimize the cost of such as silica columns are expensive. In addition, the protocol proposed by Quintanilla et al. (2011) was included as a reference in our work, as it was previously employed with success by our group on the molecular characterization of different orchids. In this acetate (7.5 M) and 2-Propanol substitutes silica columns. DNA quality was determined by means of a 260/280 260/230 purity relationship. Subsequently, a region of 640 bp corresponding to the gene matK using the following primers: 19Forward: 3-CGTTCTGACCATATTGCACTATG-5 556Reverse: 3-GAAGAAACATCTTTGGATCCA-5. This gene was previously used successfully by our group in the characterization of different species of orchids on fresh material (Quintanilla et al. 2011), and matK (IDS) for rbcL and matK tool for plant barcodes and accepts sequences from the Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase and Maturase K genes (BoLDsystems, 2012), and also as the reference for the CBOL Plant Working Group (Janzen 2009). as follows: 3 min at 95C initial denaturation, 39 cycles through electrophoresis in 1% agarose and 1x TBE (Applied Biosystems 3730XL at Macrogen, Korea) and analyzed using the programs Chromas Lite and BioEdit with 5 other sequences reported in GenBank (Table 2) Neighbor-Joining method. Statistical analysis. A descriptive statistical report was produced by means of categorizing the results from the different indices. This was performed dividing DNA concentration values as: a) less than (corresponding to medium extraction and an average (corresponding to an optimum extraction, a very while 260/280 and 260/230 absorbance relations were and contamination by proteins); b) between 1.8 and 2.2 (good quality, free of contamination) and, c) over 2.2 (bad quality, contaminated by ARN, polyphenols and polysaccharides) (Cattaneo et al. 2006). Results and discussion Due to the limited amount of nucleic acids preserved appropriate amount of molecules in the early stages of extraction. For this reason, an appropriate lysis buffer is a key factor for an optimal obtention of DNA molecules (Yang et al. 1997). The use of the CetylTrimethyl-Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) extraction contamination with polysaccharides (Thine & Telle 2008). This method was evaluated in the protocols proposed by Quintanilla et al. (2011) and Cota-Snchez et al. (2006), both of which include the use of reagent Beta-Mercaptoethanol (ME), which is a reducing agent that blocks the action of phenols and, when used at higher concentrations (1%), seems to be more et al. 2007). Although in both Quintanilla et al.(2010) and CotaSnchez et al. (2006) an equivalent concentration of TTaABLE 2. Sequences reported in GenBank. Oncidium ornithorrhynchum H02192561, AF350645.1, AF239496.1 Oncidium unguiculatum FJ563968.1 Oncidium incurvum FJ565110.1 Peristeria elata AF239442.1

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.124 LANKESTERIANAME was used, there is a pronounced difference in their et al. (2011) results in higher quality DNA (Table 3). In contrast, the buffer evaluated in the protocol proposed by Jobes et al. (1995) is composed of Sodium Dodecyl-Sulfate (SDS), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Dithiothreitol (DTT), Proteinase K (PK) and no ME. The PVP and DTT are added in order to absorb polyphenols, which tend to co-precipitate along with DNA (Mittmann et al. 2007). In spite of this, it is evident that the use of ME in the lysis buffer allowed to achieve better results than the use of PVP and DTT, because there was no using the protocol of Jobes et al. (1995) in any of the seven (7) species studied (Fig. 1-2). Another reagent used in this buffer is proteinase K (PK), which s function is to digest proteins, and it is important to remove the Ethylene-Diamine-TetraAcetic Acid (EDTA) from the initial incubation steps, because this reagent inhibits the function of the PK (Cattaneo et al. 2006). Also, it is necessary to denature the proteinase K afterwards as this reagent may in turn inhibit the PCR (Orourke et al. 1996). The protocol proposed by Jobes et al. (1995) does not indicate any steps related to the elimination of EDTA before using the PK neither its subsequent inactivation prior to PCR. This may interfere with the action of PK during the initial incubation and that is probably the reason studied (Cattaneo et al. 2006). During the DNA extraction it is important to consider steps for incubation and precipitation, as it and increase the times and temperatures in order to obtain more DNA (Mittmann et al. 2007). Sablok et al. (2009) observed that incubation periods with temperatures above 65C (without reaching 80 C) resulted in loss of DNA. In the protocols proposed by Jobes et al. (1995) and Cota-Snchez et al. (2006), the incubation temperature varied between 50C 56C and in Quintanilla et al. (2011) between 60C 65C. This contrasts with the observations made by Sablok et al. (2009) because at high temperatures more DNA was obtained, being evident to achieve higher quantities of DNA concentrations upon application of the Quintanillas et al. protocol (Table 3). On the other hand, incubation of nucleic acid / salt / ethanol performed at low temperatures (i.e. -20C) is quoted in several articles. Nevertheless, this is not necessary since nucleic acids precipitate at a temperature of -4C in concentrations below 20 ng/ml after 15-30 minutes (Bitesize Bio). In the protocol of Jobes et al. (1995), four incubations were performed, three of them at -20C for 30 minutes and the last one at TTaABLE 3. Data for total DNA concentration and relationships 260/280, 260/230 in samples extracted using the protocols reported by Quintanilla et al. (2010), Cota-Snchez et al. (2006) and Jobes et al. (1995). Species Quintanilla et al. (2010) Cota-Snchez et al. (2006) Jobes et al. (1995) Tissue (mg) Prosthechea grammatoglossa (1949) Oncidium ornithorrhynchum Oncidium ornithorrhynchum Epidendrum secundum ( Epidendrum secundum (1948) Prosthechea grammatoglossa Epidendrum secundum Prosthechea grammatoglossa (1949) Oncidium ornithorrhynchum Oncidium ornithorrhynchum Epidendrum secundum ( Epidendrum secundum (1948) Prosthechea grammatoglossa Epidendrum secundum

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. MMaAZO et al.125-20C for one night, unlike Cota-Snchez et al. (2006) where two incubations were performed at -20C for two nights, and Quintanilla et al. (2011) where there was only one precipitation at -20C for one night. This indicates that the smaller number of incubations and precipitations, involving a smaller number of washes, allow the obtention of higher concentration of DNA. Another issue in the DNA extraction is the removal of polysaccharides, although high concentrations of Sodium Chloride (NaCl) appear to block the action of these polysaccharides (Mittmann et al. 2007). The highest concentrations of NaCl in the lysis buffer were reported by Quintanilla et al. (2011) and Cota-Snchez et al. (2006), results, unlike Jobes et al. protocol (1995) which (Fig. 1-2), and whose total NaCl concentration was 500 mM. Chang et al. (1993) state that increasing salt concentration from 1.4 M to 2.0 M in the lysis buffer, affects the solubility of the polysaccharides in ethanol, allowing optimum precipitation of nucleic acids (Mittmann et al. 2007) which improves the relation 260/230 (Josquin et al. 2006) (Table 3). Salts such as Sodium Acetate and Ammonium Acetate, are also employed to precipitate DNA. When in solution, Sodium Acetate becomes Na+ and [CH3COO]-, and Sodium ions positively charged neutralize the negative charge of PO3 of nucleic acids, then DNA precipitates more easily (BietziseBio). In the protocols of Jobes et al. (1995) and Cota-Snchez et al. (2006), Sodium Acetate was used without obtaining good results. In Quintanilla et al. (2011) Ammonium Acetate was used, and showed a better performance (Fig. 1). Also, several ethanol washing steps are crucial as salt residues are removed from DNA (Bitesize Bio). Regarding Cota-Snchez et al. (1995) and Jobes et al. (1995) only one wash was performed, contrary to Quintanilla et al. (2011) where there were not only two washes with 70% ethanol, but also two washes with 99% ethanol, indicating that more than one wash with an alcohol leads to purest DNA, as seen in the 260 / 280 relations that are notoriously better in this last protocol than in the previous ones. It is important to emphasize that the process of degradation and deterioration is unique in each exsiccate, and that particular chemical compounds of FIgGURE 1. PCR products of samples from 2mg. Line 2, C + (positive control), Line 3, C-(negative control), lines 4-10, protocol Jobes et al., Lines 14-20, protocol Quintanilla et al.; 11,12,21-25 Lines: protocol CotaSnchez et al., lines 4, 11 and 14, Prosthechea grammatoglossa (1949), lines 5, 12 and 15, Oncidium ornithorrhynchum (1975), Lines 6, 16 and 21, Oncidium ornithorrhynchum (1968), lines 7, 17 and 22, Epidendrum secundum (1968), lines 8, 18 and 23, Epidendrum secundum (1948), lines 9, 19 and 24, Prosthechea grammatoglossa (2011), Lines 10, 20 and 25, Epidendrum secundum (2011). M (molecular marker). FIgGURE 2. PCR products of samples from 5mg. Line 2, C + (positive control), Line 3, C-(negative control), lines 4-10, protocol Jobes et al., Lines 14-20, protocol Quintanilla et al.; 11,12,21-25 Lines: protocol CotaSnchez et al., lines 4, 11 and 14, Prosthechea grammatoglossa (1949), lines 5, 12 and 15, Oncidium ornithorrhynchum (1975), Lines 6, 16 and 21, Oncidium ornithorrhynchum (1968), lines 7, 17 and 22, Epidendrum secundum (1968), lines 8, 18 and 23, Epidendrum secundum (1948), lines 9, 19 and 24, Prosthechea grammatoglossa (2011), Lines 10, 20 and 25, Epidendrum secundum (2011). M (molecular marker).

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.126 LANKESTERIANAeach herbarium sample can either interfere or favor certain steps during the extraction process (Yang et al. 1997). That is why, in samples belonging to the same species, quite different DNA concentrations can be obtained (Table 1). This may be due to different methods (chemical -use of ethanol or formaldehyde at 30%-, and physical -drying at 70C-) that each sample endures during its treatment after it is collected (Savolainen et al. 1995). The fact that these species might not be comparable in terms of the presence of particular PCR inhibiting secondary metabolites, could at least partly explain the results obtained on different specimens in our report. Usually, the length of the sequences obtained from ancient DNA are smaller than 200 bp; in this study we observed that the sequences corresponding to the species collected in 2011, that is: Epidendrum secundum extracted with the protocol Quintanilla et al. (2011) and E. secundum (C+, from 450 mg of peaks (Fig 3). The same species, when preserved for a longer time (1948) and compared with the one collected in 2011 and extracted using the protocol Cota-Snchez et al. (2006), showed sequences which were not easily readable and therefore showed poor quality (Fig. 5). The sequences corresponding to the species Oncidium ornithorrhynchum, despite being poorly readable, were similar to each other (Fig. 7) and also coincide with the sequence previously reported by Quintanilla et al. (2011) which was obtained from a fresh sample (Fig. 9). Andreasen et al. (2009) propose that the length and quality of DNA degradation: the greater time of collection, the greater the DNA fragmentation. This is not observed in the species E. secundum collected in 1968, which although showing a high concentration of DNA, that was given to each herbarium specimen when collected and preserved. However, in both cases, their corresponding data were not noted and kept, so there is no available information that would allow to perform a correlation. Hanni et al. (1994), suggest the small amount of tissue used corresponding to 2 mg and 5 mg as, in other cases, approximately 30 mg or even 100 mg of plant tissue have been used (Lister et al. 2008). FIgGURE 4. Part of the sequence of the gene matK of the species Epidendrum secundum 2011 (Quintanilla et al. 2010). FIgGURE 3. Part of the sequence of the gene matK of the species Epidendrum secundum 2011 C + (450 mg tissue). FIgGURE 6. Part of the sequence of the gene matK of the species Epidendrum secundum 2011 (Cota-Snchez et al. 2006). FIgGURE 5. Part of the sequence of the gene matK of the species Epidendrum secundum 1948 (Quintanilla et al. 2010). FIgGURE 7. Part of the sequence of the gene matK of the species Oncidium ornithorrhynchum 1975 (Quintanilla et al. 2010). FIgGURE 8. Part of the sequence of the gene matK of the species Oncidium ornithorrhynchum 1968 (Quintanilla et al. 2010).

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LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. MMaAZO et al.127In this study, DNA extracted using the protocol Quintanilla et al. (2011) and 5 mg of tissue, showed a higher concentration of Nucleic Acids than those obtained from 2 mg (Table 1). Therefore, the higher amount of available material, the greater the possibility of obtaining higher concentrations of DNA. Finally, the Neighbor -Joining method (NJ) is frequently used in studies of molecular barcode (DNA barcoding) when aiming to identify unknown individuals and to generate a single phylogenetic tree with the lowest genetic distances (Saitou & Nei sequences, individuals belonging to the same species will integrate isolated groups due to their similarities (similarity in terms of sequences) (Pea 2011). We can then infer that the sequences of the species Oncidium ornithorrhynchum form an isolated group that also includes the previously reported sequences of this same species in NCBI (Fig. 11). In conclusion, the methodology for DNA extraction on herbarium individuals with the protocol proposed by Quintanilla et al. (2011) is effective for samples the other two methodologies reported and studied in the present work on this type of specimens. The importance of prior information available from the or physical) of each individual has to be emphasized to assess how the samples will eventually work, as it was found upon completion of this study that the effect of time is not as important for DNA degradation as the initial use of formaldehyde, methanol or application of heat. We recommend: 1Further testing different sets of primers that may generate shorter fragments, 2DNA polymerases that have the property to correct readings, and 3Next generation sequencing to obtain more replicates of ancient DNA sequences to reveal deamination generated errors (Metzker 2010). ACkKNOWLEdgDGMENTsS The authors thank the staff from the Lorenzo Uribe, SJ herbarium (Faculty of Science, Universidad Javeriana), particularly our colleagues involved in the research group Ancient DNA. We also from two anonymous reviewers, to whom we are indebted. FIgGURE 11. Genetic distance phylogram through Neighbor-Joining clustering of the sequences studied plus 6 previously reported sequences in GenBank. FIgGURE 9. Part of the sequence of the gene matK of the species Oncidium ornithorrhynchum, reported in 2010 by Quintanilla et al. (H02192561). FIgGURE 10. Part of the sequence of the gene matK of the species Prostechea grammatoglossa 2011 (Quintanilla et al. 2010).

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128 LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. LLITERaA TURE CITEdD Andreasen, K. & M. Manktelow. 2009. Succesful DNA specimen: recovering genetic material from the Linnaean era. Taxon 58 (3): 959-962. Audic, S., E. Braud-Colombo & M. Masouri. 2002. The use of protein characteristics to assess the retrievability of ancient DNA from ancient bones. Internat. J. Anthrop. 17 (1): 17-26. Bebber, D.P., M.A. Carine, J.R.I. Wood, A.H. Wortley & D.J. Harris. 2010. Herbaria are a major frontier for species discovery. Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107: 22169. Bitesize Bio. http://bitesizebio.com/?s=dna+extraction. Downloaded: 20-10-2011. BoLDsystems. http://www.boldsystems.org/index.php/ IDS_OpenIdEngine. Downloaded: 15-08-2012. Cattaneo, C., K. Gelsthorpe & R.J. Sokol. 2006. DNA extraction methods in forensic analyisis. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. In: http:// onlinelibrary.wiley.com, Downloaded: 3-11-2011. Cota-Snchez-Snchez, H.J., K. Remarchuk & K. Ubayasena. 2006. Ready-to-use DNA extracted with a CTAB method adapted for herbarium specimens and mucilaginous plant tissue. Pl. Molec. Biol. Reporter 24: 161. Deagle, B.E., P.J. Eveson & S.N. Jarman. 2006. highly degraded samples a case study on DNA in faeces. Bio Med Central, Frontiers in Zoology 3 (11): 1-10. Doyle, J. J. & J. L. Doyle. 1987. A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochem. Bull. 19: 11-15 Gugerli, F., L. Parducci & R.J. Petit. 2005. Ancient plant DNA: review and prospects. New Phytol.166 (2): 409-418. Hofreiter, M., V. Jaenicke, D. Serre, A.V. Haeseler & S. Paabo. 2001. DNA sequences from multiple deamination in ancient DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 29 (23): 4793-4799. Huang, Y., S. Shi, Y. Zhong & F. Tan. 2002. A new method for preparation of template DNA for PCR from special plant materials. Chinese Sc. Bull. 47(9): 725-727. Jansen, D.H. 2009. A DNA barcode for land plants. Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106(31): 12794-12797. Jobes, D., D. Hurley & L. Thien. 2010. Plant isolation: polysaccharides, and RNA. Taxon 44(3): 379-386. Josquin, T., L. MacManus, A. Spokevicius & G. Bossinger. 2006. A rapid method for tissue collection and high-throughput isolation of genomic DNA from mature trees. Pl. Molec. Biol. Reporter 24:81-91 Lister, D., M. Bower, C. Howe & M. Jones. 2008. herbarium specimens of emmer wheat: a method for assessing DNA preservation by maximum amplicon length recovery. Taxon 57 (1): 254-258. Metzker, M. 2010. Sequencing technologies, the next generation. Nature Rev. Genetics 11:31-46 Mittmann, F., S. Dienstbach & G. Wagner. 2007. Large scale extraction of high quality moss DNA. Russian J. Pl. Physiol. 54 (4): 564-568. Orourke, H., S. Carlyle & R. Parr. 1996. Ancient DNA: methods, progress and perspectives. Amer. J. Human Biol. 8: 557-571. Peru Biol. 18(2): 265-267. Puillandre, N., P. Bouchet, M-C. Boisselier-Dubayle, J. Brisset, B. Buge, M. Castelin, S. Chagnoux, T. Christophe, L. Corbari, J. Lambourdire, P. Lozouet, G. Marani, A. Rivasseau, N. Silva, Y. Terryn, S. Tillier, J. Utge & S. Samadi. 2012. New taxonomy and old collections: integrating DNA barcoding into the collection curation process. Molec. Ecol. Resources 12(3): 396-402. Quintanilla-Quintero, S., P. Ortiz, J. Bernal & A. Gmez. 2011. Phylogenetic relationships among genera of the subtribe Oncidiinae (Epidendroideae: Orchidaceae) and a new genus: Santanderella. Phytologia 93(3): 388-406 Rohland, N. & H. Hofreiter. 2007. Comparison and optimization of ancient DNA extraction. BioTechniques 42(3):343-352. Sablok, G., P. Gahlot, A. Gupta, K. Pareek & S. Shekhawat. 2009. Extraction of PCR-usable DNA from trees adapted to arid environment. Pl. Omics J.2(3):1836-3644. Saitou, N. & M. Nei. 1987. The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molec. Biol. Evol. 4(4): 406-425. Savolainen, V., P. Cunoud, R. Spichiger, M.D.P Martinez & M. Crvecoeur. 1995. The use of hebarium specimens in DNA phylogenetics: evaluation and improvement. Pl. Syst. Evol. 197: 87. bp) from 2 mg of up to 129 years old herbarium specimens, comparing 19 extraction methods and 15 polymerases. PLoS ONE 3(10): e3584 Van Geel, B., A. Aptroot, C. Baittinger, H.H. Birks, I.D. Bull, H.B. Cross, R.P. Evershed, B. Gravendeel, E.J.O.

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Kompanje, P. Kuperus, D. Mol, K.G.J. Nierop, J.P. Pals, A.N. Tikhonov, G. van Reenen & P.H. van Tienderen. 2008. The ecological implications of a Yakutian mammoths last meal. Quaternary Res. 69: 361-376. Yang, H., E. Golenberg & J. Shishani. 1997. Proboscidean DNA from museum and fossil specimens: an assessment of ancient DNA extraction (5): 165-178.LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. MMaAZO et al.129

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Introduction. Orchids are the most pampered and genus Dendrobium (Family: Orchidaceae) exhibits a and is of considerable interest due to its broad et al (<5%) of them germinate under natural condition because the seeds are non-endospermic, minute and orchids is a time consuming and tedious process Dendrobium aggregatum Roxb. (= D. lindleyi Steud.)1 et al. 2007). It has graceful, pendulous racemes In vitro method (Goh et al. 1992). Dendrobium to large-scale illegal trade. Endemic orchids of the and sustainable utilization assume greater importance et al. 2006). Satisfying the interest of the hobbyist and demand of the traders through large-scale micropropagation is 2009). ABSTRACT. Dendrobium aggregatum using the axenic immature elongation and rooting in vitro-1 Benzyl amino purine KEY WORDS : Dendrobium, in vitroLANKESTERIANA. 2012.MICROPROPAGATION OF DENDROBIUM AGGREGATUM BY GREEN POD CULTURE S. VIJA Y AKUMAR 1 G. RAJALKSHMI 2 K. KALIMUTHU 1,31 2 1 Dendrobium aggregatum illegitimate, being a later homonym of D. aggregatum as Ornithidium aggregatum D. lindleyi D. aggregatum throughout the article. [ Note by the Editor ]

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in vitro seeds of Dendrobium aggregatum Concentration of BAP and NAA in MS medium + CW 150 ml/L No. of green pods used per bottle Capability of immature seeds forming protocorm like bodies No. of shoots per bottle No. of shoots with roots Percentage of shoot forming the roots BAP 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 BAP + NAA 0.5 + 0.5 1.0 + 1.0 1.5 + 1.5 2.0 + 2.0 2.5 + 2.5 3.0 + 3.0 MS Basal 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + ++ +++ + + + + + +++ ++ + + 35 50 75 41 32 20 23 27 37 26 20 14 14 35 75 28 14 5 13 20 37 15 8 3 40.0 87.5 100.0 68.3 36.8 25.0 56.5 74.0 100.0 57.8 40.0 21.4 + -Very less number of protocorm like bodies formation ++ -Less number of protocorm like bodies formation +++ -More number of protocorm like bodies formation or mature embryos, shoot tip explants and from axenic nodel segments in Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb.) D. candidum hybrids of Dendrobium (Zhang et al. et al. 1988, Shiau et al. 2005, Xie et al. et al. propagation of D. aggregatum using different explant protocol for multiple D. aggregatum seedlings, rooting of the microshoots and successful transplantation. Materials and methods. Plants of D. aggregatum capsules of D. aggregatum after pollination and brought to the laboratory for in vitro seed germination. Establishment of shoot cultures by in vitro germination of immature embryos commercial detergent (labolene) for 10 minutes -1 sterilized capsules and small mass of the aggregated -1 -1 LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.

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through the parameters such as production of amount Subculture of protocorm like bodies and shoots. the same media composition produced more protocorm Hardening pots containing a mixture uniform, small charcoal the shade house 25% light and mist irrigated. Experiment design and data analysis. Experiments Results and discussion the germination in nature is a unique phenomenon and requires fungal infection. Germination is much more successful in in vitro germination, protocorm formation and seedling the selected orchid, D. aggregatum protocorms, seed coat (testa) got ruptured and rhizoids different concentrations of BAP (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, more number of protocorm bodies, shoots and roots. same media composition produced more protocorm D. aphyllum et al. D. aggregatum as reported in D. microbulbon et al. 2007). 1.5 mgl-1 -1 D. aggregatum -1 D. microbulbon. transferred to second subculture for root induction concentration and combination of the same plant study their stimulatory effect of the number of shoots LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. VIJA Y AKUMAR and KALIMUTHU Dendrobium aggregatum

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FIGURE Dendrobium aggregatum LANKESTERIANALANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012.

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in vitro D. aggregatum from green pod has been established. extinction in the natural population. LITERA TURE CITED In vitro root formation in Dendrobium in vitro appropriate to In vitro propagation of Dendrobium aphyllum (Orchidaceae) Dendrobium. Ann. Bot. 82: Hybridization and in vitro culture of an orchid hybrid Ascocenda Seedling rapid propagation of Dendrobium candidum. Dendrobium Dendrobium formosum in: Applied and fundamental aspects of plant cell tissue and organ culture. in Plant tissue tulture. orchids. Pp. 61-67 in Cell Culture and somatic cell genetic of plants 2000. In vitro plant Dendrobium candidum axenic nodal segments, in vitro. Cell..Dev. Biol. Dendrobium transparens Dendrobium aphyllum Reddy, A. S. 2007. In vitro propagation of Dendrobium microbulbon P. 2010. Seeds culture of Dendrobium candidum Dendrobium candidum LANKESTERIANA 12(2), August 2012. Universidad de Costa Rica, 2012. VIJA Y AKUMAR and KALIMUTHU Dendrobium aggregatum