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Title: Lankesteriana
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098723/00025
 Material Information
Title: Lankesteriana la revista científica del Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Jardín Botánico Lankester
Publisher: Jardi´n Bota´nico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Place of Publication: Cartago Costa Rica
Cartago, Costa Rica
Publication Date: April 2010
Frequency: three times a year[2002-]
irregular[ former 2001]
three times a year
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 Subjects
Subject: Botany -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Epiphytes -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Orchids -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Plantkunde   ( gtt )
Botanische tuinen   ( gtt )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Costa Rica
 Notes
Language: In English and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No. 1 (mayo 2001)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Issues for May 2001-Oct. 2003 designated no.1-8; issues for Apr. 2004- designated vol. 4, no. 1-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 1 (abr. 2004).
General Note: International journal on orchidology.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098723
Volume ID: VID00025
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 48491453
lccn - 2001240973
issn - 1409-3871

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Dedication
        Dedication
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Copyright
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Full Text











































































4~r (< C y&u


i




i































This issue of Lankesteriana
is dedicated to te memory of
Luis DIEGO GOMEZ 1-. I I 0
1944-2009)
a passionate humanist and biologist,
mentor of Costa Rican natural sciences,
a friend




ISSN 1409-3871



LANIESTERIANA

VOL. 10, No. 1 APRIL 2010



Lord of the flies: pollination of Dracula orchids
LORENA ENDARA, DAVID A. GRIMALDI & BITTY A. ROY 1
Callus growth and plant regeneration in Laelia speciosa (Orchidaceae)
MARCELA ESMERALDA SARABIA-OCHOA, IRENE AVILA-DIAZ, ALONSO CARLOS-GOMEZ
& RAFAEL SALGADO-GARCIGLIA 13
Orchid itineraries of Augustus R. Endres in Central America: a biographic
and geographic sketch
CARLOS OSSENBACH, FRANCO PUPULIN & RUDOLF JENNY 19
Cumulative index of new taxa and combinations, LANKESTERIANA vol. 1-9 49
Cumulative index of articles, LANKESTERIANA vol. 1-9 61
Cumulative index of authors, LANKESTERIANA vol. 1-9 72


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGY











LANKESTERIANA
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGY







Copyright C 2010 Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica
Effective publication date: April 26, 2010

Layout: Jardin Botinico Lankester.
Cover: Lepanthes muellneriana [= Lepanthes candida Endres ex Luer]. Drawing by Augustus R. Endres (W Rchb-
Orch 7618/0019675).
Printer: Litografia Ediciones Sanabria S.A.
Printed copies: 500

Printed in Costa Rica / Impreso en Costa Rica


R Lankesteriana / International Journal on Orchidology
No. 1 (2001)-- -- San Jos6, Costa Rica: Editorial
Universidad de Costa Rica, 2001--
V.
ISSN-1409-3871

1. Botanica Publicaciones peri6dicas, 2. Publicaciones
peri6dicas costarricenses



O








IANKESTERIANA10(1) 1-11 2010


LORD OF THE FLIES: POLLINATION OF DRACULA ORCHIDS


LORENA ENDARA 1, 2, 5, DAVID A. GRIMALDI 3 & BITTY A. ROY 4

'Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, PO. Box 17800. Gainesville, Florida 32611, U.S.A.
2Department of Botany, University of Florida, 220 Bartram Hall, Gainesville, Florida 32611, U.S.A.
3Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History,
Central Park West at 79th St. New York, N.Y 1002426, U.S.A.
4 Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403
5Author for correspondence: lendara@flmnh.ufl.edu

ABSTRACT. The labellum of Dracula orchids looks and smells like mushrooms, and biologists have long
hypothesized mushroom mimicry in which mushroom-associated (mycophilous) flies accidentally pollinate
these flowers while laying their eggs. In the cloud forest of Ecuador, we observed flower morphology,
pollinators and the mechanisms of pollination in two species, Dracula lafleurii Luer & Dalstrom and D. felix
(Luer) Luer. The orchids are visited and pollinated by drosophilid mycophilous flies of the genus Zygothrica,
which normally complete part of their life cycles on mushrooms. While these flies court and mate in the
flowers, and in the process, pollinate them, they apparently do not lay their eggs in the flowers. The pollination
mechanism of Dracula occurs when pollinators' thoraces are trapped by the incurved flaps of the rostellum
which creates an angle between the scutellum and the abdomen for the removal and deposition of the pollinia,
a novel feature previously not describe in orchids.

RESUMEN. La forma y el olor de los labels de las orquideas del g6nero Dracula se asemejan a hongos, y por
much tiempo se ha mantenido la hip6tesis de que estas orquideas mimetizan hongos y dipteros con ciclos de
vida asociados con los hongos (mic6filos) accidentalmente polinizarian estas flores mientras ovopositan. La
morfologia floral, los polinizadores y mecanismos de polinizaci6n fueron estudiados enDracula lafleurii Luer
& Dalstrom and D. felix (Luer) Luer en un bosque nublado de Ecuador. Estas orquideas son efectivamente
visitadas en su mayoria por moscas mic6filas pero son polinizadas unicamente por moscas drosofilidas del
genero Zygothrica cuyos ciclos de vida estin estrechamente asociados con hongos. Estas moscas realizan
despliegues de cortejo y apareamiento en las superficies de las flores de Dracula estudiadas y en este process
tambi6n las polinizan, aparentemente sin ovopositar. El mecanismo de polinizaci6n de Dracula ocurre cuando
los t6raxes de los polinizadores son atrapados por los margenes incurvados del rostelo, lo cual crea un angulo
entire el escutelo y el abdomen apropiado para la remoci6n y deposici6n de los polinios, una caracteristica que
hasta ahora no habia sido reportada en las orquideas.

KEY WORDS: cloud forest, fly pollination; mycophilous; odor; pollinator behavior; Zygothrica


Introduction. Orchids in the genus Dracula have long
been suspected to be mushroom mimics. They have
a cupped labellum that is usually lined with parallel
or radiating ridges that resembles the cap and gills of
an inverted mushroom, dark-spotted sepals on a light
background, long sepaline tails, and sometimes a
mushroom-like odor. These characteristics suggest that
Dracula flowers attract saprophagous or mycophagous
insects that accidentally act as pollinators (Van der Pijl
& Dodson 1966, Vogel 1978, Endress 1996, Proctor
et. al. 1996, Pridgeon et al. 2005). Moreover, Vogel


(1978) hypothesized a pollination mechanism in which
the pollinia adhere to the backs of small mycophagous
flies while they attempt to lay eggs on the flowers.
Dracula is a genus of unusual orchids that occurs
in the moist and shady montane cloud forests of
tropical America. The name means little dragon
and pays homage to the chimaeraa' of Reichenbach
(Luer 1993), as well as to the extravagant display of
the flowers' widespread sepals with long, pendant
sepaline tails that resemble flying bats (Luer 1978,
Luer 1993). Comprising ca. 148 mostly epiphytic








LANKESTERIANA


species, Dracula can be found mostly in pristine
forests and less frequently in disturbed habitats
from southern Mexico to Peru (Luer 1993). The
genus Dracula belongs to the most diverse subtribe
of Neotropical orchids, the Pleurothallidinae, which
comprises 5 to 8% of the floristic diversity of the
Neotropics (Jorgensen & Le6n-Yanez, 1999), and are
a mostly fly-pollinated group (Van der Pijl & Dodson
1966, Chase 1985, Dressler 1993, Duque 1993,
Christensen 1994, Endress 1996, Borba & Semir
2001, Pridgeon et al. 2001, Van der Cingel 2001,
Blanco & Barboza 2005, Pridgeon 2005, Albores-
Ortiz & Sosa, 2006, Barbosa et al. 2009).
In this paper we describe the pollination biology
of these remarkable putative mushroom mimics in
their native habitats, with a particular focus on the
diversity and visitation rates of floral visitors to the
flowers of Dracula lafleurii Luer & Dalstrom with a
few additional observations from D. felix (Luer) Luer.

Material and methods

Species and study sites.- Field studies were conducted
during the rainy season (January to May) of 1999 and
2002 at Los Cedros Biological Reserve in northwestern
Ecuador (0018.519'N, 78"46.760W), in the buffer
zone of the Cotacachi-Cayapas Ecological Reserve.
The Los Cedros Reserve protects 6600 hectares of
montane cloud forest from 1200 to 2200 m elevation.
Due to the altitudinal gradient, a wide diversity of
microhabitats can be found in this reserve where 14
Dracula species have been reported (Luer and Escobar
1994, www.tropicos.org). The local annual rainfall
reaches 3225 mm with a pronounced dry period during
the months of June and July (J. de Coux, pers. comm.
2002). Two Dracula species that occurred at different
elevations and microhabitats within Los Cedros
Biological Reserve were studied. Plants of Dracula
lafleurii were abundant along the Los Cedros River, in
the lower region of the reserve (from 1260 to 1300m).
Dracula felix occurs at higher elevations, along the
mountain ridges above the research facilities (1640-
1800m).

Floral morphology.- The floral morphology and
secretions of these flowers were examined. The flowers
produced no measurable nectar, so to determine
whether small amounts of sugar were nonetheless

IANKESTERIANA 10(1), Apnl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


present, we rubbed C.iou.iit test strips to 8 flowers
from approximately 5 individual plants per species (it
is not always possible to determine genetic individuals
due to sympodial growth and close proximity) on the
first day of anthesis.

Floral visitors.- All observations were performed
between 0600 to 1700 hr, with 760 hr of observations
being made. Detailed observations of insect activity
were registered for 5 and 47 flowers of Dracula
lafleurii and D. felix, respectively. Pollinia removal or
deposition was observed with a 10x-magnifying lens
and complemented with photographic documentation.
Notes were taken on the behavior of the visiting flies
used the terminology defined by Grimaldi (1987).
After observations were completed, some visitors and
pollinators were captured with an aspirator or small
plastic bags and then preserved in 70% ethanol for
identification. Herbarium specimens of the plants (L.
Endara 289-L. Endara 305) were deposited in the
herbarium of the Pontificia Universidad Catolica del
Ecuador (QCA). Fly specimens were identified by D.
Grimaldi and deposited in the Division of Invertebrate
Zoology of the American Museum of Natural History.
Identifications of drosophilids required dissection
of male genitalia and examination with compound
microscopy.

Results

Flower morphology.- Dracula felix and D. lafleurii
have different inflorescence orientation and floral
presentation (Luer 1993). Dracula felix produces
erect or ascending peduncles that bear a single cup-
shaped flower (Fig. 1 a). Unlike D. felix, but similar to
the majority of the species in the genus, the flowers
of Dracula lafleurii resemble an open umbrella and
are borne from descending, spreading peduncles (Fig.
lb). When fully open, the flower faces downward
and the sepaline tails (long tail-like extensions of
the sepals, 8-9 cm long) expand outwards. The two
species have different degrees of floral pubescence
and color patterns (Fig la versus Ib). In both species,
the petals are parallel to the column gynoeciumm)
and are small (3 mm long x 2 mm wide), oblong
structures with the lamina containing central brown
to purple spots, and a bivalvate, papillate apex, a
diagnostic character of this genus (Luer 1993, see








ENDARA et. al. -Dracula pollination 3


FIGURE 1. A -Draculafelix showing mass flowering and cup-shaped flowers; B -Dracula lafleurii showing successive
flowering and umbrella-like flowers; C -Glossy film on labellum ofD. lafleurii, which is present only on the first day
the flowers are open anthesiss); D Zyil griic flie, landing on sepaline tails ofD. lafleurii; E Hirtodosophila sp.
(left) and Zygothrica antedispar (right) lapping the epichile of D. laffi llii: F ,ii ,,... paraldrichi performing the
"scissoring" wing display on a flower of D. iatffterii.


Fig. 2c). The column is a rigid structure of the same
size or slightly longer than the petals (3 mm long
x 1.5 mm wide excluding the column foot) and in


both species it contains small raphide encrustations
intracellularr crystals; Fig. 2a). The apex of the
column is irregularly dentate and contains the anther

LANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2010.







LANKESTERIANA


B .. ''








2.8mm

2.8 mm


2.1 mm


8 mm


8 mm

F




0.8 mm


8 mm

G




0.8 mm


3.2 mm


2 mm


FIGURE 2. Reproductive organs ofDracula lafleurii (A-I) and D. felix (J-K); Dracula llf[eitii: Column and hypochile
with raphide crystals, petals and sepals have been removed; B -pollinia; C -bivalvate petal; D -ventral view of
the column, rostellum in open position, pollinia removed; E -ventral view of the column, rostellum in closed position,
pollinia removed; F -frontal view of the rostellum; G -ventral view of the rostellum; H lateral view of the
labellum; I -frontal view of the labellum; J -lateral view of the labellum of Draculafelix K -frontal view of the
labellum of D. felix showing raphides. Illustrations by Lorena Endara.


IANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.








ENDARA et. al. -Dracula pollination


bed with two waxy, subhemispherical pollinia (Fig.
2b), which are separated from the stigmatic cavity by
a rostellar flap with incurved margins (Fig. 2d, e, f,
g). The labellum is flexibly attached to the base of
the column by membranous tissue of labellar origin,
which provides elasticity and allows movement of
the labellum (Fig. 2a). The labellum is divided in
two sections: a basal, narrow portion (hypochile)
and a distal, expanded, usually concave segment
(epichile) with the appearance of the gills of an
inverted mushroom. In both species, the hypochile
is a complex structure that has a central cleft with
sinuous lateral margins (Fig. 2h, i, j, k).
The epichiles ofDracula lafleurii andD.felix differ
greatly. In D. lafleurii it is subglobose with a complex
inner arrangement of lamellae that radiate from the
hypochile and branch outwards (Fig. 2i). Its outer
surface is smooth and is covered by a lustrous film on
the first day of anthesis (Fig. Ic). The epichile of D.
felix is pandurate, shallow and concave with a rather
simple network of lamellae with small raphides (Fig.
2 k). The lustrous film that is present in D. lafleurii
was not detected in D. felix. The column, petals,
and labellum hypochile frame a small space, here
designated as the columnar chamber. In D. lafleurii,
the columnar chamber measures 2.5 x 1.5 x 3.4 mm,
while D. felix measures 1.5 x 1.3 x 3 mm (height, width
and depth respectively).

Flowering patterns and flower longevity.- The two
orchid species have very different flowering patterns.
Each Dracula lafleurii plant produces flowers in
succession that are open for 11 4.5 days (n=8). Each
inflorescence produces three to six flowers per season
(primarily December to late May). In contrast, eachD.
felix plant has a single, synchronous, massive flowering
event with 50 or more flowers/plant/year (depending
on size of plant), and the flowers are open for 103
days (n=40). The flowering period of D. felix varies
between early January and late February, depending
on the year, but within a year the mass flowering lasts
only a couple of weeks. (In 1999 7-21 February; in
2002 1-15 January; in 2008 15-31 January, and in 2009
a few were flowering in the 4th week of December, but
many more had buds). We did not find evidence for
sugary floral rewards; Combur strips laid on exudates
had no reaction, indicating a lack of reducing sugars.


Floral visitors and their behavior.- Most visitors of
Dracula lafleurii and D. felix were flies of the family
Drosophilidae, and most of them were species of
Zygothrica (Table 1). With the exception of specimens
10 (Cladochaeta sp.), 22 (Drosophila [Sophophora]
sp.), and 27 and 29 (Drosophila bromeliae species
group), all of the drosophilids in this study are largely
mycophilous. No significant difference in fly sex
ratios was documented, but differences were found in
the composition of the guilds visiting the two species
(Table 1). Visitors ofD. lafleurii and D. felix behaved
differently and are thus described separately below.

Dracula lafleurii.- The total number of fly visits/
flower varied from four to 22 (n= 5 flowers), with the
majority of visits (64%) occurring between 0900 and
1300 hr. The earliest visit was at 07:43 and the latest
at 15:58. On the first day of anthesis no visits were
recorded, which coincides with the period when the
labellum had a lustrous appearance (Fig. Ic). Visitation
started on the second day and was most intense during
the third through fifth days of anthesis, with 85% of
the recorded visits taking place on these three days
(Fig. 4a). Visitation rates were 72 visits/5 flowers/55
hours = 0.26 visitors/flower/hour and the pollinia were
removed from all five flowers. The flies landed either
on the epichile, the inner surface of the sepals, or on
the sepaline tails. Flies often perched on the sepaline
tails, or they followed them toward the inner blade of
the sepal and sometimes the epichile was reached (Fig.
Id). Landing was followed by resting, or by one of
two activities: combing the wings with the hind legs,
or repetitive lapping at the surface of the flower with
their proboscis. The latter activity is the most commonly
performed by visiting flies (Fig. 1 e). We observed flower
guarding and fidelity of flies to particular flowers. The
flies spent a long time in the flowers, averaging 70.8
minutes per visit (range = <1-323 min). Visit duration
depended on the day since the flower opened (ANOVA
F 2.19685, P=0.0510; Fig. 4b), with no visits occurring
on the first and last (7th) days of observation.

Flies congregate on the inner surface of the
sepaline blades or on the inner and outer portions of the
labellum's epichile. During periods of high visitation
(7 to 18 flies simultaneously) an interesting display
of interactions occurred among visitors. Flies posed
on the sepals or the epichile, or advancing towards

LANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universdad de Costa Rica, 2010.








LANKESTERIANA


Table 1. Visitors to flowers of Draculafelix and D. lafleurii. Specimens that removed pollinia are marked with an asterisk
(*), specimens that deposited pollinia are marked with a double asterisk (**), n/d indicates no data. Abbreviations:
aff. affinity, sp. species, n. sp. new species.

Draculafelix
Family Visitors
Drosophilidae Cladochaeta sp. 1
.ii,.... sp. 1 aff candens-ptilialis 1
.i,... sp. 4 aff spiculirostris, n. sp. 2
ii .. .. sp. 5 aff spiculirostris, n. sp. *,** 1 1*,**
Sphaeroceridae Pterogramma sp. n/d n/d
Staphylinidae Subfm. Aleocharinae n/d n/d

Dracula lafleurii


Family
Drosophilidae


Lauxaniidae


Visitors
Drosophila sp. (bromeliae group)
Drosophila sp. (subgenus Sophophora)
Hirtodrosophila sp. 1
Hirtodrosophila sp. 2 near levigata-glabrifrons
.i ..... antedispar
i ...i.. paraldrichi
.i.... sp.3 near bilinefilia
.i ..i .... sp. 7 u. t. ... group
.i ..i .... sp. 8 i, ..... group
.i ../ .... sp. 9 1 ,u., .... group
.i . .i ... sp. 10 , .i, ... group
Minettia sp.


n/d n/d


it, engaged in semaphoring (slow, repetitive, side-to-
side movements made with the wings when they are
extended 45 from each other and raised 45 above
the abdomen), flicking (wings extended slowly and
alternately more than 90 from their resting position
over the abdomen), scissoring (wings simultaneously
and rapidly extended about 90 to the longitudinal axis
of the body) and vibrating wing movements (Figs.
If, 3a). Zygothrica antedispar advanced towards the
labellum performing a different wing movement than
those aforementioned. These flies lift the left wing
followed by both wings and combine this with repeated
lapping at the surface of the flowers. Foreleg slashing
and head butting were less frequently displayed.
Hirtodrosophila and the Drosophila bromeliae
group visitors especially displayed these aggressive
behaviors, displacing other flies in the epichile or the
ones entering the columnar chamber. Some individuals
of Zygothrica remained on the upper proximal surface
of the labellum during their visit.

ANKESTERIANA 10(1), Aprl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


Draculafelix.- The massive flower production of
this species, the erratic behavior of the small flies,
and their superficial similarity to each other made
it impossible to record visit duration for individual
insect species, so we report only the number of
visits. Normally, flies landed on the internal blade of
the dorsal sepal and moved rapidly into the flower,
lapping and sucking the inner surface of the sepals
and eventually reaching the labellum. Visitation rates
were high: 70 visits/47 flowers/1.25 hrs = 1.19 per
flower per hour. Like in D. lafleurii, we observed
flower guarding and fidelity of flies to particular
flowers (Fig. 3b), but this was less pronounced on D.
felix. Unlike inD. lafleurii, we never observed mating
in the flowers of D. felix.

In addition to flies, web-building spiders
(Fig. 3c) and staphylinid beetles of the subfamily
Aleocharinae were occasionally observed in
Dracula flowers.









ENDARA et. al. -Dracula pollination 7


FIGURE 3. A -Lapping and semaphoring behavior displayed by visitors of Dracula lafleurii and territorial behavior on
labellum; B -Zygothrica territorial behavior on D. itflelmi lip; C -A spider capturing flies on the dorsal sepal of
D. lafleurii; D -Zygothrica sp. entering the columnar chamber ofD. lafleurii; E -SEM of the pollinia ofD. lafleurii
attached to the scutellum of. I ,i A....., antedispar; wg: wing, pl: pollinia, sc: scutellum; F -. ,.i..,.- sp. 5 (aff.
spiculirostris) trapped in columnar chamber of Draculafelix; c: column, pt: petal, lb: labellum.


LANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2010.








LANKESTERIANA


A. Percent of visits by day
0-




0-

5-

0-

5-


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Day of flower being open


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Day of flower being open
FIGURE 4. Summary of visitation by flying insects to D.
lafleurii for each day the flowers were open (n=5
flowers, 72 visitors). A percentage of total visits by
day; B -duration of visits by day (mean s.e.).

Pollination mechanism

Dracula lafleurii.- Flies that lap at the inner
surface of the labellum epichile are guided by
lamellae that radiate from the hypochile. The wings
lie over the abdomen and touch the apex of the
column; the fly enters into the columnar chamber
(Fig. 3d) and advances towards the base of the

IANKESTERIANA 10(1), Apnl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


hypochile while constantly lapping the surface.
The hind legs reach a slope on the margins of the
distal portion of the hypochile and the fly makes
repeated attempts to advance towards the base of
the hypochile, but the mid and hind legs slide on
this slope, slightly pushing the labellum away from
the column. The thorax of the fly is then trapped by
the incurved margins of the claw-like rostellar flap
(Fig. 2f, g) and attempts of the fly to move further
or escape are unsuccessful. The fly's movements are
interrupted by short pauses in which the legs stop
moving, the labellum returns to its normal position,
and the fly is gently pressed against the column. The
ventral part of the fly's body rests on the central cleft
of the hypochile and the thorax and abdomen form an
angle that leaves the scutellum free. After alternating
periods of activity and pause, the scutellum becomes
coated with a sticky fluid secreted by the rostellum,
which then sticks to the caudicles of the pollinia (Fig.
3e). The rostellum remains partially attached to the
fly as the fly backs out and pulls the pollinia out of
the anther bed. Simultaneously, the rostellum is
pulled forward and covers the stigmatic cavity (Fig.
2d, e). The loaded fly is released from the rostellum,
the anther cap falls and the fly immediately leaves
the columnar chamber. The duration of the process
from initial trapping to pollinia removal varied from
47 to 65 minutes and was performed by three species
of Zygothrica: Z. antedispar and Zygothrica spp.
9 and 10. Once liberated, flies loaded with pollinia
fell into the epichile or flew to the sepals, sepaline
tails or to other flowers, but no case did flies remain
for extended periods in the same flower. Curiously,
flies loaded with pollinia flew to other flowers and
immediately tried to enter the columnar chamber of
other D. lafleurii flowers. No deposition of pollinia
in the stigmatic cavity was observed in this species.
One fly i -, il,, 1... sp. 8) was found trapped in the
columnar cavity probably after depositing pollinia.

Dracula felix.- The pollination process resembles
that of D. lafleurii, with the main difference being that
the flies visiting and pollinating these smaller flowers
enter directly into the columnar chamber. Zygothrica
spp. 1,4, 5, and 8 removed pollinia, but the only pollinia
deposition observed was conducted by Zygothrica cf.
antedispar. Zygothrica spp. 4 and 5 are undescribed








ENDARA et. al. -Dracula pollination


species closely related to Z spiculirostris, all of which
have a distinctive, long, fine proboscis. When a fly
loaded with pollinia enters the columnar chamber, the
pollinia lodge into the sticky stigmatic cavity and the
fly is trapped again. Flies will then spread their wings
45 apart and these become pressed against the column
by the inner surface of the bivalvate petals. One
observed fly was liberated after the pollinia deposition,
but it was common to find dead flies trapped in flowers
with developing capsules in this species (Fig. 3f).

Post-pollinia removal and post pollination effects

After the pollinia have been removed in Dracula
lafleurii and D. felix the rostellum moves partially
forward, covering the stigmatic cavity. The rostellum
returns to its original position a few minutes after
the pollinia have been removed. After the deposition
of pollinia, the stigmatic cavity engulfs the pollen
masses and the column starts to swell. After the 7th
day of being open, or after pollinia removal, flowers
of D. lafleurii become darker at the junction of the
lateral and dorsal sepals. The mobility of the labellum
and its relative position to the column loosen and the
labellum separates from the column. After pollinia
removal or the 5th day of the flowers being open, the
fragrance stops being mushroom-like and becomes
sweet instead.

Discussion

We have shown that the flowers are attractive to
mycophilous flies, and that these insects pollinate
them. Several species of Zygothrica and the closely
related drosophilid genus Hirtodrosophila are attracted
to these orchids (Courtney et al. 1990, Grimaldi
1990). Both genera are well known to congregate
at fungi, particularly at white ones. A number of the
flies we found were undescribed. This genus is large,
and primarily Neotropical with approximately 120
described species and perhaps an additional 100 as
yet undescribed species (Grimaldi 1987); it is only
partially revised taxonomically.
We observed that some Z',.-.l ,.. species
aggressively defend their territory from other males on
the sepals ofaDracula flower, while others defend their
territory on top of the labellum, analogous to the pilei
of mushrooms in the same way that some Zygothrica


partition their territories on mushrooms (Burla 1990).
In contrast, other non-Z ,. il, 1., visitors approached
any small dark insect silhouetted against the white
surface and displayed various wing movements
regardless of conspecificity. The aggregation and
courtship behavior triggered by small dark forms
suggests that the small dots on most Dracula sepals
may serve as a visual attractant for these mycophilous
flies. Moreover, the pigmented wings ofZ. paraldrichi
(Fig. If, showing scissoring movement) and Z.
antedispar bear remarkable resemblance to the petals
of most Dracula species, leading us to hypothesize that
the petals could trigger mating behavior in the flies and
prompt them to approach the columnar chamber. While
we observed courtship and mating in the flowers, no
eggs were discovered in the flowers.
Fragrances are likely to be important for attracting
the flies that visit Dracula. While Dracula felix has
little human-observable fragrance, D. lafleurii smells
mushroom-like and mushroom fragrance compounds
have been isolated from other Dracula species (Kaiser
2006). Flies approached D. lafleurii flowers with a
seemingly scent-oriented flight (directly, in a spiral
or in a zigzag pattern), and some hovered near the
labellum before landing on it. Other visitors hovered
at 5 cm or less in front of the flower before landing on
the sepals. To understand the links between fragrance,
mimicry and pollinator behavior, future work with
Dracula fragrances should document the extent of
natural variation and selection acting on it.
The number and diversity of Zygothrica flies
coming to Dracula flowers was remarkable, with
at least five species of drosophilids from the present
study being new to science. Z,. ,- i,, ... flies were the
only ones that carried pollinia and are the best suited as
pollinators of the insect visitors observed. For example,
it is unlikely that Cladochaeta and Hirtodrosophila
visitors, due to their smaller size, would be able to
remove or deposit pollinia. However, it is interesting
that two of these three fly genera are primarily
mycophagous (Grimaldi & Nguyen 1999). The larvae
of Minnetia and Pterogramma are saprophagous
and those of Cladochaeta are mostly parasites of
spittlebugs or they feed within flowers (Grimaldi &
Nguyen 1999). In the case of Minnetia, large quantities
of fungal spores and hyphae are usually present in their
guts (Broadhead 1984).

LANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universdad de Costa Rica, 2010.








LANKESTERIANA


While a number of species of Zygothrica visited
each species of Dracula, the two orchids did not
share visitors (Table 1). This is not too surprising
given that these particular orchids mostly grow in
different habitats (mountain ridges for D. felix and
river valleys for D. lafleurii), and the flowers are very
different in overall size and morphology (see figures).
However, hybridization has been reported for other
Dracula species growing in ex situ (Luer 1989) and
several specimens with unclear species boundaries
and putative natural hybrids have been collected in
disturbed sites (Endara pers. obs.). Given our data
showing that many species of Zygothrica flies can
remove pollinia from Dracula orchids, and studies that
have shown little specificity of mycophagous flies to
particular mushrooms (Courtney et al. 1990), rampant
hybridization would seem likely.
An important question remains: What is the
nature of the film that forms on the labellum the first
day the flowers are open? Do these flowers provide
fluid nutrition through the production of putrefying or
deliquescing fluid? Repetitive lapping by Zygothrica
and other flies suggest that the flies are grazing on
some sort of liquid film. The lack of sugar indicated
by the tests could have resulted from several factors,
including: (1) not testing on the proper day (we only
tested on the first day the flowers were open, though
that was also the only time we saw anything that could
be interpreted as a liquid), (2) low concentrations of
sugars, (3) tests that are not sensitive to the sugars
present in this film or, (4) a film that is composed
mostly of lipids, proteins, or amino acids that could
serve as growth medium to yeast that is part of
mycophilus flies (Labandeira, 2005). Alternatively,
the lapping behavior is reminiscent of the same
behavior exhibited by Drosophila males during
courtship (Sturtevant 1915, Howard and Blomquist
1982; Ferveur 2007).

Synthesis and Conclusions.- Similar to mushrooms,
Dracula flowers serve as shelters and rendezvous sites
for flies during the prolonged rainy season, a potential
explanation for the tendency of extended visits by these
flies (Fig. 4b). Despite the violent disturbances caused
to the flowers by droplets of water, the spreading sepals
create a roof-like structure that protects the flower's
reproductive organs and insect visitors. The incurved
IANKESTERIANA10(1), Apnl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rca, 2010.


margins of the rostellar flap and the base of the petals,
so crucial in pollination, also play an important role
in preventing the expulsion of the pollinator from the
flower during rainy periods. The incurved margins
of the rostellar flap of Dracula flowers were not
mentioned in the original species descriptions, which
is not surprising since these structures are minute.
To our knowledge, the only previous account of this
structure an illustration of the column of Dracula
bella i....-n /rl Masdevallia bella, Woolward 1896),
which shows a frontal view of the rostellum's incurved
margins. The importance of this structure would not
have been noticed until their role in the pollination
mechanism was observed.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. For support at various times during
the project we thank: J. de Coux, R. Valencia, N. Pitman,
the staff at Herbario Pontificia Universidad Catl6ica del
Ecuador QCA, Herbario Nacional del Ecuador (QCNE),
and all the staff at Los Cedros Biological Reserve. Image
1E was kindly provided by Murray Cooper. Several people
provided valuable comments on the manuscript: Mario
Blanco, Steven Beckendorf, Bryn Dentinger, Lou Jost,
Carl Luer, Kurt Neubig, Steven Johnson, Tobias Policha,
Mark Whitten, Norris Williams, and anonymous reviewers.
Funding for this work was provided in part by the Global
Environmental Facility (GEF) Activity 16 and the San
Diego County Orchid Society to L. Endara and the National
Geographic Society (NGS grant No. 8317-07) to B. A. Roy
and B. T. M. Dentinger, and by a grant from the National
Science Foundation (DEB-0841613) to B. A. Roy and B.
T. M. Dentinger. Research permits for this project (0031C
INEFAN/DNA/NVF/VS) and (001-07 IC-F-DRCI-MA)
were facilitated by Ministerio del Ambiente de Ecuador.


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LANKESTERIANA








LANKESTERIANA10(1) 13-18 2010


CALLUS GROWTH AND PLANT REGENERATION IN LAELIA SPECIOSA

(ORCHIDACEAE)


MARCELA ESMERALDA SARABIA-OCHOA', IRENE AVILA-DiAZ2,5, ALONSO CARLOS-GOMEZ3
& RAFAEL SALGADO-GARCIGLIA4

1Universidad La Salle Morelia. Preparatoria, Av. Universidad # 500. C.P. 58880, Tarimbaro, Michoacan, Mexico.
2Facultad de Biologia, U.M.S.N.H., Edif. R plant baja, Ciudad Universitaria,
C.P. 58040, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico
3Centro de Investigaci6n Biomedica de Michoacan IMSS. Av. Madero 1200
C.P 58000, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico
4Lab. de Biotecnologia Vegetal, Instituto de Investigaciones Quimico-Biol6gicas, Universidad Michoacana de San
Nicolas de Hidalgo, U.M.S.N.H, C.P 58040, Ciudad Universitaria, Edif. B3, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico.
5 Corresponding author: iavila@oikos.unam.mx

RESUMEN. Laelia speciosa es una orquidea epifita amenazada, endemica de Mexico. Se consider que la
reproducci6n asexual in vitro puede ser una de las acciones para contrarrestar la extracci6n masiva de individuos
de sus poblaciones naturales, al ofrecer plants de calidad en el mercado. El crecimiento y diferenciaci6n de
callo derivado de explantes de hojas de L. speciosa fueron investigados en el medio de Murashige y Skoog
(MS) con 30 g 1-1 de sacarosa y cinco concentraciones (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, y 2.5 g 1-1) de acido naftalenac6tico
(ANA) en combinaci6n con benziladenina (BA, 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, y 2.5 g 1-1). Explantes de hojas de plantulas
cultivadas in vitro fueron efectivos para la formaci6n de callo en el medio MS suplementado con 2.5 mg
1-1 BA, mientras que explantes de hojas maduras no respondieron. El diametro del callo en promedio por
explante de hoja fue de 1.25 cm despu6s de ocho semanas de cultivo. El mejor desarrollo de PLBs se report
en el medio MS suplementado con 2.5 mg 1-1 ANA and 1 mg 1-1 BA. La formaci6n de plantulas se logr6
exitosamente en MS suplementado con 0.5 mg 1-1 de ANA y 0.1 mg 1-1 de GA3. Dichas plantulas fueron
aclimatadas exitosamente en invernadero con una tasa de supervivencia de 70%.
ABSTRACT. Laelia speciosa is an endangered epiphytic orchid, endemic to Mexico. It is thought that the asexual
reproduction in vitro could be one of the actions to counteract the massive extraction of individuals from their
natural populations. The growth and differentiation of callus tissues derived from leaf explants ofL. speciosa
were investigated in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) with 30 g 1-1 sucrose and five concentrations (0.0,
0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 g 1-1) of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) with benzyladenine (BA) (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0,
and 2.5 g 1-1). Leaf explants from in vitro plantlets formed callus tissue on MS medium supplemented with 2.5
mg 1-1 BA while mature leaves did not respond. Diameter of the callus tissues averaged 1.25 cm after eight
weeks of culture. PLBs development was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg 1-1 NAA and 1
mg 1-1 BA. The formation of plantlets was successfully obtained in MS supplemented with 0.5 mg 1-1 of NAA
and 0.1 mg 1-1 of gibberellic acid (GA3). Obtained plantlets were successfully acclimatized in a greenhouse
with a survival rate of 70%.
KEY WORDS: Laelia speciosa, endangered orchid, callus, plant regeneration.
ABBREVIATIONS: BA: benzyladenine; GA3: Gibberellic acid; MS: Murashige and Skoog medium; NAA,
a-naphthaleneacetic acid; PLBs: Protocorm-like bodies

Introduction. It is thought that asexual reproduction micropropagated, such as Acampe praemorsa,
is a valuable tool in the massive propagation of many Cattleya spp., Cymbidium spp., Dendrobium spp.,
orchids (Rao 1977, Arditti & Ernst 1993). Several Epidendrum radicans, Renanthera imschootiana,
species, varieties and hybrids have been asexually Laelia spp., Phalaenopsis spp., Doritaenopsis spp.,








LANKESTERIANA


among others. Efficient micropropagation methods
to obtain many plants for commercial purposes or for
their conservation have been reported (Seeni & Latha
1992, Nayak et al. 1997ab, Chen et al. 2002, Park et al.
2003, Roy & Banerjee 2003, Santos-Hemrndez et al.
2005, Lavrentyeva & Ivannikov 2007).
Laelia speciosa (HBK) Schlechter, is commonly
known as "flor de mayo" (flower of May);
"flor grande" (big flower); "flor de corpus" or
"corpo" (flower of the Day of the Holy Corpse);
"tlacux6chitl", "deantza", "itzamahua" (Purepecha)
(Halbinger & Soto 1997, Avila-Diaz pers. obs.). It
is an epiphytic orchid endemic to the central part
of Mexico, including the oak forests of the Sierra
Madre Occidental, of the Sierra Madre Oriental, the
southern part of the Altiplanicie Mexicana (Mexican
Plateau), and the Eje Neovolcanico Transversal
(Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt) (Halbinger & Soto
1997, Avila-Diaz & Oyama 2007). It blooms from
April to June, and produces an inflorescence with
1 to 2 large, pale or dark pink-lilac to purplish
flowers. The plants of this species are grown in
home gardens and they are also used in religious
ceremonies as well as to extract mucilage from
pseudobulbs to make a paste with the pith of corn,
which is used for making religious figures (Miranda
1997, Hagsater et al. 2005). Thousands of plants of
L. speciosa are usually harvested from their natural
habitats, which has caused local extinctions. Laelia
speciosa is listed as endangered species by official
Mexican law (NOM-059-ECOL) (Salazar-Chavez
1996, Halbinger & Soto 1997, Avila-Diaz & Oyama
2007).
Therefore, it is important to develop a system for
in vitro asexual propagation of L. speciosa and to
obtain high-quality plants that could be an alternative
for commercialization and, in this way, to diminish
the pressure that exists over their natural populations.
A successful protocol for in vitro propagation of
L. speciosa by seed germination has been already
developed with conservation purposes (Avila-Diaz
et al. 2009). However, plantlet regeneration from
vegetative explants has not been reported for this
species. Therefore, this study aimed induction of
calluses and regeneration of plantlets derived from
them through PLBs proliferation.
This work is part of a multidisciplinary project in
IANKESTERIANA 10(1), Apnl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


which diverse aspects of conservation biology of this
species have been studied. It also contemplates the
work done with local human communities. It is our
hope that the results from this investigation can be
applied to establish a sustainable management of this
highly-appreciated orchid.

Material and methods

Callus induction. Leaf segments of 6 month-old in
vitro Laelia speciosa plantlets obtained by seed culture
(Avila-Diaz et al. 2009), were used as explants. Also,
leaf explants from mature plants were tested, which
were surface-disinfected with 15% Neutral Plus Hyclin
(concentrated liquid detergent) (HYCEL of Mexico,
Mexico D.F.) for 5 min, followed by 70% ethanol for
5 min, 3% hydrogen peroxide for 5 min, 1.2% sodium
hypochlorite for 15-20 min, and then rinsed three times
with sterile-distilled water in a laminar flow cabinet.
Leaf segments of 0.5 cm in length and 0.3 to 0.5
cm in width, with the under surface of the leaf placed
in contact with the culture medium, were cultured
on MS basal medium (Murashige & Skoog 1962)
supplemented with NAA (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 g 1-1)
in combination with BA (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 g 1-1)
using MS without plant growth regulators (PGRs) as
control treatment. Each treatment consisted of five 120
ml-glass jars, and each of them contained 25 ml of the
medium. Five leaf explants were placed in each jar.
They were closed with clear plastic caps of Sigma, Co.
St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
Microscopic observations were carried out after
60 days of culture with a SMZ800 Nikon stereo
microscope (Mexico, D.F.). The size of the diameter of
callus was registered.
Data were analyzed using one way ANOVA and
HSD Tukey Post Hoc test. The SPSS 15.0 program for
Windows (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, USA) was used for
data analysis.

PLBs p. -,i,, -.. Eight week-old callus sections
grown on the optimal medium for callus induction
were segmented into approximately 0.5 cm diameter
segments. Five callus segments were placed on 10
ml of culture medium poured into 45 mm diameter
disposable Petri dishes with the same combinations
of NAA/BA than in the previous experiment. Five
replicates were established per treatment. After








SARABIA et al. -Callus and plant regeneration in Laelia speciosa


TABLE 1. Callus growth (diameter, cm) in leaf explants of Laelia speciosa after 60 days of culture.
NAA (mg I-1


0 00O 0.1 0.01 e 00 00O 00O
0.26 0.25 0.02 0 0 00 0.49 0.03' 0 0
0.5 0.51 0.04' 0.46 0.03' 0.55 0.03' 0 00O
1 0.48 0.04' 0.52 0.03 c 00 00 00


1.25 0.06 a


0.75 0.02 b


0.50 0.03'


0 0


Means with different letters are significantly different atp = 0.000

eight weeks, the average number of PLBs per callus
segment was estimated. Moreover, the mean length
was recorded. In addition, the overall appearance of
the cultures was registered. Analysis of data for PLBs
proliferation was done by one way ANOVA and HSD
Tukey Post Hoc test. The SPSS 15.0 program for
Windows (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, USA) was used for
all data analysis.

Plantlet development. PLBs were further developed
on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg 1-1 GA3 and
0.5 mg 1-1 NAA. This nutrient medium was selected
from previous experiments (Avila-Diaz et al. 2009).

General culture conditions. All micropropagation
and plantlet development media were based on the
MS formulation with 3% sucrose and 0.7% BIOXON
bacteriological agar (Becton, Dickinson of Mexico,
Cuautitlan Izcalli, Mexico). Growth regulators were
added in different concentrations and combinations
before autoclaving. The pH of the media was adjusted
to 5.70.1 before agar was added. Media were
autoclaved for 20 minutes at 1210C. All cultures were
kept in a growth chamber at 251C under a 16-hour
photoperiod of 36 gmol m-2 s-1 provided by fluorescent
tubes (60W).

Acclimatization. Plantlets of approximately 5 cm in
length, obtained on the MS medium supplemented with
0.5 mg 1-1 NAA and 0.1 mg 1-1 of GA3, were transplanted
in wet tezontle (volcanic gravel) oak bark (1:1) into
plastic flats, and were covered with a clear plastic lid.
Lids were gradually opened every 2 days until they were
completely removed after 15 days as was recommended
by Avila-Diaz et al. (2009). Plantlets were watering
each 8 days and survival was recorded after 30 days.


Results

Callus induction. The leaf explants from mature
plants did not show any growth when cultured in vitro
and finally turned necrotic, while those obtained from
plantlets growing in vitro formed callus. Significant
differences among the media tested were observed at
60 days following culture (F = 178.81, df = 24, p
= 0.000). Tissues of L. speciosa incubated on media
with NAA alone (0.25 mg 1-1) and with NAA/BA (1.0/
0.25 mg 1-1), developed callus (Table 1) although the
treatment with 2.5 mg 1-1 of BA without NAA carried
the best growth ofL. speciosa callus (1.25 cm-diameter
and the best quality with light-green color) (Fig. 1A).
This treatment was significantly higher than all other
investigated. Low dosis (0.25 mg 1-1) of NAA with 2.5
mg 1-1 of BA was the second best treatment for callus
growth (Table 1).

PLBs p.- i'"..a. Induction of L. speciosa PLBs
showed significant differences among the media
tested (F = 64.11, df = 24, p =0.000). Treatments that
generated significantly higher number of PLBs were
MS medium with 2.5 mg 1-1 NAA with 1.0 mg 1-1 of
BA, MS medium with 2.5 mg 1-1 of BA, and 0.5 mg
1-1 NAA with 0.5 mg 1-1 BA 60 days following culture
(Fig. 1B, Fig. 2). PLBs grown on 2.5 mg 1- NAA/1.0
mg 1-1 BA showed longer mean length (0.7 mm) than
the 2.5 mg 1-1 BA(0.4 mm) and 0.5 mg 1-1 NAAwith 0.5
mg v BA (0.5 mm) treatments, also on 2.5 mg 1-1 NAA
/1.0 mg 1-1 BA medium the development of one or two
roots of up to 2 cm long with velamen was obtained
(Fig. 1C), whereas the other media did not induced any
root.

Plantlet development. -PLBs developed successfully
LANKESTERIANA 0(1), April 2010. 0 Universdad de Costa Rica, 2010.


BA (mg I-1)


0 0








LANKESTERIANA


FIGURE 1. A -Callus formation in Laelia speciosa on MS media with 2.5 mg 1-1 of BA. B -Proliferation of PLBs
protocorm-like bodies on MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg 1- NAA and 1 mg 11 BA. C -Plantlets with roots
subcultured on MS supplemented with 0.5 mg 1-1 of NAA and 0.1 mg 1-1 of GA3. D -Plantlets acclimatized in greenhouse
for 30 days. E -Three years old plantlets to be used for hand crafts.


to plantlet on the selected nutrient medium (Avila-
Diaz et al. 2009). When they reached 3 cm in height
they were transplanted to the greenhouse for their
acclimatization.

Acclimatization. Survival of plantlets of L. speciosa
transferred in tezontle-oak bark substrate was 70% in
the greenhouse (Fig. ID, lE).


Discussion

According to the results of this work, the use of L.
speciosa leaf segments from in vitro grown plantlets
as explants can be considered effective for the asexual
propagation of this species. Other micropropagation
studies in epiphytic orchids have shown that different
sections of the plants can be used as explants, such
as: flower stalk sections, buds, leaf primordium,
tip and basal part of the leaves, shoot-tips, root tips

IANKESTERIANA 0(1), Apnl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


(Arditti et al. 1972, Seeni & Latha 1992, Nayak et
al. 1997a, 1997b, Chen et al. 2002, Park et al. 2003,
Roy & Banerjee 2003, Santos-Hemandez et al. 2005,
Lavrentyeva & Ivannikov 2007). In general, it has
been reported that the young tissues are more adequate
than mature ones for the induction of PLBs or shoots
(Seeni & Latha 1992, Murthy & Pyati, 2001). In many
cases, such as in our experiments, explants from in
vitro cultures have given successful results (Nayak et
al. 1997a, Murthy & Pyati, 2001, Chen et al. 2002,
Park et al. 2003, Salazar & Mata 2003, Condemarin-
Montealegre et al. 2007, Lavrentyeva & Ivannikov
2007).
The induction of callus in L. speciosa on MS
medium supplemented with NAA resembles the results
of Avila-Diaz et al. (2009), using complete seedlings
grown in vitro as explants; nevertheless, in this
particular investigation, we obtained higher induction








SARABIA et al. -Callus and plant regeneration in Laelia speciosa


o) 7-
6--1
5


2-
1-

0 oo o O.nC N oi o O- o o jco sCN
C 0 mMo-c cs 0 0
0-6

NAA/BA (mg I- )

FIGURE 2. Mean number of PLBs after 60 days of subculture
of leaf explants on media with NAA and BA. Treatments
that generated significantly higher number of PLBs are
marked with *

rates when BA was added to the MS media using
plantlet's leaves as explants. The induction of callus
in L. speciosa with high concentrations of BA (2.5 mg
1-1), whether alone or in combination with NAA (0.25
mg 1-1), is similar to what has been reported for other
orchid species; the callus induction is favored by the
addition of cytokinins along or in combination with
auxins as in the case of Dendrobium fimbriatum, in
which optimum callusing was recorded in the presence
of 1.0 mg 1-' BAP and 0.5 mg 1-' NAA (Roy & Banerjee
2003). In Epidendrum radicans, small transparent
tissues enlarged and developed calluses when cultured
with thidiazuron (TDZ) under light (Chen et al. 2002).
The cytokinin and auxin balance is also important
in PLBs formation. A concentration of 2.5 mg 1-1
NAA and 1 mg 1-1 BA induced the highest formation
of the largest PLBs in L. speciosa. In many orchids,
PLB or shoot induction has been accomplished with
cytokinins alone or in combination with auxins.
The response to different concentrations is variable,
depending on the species. For example, inEpidendrum
radicans homogenized PLB tissues produced by
blending were used as explant to test the effects of
four cytokinins. The best response on number of PLBs
per tube was found on a basal medium supplemented
with 1 mg 1-1 BA (Chen et al. 2002). However, in
Acampe praemorsa shoot buds were induced on MS
medium supplemented with 1 mg 1-1 TDZ, while shoot
elongation and leaf expansion were promoted with 0.5


mg 1-' BA and 2.0 mg 1-' NAA (Nayak et al. 1997a).
On the other hand, in Aerides maculosum, Mormodes
tuxtlensis and Cuitlauzina pendula, PLBs or shoots
were inducted with BA alone (Murthy & Pyati 2001,
Salazar & Mata 2003) and in Lycaste skinneri with
NAA alone (Salazar & Mata 2003).

The plantlet survival rate during acclimatization
(70%) is close to that reported by Avila et al. (2009) for
L. speciosa seedlings cultivated in vitro (77.5%). More
investigation is recommended about acclimatization of
this species to increase its survival.

The method of asexual propagation developed in
this study for L. speciosa is efficient. 28 plants can be
obtained from each single explant in 10 to 12 months
and if the callus is subcultured, it is possible to obtain
much more individuals. This is considered useful for
an abundant production of orchids, which can be used
for commercialization of ornamental plants or for the
elaboration of arts and crafts.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. The authors want to express their
most sincere recognition and appreciation to Miguel
Angel Soto Arenas who was always willing to support our
multidisciplinary project with Laelia speciosa, sharing the
depth of his knowledge and passion for these beautiful
plants. To Dr. Ken Oyama, who is co-responsible as a close
collaborator in other facets of this project. To A. Valencia
for his technical assistance. This research was supported
by Fondo Mexicano para la Conservaci6n de la Naturaleza
(FMCN, project A 1-'*'' I ;,, and by Coordinaci6n de la
Investigaci6n Cientifica, Universidad Michoacana de San
Nicolas de Hidalgo (CIC).



LITERATURE CITED

Arditti, J. & R. Ernst. 1993. Micropropagation of Orchids.
John Wiley and Sons. New York.
Arditti, J., E. Ball & M. Churchill. 1972. Propagaci6n clonal
de orquideas utilizando apices de hojas. Orquidea
(Mexico City) 2: 290-300.
Avila-Diaz, I. & K. Oyama. 2007. Conservation genetics of
an endemic and endangered epiphytic Laelia speciosa
(Orchidaceae). Am. J. Bot. 94: 184-193
Avila-Diaz, I., K. Oyama, C. G6mez-Alonso & R. Salgado-
Garciglia. 2009. In vitro propagation of the endangered
orchid Laelia speciosa. Plant Cell Tiss. Organ Cult.
99:335-343.
Chen, L.R., J.T. Chen & W.C. Chang. 2002. Efficient
production of protocorm-like bodies and plant

LANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2010.









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regeneration from flower stalk explants of the
sympodial orchid Epidendrum radicans. In Vitro Cell.
Dev. Biol.-Plant 38: 441-445
Condemarin-Montealegre, C.E., J. Chico-Ruiz & C. Vargas-
Arteaga. 2007. Efecto del acido indolbutirico (IBA) y
6-bencilaminopurina (BAP) en el desarrollo in vitro de
yemas axilares de Encyclia microtos (Rchb.F.) Hoehne
(Orchidaceae). Lankesteriana 7: 247-254.
Hagsater, E., M.A. Soto-Arenas, G.A. Salazar, R.M.
Jimenez, M.A. Lopez Rosas, & R.L. Dressier.
2005. Las orquideas de Mexico. Chinoin Productos
Farmac6uticos, S.A. de C.V. Mexico.
Halbinger, F. & M.A. Soto. 1997. Laelia speciosa
(H.B.K.) Schltr. In: Hagsater E., M.A. Soto, E.
Greenwood, R.L. Dressier, P.J. Cribb, J. Rzedowski,
PM. Catling, C.J. Sheviak & F. Chiang [eds.],
Laelias of Mexico, Orquidea (M6x.)15: 133-142.
Mexico City, Mexico.
Lavrentyeva, A.M. & R.V. Ivannikov. 2007. In vitro
propagation of Cattleya Lindl. and Laelia Lindl.
species. Lankesteriana 7: 147-149.
Miranda, F. 1997. Sobrevivencia de artesanias prehispanicas
pp 35-48 in Manos Michoacanas, Instituto de
Investigaciones Hist6ricas. Gob. Del Edo. De
Michoacan, Colegio de Michoacan, UMSNH, Mexico.
Murashige, T. & F. Skoog. 1962. A revised medium for rapid
growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures.
Physiol Plant 15:473-497.
Murthy, H.N., A.N. Pyati. 2001. Micropropagation of
Aerides maculosum Lindl. (Orchidaceae). In Vitro Cell
Dev. Biol. Plant. 37:223-226.
Nayak, N.R., S. Patnaik & S.P Rath. 1997a. Direct shoot
regeneration from foliar explants of an epiphytic
orchid, Acampe praemorsa (Roxb.) Blater and Mc


Cann. Plant Cell Reports 16: 583-586.
Nayak, N.R., S.P Rath &S. Patnaik. 1997b. In vitro
propagation of three epiphytic orchids, Cymbidium
aloifolium (L) Sw., Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb.)
Fisch. Dendrobium moschatum (Buch-Ham) Sw.
through thidiazuron -induced high frequency shoot
proliferation. Scientia Horticulturae 71:243-250.
Park, S.Y., H.N. Murthy, K.Y. Paek. 2003. Protocorm-like
body induction and subsequent plant regeneration
from root tip cultures ofDoritaenopsis. Plant Sci.164:
919-923.
Rao, A.N. 1977. Tissue culture in orchid industry. In: Bajaj,
Y.PS., Reinert J. Applied and Fundamental Aspects
of Plants, Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture. Springer-
Verlag. Berlin. pp. 44-69.
Roy, J. & Banerjee N. 2003. Induction of callus and plant
regeneration from shoot-tip explants of Dendrobium
fimbriatum Lindl. var oculatum Hk. f. Scientia
Horticulturae 97: 333-340.
Salazar-Chavez, G.A. 1996. Conservation threats. In:
IUCN/SSC Orchid Specialist Group (ed) Orchids:
status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN,
Gland. Pp. 6-10.
Salazar R.V. & R.M. Mata. 2003. Micropropagaci6n y
conservaci6n de orquideas mexicanas en el Jardin
Botanico Clavijero. Lankesteriana 7: 151-153.
Santos-Hernandez, L., M. Martinez-Garcia, J. E. Campos
& .L.E. Aguirre. 2005. In vitro propagation of Laelia
albida (Orchidaceae) for conservation and ornamental
purposes in Mexico. HortScience 40: 439-442.
Seeni S. & PG. Latha. 1992. Foliar regeneration of the
endangered Red Vanda, Renanthera imschootiana
Rolfe (Orchidaceae). Plant Cell Tiss. Organ Cult. 29:
167-172.


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IANKESTERIANA 10(1) 1947 2010


ORCHID ITINERARIES OF AUGUSTUS R. ENDRES IN CENTRALAMERICA:

A BIOGRAPHIC AND GEOGRAPHIC SKETCH


CARLOS OSSENBACH'12, FRANCO PUPULIN'31,4 & RUDOLF JENNY5

1 Centro de Investigaci6n en Orquideas de los Andes "Angel Andreetta",
Universidad Alfredo Perez Guerrero, Ecuador
2 Orquideario 25 de Mayo, San Jose, Costa Rica
3Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica
4 Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A.
5 Jany Renz Herbarium, Swiss Orchid Foundation

ABSTRACT. A.R. Endres, as he was known until recent research revealed most of his relevant biographical
data, was the most important orchid collector to visit Costa Rica. Besides collecting the type specimens
for some one hundred new orchid species, he discovered, described and illustrated thousands of orchid
plants, most of which remained still undescribed during his life time. One of the outstanding aspects of the
collections made by Endres in just a few years in the post-colonial Costa Rica of the Nineteenth century is
his impressive knowledge of the country, in terms of geographical coverage, which in several cases extended
beyond the limits of the already explored territories. The present paper presents for the first time the most
important biographical facts about Endres' life and his orchidologic work in Central America. The main
exploratory routes made by Endres are highlighted in the framework of the social geography of his time, and a
complete catalogue of the localities where he made his orchid collections, referenced to modem geographical
coordinates, is presented.
RESUMEN. A.R. Endres, como fue conocido hasta que investigaciones recientes revelaron gran parte de
sus datos biograficos relevantes, fue el mas important collector de orquideas que jams visit Costa Rica.
Ademas de recolectar los especimenes tipo de casi un centenar de nuevas species de orquideas, Endres
descubri6, describi6 e ilustr6 miles de plants de orquideas, muchas de ellas aun sin describir a la 6poca de
sus hallazgos. Uno de los rasgos sobresalientes de las colecciones llevadas a cabo por Endres en la Costa
Rica post-colonial del siglo diecinueve es su impresionante conocimiento del pais, en t6rminos de cobertura
geografica, que en muchos casos se extiende mas alla de los limits de los territories ya explorados en estos
entonces. El present trabajo present por vez primera los datos biograficos mas importantes de Endres y de
su trabajo orquidol6gico enAmerica Central. Se resaltan las rutas exploratorias mas relevantes realizadas por
Endres, explicandolas en el marco de la geografia social de su 6poca y se present un catalogo complete de las
localidades en las que realize sus colectas, referenciandolas con coordenadas geograficas modemas.

KEY WORDS: Augustus R. Endres, botanical history, orchidology, Costa Rica, geography


"There is a young man by the name of A. R.
Endres living in Costa Rica, who has devoted the
past four orfive years to investigating the Botany
of the interior of that republic. He is still devoted
to that purpose and has made many important
discoveries of new plants.
I have no doubt that you might draw him into
correspondence withyou, altho 'his correspondence
is c(l1i l, i, il, -,ropean botanists, andparticularly
with Reichenbach, the distinguished orchidologist
of Germany, to whom Mr. Endres sends the major


portion of his collections for description and
publication" (John M. Dow, 1873).

Introduction. The disclosure of Costa Rican orchid
diversity during the second half of the Nineteenth
century is profoundly indebted to the exploratory
and botanical work by Augustus R. Endres. Heinrich
Gustav Reichenbach (1870, 1871, 1872a, 1872b,
1872ca, 1872d, 1872e, 1873, 1874a, 1874b, 1875a,
1875b, 1875c, 1875d, 1876, 1877a, 1877b, 1881,
1883), George Nicholson (1886), Friedrich Richard








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Rudolf Schlechter (1921), Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig
Krfinzlin (1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1925), Carlyle
August Luer (1992, 1995, 1996, 1999), and Franco
Pupulin (2001), described almost one hundred orchid
species on the basis of plants collected by Endres
during his journey in Costa Rica. The type specimens
collected by Endres belong today to several orchid
genera, such as Ada Lindl., Barbosella Schltr.,
Barkeria Knowles & Westc., Benzingia Dodson,
(C .i*../' *.. ,i,-,. (Dressler) Senghas & Gerlach,
Cischweinfia Dressler & N.H. Wiliams, Cryptarrhena
R.Br., Dichaea Lindl., Epidendrum L., Huntleya
Batem. ex Lindl.,Kefersteinia Rchb.f., Lepanthes Sw.,
Lockhartia Hook., Lycaste Lindl., Masdevallia Ruiz
& Pav., Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav., Maxillariella M.A.
Blanco & Camevali, Miltoniopsis Godefr. & Leb.,
Nitidobulbon I. Ojeda, Camevali & G.A. Romero,
Oncidium Sw, Pleurothallis R.Br., Pleurothallopsis
Porto & Brade, Polycycnis Rchb.f, Restrepia Kunth,
Scaphosepalum Pfitz., M.,.h/-l/..v,, Poepp. &
Endl., Sievekingia Rchb.f, Sigmatostalix Rchb.b.,
Stanhopea Frost. ex Hook., Stelis Sw, Stenotyla
Dressier, Telipogon Kunth, Trichocentrum Poepp. &
Endl., Trisetella Luer, and Zootrophion Luer.
The thousands of plants, sketches, analytical
drawings, habitat notes and botanical descriptions
prepared by Endres from 1866 to 1874, when he mostly
resided in Costa Rica and now at the Herbarium and
the Archives of the Natural History Museum in Vienna
(NHMW), form an extraordinary legacy, still today
largely waiting for in-depth scrutiny and interpretation.
Besides the relatively few taxa based on his Costa Rica
gatherings, Endres collected, illustrated and described
literally hundreds of species that were still new to the
science at the time of his findings. These materials are
now fully accessible to the public through the web
page of the NHMW (2010), where high-resolution
digital images of Endres' botanical legacy were made
available thanks to a joint effort by the NHMW, the
University of Costa Rica, and the Jany Renz Herbarium
at the University of Basel.
Very little, however, was traditionally known about
Endres himself, with the exception of the preliminary
attempts at biographical sketches offered by Luer
(1995) and variously taken up again by Atwood and
Mora-Retana (1992-1993), Ossenbach (2003, 2009),
and Pupulin and Ossenbach (2005).
IANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


One of the outstanding aspects of the collections
made by Endres in just a few years in the post-colonial
Costa Rica of the Nineteenth century is his impressive
knowledge of the country, in terms of geographical
coverage. Several of the localities indicated by Endres in
his notes, or affixed to the dry specimens and drawings
he regularly sent to his main correspondent, Prof
Reichenbach at Hamburg, were at that time at the extreme
bounds of the known territories of a still unexplored
country. Some of them correspond today to prosperous
villages and towns, but they are recorded by Endres just
as the farms and hamlets, mines, pastures, trails, or simple
sites, as they were at the time he visited these localities
for the first time. The present paper is a first attempt to
produce a complete catalogue of the itineraries and the
localities where Endres made his orchid collections,
explaining them in the framework of the social geography
of Nineteenth Century Costa Rica, and giving them a
modem geographical reference (Appendix 1).
The only exception, and one that can only be
explained by sheer lack of time, is that there is not
a single orchid specimen collected by Endres in the
mountain pass of La Palma, to the North and Northwest
of San Jose, in the saddle between the Barva and Irazu
volcanoes. Although easily accessible through the
old trail to Carrillo, this area was not explored until
the first decades of the Twentieth Century, when the
Brade brothers, Werckl6, Tonduz, and many others
discovered dozens of new species, mostly described
by Rudolf Schlechter.

Augustus R. Endres (1838-1874) A few days after
Christmas, in the last days of the year 1866, a young
botanist of just 28 years of age landed at Greytown
(=San Juan del Norte) on the Caribbean coast of
Nicaragua (Endres, 1867). Augustus R. Endres, bom
in the small village of Herbitzheim in Alsace as the
son of the local school teacher on November 27, 1838
(Herbitzheim, 2008) had preceded his family, who
emigrated some years later to the United States, and
arrived in New York sometime in the year of 1855
(Archives d6partementales du Bas-Rhin, 2010a,
2010b). Eleven years later, on December 13, 1866,
Endres was granted U.S. citizenship and received an
American passport (United States National Archives
and Records Administration, 2008, 2008b). On the
same day, and with a freshly signed contract in his








OSSENBACH et al. -Endres' orchid itineraries in Central America


FIGURE 1. Map of Costa Rica by Wagner & Scherzer. The most modern map of the country available at the time of Endres'
arrival. In Wagner & Scherzer, 1856.


pocket to collect orchids for James Bateman of England
and Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach, Director of the
Hamburg Botanical Garden, he applied for a passport,
with which he embarked on the next available ship to
Central America (Endres, 1871). However, although
being born as a citizen of the French Empire and
having obtained the United States nationality, Endres
remained, through the rest of his short life, faithful to
his German extraction, culture and language.
Over the next seven and a half years Endres would
become a legendary figure in the botanical exploration
of Costa Rica and undoubtedly the most important
orchidologist who ever visited the Central American
countries (Fig. 1-2). In 1871 he rescinded his
contract with Bateman and Reichenbach and went into


an agreement with the house of Veitch, which lasted
until 1873 (Endres, 1871; Veitch, 1906).
On January 12, 1874, shortly before leaving Costa
Rica, Endres wrote in San Jose his last known letter
to Captain John M. Dow. Having failed in achieving
the celebrity and prosperity he always dreamed of,
his words were full of bitterness: "Reichenbach has
lately repeated his proposal of buying my dried orch.
collections andl fear ourfirst interview will be a stormy
one. I begin to consider these cabinet-celebrities as
vampires nourishing their inflated fame at the cost of
the lifeblood of those poor fools they condescendingly
call "collectors", and I am .... -.. /-1,1 disgusted, at
moments, with the pursuits I have so passionately
followed for seven years (Endres, 1874).

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FIGURE 2. General map of the known itineraries by A.R. Endres in Costa Rica.


In April of 1874 Endres left Costa Rica on a
journey from which he would never return. After
traveling to Puntarenas and sailing from there to
Panama, he embarked to Europe in April of 1874
(Endres, 1874). During the early summer of 1874 he
met with Reichenbach in Hamburg. Nothing is known
about their conversation, except for a brief note by
Reichenbach who in 1875 wrote that he had had "a
few ,1, l 1,liil,, days, full of Orchid talk and chat, with
Messrs. Roezl andEndres at Hamburg" (Reichenbach,
1875b).

IANKESTERIANA 10(1), Apnl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


On July 15 of that year he embarked again for
America, this time in the company of the famous
Czech plant collector Benedikt Roezl, landing on
August 2 in New York (United States National
Archives and Records Administration, 2008c). After a
short excursion with Roezl to Niagara Falls, he sailed
to Barranquilla, on the Caribbean coast of Colombia.
During the last week of October he continued on
what would be his last collecting excursion, this time
eastwards to the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta. After
falling ill with pleurisy in the small village of San








OSSENBACH et al. -Endres' orchid itineraries in Central America


-.a _-=--_ -_ :


,1


=__7


---I c-~~7Y

Qi.i


FIGURE 3. King Street in Greytown. In Vargas, 2008.

Antonio, at 3,000 feet altitude on the northeastern slope
of the Sierra, he was brought by local Indians to the
costal village of Dibulla, where, in the words of Franz
Flux, officer of the German Consulate in Barranquilla,
"he started on his journey to the afterworld at the end
ofNovember [of 1874] "(Flux, 1875).

The orchid itineraries of Augustus R. Endres
in Costa Rica

THE 'FAR' NORTHEAST AND THE ROAD OF SARAPIQUI. -
After arriving in Greytown, Endres spent several
months in the Atlantic region of Nicaragua and Costa
Rica. According to undocumented reports, Endres
settled temporarily with English and German colonists
along the San Carlos and Sarapiqui rivers (L.D. Gomez,
pers. comm. 2008). There he worked at least part-time
with a Mr. Koschny in beginning a plantation of native
rubber and nutmeg (Gomez, L. D. in Luer, 1995).
The port of Greytown, and the rivers San Juan and
Sarapiqui were part of the "road of Sarapiqui", at that


time the only route connecting the highland valleys
of Costa Rica and the Caribbean coast. Travelers
embarked in Greytown (Fig.3) on primitive canoes
and after navigating the treacherous sandbars on the
mouth of the San Juan went up the river and continued
into the Sarapiqui until they reached the village of El
Muelle, the only available river landing on this stream.
From there, on foot and on mules, travelers took the
trail to the villages of La Virgen and San Miguel
through virgin forests and climbed over the mountain
pass of El Desengafio, descending from an altitude of
almost 10,000 feet to Costa Rica's Central Valley and
the country's capital, San Jose (Fig. 4). Only passable
during the dry season, the road was equally important
to travelers and for the import of goods into the
country. Costa Rica's first piano and first printing press
came into the country via Greytown and Sarapiqui.
The first notice of this route dates back to 1620,
when Diego de Mercado, at the request of the
Spanish authorities, who were interested in finding
a way between the Atlantic and the Pacific because

LANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universdad de Costa Rica, 2010.








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FIGURE 4. The 'far' Northeast and the road of Sarapiqui. 1
San Juan (Greytown). 2 Muelle. 3 San Miguel. 4
San Jose.

of the insalubrity of Panama, submitted a report to
the government in Guatemala in which he stated that
he had found the desired communication along two
different routes. "The first one navigating upstream
along the 'Desaguadero' [the Drainage, or the San Juan
River] to the mouth of the Sarapiqui, then upstream
for more than twenty leagues and from that point to
the Royal Embarkment (the mouth of the Tempisque
River on the Pacific coast). The road was of 'hard earth
and not marshy'..." The other route consisted in what
was later known as the Nicaragua Canal, sailing the
San Juan River upstream to the Lake of Nicaragua
and building from there a canal to the Pacific Coast
(Secretaria de Gobiemo, 1924).
Shortly after Costa Rica's independence from Spain
in 1821, Richard Trevithick (1771-1833), a British
inventor and mining engineer, whose most significant
success had been the high pressure steam engine and
IANKESTERIANA 10(1), Aprl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


the first full-scale working railway steam locomotive,
arrived in Costa Rica hoping to develop mining
machinery. He spent time looking for a practical route
to transport ore and equipment, settling on using the
San Juan River, the Sarapiqui River, and then a railway
to cover the remaining distance. Trevithick had in
mind a steam-driven and not a mule-driven railway.
After almost loosing his life along the route, Trevithick
abandoned the idea in 1827, returned to England and
never came back to Costa Rica (Guti6rez Braun, 1981).
The road of Sarapiqui lost importance against the
route from Costa Rica's Pacific port of Puntarenas to
Panama and Colon once the railroad across the Isthmus
of Panama was inaugurated in 1855.
A more easterly route to the road of Sarapiqui was
built in 1880, which communicated San Jose with
the Sucio River and joined there the new railroad to
Port Limon. It was named the 'road of Carrillo', in
remembrance of President Braulio Carrillo (1800-
1845) who had first envisioned the need for better
communications with the Atlantic region. Finally,
the railroad between San Jose and Port Limon was
completed in 1890. However, the road of Sarapiqui,
expanded in the early 1900's for the circulation of
motor vehicles, remained the most important access
to Costa Rica's Atlantic region until the late 1960's,
when the present roads to Port Limon (the first over
Turrialba and Siquirres and the second other over the
Zurqui tunnel) were inaugurated.
Endres first known orchid collection in Costa Rica,
a specimen of Dichaea trulla Rchb. f, carries the
date "1866" (W Rchb-Orch 18037/W 0019163, Fig.
5) and was undoubtedly collected in the Caribbean
watersheds of the Sarapiqui and San Juan rivers, where
this species is still fairly common. There is no mention
of other plant collections by Endres along the "road of
Sarapiqui", but we know that he arrived in San Jose on
May 25, 1867, after following this route. In a letter of
that date to Capt. John M. Dow, Endres writes about
having 'lately' received a letter from a Mr. Buchanan
[of New York] in Greytown, indicating that he had
been living in that region from December 1866 until at
least March or April of 1867. In said letter to Dow he
states that he "arrived here [in San Jose] this morning"
(Endres, 1867).
It is interesting that Endres' first impression of
Costa Rica was that "it [...] would be a useless waste








OSSENBACH et al. -Endres' orchid itineraries in Central America


'. 1.7


- .


U .\


4%


'\


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C--r


FIGURE 5. Dichaea trulla Rchb. f. (W Rchb-Orch 18037/W
Rica.
-(4ii.. and labor to c.1, I ... i1 i... here as he wrote
to Dow (Endres, 1867). He was under the impression
that the collectors who had visited the country before
him had already taken "all that could be found within
the country ". It is fortunate that he apparently changed
his mind. In the years to come, Endres traveled
throughout Costa Rica, reaching every region that was
accessible at that time. The exceptions where the North
and Northwestern regions (the westernmost part of the
province of Alajuela and the region of Guanacaste),
where orchids were large in quantity but small in
diversity (and thus of little interest to Endres), and the
Pacific and Atlantic coastal regions of Southeastern
Costa Rica, practically inaccessible at that time and
only partially surveyed during the last two decades of
the 19 century by explorers like the American geologist
William Gabb, Archbishop Bernard A. Thiel, and the
Swiss naturalist Henri Pittier. One of the smallest
Central American countries, Costa Rica had in 1868
just about 128,000 inhabitants (Paniagua, 1943:


0019163). Endres first known collection of a orchid in Costa


44). Large portions of the country were still covered
by virgin forests that were fertile ground for plant
collectors. As an example, Endres wrote on one of
his herbarium specimens (Ornithidium, W Rchb-Orch
35997/0018715), that it could be found "by thousands,
north of Santa Maria. "

THE 'NEAR EAST : THE ROAD TO TURRIALBA, THE
TURRIALBA VOLCANO, TURRIALBA AND SURROUNDINGS
(1867 AND SECOND HALF OF 1872). The region of
Turrialba was the first to be explored in Costa Rica by
Endres (Fig. 6). As he wrote to Spencer F. Baird, "In
June 1867, I left ajar of Hummers [=hummingbirds]
preserved in spirits, at the "Angostura... (Endres,
1869). He referred to the small village of Angostura,
just East of the city of Turrialba, and to his activities
as collector of birds, which he alternated with his
main objective, the orchids. There is a list of birds at
the United States National Museum, all collected by
Endres in Costa Rica. Of these, we find 37 specimens

IANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universdad de Costa Rica, 2010.








LANKESTERIANA


FIGURE 6. The 'near East': the road to Turrialba, the Turrialba
volcano, Turrialba and surroundings. 1 Cartago. 2
Juan Vifas. 3 -Turrialba volcano. 4 Turrialba. 5
Santa Cruz. 6 Pejibaye.

of hummingbirds (Family Trochilidae) and one
specimen of jacamar (Family Galbulidae). Two of the
hummingbird specimens were described by Lawrence
as new species: Eupherusa nigriventris (Fig. 7) and
Glaucis aeneus. Others proved to be new records for
the fauna of the State, in the words of Baird (1869).
He would return to the area some years later. In
a letter to Dow of September, 1872, he wrote that he
had "lately scaled the Volcan de Turialba" (Endres,
1872). It is probable that this excursion to the volcano
was part of his failed excursion to Talamanca, which
took place in May of 1872. Also possible is that Endres
stayed on that occasion (May-September 1872) for a
longer period of time in the area of Turrialba, traveling
and collecting in the neighborhood of that city.
On his way to the volcano, Endres must have
stopped at the house of Eusebio Ortiz, a place which he

IANKESTERIANA 10(1), Apnl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


had visited before and that is mentioned frequently on
his herbarium labels, described by Endres as follows:
"Sitio [site] de Eusebio Ortiz. Southwestern slopes of
Vulc. Turialba. Road from Cartago to Turialba. After
crossing the river Birris, where the same gentleman
possesses a saw-mill, one takes the cuesta [steep
incline on a road] (Iglesias' new road) and before
reaching the height, follows on the left until reaching
the Potrero [pasture] where a house is found at a
altitude of about 5,000 feet" (Endres, 1869b). On the
road from Cartago to Turrialba, Endres collected in
Paraiso, Cervantes, Birris, Quebrada Honda, Naranjo,
Juan Vifias, Chiz and Colorado. To the North of
Turrialba he names Guayabo. To the Southeast we have
seen labels from Atirro, B6veda, and Angostura, where
he probably stayed at the house of the German teacher
Karl Lammich (Lammich had arrived at Angostura as
part of the group that attempted to establish a German
colony under the direction of Baron Alexander von
Bulow. The attempt ended in 1854 as a total failure
and most Germans abandoned the area, but Lammich
stayed behind and lived for years at Angostura). To
the South and Southeast he was in Pejibaye, Azul
and Tucurrique, connecting from there again through
Guatuso and Tejar with the southern part of Cartago
and the road to San Jose.

THE 'FAR' EAST: THE ATLANTIC REGION (MAY 1872). -
Endres excursions to the Atlantic region had probably
the city of Cartago as their point of origin (Fig. 8), and
were related to the construction of the railroad from
San Jose to Puerto or Port of Limon. In October of 1872
Endres wrote to Dow about his intention of forming a
collection of plants with the help of Wilhelm Nanne
(then in charge of the construction of the railway)
and said he hoped that "he may give the necessary
instructions to his staff of engineers for the purpose ".
Endres was also offered to take part in the exploration
of the region of Talamanca by W.M. Gabb (1839-1878,
an American geologist who was hired in 1873 by Minor
Keith, the builder of the railroad to Limon, to explore
the region of Talamanca in search of the legendary gold
mines of Rio la Estrella and Tisingal, 'for the purpose
of working out a report on the vegetation / di, eastern
coast". And speaking of Talamanca, he wrote that
"Last May [1872] already, I started in that direction
but was dissuaded before I reached Limon (Endres,





OSSENBACH et al. -Endres' orchid itineraries in Central America

K.


i


FIGURE 7. Eupherusa nigriventris Lawrence. A new species of hummingbird collected by Endres. Illustration by Jose
Alberto Perez Arrieta.
LANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2010.







LANKESTERIANA


FIGURE 8. The 'far' East: the Atlantic Region. 1 Cartago.
2 Turrialba. 3 -Siquirres. 4 Matina.


1872b). It was undoubtedly during this excursion that
he met Georg Mullner at his Hacienda Cafio Seco, and
Mallner's hospitality which earned him the dedication
of Lepanthes muellneriana (an unpublished name by
Endres for Lepanthes candida Endres ex Luer; W
Rchb-Orch 7618/W0019675, Fig. 9). Mullner and his
partner, another German by the name Schaifer, had held
important positions in the railway company (Bovallius,
1974) and it is therefore probable that it was Nanne,
who was directing the construction of the railway, who
referred Endres to Cafio Seco. Nanne was rewarded
with the dedication by Endres of Lepanthes nanneana
(a manuscript, unpublished name for Lepanthes bradei
Schltr.; WRchb-Orch 7620/W0019685, Fig. 10).
It was in preparation of his excursion to Talamanca
that Endres read Valentini's manuscript about the
discovery and conquest of the Atlantic region of
ANKESTERIANA 10(1), Aprl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


FIGURE 9. Lepanthes muellneriana [= Lepanthes candida
Endres ex Luer] (W Rchb-Orch 7618/0019675).
Dedicated by Endres to Georg Muellner, his host at
Hacienda Cafio Seco.
Central America (Valentini, 1869) and Wagner and
Scherzer's famous book about Costa Rica (Wagner and
Scherzer 1856). A reference to these works is given by
Endres in his 'Notizbuch II' (Endres, 1870). Endres
extracted from Wagner and Scherzer a vocabulary of
words of the Bribri language (spoken by the natives of
Talamanca), with its translation into German. Several
specimens of lonopsis, one of them bearing the label
'Common in Atlantic coast betw. Pacuare & Matina
in the Cacao haciendas del "Bejuco"' (W Rchb-
Orch 35959/W0019741) were collected during that
excursion. Moreover, many of his collections on the
route from Angostura to the Atlantic ocean are labeled
"May", which is coincident with the indication in the
above mentioned letter (Endres, 1872b). Finally, in his
letter to Endres of October1872, Captain Dow wrote: "I
am also glad to hear you have got some first [orchids]


)I








OSSENBACH et al. -Endres' orchid itineraries in Central America


FIGURE 10. Lepanthes nanneana [= Lepanthes bradei
Schltr.] (W Rchb-Orch 7620/0019685). Endres' tribute
to Wilhelm Nanne.


from the rivers of the eastern slope of the Cordillera"
(Dow, 1872b). Molina had described the road to Matina
as "extremely laborious", having to pass through large
rivers without bridges, and large swamps. One had to
rent horses in Cartago and ride through Turrialba to the
Matina river, and take boats from there to the mouth of
the river on the Atlantic shore. The journey took almost
a whole month (Molina 1851).
Although the locality of Fajardo (near Ujarras,
on the Reventaz6n River) lies on the original route
which was proposed for the railroad, we do not know
if Endres' orchid collections in that area (Fajardo,
Ujarras, Orosi) were made during the excursion
sponsored by W. Nanne or on a different occasion. Let
us remember that the railroad was originally planned
to run along the Eastern bank of the Reventaz6n, but
the rocks of Fajardo proved to be an insurmountable


FIGURE 11. South and Southeast of Cartago, the ascend to
the Paramo de Vueltas and Cerro Buena Vista, and the
'new' road to Terraba. 1 San Jose. 2 Cartago. 3 -San
Pablo. 4 -Copey. 5 -Cerro Vueltas. 6 -Cerro de la
Muerte. 7 -Division.

obstacle. The route was afterwards changed to the
Western bank of the river, running from Cartago to
Cervantes, Juan Vifias and Turrialba.

SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST OF CARTAGO, THE ASCENT TO
THE PARAMO DE VUELTAS (ALSO CALLED PARAMO DE
DOTA) AND CERRO BUENA VISTA, AND THE 'NEW' ROAD
TO TERRABA. There were two routes into the
Talamanca mountain range (Fig. 11). The first went
from San Jose through Desamparados and Tablazo to
Corralillo and Frailes, and from there to Boca de Dota
(named also Atarrazu, today the city of San Marcos
de Tarrazu). In Tarrazu there is frequent mention by
Endres of the "savannas of Ramon Zufliga". Ramon
Zuifiga Barahona had been one of the founders of
the village and probably another of the many people
whose hospitality was enjoyed by Endres during his

LANKESTERIANA 10(1), Aprl 2010. 0 Umversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.








LANKESTERIANA


"' * '- a *- .4/ad2rn .4c- I



























FIGURE 12. Masdevallia [ Scaphosepalum mycrodacylum
Rolfe] (W Rchb-Orch 38548/W0020768). Collected by
Endres in Atarrazi.


travels. Santa Maria de Dota was founded somewhat
later by settlers who came from Tarrazu and from
there a road was built to the hamlet of Copey.
The second route started from Cartago, and went
through El Tejar, were Endres mentions the lime-kilns
of Ana Cleta Mayorga [1809-1877, a rich widow,
owner of an important coffee farm near Paraiso,
and one of the first women in Costa Rica who took
an active part in politics (Gutierrez Braun, 1981)],
passed near Pizirres (where he stayed at the house of
Rafael Calderon) and went on to Estrella and Copey,
following more or less the course of the present Pan-
American Highway.
Both routes interconnected through the road from
Cartago through Tobosi to Corralillo, and Endres
mentions a number of different localities in this area
in his collections, such as Copalchi, Alumbre and the
road to Palo Blanco.
From the indications on his herbarium sheets,
it seems that Endres traveled both of the routes to

IANKESTERIANA 0(1), Aprl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


/I.
I,


.-


/ ,,

j/ ..' ,"


6'


4
- I *'


,.- *'-4 ..



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^ .. -.- ?.-


.1

'IL 4
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FIGURE 13. Ponera fastuosa [= Scaphyglottis pulchella
(Schltr.) L.O.Williams] (W Rchb-Orch 33226/
W0020722). Collected by Endres on the road from
Cartago to San Cristobal and Copey.

the region of Dota. From the first, Endres recorded
Masdevallia (= Scaphosepalum microdactylum
Rolfe; W Rchb-Orch 38548/W0020768, Fig. 12) and
Trichocentrum saundersianum (= Trichocentrum
pfavii Rchb. f; W Rchb-Orch 37148/W0020946),
while from the route to Copey he gathered Ponera
fastuosa (= M.,.!l .'..*, pulchella (Schltr.) L.O.
Wms.; W Rchb-Orch 33226/W0020272, Fig. 13) and
Platystele propinqua (Ames) Garay (W Rchb-Orch
38623/W0020363).
From Copey, Pedro Calderon started, in 1866, to
explore a trail across the mountains, trying to reach
the Valley of El General and the region of Terraba.
Calderon, a native of San Ramon, was accompanied
by his son-in-law Juan Lopez. While Pedro Calderon
spent months at a time in the mountains, his son-in-law
returned every three months to San Ramon, to visit his
family, a journey of over two weeks each way. It may
well be that Endres learned about this area from Juan
Lopez, and that he decided to travel with him when








OSSENBACH et al. -Endres' orchid itineraries in Central America


.-Qr


IA~


FIGURE 14. North of Cartago: the slopes of the Irazi volcano.
1 Cartago. 2 -San Rafael. 3 Irazi volcano. 4 -Santa
Cruz.

he returned to the mountains. Calderon and Lopez
received shelter and supplies from Patricio Granados,
a landowner in Copey who is often named (as "the
savanna de los Granados") by Endres on his labels.
Endres makes specific mention on one of his labels (W
Rchb-Orch 38502/W0019335, Fig. 18) of Calderon's
trail (the 'Picada de Pedro Calderon') and on several
of his specimens from Dota mentions 'the [new] road
to Terraba', not to be confused with the "old road to
Terraba", which went from Tarrazu on a south-westerly
course to the Pacific plains in the neighbourhood of
Quepos. Endres traveled on the first part of this "old"
road and collected as far as Cerro Pito (see, among
others, WRchb-Orch 38627/W0021719).

NORTH OF CARTAGO: THE SLOPES OF THE IRAZiU
VOLCANO. Although no exact date is known for
his excursion, Endres collected on the slopes of the


FIGURE 15. Ascent to the Irazi volcano. In Vargas, 2008.



Irazu volcano (Fig. 14-15). In his description of
the flora of the Turrialba volcano, he writes to Dow
(Endres, 1872): "... yet the flora is much the same
as that of the contiguous Volc. Irazu, interspersed
with a few sp. from the crest of Dota. Clearly, he
had been on the Irazu and in Dota before ascending
to the Turrialba. Endres names several collecting
localities in this area: Cot, Potrero Cerrado, Pascon
(near Pacayas), 'Felipe Diaz' (a Spanish conqueror,
who in 1569 had been granted a large part of Cot and
its neighborhood) and Cerro Grande (W Rchb-Orch
38538/W0019322; WRchb-Orch 36720/W0021668;
and many others).

THE NORTHWEST: SAN RAMON AND SURROUNDINGS AND
THE ROAD TO SAN CARLOS (1867-1874). The town of
San Ramon was not only the favorite collecting area
for Endres, but for most of his time in Costa Rica also
LANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universdad de Costa Rica, 2010.








LANKESTERIANA


FIGURE 17. San Ramon, ca. 1880. Courtesy of Alvaro
Castro H.


/* /39


Fl^ ^, S,,^ --


7/





/*r


FIGURE 16. The Northwest: San Ramon and surroundings
and the road to San Carlos. 1 Alajuela. 2 -Zarcero. 3
-Ciudad Quesada. 4 -San Ramon. 5 Arenal Volcano.

his place of residence (Fig. 16). From his letters to
Captain Dow and Prof. Baird we know that he lived
in San Ramon at least from November 1867 until
April 1874. In September of 1872 he even bought a
piece of property in the center of the town (Archivos
Nacionales, 2008; Fig. 17). At least four herbarium
specimens with collecting localities close to San
Ramon (Quebrada Verde, Cerros de los Palmares)
are dated in 1867, a clear indication that this area was
explored by Endres from the very beginning of his
stay in Costa Rica.
Endres first came to San Ramon in the last half
of 1867, after he was named superintendent for the
construction of the road to San Carlos, which led from
the district of Los Angeles (to the North-Northwest
of San Ramon) to the Cataratas River and from there
to the "navigable waters of the San Carlos River"
(Endres, 1869). This is the route which Endres calls
"the road to San Carlos" or "the new road to San
Carlos". However, in a few cases Endres mentions "the

IANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


FIGURE 18. Stelis argentata Lindl. (W Rchb-Orch 142213/
W1889-0142213). Collected in Zarcero, along the 'old'
road to San Carlos.

old road to San Carlos". This road went from Alajuela
to Grecia and passed through Zarcero, Zapote and
the La Vieja River. It had been opened in 1850 by the
expedition of Martinez and Toledo and was of military
importance during the campaign of 1856 against the
troops of William Walker (Hilje, 2008). After the war,
it was abandoned. In Endres' time it must have been
no more than a trail (W Rchb-Orch 142213/W1889-
0142213; Fig. 18).
Living in San Ramon, Endres could travel in any
direction and find undisturbed forests, ideal for his
purposes. Journeys of no more than 1-3 days brought
him to the North, to the hacienda of Ramon Rodriguez
Sol6rzano (one of the founding fathers and the first
mayor of San Ramon) at Silencio, the ford at the San
Lorenzo River, to Quebrada Verde (near Balsa), and
reaching as far as the headwaters of the San Carlos
River. The trail to San Carlos, at the ford of the San
Lorenzo River, was also known as 'picada de Nelson',
or 'Nelson's path', and Endres mentions the house of


,"'5"-'


~- '








OSSENBACH et al. -Endres' orchid itineraries in Central America


55L


FIGURE 19. The West: the road from San Ramon to
Puntarenas. 1 San Ramon. 2 Atenas. 3 -San Mateo.
4 Esparza. 5 -Puntarenas.

P. Nelson in this area. His incursions to the Arenal
Volcano (called at that time 'Cerro de los Guatusos')
were surely coincidental with his travels during the
construction of the road to San Carlos.
To the Northeast, passing through the hacienda
of Julian Volio (the village of Volio of present days)
he collected in Zarcero, Palmira, Laguna, Zapote and
Tapezco. A note in his "Notizbuch II" (Endres, 1870)
reads "Sarcero, June 10th, 1871". To the Southeast
we have seen specimens from Palmares, Candelaria,
San Roque and Grecia. To the Southwest he collected
in Rio Jesus and the lime-kilns of La Calera. To the
South he described plants from Dujardin's Hacienda
La Francia and to the Northwest from La Paz,
Potrerillos, and the rivers Piedras and Barranca.
Near Potrerillos he mentions the "lands of Teresa
Rodriguez", meaning undoubtedly Teresa de Jesus
Rodriguez Vega, the widow of Pioquinto Alvarado
Arrieta (1816-1843), another of the founding fathers
of San Ramon.


seg. Laat
FIGURE 20. Brassavola nodosa (L.) Lindl. (W Rchb-Orch
5522/W0019047). "Along the Pacific shore, near
Chacarita. "

THE WEST: THE ROAD FROM SAN RAMON TO
PUNTARENAS. The 'National Road', connecting
the capital city of San Jose and the port of
Puntarenas, on the Pacific, was built between 1844
and 1846 and was the only road apt for oxcarts
in Central America at that time. Although Endres
probably could have found a shorter route to
Puntarenas, it seems clear, from his letters, that he
traveled always first to Atenas (through Palmares
and Candelaria), and then on the National Road to
San Mateo, rivers Paires and Jesus Maria, Esparza,
Barranca and Chacarita until reaching the harbour
(Fig. 19). All of these places are well documented
on orchid collections by Endres, who still uses for
this road the name "Camino Real" [Royal road]
from Costa Rica's colonial times (i.e., W Rchb-
Orch 38586/W0020193; W Rchb-Orch 5522/
W0019047, Fig. 20). Other collecting localities of
Endres near this route are Rio Grande, Balsa and
Picagres.

LANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universdad de Costa Rica, 2010.








LANKESTERIANA


C,


"ii",,: -".at~ ,
FIGURE 21. South, Southeast, and Southwest of San Jose. 1
-San Jose. 2 -Cartago. 3 -Tres Rios. 4 -Santa Ana.
5 -Santiago. 6 Aserri.

His visits to Puntarenas had seemingly always the
same purpose, which was to meet his friend and mentor
Captain John Melmoth Dow, but this route was also
important for Endres because it was via Puntarenas
that he received his mail and that he sent his plants and
herbarium specimens.

SOUTH, SOUTHEAST, AND SOUTHWEST OF SAN JOSE.
- There are no documents to tell us when Endres
collected in this area. According to L.D. Gomez (pers.
comm. 2006), we assume that, in the first months of
residence in Costa Rica, he lived for some time in
San Jose, and this may have been the time to explore
the surroundings of the city (Fig. 21). He could have
taken the route to Aserri and from there to Tabarcia and
Pacaca exploring on the way the mountains of Tablazo
and Cerro del Dragon (all named on his herbarium
labels: WRchb-Orch 36218/W0019352, Fig. 22). He
also collected on the hills of Carpintera (to the East of
San Jose) and Pico Blanco, to the Southwest. When

IANKESTERIANA10(1), Apnl 2010. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


FIGURE 22. Lepanthes inescata Luer (W Rchb-Orch 36218/
W0019352). Named by Endres Lepanthes tabarciae,
after the village of Tabarcia, southeast of San Jose.

travelling from San Jose to Cartago, Endres seemingly
always used the old colonial road, from San Jose to
Desamparados and from there over Patarra and Tobosi
to Tejar and Cartago, thus traveling along the southern
flank of the Carpintera mountains, rather than over the
'modern' road through Tres Rios. This road was known
as the "camino por lo alto" [road along the heights]
or Cavall6n's road [Juan de Cavall6n y Arboleda
(1524-1565) was a Spanish conqueror who in 1561
founded Garcimufioz, the first Spanish city in Costa
Rica's central valley, situated at the present location of
Desamparados].

THE CENTRAL MOUNTAIN RANGE (PoAS AND BARVA
VOLCANOES). -Again, we have no dates for Endres'
collections along the southern slope of the Central
Mountain Range. However, he names frequently
localities along the route to the Poas (also called
by him 'Volcan de los Votos') and Barva volcanoes
and seems to be quite familiar with that area (Fig.
23). San Isidro, Itiquis River, Desengafio, Poas
and Barba are names which are often found on the
herbarium specimens preserved in Vienna. Charles
Lankester, who seems to have been familiar with
Endres' itineraries, wrote about Varablanca, a
locality on the pass of Desengafio: i ,,.i worked
it, but probably mainly for horticultural uluntt'"
(Lankester, 1923). North of the village of Barva,
Endres seems to have been acquainted with Pio


- A e








OSSENBACH et al. -Endres' orchid itineraries in Central America


FIGURE 23. The Central Mountain Range (Poas and Barva
volcanoes). 1 San Jose. 2 -Heredia. 3 -Poas volcano.
4 Alajuela. 5 -Sarchi. 6 -Varablanca. 7 -Palmares.
8 -San Ramon.

Murillo, the owner of a large farm close to the
crater of the Barva volcano.
It is clear that Endres was well acquainted
with this region. One of his notes on a herbarium
sheet preserved at Vienna (W Rchb-Orch 36911/
W0021520) reads: "Plenty of the Poas Sobralia
along the road from Alajuela (Camino de las Canoas)
to Desengaio, some 2,000 yds. above Casorla's
Hacienda growing on the respaldos [embankments
of the road] (terrestrial). Further up towards where
the "Tambor "river crosses the road, Odontoglossum
cariniferum with ovate oblong, [...] bulbs, ovate
acute leaves and a 2-3 ft. long erect stout 50-60 fl.
panicled peduncle and rachis somewhat glaucous.
On the same spot a pendulous 8 in. long Epidendrum
with lanceolate acuminate fleshy green leaves flat
[...] behind. Flowers in a slender fine branched
irregular shortpanicle, pale [...] lilac, spurred, small,
inconspicuous. Sept. Oct. Among the Poas Sobralia,
Fregea Batemanniana with deep purplish carmine


FIGURE 24. Fregea batemanniana [= Sobralia amabilis
(Rchb.f.) L.O. Williams] (W Rchb-Orch 16179-
W0019788). Collected by Endres on the southern
slopes of the Barva volcano.

flower, the base oflabellum white blotched with deep
crimson. Above Santa Barbara plenty ofEpidendrum
campylostalix, Odontoglossum pulchellum ? the
Candelaria & Pocis variety. Above San Isidro
(Alajuela) Epidendrum campylostalix, Lycaste
candida, Odontoglossum pulchellum and some plants
of Odontoglossum cariniferum (W Rchb-Orch 38546/
W0019496; Fig. 24).
A man named Jose Mora seems to have been
Endres' guide to the Poas volcano. In his Notizbuch II
(Endres, 1870) Endres mentions a 6-day journey to the
volcano, for which Mora was paid $4,50 (Pesos, the
Costa Rican currency of that time).


THE JOURNEY OF AUGUSTUS R. ENDRES TO PANAMA. -
Endres traveled to Panama sometime between May
1871 and April 1872 (Fig. 25). In September 1872
Endres wrote to Dow from Puntarenas "for the first
time since my visit to the isthmus have I come down
to the port... (Endres, 1872), remembering his

LANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


. slllmu
-?-=-


:;;'








LANKESTERIANA


w 002#?1O


9#,1 f


_... -+--- -- -,* ^aT.B .1 hhi~ter.r ..
FIGURE 25. The journey ofAugustus R. Endres to Panama.

visit to Panama which had the purpose of delivering
in good conditions to the transatlantic steamer a
shipment of orchids to Veitch. As Dow wrote later
to Endres: "I am sorry the Messrs. Veitch were not
,.,~ir, ,,. with the remittance you took so much pain
to accompany to Aspinwall" (Dow, 1872c). From
his few collection dates, it can be assumed that he
arrived in Panama sometime in June of 1871 and
embarked for his return to Costa Rica on April 12,
1872. This means that he could have been as much
as 10 months away from San Ramon. The main
purpose of this trip was clearly not the collection
of orchids, of which barely a dozen can be found
in the archives of the NHMW (W Rchb-Orch 5547/
W0020710; Fig. 26).
Also, in Hortus Veitchii (Veitch, 1906),
concerning Epidendrum lindleyanum, one reads:
"The variety Centerae was introduced by us from
Costa Rica, in 1873, through M. Endres; and
dedicated to Mrs. Center, the wife of the then
superintendent of the Panama Railway". Endres was
obviously familiar with Panama, the railway and
its officials and the fact that Endres had suggested

IANKESTERIANA 10(1), Aprl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rca, 2010.


FIGURE 26. Schomburgkia [= Caularthron bilamellatum
(Rchb. f.) R.E. Schult.] (W Rchb-Orch 5547/
W0020710). Collected by Endres at San Pablo Station,
Panama railroad.


FIGURE 27. San Pablo Station, Panama Railroad. In Vargas,
2008.








OSSENBACH et al. -Endres' orchid itineraries in Central America


the name Restrepia centereana for the specimen
of Restrepia trichoglossa collected by him, we
presume that the superintendent's wife had made
quite an impression on him.
We also presume that Endres was using the railway
to reach the eastern seaboard of Central America to
sail home to Europe as there was no deep-sea port
on the Atlantic coast of Costa Rica. One therefore
wonders if the superintendent was aware of the honour
subsequently bestowed on his wife by a passing
stranger if indeed he was just a passing stranger
(Manning, 2008). The localities indicated by Endres
on his specimens are all referred to the railway, namely
three of its stations: San Pablo (Fig. 27), Obispo, and
Matachin.
Endres introduction to Alexander Center and his
family must again have been the work of John M.
Dow. Dow was a good friend of the family. In April
1872 he wrote to his wife: "... knowing of my intimacy
with the Center family... and further on, in the same
letter: "... so far as their society is concerned I would
not ask for more agreeable company than they [Mrs.
Center and her daughters] have proved themselves to
be (Dow, 1872).


LITERATURE CITED
Archives d6partementales du Bas-Rhin (in Strasbourg),
2010. Document 1TP/PRI374: letter from Philippe
Endres to the Prefect of the Department du Bas-Rhin,
indicating that his son Auguste is living with his
grandfather Auguste Reeb in New York at that time,
July 18, 1857.
Archives d6partementales du Bas-Rhin (in Strasbourg),
2010a. passport application ofAuguste Reeb from 1855.
Archives Nacionales, Costa Rica, 2008. Protocolos Lara
& Chamorro, document CR-AN-AH-LYCH-000731-
T12-F60: purchase of a property in San Ramon by
'Agustin' Endres.
Atwood, J. & D.E. Mora de Retana, 1992-1993. Orchids
of Costa Rica. Icones Plantarum Tropicarum, Series
I, Fascicles 15 & 16. Marie Selby Botanical Gardens,
Sarasota, Florida.
Dow, J.M. 1872. Letter to his wife, April 12, 1872. John
Melmoth Dow papers, #2765. Division of Rare and
Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
Dow, J.M. 1872b. Letter to A. R. Endres, October 12, 1872.
John Melmoth Dow papers, #2765. Division of Rare
and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
Dow, J.M. 1872c. Letter to A. R. Endres, November 15,


1872. John Melmoth Dow papers, #2765. Division of
Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University
Library.
Dow, J.M. 1873. Letter to George W. Clinton, President
of the Buffalo Society, July 15, 1873. John Melmoth
Dow papers, #2765. Division of Rare and Manuscript
Collections, Cornell University Library.
Baird, S.F., 1869. Letter to A. R. Endres, March 23, 1869.
Archives of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington
D.C.
Endres, A.R. 1867. Letter to Captain John M. Dow, May
25, 1867. John Melmoth Dow papers, #2765. Division
of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University
Library. He writes that he has been recently in Greytown.
Endres, A.R. 1869. Letter to Spencer F. Baird, January 23,
1869. Archives of the Smithsonian Institution.
Endres, A.R. 1869b. 'Notizbuch I', one of the Endres'
manuscripts at the Vienna Archives.
Endres, A.R. 1870. 'Notizbuch II', one of the Endres'
manuscripts at the Vienna Archives.
Endres, A.R. 1871. Letter to Captain John M. Dow,
September 27, 1872. John MelmothDow papers, #2765.
Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell
University Library. Endres indicates that he had been
under contract with Bateman and Reichenbach until
that date, and he will work from now on for Veitch &
Sons.
Endres, A.R. 1872. Letter to Captain John M. Dow,
September 27, 1872. John MelmothDow papers, #2765.
Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell
University Library.
Endres, A.R. 1872b. Letter to Captain John M. Dow,
October 18, 1872. John MelmothDow papers, #2765.
Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell
University Library.
Endres, A.R. 1874. Letter to Captain John M. Dow, January
12, 1874. John Melmoth Dow papers, #2765. Division
of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University
Library. This is his last letter to Dow, where he indicates
that he will leave for Europe in April of that year.
Flux, F. 1875. Letter to Hermann Tetens, February 15, 1875.
Archives of the Vienna Natural History Museum.
Gutierrez Braun, H. 1981. La ingenieria en Costa Rica 1502-
1903. Editorial Tecnol6gica de Costa Rica, Cartago.
Herbitzheim (City of), 2008. Index of Birth Records #70:
Auguste Endres, Nov. 27.
Hilje, L. 2008. Desde el ausente muelle, en Muelle. Tribuna
Democratica, 13 de febrero. San Jose.
Kraenzlin, F.W. 1920. Orchidaceae Quaedam Americanae.
Videnskabelige Meddelelser 71: 169-180.
Kraenzlin, F.W. 1921. Masdevalliae novae. Repert. Spec.
Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 411-438.
Kraenzlin, F.W. 1922. Orchidaceae-Monandrae, Tribus
LANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universdad de Costa Rica, 2010.









LANKESTERIANA


Oncidiinae -Odontoglosseae. In: A.Engler, Das
Pflanzenreich. IV,50: 1-344 Engelmann, Leipzig.
Kraenzlin, F.W. 1923. Orchidaceae-Monandrae-Pseudomo-
nopodiales. In: A.Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV.50:
1-66. Engelmann, Leipzig.
Kraenzlin, F.W. 1925. Monographie der Gattungen
Masdevallia Ruiz et Pavon, Lothiania Kraenzl.,
Scaphosepalum Pfitzer, Cryptophorantus Barb, Rodr.,
Pseudoctomeria Kraenzl. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni
Veg. Beih. 34: 1-240.
Lankester, C. 1923. Letter to Oakes Ames, July 27, 1923.
Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica.
Luer, C. A. 1992. New species of Lepanthes Sw.
(Orchidaceae). Lindleyana 7(2): 100-118.
Luer, C. A. 1995. New species of Lepanthes (Orchidaceae)
from Costa Rica (with a biographical note on A. R.
Endres). Lindleyana 10(3): 133-175.
Luer, C. A. 1996. New species in the Pleurothallidinae
(Orchidaceae). Lindleyana 11(2): 54-113.
Luer, C. A. 1999. Miscellaneous new species in the
Pleurothallidinae. Orquideologia 21(3): 318-340.
Manning, S. (in press). Discovering New World Orchids.
Missouri Botanical Garden, 1995-2008. Proyecto Manual
de Plantas de Costa Rica: Gazetteer of Costa Rican
Plant-Collecting Locales. At the web: http://www.
mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/costaricagaz.shtml.
Molina, F. 1851. Bosquejo de la Repuiblica de Costa Rica
seguido de Apuntamientos para su Historia. S.W.
Benedict, New York.
Natural History Museum in Vienna, 2010. Virtual Herbaria,
digital images on web page. http://herbarium.univie.
ac.at/database/search.php
Nicholson, G., 1886. Illustrated dictionary of gardening.
Upcott Gill, London.
Ossenbach, C. 2003. Breve Historia de la Orquideologia en
Costa Rica. Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica,
San Jose, Costa Rica.
Ossenbach, C. 2009. Orchids and Orchidology in Central
America: 500 years of history. Lankesteriana 9(1-2):
1-268.
Paniagua, R.L. 1943. Apuntes Hist6ricos y Cr6nicas de la
Ciudad de San Ramon en su Centenario. Imprenta la
Tribuna, San Jose, Costa Rica.
Pupulin, F., 2001. Contributions to a reassessment of
Costa Rican Zygopetalinae (Orchidaceae). The genus
Kefersteinia Rchb.f. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 103B:
525-555.
Pupulin, F. & C. Ossenbach, 2005. Orchidology in Costa
Rica. Pp. xi-xxx in: Pupulin, F. (ed.), Vanishing
Beauty, Native Orchids of Costa Rica. Editorial de la
Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica.
Reichenbach, H.G. 1870. New Garden Plants: Stelis
endresii. Gard. Chron. 1870:1373-1374.

IANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


Reichenbach, H.G. 1871. New Garden Plants: Maxillaria
reichenheimiana. Gard. Chron. 1871: 1678.
Reichenbach, H.G. 1872a. New Garden Plants: Batemania
burtii. Gard. Chron. 1872: 1099.
Reichenbach, H.G. 1872b. New Garden Plants: Lockhartia
amoena. Gard. Chron. 1872: 666-667.
Reichenbach, H.G. 1872c. Maxillaria nasalis. Saunders
Refugium Botanicum 2(2): 103.
Reichenbach, H.G. 1872d. New Garden Plants: Pleurothallis
lateritia. Gard. Chron. 1872: 731.
Reichenbach, H.G. 1872e.New Gs1,1: I. i i ii .,
lacteum. Gard. Chron. 1872: 1290.
Reichenbach, H.G. 1873. New Garden Plants: Brassia
chlorops. Gard. Chron. 1873: 542.
Reichenbach, H.G. 1874. New Garden Plants: Lycaste
xytriophora, Lycaste dowiana. Gard. Chron., n.s. 2:
194.
Reichenbach, H.G. 1874b. New Garden Plants: Ornithidium
strumatum. Gard. Chron, n.s. 2: 772.
Reichenbach, H.G. 1875a. New garden plants: Epidendrum
wallisii. Gard. Chron., n.s. 4: 66.
Reichenbach, H.G. 1875b. New garden plants: Masdevallia
chimaera. Gard. Chron. 1875: 463.
Reichenbach, H.G. 1875c. New garden plants: Restrepia
reichenbachiana. Gard. Chron. n.s.4: 356.
Reichenbach, H.G. 1875d. New garden plants: Masdevallia
reichenbachiana. Gard. Chron. n.s.4: 257.
Reichenbach, H.G. 1876. New garden plants: Masdevallia
triaristella. Gard. Chron. n.s.6: 226.
Reichenbach, H.G. 1877a. Orchidiographische Beitrtige.
Linnaea 41: 17-98.
Reichenbach, H.G. 1877b. New garden plants: Stanhopea
pulla, Restrepiaprorepens. Gard. Chron. n.s. 7: 810.
Reichenbach, H.G. 1881. Pleurothallis moschata. Xenia
Orchidacea 3(2): 10-18, t. 217.
Reichenbach, H.G. 1883. New garden plants: Epidendrum
Endresii Rchb. f. Gard. Chron. 19: 432.
Schlechter, F.R.R., 1921. Orchidaceae novae et critical,
Decas LXVIII. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17: 12-
18.
Secretaria de Gobierno. 1924. Guanacaste Libro
conmemorativo del Centenario de la Incorporaci6n del
Partido de Nicoya a Costa Rica 1824-1924. Imprenta
Maria v. de Lines. San Jose, Costa Rica.
United StatesNational Archives and RecordsAdministration,
2008a. Superior Court, New York County, Vol. 167,
record 206: petition for naturalization by Augustus R.
Endres, Dec. 13, 1866.
United States National Archives and Records
Administration, 2008b. US Passport Applications
1795-1925 (Publication M1372): passport application
ofAugustus R. Endres, Dec. 13, 1866.
United StatesNational Archives and RecordsAdministration,









OSSENBACH et al. -Endres' orchid itineraries in Central America


2008c. Records of the U.S. Customs Service, Microfilm
237, List 932: passenger list of the 'Abyssinia', arriving
at New York from Liverpool, with 'A.R. Endries' [sic]
and B. Roezl as passengers.
Valentini, F. J. J. 1869. Castilla de Oro 1502-1602
Estudios hist6ricos sobre el descubrimiento: Conquista
del Istmo de Darien, Veragua, Costa Rica, Nicaragua
y Honduras. San Jose, Costa Rica. Unpublished
manuscript.


Vargas, J.C. (ed.). 2008. Tropical Travel. The Representation
of Central America in the Nineteenth Century.
Facsimiles of illustrated texts (1854-1895). Editorial de
la Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose.
Veitch, J.H. 1906. Hortus Veitchii. Private edition, London.
Wagner, M. & C.R. von Scherzer. 1856. Die Republik Costa
Rica in Central America. Arnold, Leipzig


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Appendix 1. Endres' collecting localities.


Locality name on Endres label Coordinates Note


COSTA RICA


Acosta (Mina)

Aguacaliente (Agua Caliente)

Alajuela

Alumbre


Angostura

Arenal [Volcano]






Arenilla


Atenas

Atirro

Atlantic (sultry lowlands of the)






Azul, Quebrada



(La) Balsa de Atenas (de Rio
Grande; de Tarcoles) (spelled
by Endres 'Balza')

Barranca (1)

Barranca (2)

Barva (or, Barba)

Barva volcano (spelled by
Endres 'Barba')

Birris (spelled by Endres 'Virris')

Boqueron


Boveda


Buena Vista, Cerro and Paramo


Buena Vista (de San Carlos)


Unknown locality

1440 m, 9 51'N 8356'W

951 m, 10 01'N 84 13'W

1550 m. 9 48'N 84 02'W


543 m, 9 53'N 83 40'W

1633 m, 10 28'N 84 42'W






1388 m, 9 52'N 83 48'W


696 m, 9 58'N 84 23'W

597 m, 9 50'N 83 40'W

The region between Siquirres
and the coast





800 m, 9 47'N 83 44'W



425 m, 9 57'N 84 23'W



27 m, 9 59'41"N 84 43'29"W

614m, 10 05'N 84 32'W

1177 m, 10 02'N 84 08'W

2906 m, 10 08'N 84 06'W


1253 m, 9 53'N 83 47'W

1793 m, 9 90'N 83 50'W


726 m, 9 54'N 83 39'W


3491 m, 9 35'N 83 45'W


850 m, 10 17'N 84 28'W


Probably a gold mine near San Ram6n.

Town in the E Valle Central, SW of Cartago

City in the W Valle Central; capital of Prov. Alajuela

Village on the slope of the Cordillera de Talamanca,
SW of Cartago

Site to the SE of Turrialba

Isolated peak near the southern end of the Cordillera de
Guanacaste; most active volcano in Costa Rica. At
Endres' time it was not known that it was a volcano and
was called 'Cerro de los Guatusos', which is the name
used by Endres on his specimens

Old name for Guadalupe. Suburb of Cartago, to the SW
of the town

Town in the W Valle Central; railroad station

Village to the SSE of Turrialba.

We assume that Endres collected along the proposed
railroad to Lim6n. As a matter of fact, he intended to
explore Talamanca (in May 1872) but in his letter to
Capt. Dow of Oct. 18, 1872 he writes: "I was dissuaded
before I reached Limon"

Creek in the N Cordillera de Talamanca; a tributary of
the Rio Pejibaye. Also Finca Azul, at the confluency of
the Quebrada with the Rio Pejibaye

Railroad station in W Valle Central, S of Atenas



Village 7 miles to the E of Puntarenas

Hamlet 4 miles West of San Ramon

NW suburb of Heredia

In the Central Mountain Range, 15 miles to the N of
San Jose

Village along the Rio Birris, just NE of Cervantes

Village N of Cartago, about 1 mile E of Cot, on the
slopes of Irazu volcano

Village to the W of Turrialba, on the road to Siquirres,
between Eslab6n and Pavones

Mountain and highland plain in the Cordillera of
Talamanca

Town on the westernmost slope of the Cordillera
Central, SW of Ciudad Quesada


IANKESTERIANA 10(1), Aprl 2010. 0 Umversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.









OSSENBACH et al. -Endr6s' orchid itineraries in Central America


Locality name on Endrrs label Coordinates

Cacao, Rio 800 m, 9"59'N 84'26'W


(La) Calera (de San Ram6n)

Calvario on the cliffs


1100 m, 10'01'N 84'29'W


Camino de Boruca


Candelaria


Candelaria (Cerros de)



Candelaria, Rio (Grande de)






Carmen, Llanos del


Carpintera, Cerro(s) de la
(spelled by Endres 'Carpintaria')


Carranza's, Camino de los

Cartago

Cataratas de San Ramon



Cervantes

Chacarita

Chiz (as "Chis")
the Rio Chiz

Chiz, Rio (as Chis

Coliblanco

Colorado (Heights of)

Copalchi (spelled 'Colpachi')

Corralillo

Cot


Desenganio, Paso del (or Alto del)


1010m, 10'02'N 84'25'W


1000-2100 m, 943-50'N
8400-07'W


1100 m, 9"47'N 8406'W






Plain to the SW ofAlajuela


1870 m, 9"53'N 8349'W





1426 m, 9"52'N 8355'W





1441 m, 8349'W, 9"53'N

4 m, 84 45'W 10O 00'N

835 m, 9"52'N 8343'W


829m, 9"52'N 8343'W

2350 m. 957'N 8348'W

1000 m, 83 42'W 9 55'N

1854 m, 9"48'N 8402'W

1665 m. 9"48'N 8401'W

1820 m, 954'N 83452'W


1899 m, 10 10'N 84 10'W


Note

River draining the E slope of the Montes del Aguacate,
flowing just N of Atenas; a tributary of the Rio Grande
de Tarcoles

Site on the S slope of the Montes del Aguacate

Road to Lim6n (?). A Calvary (stations of the Cross),
somewhere along the Lim6n road, then under
construction. Probably a collecting locality during his
intended trip to Talamanca, in May 1872

The road to the lowlands of Boruca, after crossing the
Cerro Buena Vista

Village about 2 miles S of Palmares, on the road to
Atenas

A mountainous region, part of the N Cordillera de
Talamanca, comprising the drainage basins of the Rios
Tarrazu, Alumbre, and Santa Elena

Major river draining the S slope of the Cerros de
Escazu, portions of the N Cordillera de Talamanca, etc.,
formed by the confluence of the Rio Alumbre and the
Rio Tarrazu; an affluent (with the Rio Pirris) of the Rio
Parrita

Site between Turricares and Alajuela (occupied today
in great part by the industrial zone of El Coyol)

Serrania at the S margin of the Valle Central,
connecting the Cordillera de Talamanca and the
Cordillera Central

San Ram6n. Path near Potrerillos

City in the E Valle Central; capital of Prov. Cartago

Village in the district of Los Angeles de San Ram6n,
near the confluence of the rivers Balsa and Cataratas
(not shown on modem maps)

Village E of Cartago, on the road to Turrialba

Hamlet 3 miles E of Puntarenas

Small hamlet to the SE of Juan Vifias, on the banks of


Atributary of the Rio Reventazon

Town on the SE slope of Volcan Irazu

Hamlet WNW of Turrialba

Village SW of Cartago, on the road to Frailes

Town 15 km SW of Cartago

Village to the NE of Cartago, on the road to Irazu
volcano

Mountain pass between the Poas and Barva volcanoes.
Historically important as the route to the lowlands of
Sarapiqui


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LANKESTERIANA


Locality name on Endrrs label Coordinates Note

Dota, Boca de 1404 m. 9 40'N 84 01'W Site located to the South of where the village of San
Marcos de Tarrazu was later founded. Today known as
Santa Marta de San Lorenzo de Tarrazu


Drag6n, Cerro (better known
as Cerro Caraigres)


Escazu's, Camino de los

Esparza

Fajardo



Felipe Diaz (La Caniada
de Felipe Dias)


Frailes, Los


Garita, La


Granados, Savanna de los



Grande, Cerro, Cartago

Grande de Tarcoles, Rio


Grecia


Guatuso


Guayabo (1) (spelled by
Endres often 'Guayavo')

Guayabo (2), Hacienda de (Finca)
(spelled often'Guayavo')


2508 m, 9 43'N 84 08'W


168 m, 10 00'N 84 40'W

1000 m, 9 51'N 83 43'W


9 58'N 83 54'W


1596 m, 9 45'N 84 40'W




675 m, 9 59' 30" N
84 19' 00" W

2200 m, 9 38'N 83 55'W



2539 m, 10 00' N 83 50' W




1015 m, 1004'N 8418'W


1390 m, 9 49'N 83 57'W


800 m, 958'N 83 38'W


900 m, 958'N 83 40'W


"Hacienda de don Pio Murillo


"Hacienda la Francia"


1070 m, 10 04 N 84 28W


Geologically complex and intriguing subsidiary peak in
the N part of the Cordillera de Talamanca; also known
as Cerro de Los Cuarteles

San Ram6n. Path near Potrerillos

Town on the old road to Puntarenas

Site north of the Cachi dam on the Reventaz6n river.
Narrow gorge also known as 'Puente [bridge] de
Fajardo' or 'Rocas [rocks] of Fajardo'

Today simply "La Caniada". Village to the SW of Irazu
volcano, 1.5 miles NE ofLlano Grande. Named after a
Spanish conqueror who received land grants on the
slopes of Irazu volcano back in 1569

Village on the road from Desamparados to Tarrazu and
Dota. Frailes, Spanish for friars, was a community of
friars from the order of St. Francis, established in the
area in the last quarter of the 18th century

Village 2.5 miles N of Turrucares, on the road from
Alajuela to Atenas

House and pastures of Patricio Granados, in Copey de
Dota. Town in the Cordillera de Talamanca, E of Santa
Maria de Dota

Mountain southwest of Turrialba volcano

Formed by the confluence of the rivers Grande de San
Ram6n and Virilla, near Atenas

Town in the W Valle Central, between Sarchi (Norte)
and San Pedro de Poas

Town at the S edge of the E Valle Central, SW of
Cartago

Turrialba. Site NE of Turrialba; small hamlet at the
the confluence of the Guayabo and Reventaz6n Rivers

Site N of Turrialba; once owned by Mme. Amparo de
Zeled6n, noted patron of orchid collectors. The
Guayabo, National monument is nearby at 1050 m,
958'N 83 41'W. Archeological site on the E slope of
Volcan Turrialba.

Close to the crater of the Barva volcano. A farm
from Spain in 1821. Murillo had been one of the first to
explore the routes to the region of Sarapiqui in the
years of 1832 and 1833

Coffee farm property of the Frenchman Victor
Dujardin, in the district of San Rafael de San Ram6n.
The farm was located in what is today the center of the
village and the street on the north side of the church is
still called "La Francia"


IANKESTERIANA 10(1), Apnl 2010. 0 Umversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.









OSSENBACH et al. -Endres' orchid itineraries in Central America


Locality name on Endres label

Honda, Quebrada (1)







Honda, Quebrada (2)




Iglesias, Mina

Irazu volcano


Itiquis (Cabecera del rio)


Jardin (El)


Jesus Maria, Rio


Jilguero (spelled 'Cilguero')


Jorco, Rio


Juan Viias, Rio




Laguna de Zarcero
(or de Alfaro Ruiz)

Legua (Cuesta de la)

Legua de Desamparados


Coordinates

1014 m, 9 53'N 83 47'W







900 m, 9 58'N 84 28'W






3432 m, 9 49'N 83 50'W


1295 m, 10 04'N 84 11'W


2230 m, 9 43'N 83 58'W


100-200 m, 9 58'N 84 37'W


779 m, 10 25'N 84 43'W


230-00+ m, 9 47-48'N
84 15-19'W

956'N 83 47'W (headwaters)




1850 m, 1013'N 84 20'W




1649 m. 9 45'N 8408'W


Note

Creek draining the SE foothills of Volcan Irazi; a
tributary of the Rio Reventaz6n. N.B.: "Quebrada
Honda" is one of the most common place names
in Costa Rica. This is perhaps the most important one
botanically, but there are others, and some cannot be
localized with certainty

Creek with its source near Zapote, some 3.5 miles
South of Santiago de San Ramon, flowing into the Rio
Machuca. Also a site with the same name about 1.3
miles North of Desmonte, probably an abandoned mine

Site (mine) along or near the Rio Barranca, Puntarenas

In the Central Mountain Range, 20 miles Northeast of
Cartago

Headwaters of Itiquis River on the southwestern slope
of Barva volcano

Town in the Cordillera de Talamanca SW of El
Empalme, along the road to Santa Maria de Dota

River draining the Montes del Aguacate, flowing to the
sea at Tivives

Hamlet on the SW slope of Cerro Chato, about 3 miles
S ofArenal volcano

A tributary of the Rio Grande de Candelaria


Today known as Rio Maravilla. Its headwaters are just
SE of Santa Teresa, on the SE slope of Volcan Irazi,
NE of Capellades. A tributary of the Chiz River, who is
a tributary of the Reventazon

Town on the W slope of the Cordillera Central, just NW
of Zarcero along the road to Ciudad Quesada

San Ram6n de Alajuela, camino a San Carlos (?)

Today known as Legua de Aserri. Village to the N. of
Aserri


Lluvioso, Cerro (?)

Macacona (de Esparza)


(La) Matina


(La) Mina, Cerro

Mina San Gerardo


Monte Redondo

Naranjo (de Juan Viias)

Navarro


243 m, 10 00'N 84 39'W


11 m, 10 05'N 83 18'W


400m. 10 03'N 84 40'W

500m, 10 03'N 84 35'W


1140 m, 948'N 84 08'W

1242 m, 953'N 83 46'W

1100 m, 948'N 83 53'W


Town along the Carretera Interamericana, just NE of
Esparza

Railroad station on the Llanura de Santa Clara, near the
upper Rio Matina

Hill about 9 km SE of Miramar

Abandoned gold mine in the mine district near the
confluence of the rivers Jesus and Barranca

Town in the valley of the Rio Grande de Candelaria

Town just W of Juan Viias

Town in the N Cordillera de Talamanca, in the valley of
the Rio Agua Caliente, near its confluence with the Rio
Navarro

LANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Umversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.









LANKESTERIANA


Locality name on Endrrs label Coordinates

Ochomogo 1500 m, 9 53'N 83 57'W


Ojo de Agua (1)

Ojo de Agua (2)

Orosi


Pacaca


Pacuare, Rio


Paires, Rio (as 'Payres')


Palmares, Cerros de los


Palmira, Cerro


Palo Blanco

Paquita, Rio


Paraiso

Parrita, Rio


Parrita Grande, Rio


Pasc6n

Patarra

(La) Paz de San Ram6n

Peje, Rio


Pejibaye (as "Pejivalle")


Pejibaye, Rio


Pel6n, Cerro

Picagres


Pico Blanco, Cerro


840 m, 9 58'N 84 13'W

2980 m, 9 37'N 83 49'W

1051 m, 948'N 83 52'W


799 m, 9 55'N 8415'W


70 m, 10 05'41"N 83 29'18"W
(where Siquirres-Lim6n highway
crosses river); 10 05'26"N
83 29'20"W (at Northern
Railroad crossing)




1353 m, 10 05'N 84 25'W



2184 m, 10 12'N 84 21'W


1700 m, 9 49'N 83 58'W

80 m, 9 31'N 84 06'W


1350 m, 9 50'N 83 51'W


1742 m, 955'N 83 48'W

1170 m, 953'N 84 02'W

1110 m, 1008'N 8432'W

100 m, 10 24'N 84 30'W


650 m, 948'N 83 43'W


750m, 9 47'N 83 43'W


926 m, 9 43'N 84 24'W

600 m, 954'N 84 21'W


2428 m, 9 87'N 84 14'W


Note

Mountain pass along the main road between San Jose
and Cartago, dividing the central highland of Costa
Rica into the Eastern and Western Valley

Railroad station in the Valle Central, S of Alajuela

Site near Cerro de las Vueltas, Cartago

Town in the N Cordillera de Talamanca, in the valley of
the Rio Grande de Orosi

Former name for Col6n (Ciudad; Villa), town in the W
Valle Central

River draining the N Cordillera de Talamanca, flowing
to the sea between Parismina and Puerto Lim6n


River to the W of Esparza. A tributary of Rio Jesis
Maria

19th century denomination for the hills to the East of
San Ram6n and Palmares, with the Cerro del Espiritu
Santo as one of its main elevations

Promontory in the W portion of the Cordillera Central,
SE of Palmira de Alfaro Ruiz; an extinct volcano

Site on the slope above San Isidro de Cartago

River draining the Cordillera de Talamanca, flowing to
the sea (Boca Damas) just N of Puerto Quepos

Town W of Cartago, on the road to Turrialba

Major river draining the Cordillera de Talamanca,
formed by the confluence of the Rio Grande de
Candelaria and the Rio Pirris

Old name for the upper part of the Rio Pirris, in the
region of S. Marcos de Tarrazu and Sta Maria de Dota

Hamlet 1.3 miles SW of Pacayas, NE of Cartago

SE suburb of San Jose

Village in the Cordillera de Tilaran, NW of San Ram6n

River draining the northernwestermost slopes of the
Cordillera Central; a tributary of the Rio San Carlos

Town in the N Cordillera de Talamanca, along the Rio
Pejibaye

River draining the N part of the Cordillera de
Talamanca; a tributary of the Rio Reventaz6n

Hill in the Puriscal region, S of Salitrales

Village about 5 miles NW of Puriscal, on the SE slope
of the Rio Grande de Tarcoles

Second highest mountain of the Cerros de Escazu, SW
of San Jose


IANKESTERIANA 10(1), Apl 2010. 0 Umversdad de Costa Rica, 2010.









OSSENBACH et al. -Endr6s' orchid itineraries in Central America


Locality name on Endrrs label Coordinates Note

Piedras (Rio) A tributary of the Rio Barranca, NW from San Ram6n

Picada de Pedro Calder6n Trail established in 1866 which led from Santa Maria
de Dota over Copey and the Paramo de Vueltas to the
Valley of El General. Pedro Calder6n Ureia started
-together with his son-in-law Juan L6pez Alfaro- from
the village of Copey de Dota, and used the house of
Patricio Granados as his base camp (see other collections
by Endres referring to the "savanna de los Granados")


Pito, Cerro El


Pizirres


Poas, Volcan (Massif du)


Potrerillos, San Ram6n


Potrero Cerrado

Poz6n (Cerros del)

Quebrada Verde


Quemado, Cerro

Reventaz6n (Rio; River)


1460 m, 9 35'N 84 04'W


2000 m, 9 48'N 84 01'W


2708 m, 1011'N 84 14'W


ca. 1000 m, 10 07'00" N
84 32'12" W

2196 m, 955'N 83 52'W



1020 m, 1012'N 84 30'W




80 m, 1006'45"N 8331'36"W
(measured at benchmark 80,
bridge just west of Siquirres)


Rio Grande de San Ram6n


Rio Grande

Rio Jesis (de San Ram6n)



Rio Saino (or Quebrada Saino,
spelled by Endres 'Sajino')

Salvaje (Alto or Cerro del)


San Carlos


485 m, 9 57'N 84 21'W

870 m, 1002'N 84 31'W


2000 m, 9 51'N 84 10'W


150 m


Promontory SW of San Marcos de Tarrazi; sometimes
given as "Alto de La Pita"

Today known as "Calle Pizirres", site in the district of
Patio de Agua (Tejar)

Major, active volcano in the Cordillera Central;
formerly known as "Volcan de Los Votos" (or "Botos")

small village near Piedades Norte


Village on the road from Cartago to the Irazu volcano

San Ram6n (?)

Creek in the Cordillera de Tilaran, just NW of La Balsa;
a tributary of the Rio Balsa

Near Santa Maria de Dota (?)

Major river draining the S Cordillera Central, E Valle
Central, and N Cordillera de Talamanca, formed by the
confluence of the Rio Agua Caliente and the Rio
Grande de Orosi; a tributary of the lower Rio
Parismina. The upper portions of the river (above ca.
330 m) are in Prov. Cartago. According to local usage
(but not maps), "Rio Reventaz6n" includes the Rio
Grande de Orosi

River with its headwaters near the village of Volio, N of
San Ram6n. It flows S, E and S until about 3 miles S
ofAtenas, where it meets the Rio Virilla. From that
point on to its mouth in the Pacific it receives the name
of Rio Grande de Tarcoles

Village to the SE ofAtenas

Town along the Carretera Interamericana, between San
Ram6n and Esparza; formerly called "San Jose de San
Ram6n"

Creek about 6 miles north of Zarcero, flows into the
Tapezco River

Peak in the Cerros de Escazu, about 6 km to the E of
Palmichal de Acosta

Atlantic canton of Prov. Alajuela; the name technically
refers to the entire canton, but is frequently used
narrowly for Ciudad Quesada, or very broadly (in the
sense of"Llanura de San Carlos"= San Carlos valley)
to include portions of adjacent cantones


LANKESTERIANA 10(1), Aprl 2010. 0 Umversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.









LANKESTERIANA


Locality name on Endrrs label

San Crist6bal (de Candelaria)

San Francisco de San Ram6n

San Gerardo


San Isidro (de Alajuela)

San Jose


San Juan de San Ram6n

San Lorenzo, Rio


San Mateo

San Miguel de Desamparados

San Pablo [de San Mateo;
de Puriscal; de Turrubares]

San Pedro de Poas (de Alajuela)


San Ram6n

San Roque

Santa Ana


Santa Maria (de Dota)



(Fila de) Santa Maria (de Dota)

Santo Domingo de Vara Blanca

Santiago (de Puriscal)


Silencio de San Ram6n (El)

Sitio (El)









Tabarcia (spelled often 'Taburcia')




Tablazo


Coordinates

1710 m, 9"47'N 84'01'W

911 m, 10'05'N 84'33'W


1360 m, 10'05'N 84'12'W

1160 m, 956'N 84'05'W


1140 m, 10'07'N 84'28'W

330m, 1018'N 84'33'W


254 m, 957'N 84' 31'W

1200 m, 9"52'N 84'04'W

373 m, 9'54'N 84'27'W


1145 m, 10'05'N 84'15'W


1050 m, 10'05'N 84'28'W

1088 m. 10'17'N 84'17'W

900 m, 9'56'N 84'11'W


1548 m





1500 m, 10'13'N 8408'W

1102 m, 951'N 84'19'W


1130 m, 10'10'N 84'28'W











817 m, 9"51'N 8414'W




1983 m, 950'N 84'03'W


IANKESTERIANA 10(1), Aprl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


Note

Town in the N Cordillera de Talamanca

Town in the Cordillera de Tilaran, W of San Ram6n

Gold (?) mine in the district of Santiago, SW of San
Ram6n

Village 5.5 miles NNE ofAlajuela

City in the Valle Central; capital of Costa Rica and of
Prov. San Jose

N suburb of San Ram6n

River draining the N slope of the Cordillera de Tilaran;
an affluent (with the Rio Balsa) of the Rio Jabillos

Village 2.2 miles N of Orotina

S suburb of San Jose

Town in the valley of the Rio Grande de Tarcoles;
properly belongs to the Cant6n de Turrubares

Town NW of Alajuela, on the S slope of Volcan Poas;
formerly known as San Pedro de La Calabaza

Major town in the W Valle Central

Village to the N of Grecia

Town in the Valle Central, S ofAlajuela and W of San
Jose

Town along the Rio Pirris, in the N part of the
Cordillera de Talamanca. We remember the name in
Lepanthes dotae Endres ex Luer

Chain of hills about 2 miles south of S.ta Maria de Dota

Site on the NW slope of Volcan Barva

Main town in the Puriscal region, SW of Ciudad Col6n;
nowadays, the town is usually called simply "Puriscal"

Site in the Cordillera de Tilaran, N of San Ramon

A farm property of Don Eusebio Ortiz to the NE of
Juan Vifias. A resting place for those who ascended the
Turrialba volcano. In Seebach's description of his
ascent, he writes: "At 11 a.m. we arrived at a small
plateau on which one can see a pasture with a house
and some huts. This pasture is the 'Sitio de Eusebio
Ortiz'and the last colony or hamlet in the proximity of
the Turrialba. (Liceo de Costa Rica, 1922: 19)

Town at the SW base of the Cerros de Escazu. One of
Endres' discoveries (Endres 626) was named by him
Lepanthes tabarciae, known today as Lepanthes
inescata Luer

Promontory on the S skyline of the Valle Central,
between the Cerros de Escazu and the Cerros de La
Carpintera, on the divide between the Rio Virilla and
the Rio Grande de Candelaria









OSSENBACH et al. -Endres' orchid itineraries in Central America


Locality name on Endres label Coordinates Note


Tapesco (or Tapezco) de Zarcero 1860 m, 10 13'N 84 23'W


Tapesco River

Tarrazu (Rio)


Tarrazu (San Marcos de)


(El) Tejar

Tobosi


Trinchera (Finca la)

Tucurrique

Turrialba (spelled 'Turialba')


Turrialba, Rio


Ujarras (spelled 'Ujarraz')

Volio, Potrero, Quebrada, Hacienda



Zapote (spelled 'Sapote')

Zarcero (spelled 'Sarsero')


1600-1700 m

1800 m, 946'N 83 59'W


1404 m. 940'N 84 01'W


1380 m, 951'N 83 57'W

1400 m, 9 50'N 83 59'W


90 m, 1030'N 8415'W

777m, 952'N 83 44'W

650 m, 9 54'N 83 42'W


500-00 m, 9 54'N 83 39'W


1025 m, 9 50'N 83 46'W

1200 m, 100'N 84 27'W



1544 m, 10 13'N 84 22'W

1782 m, 10 11'N 84 20'W


PANAMA


Matachin Station


Obispo Station


San Pablo Station


Town in the westernmost Cordillera Central, just NW
of Zarcero along the road to Ciudad Quesada

ca. 6 miles N ofZarcero

River to the SE of Cartago, with headwaters near La
Sierra

Village on the Rio Pirris, formerly known as 'Atarrazu',
which is the name used by Endres

SW suburb of Cartago

Town along the Rio Purires, at the extreme SE comer of
the E Valle Central

Farm and hamlet 4 miles N of Pital de San Carlos

Town along the Rio Reventaz6n, SW of Turrialba

Major town at the SE base of Volcan Turrialba, in the
valley of the Rio Reventazon

River draining the S slope of Volcan Turrialba; a
tributary of the Rio Reventazon

Village in the valley of Orosi

Formerly the farm of the prosperous family of don
Julian Volio, today a small village to the N of San
Ramon

Village on the road from Naranjo to San Carlos

Village on the road from Naranjo to San Carlos



Station of the Panama Railroad, close to the confluence
of the Chagres and Obispo Rivers

Station of the Panama Railroad, just E of Matachin, on
the Obispo River

Station of the Panama Railroad, about half a mile south
of the bridge over the Chagres River


LANKESTERIANA 10(1), Aprl 2010. 0 Umversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.









LANKESTERIANA








LANKESTERIANA 1(1) 49-59 2010


CUMULATIVE INDEX OF NEW TAXA AND COMBINATIONS

PUBLISHED IN LANKESTERIANA, VOL. 1-9


BASIDIOMYCOTA

SEPTOBASIDIACEAE

Septobasidium alni Torrend var. brasiliense Couch,
var. nov. 4(1): 77. 2004.
Septobasidium alni Torrend var. squamosum Couch,
var. nov. 4(1): 77. 2004.
Septobasidium alveomarginatum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1):
77.2004.
Septobasidium apiculatum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 77.
2004.
Septobasidium boedijnii Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 78.
2004.
Septobasidium boedijnii Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 78.
2004.
Septobasidium burtii Lloyd var. acerinum Couch, var.
nov. 4(1): 78. 2004.
Septobasidium burtii Lloyd var. acerinum Couch, var.
nov. 4(1): 78. 2004.
Septobasidium carestianum Bres. var. natalense
Couch, var. nov. 4(1): 78. 2004.
Septobasidium carestianum Bres. var. natalense
Couch, var. nov. 4(1): 78. 2004.
Septobasidium cervicolor Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 78.
2004.
Septobasidium cervicolor Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 78.
2004.
Septobasidium cokeri Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 80. 2004.
Septobasidium conidiophorum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1):
80.2004.
Septobasidium cremeum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 80.
2004.
Septobasidium crustaceum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 80.
2004.
Septobasidium cupressi Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 81. 2004.
Septobasidium elatostemae Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 81.
2004.
Septobasidium ficicolum Pat. ex Couch, sp. nov. 4(1):
81. 2004.
Septobasidiumjflitorniie Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 81. 2004.
Septobasidium formosense Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 82.
2004.
Septobasidium fragile Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 82. 2004.


Septobasidium fusco-cinereum Bresadola ex Couch,
sp. nov. 4(1): 82. 2004.
Septobasidiumfuscum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 82. 2004.
Septobasidium grandispinosum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1):
82. 2004.
Septobasidium grandisporum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 83.
2004.
Septobasidium griseopurpureum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1):
83.2004.
Septobasidium griseum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 83. 2004.
Septobasidium hakgalanum Couch & Petch, sp. nov.
4(1): 83. 2004.
Septobasidium hesleri Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 84. 2004.
Septobasidium heveae Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 84. 2004.
Septobasidium indigophorum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 84.
2004.
Septobasidium irregular Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 84.
2004.
Septobasidium lacunosum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 84.
2004.
Septobasidium lagerheimii Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 84.
2004.
Septobasidium lepidosaphis Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 84.
2004.
Septobasidium leprosum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 84. 2004.
Septobasidium lilacinoalbum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 86.
2004.
Septobasidium linderi Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 86. 2004.
Septobasidium macadamiae Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 86.
2004.
Septobasidium mariani (Bres. ex Sacc.) Bres. var.
japonicum Couch, var. nov. 4(1): 86. 2004.
Septobasidium molle Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 87. 2004.
Septobasidium muelleri Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 87. 2004.
Septobasidium myrsinae Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 87.
2004.
Septobasidium natalense Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 87.
2004.
Septobasidium pachydermum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 88.
2004.
Septobasidium pallidum Couch, sp. nov. sp. nov. 4(1):
88.2004.
Septobasidium peckii Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 88. 2004.








LANKESTERIANA


Septobasidium perforatum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 88.
2004.
Septobasidium petchii Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 89. 2004.
Septobasidium philippinense Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 89.
2004.
Septobasidium piperis P. Henn. ex Couch, sp. nov.
4(1): 89. 2004.
Septobasidium prunophilum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 89.
2004.
Septobasidium punctatum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 90.
2004.
Septobasidium reikingii Pat. ex Couch, sp. nov. 4(1):
90. 2004.
Septobasidium rickii Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 90. 2004.
Septobasidium rimulosum Petch & Couch, sp. nov.
4(1): 90. 2004.
Septobasidium rugulosum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 90.
2004.
Septobasidium sabalis Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 90. 2004.
Septobasidium sabalis-minoris Couch, sp. nov. 4(1):
90. 2004.
Septobasidium scabiosum Couch & Petch, sp. nov.
4(1): 90. 2004.
Septobasidium schizostachyi Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 2.
2004.
Septobasidium sclerotioides Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 92.
2004.
Septobasidium separans Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 92. 2004.
Septobasidium simmondsii Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 92.
2004.
Septobasidium sinense Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 92. 2004.
Septobasidium sinuosum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 93. 2004.
Septobasidium stevensonii Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 93.
2004.
Septobasidium stratosum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 93.
2004.
Septobasidium subcarbonaceum (Berk. & Br.) Couch,
comb. nov. 4(1): 93. 2004.
Septobasidium sydowii Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 94. 2004.
Septobasidium taxodii Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 94. 2004.
Septobasidium tenue Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 94. 2004.
Septobasidium tomentosum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 94.
2004.
Septobasidium ugandae Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 95. 2004.
Septobasidium verrucosum Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 95.
2004.
Septobasidium westonii Couch, sp. nov. 4(1): 95. 2004.

IANKESTERIANA 10(1), Aprl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


LYCOPHYTA

LYCOPODIACEAE

Huperzia oellgaardii A.Rojas, sp. nov. 5(2): 110. 2005.


PTERYDOPHYTA

BLECHNACEAE

Blechnumfuscosquamosum A.Rojas, sp. nov. 5(1): 49.
2005.

CYATHEACEAE

Cnemidaria chiricana (Maxon) R.M.Tryon var.
contigua (Underw. ex Maxon) A.Rojas, var. nov.
5(3): 191. 2005.
Cyathea povedae A.Rojas, sp. nov. 5(3): 192. 2005.
Cyathea x smithiana A.Rojas. nothosp. nov. 5(3): 195.
2005.

DRYOPTERIDACEAE

Polybotrya aureisquama A.Rojas, sp. nov. 7(3): 558.
2007.
Polybotrya insularis A.Rojas, sp. nov. 7(3): 560. 2007.
Tectaria dressleri A.Rojas, sp. nov. 6(1): 15. 2006.
Tectaria x chaconiana A.Rojas, nothosp. nov. 4(2):
149. 2004.

GRAMMITIDACEAE

Enterosora bishopii A.Rojas, sp. nov. 6(1): 9. 2006.
Enterosora enterosoroides (H. Christ) A.Rojas, comb.
nov. 6(1): 11. 2006.
Lellingeria brenesii A.Rojas, sp. nov. 7(3): 553. 2007.
Lellingeria pinnata A.Rojas, sp. nov. 6(3): 95. 2006.
Terpsichore glandulifera A.Rojas, sp. nov. 6(3): 96. 2006.

HYMENOPHYLLACEAE

Hymenophyllum talamancanum sp. nov. 4(2): 143. 2004.

LOMARIOPSIDACEAE

Elaphoglossum lenticulatum A.Rojas, 5(3): 185. 2005.

LYCOPODIACEAE

Huperzia oellgaardii A.Rojas, sp. nov. 5(2): 110. 2005.

POLYPODIACEAE

Campyloneurum gracile A.Rojas, sp. nov. 5(1): 41.
2005.








Index of taxonomic novelties, Vol. 1-9


SCHIZAEACEAE


MARCGRAVIACEAE


Anetium citrifolium (L.) Splitg. var. pendulum (Leprieur
in Fee) L.D.G6mez, var. nov. 6(1): 6. 2006.

SPERMATOPHYTA

ACANTHACEAE

Justicia chaconii G6mez-Laur, sp. nov. 6(3): 155.
2006.

APOCYNACEAE

Allotoonia woodsoniana (Monac.) J.F.Morales &
J.K.Williams, comb. nov. 5(2): 119. 2005.

ASTERACEAE

Neomirandea pendulissima Al.Rodr, sp. nov. 5(3):
207. 2005.

CANELLACEAE

Pleodendron costaricense N.Zamora, Hammel &
R.Aguilar, sp. nov. 5(3): 211. 2005.

DICHAPETALACEAE

Dichapetalum inopinatum A1.Rodr. & Kriebel, sp. nov.
5(2): 127. 2005.
Dichapetalum reliquum Kriebel & A1.Rodr, sp. nov.
5(2): 135. 2005.

FABACEAE-CAESALPINIACEAE

Swartzia maquenqueana N.Zamora & D.Solano, sp.
nov. 6(3): 133. 2006.

GESNERIACEAE

Drymonia glandulosa Kriebel, sp. nov. 5(1): 81. 2005.
Drymonia tomentulifera Kriebel, sp. nov. 6(2): 44.
2006.

LAMIACEAE

Ruyschia moralesii Hammel, sp. nov. 6(2): 75. 2006.

LAURACEAE

Licaria leonis G6mez-Laur. & Estrada, sp. nov. 3: 5.
2002.

LENTIBULARIACEAE

Utricularia uxoris G6mez-Laur., sp. nov. 5(2): 137.
2005.


Marcgravia glandulosomarginata Hammel, sp. nov.
6(2): 73. 2006.
Schwartzia tarrazuensis Hammel, sp. nov. 6(2): 76.
2006.


MELIACEAE


Guarea adenophylla Al. Rodr., sp. nov. 6(3): 102.
2006.
Guarea aguilarii Al.Rodr., sp. nov. 6(3): 103. 2006.
Guarea ciliata Al.Rodr., sp. nov. 6(3): 105. 2006.
Guarea constricta Al.Rodr., sp. nov. 6(3): 106. 2006.
Guarea corticosa Al.Rodr., sp. nov. 6(3): 107. 2006.
Guarea inesiana Al.Rodr., sp. nov. 6(3): 109. 2006.
Guarea macrocalyx Al.Rodr., sp. nov. 6(3): 110. 2006.
Guarea montana Al.Rodr., sp. nov. 6(3): 111. 2006.
Guarea pilosa Al.Rodr., sp. nov. 6(3): 113. 2006.
Guarea tafae-malekui Al.Rodr., sp. nov. 6(3): 115.
2006.

MORACEAE

Ficus lasiosyce J.A.Gonzalez & Poveda, sp. nov. 8: 13.
2003.

MYRTACEAE

Eugenia earthiana PE.Sanchez, sp. nov. 4(3): 179.
2004.
Plinia cuspidata G6mez-Laur. & Valverde, sp. nov. 3:
11.2002.

ORCHIDACEAE

Acianthera aberrans Pupulin & Bogarin, comb. nov.
8(2): 53. 2008.
Acianthera sotoana R.Solano, sp. nov. 9(3): 447. 2010.
Aetheorhyncha andreettae (Jenny) Dressier, comb.
nov. 5(2): 95. 2005.
Aetheorhyncha Dressier, gen. nov. 5(2): 94. 2005.
Benzingia caudata (Ackerman) Dressier, comb. nov.
5(2): 93. 2005.
Benzingia caudata (Ackerman) Dressier, comb. nov.
9(3): 527. 2010.
Benzingia cornuta (Garay) Dressier, comb. nov. 5(2):
93. 2005.
Benzingia cornuta (Garay) Dressier, comb. nov. 9(3):
527. 2010.
Benzingia Dodson, gen. nov. 9(3): 526. 2010.

IANKESTERIANA 10(1), Aprl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.








LANKESTERIANA


Benzingia estradae (Dodson) Dodson, comb. nov.
5(2): 93. 2005.
Benzingia estradae (Dodson) Dodson, comb. nov.
9(3): 527. 2010.
Benzingia hajekii (D.E.Benn. & Christenson) Dressier,
comb. nov. 5(2): 93. 2005.
Benzingia hajekii (D.E.Benn. & Christenson) Dressier,
comb. nov. 9(3): 527. 2010.
Benzingia hirtzii Dodson, sp. nov. 9(3): 527. 2010.
Benzingia jarae (D.E.Benn. & Christenson) Dressier,
comb. nov. 5(2): 93. 2005.
Benzingia jarae (D.E.Benn. & Christenson) Dressier,
comb. nov. 9(3): 527. 2010.
Benzingia palorae (Dodson & Hirtz) Dressier, comb.
nov. 5(2): 93. 2005.
Benzingia palorae (Dodson & Hirtz) Dressier, comb.
nov. 9(3): 527. 2010.
Benzingia reichenbachiana (Schltr.) Dressier, comb.
nov. 5(2): 93. 2005.
Benzingia reichenbachiana (Schltr.) Dressier, comb.
nov. 9(3): 527. 2010.
Benzingia thienii (Dodson) PA.Harding, comb. nov.
9(3): 527. 2010.
Camaridium alfaroi (Ames & C. Schweinf.) M. A.
Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 519. 2007.
Camaridium allenii (L.O.Williams) M. A. Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 519. 2007.
Camaridium amabile (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 519. 2007.
Camaridium aiiiplitlorium (C.Schweinf.) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 519. 2007.
Camaridium anceps (Rchb.f.) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 519. 2007.
Camaridium atratum (Lex.) M.A.Blanco, comb. nov.
7(3): 519. 2007.
Camaridium aurantiacum (Schltr.) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 519. 2007.
Camaridium bomboizense (Dodson) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 519. 2007.
Camaridium brevilabium (Ames & Correll)
M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 519. 2007.
Camaridium burgeri (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 519. 2007.
Camaridium campanulatum (C. Schweinf.)
M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 520. 2007.
Camaridium carinulatum (Rchb.f.) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 8(1): 15. 2008.

IANKESTERIANA 10(), Aprl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


Camaridium cedralense (J.T.Atwood & Mora-Ret.)
M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 520. 2007.
Camaridium cucullatum (Lindl.) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 520. 2007.
Camaridium densum (Lindl.) M.A.Blanco, comb. nov.
7(3): 520. 2007.
Camaridiumfalcatum (Ames & Correll) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 520. 2007.
Camaridium fragrans (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 520. 2007.
Camaridium gomezianum (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 520. 2007.
Camaridium grisebachianum (Nir & Dod)
M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 520. 2007.
Camaridium haberi (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 520. 2007.
Camaridium hagsaterianum (Soto Arenas)
M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 520. 2007.
Camaridium horichii (Senghas) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 520. 2007.
Camaridium inauditum (Rchb.f.) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 520. 2007.
Camaridium insolitum (Dressier) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 520. 2007.
Camaridium lankesteri (Ames) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 520. 2007.
Camaridium longicolumna (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 520. 2007.
Camaridium lutheri (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 520. 2007.
Camaridium meleagris (Lindl.) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 520. 2007.
Camaridium micranthum M.A.Blanco, nom. nov.
7(3): 520. 2007.
Camaridium microphyton (Schltr.) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 520. 2007.
Camaridium mombachoense (A. H. Heller ex
J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 520.
2007.
Camaridium monteverdense (J.T.Atwood &
G.Barboza) M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 521.
2007.
Camaridium neglectum (Schltr.) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 521. 2007.
Camaridium obscurum (Linden & Rchb.f.)
M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 521. 2007.
Camaridium oestlundianum (L.O.Williams)M.A.Blanco,








Index of taxonomic novelties, Vol. 1-9


comb. nov. 7(3): 521. 2007.
Camaridium paleatum (Rchb.f.) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 521. 2007.
Camaridium praestans (Rchb.f.) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 521. 2007.
Camaridium pygmaeum M.A.Blanco, nom. nov. 7(3):
521. 2007.
Camaridium ramonense (Schltr.) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 521. 2007.
Camaridium rhombeum (Lindl.) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 521. 2007.
Camaridium scalariforme (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 521. 2007.
Camaridium sigmoideum (C. Schweinf.) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 521. 2007.
Camaridium soconuscanum (Breedlove & D. Mally)
M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 521. 2007.
Camaridium standleyi M.A.Blanco, nom. nov. 7(3):
521. 2007.
Camaridium stenophyllum (Schltr.) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 521. 2007.
Camaridium strumatum (Endres & Rchb.f.)
M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 521. 2007.
Camaridium suaveolens (Barringer) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 521. 2007.
Camaridium synsepalum (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 521. 2007.
Camaridium tigrinum (C. Schweinf.) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 521. 2007.
Camaridium tricarinatum (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 522. 2007.
Camaridium tuberculare (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 522. 2007.
Camaridium tutae (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 522. 2007.
Camaridium vaginale (Rchb.f.) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 522. 2007.
Camaridium valerioi (Ames & C. Schweinf.)
M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 522. 2007.
Camaridium vitariifoliim (L.O.Williams)
M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 522. 2007.
Chondroscaphe endresii (Schltr.) Dressier, comb. nov.
3: 28. 2002.
Christensonella cepula (Rchb.f.) S. Koehler, comb.
nov. 7(3): 522. 2007.
Christensonella neowiedii (Rchb.f.) S. Koehler, comb.
nov. 7(3): 522. 2007.


Christensonella pacholskii (Christenson) S. Koehler,
comb. nov. 7(3): 522. 2007.
Christensonella squamata (Barb.Rodr.) Camevali,
comb. nov. 7(3): 523. 2007.
Comparettia sotoana Pupulin & G.Merino, sp. nov.
9(3): 400. 2010.
Coryanthes kaiseriana G. Gerlach, sp. nov. 8: 23. 2003.
Coryanthes maduroana G. Gerlach, sp. nov. 70
Crossoglossa sotoana Pupulin & Karremans, sp. nov.
9(3): 444. 2010.
Cryptocentrum Benth. subgenus Anthosiphon (Schltr.)
Camevali, comb. etstat. nov. 7(3): 543. 2007.23
Deiregyne lcne.itlora (C.Schweinf.) Salazar & Soto
Arenas, comb. nov. 9(3): 502. 2010.
Dendrophylax monteverdi (Rchb.f.) Ackerman & Nir,
comb. nov. 53
Dichaea elliptica Dressier & Folsom, sp. nov. 3: 25.
2002.
Echinella vittata (Pupulin & M.A.Blanco) Pupulin,
comb. nov. 4: 17. 2002.
Echinorhyncha antonii (Ortiz) Dressier, comb. nov.
5(2): 94. 2005.
Echinorhyncha Dressier, gen. nov. 5(2): 94. 2005.
Echinorhyncha ecuadorensis (Dodson) Dressier,
comb. nov. 5(2): 94. 2005.
Echinorhyncha litensis (Dodson) Dressier, comb. nov.
5(2): 94. 2005.
Echinorhyncha vollesii (Gerlach, Neudecker & Seeger)
Dressier, comb. nov. 5(2): 94. 2005.
Echinosepala vittata (Pupulin & M.A.Blanco) C.O.
Murales & N. Villal., comb. nov. 4(3): 202. 2004.
Elleanthus carinatus Dressier & Bogarin, sp. nov.
9(3): 475. 2010.
Elleanthus ligularis Dressier & Bogarin, sp. nov. 7(3):
539. 2007.
Encyclia cajalbanensis Mujica, Bocourt & Pupulin, sp.
nov. 4(3): 211. 2004.
Encyclia monteverdensis M. A. Diaz & Ackerman, sp.
nov. 50
Epidendrum cancanae (POrtiz) Hagsater, comb. nov.
5(1): 73. 2005.
Epidendrumfuscinum (Dressier) Hagsater, comb. nov.
5(1): 73. 2005.
Epidendrum jalcaense Chocce, Dalstrom, Higsater &
Amaiz, sp. nov. 9(3): 529. 2010.
Epidendrum macdougalli (Hagsater) Hagsater, comb.
nov. 5(1): 74. 2005.

LANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2010.








LANKESTERIANA


Epidendrum misasii Hagsater, nom. nov. 5(1): 74.
2005.
Epidendrum montis-narae Pupulin & L. Sanchez S., sp.
nov. 1: 7. 2001.
Epidendrum paruimense G.A.Romero & Camevali,
sp. nov. 4(3): 229. 2004.
Epidendrum parviexasperatum (Hagsater) Hagsater,
comb. nov. 5(1): 74. 2005.
Epidendrum sotoanum Karremans & Higsater, sp.
nov. 9(3): 405. 2010.
Epidendrum stolidium Hagsater, nom. nov. 5(1): 74.
2005.
Epidendrum x monteverdense (Pupulin & Hagsater)
Hagsater, comb. nov. 5(1): 74. 2005.
Epidendrum zunigae Hagsater, Karremans & Bogarin,
sp. nov. 8(2): 63. 2008.
Euryblema anatonum (Dressier) Dressier, comb. nov.
5(2): 94. 2005.
Euryblema andreae (Ortiz) Dressier, comb. nov. 5(2):
94.2005.
Euryblema Dressier, gen. nov. 5(2): 94. 2005.
Govenia viaria Dressier, sp. nov. 3: 26. 2002.
Guarianthe aurantiaca (Bateman ex Lindl.) Dressier
& W.E.Higgins, comb. nov. 7: 38. 2003.
Guarianthe bowringiana (Veitch) Dressier &
W.E.Higgins, comb. nov. 7: 38. 2003.
Guarianthe Dressier & W.E. Higgins, gen. nov. 7: 37.
2003.
Guarianthe patinii (Cogn.) Dressier & W.E.Higgins,
comb. nov. 7: 38. 2003.
Guarianthe skinneri (Bateman) Dressier &
W.E.Higgins, comb. nov. 7: 38. 2003.
Inti bicallosa (Rchb.f.) M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3):
524. 2007.
Inti chartacifolia (Ames & C. Schweinf.) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 524. 2007.
Inti M.A.Blanco, gen. nov. 7(3): 524. 2007.
Ixyophora aurantiaca (Senghas & Gerlach) Dressier,
comb. nov. 5(2): 95. 2005.
Ixyophora carinata (Ortiz) Dressier, comb. nov. 5(2):
95. 2005.
Ixyophora Dressier, gen. nov. 5(2): 95. 2005.
Ixyophora viridisepala (Senghas) Dressier, comb. nov.
5(2): 95. 2005.
Lankesterella glandula Ackerman, sp. nov. 49
Lepanthes arenasiana Bogarin & M.Femandez, sp.
nov. 9(3): 487. 2010.

IANKESTERIANA 10(1), Apnl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


Lepanthes gerardensis M.A.Blanco, sp. nov. 8: 19.
2003.
Lepanthes montis-narae Pupulin, Bogarin & C. Smith,
sp. nov. 9(3): 425. 2010.
Lepanthes sotoana Pupulin, Bogarin & C. Smith, sp.
nov. 9(3): 427. 2010.
Ligeophila gavilanensis Ormerod & G.A.Romero, sp.
nov. 9(3): 513. 2010.
Lophiaris natalieae Balam & Camevali, sp. nov. 9(3):
522. 2010.
Lycaste bruncana Bogarin, sp. nov. 7(3): 543. 2007.
Malaxis brevis Dressier, sp. nov. 4(1): 97. 2004.
Malaxis insperata Dressier, sp. nov. 4(1): 97. 2004.
Malaxis rostratula Dressier, sp. nov. 4(1): 97. 2004.
Malaxis triangularis Dressier, sp. nov. 4(1): 97. 2004.
Mapinguari auyantepuiensis (Foldats) Camevali & R.
Singer, comb. nov. 7(3): 525. 2007.
Mapinguari Camevali & R. Singer, gen. nov. 7(3):
525. 2007.
Mapinguari desvauxianus (Rchb.f.) Camevali & R.
Singer, comb. nov. 7(3): 525. 2007.
Mapinguari foldatsianus (Camevali & I.Ramirez)
Camevali & R. Singer, comb. nov. 7(3): 525. 2007.
Mapinguari longipetiolatus (Ames & C.Schweinf.)
Camevali & R. Singer, comb. nov. 7(3): 525. 2007.
Masdevallia sotoana H.Medina & Pupulin, sp. nov.
9(3): 455. 2010.
Masdevallia vilcabambensis L. Valenz. & Suclli, sp.
nov. 8(1): 17. 2008.
Maxillariella acervata (Rchb.f.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 528. 2007.
Maxillariella alba (Hook.f.) M.A.Blanco & Camevali,
comb. nov. 7(3): 528. 2007.
Maxillariella anceps (Ames & C. Schweinf.)
M.A.Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 528.
2007.
Maxillariella appendiculoides (C. Schweinf.)
M.A.Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 528.
2007.
Maxillariella arbuscula (Lindl.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 528. 2007.
Maxillariella brevifolia (Lindl.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 528. 2007.
Maxillariella .... !,r' ., (Rchb.f.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 528. 2007.
Maxillariella cassapensis (Rchb.f.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 528. 2007.








Index of taxonomic novelties, Vol. 1-9


Maxillariella caucana (Schltr.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 528. 2007.
Maxillariella cobanensis (Schltr.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 528. 2007.
Maxillariella costaricensis (Schltr.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 528. 2007.
Maxillariella curtipes (Hook.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 528. 2007.
Maxillariella densifolia (Poepp. & Endl.) M.A.Blanco
& Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 528. 2007.
Maxillariella diuturna (Ames & C. Schweinf.)
M.A.Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 528.
2007.
Maxillariella elatior (Rchb.f.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 528. 2007.
Maxillariella estradae (Dodson) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 528. 2007.
Maxillariellafunicaulis (C. Schweinf.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 528. 2007.
Maxillariella graminifolia (Kunth) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 528. 2007.
Maxillariella guareimensis (Rchb.f) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 528. 2007.
Maxillariella houtteana (Rchb.f.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 528. 2007.
Maxillariella infausta (Rchb.f.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 529. 2007.
Maxillariella lawrenceana (Rolfe) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 529. 2007.
Maxillariella linearifolia (Ames & C. Schweinf.)
M.A.Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 529.
2007.
Maxillariella longibracteata (Lindl.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 529. 2007.
Maxillariella luteorubra (F.Lehm. & Kraenzl.)
M.A.Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 529.
2007.
Maxillariella M.A.Blanco & Camevali, gen. nov. 7(3):
543. 2007.527
Maxillariella mexicana (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 529. 2007.
Maxillariella microdendron (Schltr.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 529. 2007.
Maxillariella nitidula (Rchb.f.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 529. 2007.
Maxillariella oreocharis (Schltr.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 529. 2007.


Maxillariella pardalina (Garay) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 529. 2007.
Maxillariella pastensis (Rchb.f.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 529. 2007.
Maxillariella ponerantha (Rchb.f.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 529. 2007.
Maxillariella procurrens (Lindl.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 529. 2007.
Maxillariellaprolifera (Sw.) M.A.Blanco & Camevali,
comb. nov. 7(3): 529. 2007.
Maxillariella purpurata (Lindl.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 529. 2007.
Maxillariella robusta (Barb. Rodr.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 529. 2007.
Maxillariella sanguinea (Rolfe) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 529. 2007.
Maxillariella spilotantha (Rchb.f.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 529. 2007.
Maxillariella stenophylla (Rchb.f. ) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 530. 2007.
Maxillariella stictantha (Schltr.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 530. 2007.
Maxillariella tenuifolia (Lindl.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 530. 2007.
Maxillariella tuerckheimii (Schltr.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 530. 2007.
Maxillariella variabilis (Bateman ex Lindl.)
M.A.Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 530.
2007.
Maxillariella vinosa (Rolfe) M.A.Blanco & Camevali,
comb. nov. 7(3): 530. 2007.
Maxillariella vulcanica (F.Lehm. & Kraenzl.)
M.A.Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 530.
2007.
Maxillariella x yucatanensis (Camevali & R. Jimenez)
M.A.Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 530.
2007.
Maxillariella xanthorhoda (Schltr.) M.A.Blanco &
Camevali, comb. nov. 7(3): 530. 2007.
Mormolyca acutifolia (Lindl.) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 531. 2007.
Mormolyca aureoglobula (Christenson) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 531. 2007.
Mormolyca chacoensis (Dodson) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 531. 2007.
Mormolyca cleistogama (Brieger & Illg) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 531. 2007.
LANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2010.








LANKESTERIANA


Mormolyca dressleriana (Camevali & J.T.Atwood)
M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 531. 2007.
Mormolyca hedwigiae (Hamer & Dodson)
M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 531. 2007.
Mormolyca lehmanii (Rolfe) M.A.Blanco, comb. nov.
7(3): 531. 2007.
Mormolyca moralesii (Camevali & J.T.Atwood)
M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 531. 2007.
Mormolyca pudica (Camevali & Tapia-Mufioz)
M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 531. 2007.
Mormolyca richii (Dodson) M.A.Blanco, comb. nov.
7(3): 531. 2007.
Mormolyca rufescens (Lindl.) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 531. 2007.
Mormolyca sanantonioensis (Christenson)
M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 531. 2007.
Mormolyca schlimii (Linden & Rchb.f.) M. A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 531. 2007.
Mormolyca sotoana (Camevali & G6mez-Juirez)
M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 531. 2007.
Mormolyca suarezorum (Dodson) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 531. 2007.
Mormolyca tenuibulba (Christenson) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 531. 2007.
Myoxanthus sotoanum Pupulin, Bogarin & M.
Femandez, sp. nov. 9(3): 470. 2010.
Myoxanthus vittatus Pupulin & M.A.Blanco, sp. nov.
2: 16.2001.
Odontoglossum deburghgraeveanum Dalstrom &
G.Merino, sp. nov. 9(3): 505. 2010.
Oerstedella x monteverdensis Pupulin & Hagsater,
nothosp. nov. 8: 32. 2003.
Oncidium sotoanum R.Jim6nez & Hagsater, sp. nov.
9(3): 415. 2010.
Oncidium sotoanum R.Jim6nez & Hagsater ssp.
papalosmum R.Jim6nez, ssp. nov. 9(3): 419. 2010.
Oncidium zelenkoanum Dressier & Pupulin, sp. nov.
8: 37. 2003.
Ornithidium adendrobium (Rchb.f.) M.A.Blanco &
Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 532. 2007.
Ornithidium affine (Poepp. & Endl.) M.A.Blanco &
Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 532. 2007.
Ornithidium cachacoense (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco
& Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 532. 2007.
Ornithidium canarense (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco &
Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 532. 2007.
Ornithidium condorense (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco &
IANKESTERIANA 10(1), Aprl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 532. 2007.
Ornithidium donaldeedodii Ackerman & Whitten, sp.
nov. 9(3): 509. 2010.
Ornithidiumfasciculatum (C. Schweinf.) M.A.Blanco
& I. Ojeda, comb. nov. 8(1): 15. 2008.
Ornithidium fimbriatilobum (Camevali & G. A.
Romero) M.A.Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3):
532. 2007.
Ornithidium gualaquizense (Dodson) M.A.Blanco &
Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 532. 2007.
Ornithidium haemathodes (Ruiz & Pay.) M.A.Blanco
& Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 532. 2007.
Ornithidium lasallei (Foldats) M.A.Blanco & Ojeda,
comb. nov. 7(3): 532. 2007.
Ornithidium machinazense (D. E. Benn. & Christenson)
M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 532. 2007.
Ornithidium maldonadoense (J.T.Atwood)
M.A.Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 532. 2007.
Ornithidium miinutitlorwii (D. E. Benn. & Christenson)
M.A.Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 533. 2007.
Ornithidium nicaraguense (Hamer & Garay)
M.A.Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 533. 2007.
Ornithidium oxapampense (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco
& Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 533. 2007.
Ornithidium patellum (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco &
Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 533. 2007.
Ornithidium patulum (C. Schweinf.) M.A.Blanco &
Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 533. 2007.
Ornithidium pseudonubigenum (J.T.Atwood)
M.A.Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 533. 2007.
Ornithidium pustulosum (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco &
Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 533. 2007.
Ornithidium rauhii (D. E. Benn. & Christenson)
M.A.Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 533. 2007.
Ornithidium repens (L.O.Williams) M.A.Blanco &
Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 533. 2007.
Ornithidium rigidum (Barb. Rodr.) M.A.Blanco &
Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 533. 2007.
Ornithidium scandens (D. E. Benn. & Christenson)
M.A.Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 533. 2007.
Ornithidium scullianum (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco &
Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 533. 2007.
Ornithidium sillarense (Dodson & Vasquez)
M.A.Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 533. 2007.
Ornithidium simplex (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco &
Ojeda, comb. nov. 7(3): 533. 2007.
Palmorchis eidae Dressier, sp. nov. 3: 26. 2002.








Index of taxonomic novelties, Vol. 1-9


Paphinia vermiculifera G. Gerlach & Dressier, sp. nov.
8: 27. 2003.
Pescatorea ecuadorana (Dodson) Dressier, comb. nov.
5(2): 95. 2005.
Pescatorea hemixantha (Rchb.f.) Dressier, comb. nov.
5(2): 95. 2005.
Pescatorea hirtzii (Waldvogel) Dressier, comb. nov.
5(2): 95. 2005.
Pescatorea lalindei (Linden) Dressier, comb. nov.
5(2): 95. 2005.
Pescatorea lawrenceana (Rchb.f.) Dressier, comb.
nov. 5(2): 95. 2005.
Pescatorea pulvinaris (Rchb.f.) Dressier, comb. nov.
5(2): 95. 2005.
Pescatorea violacea (Lindl.) Dressier, comb. nov.
5(2): 95. 2005.
Phragmipedium andreettae PJ.Cribb & Pupulin, sp.
nov. 6(1): 1. 2006.
Phragmipedium manzurii W.E. Higgins & P. Viveros,
sp. nov., 8(3): 89. 2008.
Pleurothallis grammata Dressier, nom. nov. 3: 28. 2002.
Polycycnis blancoi G. Gerlach, sp. nov. 67.
Porroglossum merinoi Pupulin & A.Doucette, sp. nov.
9(3): 462. 2010.
Porroglossum miguelangelii G.Merino, A.Doucette &
Pupulin, sp. nov. 9(3): 460. 2010.
Porroglossum porphyreum G.Merino, A.Doucette &
Pupulin, sp. nov. 9(3): 465. 2010.
Prosthechea micropus (Rchb.f.) W.E.Higgins, comb.
nov. 4(3): 223. 2004.
Prosthechea irlitior, Mora-Retana ex Pupulin, sp.
nov. 3: 23. 2002.
Rhetinantha aciantha (Rchb.f.) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 534. 2007.
Rhetinantha acuminata (Lindl.) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 534. 2007.
Rhetinantha cerifera (Barb.Rodr.) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 534. 2007.
Rhetinantha divaricata (Barb.Rodr.) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 534. 2007.
Rhetinantha encyclioides (J.T.Atwood & Dodson)
M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 534. 2007.
Rhetinantha friedrichsthalii (Rchb.f) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 534. 2007.
Rhetinantha M.A.Blanco, gen. nov. 7(3): 534. 2007.
Rhetinantha mariaisabeliae (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 534. 2007.


Rhetinantha monacensis (Kraenzl.) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 534. 2007.
Rhetinantha neilii (Dodson) M.A.Blanco, comb. nov.
7(3): 534. 2007.
Rhetinantha notylioglossa (Rchb.f.) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 535. 2007.
Rhetinantha ophiodens (J.T.Atwood) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 535. 2007.
Rhetinantha pastorellii (D.E.Benn. & Christenson)
M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 535. 2007.
Rhetinantha schistostele (Schltr.) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 535. 2007.
Rhetinantha scorpioidea (Kraenzl.) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 535. 2007.
Rhetinantha witsenioides (Schltr.) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 535. 2007.
Sarcoglottis maroaensis G.A.Romero & Carnevali,
sp. nov. 9(3): 514. 2010.
Sauvetrea bomboizensis (Dodson) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 535. 2007.
Sauvetrea bomboizensis (Dodson) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 8(1): 15. 2008.
Sauvetrea chicana (Dodson) M.A.Blanco, comb. nov.
7(3): 535. 2007.
Sauvetrea cornuta (C. Schweinf.) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 535. 2007.
Sauvetrea laevilabris (Lindl.) M.A.Blanco, comb. nov.
7(3): 535. 2007.
Sauvetrea machupicchuensis (Christenson) M.A.Blanco,
comb. nov. 7(3): 535. 2007.
Sauvetrea napoensis (Dodson) M.A.Blanco, comb.
nov. 7(3): 535. 2007.
Sauvetrea sessilis (Lindl.) M.A.Blanco, comb. nov.
comb. nov. 7(3): 535. 2007.
Sauvetrea trigona subsp. amaroensis (D.E.Benn. &
Christenson) M.A.Blanco, comb. nov. 7(3): 535. 2007.
.'-1,., ,. -ii.u bidentata (Lindl.) Dressier, comb. nov.
3: 28. 2002.
. Ii ., l. -ii. cuniculata (Schltr.) Dressier, comb. nov.
3: 28. 2002.
,.,Il I.,. -ii.u imbricata (Lindl.) Dressier, comb. nov.
3: 28. 2002.
Sobralia crispissima Dressier, sp. nov. 5: 10. 2002.
Sobralia fragilis Dressier & Bogarin, sp. nov. 9(3):
477. 2010.
Sobralia geminata Dressier & Bogarin, sp. nov. 9(3):
479. 2010.

IANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.








LANKESTERIANA


Sobralia gloriana Dressier, sp. nov. 15: 11. 2002.
Sobralia mariannae Dressier, sp. nov. 5: 13. 2002.
Sobralia nutans Dressier, sp. nov. 5: 13. 2002.
Sobralia quinata Dressier, sp. nov. 6: 27. 2003.
Sobralia sotoana Dressier & Bogarin, sp. nov. 9(3):
482. 2010.
Solenidium portillae Dalstrom & Whitten, sp. nov. 6:
1. 2003.
Sotoa Salazar, gen. nov. 9(3): 501. 2010.
Sotoa confusa (Garay) Salazar, comb. nov. 9(3): 501.
2010.
Stanhopea confusa G.Gerlach & Beeche, sp. nov. 4(3):
217. 2004.
Stanhopea manriquei Jenny & Nauray, sp. nov. 4(2):
109. 2004.
Stanhopea naurayi Jenny, sp. nov. 5(1): 77. 2005.
Stelis megachlamys (Schltr.) Pupulin, nom. nov. 4: 74.
2002.
Stelis sotoarenasii R.Solano, sp. nov. 9(3): 450. 2010.
Stellilabium erratum Dressier, sp. nov. 2: 11. 2001.
Stellilabium smaragdinum Pupulin & M.A.Blanco, sp.
nov. 5: 28. 2002.
Stenia falcata (Ackerman) Dressier, comb. nov. 5(2):
93. 2005.
Stenotyla Dressier, gen. nov. 5(2): 96. 2005.
Stenotyla lankesteriana (Pupulin) Dressier, comb. nov.
5(2): 96. 2005.
Stenotyla lendyana (Rchb.f.) Dressier, comb. nov.
5(2): 96. 2005.
Stenotyla picta (Rchb.f.) Dressier, comb. nov. 5(2): 96.
2005.
Telipogon acicularis (Dressier) N.H.Williams &
Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 168. 2005.
Telipogon alexii N.H.Williams & Dressier, nom. nov.
5(3): 170. 2005.
Telipogon alticola (Dodson & R. Escobar) N.H.
Williams & Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 168. 2005.
Telipogon anacristinae (Pupulin) N.H.Williams &
Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 168. 2005.
Telipogon andinus (L.O.Williams) N.H.Williams &
Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 168. 2005.
Telipogon barbozae (J.T.Atwood & Dressier)
N.H.Williams & Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 169.
2005.
Telipogon bennettii (Dodson & R. Escobar)
N.H.Williams & Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 169.
2005.

IANKESTERIANA 10(), Aprl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


Telipogon bergoldii (Garay & Dunst.) N.H.Williams &
Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 169. 2005.
Telipogon boliviensis (R. Vasquez & Dodson)
N.H.Williams & Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 169.
2005.
Telipogon boylei (J.T. Atwood) N.H.Williams &
Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 169. 2005.
Telipogon bullpenensis (J.T. Atwood) N.H.Williams &
Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 169. 2005.
Telipogon butchii N.H.Williams & Dressier, nom. nov.
5(3): 169. 2005.
Telipogon calueri N.H.Williams & Dressier, nom. nov.
5(3): 170. 2005.
Telipogon campbelliorum (J.T. Atwood) N.H.Williams
& Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 169. 2005.
Telipogon ,li,.,~nil. ,. (Ames & C. Schweinf.)
N.H.Williams & Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 169.
2005.
Telipogon embreei N.H.Williams & Dressier, nom.
nov. 5(3): 170. 2005.
Telipogon erratus (Dressier) N.H.Williams & Dressier,
comb. nov. 5(3): 169. 2005.
Telipogon fortunae (Dressier) N.H.Williams &
Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 169. 2005.
Telipogon helleri (L.O. Williams) N.H.Williams &
Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 170. 2005.
Telipogon hystrix (Dodson) N.H.Williams & Dressier,
comb. nov. 5(3): 170. 2005.
Telipogon ibischii (R. Vasquez) N.H.Williams &
Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 170. 2005.
Telipogon jostii (Dodson) N.H.Williams & Dressier,
comb. nov. 5(3): 170. 2005.
Telipogon microglossus (Schltr.) N.H.Williams &
Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 170. 2005.
Telipogon monteverdensis (J.T.Atwood) N.H.Williams
& Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 170. 2005.
Telipogon morganiae (Dodson) N.H.Williams &
Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 170. 2005.
Telipogon morii (Dressier) N.H.Williams & Dressier,
comb. nov. 5(3): 170. 2005.
Telipogon niri Ackerman, sp. nov. 48
Telipogon ortizii N.H.Williams & Dressier, nom. nov.
5(3): 169. 2005.
Telipogon pampatamboensis (Dodson & R.Vasquez)
N.H.Williams & Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 170. 2005.
Telipogon perlobatus (Senghas) N.H.Williams &
Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 170. 2005.








Index of taxonomic novelties, Vol. 1-9


Telipogon pseudobulbosus (D.E.Benn. & Christenson)
N.H.Williams & Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 168.
2005.
Telipogon reventadorensis N.H.Williams & Dressier,
nom. nov. 5(3): 171. 2005.
Telipogon roberti N.H.Williams & Dressier, nom. nov.
5(3): 171. 2005.
Telipogon selbyanus N.H.Williams & Dressier, nom.
nov. 5(3): 171. 2005.
Telipogon smaragdinus (Pupulin & M.A.Blanco)
N.H.Williams & Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 171.
2005.
Telipogon tanii (Dodson) N.H.Williams & Dressier,
comb. nov. 5(3): 171. 2005.
Telipogon tsipiriensis (Pupulin) N.H.Williams &
Dressier, comb. nov. 5(3): 171. 2005.
Trichopilia x ramonensis J. Garcia & Mora-Ret. ex
C.O.Murales, nothosp. nov. 5: 18. 2002.
Vanilla costaricensis Soto Arenas, sp. nov. 9(3): 297.
2010.
Vanilla cribbiana Soto Arenas, sp. nov. 9(3): 300. 2010.
Vanilla dressleri Soto Arenas, sp. nov. 9(3): 303. 2010.
Vanilla espondae Soto Arenas, sp. nov. 9(3): 281.
2010.
Vanilla martinezii Soto Arenas, sp. nov. 9(3): 320.
2010.
Vanilla pompona Schiede subsp. giranditlora (Lindl.)
Soto Arenas, comb. etstat. nov. 9(3): 340. 2010.
Vanilla pompona Schiede subsp. pittieri (Schltr.)
Dressier, comb. etstat nov. 9(3): 341. 2010.
Vanilla sarapiquensis Soto Arenas, sp. nov. 9(3): 342.
2010.
Vanilla subgen. Xanata sect. Tethya Soto Arenas &


Cribb, sect. nov. 9(3): 359. 2010.
Vanilla subgen. Xanata Soto Arenas & Cribb subgen.
nov. 9(3): 358. 2010.
Warczewiczella guianensis (Lafontaine, Gerlach &
Senghas) Dressier, comb. nov. 5(2): 96. 2005.
Warczewiczella lobata (Garay) Dressier, comb. nov.
5(2): 96. 2005.
Warczewiczella palatina (Senghas) Dressier, comb.
nov. 5(2): 96. 2005.

RHAMNACEAE

Krugiodendron acuminatum J.A.Gonzalez & Poveda,
sp. nov. 8: 16. 2003.

RUBIACEAE

Hoffmannia stephaniae L.A.Gonzalez & Poveda, sp.
nov. 4(3): 183. 2004.

RUTACEAE

Amyris magnifolia G6mez-Laur. & Q.Jimenez, sp.
nov. 6: 5. 2003.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

Gibsoniothamnus ficticius J.F.Morales, sp. nov. 4(1):
2.2004.

STERCULIACEAE

Byttneria osaensis Cristobal, sp. nov. 4(3): 175. 2004.

SYMPLOCACEAE

Symplocos retusa Kriebel, sp. nov. 4(1): 57. 2004.
Symplocos striata Kriebel & N.Zamora, sp. nov. 4(3):
171. 2004.


LANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2010.
















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Lankesterlana 9(3): 509-512. 2010.

A new Omithidium (Orchidaceae: Maxillariinae)
from the Massif de la Hotte of Haiti

Jams D. AclkBana3 &W. Mark Witten2
Unirity of Puerto Rio, Faultyof Natural Sdem Department of
Biology and Center fr Applied Tmpcal Emlogy and Cosratlon, P Box
70377, San Jun, PRF 036 8377, SA
Florda Mueum of NaturaL Hatory, 385 ckinon HalL, Unesity of
Florda, P Box 11780, Gaid ille, FL 32611-7800, USA
3 ACt pondivn author: adoerman.uprQgmalt.mr
Abst. t A ne spede of Omthidiu from the assif de a Hotte, on
of the st remain ordid-Mnd reglo of Had, Is descnMbedand
illutted. Colleed in the 1980s by Doknd D. Dod whose origin
spdmen hs e t ad whe [h m plants ly j l ny foered,
the i spe is is cl y related to 0. c u based on both
morphogy and molecuLr sequs It is stinguished from the tter
byshorter apical Leavs, gobose pseudobjibs and longer sepas.
Ke rd Greater Antilles, Orchidaea, Omlhfisun, Haiti, Dol D.
od, orchid fo

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IANKESTERIANA 10(1) 61-71 2010


CUMULATIVE INDEX OF ARTICLES

LANKESTERIANA, VOL. 1-9


DE ACEVEDO, C. O. & C. VAN DER BERG. 2007. The
Orchidaceae of "Parque Municipal de Mucuge",
Bahia, Brazil. 7(1-2): 443-445.
ACKERMAN, J. D. 2004. Notes on the Caribbean orchid
flora. V. New species, combinations and records.
4(1): 47-56.
2007. Invasive orchids: weeds we hate to
love? 7(1-2): 19-21.
& W. M. WHITTEN. 2010. Anew Ornithidium
(Orchidaceae: Maxillariinae) from the Massif de la
Hotte of Haiti. 9(3): 509-512.
AGOSTO PEDROZA, M. M. & R. L. TREMBLAY. 2003. El
area fotosintetica como indicador en la produccion
de flores en Lepanthes sanguinea. 3(2): 65-66.
ALMEIDA, P R. M., C. VAN DEN BERG & A. GOES-
NETO. 2007. Morphological and molecular
characterization of species of Tulasnella
(Homobasidiomycetes) associated with
Neotropical plants of Laeliinae (Orchidaceae)
occurring in Brazil. 7(1-2): 22-27.
ANONYMOUS. 2010. Miguel Angel Soto Arenas:
Publications and main conferences, 1983-2009.
9(3): 276-280.
ARDITTI, J. 2003. Resupination. 3(2): 95.
ATWOOD, J. T. 2001. Dora Emilia Mora de Retana, a
remembrance. 1(2): 9-10.
BACKHOUSE, G. N. 2007. Are our orchids safe down
under? A national assessment of threatened orchids
inAustralia. 7(1-2): 28-43.
BAINBRIDGE, C.V. & R. AGUILAR. 2008. A new addition
to the Costa Rican flora: Palmorchis nitida
(Orchidaceae: Neottieae) is documented from the
Osa Peninsula. 8(1): 1-4.
BALAM NARVAEZ, R., W. CETZAL IX & G. CARNEVALI
FERNANDEZ-CONCHA. 2010. A new species of
Lophiaris Raf. (Orchidaceae) from the Pacific
Coastal of Mexico. 9(3): 521-525.
BECKNER, J. 2005. Epicladium Small or Guarianthe
Dressler & W.E. Higgins (Orchidaceae)? 5(1):
63-68.
BENITEZ JOUBERT, R. J. & R. L. TREMBLAY. 2003.
Efecto de remoci6n y relocalizaci6n de Lepanthes


eltoroensis Stimson, despues de un huracan. 3(2):
67-69.
BITTER, E. 2002. Joaquin Garcia, Quincho. 2(1): 3-4.
BLANCO, M. A. 2002. Notes on the natural history of
Cyclopogon obliquus (Orchidaceae: Spiranthinae)
in Costa Rica. 2(3): 3-8.
2003. Lepanthes gerardensis (Orchidaceae),
una nueva especie de Costa Rica. 3(3): 19-22.
.2005. Un hibrido espontaneo entire
Aristolochia gorgona y A. griiklitiora
(Aristolochiaceae). 5(2): 115-118.
G. CARNEVALI, M. WRITTEN, R. B. SINGER, S.
KOEHLER, N. H. WILLIAMS, I. OJEDA, K. M. NEUBIG
& L. ENDARA. 2007. Generic realignments in
Maxillariinae (Orchidaceae). 7(3): 515-538.

--- ---,, --- ----
&
2008. Generic realignments in Maxillariinae
(Orchidaceae): corrigenda et addenda. 8(1): 15-
16.
BOGARIN, D. 2007. A new Lycaste (Maxillariinae:
Orchidaceae) from Costa Rica. 7(3): 543-552.
S& F. PUPULIN. 2007. Las orquideas del
Parque Nacional Barra Honda, Guanacaste, Costa
Rica. 7(1-2): 446-449.
& M. FERNANDEZ. 2010. Lepanthes
arenasiana (Pleurothallidinae: Orchidaceae), anew
species from Costa Rica. 9(3): 487-489.
A. KARREMANS & F. PUPULIN. 2008. New
species and records of Orchidaceae from Costa
Rica. 8(2): 53-74.
BREWSTER, P & P NAVA. 2003.CAXI XANATH. Base
de datos de la Colecci6n de Orquideas del Jardin
Botanico Clavijero. 3(2): 3-4.
CAMARA-NETO, C., L. CHAVES-CAMARA, S. CARVALHO DE
MADEIROS & M. DO R. DE ALMEIDA BRAGA. 2007.
Rescuing Cattleya granulosa Lindley in the wild.
7(1-2): 243-246.
CAMPOS, J. A. 2003. Orquideas del Valle Escondido.
3(2): 117-120.
CARDENAS BRICENO, C. 2003. Estudio de la pudricion
negra de las orquideas causada por Phytophthora








LANKESTERIANA


sp. en colecciones del Valle Central de Costa Rica.
3(2): 179-180.
CARNEVALLI, G., J. L. TAPIA, N. H. WILLIAMS & W.
M. WHITTEN. 2003. Sistematica, filogenia y
biogeografia de Myrmecophila. 3(2): 29-32.
CHACON, E. & G. SABORIO-R. 2006. Analisis taxon6mico
de las species de plants introducidas en Costa
Rica. 6(3): 139-148.
CHASE, M. W, M. F. FAY, R. BATEMAN, M. HEDPEN
& Y PILLON. 2007. Allotetraploid evolution in
Dactylorhiza (Orchidaceae). 7(1-2): 187-190.
CHEREVCHENKO, T. M., L. I. BUYUN, L. A. KOVALSKA &
V. NGOC LONGC. 2007. Orchid biogeography and
rarity in a biodiversity hotspot: the Southwest
Australian floristic region. 7(1-2): 129-133.
CHOCCE, M., S. DALSTROM, E. HAGSATER & J. ARNAIZ.
2010. Epidendrum jalcaense (Orchidaceae), a new
species from Northern Peru. 9(3): 529-531.
CHRISTENSON, E. A. 2001. The genus Christensonia.
1(2): 19-22.
CIccio, J. F. 2005. Chemical composition of the leaf
oil ofPeperomia hernandiifolia (Piperaceae) from
Costa Rica. 5(1): 69-72.
S& R. A. OCAMPO. 2006. Variaci6n annual de la
composici6n quimica del aceite esencial de Lippia
alba (Verbenaceae) cultivada en Costa Rica. 6(3):
149-154.
CINTRON BERDECIA, S. T. & R. L. TREMBLAY. 2003.
Phenotypic selection in Lepanthes rupestris
Stimson. 3(2): 70-72.
CONDEMARIN-MONTEALEGRE, C. E., J. CHICO-Ruiz
& C. VARGAS-ARTAEGA. 2007. Efecto del acido
indolbutirico (IBA) y 6-bencilaminopurina (BAP)
en el desarrollo in vitro de yemas axilares de
Encyclia microtos (Rchb.f.) Hoehne (Orchidaceae).
7(1-2): 247-254.
CRIBB, P & F. PUPULIN. 2006. A new Phragmipedium
(Orchidaceae: Cypripedioideae) from Ecuador.
6(1): 1-4.
& J. HERMANS. 2007. The conservation of
Madagascar's orchids. A model for an integrated
conservation project. 7(1-2): 255-262.
CRISTOBAL, C. L. 2004. Una novedad en Byttneria
(Sterculiaceae). 4(3): 175-178.
DALSTROM, S. 2003. Orchids smarter than scientists: an
approach to Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae) taxonomy.
3(2): 33-36.
IANKESTERIANA10(1), Apnl 2010. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


.2004. Scaphosepalum manningii Luer
(Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae), a new species for
Costa Rica. 4(2): 105-108.
& W. M. WHITTEN. 2003. A new species
of Solenidium (Orchidaceae) from Ecuador. 3(1):
1-4.
& G. MERINO. 2010. A new species of
Odontoglossum (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) from
Ecuador. 9(3): 505-508.
DAUPHIN L., G. & M. H. GRAYUM. 2005. Bryophytes
of the Santa Elena Peninsula and Islas Murcielago,
Guanacaste, Costa Rica, with special attention to
neotropical dry forest habitats. 5(1): 53-62.
DEL MAZO, A. & A. DAMON. 2006. Comparison of
floral fragrance components of species ofEncyclia
and Prosthechea (Orchidaceae) from Soconusco,
Southeast Mexico. 6(3): 83-90.
DiAz, R., L. HERNANDEZ, R. OCAMPO & J. F. CIccio.
2006. Domesticaci6n y fitoquimica de Quassia
amara (Simaroubaceae) en el tr6pico humedo de
Costa Rica. 6(2): 49-64.
DILLEY, A. W. 2007. Community involvement in orchid
conservation. 7(1-2): 255-262.
Dix, M. A. & M. W. Dix. 2003. Polinizaci6nde orquideas
en Guatemala: los polinizadores, el estado natural
de sus poblaciones y las implicaciones para las
species polinizadas. 3(2): 96.
& 2003. Rhynchostele
bictoniensis: cambios en abundancia y exito de
polinizaci6n entire 1992 y 2002. 3(2): 97.
Dix, M. W. & M. A. Dix. 2007. Integrated approaches
to orchid conservation in Guatemala: past, present
and future, opportunities and challenges. 7(1-2):
263-265.
DIXON, K. & R. D. PHILIPS. 2007. The orchid
conservation challenge. 7(1-2): 11-12.
DODSON, C. H. 2003. Why are there so many orchid
species?. 3(2): 99-103.
DRESSLER, R. L. 2001. Stellilabium erratum, a comedy
of blunders. 1(2): 11-14.
2002. New species and combinations in
Costa Rican orchids. II. 2(1): 25-29.
2002. The major sections or groups within
Sobralia, with four new species from Panama
and Costa Rica, S. crispissima, S. gloriana, S.
mariannae and S. nutans. 2(3): 9-16.
2003. Sobralia quinata, a new species in








Index of articles, Vol. 1-9


section Globosae. 3(1): 23-25.
2004. Validation of four Malaxis species
(Orchidaceae). 4(1): 97-98.
2007. El sistema Lankester. 7(1-2): 134.
& W. E. HIGGINS. 2003. Guarianthe, a
generic name for the "Cattleya" skinneri complex.
3(2): 37-38.
S& F. PUPULN. 2003. Oncidium zelenkoanum
(Orchidaceae), an unusual new species from
Panama. 3(3): 37-40.
S& D. BOGARIN. 2007. Elleanthus ligularis,
a name for a relatively common "new" species of
Elleanthus Sect. Chloidelyna (Orchidaceae). 7(3):
539-542.
& D. BOGARIN. 2010. Some new Sobraliae
from Costa Rica and Panama. 9(3): 475-485.
DUECK, L. A. & K. M. CAMERON. 2007. Sequencing re-
defines Spiranthes relationships, with implications
for rare and endangered taxa. 7(1-2): 191-195.
FAAST, R. & J. M. FACELLI. 2007. Investigation of
processes leading to the decline of SouthAustralia's
Caladenia species. 7(1-2): 266-268.
FARRINGTON, L. W. J. M. FACELLI, S. C. DONELLAN & A.
D. AUSTIN. 2007. Are some life-history strategies
more vulnerable to the genetic consequences of
habitat fragmentation? A case study using South
Australian Caladenia R. Br. (Orchidaceae) species.
7(1-2): 269.
FAY, M. F., R. J. SMITH, K. ZUIDERDUIN, E. HOOPER,
R. SAMUEL, R. BATEMAN & M. W. CHASE. 2007.
How does hybridization influence the decision
making process in conservation? The genus Orchis
(Orchidaceae) as a case history. 7(1-2): 135-137.
FERNANDEZ, D. S., R. L. TREMBLAY, E. RODRIGUEZ &
L. N. LOPEZ. 2003. Potencial reproductive, tasa
de crecimiento y ambiente luminico en Lepanthes
rupestris Stimson. 3(2): 73-76.
FERRUFINO ACOSTA, L. & J. GOMEZ LAURITO. 2004.
Estudio morfol6gico de Smilax L. Smilacaceae) en
Costa Rica, con implicaciones sistematicas. 4(1):
7-36.
FLANAGAN, N. S., R. PEAKALL, M. A. CLEMENS & J.
TUPAC OTERO. Molecular genetic diagnosis of the
taxonomicallyy difficult' Australian endangered
orchid, Microtis angusii: an evaluation of the
utility of DNAbarcoding. 7(1-2): 196-198.
FRAGA, C. N., R. M. MURRIETA FRANCA, J. EDUARDO


S. PAES, M. BOCAYUVA, P DE A. CONSTANTINO, A.
P FONTANA, S. L. MACHADO, E. M. SADDI, I. SAN
MARTIN-GAJARDO, M. SIMONELLI, F. BERNABE,
A.LANUSSE & B. HARDMAN. 2007. Cores Project
Conservation of endangered orchids: an action
plan for conservation of Brazilian orchids. 7(1-2):
316.
GARCIA-GONZALEZ, M. & C. O. MORALES. 2005.
Analisis de la literature sobre plants medicinales
en Costa Rica (1930-2001). 5(1): 3-40.
GARDINER, L. M. 2007. Vanda tricolor Lindl.
conservation in Java, Indonesia: genetic and
geographic structure and history. 7(1-2): 270-
271.
GARDU~O, C., S. Y GARCIA, M. RAMOS & M. A. AIDA
TELLEZ. 2007. Area recovery and characteristic orchids
conservation "in situ" at San Angel stony terrain,
Mexico, D. F: reservoir area and ecological pathway
at South Sciences and Humanities Educational
Center (SSHEC) within the National Autonomous
University of Mexico. 7(1-2): 272-280.
GERLACH, G. 2004. Stanhopeinae Mesoamericanae II
(Orchidaceae). Dos species nuevas: Polycycnis
blancoi y Coryanthes maduroana. 4(1): 67-74.
.2003. La subtribu Stanhopeinae: sus
notables mecanismos de polinizaci6n, la quimica
de sus aromas florales e implicaciones en
sistematica y taxonomia. 3(2): 104-106.
. 2010. Stanhopeinae Mesoamericanae, V
El aroma floral de las Stanhopeas de Mexico. 9(3):
431-442.
.& G. A. ROMERO-GONZALEZ. 2008.
Stanhopeinae Mesoamericanae IV: las Coryanthes
de Charles W. Powell. 8(2): 33-42.
.& J. BEECHE. 2004. Stanhopeinae
Mesoamericanae (Orchidaceae). III.
Reestablecimiento de Stanhopea ruckeri y una
especie nueva: Stanhopea confusa. 4(3): 213-
222.
. & R. L. DRESSLER. 2003. Stanhopeinae
Mesoamericanae. I. 3(3): 23-30.
GIGOT, G. 2007. Molecular tools and DNA barcoding
for conservation. 7(1-2): 199.
J. VANALPEN-STAHL, D. BOGARIN, J. WARNER,
M. W. CHASE & V SAVOLAINEN 2007. Finding a
suitable DNA barcode for Mesoamerican orchids.
7(1-2): 200-203.
IANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universdad de Costa Rica, 2010.








LANKESTERIANA


GOBEILLE, L. 2007. Tropical orchids in the North,
Montreal Botanical Garden, Quebec, Canada. 7(1-
2): 138-140.
GOMEZ-LAURITO, J. 2005. Utricularia uxoris
(Lentibulariaceae), una nueva especie costarricense
de la Sect. Orchidioides. 5(2): 137-140.
2006. Una nueva especie de Justicia
(Acanthaceae) del sur de Costa Rica. 6(3): 155-156.
& A. ESTRADA. 2002. Licaria leonis
(Lauraceae), una nueva especie del Pacifico
costarricense, y algunas notas sobre Licaria
multinervis H. Kurz. 2(1): 5-10.
S& O. VALVERDE. 2002. Una especie nueva de
Plinia 1. (Myrtaceae) del Caribe sur de Costa Rica.
2(1): 11-13.
S& Q. JIMENEZ. 2003. Una nueva especie
costarricense del g6nero Amyris P Browne
(Rutaceae). 3(1): 5-8.
S& R. ORTIZ. 2004. Lista con anotaciones de
las Angiospermas de la Reserva Biol6gica Alberto
Brenes (microcuencas de lo Rios San Lorenzo y
San Lorencito), Costa Rica. 4(2): 113-142.
GOMEZ P, L. D. 2006. Novedades en la Amazonia
peruana. 6(1): 5-8.
2007. Orquideas centroamericanas en
Inglaterra del siglo XIX. 7(3): 479-492.
2008. Vanilla planifolia, the first
Mesoamerican orchid illustrated, and notes on the
de la Cruz-Badiano Codex. 8(3): 81-88.
S& D. A. HENK. 2004. Validation of the
species of Septobasidium (Basidiomycetes)
described by John N. Couch. 4(1): 75-96.
GONZALEZ ARCE, L. & L. POVEDA ALVAREZ. 2004.
Hoffinannia stephaniae (Rubiaceae), una nueva
especie de Costa Rica. 4(3): 183-186.
GONZALEZ HERNANDEZ, E., J. RAVENTOS, E. MUJICA
BENITEZ &A. BONET. 2007. Estructura y ecologia de
la poblaci6n del endemismo cubano Broughtonia
cubensis (Orchidaceae), en Cabo San Antonio,
peninsula de Guanahacabibes, provincia de Pinar
del Rio, Cuba. 7(3): 469-478.
GONZALEZ RAMIREZ, J. & L. POVEDA ALVAREZ. 2003.
Dos nuevas species de Croton (Euphorbiaceae)
en elNeotr6pico. 3(3): 7-12.
& L. POVEDA ALVAREZ. 2003. Ficus lasiosyce
(Moraceae), una nueva especie del subg6nero
Urostigma en elNeotr6pico. 3(3): 13-16.
IANKESTERIANA 0(l), Aprl 2010. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


S& L. POVEDA ALVAREZ. 2003. Una segunda
especie de Krugiodendron (Rhamnaceae) en el
Neotr6pico. 3(3): 17-18.
GOWLAND, K. M., U. MATHESIUS, M. A. CLEMENS & A.
B. NICOTRA. 2007. Understanding the distribution
of three species of epiphytic orchids in temperate
Australian rainforest by investigation of their host
and fungal associates. 7(1-2): 44-46.
GUEVARA RAMOS, E. M., M. AGOSTO PEDROZA & R.
L. TREMBLAY. 2003. Effects of flower age on
pollination success in Lepanthes sanguine. 3(2):
107-108.
HAGSATER, E. 2003. Epidendrum tolimense Lindl.
(Orchidaceae), una especie sudamericana
encontrada en Costa Rica. 3(3): 41-43.
HAGSATER, E. 2010. In memorial: Miguel Angel Soto
Arenas (1963-2009). 9(3): 273-275.
S& L. SANCHEZ. 2003. AMO-DATA en la
taxonomia y en el manejo de colecciones. 3(2): 5-6.
S& M. A. SOTO ARENAS. 2005. Transfers to
Epidendrum L. from Oerstedella Rchb. f. 5(1):
73-76.
HAMMEL, B. E. 2006. Three new species of
Marcgraviaceae from Costa Rica, with references
to related species and notes on the generic
placement of Schwartziajimenezii. 6(2): 73.
S& N. A. ZAMORA. 2005. Revision del g6nero
Dichapetalum (Dichapetalaceae) en Costa Rica.
5(3): 211.
HIGGINS, W. E. 2003. Prosthechea: a chemical
discontinuity in Laeliinae. 3(2): 39-42.
2004. Epidendrum tripunctatum
(Orchidaceae, Laeliinae): the tale of two species.
4(3): 223-228.
& G. D. GANN. 2007. The conservation
dilemma. 7(1-2): 141-146.
S& P VIVEROS. 2008. A new Phragmipedium
from Colombia. 8(3): 89-92.
HOLST, B. & S. DALSTROM. 2007. Rare plant restoration
on Long Pine Key. 7(1-2): 47.
JENNY, R. 2004. A new species of Stanhopea
(Orchidaceae) from Peru. 4(2): 109-112.
2005. Another new species of Stanhopea
(Orchidaceae) from Peru. 5(1): 77-80.
2007. What is BIBLIORCHIDEA? 7(1-2):
169-174.
2008. The Botanical Cabinet. 8(2): 43-52.








Index of articles, Vol. 1-9


JIANSHENG, J. 2007. The status of orchid conservation
in China. 7(1-2): 48.
JIMENEZ, I. V & F. MIRANDA A. 2007. Epiphyte orchid
diversity in a Yungas montane forest in the Cotapata
National Park and Integrated Management Natural
Area, La Paz Bolivia. 7(1-2): 49-52.
JIMENEZ DE PINTO, R. 2003. Conservacion de barrancos
en Guatemala: la experiencia de un colegio. 3(2):
133-134.
JIMENEZ MACHORRO, R. & E. HAGSATER. 2010. Oncidium
ornithorhynchum, una especie mal interpretada
y un nombre para una vieja especie: Oncidium
sotoanum (Orchidaceae). 9(3): 411-422.
KARREMANS, A. & E. HAGSATER. 2010. Confusion in
Epidendrum brenesii Schltr., and a new Costa Rican
species: Epidendrum sotoanum (Orchidaceae).
9(3): 403-409.
KINDLMANN, P. 2003. Evolution of irregular flowering
regimes in orchids. 3(2): 77-80.
KIRBY, S. H. 2003. Neotropical orchid eco-tourism:
educational experience of an orchid neophyte at
the Bosque de Paz Biological Preserve, Central
Volcanic Range, Costa Rica. 3(2): 121-124.
S2007. Geological processes and orchid
biogeography with applications to southeast
Central America. 7(1-2): 53-55.
& M. MU~roz. 2007. A form and checklist
for the description of orchids in the field and
laboratory work. 7(1-2): 175-177.
KRIEBEL, R. 2004. Symplocos retusa (Symplocaceae),
una nueva especie de Costa Rica. 4(1): 57-59.
S2005. Una nueva especie y un nuevo
registro de Drymonia (Gesneriaceae) en Costa
Rica. 5(1): 81-84.
2006. Drymonia tomentulifera, sp. nova de
Costa Rica, y notas sobre la biologia reproductive
del g6nero Drymonia (Gesneriaceae: Episcieae).
6(2): 42-48.
& N. ZAMORA. 2004. Symplocos striata
(Symplocaceae), una especie nueva de la vertiente
caribe de Costa Rica. 4(3): 171-174.
S& A. RODRIGUEZ. 2005. Revision del g6nero
Dichapetalum (Dichapetalaceae) en Costa Rica.
5(2): 121-136.
LAURI, R. K. 2007. Conservation of the group Piperia
(Orchidaceae) and associated plant communities.
7(1-2): 281-286.


LAVRENTYEVA, A. M. & R. V IVANNIKOV. 2007. In vitro
propagation of Cattleya Lindl. and Laelia Lindl.
species. 7(1-2): 147-149.
LEON ARGUEDAS, J. 2006. Semblanza sobre Luis
Fournier Origgi. 6(2): 29-32.
LEOPARDI, C. 2010. Orquideofl6rula de un sector de
Serrania de La Cuchilla, municipio Caripe, estado
Monagas, Venezuela. 9(3): 541-555.
S& L. J. CUMANA. 2008. Listado de species
de la familiar Orchidaceae para el estado Sucre,
Venezuela. 8(3): 93-104.
LIGHT, M. H. S. 2003. Conservation through education.
3(2): 125-126.
& M. MACCONAILL. 2003. Seed
characteristics and asymbiotic germination of
Galeandra batemanii Rolfe and G. greenwoodiana
Warford. 3(2): 141-144.
S& 2007. Effects of trampling on
a terrestrial orchid environment. 7(1-2): 287-293.
LLAMACHO OLMO, J. A. 2004. Nuevos registros de la
familiar Orchidaceae en Cuba. 4(1): 60.
2004. Notas sobre ecologia y distribucion
del g6nero Lepanthes (Orchidaceae) en Cuba, con
una lista actualizada y revisada. 4(1): 61-66.
LoBO C., S. 2003. Los hospederos de las plants
hemiparasitas de la familiar Loranthaceae (S.L.) en
Costa Rica. 3(1): 17-20.
LoBO C., S. 2004. Tipos de orquidaceas brenesianas,
descritas por R. Schlechter, en el Herbario Nacional
de Costa Rica. 4(1): 37-46.
LOPEZ ROBERTS, C., G. VILLEGAS ALVARADO, B.
MAMANI SANCHEZ, J. BERMEJO FRANCO, M.
AGUILAR LLANOS & J. QUEZADA PORTUGAL. 2007.
Orchids' micropropagation for to the sustainable
management of native species from Parque
Nacional y Area Natural de Manejo Integrado
Cotapata (PN-ANMI Cotapata), La Paz-Bolivia.
7(1-2): 294-298.
LUNA-ROSALES, B. S., A. BARBA-ALVAREZ, R. ROMERO-
TIRADO, E. PEREZ-TOLEDANO, O. PEREA-MORALES,
S. PADRON-HERNANDEZ, H. SIERRA-JIMENEZ, R. DE
LA CRUZ & D. JARDON-SANCHEZ. 2007. Diversidad
de Orquideas en el "Parque Nacional Iztaccihuatl-
Popocat6petl" (Mexico) y sus areas de influencia.
7(1-2): 56-59.
Luz RBEIRO, P E. L. BORBA, E. C. SMIDT, S. M. LAMBERT,A.
SELBACH-SCHNADELBACH & C. VAN DER BERG. Genetic
LANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2010.








LANKESTERIANA


and morphological variation in the Bulbophyllum
exaltatum (Orchidaceae) complex occurring in the
Brazilian "Campos Rupestres": implications for
taxonomy and biogeography. 7(1-2): 97-101.
MARIN, W. A. 2003. Phylogeny and evolution. 3(2):
43-44.
MASSEY, E. E. & L. W. ZETTLER. An expanded role
for in vitro symbiotic seed germination as a
conservation tool: two case studies in North
America (Platanthera leucophaea and Epidendrum
nocturnum). 7(1-2): 303-308.
MCQUALTER, E., R. CROSS, C. B. MCLEAN & P Y.
LADIGES. 2007. SEM and PCR study ofmycorrhizal
fungi isolated from the Australian terrestrial orchid:
Prasophyllum. 7(1-2): 309.
& 2007.
Prasophyllum (Orchidaceae) and its associated
mycorrhizal fungi. 7(3): 497-502.
MEDINA, H. & F. PUPULIN. 2010. Masdevallia sotoana
(Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae), a new species
from Ecuador. 9(3): 455-458.
MERINO, G., A. DOUCETTE & F. PUPULIN. 2010.
New species of Porroglossum (Orchidaceae:
Pleurothallidinae) from Ecuador. 9(3): 459-466.
MIRENDA, T., K. WALLICK & R. R. GABEL. 2007. The role
of CITES Rescue Centers in orchid conservation:
concerns and questions raised by the collaboration
on an endangered slipper orchid (Paphiopedilum
vietnamense 0. Gruss & Perner). 7(1-2): 150-
151.
MORALES, C. 0. 2001. Dora Emilia Mora de Retana,
1940-2001. 1(2): 1-8.
2002. Ecce homo, scientia clarus: Luis
Fournier Origgi (1935-2002). 2(3): 1-2.
2002. Trichopilia X ramonensis
(Orchidaceae), un hibrido natural de Costa Rica.
2(3): 17-22.
2002. Notas varias sobre Heliconia
rodriguezii (Heliconiaceae) de Costa Rica. 2(3):
23-26.
2003. Reposo y germinacion de semillas de
Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Fabaceae): resultados
de un studio inedito y un experiment fallido.
3(1): 21-25.
2003. El botanico y artist Rafael Lucas
Rodriguez (1915-1981); resefia de su vida y su
obra. 3(2): 159-164.
IANKESTERIANA10(1), Apnl 2010. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


2005. Memoria de uno de los grandes de la
orquideologia mundial: Karlheinz Senghas (1928-
2004). 5(1): 1-2.
.2005. Sobre un opus magnum de la
orquideologia neotropical: Hagsater, E. & Sanchez
Saldafia, L. (eds.). 2004. Icones Orchidacearum
Fasc. 7, The genus Epidendrum, Part 4, "A fourth
century of new species inEpidendrum". 5(1): 84.
2006. Un herbario de Costa Rica llega a 75
afios. 6(2): 25-28.
2006. Cien afios de la Sociedad Alemana de
Orquideologia (1906-2006). 6(3): 91-94.
S& N. VILLALOBOS T. 2004. Tipos de plants
vasculares en el Herbario de la Universidad de
Costa Rica (USJ). 4(3): 187-208.
MORALES, J. F. 2004. Sinopsis del g6nero
Gibsoniothamnus (Schlegeliaceae) en Costa Rica,
con una nueva especie. 4(1): 1-6.
Estudios en las Apocynaceae neotropicales
XIV: Nuevas lectotipificaciones en los g6neros
Hylaea J.F. Morales y Pentalinon Voigt
(Apocynoideae, Echiteae). 5(2): 159-160.
& E. ALFARO. 2003. Tillandsiaguatemalensis
(Bromeliaceae), un registro nuevo en la flora de
Costa Rica. 3(3): 5-6.
& J. K. WILLIAMS. 2005. Una nueva
combinaci6n en el g6nero Allotoonia
(Apocynaceae, Apocynoideae, Echiteae). 5(2):
119-120.
MUJICA BENITEZ, E. 2003. Notas acerca de la coleccion
de Orchidaceae del Herbario del Instituto Superior
Pedag6gico de Pinar del Rio (Hppr), Cuba. 3(1):
9-16.
2003.Hacia un catalogo actualizado de las
Orchidaceae de Cuba. 3(2): 7-8.
E., J. L. BOCOURT VIGIL & F. PUPULIN. 2004.
Encyclia cajalbanensis (Orchidaceae), una especie
nueva de la flora cubana. 4(3): 209-212.
E., J. RAVENTOS & E. GONZALEZ. 2010.
Andlisis de la selecci6n de sustrato por parte de
Dendrophylax lindenii (Orchidaceae) en Cabo San
Antonio, Peninsula de Guanahacabibes, Pinar del
Rio, Cuba. 9(3): 533-540.
MuNroz, M. & V M. JIMENEZ. 2007. Desarrollo de
capsulas y germinaci6n in vitro de Phragmipedium
humboldtii, P. longifolium y P. pearcei. 7(1-2):
310-312.








Index of articles, Vol. 1-9


S& 2008. Capsule development,
in vitro germination and plantlet acclimatization in
Phragmipedium humboldtii, P. longifolium and P.
pearcei. 8(2): 23-32.
& S. H. KIRBY. 2007. An orchid inventory and
conservation project at Bosque de Paz Biological
Reserve, upper Rio Toro Valley, Alajuela, Costa
Rica. 7(1-2): 60-65.
& J. WARNER. 2007. Distribuci6n de
poblaciones silvestres y descripci6n del habitat de
Phragmipedium en Costa Rica. 7(1-2): 66-70.
NEWMAN, B. J., P LADD, A. BATTY & K. DIXON. 2007.
Ecology of orchids in urban bushland reserves -
can orchids be used as indicators of vegetation
condition? 7(1-2): 313-315.
NIR, M. A. 2003. The endemic orchid genera of the
Antilles. 3(2): 9-10.
OJEDA, I., G. CARNEVALI, N. H. WILLIAMS & W. M.
WHITTEN. 2003. Filogenia del complejoHeterotaxis
Lindl. (Maxillariinae): evoluci6n de la arquitectura
vegetativa y los sindromes de polinizaci6n. 3(2):
45-48.
OREJUELA, J. E. 2007. Orchids of a regenerated tropical
dry forest in the Cali river watershed, Municipality
of Cali, Colombia. 7(1-2): 71-82.
ORTEGA-LARROCEA, M. P & M. RANGEL-VILLAFRANCO.
2007. Fungus-assisted reintroduction and long-
term survival of two Mexican terrestrial orchids in
the natural habitat. 7(1-2): 317-321.
ORTIZ-ARIAS, B., L. MOREIRA, A.V MACAYA-LIZANO
& C. RIVERA. 2003. Detecci6n de tres species de
potovirus en orquideas nativas de un vivero del
Valle Central de Costa Rica. 3(2): 181-182.
OSSENBACH, C. 2003. La aventura europea del
Epidendrum radicans. 3(2): 165-168.
2004. Fritz Hamer. In memorial. 4(2):
101-104.
2009. Orchids and orchidology in Central
America: 500 years of history. 9(1-2): 1-268.
M. OSSENBACH & F. PUPULIN. 2003.
Catalogo preliminary de las Orchidaceae de la Zona
Protectora Cerros de la Carpintera, Costa Rica.
3(2): 127-132.
OTERO, T., P BAYMAN & J. D. ACKERMAN. 2003.
Variaci6n en germinacion simbi6tica entire semillas
de Tolumnia variegata y entire hongos micorrizicos.
3(2): 145-146.


PACETTI, P L. & S. REISS. 2001. Endophytes of
Serapias pa'uitorni Parl. and Spiranthes spiralis
(L.) Chevall. (Orchidaceae): description of
endophytes of S. 'par'iitloii. and in vitro symbiosis
development in S. paritnira and Spiranthes
spiralis. 1(2): 23-30.
PEDERSEN, H. TE. 2007. Hotspots of narrow endemisms:
adequate focal points for conservation in
Dendrochilum (Orchidaceae). 7(1-2): 83-92.
PEMBERTON, R. W. 2007. Pollination of Guarianthe
skinneri, an ornamental food deception orchid in
southern Florida, by the naturalized orchid bee
Euglossa viridissima. 7(3): 461-468.
T. M. COLLINS & S. KOPTUR. 2008. An
Asian orchid, Eulophia graminea (Orchidaceae:
Cymbidieae), naturalizes in Florida. 8(1): 5-14.
PEREZ-GARCIA, E. A. 2010. El redescubrimiento de
Mexipedium xerophyticum (Soto Arenas, Salazar
& Hagsater ) VA. Albert & M.W. Chase. 9(3):
557-563.
S& E. HAGSATER 2010. Miguel Angel Soto
Arenas (July 12, 1963 August 27, 2009). 9(3):
1-268.
PHILIPS, R. D., A. P. BROWN, K. W. DIXON & S. D.
HOPPER. 2007. Orchid biogeography and rarity in
a biodiversity hotspot: the Southwest Australian
floristic region. 7(1-2): 93-96.
PORRAS ALFARO, A. & P. BAYMAN. 2003. Mycorrhyzal
fungi of Vanilla: root colonization patterns and
fungal infection. 3(2): 147-150.
POWELL, M. P, F. PUPULIN, J. WARNER, M. W. CHASE &
V SAVOLAINEN. 2003. Floral mimicry in Oncidioid
orchids. 3(2): 109-110.
PRIDGEON, A. & M. W. CHASE. 2003. Phylogenetics
of the Subtribe Pleurothallidinae (Epidendreae:
Orchidaceae) based on combined evidence from
DNA sequences. 3(2): 49-50.
PUGH-JONES, S. 2003. Orchids at Writhlington School,
Orchid conservation in the Community. 3(2):
135-138.
PUPULIN, F. 2001. Addenda Orchidaceis Quepoanis.
1(1): 1-28.
.2002. The Prosthechea prismatocarpa
complex (Orchidaceae: Laeliinae) in Costa Rica,
with a new species, P. rnlitlonr. 2(1): 19-24.
2002. Catalogo revisado y anotado de las
Orchidaceae de Costa Rica. 2(2): 1-88.
IANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universdad de Costa Rica, 2010.








LANKESTERIANA


2007. EPIDENDRA, the taxonomic databases
by Jardin Botanico Lankester. 7(1-2): 178-180.
S& M. A. BLANCO. 2001. Myoxanthus
vittatus (Orchidaceae), a new species from Costa
Rica. 1(2): 15-18.
& 2002. A new species of
Stellilabium section Taeniorhachis (Orchidaceae)
from Costa Rica. 2(3): 27-30.
& C. OSSENBACH S. 2002. Macradenia
(Orchidaceae): a confirmed genus for Costa Rican
Flora. 2(1): 15-17.
S& G. ROMERO-GONZALEZ. 2003.Costa Rican
Orchidaceae types (CROTYPES) digital imaging
documentation at AMES, Harvard University.
3(2): 11-16.
S& E. HAGSATER. 2003. A noteworthy new
natural hybrid in the genus Oerstedella Rchb.f
(Orchidaceae: Laeliinae). 3(3): 31-36.
S& G. MERINO. 2010. Comparettia sotoana
(Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae), a new Ecuadorian
species. 9(3): 399-402.
S& A. P KARREMANS. 2010. Crossoglossa
sotoana (Orchidaceae: Malaxideae), a new species
honoring the late Mexican botanist, Miguel Angel
Soto Arenas. 9(3): 443-446.
D. BOGARIN & C. M. SMITH. 2010. Two new
species of Lepanthes from Costa Rica close to L.
schizocardia (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae).
9(3): 423-430.
-- & M. FERNANDEZ. 2010. On the
identity of Myoxanthus scandens (Orchidaceae:
Pleurothallidinae), with a new species from Costa
Rica. 9(3): 467-473.
RAMIREZ B., W. 2006. Hibridaci6n interespecifica en
PaTritiora (Passifloraceae), mediante polinizacion
manual, y caracteristicas florales para la
polinizaci6n. 6(3): 123-132.
2007. Pollination analogies between
Orchidaceae, Ficus (Moraceae) and
Asclepiadaceae. 7(1-2): 450-457.
& G. ROJAS. 2007. Morphological
characterization of the artificial hybrid between
Stanhopea costaricensis and Stanhopea cirrhata
(Orchidaceae). 7(3): 503-508.
RAMOS ZAMBRANO, E., T. JIMENEZ SALGADO & A. TAPIA
HERNANDEZ. 2007. Estudio de bacteria asociadas
orquideas (Orchidaceae). 7(1-2): 322-325.
LANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universdad de Costa Rca, 2010.


RANGEL-VILLAFRANCO, M. & M. P ORTEGA-LARROCEA.
2007. Efforts to conserve endangered terrestrial
orchids in situ and ex situ at two natural reserves
within Central Mexico. 7(1-2): 326-333.
RASMUSSEN, H. N. & F. N. RASMUSSEN. 2007. Trophic
relationships in orchid mycorrhiza diversity and
implications for conservation. 7(1-2): 334-341.
RIBEIRO, P. L., E. L. BORBA, E. C. SMIDT, S. M. LAMBERT,
A. SELBACH-SCHNADELBACH & C. VAN DER BERG.
2007. Genetic and morphological variation in the
Bulbophyllum exaltatum (Orchidaceae) Complex
occurring in the Brazilian "Campos Rupestres":
implications for taxonomy and biogeography. 7(1-
2): 342-347.
Rio FRIO, L. C. NARANJO, J. IRIONDO & E. TORREs. 2007.
Spatial structure of Pleurothallis, Masdevallia,
Lepanthes and Epidendrum epiphytic orchids
in a fragment of montane cloud forest in South
Ecuador. 7(1-2): 102-106.
RIVERA-COTO, G. & G. CORRALES-MOREIRA. 2007.
Problems fitosanitarios que amenazan la
conservaci6n de las orquideas de Costa Rica. 7(1-
2): 348-352.
ROBERTS, D. L. 2007. Effect of knowledge gain on
species conservation status. 7(1-2): 181-185.
2007. Observations on the effect of nectar-
robbery of Aeranthes arachnitis (Orchidaceae).
7(3): 509-514.
S& G. J. McINERNY. 2003.When is a species
extinct? Quantitative inference of threat and
extinction from herbarium data. 3(2):17-20.
ROCHA, O. 2003. Breeding systems, gene flow and
level of genetic differentiation in plant populations.
3(2): 81-86.
RODRIGUEZ G., A. 2005. Sinopsis de Neomirandea
(Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) en Costa Rica. 5(3):
201-210.
2006. Diez species nuevas de Guarea
(Meliaceae) de Nicaragua, Costa Rica y Panama.
6(3): 101-122.
RODRIGUEZ SALAS, M., J. BENAVIDES RANILLA & J.
R. ESPINOZA. 2007. Genetic relationships of
Phragmipedium species (Orchidaceae) using
amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)
analysis. 7(3): 493-496.
ROJAS ALVARADO, A. F. 2004. Una nueva especie
de Hymenophyllum y una variedad nueva de








Index of articles, Vol. 1-9


Trichomanes collariatum Bosch (Filicales:
Hymenophyllaceae) en Costa Rica. 4(2): 143-
148.
2004. Un nuevo hibrido de Tectaria
(Filicales: Tectariaceae) en Costa Rica. 4(2):
149-154.
2005. El complejo de Campyloneurum
angustifolium (Sw.) Fee (Polypodiaceae) en Costa
Rica. 5(1): 42-48.
2005. Una nueva especie de Blechnum L.
(Blechnaceae) en el neotr6pico. 5(1): 49-52.
2005. Novedades en Huperzia Bernh.
(Lycopodiaceae) de Costa Rica. 5(2): 109-114.
2005. Una nueva especie deElaphoglossum
secci6n Elaphoglossum (Lomariopsidaceae) en
Costa Rica. 5(3): 185-190.
2005. Nuevos taxa de helechos
arborescentes (Filicales: Cyatheaceae) en Costa
Rica. 5(3): 191-200.-
2006. Notas sobre Enterosora Baker
(Filicales: Grammitidaceae) en Costa Rica. 6(1):
9-14.
2006. Una especie nueva de Tectaria
(Filicales: Tectariaceae) en Panama. 6(1): 15-18.
.2006. Nuevos taxa en Grammitidaceae
(Pteridophyta) de Costa Rica. 6(3): 95-100.
2007. Una especia nueva de Lellingeria
(Filicales: Polypodiaceae) para Costa Rica,
Panama y Colombia. 7(3): 553-556.
2007. Novedades en Polybotrya (Filicales:
Dryopteridaceae) para Costa Rica. 7(3): 557-562.
ROLANDO, I., M. RODRIGUEZ, M. DAMIAN, J. BENAVIDES,
A. MANRIQUE & J. ESPINOZA. 2007. Molecular
identification and genetic studies in Peruvian
Phragmipediums. 7(1-2): 152.
ROMERO-GONZALEZ, G. & G. CARNEVALI FERNANDEZ-
CONCHA. 2003. Tres en uno, to son mas? Historia
de Epidendrum dichotomum Lindl., non Presl.
3(2): 169-172.
& G. CARNEVALI FERNANDEZ-CONCHA. 2004.
New reports of Orchidaceae from the Guianas.
4(3): 229-234.
S& C. H. DODSON. 2010. A la tercera se
gana: the validation of Benzingia (Orchidaceae:
Zygopetalinae). 9(3): 526-528.
G. CARNEVALI FERNANDEZ-CONCHA & P.
ORMEROD. 2010. Novelties in the orchid flora of


Venezuela II Cranichideae. 9(3): 513-519.
ROMERO-TIRADO, R., B. S. LUNA ROSALES & A. BARBA
ALVAREZ. 2007. Uso de complejos comerciales
como sustitutos de components del medio de
cultivo en la propagaci6n in vitro de Laelia anceps.
7(1-2): 353-356.
ROSA-FUENTES, E. A. & R. L. TREMBLAY. 2007. Re-
evaluation of lifespan in a Neotropical orchid: an
eleven years survey. 7(1-2): 204-208.
RUIZ-CANINO, F., D. S. FERNANDEZ, E. J. MELENDEZ-
ACKERMAN & R. L. TREMBLAY. 2007. The effect
of the light environment on population size of the
epiphytic herb, Lepanthes rupestris (Orchidaceae).
7(1-2): 357-361.
SALAZAR-CASASA, W., G. RIVERA-COTO & G. CORRALES-
MOREIRA. 2007. Comparaci6n de los problems
fitosanitarios en orquideas de poblaciones
silvestres y de cultivo, como evaluaci6n de riesgos
de plagas o epidemias. 7(1-2): 362-367.
SALAZAR ROJAS, V. M. & M. MATA ROSAS. 2003.
Micropropagaci6n y conservaci6n de orquideas
mexicanas en el Jardin Botanico Calvijero. 3(2):
151-154.
B. E. HERRERA-CABRERA, A. FLORES-
PALACIOS & I. OCAMPO-FLETES. 2007. Traditional
use and conservation of the "calaverita" Laelia
anceps subsp. dawsonii f chilapensis Soto-Arenas
at Chilapa, Guerrero, Mexico. 7(1-2): 368-370.
SALAZAR, G. A. & C. BALLESTEROS-BARRERA. 2010.
Sotoa, a new genus of Spiranthinae (Orchidaceae)
from Mexico and the southern United States. 9(3):
491-504.
SANCHEZ-VINDAS, P E. 2004. Una nueva especie de
Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae) de las selvas humedas
costarricenses. 4(3): 179-182.
SANDOVAL, E., T. TERRAZAS & A. VALLEJO. 2003.
Analisis fen6tico de caracteres anat6mico-foliares
de Trichocentrum y g6neros relacionados. 3(2):
54-56.
T. TERRAZAS, G. SALAZAR, A. VALLEJO
& B. ESTRADA. 2003. Anatomia vegetativa de
Mexipedium xerophyticum (Soto, Salazar &
Hagsater) V.A. Albert & M.W. Chase y g6neros
relacionados (Orchidaceae, Cypripedioideae).
3(2): 51-53.
SAYERS, B. & H. Du PLOOY. 2003. Additions to the
orchid flora of Belize, Central America. 3(3): 1-4.
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LANKESTERIANA


H. DuPLOOY & B. ADAMS. 2007. Working
together for orchid conservation The National
Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin and Belize Botanic
Gardens. 7(1-2): 153-155.
SCHODELBAUEROVA, I., P KINDLMANN & D. ROBERTS.
2007. The species-area-energy relationship in
orchids. 7(1-2): 209-214.
SCHUG, W. 2003. El Centro de Documentaci6n del
Jardin Botanico Lankester. 3(2): 21-24.
SEATON, P T. 2007. Orchid conservation: where do we
go from here? 7(1-2): 13-17.
2007. Establishing a global network of
orchid seed banks. 7(1-2): 371-375.
SENTHILKUMAR, S. 2003. Mycorrhizal fungi of
endangered orchid species in Kolli, a part of Eastern
Ghat's, South India. 3(2): 155-157.
SHARMA, J., M. L. ISHIDA & V L. YADON. 2007.
Mycorrhizal diversity of an endemic terrestrial
orchid. 7(1-2): 215-218.
SINGER, R. B. 2003. Nuevos hallazgos en la polinizacion
de orquideas brasilefias. 3(2): 111-115.
S& S. KOHELER. 2003. Toward a phylogeny
of Maxillariinae orchids: multidisciplinary studies
with emphasis in Brazilian species. 3(2): 57-60.
SMIDT, E. C., V SILVA-PEREIRA, E. L. BORBA & C. VAN
DEN BERG. Richness, distribution and important
areas to preserve Bulbophyllum in the Neotropics.
7(1-2): 107-113.
SMITH, R. H., J. A. SMITH & S. LIEBLER. 2007.
Production of Cypripedium montanum seedlings
for commercial value and reintroduction into
restoration projects: phase II. 7(1-2): 376.
SMITH, Z. F., E. A. JAMES & C. B. MACLEAN. 2007.
Finding a mycorrhizal fungus for reintroductions
of the threatened terrestrial orchid Diuris
fragrantissima. 7(1-2): 381.
-- & -. 2007. Experimental
reintroduction of the threatened terrestrial orchid
Diurisfragrantissima. 7(1-2): 377-380.
SOLANO GOMEZ, R. 2010. Dos species nuevas de
Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae) de Mexico. 9(3):
447454.
SOTO ARENAS, M. A. 2010. A new species of Vanilla
from South America. 9(3): 281-284.
& P CRIBB. 2010. A new infrageneric
classification and synopsis of the genus Vanilla Plum.
ex Mill. (Orchidaceae: Vanillinae). 9(3): 355-398.
IANKESTERIANA 10(1), Aprl 2010. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


S& R. L. DRESSLER. 2010. A revision of the
Mexican and Central American species of Vanilla
Plumier ex Miller with a characterization of their
ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. 9(3):
285-354.
R. SOLANO GOMEZ & E. HAGSATER. 2007.
Risk of extinction and patterns of diversity loss in
Mexican orchids. 7(1-2): 114-121.
STERN, W. L. & B. S. CARLSWARD. 2008. Vegetative
anatomy of Calypsoeae (Orchidaceae). 8(3):
105-112.
STEWART, S. L. & M. E. KANE. 2007. Orchid
conservation in the Americas lessons learned in
Florida. 7(1-2): 382-387.
SUAREZ-QUIJADA, I., M. HERNANDEZ-ALTAMIRANO, V.
CHAVEZ-AVILA, E. SANDOVAL-ZAPOTITLA & A.
MARTINEZ-PALACIOS. 2007. Propagaci6n in vitro y
aclimatizaci6n de Euchile mariae (Ames) Withner
(Orchidaceae). 7(1-2): 388-393.
I., M. HERNANDEZ-ALTAMIRANO, V. CHAVEZ-
AVILA, E. SANDOVAL-ZAPOTITLA & A. MARTINEZ-
PALACIOS. 2007. Determinaci6n histol6gica de
regenerantes de Euchile mariae (Ames) Withner,
(Orchidaceae), obtenidos a partir de protocormos
cultivados in vitro. 7(1-2): 394-397.
SWARTS, N. D., A. L. BATTY, S. HOPPER & K. W DIXON.
Does integrated conservation of terrestrial orchids
work? 7(1-2): 219-222.
SWIFT, C. 2007. Young adventures in orchid
conservation. 7(1-2): 398-403.
TINoco JUAREZ M. S. & M. MATA ROSAS. 2007.
Adquisici6n de competencia para la micropagacion
de Stanhopea tigrina, Laelia anceps, Epidendrum
veroscriptum y Cattleya x Esbetts (Orchidaceae).
7(1-2): 404-418.
TOBIAS, P. S., M. DO R. DE ALMEIDA BRAGA, S.
BECKENDORF & R. KAUFMANN. 2007. Establishing
an Orchid Conservation Alliance. 7(1-2): 161-
163.
TREMBLAY, R. L. & J. D. ACKERMAN. 2003. The
genetic structure of populations of orchids and its
evolutionary importance: understanding processes
from patterns. 3(2): 87-93.
S& 2007. Evolution in small
populations: evidence from the literature and
experimental results. 7(1-2): 223-228.
R. M. BATEMAN, A. P BRWON, M.








Index of articles, Vol. 1-9


HACHADOURIAN, M. J. HUTCHINGS, S. KELL, H.
KOOPOWITz, C. LEHNEBACH & D. WIGHAM. 2007.
Density induced rates of pollinaria removal
and deposition in the Purple Enamel-orchid,
Elythranthera brunonis (Endl.) A.S. George. 7(1-
2): 229-241.
TRUJILLO, D. 2003. El genero Epidendrum en San
Pedro de Carpish, Huanuco, Peru. 3(2): 25-28.
VALENZUELA GAMARRA, L. 2008. A new species of
Masdevallia (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae)
from Peru. 8(1): 17-20.
VALVERDE ARIAS, R. A. & A. QUESADA CHANTO. 2003.
Nuevas perspectives de investigaci6n en la familiar
Orchidaceae en Costa Rica. 3(2): 173-174.
VALVERDE ROJAS, I. 2006. Crecimiento de Barkeria
lindleyana (Orchidaceae) en un habitat suburban
de Costa Rica. 6(2): 33-42.
VARGAS-ZAMORA, J. A. & GOMEZ-LAURITO, J. 2004.
Botanica y numismatica: las plants en las monedas
de Costa Rica (1709-2004). 4(2): 155-168.
& 2005. Algunas plants en
billetes, boletos de cafe y cafetales de Costa Rica.
(1836 2004). 5(2): 141-158.
S& 2006. Palmeras, palmas y
mirtos en monedas de Costa Rica (1825-1951).
6(2): 65-72.
VELASCO, A. T. 2007. The important role that the
Botanical Garden of the National Autonomous
University of Mexico plays in the conservation of
mexican orchids. 7(1-2): 156-160.
VERGARA CASSAS, C. A. 2007. Inventory of the orchids
in the humid tropical premontane forest on
Uchumachi Mountain, nor Yungas region of La
Paz, Bolivia. 7(1-2): 122-127.
VEROLA, C. F., J. SEMIR, A. ANTONELLI & I. KOCH.
2007. Biosystematic studies in the Brazilian
endemic genus Hoffmannseggella H. G. Jones
(Orchidaceae: Laeliinae): a multiple approach
applied to conservation. 7(1-2):419-422.
WAKE, C. M. F. 2007. Micro-environment conditions,
mycorrhizal symbiosis, and seed germination


in Cypripedium candidum: strategies for
conservation. 7(1-2): 423-426.
WARNER, J. 2002. Joaquin Bernardo Garcia Castro,
1944-2001. 2(1): 1-2.
2003. La investigaci6n en el Jardin Botanico
Lankester. 3(2): 175-177.
WILLIAMS, N. & M. WHITTEN. 2003. Molecular
phylogenetics and generic concepts in the
Maxillarieae (Orchidaceae). 3(2): 61-64.
& R. L. DRESSLER. 2005.
Molecular systematics ..I ilj. --. -,i (Orchidaceae:
Oncidiinae) and its allies: nuclear and plastid DNA
sequence data. 5(3): 163-184.
WITTHEN, W. M., N. H. WILLIAMS, R. L. DRESSLER, G.
GERLACH & F. PUPULIN. 2005. Generic relationships
of Zygopetalinae (Orchidaceae: Cymbidieae):
combined molecular evidence. 5(2): 87-108.
WRIGHT, M., R. CROSS, R. COUSENS & C. B. MACLEAN.
2007. Harvesting mycorrhizal fungi: does it put
Caladenia plants in peril? 7(1-2): 427-429.
G. FRENCH, R. CROSS, R. COUSENS, S.
ANDRUSIAK & C. B. MACLEAN. 2007. Site
amelioration for direct seeding of Caladenia
tentaculata improves seedling recruitment and
survival in natural habitat. 7(1-2): 430-432.
Z. SMITH, R. THOMSON & R. CROSS. 2007.
Symbiotic germination of threatened Australian
terrestrial orchids and the effect of nursery potting
media on seedling survivals. 7(1-2): 433-435.
ZAMORA, N. A. & D. SOLANO. 2006. Una nueva especie
de Swartzia (Leguminosae) de Costa Rica. 6(3):
133-138.
ZELENKO, H. 2007. Oncidium surprises with
deoxyribonucleic acid. 7(1-2): 450-457.
2007. Not a single orchid... 7(1-2): 164-
166.
ZETTLER, L. W. 2007. The orchid recovery program at
Illinois College a successful blend of teaching,
research and undergraduate student participation
to benefit orchid conservation. 7(1-2): 436-
441.


IANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Universdad de Costa Rica, 2010.








IANKESTERIANA 10(1) 72-76 2010


CUMULATIVE INDEX OF AUTHORS

LANKESTERIANA, VOL. 1-9


DE ACEVEDO, C. 0. 7(1-2): 443-445.
ACKERMAN, J. D. 3(2): 87-93; 3(2): 145-146; 4(1):
47-56; 7(1-2): 19-21; 7(1-2): 223-228; 9(3):
509-512.
ADAMS, B. 7(1-2): 153-155.
AGOSTO PEDROZA, M. M. 3(2): 65-66; 3(2): 107-108.
AGUILAR, R. 8(1): 1-4.
AGUILAR LLANOS, M. 7(1-2): 294-298.
AIDA TELLEZ, M.A. 7(1-2): 272-280.
ALFARO, E. 3(3): 5-6.
ALMEIDA, P R. M. 7(1-2): 22-27.
DE ALMEIDA BRAGA, M. do R. 7(1-2): 161-163; 7(1-2):
243-246.
ANDRUSIAK, S. 7(1-2): 430-432.
ANONYMOUS. 9(3): 276-280.
ANTONELLI, A. 7(1-2):419-422.
ARDITTI, J. 3(2): 95.
ARNAIZ, J. 9(3): 529-531.
ATWOOD, J. T. 1(2): 9-10.
AUSTIN, A. D. 7(1-2): 269.
BACKHOUSE, G. N. 7(1-2): 28-43.
BAINBRIDGE, C.V. 8(1): 1-4.
BALAM NARVAEZ, R., W. 9(3): 521-525.
BALLESTEROS-BARRERA, C. 9(3): 491-504.
BARBA ALVAREZ, A. 7(1-2): 56-59; 7(1-2): 353-356.
BATEMAN, R. 7(1-2): 135-137; 7(1-2): 187-190; 7(1-
2): 229-241.
BATTY, A. L. 7(1-2): 219-222; 7(1-2): 313-315.
BAYMAN, P 3(2): 145-146; 3(2): 147-150.
BECKENDORF, S. 7(1-2): 161-163.
BECKNER, J. 5(1): 63-68.
BEECHE, J. 4(3): 213-222.
BENAVIDES, J. 7(1-2): 152.
BENAVIDES RANILLA, J. 7(3): 493-496.
BENITEZ JOUBERT, R. J. 3(2): 67-69.
BERMEJO FRANCO, J. 7(1-2): 294-298.
BERNABE, F. 7(1-2): 316.
BITTER, E. 2(1): 3-4.
BLANCO, M. A. 1(2): 15-18; 2(3): 3-8; 2(3): 27-30;
3(3): 19-22; 5(2): 115-118; 7(3): 515-538;
8(1): 15-16.
BOCAYUVA, M. 7(1-2): 316.
BOCOURT VIGIL, J. L. 4(3): 209-212.

LANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


BOGARIN, D. 7(1-2): 200-203; 7(1-2): 446-449;
7(3): 539-542; 7(3): 543-552; 8(2): 53-74;
9(3): 423-430; 9(3): 467-473; 9(3): 475-485;
9(3): 487-489; 9(3): 475-485; 7(3): 539-542;
9(3): 423-430; 9(3): 467-473; 9(3): 475-485;
9(3): 487-489.
BONET, A. 7(3): 469-478.
BORBA, L. 7(1-2): 97-101; 7(1-2): 107-113; 7(1-2):
342-347.
BREWSTER, P. 3(2): 3-4.
BROWN, A. P 7(1-2): 229-241.
BuYUN, L. I. 7(1-2): 129-133.
CAMARA-NETO, C. 7(1-2): 243-246.
CAMERON, K. M. 7(1-2): 191-195.
CAMPOS, J. A. 3(2): 117-120.
CARDENAS BRICENO, C. 3(2): 179-180.
CARLSWARD, B. S. 8(3): 105-112.
CARNEVALI FERNANDEZ-CONCHA, G. 3(2): 29-32; 3(2):
45-48; 3(2): 169-172; 4(3): 229-234; 7(3):
515-538; 8(1): 15-16; 9(3): 513-519; 9(3):
521-525.
CARVALHO DE MADEIROS, S. 7(1-2): 243-246.
CETZAL IX, W. 9(3): 521-525.
CHACON, E. 6(3): 139-148.
CHASE, M. W. 3(2): 49-50; 3(2): 109-110; 7(1-2):
187-190; 7(1-2): 135-137; 7(1-2): 200-203.
CHAVEZ-AVILA, V 7(1-2): 388-393; 7(1-2): 394-397
CHAVES-CAMARA, L. 7(1-2): 243-246.
CHEREVCHENKO, T. M. 7(1-2): 129-133.
CHICO-Ruiz, J. 7(1-2): 247-254.
CHOCCE, M. 9(3): 529-531.
CHRISTENSON, E. A. 1(2): 19-22.
CIccio, J. F. 5(1): 69-72; 6(2): 49-64; 6(3): 149-
154.
CINTRON BERDECIA, S. T. 3(2): 70-72.
CLEMENS, M. A. 7(1-2): 44-46; 7(1-2): 196-198.
COLLINS, T. M. 8(1): 5-14.
CONDEMARIN-MONTEALEGRE, C. E. 7(1-2): 247-254.
CONSTANTINO, P. de A. 7(1-2): 316.
CORRALES-MOREIRA, C. 7(1-2): 348-352; 7(1-2):
362-367.
CRIBB, P 6(1): 1-4; 7(1-2): 255-262.
CRISTOBAL, C. L. 4(3): 175-178.








Index of authors, Vol. 1-9


CROss, E. R. 7(1-2): 309; 7(1-2): 427429; 7(1-2):
430-432; 7(1-2): 433-435; 7(3): 497-502.
DE LA CRUZ, R. 7(1-2): 56-59.
COUSENS, R. 7(1-2): 427-429; 7(1-2): 430-432.
CUMANA, L. J. 8(3): 93-104.
DALSTROM, S. 3(1): 1-4; 3(2): 33-36; 4(2): 105-
108; 7(1-2): 47; 9(3): 505-508; 9(3): 529-
531.
DAMIAN, M. 7(1-2): 152.
DAMON, A. 6(3): 83-90.
DAUPHIN L., G. 5(1): 53-62.
DEL MAZO, A. 6(3): 83-90.
DiAZ, R. 6(2): 49-64.
DILLEY, A. W. 7(1-2): 255-262.
Dix, M. A. 3(2): 96; 3(2): 97; 7(1-2): 263-265.
Dix, M. W. 3(2): 96; 3(2): 97; 7(1-2): 263-265.
DIXON, K. 7(1-2): 11-12; 7(1-2): 93-96; 7(1-2):
219-222; 7(1-2): 313-315.
DODSON, C. H. 3(2): 99-103; 9(3): 526-528.
DONELLAN, S. C. 7(1-2): 269.
DOUCETTE, A. 9(3): 459-466.
DRESSLER, R. L. 1(2): 11-14; 2(1): 25-29; 2(3):
9-16; 3(1): 23-25; 3(2): 37-38; 3(3): 23-30;
3(3): 37-40; 4(1): 97-98; 5(2): 87-108; 5(3):
163-184; 7(1-2): 134; 9(3): 285-354; 9(3):
475-485.
DUECK, L. A. 7(1-2): 191-195.
Du PLOOY, H. 3(3): 1-4; 7(1-2): 153-155.
EDUARDO S. PAES, S. 7(1-2): 316.
ENDARA, L. 7(3): 515-538; 8(1): 15-16.
ESPINOZA, J. 7(1-2): 152.
ESPINOZA, J. R. 7(3): 493-496.
ESTRADA, A. 2(1): 5-10.
ESTRADA, B. 3(2): 51-53.
FAAST, R. 7(1-2): 266-268.
FACELLI, J. M. 7(1-2): 266-268; 7(1-2): 269.
FARRINGTON, L. W. 7(1-2): 269.
FAY, M. F. 7(1-2): 135-137; 7(1-2): 187-190.
FERNANDEZ, D. S. 3(2): 73-76; 7(1-2): 357-361.
FERNANDEZ, M. 9(3): 467-473; 9(3): 487-489.
FERRUFINO ACOSTA, L. 4(1): 7-36.
FLANAGAN, N. S. 7(1-2): 196-198.
FLORES-PALACIOS, A. 7(1-2): 368-370.
FONTANA, A. P 7(1-2): 316.
FRAGA, C. N. 7(1-2): 316.
FRENCH, G. 7(1-2): 430-432.
GABEL, R. R. 7(1-2): 150-151.


GANN, G. D. 7(1-2): 141-146.
GARCIA, S. Y 7(1-2): 272-280.
GARCIA-GONZALEZ, M. 5(1): 3-40.
GARDINER, L.M. 7(1-2): 270-271.
GARDUNTO, C. 7(1-2): 272-280.
GERLACH, G. 3(2): 104-106; 3(3): 23-30; 4(1): 67-
74; 4(3): 213-222; 5(2): 87-108; 8(2): 33-42;
9(3): 431-442.
GIGOT, G. 7(1-2): 199; 7(1-2): 200-203.
GOBEILLE, L. 7(1-2): 138-140.
GOES-NETO, A. 7(1-2): 22-27.
GOMEZ-LAURITO, J. 2(1): 5-10; 2(1): 11-13; 3(1):
5-8; 4(1): 7-36; 4(2): 113-142; 4(2): 155-
168; 5(2): 137-140; 5(2): 141-158; 6(2): 65-
72; 6(3): 155-156.
GOEZ P., L. D. 6(1): 5-8; 7(3): 479-492; 8(3): 81-
88; 4(1): 75-96.
GONZALEZ, E. 9(3): 533-540.
GONZALEZ ARCE, L. 4(3): 183-186.
GONZALEZ HERNANDEZ, E. 7(3): 469-478.
GONZALEZ RAMIREZ, J. 3(3): 7-12; 3(3): 13-16; 3(3):
17-18.
GOWLAND, K. M. 7(1-2): 44-46.
GRAYUM, M. H. 5(1): 53-62.
GUEVARA RAMOS, E. M. 3(2): 107-108.
HACHADOURIAN, M. 7(1-2): 229-241.
HAGSATER, E. 3(2): 5-6; 3(3): 31-36; 3(3): 41-43;
5(1): 73-76; 7(1-2): 114-121; 9(3): 1-4; 9(3):
273-275; 9(3): 403-409; 9(3): 411-422; 9(3):
529-531.
HAMMEL, B. E. 5(3): 211; 6(2): 73.
HARDMAN, B. 7(1-2): 316.
HEDREN, M. 7(1-2): 187-190.
HENK, D. A. 4(1): 75-96.
HERMANS, J. 7(1-2): 255-262.
HERNANDEZ, L. 6(2): 49-4.
HERNANDEZ-ALTAMIRANO, M. 7(1-2): 388-393; 7(1-2):
394-397
HERRERA-CABRERA, B.E. 7(1-2): 368-370.
HIGGINS, W. E. 3(2): 37-38; 3(2): 39-42; 4(3):
223-228; 7(1-2): 141-146; 8(3): 89-92.
HOLST, B. 7(1-2): 47.
HOOPER, K. 7(1-2): 135-137.
HOPPER, S. 7(1-2): 219-222.
HUTCHINGS, M. J. 7(1-2): 229-241.
IRIONDO, J. 7(1-2): 102-106.
ISHIDA, M. L. 7(1-2): 215-218.
IANKESTERIANA 10(1), Aprl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rca, 2010.








LANKESTERIANA


IVANNIKOV, R. V. 7(1-2): 147-149.
JAMES, A. 7(1-2): 377-380; 7(1-2): 381.
JARDON-SANCHEZ, D. 7(1-2): 56-59.
JENNY, R. 4(2): 109-112; 5(1): 77-80; 7(1-2): 169-
174; 8(2): 43-52.
JIANSHENG, J. 7(1-2): 48.
JIMENEZ, I. V. 7(1-2): 49-52.
JIMENEZ, Q. 3(1): 5-8.
JIMENEZ, V. M. 7(1-2): 310-312; 8(2): 23-32.
JIMENEZ DE PINTO, R. 2003. 3(2): 133-134.
JIMENEZ MACHORRO, R. 9(3): 411-422.
JIMENEZ SALGADO, T. 7(1-2): 322-325.
KANE, M. E. 7(1-2): 382-387.
KARREMANS, A. 8(2): 53-74; 9(3): 403-409; 9(3):
443-446.
KAUFMANN, R. 7(1-2): 161-163.
KELL, S. 7(1-2): 229-241.
KINDLMANN, P 3(2): 77-80; 7(1-2): 209-214.
KIRBY, S. H. 3(2): 121-124; 7(1-2): 53-55; 7(1-2):
60-65; 7(1-2): 175-177.
KOCH, I. 7(1-2):419-422.
KOEHLER, S. 3(2): 57-60; 7(3): 515-538; 8(1):
15-16.
KOOPOWITZ, H. 7(1-2): 229-241.
KOPTUR, S. 8(1): 5-14.
KOVALSKA, L. A. 7(1-2): 129-133.
KRIEBEL, R. 4(1): 57-59; 4(3): 171-174; 5(1): 81-
84; 5(2): 121-136; 6(2): 42-48.
LADD, P. 7(1-2): 313-315.
LADIGES, P. Y 7(1-2): 309; 7(3): 497-502.
LAMBERT, S. M. 7(1-2): 97-101; 7(1-2): 342-347
LANUSSE, A. 7(1-2): 316.
LAURI, R. K. 7(1-2): 281-286.
LAVRENTYEVA, A. M. 7(1-2): 147-149.
LEHNEBACH, C. 7(1-2): 229-241.
LEON ARGUEDAS, J. 6(2): 29-32.
LEOPARDI, C. 8(3): 93-104; 9(3): 541-555.
LIEBLER, S. 7(1-2): 376.
LIGHT, M. H. S. 3(2): 125-126; 3(2): 141-144; 7(1-
2): 287-293.
LLAMACHO OLMO, J. A. 4(1): 60; 4(1): 61-66.
LOBO C., S. 3(1): 17-20; 4(1): 37-46.
LOPEZ ROBERTS, C. 7(1-2): 294-298.
LUNA ROSALES, B. S. 7(1-2): 56-59; 7(1-2): 353-356.
Luz RIBEIRO, P. E. 7(1-2): 97-101.
MACAYA-LIZANO, A. V. 3(2): 181-182.
MACCONAILL, M. 3(2): 141-144; 7(1-2): 287-293.
IANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. O Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.


MACHADO, S. L. 7(1-2): 316.
MACLEAN, C. B. 7(1-2): 309.; 7(1-2): 377-380; 7(1-
2): 381; 7(1-2): 430-432; 7(1-2): 433-435; 7(3):
497-502.
MAMANI SANCHEZ, B. 7(1-2): 294-298.
MANRIQUE, A. 7(1-2): 152.
MARIN, W. A. 3(2): 43-44.
MARTINEZ-PALACIOS, A. 7(1-2): 388-393; 7(1-2):
394-397.
MASSEY, E. E. 7(1-2): 303-308.
MATA ROSAS, M. 3(2): 151-154; 7(1-2): 404-418.
MATHESIUS, U. 7(1-2): 44-46.
MCINERNY, G. J. 3(2):17-20.
McQUALTER, E. 7(1-2): 309; 7(3): 497-502.
MEDINA, H. 9(3): 455-458.
MELENDEZ-ACKERMAN E. J. 7(1-2): 357-361.
MERINO, G. 9(3): 399-402; 9(3): 459-466; 9(3):
505-508.
MIRANDA A., F. 7(1-2): 49-52.
MIRENDA, T. 7(1-2): 150-151.
MORALES, C. 0. 1(2): 1-8; 2(3): 1-2; 2(3): 17-22;
2(3): 23-26; 3(1): 21-25; 3(2): 159-164; 4(3):
187-208; 5(1): 1-2; 5(1): 3-40; 6(2): 25-28;
6(3): 91-94.
MORALES, J. F. 3(3): 5-6; 4(1): 1-; 5(2): 119-120;
5(2): 159-160.
MOREIRA, L. 3(2): 181-182.
MUJICA BENITEZ, E. 3(2): 7-8; 3(1): 9-16; 4(3):
209-212; 7(3): 469-478; 9(3): 533-540.
MuNoz, M. 7(1-2): 60-65; 7(1-2): 66-70; 7(1-2):
175-177; 7(1-2): 310-312; 8(2): 23-32.
MURRIETA FRANCA, R.M. 7(1-2): 316.
NARANJO, C. 7(1-2): 102-106.
NAVA, P. 3(2): 3-4.
NEUBIG, K. M. 7(3): 515-538; 8(1): 15-16.
NEWMAN, B. J. 7(1-2): 313-315.
NICOTRA, A. B. 7(1-2): 44-46.
NIR, M. A. 3(2): 9-10.
OCAMPO, R. 6(2): 49-64.
OCAMPO, R. A. 6(3): 149-154.
OCAMPO-FLETES, I. 7(1-2): 368-370.
OJEDA, I., 3(2): 45-48; 7(3): 515-538; 8(1): 15-16.
OREJUELA, J. E. 7(1-2): 71-82.
ORMEROD, P 9(3): 513-519.
ORTEGA-LARROCEA, M. P. 7(1-2): 317-321; 7(1-2):
326-333.
ORTIZ, R. 4(2): 113-142.








Index of authors, Vol. 1-9


ORTIZ-ARIAS, B. 3(2): 181-182.
OSSENBACH, C. 2(1): 15-17; 3(2): 127-132; 3(2):
165-168; 4(2): 101-104; 9(1-2): 1-268.
OSSENBACH, M. 3(2): 127-132.
PACETTI, P. L. 1(2): 23-30.
PADRON-HERNANDEZ, S. 7(1-2): 56-59.
PEAKALL, R. 7(1-2): 196-198.
PEDERSEN, H. TE. 7(1-2): 83-92.
PEMBERTON, R. W. 7(3): 461-468; 8(1): 5-14.
PEREA-MORALES, 0. 7(1-2): 56-59.
PEREZ-GARCIA, E. A. 9(3): 1-4; 9(3): 557-563.
PEREZ-TOLEDANO, E. 7(1-2): 56-59.
PHILIPS, R. D. 7(1-2): 11-12; 7(1-2): 93-96.
PILLON, Y 7(1-2): 187-190.
PORRAS ALFARO, A. 3(2): 147-150.
POVEDA ALVAREZ, L. 3(3): 7-12; 3(3): 13-16; 3(3):
17-18; 4(3): 183-186.
POWELL, M. P 3(2): 109-110.
PRIDGEON, A. 3(2): 49-50.
PUGH-JONES, S. 3(2): 135-138.
PUPULN, F. 1(1): 1-28; 1(2): 15-18; 2(1): 15-17;
2(1): 19-24; 2(2): 1-88; 2(3): 27-30; 3(2):
11-16; 3(2): 109-110; 3(2): 127-132; 3(3):
31-36; 3(3): 37-40; 4(3): 209-212; 5(2):
87-108; 6(1): 1-4; 7(1-2): 178-180; 7(1-2):
446-449; 8(2): 53-74; 9(3): 399-402; 9(3):
423-430; 9(3): 443-446; 9(3): 455-458; 9(3):
467-473; 9(3): 459-466.
QUESADA CHANTO, A. 3(2): 173-174.
QUEZADA PORTUGAL, J. 7(1-2): 294-298.
RAMIREZ B., W. 6(3): 123-132; 7(1-2): 450-457;
7(3): 503-508.
RAMOS, M. 7(1-2): 272-280.
RAMOS ZAMBRANO, E. 7(1-2): 322-325.
RANGEL-VILLAFRANCO, M. 7(1-2): 326-333; 7(1-2):
317-321.
RASMUSSEN, H. N. 7(1-2): 334-341.
RASMUSSEN, F. N. 7(1-2): 334-341.
RAVENTOS, J. 7(3): 469-478; 9(3): 533-540.
REISS, S. 1(2): 23-30.
RIBEIRO, P. L. 7(1-2): 342-347.
Rio FRIO, L. 7(1-2): 102-106.
RIVERA, C. 3(2): 181-182.
RIVERA-COTO, G. 7(1-2): 348-352; 7(1-2): 362-367.
ROBERTS, D. L. 3(2):17-20; 7(1-2): 181-185; 7(1-2):
209-214; 7(3): 509-514.
ROCHA, 0. 3(2): 81-86.


RODRIGUEZ, E. 3(2): 73-76.
RODRIGUEZ, A. 5(2): 121-136; 6(3): 101-122.
RODRIGUEZ G. A. 5(3): 201-210.
RODRIGUEZ, M. 7(1-2): 152.
RODRIGUEZ SALAS, M. 7(3): 493-496.
ROJAS, G. 7(3): 503-508.
ROJASALVARADO, J. F. 4(2): 143-148; 4(2): 149-154;
5(1): 42-48; 5(1): 49-52; 5(2): 109-114; 5(3):
185-190; 5(3): 191-200; 6(1): 9-14; 6(1):
15-18; 6(3): 95-100; 7(3): 553-556; 7(3):
557-562.
ROLANDO, I. 7(1-2): 152.
ROMERO-GONzALEZ, G. 3(2): 11-16; 3(2): 169-172;
4(3): 229-234; 8(2): 33-42; 9(3): 513-519;
9(3): 526-528.
ROMERO-TIRADO, R. 7(1-2): 56-59; 7(1-2): 353-356.
ROSA-FUENTES, E. A. 7(1-2): 204-208.
RUIZ-CANINO, F. 7(1-2): 357-361.
SABORIO-R., G. 6(3): 139-148.
SADDI, E. M. 7(1-2): 316.
SALAZAR-CASASA, W. 7(1-2): 362-367.
SALAZAR-ROJAS, V M. 3(2): 151-154; 7(1-2): 368-370.
SALAZAR, G. A. 9(3): 491-504.
SAMUEL, R. 7(1-2): 135-137.
SANCHEZ, L. 3(2): 5-6.
SANCHEZ-VINDAS, P E. 4(3): 179-182.
SANDOVAL-ZAPOTITLA, E. 3(2): 51-53; 3(2): 54-56;
7(1-2): 388-393; 7(1-2): 394-397.
SAN MARTIN-GAJARDO, I. 7(1-2): 316.
SAVOLAINEN, V. 3(2): 109-110; 7(1-2): 200-203.
SAYERS, B. 3(3): 1-4; 7(1-2): 153-155.
SCHODELBAUEROVA, I. 7(1-2): 209-214.
SCHUG, W. 3(2): 21-24.
SEATON, P T. 7(1-2): 13-17; 7(1-2): 371-375.
SELBACH-SCHNADELBACH, A. 7(1-2): 97-101; 7(1-2):
342-347.
SEMIR, J. 7(1-2):419-422.
SENTHILKUMAR, S. 3(2): 155-157.
SHARMA, J. 7(1-2): 215-218.
SIERRA-JIMENEZ, H. 7(1-2): 56-59.
SILVA-PEREIRA, V. 7(1-2): 107-113.
SIMONELLI, M. 7(1-2): 316.
SINGER, R. B. 3(2): 57-60; 3(2): 111-115; 7(3):
515-538; 8(1): 15-16.
SMIDT, E. C. 7(1-2): 97-101; 7(1-2): 107-113; 7(1-
2): 342-347.
SMITH, C. M. 9(3): 423-430.
IANKESTERIANA 10(1), April 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.








LANKESTERIANA


SMITH, J. A. 7(1-2): 376.
SMITH, R. H. 7(1-2): 376.
SMITH, R. J. 7(1-2): 135-137.
SMITH, Z. F. 7(1-2): 377-380; 7(1-2): 381; 7(1-2):
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IANKESTERIANA 10(1), Aprl 2010. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2010.




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