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Title: Lankesteriana
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Title: Lankesteriana la revista científica del Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Jardi´n Bota´nico Lankester
Jardín Botánico Lankester
Publisher: Jardi´n Bota´nico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Place of Publication: Cartago Costa Rica
Cartago Costa Rica
Publication Date: December 2008
Frequency: three times a year[2002-]
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three times a year
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Subject: Botany -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Epiphytes -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Orchids -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Plantkunde   ( gtt )
Botanische tuinen   ( gtt )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Costa Rica
 Notes
Language: In English and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No. 1 (mayo 2001)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Issues for May 2001-Oct. 2003 designated no.1-8; issues for Apr. 2004- designated vol. 4, no. 1-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 1 (abr. 2004).
General Note: International journal on orchidology.
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Volume ID: VID00022
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 48491453
lccn - 2001240973
issn - 1409-3871

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Index
        Index
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Main
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
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Full Text
'I ANkES"I"'Fill ANA




ISSN 1409-3871



LANE STERIANA
VOL. 8, No. 3 DECEMBER 2008


Vanilla planifolia, the first Mesoamerican orchid illustrated,
and notes on the de la Cruz-Badiano Codex
LuIs D. GOMEZ P. 81

A new Phragmipedium from Colombia
WESLEY E. HIGGINS & PAULA VIVEROS 89

Listado de species de la familiar Orchidaceae
para el estado Sucre, Venezuela
CARLOS LEOPARDI & LUIS J. CUMANA 93

Vegetative anatomy of Calypsoeae (Orchidaceae)
WILLIAM Louis STERN & BARBARA S. CARLSWARD 105

Book reviews 113

Index of taxonomic novelties published in Lankesteriana, Vol. 1-8 115


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGY











LANKESTERIANA
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON ORCHIDOLOGY







Copyright C 2008 Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica
Effective publication date: December 31, 2008

Layout: Jardin Botanico Lankester.
Cover: Flower of Phragmipedium manzurii W.E. Higgins & P Viveros. Drawing by S. Dalstrom.
Printer: Litografia Ediciones Sanabria S.A.
Printed copies: 500

Printed in Costa Rica / Impreso en Costa Rica


R Lankesteriana/ International Journal on Orchidology
No. 1 (2001)-- -- San Jose, Costa Rica: Editorial
Universidad de Costa Rica, 2001--
V.
ISSN-1409-3871

1. Botanica Publicaciones peri6dicas, 2. Publicaciones
peri6dicas costarricenses



O








LANKESTERIANA8(1) 81-88 2008


VANILLA PLANIFOLIA, THE FIRST MESOAMERICAN ORCHID

ILLUSTRATED, AND NOTES ON THE DE LA CRUZ-BADIANO CODEX


Luis D. GOMEZ P.

Academia Nacional de Ciencias, Costa Rica
Apartado 676-2050, San Pedro, Costa Rica
gomezp@ots.ac.cr


ABSTRACT. Abstract. The Codex Barberini lat. 241 or Codex Badianus is a manuscript by Martin de la Cruz,
entitled Libellus Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis and the first New World herbal, written in 1552. It includes
249 medicinal plants of which only 184 are illustrated. Among the plants depicted is tlilxochitl which is the
Nahuatl name, even to this day, for Vanilla planifolia Andrews. Thus, the illustration of that plant in the
Codex constitutes the first illustration of a Mesoamerican orchid done for European readers and antedates
the publication of the genus and its species by two centuries. Some new historical aspects of the Codex are
presented.

KEY WORDS: Vanilla, tlilxochitl, Codex de la Cruz-Badiano


The situation and conditions of the indigenous
peoples in the early colonial times in the New World
were of hopelessness and brutality. An extraordinary
figure appears in Bartolome de las Casas (1484 1566),
considered by many as the father of anti-imperialism
and anti-racism who, in 1520, presented a defense
of the Indians to Emperor Charles V. In 1523 he
commenced writing his Apologetica historic de las
Indias and Historia de las Indias (the latter not to be
published until 1875!) and, finally, in 1542 he succeeds
in obtaining from the Emperor the promulgation of the
Nuevas Leyes prohibiting slavery, the beginning of the
end for the infamous systems of "encomiendas", and
promotes the proper education of Native Americans. In
1543 las Casas published his demolishing denunciation
of the Spanish exploitation and barbaric cruelty, La
Destrucci6n de los Indios.
The sadness of those events have been treated by
many authors. Of import for these notes Keen (1999),
Pincherle (1952), Somolinos (1964), Viesca (1992).
Whether with or without new laws, the Spanish settlers
and the criollos born in the Americas, maintained a
disdain for things indigenous, and it is sad to admit
that those sentiments of inequality still prevail in many
parts of Latin America. But de las Casas influenced
many others in positions of power, both secular and
ecclesiastical.


It was in that atmosphere that under the auspices
of the Viceroy of New Spain, Antonio de Mendoza
and the Bishop of Mexico Juan de Zumarraga, both
in favor of the protection of the Indians and scarcely
thirty years after the fall of Tenochtitlan, that the
Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco, was founded in
1536 by the Franciscan friars thus becoming the first
institution of higher learning in the continent (Borgia,
1944). However, Viceroy Mendoza was transferred
to Peru and Bishop Zumarraga died in 1548. The
Colegio taught Nahuatl, Latin, Greek as well as crafts
such as illumination, bookbinding and other European
arts to the descendants of the Aztec nobility and
other principal people. Among its first teachers were
some important figures in the recording of Mexican
ethnography, ,.iiii..,l.i, and Nahuatl literature:
Alonso de Molina, Andres de Olmos, Bemardino de
Sahagun. Even fray Juan de Torquemada, himself a
fine historiographer, unfortunately later linked to the
Inquisition, was a professor at Tlatelolco. As a student
was one Juan Badiano and in some capacity a native
healer, Martin de la Cruz, both from Xochimilco.
Mason (2004) says both were convert priests while
others supposed them both to be medics but we know
nothing about these two individuals.
As the opposition and ill-will of the peninsulares and
criollos toward the Indians and the Colegio persisted,








LANKESTERIANA


Antonio de Mendoza's son, Francisco, requested that
a compilation of local healing practices and herbs be
produced for the King of Spain, by now Phillip II,
son of Charles V, in another effort to demonstrate that
the Indians were knowledgeable, capable of learning
from Europeans and very worthy of support from the
Viceroyalty and the protection of the King. Martin de
la Cruz was commissioned to produce the volume and
Juan Badiano was charged with its translation from
Nahuatl into Latin. That is the origin of the Codex.
The administration of the Colegio was given to the
native Franciscans in 1554, financial support from
government sources stopped in 1606 and by the middle
of the 17h century the Colegio de Tlatelolco ceased to
exist. For more on its history Somolinos (1964, 1996).

The original text in Nahuatl has disappeared but
the project was under the tutelage of friar Jacobo
de Grado, superior of the convent and the Colegio,
who did oversee the production and translation of the
manuscript for Francisco Mendoza who had it sent to
Phillip or possibly took it himself to the court in Madrid
(Goodman 1990, Martinez 1994) and the Codex must
have been in the royal library at El Escorial at least
until the 17h century, and forgotten. That is until it was
found in the possession of don Diego de Cortavila y
Sanabria, Apothecary to the King and founder of a
medicinal plant garden on the palatial premises, as well
as developing one of his own. The Codex was later
obtained by Cardinal Francesco Barberini who was
sent as Nunzio to Spain by his uncle Maffeo Barberini
who was pope Urban VIII. The Cardinal was an avid
bibliophile with a penchant for Americana, specially
early texts, and he incorporated the Codex into his
library.

There has been much doubt as to how the codex
passed to Cortavila. Martinez Millan (1994) supposes
that it was given by the Infanta Juana to the Convento
de las Descalzas Reales which she had founded. Juana,
youngest sister to Philip II, governed Spain in his
absence and actually met with Francisco Mendoza to
discuss, among other things the "capitulaciones" or
agreements concerning for the commerce of medicinal
plants between Spain and Nueva Espana. Cortavila
was the pharmacist for Juana and all members of the
royal house which also included Infanta Margarita de
la Cruz, a niece of Juana and also a nun at said convent,


who might have presented her apothecary with the
Libellus as an appropriate gift to a renewed herbalist.
The frontispiece of the Codex bears a hand written
inscription "ex libris didagi Cortauila", this book
belongs to Diego Cortavila.
One could easily suppose that Cortavila, very much
in the favour of the King had access to the royal library
and its massive and mostly uncatalogued treasures and
decided to keep it for the better practice of his metier?
In any case, Cortavila did not promote the Codex
among his learned acquaintances and seems not to have
been particularly interested in the Mexican manuscript.
Otherwise, his close friend and collaborator Bartolom6
de Cienfuegos, pharmacist, bibliophile and fine grower
of herbs would have mentioned it in his careful notes
(Ar6valo 1935, Rey 2004).

Howit came to the hands ofBarberini has been another
mistery. His Eminence bought many things from many
people being a patron of the Arts and Sciences. Did he
also buy the Codex or pushed his ecclesiastical weight
to obtain it? The recent publication of the personal
secretary and factotum to the Cardinal, Cassiano dal
Pozzo's, detailed and meticulous notes of Barberini's
trip to Spain (Anselmi 2006) solves the problem. The
entry for June 26,1626 records a visit of Barberini and
his retinue to Cortavila's botanical garden where the
pharmacist presented His Eminence with "un libretto
di Semplici diversi Indiani con le sue figure, e virtu
appropriate alla maggior parte dell '' indispositioni di
corpi humani. Barberini simply walked away with a
precious gift. What then?

Francesco Barberini founded the Vatican Library
in 1679, not long before his death, but he was also an
illustrious member of the Accademia dei Lincei, so
respected that at the demise of its patron founder Prince
Federico Cesi, the Cardinal was suggested as his successor.
(Gabrieli 1880).The Accademia, as most cognoscenti in
Europe, was enthralled with the exotic new things from
the New World (Guerrini 2008) and was contemplating
the publication of a material medical prepared by the
Neapolitan physician Nardo Antonio Recchi, based on
Francisco Hemandez de Toledo's Rerum medicarum
Novae Hispaniae Thesaurus, the Tesoro Messicano. One
would think that Barberini would have promoted the
manuscript in his possession as an equal candidate but he
did not, or there is no evidence that he tried.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. O Universldad de Costa Rica, 2008.








GOMEZ Vanilla planifolia and the La Cruz-Badiano Codex


However, diligent dal Pozzo, also a member of the
Lincei had a quasi-facsimilar copy done by the painter
Vincenzo Leonardi of Grimignano in the winter of
1626-27 (Mason 2004) and that copy became known
to many people after it was used as a pictorial source of
Mexican flora to accompany the illustration of Mexican
fauna and a first version of Hemandez' Rerum, in
Johan Faber's Animalia Mexicana descriptionibus
scholjistique exposita, thesauri rerum medicarum
novae hispaniae, published in Rome in 1628 with
the beneplacito of the Lincei. That is the copy that
eventually Pozzo's heirs sold to pope Clement XI
who in turn sold it to his nephew Cardinal Alessandro
Albani who in turn sold it to George III of England
(Byland 2000) and it is now in the Royal Library at
Windsor Palace. It is stamped with dal Pozzo's Coat of
Arms. Another quandary solved.

It has been suggested that a second copy might have
been done for Francesco de Stelluti, with Cesi, van
Heeck and de Filiis one of the founders and Consigliere
Maggiore of the Accademia, but if so it is lost. Why
would Stelluti, the author of Melissographia, the first
anatomical description of insects under Galileo's
microscope, wish for a copy? Because he was charged
by Cesi with the edition of the Tesoro Messicano, on
which he worked in close collaboration with dal Pozzo.
In the original plan for this edition, Barberini was the
dedicatee but when the Cardinal was banned from
Rome in 1644 by pope Innocent X, Barberini's name
was deleted. The final edition by the Lincei appeared
in 1651.
Incidentally, the work of Hernandez, may be
considered as a report of the first scientific expedition
to the New World in 1571 and was translated into
Spanish by friar Francisco Ximenez and published in
Mexico in 1615.

And what of the original Codex? It rested forgotten
and ignored in the shelves of Barberini and later, when
the entire Barberini collection, some 60000 plus items,
was incorporated into the Vaticana by pope Leo XIII
in 1902 (Major 1931), it rested under the signature
Barberini lat. 241, forgotten and ignored a few more
decades until a student of the Barberini entries, Charles
Upson Clark, a historian of early American medicine
at the Smithsonian Institution, discovered it and
announced it to the world in 1929. According to Sharp


(2005) Clark brought the manuscript to the attention
of Dr. William Welch at Johns Hopkins University
and Welch's interest prompted the first facsimilar
edition by Emmart. Leon Portilla (2002) writes in
error that the discovery dates to 1925 and was almost
simultaneous by Clark, Giuseppe Gabrieli an erudite
Lincei y Lynd Thomdike, a historian of science. To
Leon Portilla's commentary I must add that Gabrieli
did not discover the original Codex but the dal Pozzo
copy at Windsor (Gabrieli 1929), Lynd Thomdike was
in Rome trying to enumerate and describe the contents
of the Barberini collection dealing with the history
of science and obviously listed the Codex among
the items (Thomdike 1929-1930). The true date of
discovery remains as 1929. The original de la Cruz-
Badiano manuscript was returned to Mexico by pope
John Paul II in 1990 (Durazo et al. 1991).

After its discovery by Clark there have been several
facsimilar editions of the de la Cruz Badiano Codex as
I the Libellus should be justly known: The W. Gates
edition of 1939 as The de la Cruz-Badiano Aztec
Herbal (Publications 22, 23 of the Maya Society,
Baltimore) which does not reproduce the illustrations in
color, the Emily Walcott Emmart edition of 1940, The
Badianus manuscript (Codex Barberini, Latin 241).
An Aztec herbal of 1552, published by Johns Hopkins,
the edition by the Instituto Mexicano de Seguro
Social in 1964, followed by the Fondo de Cultura
Econ6mica in Mexico in 1991 with a second printing
in 1994, reprinted in 1996 which is the one I own, all
as Libellus Medicinalibis Indorum Herbis. Francisco
Guerra, a physician in Mexico who has written much
about pre-Columbian medicine, published an edition
without pictures in 1955, being the first translation into
Spanish. In 2000 the publishing house of Dover has
produced a new facsimile of Gates' edition. For more
on other editions and versions cf Somolinos (1996).

The Codex has been described in the editions
mentioned above and by Robertson (1959), Femandez
(1964) and Stolz (1964). It was written in a format
slightly smaller than quarto (15.2 x 20.6 cm) on
European paper, as per the watermarks from the mill
of Basili Accinelli of Genoa whose paper was rather
frequent in the colonial New World, the folios sewn
into eight quires or booklets, bound in red velvet with
a six cords spine. The inks are ferric gall for the text


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universdad de Costa Rica, 200&








LANKESTERIANA


and elsewhere and for the red rectangle created on
each page a minium gall ink (Zetina et al 2008). The
calligraphy is cancelleresca. The text is in a Latin of
Pliny's style, and although sufficient it nevertheless
conveys the feeling that Badiano may not have been
the most advantaged pupil of the Colegio. The folios
are numbered in the upper right comer only of the front
or recto of the page, the verso is not. The paintings
are a fine example of syncretism of Renaissance style
expressed through Aztec canons. Throughout several
pages are blank. The text is organized in thirteen
chapters, each dealing with medical conditions thought
by de la Cruz to be somewhat related.

The botanical aspects of the Codex have been
very poorly treated by Gates (1939) and very well by
Emmart (1940), Reko (1947), Miranda and Valdes
(1964,1996). It is the last entry of Chapter 10, that has
caught my attention (Fig. 1).

The verso of page 56 shows the paintings of
four plants: mecaxochitl, tlilxochitl, hueynacaztli
and copalxochitl. The depiction of the first two is
somewhat confusing because the artist has chosen to
show the plants intertwined. The second root system
corresponds to tlilxochitl. Under the drawings is a title
followed below by the material medical for the plants
illustrated, which read;

Viatoris presidium.

"Dessicatiflores mecaxochitl, tlilxochitl, hueynacaztli,
arborum copalxochitl et atoyaxocotl cortices, folia
srboris axocotl, albus tus, ceratum xochiocotzotl, et
yolloxochitl ita terantu ut puluerunt; puluerasta uero
intra notissimi et fragantissimi floris huacalxochitl
concauitatem ponito, quo huius floris odorem
redolentissimum capiant, spirentque. Postremo
laudatissimum florem yolloxochitl tamdem accipito
quem decenter excauato, cuius factae concauitati
,ilutltriirul puuisculum condito, uasculam collo
suspendito"

Which I freely translate as:

For the traveller a protection.

"[The] dried flowers of mecaxochitl, tlilxochitl,
hueynacaztli [and] the barks of the trees copalxochitl
and atoyaxocotl, leaves of the tree axocotl, white


incense, [the] wax of xochiocotzotl, and yolloxochitl
[all together] pound to a fine powder. Once powdered
put into the cavity of the showy and very fragrant
flowers of huacalxochitl, as in there the scents will
intensify and [are] trapped the odours [of that flower].
All that done, one of the much-praised flowers of
yolloxochitl is taken which has a concavity in its
center, and in this hollow the salutiferous powder [is]
put [and that] little basket is suspended from the neck
[of the traveller]"

It is, rather than a remedy for specific diseases of
travellers, a charm to keep the traveller from potential
harm and reminds one of the amulets, talismans and
similar trinkets worn around the neck in the Middle
Ages to avoid contagion. The word presidium, instead
of the correct praesidium, is one of the many examples
of Badiano's faulty Latin.

The second plant is illustrated without flowers but
with its pods (vainillas, or small pods) and corresponds
to Vanilla planifolia still called tlilxochitl, meaning
"black flower" by today's Nahuatl speakers and it is
the only orchid mentioned in the Codex.
Mecaxochitl or "plant of the strings" is an species
of Piper as many of them are called "cordoncillos";
hueynacaztli or "large ears" was thought by Emmart
and Reko to represent Cymbopogon piendiulitnloru
(Dunal)Baill., a species with pendulous flowers
on long pedicels, characters hard to be missed by
keen native observers. I interpret it as Enterolobium
cyclocarpon (Jacq.) Griseb., its fruits resembling
big ears and, furthermore, the illustration suggests
mimosoid flowers to me. This species is known as
guanacaste in many parts of its range. Copalxochitl
or "flower of copal" corresponds according to Reko
to Cyrtocarpa procera Kunth could be any of the
plants that yield aromatic resins or latices (Stross
1997, Langenheim 2003); axocotl or "fruit of the
water" Reko identifies this as Spondias purpurea
L., and atoyaxocotl or fruit of the river could refer
to Pachira aquatica Aubl., much used throughout
its range as an aromatizer. Xochiocotzotl, qualified
by ceratum, is the gummy resin or turpentine from
Liquidambar ..... in.., L. or even from Pinus
spp. (Breedlove & Laughlin 1993). Yolloxochitl
or "flower of the heart" is Talauma mexicana (DC)
G.Don (53v); huacalxochitl or "flower in shape of a


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universdad de Costa Rica, 2008.








GOMEZ Vanilla planifolia and the La Cruz-Badiano Codex


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iGURE 1. Page 56 vers. ofibellusedicinalibus ndorumHerbis, the de la Cruz-Badiano Code. The second plant (left




to right) is tlilochitl, Vanillaplan lia Andrews, the first depiction of a Mesoamerican orchid.

FIGURE 1. Page 56 verso. of Libellus Medicinal/bus Indo rum Herbis, the de la Cruz-Badiano Codex. The second plant (left
to right) is tlilxochitl, Vanilla planifolia Andrews, the first depiction of aMesoamerican orchid.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. C Umversidad de Costa Rica, 2008.







LANKESTERIANA


38 RERVM MEDICARVM NO. HISP.
De TLILXOCHITL f flure nigro AracoAromatico. Ca. A'Y
// J T 0 LV B1 LIS herbadt ThIxorbt i, f


& longioribus,virorq. infeis fIaturto,fingu.
lis ex vraquc part caulis alternatim exorieni.
busac fiquisonisns,angutis,& pnc ncrcdbus,
olenribus mucura,aut Balaamum indigcnun,
igrisq.vnde nomen.Calidis regionibus proue.
nirJhumEribusq.Arbores amplcditur,& pr di.
&as filiquas verno tempore profcrt CalidZ 1K,
func ordine tertio, addiq. folict Ccead,
.Mecaxobul. fliqua binz ex aqua refolutz, a
potato vrinam cent, menfirua cuocant. cum
Meaxorbadt parum accelcrant,ac fecundas,
mornumq. ftum trahunt, ventriculum a.
lefadunt, & roborant, flaum difkuriun, hu.
nores crudos concoquunt, acque attenuam,
ccrehmr v'im addi~an & v ero auxiliannmr. Ad.
ucrus vencna frigida, gdidosq. venenaconr
iOus, cdem filiqu dicuntur cffe remcdio.
Folium longwn etf vrieu vdleim lturwfa,
flua 'vcro longaVrt cw fiexIrta ditginm vas


FIGURE 2. Tlilxochitl, Vanilla planifolia, in Hemandez's Rerum Medicarum...Liber Secundun. Aromata Promit, Rome
1651, p. 38.


huacal" (or a vessel) is that of a species of Araceae,
e.g. Philodendron with dentate or lobed leaves as
it is illustrated elsewhere in the Codex. (18v). For
the synonymy of Nahuatl words see Diaz (1976) and
Garibay (1996).
The genus Vanilla Plum. ex Mill. was described
in 1754 (Gard. Dict. Abr. (ed.4), 3. 1754) based on
Charles Plumier's name of 1702. Francisco Hernandez
de Toledo, Royal Physician, records tlilxochitl in
his material medical De rerum medicarum Novae
Hispaniae Thesaurus, precisely the edition by the
Accademia dei Lincei in Rome 1628 and gives it the
name Araco aromatico with a description and use.
Clusius in 1602 calls it Lobus largus aromaticus in


Rariorum plantarum historic. Andrews, who described
Vplanifolia (Bot. Repository, for new, and rare plants
8: pl. 538. 1808) writes for the protologue and type:
"the finest specimen in England and the only one that
has blossomed, is in the choice collection of the Right
Hon. Charles Greville, at Paddington, from which our
drawing was taken. We are informed that it is native of
the West Indies, and was introduced to this country by
the Marquis of Blanford". All indicates that the Codex
contains the earliest iconography of this orchid genus
and species.
In Hernandez' Rerum medicarum... Tesoro
Messicani, Liber Secundum, Aromata Promit, on page
38 ofthe 1651 final edition, tlilxochitl is very accurately


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2008.









GOMEZ Vanilla planifolia and the La Cruz-Badiano Codex


illustrated, perhaps the second oldest depiction of the
genus (Fig. 2).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. My thanks to Mahmood Sasa who
presented me with the 1996 Mexican facsimilar edition of
the Libellus. Rebeca Brenes for help in the editing of the
final version of this paper. Neal Smith and Carlos Ossenbach
made insightful suggestions to the earlier version of this
paper as did two anonymous reviewers.


LITERATURE CITED
Anselmi, A. 2007. II diario del viaggio in Spagna del
Cardinale Francesco Barberini scritto da Cassiano dal
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LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. O Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2008.








LANKESTERIANA8(3) 89-92 2008


A NEW PHRA GMIPEDIUM (ORCHIDACEAE) FROM COLOMBIA



WESLEY E. HIGGINS1-35 & PAULA VIVEROS4


'Center for Tropical Plant Research and Conservation, Marie Selby Botanical Gardens
811 South Palm Avenue, Sarasota, FL 34236-7726 U.S.A.
2International Scientific Committee ofLankesteriana, Universidad de Costa Rica.
3Research Associate, Centro de Investigaci6n en Orquideas de los Andes "Angel Andreetta"
Universidad Alfredo Perez Guerrero, Ecuador.
4School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32653, U.S.A.
5Corresponding author: whiggins@selby.org



ABSTRACT. Anew species from Colombia inPhragmipedium sectionMicropetalum is described: Phragmipedium
manzurii.

RESUMEN. Se describe una nueva especie de Phragmipedium secci6n Micropetalum para Colombia:
Phragmipedium manzuri.

KEYWORDS: Orchidaceae, Cypripedioideae, Phragmipedieae, Phragmipediinae,Phragmipedium, Micropetalum,
Colombia, new species, taxonomy


Introduction. In April 2008 David Manzur sent
photographs of a Phragmipedium for identification
to the Orchid Identification Center. The images
appeared distinctive from Phragmipedium schlimii
thus necessitating examination of the specimen by
a taxonomist. Since Manzur was unable to send a
specimen due to governmental restrictions Paula
Viveros traveled to Colombia to examine the plant.
Viveros examined eight specimens and confirmed
that they represented a new species.

David Manzur started collecting plants in
Antioquia, Colombia, several years ago. At first he
thought that they all corresponded to Phragmipedium
schlimii, but he started noticing differences in floral
structures and leaves that led him to suspect that
they corresponded to different varieties or species.
Consequently he started collecting phragmipediums
from other regions in Colombia, growing them,
and recording their variations. He keeps his living
collections at his farm in Caldas, Colombia;
the herbarium specimens are kept at Herbario
Universidad de Caldas, FAUC.


Taxonomic treatment

Phragmipedium manzurii W.E. Higgins & P Viveros,
sp. nov.

TYPE: Colombia. Santander: ex hort. D. A. Manzur.
June 2008, D.A. Manzur 1501 holotypee: FAUC).
FIG. 1-3.

Species haec Phragmipedium fischeri Braem &
Mohr et P schlimii (Linden & Rchb.f) Rolfe similis,
sed staminodio circulari breve emarginato viridiflavo
differt, sepalis et petalisque subviridis, ellipticis; petalis
complanatis subviolaceis, et labello albido intus violaceo
notato, ad apicem inflato incurvato porcato differt.

Section Micropetalum (Hallier) Garay.

Plant caespitose, herbaceous, terrestrial. Leaves
6, basal distichous, blades linear, coriaceous, keeled
beneath, acuminate, margin revolute, 29.5 to 36.6 cm
long, 2.3 to 4 cm wide. Inflorescence erect, 12 to 27 cm
tall. Ovary pubescent 4.8 to 5.8 cm long, subtended
by an acute green floral bract. Flowers 3 successive,
resupinate, 6 x 5.2 cm. Sepals yellow-green, elliptical,








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B


















5 cm
II


5 mm

FIGURE 1. Phragmipedium manzurii W.E.Higgins & PViveros. A. Flower, lateral view. B. Flower, frontal view. C. Dissected
flower. D. Staminode, frontal and lateral view. Drawing by Stig Dalstr6m, based onManzur 1501 (FAUC).


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2008.







HIGGINS & VIVEROS -A new Phragmipedium


7-4


7 8 9 10 11 12 13

#L FABER CASTELL
X 1l ZUA


















D


FIGURE 2. Phragmipedium manzurii W.E.Higgins & P.Viveros. A. Flower, frontal view. B. Flower, lateral view. C. Dissected
pouch. D. Dissected flower. Photos by D. A. Manzur.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2008.








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S9




A


FIGURE 3. Phragmipedium manzurii W.E.Higgins &
P.Viveros. A. Side view of ovary. B. Front view of
staminode. Photos by D. A. Manzur.


somewhat concave, pubescent on reverse; dorsal sepal
elliptical, 2 cm long, 1 to 1.5 cm wide; synsepal 1.8 to
2 cm long, 1.4 to 1.7 cm wide. Petals white, flushed
with pale violet, elliptical, slightly recurved, hirsute
pubescent, 2.2 to 2.8 cm long, 1.1 to 2 cm wide. Lip
white flushed pale violet, yellow-green at base, with
violet markings, saccate with the apex turned up in
front and the margin infolded, opening marked with
short violet ridges, interior marked with violet spots,
central yellow/violet lines on interior, tomentose
pubescent, 1.8 to 2.4 cm long, 1 to 1.7 cm wide.
Staminode green-yellow, round, raised center, notched
on bottom margin, tomentose pubescent, 0.6 to 0.8 cm
long, 0.6 to 0.8 cm wide.

ETYMOLOGY: Named for David Angel Manzur, a retired
professor of the Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad
de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia. Manzur has been
doing field research, observing, collecting and
growing orchids for 20 years, with special interest in


FIGURE 4. Department of Santander, Colombia.


Miltoniopsis vexillaria varieties and Phragmipedium.
He is a member of the Risaralda Orchid Society and
has received two American Orchid Society awards:
Bollea coelestis David Manzur La Aldea FCC/AOS
and Miltonia David Manzur La Aldea AM/AOS. Prior
to this description, one species had been described
in his name: Chodrorhyncha manzurii P.Ortiz.
Professor Manzur has authored one orchid publication:
Miltoniopsis vexillaria distribution and variation in
Colombia [Orchids 74(1): 26-31. 2005].

ADDITIONAL SPECIMEN SEEN: June 2008, D.A. Manzur
1507 (FAUC).

DISTRIBUTION. Reported from the Department of
Santander, Colombia (Fig. 4).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. The authors thank David Manzur and
Leon Trujillo for bringing this species to the attention of the
Orchid Identification Center and Phillip Cribb for revision
of the Latin diagnosis.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universdad de Costa Rica, 2008.


.~4.

I., K






11


S. i








LANKESTERIANA8(1) 93-103 2008


LISTADO DE SPECIES DE LA FAMILIAR ORCHIDACEAE

PARA EL ESTADO SUCRE, VENEZUELA


CARLOS LEOPARDI12 & LUIS J. CUMANA'

'Herbario Isidro Ramon Bermudez Romero, Departamento de Biologia, Universidad de Oriente,
Nucleo de Sucre, Cumana, Sucre, 6101 Apdo. 245, Venezuela.
2Autor para correspondencia: leopardiverde@gmail.com


RESUMEN. La familiar Orchidaceae es uno de los grupos de Magnoliophyta de mayor distribuci6n a nivel
mundial, ocupan una amplia gama de nichos, desde el medio terrestre hasta las copas de los arboles (epifitas).
Hist6ricamente esta familiar ha recibido much atenci6n dada la belleza de las flores de algunos de sus miembros,
lo que ha llevado con el tiempo a buscar el conocimiento, entire otras cosas, sobre su distribuci6n; por lo que
han aparecido listas de species para various lugares de America y el mundo. En Venezuela, exceptuando los
tratamientos que a nivel general se ha dado a la familiar, son escasos los studios a nivel local y en particular
en la cordillera de la costa; raz6n por la que en este trabajo se present una lista actualizada de las species de
Orchidaceae conocidas hasta el present en la flora del estado Sucre. Para ello se revisaron entire los afios 2006-
2007 los herbarios VEN e IRBR, las bases de datos en linea de los herbarios K, MO, AMES, NY y F; aunado
a ello, se realizaron exploraciones en 14 localidades del estado Sucre, distribuidas entire el extreme occidental
de la Peninsula de Araya hasta el extreme oriental de la Peninsula de Paria, los alrededores de Cumana, el
Parque Nacional Mochima y parte del Macizo del Turimiquire. De lo anterior deriva una lista de 121 species
distribuidas en 63 g6neros, los mas importantes son: Epidendrum L. (16 spp.), Habenaria Willd. (8 spp.),
Pleurothallis R. Br. s. 1. (7 spp.) \I, Il/.,,.i, Ruiz & Pav. s. str. (4 spp.)y Scaphyglotts Poepp. & Endl. (4 spp.).
Adicional a 6stas, existen 12 species, sefialadas en la literature, de las que seis cuentan con respaldo de collector
y numero de colecci6n. Del total de las species referidas para el estado Sucre, 15 son mencionadas en el Libro
Rojo de la Flora Venezolana; de 6stas, dos estin en peligro critic (Cattleya gaskelliana Rchb. f y Psychopsis
papilio (Lindl.) H.G. Jones), una en peligro, dos vulnerable y las restantes en la categoria menor riesgo.

ABSTRACT. The family Orchidaceae is one of the most widespread groups of Magnoliophyta, they occur in
a broad range of habitats, from the terrestrial habit to the treetops epiphytess). Historically, this family had
received a great deal of attention because of the beauty of the flowers of some species, which has lead to study
its distribution; as a consequence, lists of species have been published for various places of America and the
world. In Venezuela, except for treatments, of the family on a general level, there are few studies of local areas,
and very little on the coastal cordillera; for that reason, we offer an updated list of the species of Orchidaceae
so far know in the flora of Sucre state. To achieve this, the herbaria VEN and IRBR were studied during 2006-
2007, and the on-line database of herbaria K, MO, AMES, NY and F were consulted. Field exploration was
undertaken in 14 localities in Sucre state, divided between the Peninsulas ofAraya and Paria, around of Cumana
and the Macizo del Turimiquire. As results, we present a list of 121 species of 63 genera. The most important
are: Epidendrum L. (16 spp.), Habenaria Willd. (8 spp.), Pleurothallis R. Br. s. 1. (7 spp., \I .,ll % 1 ., Ruiz
& Pay. s. str. (4 spp.) y Scaphyglottis Poepp. & Endl. (4 spp.). Additionally, 12 species were mentioned in the
literature, of which six have data (collector and collection number). Of the total of the species know from Sucre
state, 15 was mentioned in the Red Book of the Venenezuelan flora, two of these are in critic danger (Cattleya
gaskelliana Rchb. f. y Psychopsispapilio (Lindl.) H.G. Jones), one in danger, two vulnerable, the rest are in the
category minor risk.

PALABRAS CLAVE / KEY WORDS: Orchidaceae, lista de species, species checklist, Sucre, Venezuela








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La familiar Orchidaceae es el grupo con la mayor
diversidad entire las Magnoliophyta, con mas de 19,000
species (Judd et al. 1999). Esta familiar se distribuye
por todo el mundo, alcanzando su maxima diversidad
en las regions tropicales, especialmente en los andes
americanos (Dressier 1981). Esta amplia distribuci6n y
diversidad se asocian a una alta plasticidad adaptativa
que le ha permitido colonizar una variedad de nichos,
desde el medio terrestre, incluyendo formas lit6fitas y
rupicolas hasta species de vida area (epifitas) en las
copas de los arboles (Chase et al. 2003).
Hist6ricamente, por la belleza de las flores de
algunos de sus miembros, esta familiar ha recibido gran
atenci6n; como muestra la publicaci6n de monografias
sobre el grupo durante los siglos XVIII--XXI (v. gr.
Lindey 1830, Bateman 1874, Dressler 1981; Prigdeon
et al. 2005); asi, como la aparici6n de sociedades
horticolas que pagaban y pagan importantes sumas
por estas plants, lo que ha permitido financial las
expediciones de los llamados "cazadores de orquideas",
como Schomburgk, Linden, entire otros, que visitaban
las tierras americanas en busca de estas plants (Texera
1991, Romero 1999).
Este interns hist6rico por las orquideas, ha tenido gran
influencia en la elaboraci6n de listados de orquideas u
orquideofloras para Brasil, Trinidad y Tobago, Chile,
Guyana, Surinam, Guyana Francesa, Colombia, Cuba,
Panama, Costa Rica y Venezuela, entire otros (Cogniaux
1965, Schultes 1967, Lehnebach 2003, Funk et al.
2007, Huber et al. 1998); sin embargo, estos trabajos
en su mayoria son de character general, siendo escasos
los studios para areas especificas, como el elaborado
en el Parque Nacional Manuel Antonio en Costa Rica
(Populin 1998).
Venezuela no escapa a esta realidad, a nivel general
los trabajos de mayor envergadura que se han realizado
son los de Dunsterville y Garay (1959, 1961, 1965,
1966, 1972, 1976), Foldats (1969, 1970a,b,c,d) y
Romero y Camevali (2000); a nivel local, la zona
que ha recibido la mayor atenci6n ha sido Guayana,
done se han realizado una series de studios menores
como el el report elaborado por Steyermark de las
exploraciones para el Ptari-Tepuy, Roraima cerro Duida
(Schweinfurth 1957), el informed sobre las orquideas de
Cerro Autana (Dunsterville 1975), la aclaratoria sobre
el complejo de species de Epidendrum nocturnum
de la Guayana (Camevali & Romero 1996) y otros


studios mayores que llevaron a la publicaci6n de la
orquideoflora de la zona (Camevali et al. 2003).
En el nororiente de Venezuela, la familiar Orchidaceae
ha recibido poca atenci6n, a pesar de la importancia de
6sta en los resultados de las exploraciones botanicas
como las realizadas por Steyermark al cerro Turimiquire
y la region oriental adyacente (Schweinfurth 1957,
Steyermark 1966) y a la Peninsula de Paria (Steyermark
& Agostini 1967), los resultados de Larez (2003) para
el Parque Nacional el Guacharo, entire otros.
En el estado Sucre, el interns sobre esta familiar se
ha incrementado en los ultimos afios, publicandose una
lista preliminary de species basada s61o en information
bibliografica (Leopardi & Veliz, 2006) y algunas listas
especificas locales, como las presentadas para el Parque
Nacional Mochima (Leopardi et al. 2007, Cumana, en
prensa). El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar la lista
actualizada de species de la familiar Orchidaceae para
el estado Sucre, basada en la revision de herbarios y en
trabajo de campo.

Metodologia

El listado presentado es el product de la revision,
entire los afios 2006 y 2007, de los Herbarios Isidro
Ramon Bermudez Romero (IRBR) y del Herbario
Nacional de Venezuela (VEN); asi, como de las
bases de datos disponibles en linea de los herbarios
Royal Botanical Garden Herbarium (K) (K) (http://
www.kew.org/herbcat); Missouri Botanical Garden
Herbarium (MO) ,hiip' - '.ihi' !o i, '.iihot/
research/herbarium.shtml); Oakes Ames Orchid
Herbarium (AMES) (http://asaweb.huh.harvard.
edu: 8080/databases/specimenindex.html); New
York Botanical Garden Herbarium (NY) (http://
sciweb.nybg.org/science2/hcol/vasc/index.asp); Field
Museum of Natural History (F) (http://emuweb.
fieldmuseum.org/botany/detailed.php); demas, de una
series de exploraciones realizadas en 14 localidades
del estado Sucre, distribuidas de la siguiente forma:
Peninsula deAraya y adyacencias (Campoma, Cariaco,
Guacarapo, Guayacan), Peninsula de Paria (Rio El
Pilar, Yaguaraparo), alrededores de Cumana (Parque
National Mochima, El Tacal, San Juan de Macarapana,
Rio Brito, Humo Negro, Cerro Imposible), Macizo del
Turimiquire (Catuaro, Las Pideras de Cocollar). En el
ap6ndice 1 se muestra una selecci6n de los ejemplares
revisados y/o colectados.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. O Universidad de Costa Rica, 2008.








LEOPARDI & CUMANA Listado de Orchidaceae para Sucre, Venezuela


La coleccion de las muestras sigui6 el protocolo
traditional para el procesamiento de material de
herbario (Lindorf et al. 1999), tomando de uno a tres
individuos (dependiendo de la abundancia); asi mismo,
en caso de que el material estuviese en fenofase
reproductive, porciones de las inflorescencias fueron
conservadas en una mezcla de formol, acido ac6tico
y etanol (FAA) en proporcion 1:1:3; en caso de que
el material estuviese en fenofase vegetativa se tom6
una parte y se mantuvo en condiciones de vivero hasta
alcanzar la floracion, colectandose luego material para
herborizar y conservandose algunas flores en FAA. El
material colectado esta depositado en IRBR.
El listado de species presentado se ajusta en forma
general al sistema propuesto por Chase et al. (2003)
y sigue, en forma amplia, la sinonimia propuesta en
tropicos.org il1, i Ii '!- ii .... i, .! y por Govaerts
(2005). Algunos casos especiales sensu strict son:
Cohniella Pfitzer y Lophiaris Raf. Los Maxillarinae
siguen el tratamiento sugerido por Blanco et al. (2007).

Resultados y discusi6n

La familiar Orchidaceae, en el estado Sucre, esta
representada por 121 species, de 63 g6neros, los mas
numerosos son: Epidendrum (16 spp.), Habenaria (8
spp.), Pleurothallis s. 1. (7 spp.), Maxillaria s. str. (4
spp.) y .l/ .-1/. ii-' (4 spp.) (tabla 1). Al considerar
la riqueza por zona, se encuentra que la mas pobre es
la Peninsula de Araya y areas adyacentes (11 spp.);
mientras que, la zona mas rica es la Peninsula de Paria
(83 spp.), seguida del macizo del Turimiquire (36 spp.)
y los Alrededores de Cumand (33 spp.).
Estos resultados se relacionan con lo que ha
sido estimado para el pais, siendo los g6neros mas
numerosos a nivel national Epidendrum (162 spp.),
Pleurothallis s.l. (125 spp.) y Maxillaria s. 1. (100
spp.) (Huber et al. 1998, Camevali et al. 2007).
La coincidencia en la dominancia gen6rica puede
asociarse a la diversidad de ambientes presents en el
estado Sucre: arbustales xerofilos, sabanas, manglares,
bosques tropofilos, bosques humedos, entire otros.
Tambi6n es notable que estos g6neros alcancen su
maxima diversidad en el estado en las vertientes de la
Peninsula de Paria y del Macizo del Turimiquire (tabla
1), que son las zonas mas frescas y humedas, lo que
coincide con el hecho de que esta familiar tiende a ser
mas diverse en zonas con caracteristicas similares a la


andina, que es donde alcanza su maxima diversidad
(Dressler 1981, Camevali et al. 2007).
La pobreza de species en la Peninsula de Araya se
debe, basicamente, a las escasas precipitaciones (son
inferiores a 260 mm anuales) y a la accion del viento,
que en las zonas de menores elevaciones, hacia la
region occidental de la peninsula, alcanza velocidad
suficiente como para impedir el establecimiento no
s61oo de los representantes de esta familiar, sino de casi
todos los grupos vegetables (Cumana 1999)
Tres species son endemicas para el estado
Sucre (Acianthera pariaensis (Camevali & G. A.
Romero) Camevali & G. A. Romero, Epidendrum
dunstervilleorum Foldats y Masdevallia irapana H.
R. Sweet). Por otro lado, en el Libro Rojo de la Flora
Venezolana (Llamozas et al. 2003), se mencionan
15 de las species reportadas para el estado Sucre,
distribuidas de la siguiente forma: Cattleya gaskelliana
Rchb. f. y Psychopsis papilio (Lindl.) H. G. Jones
son sefialadas como species en peligro critic de
extincion, Chysis aurea Lindl. como especie en peligro
y Encyclia cordigera (Kunth) Dressler y Huntleya
lucida (Rolfe) Rolfe como species vulnerable, las
siete species restantes aparecen bajo la categoria de
menor riesgo (tabla 1).
Adicionalmente, en los trabajos de Steyermark
(1966), Steyermark y Agostini (1967) y Foldats (1969,
1970b,c,d), son referidas seis species con collector
y numero de coleccion: Cycnoches lodigessii Lindl
(Moritz, 611); Dichaea pendula (Aubl.) Cogn. (J.
Steyermark, 91932), Epidendrum cardioglossum
Rchb. f. (J. Steyermark y cols. 62596), Gomphichis
costaricensis (Schltr.) Ames (J. Steyermark y cols,
62517), Liparis neuroglossa Rchb. f. (J. Steyermark,
62645), Oncidium bicolor Lindl. (Dunsterville 378);
sin embargo, estas exsiccata no fueron encontradas en
los herbarios revisados.
Finalmente, otras seis species son mencionadas,
principalmente por Foldats (1970a, b, c, d), pero
sin ningun soporte localizable, a saber: Aspasia
variegata Lindl., Brassia caudata Lindl., Epidendrum
purpurascens Focke, Lockhartia acuta (Lindl.) Rchb.
f.), L. oblongicallosa Camevali & G.A. Romero y
Pleurothallis testaefolia (Sw.) Lindl. Por otro lado,
existe una series de species que han sido encontradas
en la zona limitrofe con el estado Monagas (del lado
de Monagas) que, potencialmente, tambi6n podrian


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universdad de Costa Rica, 2008.









LANKESTERIANA


TABLA 1. Lista de species de la familiar Orchidaceae presents en el estado Sucre, Venezuela.


ESPECIE Aa P C T DRb Lc


- + + MR/ca


EC



EO CR



EN
MR/ca


Acianthera lanceana (Lodd. ex Lindl.) Pridgeon & M. W. Chase
Acianthera parzainss (Camevali & G. A. Romero) Camevali & G. A. Romero
Beloglottis costaricensis (Rchb. f.) Schltr.
Brassavola cucullata (L.) R. Br.
Campylocentrum micranthum (Lindl.) Rolfe
Campylocentrum schneeanum Foldats
Catasetum macrocarpum Rich. ex Kunth
Catasetum planmceps Lindl.
Cattleya gaskellhana Rchb. f.
Caularthron bicornutum (Hook.) Raf.
Caularthron bilamellatum (Rchb. f.) R. E. Schult.
( aurea Lindl.
Cohnzella cebolleta (Jacq.) Christenson
Cyclopogon elatus (Sw.) Schltr.
Cyrtopodium willmorel Knowles & Westc.
Dichaea hystricina Rchb. f.
Dichaea muricata (Sw.) Lindl.
Dimerandra emarginata (G. Mey.) Hoehne
Elleanthus i"- 1'i, ... o .r, 't, Rchb. f.
Elleanthusfurfuraceus (Lindl.) Rchb.f.
Encycha cordigera (Kunth) Dressler
Encycha isochila (Rchb. f.) Dodson
Epidendrum anceps Jacq.
Epidendrum cernuum Kunth
Epidendrum cihare var. squamatum Schnee
Epidendrum coronatum Ruiz & Pav.
Epidendrum dunstervilleorum Foldats
Epidendrumferrugineum Ruiz & Pav.
Epidendrum miserrzmum Rchb. f.
Epidendrum pseudoramosum Schltr.
Epidendrum purum Lindl.
Epidendrum ramosum Jacq.
Epidendrum rigidum Jacq.
Epidendrum rostratum Garay & Dunst.
Epidendrum secundum Jacq.
Epidendrum strobiliferum Rchb. f.
Epidendrum carpophorum Barb. Rodr.
Epidendrum vincentinum Lindl.
Eulophia alta (L.) Fawc. & Rendle
Gongora quinquenervis Rchb. f.
Govenza utriculata (Sw.) Lindl.
Habenara alata Hook.


MR/ca





MR/ca


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2008.


MR/ca









LEOPARDI & CUMANA Listado de Orchidaceae para Sucre, Venezuela


ESPECIE Aa P C T DRb Lc

Habenaria bractescens Lindl. +
Habenaria entomantha (Lex.) Lindl.
Habenaria heptadactyla Rchb. f.
Habenaria monorrhiza (Sw.) Rchb. f. + + MR/ca
Habenaria obtusa Lindl. +
Habenaria petalodes Lindl. +
Habenaria trifida Kunth +
Heterotaxis discolor (G. Lodd.) Ojeda & Carevali +
Houlletia odoratissima Linden ex Lindl. +
Huntleya lucida (Rolfe) Rolfe + VU
Isochilus linearis (Jacq.) R. Br. + +
Jacquiniella globosa (Jacq.) Schltr. + +
Jacquiniella teretifoha (Sw.) Britton & Wilson +
Laeha undulata (Lindl.) L. O. Williams +
Leochilus labiatus (Sw.) Kuntze
Lepanthes parznansis Foldats + RV
Lepanthes wageneri Rchb. f.
Lepanthopsis astrophora (Rchb. f.) Garay +
Liparns nervosa subsp. nervosa Thunb. +
Lophiarns lanceana (Lindl.) Braem + + + MR/ca
Lophiarns lurida (Lindl.) Braem + + +
Macrochnium wullschlaegehanum (H. Focke) Dodson +
Masdevalha irapana H. R. Sweet + ES
Masdevalha kyponantha H. R. Sweet +
Masdevalha lansbergn Rchb. f.
Maxillanra 'a, n 't,, '..K Schltr. +
Maxillana mehna Lindl. +
Maxillana nasuta Rchb. f. +
Maxillara porrecta Lindl. + +
Microchilus paleaceus (Schltr.) Omerod. +
Microchilus venezuelanus (Garay & Dunst.) Ormerod. + RV
Myoxanthus exasperatus (Lindl.) Luer +
Notyia rhombilabia C. Schweinf.
Octomeria apiculata (Lindl.) Kuntze
Oeceoclades maculata (Lindl.) Lindl. + + +
Oncidium klotzschianum Rchb. f. + +
Ormthocephalus bonplandn Rchb. f.
Ormthidium patulum (C. Schweinf.) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda +
Otoglossum globuliferum (Kunth) L. O.Williams & M. W. Chase +
Otoglossum scansor (Rchb. f.) Camevali & I. Ramirez +
S-'l ,'ii, l , past Rchb. f.
Platystele oxyglossa (Schltr.) Garay +
Platystele stenostachya (Rchb. f.) Garay +
Pleurothalis discoidea Lindl.


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LANKESTERIANA


TABLA 1. continuea)


ESPECIE A' P C T DRb L'

Pleurothalls i,',. p i,, Kunth
Pleurothalls pruinosa Lindl. +
Pleurothalls revoluta (Ruiz & Pav.) Garay
Pleurothalls ruscifoha (Jacq.) R. Br. +
Pleurothalls aff. secunda Poepp. & Endl. +
Polystachyafohosa (Hook.) Rchb. f. + +
Prosthechea cochleata (L.) W. E. Higgins + MR/ca
Prosthechea aemula (Lindl.) W. E. Higgins +
Prosthechea lvida (Lindl.) W. E. Higgins +
Psilochilus modestus Barb. Rodr.
Psychopsis papilio (Lindl.) H. G. Jones + CR
Psygmorchis l i ', Il. f.) Dodson & Dressler +
Psygmorchs pusilla (L.) Dodson & Dressier +
Rhetinantha notylioglossa (Rchb. f.) M. A. Blanco +
Rodriguezza lanceolata Ruiz & Pav. + + MR/ca
Sauvetrea aff. alpestris (Lindl.) Szlach. +
Scaphosepalum breve (Rchb.f.) Rolfe
Scaphyglottis.. Ames & C. Schweinf. +
Scaphyglottis modest (Rchb. f.) Schltr. +
Scaphyglottis prolifera Cogn.
Scaphyglottis . Lindl. +
Sobralia cf. ciliata (Presl) C. Schweinf. ex Foldats + +
Sobralia aff. violacea Linden ex Lindl. +
Stelis argentata Lindl. +
Steis papaquerensis Rchb. f. +
Stelis tristyla Lindl. +
Sterna palhda Lindl. +
Trichosalpinx cianrs (Lindl.) Luer
Trichosalpinx intricata (Lindl.) Luer +
Triphora gentianoides (Sw.) Nutt. ex Ames & Schltr. +
S Lindl. + + +
Vanilla pompona Schiede + + MR/pm
Wullschlaegelia calcarata Benth.
Xylobium, (Hook.) G. Nicholson +
Total de species: 11 83 33 36




aA: Peninsula de Araya y adyacencias; P: Peninsula de Paria; C: alrededores de Cumana; T: Macizo Montafioso del
Turimiquire (s61o la secci6n que esta en el estado Sucre).
bDR: Especies de distribuci6n restringida; ES: end6mica estado Sucre; EC: end6mica Cordillera de la Costa; EO: end6mica
Cordillera de la Costa, region oriental; RV: restringida a Venezuela.
CL: estado de conservaci6n seguin Llamozas et al. (2003); MR/ca: menor riesgo, casi amenazada; CR: peligro critic; EN:
en peligro; VU: vulnerable; MR/pm: menor riesgo, preocupaci6n menor; -: dato no disponible.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universidad de Costa Rca, 2008.









LEOPARDI & CUMANA Listado de Orchidaceae para Sucre, Venezuela


estar en el estado Sucre, entire las que cabe destacar:
Acianthera rubroviridis (Lindl.) Pridgeon & M.W.
Chase, Epidendrum subpurum Rchb. f., lonopsis
utricularioides (Sw.) Lindl., Mormodes buccinator
Lindl., entire otras.


AGRADECIMIENTOS. Los autores desean expresar su
agradecimiento al Consejo de Investigaci6n de la
Universidad de Oriente (CI-2-010101-1224/05 y CI-2-0101-
01-1374/07) y a PROVITA (2007-08) por el financiamiento
otorgado. A la Dra Leyda Rodriguez (curadora de VEN) por
el permitir la revision de la colecci6n de Orchidaceae alli
depositada y por el pr6stamo de algunos de los ejemplares.
A Carmen Malav6, Freddy Subero y Christian Marchin
por toda la colaboraci6n prestada durante el trabajo de
campo. A Jose Imery y a los dos revisores anonimos por sus
sugerencias y critics al manuscrito. Al personal del IRBR
por su colaboraci6n durante la ejecuci6n de este trabajo.



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LEOPARDI & CUMANA Listado de Orchidaceae para Sucre, Venezuela


APENDICE 1. SELECTION DEL MATERIAL EXAMINADO


VENEZUELA. Sucre. Acianthera, A. lanceana:
municipio Montes, Las Piedras de Cocollar, 31-03-2007, C.
Leopardi et al. 103 (IRBR). A. pariaensis: municipio
Valdez, Peninsula de Paria, Cerro Patao, 19-07-1962, J.
Steyermark y G. Agostini 91087 (VEN). Beloglottis, B.
costaricensis: municipio Cajigal, Yaguaraparo, 18-02-2007,
C. Leopardi et al. (IRBR). Brassavola, B. cucullata:
municipio Cruz Salmer6n Acosta, Guayacan, Peninsula de
Araya, 28-01-2006, C. Leopardi y J. Vliz 01 (IRBR).
Campylocentrum, C. micranthum: municipio Cajigal,
Yaguaraparo, 19-02-2007- C. Leopardi y F Subero 99
(IRBR). C. schneeanum: municipio Marifo, Peninsula de
Paria, este de Cerro Humo, 24-02-1980, J. Steyermarky R.
Liesner 121705 (VEN). Catasetum, C. macrocarpum:
municipio Cajigal, Yaguaraparo, 18-02-2007, C. Leopardi
et al. 76 (IRBR). C. planiceps: municipio Montes, Humo
Negro, 12-10-2006, C. Leopardi y J. Viliz 49 (IRBR).
Cattleya, C. gaskelliana: Entre Cerro El Diablo y La
Trinidad, 1945, J. i ..........~ 62765 (VEN). Caularthron,
C. bicornutum: municipio Valdez, Peninsula de Paria,
noreste de Puerto Hierro, 05-09-1984, Milliken et al. 132
(VEN). C. bilamellatum: municipio Cajigal, Yaguaraparo,
17-02-2007, C. Leopardi et al. 68 (IRBR). Chysis, C. area:
municipio Marifo, Peninsula de Paria, Rio Grande, 02-01-
1981, J. Steyermark S/N (VEN). Cohniella, C. cebolleta:
municipio Sucre, Vega grande, Parque Nacional Mochima,
22-01-1994, N. Ortegay N. Medina 70 (IRBR). Cyclopogon,
C. elatus: municipio Montes, Las Piedras de Cocollar, 02-
04-2007, C. Leopardi et al. 129 (IRBR). Cyrtopodium: C.
willmorei: Sabanas entire Sucre y Monagas, 28-04-2007, C.
Leopardi y J. Vliz 140 (IRBR). Dichaea, D. hystricina:
Sucre sin localidad exacta, S/F, Sin collector S/N. (IRBR).
D. latifolia var longa: Sucre sin localidad exacta, S/F, Sin
collector S/N. (IRBR). Dimerandra, D. emarginata:
municipio Benitez, Rio El Pilar, 06-05-2007, C. Leopardi y
C. Malavd 141 (IRBR). Elleanthus, E. arpophyllostachys:
municipio Marifo, Peninsula de Paria, entire Los Pocitos y
La Roma, 11-02-1966, J. Steyermark y M. Rabe 96345
(VEN). E. furfuraceus: municipio Montes, Las Piedras de
Cocollar, 02-04-2007, C. Leopardi et al. 135 (IRBR).
Encyclia, E. cordigera: municipio Cruz Salmer6n Acosta,
Peninsula de Araya, Guarapo-Oturo, 15-12-1984, M. y W.
Lampe 28 (IRBR). E. isochila: municipio Marifo, Peninsula
de Paria, Las Melenas, 01-12-1979, J. Steyermark y R.
Liesner 120828 (VEN). Epidendrum, E. anceps: municipio
Montes, Las Piedras de Cocollar, 01-04-2007, C. Leopardi
et al. 121 (IRBR). E. carpophorum: municipio Montes,
Macizo del Turimiquire, (25-31)-03-1995, L. Cumana et al.
6202 (IRBR). E. ceruum: municipio Montes, Cara norte
del Cerro Turimiquire, cerca de la cumbre, (06-08)-05-


1945, J. Steyermark 62596 (VEN). E. ciliare var.
Squamatum: municipio Cruz Salmer6n Acosta, Laguna de
Chacopata, 18-12-2006, C. Leopardi y J. Vliz 57 (IRBR).
E. coronatum: municipio Benitez, Rio El Pilar, Hacienda El
Otro Lado, 06-05-2007, C. Leopardi y C. Malave 151
(IRBR). E. dunstervilleorum: municipio Marifo, Peninsula
de Paria, Cerro Humo, 03-03-1966, J. si\, i....... 94972
(VEN). E. ferrugineum: municipio Marifo, Peninsula de
Paria, cerca de Rio Seco, 11-08-1967, V Carreno S/N
(VEN). E. miserrimum: municipio Marifo, Peninsula de
Paria, Cerro Humo, entire Los Pocitos y la Roma, 11-08-
1966, J. Steyermark y M. Rabe 96347 (VEN). E.
pseudoramosum: municipio Marifo, Cerro Humo, S/F, J.
Steyermark y M. Rabe 96325 (VEN). E. purum: municipio
Marifo, Peninsula de Paria, Manacal, 20-02-1967, V
Carreo S/N (VEN). E. ramosum, Sucre, S/F, J. \i ....... ,1-
et al. 121724 (MO, no visto). E. rigidum: municipio Cajigal,
Rio Grande, Yaguaraparo, 19-02-2007, C. Leopardi y F
Subero 92 (IRBR). E. rostratum: municipio Cajigal,
Peninsula de Paria, 21-02-1980, J. i ........ 121468
(VEN). E. secundum: municipio Montes, Rio Totucual, El
Guamal, macizo montafoso del Turimiquire, (03-06)-08-
1993, L. Cumana et al. 5011(IRBR). E. strobiliferum:
municipio Benitez, Serrania La Paloma, 19-02-1980, J.
Steyermark et al. 121379 (VEN). E. vincentinum: municipio
Marifo, Peninsula de Paria, Cerro de Humo, 01-03-1966, J.
Steyermark 94828 (VEN). Eulophia, E. alta: municipio
Arismendi, Peninsula de Paria, entire Rio Grande y
Mejillones, 02-08-1961, L. Aristeguietay G. Agostini 4792
(VEN). Gongora, G. quinquenervis: municipio Sucre,
Alrededores de Los Altos de Santa Fe, feb-1994, D.
Hamenstein 1112/92 (VEN). Govenia, G. utriculata:
municipio Montes, Las Piedras de Cocollar, 03-04-2007, C.
Leopardi et al. 136(IRBR). Habenaria, H. alata: municipio
Sucre, San Juan de Macarapana, 06-09-2006, C. Leopardiy
J. V liz 46 (IRBR). H. bractescens: municipio Montes,
Cerro Grande, La Fragua, 28-09-1974, W. Lampe 18
(IRBR). H. entomantha: Sucre, sin localidad mas exacta,
S/C S/N (IRBR). H. heptadactyla: municipio Sucre, Bella
Vista, Parque Nacional Mochima, 24-08-1990, L. Cumana
y J. Vliz 4418 (IRBR). H. monorrhiza: municipio Sucre,
La Guayuta (Altos de Santa Fe), 27-12-1990, L. Cumana y
P. Cabeza 4581 (IRBR). H. obtusa: municipio Sucre, Bella
Vista, Parque Nacional Mochima, 24-08-1990, L. Cumana
y J. Vliz 4472 (IRBR). H. petalodes: municipio Marifo,
Peninsula de Paria, cumbre Las Estrellas, 30-11-1979, J.
Steyermark y R. Liesner 120715 (VEN). H. trifida:
municipio Sucre, Cerro impossible, 07-08-2000, L. Cumana
et al. 6697 (IRBR). Heterotaxis, H. discolor: municipio
Marifo, Mundo Nuevo, oeste de Cerro Humo, 07-08-1966,


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LANKESTERIANA


J. Steyermark y M. Rabe 96146 (VEN). Houlletia, H.
odoratissima: municipio Marifo, Peninsula de Paria, Cerro
Humo, 04-03-1966, J. \ i ......... 95020 (VEN). Huntleya,
H. lucida: municipio Valdez, Cerro Patao, norte de Puerto
Hierro, S/F, J. Steyermark y G. Agostini 91387 (VEN).
Isochilus, I. linearis: municipio Montes, Las Piedras de
Cocollar, 02-04-2007, C. Leopardi et al. 134 (IRBR).
Jacquiniella, J. globosa: municipio Montes, Cocollar, 04-
02-2007, L. Cumana, et al. 6978 (IRBR). J. teretifolia:
municipio Montes, Cerro Turimiquire, 1945, J. Steyermark
62663 (VEN). Laelia, L. undulata: municipio Montes,
Adyacencias de Cumanacoa, feb-2007, R. Coronado S/N
(IRBR). Leochilus, L. labiatus: municipio Montes, Rio
Arriba, Las Piedras de Cocollar, 01-04-2007, C. Leopardi et
al. 108 (IRBR). Lepanthes, L. pariaensis: municipio
Marifo, Peninsula de Paria, cerca de La Tacarigua, 23-02-
1979, J. Steyermark et al. 121640 (VEN). Lepanthes, L.
pectinata: municipio Marifo, Peninsula de Paria: Cerro de
Humo, 24-02-1980, J. SteyermarkyM. Rabe 96349 (VEN).
L. wageneri: municipio Marifo, Peninsula de Paria, Cerro
Humo, mar-1966, J. Steyermark 94819 (VEN).
Lepanthopsis, L. astrophora: municipio Marifo, Peninsula
de Paria, Las Melenas, 01-12-1979, J. Steyermark y R.
Liesner 120926 (VEN). Liparis, L. nervosa subsp. nervosa:
municipio Sucre, Altos de Santa Fe, 23-07-1990, L. Cumana
4133 (IRBR). Lophiaris, L. lanceana: municipio Benitez,
Entre Guaraunos y Los Ajies, J. Steyermark et al. 121294
(VEN). L. lurida: municipio Marifo, La Montana, cerca
Irapa, 23-05-1968, Carreo S/N (VEN). Macroclinium, M.
wullschlaegelianum: municipio Marifo, Peninsula de Paria,
cercanias de Manacal, S/F, J. Steyermark y R. Liesner
120628 (VEN). Masdevallia, M. irapana: Sucre, Venezuela,
05-03-1966. J. Steyermark 95079 (AMES, no visto). M.
kyponantha: municipio Marifo, Peninsula de Paria, Cerro
de Humo, 05-03-1966, J Steyermark 95079 (VEN). M.
lansbergii: entire municipios Marifo yArismendi, Peninsula
de Paria, descendiendo a Las Melenas, feb-1980, J.
Steyermark et al. 121757 (VEN). Maxillaria, M.
brachybulbon: municipio Marifio, Peninsula de Paria,
Cerro de Rio Arriba, 09-08-1966, J. .i, i........ .-yM. Rabe
96206 (VEN). M. melina: municipio Cajigal, Peninsula de
Paria, 21-02-1980, J. Steyermark et al. 121475 (VEN). M.
nasuta: municipio Valdez, Montafa de Falcon (camino a
Los Chorros), Cristobal Colon, S/F, F Ferndndez 307
(VEN). M. porrecta: municipio Marifo, Peninsula de Paria,
Cerro Humo, 04-04-1966, J. Steyermark 95029-A (VEN).
Microchilus, M. paleaceus: municipio Montes, Las Piedras
de Cocollar, 02-04-2007, C. Leopardi et al. 133 (IRBR). M.
venezuelanus: municipio Marifo, Peninsula de Paria,
carretera a El Paujil, 20-02-1980, J. Steyermark et al.
342151-VEN. (VEN). Myoxanthus, M. exasperatus:
municipio Montes, Turimiquire, (25-31)-03-1995, L.


Cumana et al. 6151 (IRBR). Notylia, N. rhombilabia:
Sucre, abr-1977, Carreho S/N (VEN). Octomeria, O.
apiculata: municipio Valdez, Peninsula de Paria, Cerro
Patao, 19-07-1962, J. , ........ y G. Agostini 91143
(VEN). Oeceoclades, 0. maculata: municipio Benitez, Rio
El Pilar, Hacienda El Otro Lado, 06-05-2007, C. Leopardiy
C. Malave 152 (IRBR). Oncidium, 0. klotzschianum:
municipio Cajigal, Peninsula de Paria, 21-02-1980, J.
Steyermark et al. 121474 (VEN). Ornithocephalus, O.
bonplandii: municipio Sucre, Altos de Santa F6, 03-04-
2007, Leopardi 63 (IRBR). Ornitidium, 0. patulum: Entre
la parte superior de Rio Colorado y Cerro Turimiquire, S/F,
J. Steyermark 62650 (VEN). Otoglossum, 0. globuliferum:
municipio Marifo, camino a Los Pocitos de Santa Isabel,
Cerro Humo, 12-07-1972, G. Morillo 2591(VEN).
Otoglossum, 0. scansor: municipios Marifo y Arismendi,
Peninsula de Paria, 22-02-1980, J. \, ........, 121542
(VEN). Pachyphyllum, P. pastii: municipio Montes, Cerro
Turimiquire, 06-05-1945, J. Steyermark 62568 (VEN).
Platystele, P. oxyglossa: municipio Marifo, Peninsula de
Paria, Cerro Humo, 23-02-1980, J. Steyermark et al.
121692 (VEN). Platystele stenostachya: municipio Marifo,
Peninsula de Paria, Cerro de Humo, oeste de Santa Isabel,
mar-1966, J. Steyermark 94831-A (VEN). Pleurothallis, P.
discoidea: municipio Marifo, Peninsula de Paria, oeste de
Cerro Humo, 07-08-1966, J. Steyermark y M. Rabe 96419
(VEN). P. macrophylla: municipio Marifo, Los Pocitos de
Santa Isabel, Cerro de Humo, 12-07-1972, Morillo 2610
(VEN). P. pruinosa: municipio Sucre, El Guayabito, (20-
22)-11-1981, G. Davidse y A. Gonzdlez 19161 (VEN). P.
revoluta: municipio Marifo, Peninsula de Paria, cumbre de
Las Estrellas, oeste de Manacal, 30-11-1979, J. \, i........ -
y R. Liesner 120815 (VEN). P. ruscifolia: municipio
Marifo, Cerro de Humo, entire Los Pocitos y La Roma, 11-
08-1966, J. Steyermark y M. Rabe 96330 (VEN). P. aff.
secunda: municipio Montes, Macizo montafioso del
Turimiquire, fila La Pesjua, (16-20)-03-1994, L. Cumana et
al. 5860 (IRBR). P. velaticaulis, municipio Montes, Las
Piedras de Cocollar, macizo montafioso del Turimiquire,
23-12-2007, C. Leopardi 156 (IRBR). Polystachya, P.
foliosa: municipio Cajigal, Yaguaraparo, 19-02-2007, C.
Leopardi y F Subero 97 (IRBR). Prostechea, P. cochleata:
municipio Montes, Rio Totucual El Guamal, macizo
Turimiquire, (03-06)-08-1993, L. Cumana et al. 5576
(IRBR). P. aemula: municipio Benitez, Rio El Pilar, 06-05-
2007, C. Leopardi y C. Malave 145 (IRBR). P. livida:
municipio Sucre, Altos de Santa Fe, 21-05-2006, C.
Leopardi S/N (IRBR). Psilochilus, P. modestus: municipio
Marifo, Peninsula de Paria, entire Manacal y La Cuchilla,
13-08-1966, J. Steyermark y M. Rabe 96415 (VEN).
Psychopsis, P. papilio, municipio Sucre, Altos de Santa Fe,
22-01-2007, C. Leopardi 64. (IRBR). Psygmorchis, P.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2008.








LEOPARDI & CUMANA Listado de Orchidaceae para Sucre, Venezuela


glossomystax: municipio Sucre, Altos de Santa Fe, 22-01-
2007, C. Leopardi 61 (IRBR). P. pusilla: municipio Bolivar,
Marigfiitar, Rio Frio, 20-02-1989, L. Cumana y P. Cabeza
3560 (IRBR). Rhetinantha, R. notylioglossa: municipio
Valdez, Peninsula de Paria, Cerro Patao, norte de Puerto
Hierro, 19-07-1972, J. Steyermark y G. Agostini 91144
(VEN). Rodriguezia, R. lanceolata: municipio Benitez, Rio
El Pilar, Hacienda El Otro Lado, 06-05-2007, C. Leopardiy
C. Malavd 148 (IRBR). Sauvetrea, S. aff. alpestris:
municipio Montes, Macizo montafoso del Turimiquire,
(25-31)-03-1995, L. Cumana et al. 6180 (IRBR).
Scaphosepalum, S. breve: municipio Cajigal, Peninsula de
Paria, 21-02-1980, J Steyermark et al. 121477 (VEN).
Scaphyglottis, S. gnr,alitira: municipio Marifo, Peninsula
de Paria, Cerro Humo, entire El Paujil y El Brasil, 11-08-
1966, J. Steyermark y M. Rabe 96351 (VEN). S. modest:
municipio Valdez, Peninsula de Paria, Cerro Patao, (25-
26)-07-1962, J. \' ... .... y G. Agostini 91393 (VEN). S.
prolifera: municipio Montes, Palomar, Periquitos-
Turimiquire, 10-11-1996, L. Cumana 6328 (IRBR). S.
reflexa, municipio Arismendi, Peninsula de Paria, entire La
Tacarigua y las cabeceras del Rio Tacarigua, 21-02-1980, J
Steyermark et al. 121465 (VEN). Sobralia, S. cf. ciliata:
municipio Montes, El Guamal, fila La Pesjua, Macizo
Montafoso del Turimiquire, (23-31)-03-1995, L. Cumana
et al. 6208 (IRBR). S. aff. violacea: municipio Sucre, Altos


de Santa Fe, 22-01-2007, Leopardi 66 (IRBR). Stelis, S.
argentata: municipio Sucre, El Guayabito, (20-22)-11-
1981, G. Davidse y A. Gonzdlez 19142 (VEN). S.
papaquerensis: municipio Marifo, Peninsula de Paria,
camino de Los Pocitos de Santa Isabel a La Roma, 12-07-
1972, Dumont et al. VE-7642 (VEN). S. tristyla: municipio
Marifo, Peninsula de Paria, Las Melenas, 01-12-1979, J
Steyermark y R. Liesner 120890 (VEN). Stenia, S. pallida:
municipio Marifo, Peninsula de Paria, Cerro de Humo, 11-
08-1966, J. Steyermark y M. Rabe 96326-A (VEN).
Trichosalpinx, T ciliaris: municipio Cajigal, Peninsula de
Paria, entire El Paujil y El Brasil, 21-02-1980, J. Steyermark
et al. 121507 (VEN). I intricate: municipios Marifo y
Arismendi, Peninsula de Paria, Las Melenas, 24-02-1980,
J. i,........ et al. 121757 (VEN). Triphora, T
gentianoides: municipio Valdez, Peninsula de Paria, Cerro
Patao, 20-07-1962, J. Steyermark y G. Agostini 67582
(VEN). Trizeuxis, T falcata: municipio Cajigal,
Yaguaraparo, 19-02-2007, C. Leopardi y F Subero 82
(IRBR). Vanilla, V pompona: municipio Sucre, Sabilar,
nov-1984, Cumana 2596 (IRBR). Wullschlaegelia, W.
calcarata: municipio Valdez, Peninsula de Paria, Cerro
Patao, (25-26)-07-1962, J Seyermark y G. Agostini 91334
(VEN). Xylobium, X. pallidiflorum: municipio Benitez,
Serrania de La Paloma, 19-02-1980, J. \, ...4..... et al.
121345 (VEN).


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Umversidad de Costa Rica, 2008.








LANKESTERIANA








LANKESTERIANA8(1) 105-112 2008


VEGETATIVE ANATOMY OF CALYPSOEAE (ORCHIDACEAE)


WILLIAM LOUIS STERN' & BARBARA S. CARLSWARD2'3

'Department of Biological Sciences, Biscayne Bay Campus, MSB 357, Florida International University,
North Miami, Florida 33181, USA
2Department of Biological Sciences, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, Illinois 61920-3099, USA
3Corresponding author: bscarlsward@eiu.edu


ABSTRACT. Calypsoeae represent a small tribe of anatomically little-known orchids with a wide distribution in
the Western Hemisphere. Leaves are present in all genera, except Corallorhiza and Wullschlaegelia both of
which are subterranean taxa. Stomata are abaxial (ad- and abaxial in Aplectrum) and tetracytic (anomocytic
in Calypso). Fiber bundles are absent in leaves of all taxa examined except Govenia tingens. Stegmata
are present in leaves of only Cremastra and Govenia. Roots are velamentous, except in filiform roots of
Wullschlaegelia. Vegetative anatomy supports a relationship between Wullschlaegelia and Corallorhiza but
does not support the grouping of winter-leaved Aplectrum and Tipularia nor proposed groupings of genera
based on pollinarium features.

ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: Leaf, stem, root, fiber bundle, velamen, stegmata


Introduction
Calypsoeae (Camus) Dressier [Corallorhizinae
in Dressier (1981) except Calypso] is a small tribe
consisting of approximately 12 genera and 62 species
(Freudenstein 2005). Plants are terrestrial, mostly
cormous and/or rhizomatous, leafless and rootless
in some genera, and usually mycorrhizal. Several of
these genera are monotypic or oligotypic, Govenia
being the richest with about 30 species. Plants are
distributed widely from Europe, northern Asia, and
North America to tropical Central America and the
Caribbean, Brazil, and Argentina. Calypsoeae are
absent from Africa, Australia, and islands of the East
Indies and Pacific Ocean. Yoania australis, a New
Zealand endemic, was renamed Danhatchia australis
by Garay and Christenson, and placed in Cranichideae
(Freudenstein 2005).
Little is known of the anatomy of the groups and
except for Corallorhiza (Carlsward & Stem 2008),
Wullschlaegelia (Stem 1999), and to a certain extent
Yoania (Campbell 1970), only brief mention is made
of anatomy for Aplectrum by Holm (1904), Solereder
& Meyer (1930), Porembski & Barthlott (1988); for
Calypso by Holm (1904), Moller & Rasmussen (1984),
Porembski & Barthlott (1988); for Corallorhiza by


Johow (1885), Solereder & Meyer (1930), Moller
& Rasmussen (1984); Govenia by Pridgeon, Stem
& Benzing (1983), Porembski & Barthlott (1988);
for Oreorchis by Porembski & Barthlott (1988); for
Tipularia by Holm (1904), Solereder & Meyer (1930),
Porembski & Barthlott (1988); and for Wullschlaegelia
by Johow (1885), Solereder & Meyer (1930).
The rhizome of Yoania australis is covered
with scale leaves, but the plant lacks expanded,
chlorophyllous leaves (Campbell 1970) as do
Corallorhiza and Wullschlaegelia. The rhizome
has short conical projections bearing long hairs,
resembling Corallorhiza and Cremastra. There is
a parenchymatous cortex bounded internally by an
endodermis with Casparian strips. Vascular tissue
consists of two to six collateral bundles embedded in
parenchyma. Among these genera, the only anatomical
features of any substantive value are the foliar stegmata
in Cremastra and Govenia reported in this study and
the spiranthosomes in cortical parenchyma cells from
fusiform roots of Wullschlaegelia, noted by Stem
(1999). Other characters occur widely in Orchidaceae.
Two groups of Calypsoeae have been identified
based upon the origin of the stalk supporting the
pollinia and molecular data (Freudenstein 2005).








LANKESTERIANA


Pollinia in Aplectrum, Cremastra, Corallorhiza,
Govenia, and Oreorchis are attached to a stalk (stipe)
derived from the apex of the rostellum, i.e., a hamulus.
Pollinia in Calypso, Yoania, and possibly C I,. i"i .. 1.
are tegular, i.e., the stalk is derived from tissues of the
anther bed on the column. There is no stalk supporting
the pollinia of Wullschlaegelia. Along with Tipularia,
the last three genera also have spurred lips. Winter
leaves appear in Aplectrum and Tipularia, genera
that occur in deciduous woodlands, and depend upon
sunlight reaching leaves during winter. This feature
may also be indicative of a close relationship between
these two genera (Freudenstein 2005).

Material and methods

We had available for study representatives of
seven of the 12 genera included in Calypsoeae by
Freudenstein (2005). Corallorhiza and Wullschlaegelia
are treated in two other publications (Stem 1999,
Carlsward & Stem 2008). Binomials and authorities,
abbreviated according to Brummitt and Powell
(1992), representing these genera appear in Table 1,
along with organs available for study. Methods and
descriptive conventions have appeared in recently
published papers (e.g., Stem & Carlsward 2006), and
we have followed similar procedures here. "Periclinal"
and "anticlinal" have been used as shorthand for
"periclinally orientated" and "anticlinally orientated."
Plant parts were preserved in FAA (70% ethanol-
glacial acetic acid-commercial formalin, 9.0:0.5:0.5)
and stored in 70% ethanol. Transverse and longitudinal


sections of leaves and transverse sections of stems and
roots were cut unembedded as thinly as possible with
a Reichert sliding microtome, stained in Heidenhain's
iron-alum hematoxylin, and counter-stained with
safranin. Leaf scrapings followed Cutler's method
(Cutler 1978) and were stained with safranin. Sections
and scrapings were mounted on glass slides with
Canada balsam. Observations were made using a
Nikon Optiphot microscope, and photographs were
taken with a PixeraPro 150es digital camera attached
to a Zeiss Axioskop 40 microscope. Measurements
of the lengths and widths of ten guard-cell pairs were
made, and these are given in Table 2.

Anatomy results

LEAF Surface: HAIRS absent in Aplectrum,
Cremastra, and Govenia tingens. In Calypso two-celled
thin-walled hairs ad- and abaxial, the base embedded
among cells in a nest of small epidermal cells; adaxial:
basal cell clear, apical cell bulbous, darkly staining
(Fig. 1A); abaxial: basal cell much shorter than blunt-
tipped darkly staining, elongated apical cell (Fig. 1B).
Hairs ad- and abaxial, two-celled in Govenia superba,
thin-walled arising from a cluster of small epidermal
cells; apical cell blunt-tipped. Tipularia has two-
celled (?) hairs on both leaf surfaces arising from a
group of small epidermal cells. Hair bases embedded
among epidermal cells. STOMATA abaxial, except
ad- and abaxial in Aplectrum. Occasionally a few
stomata may appear adaxially on leaves in taxa that
normally bear abaxial stomata. Stomatal apparatus is


TABLE 1. Species of Calypsoeae studied. L, leaf; S, stem; R, root; Rh, rhizome, C, corm.
Taxon Collector/Voucher Parts available

Aplectrum hyemale (Muhl. ex Willd.) Nutt. B. Carlswards.n./SEL L, S, R, Rh, C
Calypso bulbosa (L.) Oakes R. Halse 7141/OSC L, S, R, C
Corallorhiza maculata (Raf.) Raf. K. Chambers 5597/OSC Rh
C. odontorhiza (Willd.) Nutt. M. W. Morris & R. Carter 4098/FLAS Rh
C. wisteriana Conrad M. W. & M. S. Morris 4102/FLAS Rh
Cremastra appendiculata (D. Don) Makino R. Determann s.n./SEL L, S, R, Rh, C
Govenia superba (La Llave & Lex.) Lindl. Hort./SEL L, S, R, C
G. tingens Poepp. & Endl. W M. Whitten 91284/FLAS L, S, R, C
Tipularia discolor (Pursh) Nutt. W L. Ster s.n./FLAS L, S, R, C
Wullschlaegelia aphylla (Sw.) Rchb.f. R. L. Dresser 4940/FLAS S, R
W. calcarata Benth. R. L. Dresser 4646/FLAS S, R
W. calcarata Benth. M. G. Born 41/U S, R

LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universdad de Costa Rica, 2008.








STERN & CARLSWARD -Vegetative anatomy of Calypsoeae


TABLE 2. Stomatal dimensions (Rm)
Average Range
Taxon Length Width Length Width
Aplectrum hyemale ad. 45 40 42-47 35-45
Aplectrum hyemale ab. 46 39 31-52 32-42
Calypso bulbosa 50 45 42-55 40-50
Cremastra appendiculata 42 35 37-47 27-37
Govenia superba 59 48 50-80 42-50
Govenia tingens 62 52 57-67 47-62
Tipularia discolor 58 45 50-62 37-50


basically tetracytic in Aplectrum, Cremastra, Govenia,
and Tipularia with a few anomocytic configurations.
Lateral cells of the stomatal apparatus in G. tingens
often elongated serpent-like to intruded between
adjoining epidermal cells (Fig. 1C); in Tipularia lateral


cells and sometimes apical cells protrude among other
epidermal cells. In Calypso, stomatal apparatuses
entirely anomocytic (Fig. ID). Guard cells typically
reniform and stomata parallel the long axis of the
guard-cell pair. Average stomatal lengths range from


FIGURE 1. Leaf scrapings. Scale bars = 50 [tm. A. Calypso bulbosa. Adaxial: hairs two-celled, basal cell clear, shorter
than dark-staining, bulbous apical cell. B. Calypso bulbosa. Abaxial: hairs two-celled, basal cell clear, shorter than
dark-staining elongated apical cell. C. Govenia tingens. Lateral cells of tetracytic stomatal apparatuses intrude among
adjacent epidermal cells. D. Calypso bulbosa. Anomocytic stomatal apparatuses.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Unversidad de CostaRica, 2008.








LANKESTERIANA


FIGURE 2. T-S leaf. Scale bars = 100 [tm. A. Tipularia
discolor with chlorophyllous, upright hypodermal cells
and spongy mesophyll as in a eudicotyledonous leaf.
B. Aplectrum hyemale. T-S leaf showing pronounced
abaxial mid-vein sclerenchyma, xylem sclerenchyma
clusters resulting in adaxial surface ribbing, and crystal
idioblasts.

42 jtm in Cremastra to 62 jtm in Govenia tingens and
widths from 39 jtm in Aplectrum to 52 jtm in Govenia
tingens. Epidermal cells polygonal on both surfaces;
abaxial cells in Calypso may be elongated; walls
straight-sided or curvilinear.

Section: CUTICLE smooth, somewhat granulose in
Calypso; 2.5 jtm to less than 2.5 jtm thick. Epidermal
cells mostly isodiametric to periclinal in Govenia and
to a certain extent in Tipularia. STOMATA superficial;
substomatal chambers large in Tipularia, Govenia,
and Calypso; moderate in Aplectrum and Cremastra.
Stomatal ledges usually poorly defined in section; outer
ledges apparent in Aplectrum, Calypso, Cremastra,
Govenia, and Tipularia but most pronounced in
Aplectrum. Inner ledges obscure but apiculate in G.
tingens and Tipularia. FIBER BUNDLES absent
throughout, except in G. tingens. HYPODERMIS
uniseriate adaxially, cells globose or inflated, sparsely
provided with chloroplasts in Aplectrum; biseriate
adaxially in Tipularia, outer layer of more or less inflated
upright cells (Fig. 2A), inner layer cells isodiametric;


cells of both layers rich in chloroplasts. Hypodermis
absent in Calypso, Cremastra, and Govenia.
MESOPHYLL homogeneous, 4-7 cells wide, cells thin-
walled, mostly oval and circular with small triangular
and polyhedral intercellular spaces; in Tipularia, cells
and associated intercellular spaces are organized as in
a eudicotyledon (Fig. 2A). Raphide-bearing idioblasts
circular in TS (Fig. 2B), saccate, blunt-ended in LS.
VASCULAR BUNDLES collateral in a single series.
In larger vascular bundles of Aplectrum, Cremastra,
and Govenia both xylem and phloem subtended by
patches of thin-walled sclerenchyma. On the xylem
side in Aplectrum and Govenia, these produce bulges
(TS) resulting in ridges on the adaxial leaf surface
(Fig. 2B) but not on the phloem side. Midvein in
Aplectrum, Cremastra, and Govenia is subtended
opposite phloem by a massive cluster of sclerenchyma
cells creating a pronounced keel (Fig. 2B). Vascular
bundles in Calypso not associated with sclerenchyma;
in Tipularia sclerenchyma is associated only with the
xylem. STEGMATA absent from Aplectrum, Calypso,
and Tipularia but present in Cremastra and Govenia.
Conical, rough-surfaced silica bodies in stegmata
occur along sclerenchyma opposite xylem and phloem
in Cremastra, along phloem sclerenchyma only in
Govenia, and associated with fiber bundles in G.
tingens. Bundle sheath cells circular, thin-walled, and
chloroplast-bearing in all taxa; chloroplasts do not
occur in some bundle sheath cells of Calypso.

STEM Subterranean storage, perennating, and
connective organs (rhizomes) several in Calypsoeae,
as noted by Freudenstein (2005), and represented in
our research materials. These organs correspond to
cauline structure in that vascular bundles, containing
adnate strands of xylem and phloem, are associated in
a usually parenchymatous matrix. They are arranged
in different configurations in contrast with root
morphology where conductive tissues are typically
concentrated in a central vascular cylinder. There
are a rhizome and corm in Aplectrum and Cremastra
and a corm in Calypso, Govenia, and Tipularia. The
organizational pattern of each organ is described
separately for each taxon.

Aplectrum rhizome HAIRS none. STOMATA
present, superficial, substomatal chamber large.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universdad de Costa Rica, 2008.








STERN & CARLSWARD -Vegetative anatomy of Calypsoeae


FIGURE 3. T-S underground stem. A. Aplectrum hyemale corm with starch grains in smaller, nucleated, assimilatory cells and
larger enucleate, water-storage cells under polarized light. Scale bar= 100 [mu. B. Calypso bulbosa corm bearing two-
celled hairs. Scale bar = 50 [mu. C. Cremastra appendiculata rhizome with excrescences bearing tufts of unicellular
hairs. Scale bar = 100 [m. D. Cremastra appendiculata corm, vascular bundles surrounded by an endodermis. Scale


bar= 100 unm.

CUTICLE smooth to rugose, 2.5 jim thick.
EPIDERMAL CELLS mostly isodiametric, subtended
by a uniseriate HYPODERMIS in some areas; cells
larger than epidermal cells but smaller than ground
tissue cells. CORTEX none. ENDODERMIS
discontinuous around the vascular cylinder;
cells isodiametric, entirely thin-walled, lacking
intercellular spaces; there are possibly Casparian
strips. Presence of a PERICYCLE is questionable.
GROUND TISSUE cells thin-walled, circular,
oval, and variably shaped; cruciate starch grains in
assimilatory cells; thin-walled, circular; enucleate
water-storage cells scattered about, intercellular
spaces triangular (Fig. 3A). Twenty-five to 30 widely
separated VASCULAR BUNDLES distributed within
the endodermis surrounded by a parenchymatous
matrix of thin-walled, nucleated, small angular cells
lacking intercellular spaces. SCLERENCHYMA and
STEGMATA absent.
Aplectrum corm HAIRS and STOMATA none.
CUTICLE absent. EPIDERMAL CELLS isodiametric.
CORTEX two or three cells wide; cells variably shaped.
ENDODERMIS and PERICYCLE absent. GROUND
TISSUE with numerous, circular, and elliptical, large
enucleate water-storage cells surrounded by much


smaller, variably shaped, numerous assimilatory
cells with cruciate starch grains. Intercellular spaces
triangular. VASCULAR BUNDLES many, collateral,
widely scattered; xylem unitary, binary, trinary in each
bundle. SCLERENCHYMA and STEGMATA none.

Calypso corm HAIRS two-celled, thick-
walled, apical cell clavate, darkly-staining (Fig.
3B). STOMATA absent. CUTICLE smooth, 5.0 jim
thick. EPIDERMAL CELLS squarish, isodiametric.
HYPODERMIS uniseriate, cells tending toward
periclinal. CORTEX, ENDODERMIS, PERICYCLE
absent. GROUND TISSUE cells with thick and thin
walls, oval, angular and circular; larger, enucleate
water-storage cells and smaller, nucleated assimilatory
cells lacking starch grains; intercellular spaces few.
VASCULAR BUNDLES many, collateral, widely
scattered. Xylem arcuate in some bundles, phloem
centered in the arms of the arc. SCLERENCHYMA
and STEGMATA none.

Cremastra rhizome HAIRS emerge as tufts of
unicellular strands from raised, truncate, pyramidal,
multicellular cushions along the periphery of the stem
(Fig. 3C). STOMATAand CUTICLE indistinguishable.
EPIDERMAL CELLS squarish, isodiametric.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 200& 0 Unlversidad de Costa Rica, 2008.








LANKESTERIANA


CORTEX many cells wide; cells crowded, various,
angular, oval, circular, irregular; walls thickish;
water-storage cells circular, empty. Cruciate starch
grains in assimilatory cells. ENDODERMAL CELLS
surrounding vascular bundles, entirely thin-walled,
rectangular, square, some roundish, isodiametric,
with Casparian strips (Fig. 3D). PERICYCLE
discontinuous, cells like endodermal cells without
Casparian strips. GROUND TISSUE of oval and
angular thin- and thick-walled parenchyma cells.
VASCULAR TISSUE organized as an irregular series
of discontinuous arcs in which collateral vascular
bundles are interspersed. SCLERENCHYMA and
STEGMATA absent.
Cremastra corm HAIRS and STOMATA absent.
CUTICLE none. EPIDERMAL CELLS periclinal.
ENDODERMAL CELLS angular, thin-walled,
surrounding each vascular bundle. GROUND TISSUE
with larger, almost circular, empty, water-storage cells
and smaller, thin-walled, oval and variously shaped,
assimilatory cells containing cruciate starch grains;
intercellular spaces tiny, triangular, and various.
VASCULAR BUNDLES many, collateral, scattered.
SCLERENCHYMA and STEGMATA absent.

Govenia superba corm HAIRS and CUTICLE
absent. STOMATA present in G. tingens, subtended
by small substomatal chambers. EPIDERMAL
CELLS isodiametric. CORTEX, ENDODERMIS,
PERICYCLE none. GROUND TISSUE: Large
numbers of wide, circular, thin-walled water-storage
cells surrounded by much smaller, thin-walled, oval,
rectangular, square, and variously shaped assimilatory
cells lacking starch grains. VASCULAR BUNDLES
collateral, many, scattered. SCLERENCHYMA and
STEGMATA absent.

Tipularia corm HAIRS, STOMATA, and
CUTICLE absent. EPIDERMAL CELLS isodiametric.
CORTEX, ENDODERMIS, and PERICYCLE none.
GROUND TISSUE of larger, circular, thick-walled
water-storage cells and much smaller, irregularly
shaped assimilatory cells with cruciate starch grains.
Intercellular spaces absent. VASCULAR BUNDLES
collateral, many, scattered. SCLERENCHYMA and
STEGMATA absent.


ROOT VELAMEN one cell layer wide inAplectrum
(Fig. 4A) and Govenia, one or two cell layers wide
in Cremastra, two cell layers wide in Calypso (Fig.
4B), four cell layers wide in Tipularia (Fig. 4C).
Cells thin-walled without secondary thickenings,
isodiametric in Aplectrum, Govenia, Cremastra, and
Tipularia; epivelamen cells periclinal, endovelamen
cells isodiametric in Calypso. Unicellular hairs present
in all taxa. TILOSOMES absent. EXODERMAL
CELLS square and polygonal to anticlinal, thin-walled
throughout; passage cells intermittent. CORTEX up to
10 cells wide inAplectrum, 8-10 cells wide in Calypso,
7 cells wide in Cremastra, 7-9 cells wide in Govenia,
and 7 or 8 cells wide in Tipularia; cells thin-walled.
Hyphae, dead cell masses, or clots, and pelotons occur
in cortices of all taxa (Fig. 4D) except Cremastra
and Govenia tingens. ENDODERMAL CELLS
isodiametric, rectangular in Cremastra, periclinal in
Govenia tingens, entirely thin-walled, Casparian strips
inAplectrum and Tipularia. PERICYCLE CELLS thin-
walled throughout, mostly isodiametric, smaller than
endodermal cells. VASCULAR CYLINDER 9-arch
in Aplectrum, 3-arch in Calypso (Fig. 4D), 5-arch in
Cremastra, 6-arch in Govenia, 4-arch in Tipularia.
Xylem in short rays; cells clustered in Govenia; several
intramedullary xylem clusters in Aplectrum; xylem
alternates with groups of phloem cells. Vascular tissue
embedded in thin-walled sclerenchyma or thick-walled
parenchyma. PITH parenchymatous, sometimes with
thick walls inAplectrum; cells polygonal, intercellular
spaces absent.

Discussion

Aplectrum stands alone among Calypsoeae, owing
to its combination of amphistomatal leaves, lack
of foliar hairs, and absence of stegmata. Calypso,
too, is unique with its exclusively anomocytic
stomatal apparatuses, absence of vascular bundle
sclerenchyma and lack of stegmata. Corallorhiza and
Wullschlaegelia are characterized by their leaflessness
and subterranean habit. Govenia tingens lacks foliar
hairs and is the only taxon studied with foliar fiber
bundles lined with stegmata. Wullschlaegelia has roots
of two distinct kinds, fusiform and filiform. The latter
lack a velamen. Cremastra lacks hairs on leaves but


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2008.








STERN & CARLSWARD -Vegetative anatomy of Calypsoeae


'Ad %I .MW ..S: r am
FIGURE 4. T-S root. A. Aplectrum hyemale with one-cell wide velamen. B. Calypso bulbosa with two-cell-wide velamen.
C. Tipularia discolor with four-cell-wide velamen. Scale bars= 50 [mu. D. Calypso bulbosa. T-S root, cortical cells
with hyphal pelotons and dead hyphal masses. Triarch vascular cylinder. Scale bar 100 [Em.


has tufts of unicellular hairs that arise from cushions
along the rhizome.
Cremastra, Govenia, and Tipularia have abaxial
tetracytic stomata; Calypso has mostly abaxial, and a
few adaxial anomocytic stomatal apparatuses. Foliar
hairs are present on both surfaces in Calypso, Govenia
superba, and Tipularia. A foliar hypodermis occurs in
Aplectrum and Tipularia. Sclerenchyma appears along
both xylem and phloem sides of vascular bundles in
Aplectrum, Cremastra, and Govenia, but only on the
xylem side in Tipularia. Govenia and Tipularia have
the largest stomatal dimensions; measurements for the
other taxa are substantially smaller (Table 2).
Freudenstein (2005) suggested that the appearance
of winter leaves in Aplectrum and Tipularia may be
evidence of a close relationship between these two
genera. Indeed, among the taxa studied, only these


two are represented by a foliar hypodermis consisting
of enlarged, thin-walled, globose or expanded
cells with chloroplasts. Evert (2006) observed that
cells of the inner layer (s) of a multiple epidermis
(i.e., a hypodermis) commonly contain few or no
chloroplasts. Indeed, the cells of hypodermises
sometimes appear to lack contents entirely, especially
when they serve as water-storage cells. In the
cases of winter leaves of Aplectrum and Tipularia,
however, the hypodermal cells are chlorophyllous,
especially in Tipularia. The hypotheses that establish
two groups of genera in Calypsoeae, based upon
origins of the pollen stipes and presence of spurred
lips, cannot be substantiated by vegetative anatomy.
Dressler's Wullschlaegelieae (1980) and Lindley's
Corallorhizidae (1853) are groupings more congruent
with our findings.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2008.









LANKESTERIANA


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. The authors thank Kenton L.
Chambers, Oregon State University, for the superb specimen
of Calypso bulbosa that he provided for our research.
For various facilities and use of research equipment, we
acknowledge with appreciation George Bowes and the
Department of Botany, University of Florida. David Lee,
formerly of Florida International University, provided
laboratory space for the early phases of this research. The
Kampong of the National Tropical Botanical Garden in
Coconut Grove, Florida, provided laboratory room. Finally,
we'd like to thank Alec Pridgeon, an anonymous reviewer,
and J. Richard Abbott for their help with the manuscript.



LITERATURE CITED
Brummitt, R. K. & C. E. Powell. 1992. Authors of plant
names. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Campbell, E. O. 1970. The fungal association of Yoania
australis. Trans. Roy. Soc. New Zealand 12: 5-12.
Carlsward, B. S. & W. L. Stern. 2008. Corallorhiza, a
rootless, leafless terrestrial. Orchid Rev. 116: 334-339.
Cutler, D. F. 1978. Appliedplant anatomy. Longman Group
Ltd., London.
Dressier, R. L. 1980. Orchideas hu6rfanas I. Wullschlaegelia
una nueva tribu Wullschlaegelieae. Orquidea (M6x.) 7:
277-282.
Dressier, R. L. 1981. The orchids: natural history and
hi.,,....,i..,' Harvard University Press, Cambridge,
Massachusetts.
Evert, R. F. 2006. Esau's plant anatomy. John Wiley &
Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey.


Freudenstein, J. V. 2005. Tribe Calypsoeae. In: A. M.
Pridgeon, P J. Cribb, M.W. Chase, & F. Rasmussen [eds.],
Genera Orchidacearum. Volume 4. Epidendroideae
(Part one). Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Holm, T. 1904. The root structure of North American
Orchideae. Amer. J. Sc., series 4 18: 197-212.
Johow, F. 1885. Die chlorophyllfreien Humusbewohner
West-Indians, biologisch-morphologisch dargestellt.
Jahrb. Wissensch. Bot. 16: 415-449.
Lindley, J. 1853. The vegetable kingdom. Bradbury &
Evans, London.
Moller, J. D. & H. Rasmussen. 1984. Stegmata in
Orchidales: character state distribution and polarity.
Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 89: 53-76.
Porembski, S. & W. Barthlott. 1988. Velamen radicum
micromorphology and classification of Orchidaceae.
Nordic J. Bot. 8: 117-137.
Pridgeon, A. M., W. L. Stern & D. H. Benzing. 1983.
Tilosomes in roots of Orchidaceae: morphology and
systematic occurrence. Amer. J. Bot. 70: 1365-1377.
Solereder, H. & F. J. Meyer. 1930. SystematischeAnatomie
der Monokotyledonen. VI. Scitamineae-Microspermae.
Verlag von Gebrfider Borntrtiger, Berlin.
Stern, W. L. 1999. Comparative vegetative anatomy
of two saprophytic orchids from tropical America:
Wullschlaegelia and Uleiorchis. Lindleyana 14: 136-
146.
Stern, W. L. & B. S. Carlsward. 2006. Comparative
vegetative anatomy and systematics of Oncidiinae
(Maxillareae, Orchidaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 152: 91-
107.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universdad de Costa Rica, 200&








IANKESTERIANA8(3): 113. 2008.


BOOK REVIEW



Alrich, P. & W.E. Higgins. 2008. The Marie Selby Botanical Garden Illustrated Dictionary
of Orchid Genera. Comstock Publishing Association.


As I am listed as one of the editors of this dictionary,
I should, perhaps, be disqualified as a reviewer. In my
defense, I reviewed an early version of the manuscript,
and it has clearly grown and evolved a great deal since
I last checked over the list of names.
The authors estimate that there are about 850
accepted generic names treated here, but synonyms,
orthographic variants, and names published before
1753 bring the Dictionary to more than three times
that number. The casual reader might prefer a shorter
treatment of the 850 or so valid and accepted names.
Some names published before 1753 and never used
again are of merely historical interest (if that). However,
our understanding of orchid classification is constantly
changing with the growth of molecular systematics
(analysis of DNA) and continuing study using various
other techniques. No one can say which of the validly
published names we now consider synonyms may
eventually prove to represent distinct groups in need
of their own names. By including every generic orchid
name or variant ever published (as nearly as is humanly
possible), the authors have produced a book that will
continue to be useful for many years.

LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Unversidad de Costa Rica, 2008.


To aid the reader, the validly published names
that represent currently accepted genera (from Aa to
Zygostates) are dark green, while paler green is used
for validly published names that are not currently in
use, and dark purple represents "superfluous" names,
orthographic variants are shown in lilac, names
published before 1753 are printed in brown, and the
few names that (may) represent fossil orchid genera
are shown in blue. Further the currently accepted or
validly published names are each illustrated by a
colored image of a flower.
The Dictionary includes an informative profile of
the family Orchidaceae by D. H. Benzing, a list of
selected references and a list of orchid taxonomists,
from Ackerman to Zollinger, a very useful list of
book/periodical abbreviations, a brief summary of
nomenclatural rules, and a glossary.
The Dictionary is attractive and informative, and
should continue to be very useful for many years to
come.


Robert L. Dressler
Lankester Botanical Garden









LANKESTERIANA








LANKESTERIANA8(3) 115-126 2008


INDEX OF NEW TAXA AND COMBINATIONS

PUBLISHED IN LANKESTERIANA, VOL. 1-8


BASIDIOMYCOTA
SEPTOBASIDIACEAE
Septobasidium alni Torrend var. brasiliense Couch, var. nov.
Septobasidium alni Torrend var. squamosum Couch, var. nov.
Septobasidium alveomarginatum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium apiculatum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium boedijnii Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium boedijnii Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium burtii Lloyd var. acerinum Couch, var. nov.
Septobasidium burtii Lloyd var. acerinum Couch, var. nov.
Septobasidium carestianum Bres. var. natalense Couch, var. nov.
Septobasidium carestianum Bres. var. natalense Couch, var. nov.
Septobasidium cervicolor Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium cervicolor Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium cokeri Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium conidiophorum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium cremeum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium crustaceum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium cupressi Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium elatostemae Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidiumficicolum Pat. ex Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium flit 7onl' Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidiumformosense Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium fragile Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidiumfusco-cinereum Bresadola ex Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidiumfuscum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium grandispinosum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium grandisporum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium griseopurpureum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium griseum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium hakgalanum Couch & Petch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium hesleri Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium heveae Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium indigophorum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium irregulare Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium lacunosum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium lagerheimii Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium lepidosaphis Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium leprosum Couch, sp. nov.


4(1): 77. 2004.
4(1): 77. 2004.
4(1): 77. 2004.
4(1): 77. 2004.
4(1): 78. 2004.
4(1): 78. 2004.
4(1): 78. 2004.
4(1): 78. 2004.
4(1): 78. 2004.
4(1): 78. 2004.
4(1): 78. 2004.
4(1): 78. 2004.
4(1): 80. 2004.
4(1): 80. 2004.
4(1): 80. 2004.
4(1): 80. 2004.
4(1): 81. 2004.
4(1): 81. 2004.
4(1): 81. 2004.
4(1): 81. 2004.
4(1): 82. 2004.
4(1): 82. 2004.
4(1): 82. 2004.
4(1): 82. 2004.
4(1): 82. 2004.
4(1): 83. 2004.
4(1): 83. 2004.
4(1): 83. 2004.
4(1): 83. 2004.
4(1): 84. 2004.
4(1): 84. 2004.
4(1): 84. 2004.
4(1): 84. 2004.
4(1): 84. 2004.
4(1): 84. 2004.
4(1): 84. 2004.
4(1): 84. 2004.








LANKESTERIANA


Septobasidium lilacinoalbum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium linden Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium macadamiae Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium mariani (Bres. ex Sacc.) Bres. var. japonicum Couch, var. nov.
Septobasidium molle Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium muelleri Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium myrsinae Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium natalense Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium pachydermum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium pallidum Couch, sp. nov. sp. nov.
Septobasidium peckii Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium perforatum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium petchii Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium philippinense Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium piperis P. Henn. ex Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium prunophilum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium punctatum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium reikingii Pat. ex Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium rickii Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium rimulosum Petch & Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium rugulosum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium sabalis Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium sabalis-minoris Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium scabiosum Couch & Petch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium schizostachyi Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium sclerotioides Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium separans Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium simmondsii Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium sinense Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium sinuosum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium stevensonii Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium stratosum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium subcarbonaceum (Berk. & Br.) Couch, comb. nov.
Septobasidium sydowii Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium taxodii Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium tenue Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium tomentosum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium ugandae Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium verrucosum Couch, sp. nov.
Septobasidium westonii Couch, sp. nov.


4(1): 86. 2004.
4(1): 86. 2004.
4(1): 86. 2004.
4(1): 86. 2004.
4(1): 87. 2004.
4(1): 87. 2004.
4(1): 87. 2004.
4(1): 87. 2004.
4(1): 88. 2004.
4(1): 88. 2004.
4(1): 88. 2004.
4(1): 88. 2004.
4(1): 89. 2004.
4(1): 89. 2004.
4(1): 89. 2004.
4(1): 89. 2004.
4(1): 90. 2004.
4(1): 90. 2004.
4(1): 90. 2004.
4(1): 90. 2004.
4(1): 90. 2004.
4(1): 90. 2004.
4(1): 90. 2004.
4(1): 90. 2004.
4(1): 91. 2004
4(1): 92. 2004.
4(1): 92. 2004.
4(1): 92. 2004.
4(1): 92. 2004.
4(1): 93. 2004.
4(1): 93. 2004.
4(1): 93. 2004.
4(1): 93. 2004.
4(1): 94. 2004.
4(1): 94. 2004.
4(1): 94. 2004.
4(1): 94. 2004.
4(1): 95. 2004.
4(1): 95. 2004.
4(1): 95. 2004.


LYCOPHYTA


5(2): 110.2005.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2008.


LYCOPODIACEAE
Huperzia oellgaardii A. Rojas, sp. nov.








Index of taxa and combinations


PTERYDOPHYTA


BLECHNACEAE
Blechnum fuscosquamosum A. Rojas, sp. nov.


CYATHEACEAE
Cnemidaria chiricana (Maxon) R.M. Tryon var. contigua (Underw. ex Maxon)A. Rojas, var. nov.
Cyathea povedae A. Rojas, sp. nov.
Cyathea x smithiana A. Rojas. nothosp. nov.

DRYOPTERIDACEAE
Polybotrya aureisquama A. Rojas, sp. nov.
Polybotrya insularis A. Rojas, sp. nov.
Tectaria dressleriA. Rojas, sp. nov.
Tectaria x chaconiana A. Rojas, nothosp. nov.

GRAMMITIDACEAE
Enterosora bishopii A. Rojas, sp. nov.
Enterosora enterosoroides (H. Christ) A. Rojas, comb. nov.
Lellingeria brenesii A. Rojas, sp. nov.
Lellingeria pinnata A. Rojas, sp. nov.
Terpsichore glandulifera A. Rojas, sp. nov.

HYMENOPHYLLACEAE
Hymenophyllum talamancanum A. Rojas, sp. nov.

LOMARIOPSIDACEAE
Elaphoglossum lenticulatum A. Rojas, sp. nov.

LYCOPODIACEAE
Huperzia oellgaardii A. Rojas, sp. nov.


POLYPODIACEAE
Campyloneurum gracile A. Rojas, sp. nov.


SCHIZAEACEAE
Anetium citrifolium (L.) Splitg. var. pendulum (Leprieur in Fee) L.D. Gomez, var. nov.


5(1): 49. 2005.


5(3): 191.2005.
5(3): 192. 2005.
5(3): 195. 2005.


7(3): 558. 2007.
7(3): 560. 2007.
6(1): 15. 2006.
4(2): 149. 2004.


6(1): 9. 2006.
6(1): 11. 2006.
7(3): 553. 2007.
6(3): 95. 2006.
6(3): 96. 2006.


4(2): 143. 2004.


5(3): 185. 2005.


5(2): 110. 2005.


5(1): 41. 2005.


6(1): 6. 2006.


SPERMATOPHYTA


ACANTHACEAE
Justicia chaconii G6mez-Laur, sp. nov.


APOCYNACEAE
Allotoonia woodsoniana (Monac.) J.F. Morales & J.K. Williams, comb. nov.


ASTERACEAE
Neomirandea pendulissima Al. Rodr, sp. nov.


CANELLACEAE
Pleodendron costaricense N. Zamora, Hammel & R. Aguilar, sp. nov.


6(3): 155. 2006.


5(2): 119.2005.


5(3): 207. 2005.


5(3): 211. 2005.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2008.








LANKESTERIANA


DICHAPETALACEAE
Dichapetalum inopinatum Al. Rodr. & Kriebel, sp. nov.
Dichapetalum reliquum Kriebel & Al. Rodr, sp. nov.

FABACEAE-CAESALPINIACEAE
Swartzia maquenqueana N. Zamora & D. Solano, sp. nov.

GESNERIACEAE
Drymonia glandulosa Kriebel, sp. nov.
Drymonia tomentulifera Kriebel, sp. nov.

LAMIACEAE
Ruyschia moralesii Hammel, sp. nov.

LAURACEAE
Licaria leonis G6mez-Laur. & Estrada, sp. nov.


5(2): 127. 2005.
5(2): 135. 2005.


6(3): 133. 2006.


5(1): 81.2005.
6(2): 44. 2006.


6(2): 75. 2006.


3: 5. 2002.


LENTIBULARIACEAE
Utricularia uxoris G6mez-Laur., sp. nov.


5(2): 137. 2005.


6(2): 73. 2006.
6(2): 76. 2006.


6(3): 102. 2006.
6(3): 103. 2006.
6(3): 105. 2006.
6(3): 106. 2006.
6(3): 107. 2006.
6(3): 109.2006.
6(3): 110.2006.
6(3): 111. 2006.
6(3): 113. 2006.
6(3): 115. 2006.


MARCGRAVIACEAE
Marcgravia glandulosomarginata Hammel, sp. nov.
Schwartzia tarrazuensis Hammel, sp. nov.

MELIACEAE
Guarea adenophylla Al Rodr., sp. nov.
Guarea aguilarii Al. Rodr., sp. nov.
Guarea ciliata Al. Rodr., sp. nov.
Guarea constricta Al. Rodr., sp. nov.
Guarea corticosa Al. Rodr., sp. nov.
Guarea inesiana Al Rodr., sp. nov.
Guarea macrocalyx Al. Rodr., sp. nov.
Guarea montana Al. Rodr., sp. nov.
Guarea pilosa Al. Rodr., sp. nov.
Guarea tafae-malekui Al. Rodr., sp. nov.

MORACEAE
Ficus lasiosyce J. A. Gonzalez & Poveda, sp. nov.

MYRTACEAE
Eugenia earthiana P.E. Sanchez, sp. nov.
Plinia cuspidata G6mez-Laur. & Valverde, sp. nov.

ORCHIDACEAE
Acianthera aberrans Pupulin & Bogarin, comb. nov.
Aetheorhyncha Dressier, gen. nov.
Aetheorhyncha andreettae (Jenny) Dressier, comb. nov.
Benzingia caudata (Ackerman) Dressier, comb. nov.

LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2008.


8: 13.2003.


4(3): 179. 2004.
3: 11.2002.


8(2): 53. 2008.
5(2): 94. 2005.
5(2): 95. 2005.
5(2): 93. 2005.








Index of taxa and combinations


Benzingia comuta (Garay) Dressier, comb. nov.
Benzingia estradae (Dodson) Dodson, comb. nov.
Benzingia hajekii (D.E. Benn. & Christenson) Dressier, comb. nov.
Benzingiajarae (D.E.Benn. & Christenson) Dressier, comb. nov.
Benzingia palorae (Dodson & Hirtz) Dressier, comb. nov.
Benzingia reichenbachiana (Schltr.) Dressier, comb. nov.
Camaridium altlaoi (Ames & C. Schweinf.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium allenii (L. O. Williams) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium amabile (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium uiiiplitloi miii (C. Schweinf.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium anceps (Rchb.f.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium atratum (Lex.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium aurantiacum (Schltr.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium bomboizense (Dodson) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium brevilabium (Ames & Correll) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium burgeri (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium campanulatum (C. Schweinf.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium carinulatum (Rchb. f.) M.A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium cedralense (J. T. Atwood & Mora-Ret.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium cucullatum (Lindl.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium densum (Lindl.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridiumfalcatum (Ames & Correll) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridiumfragrans (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium gomezianum (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium grisebachianum (Nir & Dod) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium haberi (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium hagsaterianum (Soto Arenas) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium horichii (Senghas) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium inauditum (Rchb.f) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium insolitum (Dressier) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium lankesteri (Ames) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium longicolumna (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium lutheri (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium meleagris (Lindl.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium micranthum M. A. Blanco, nom nov.
Camaridium microphyton (Schltr.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium mombachoense (A. H. Heller ex J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium monteverdense (J. T. Atwood & G. Barboza) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium neglectum (Schltr.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium obscurum (Linden & Rchb.f) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium oestlundianum (L. O. Williams) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium paleatum (Rchb.f.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium praestans (Rchb.f.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.


5(2): 93. 2005.
5(2): 93. 2005.
5(2): 93. 2005.
5(2): 93. 2005.
5(2): 93. 2005.
5(2): 93. 2005.
7(3): 519. 2007.
7(3): 519. 2007.
7(3): 519. 2007.
7(3): 519. 2007.
7(3): 519. 2007.
7(3): 519. 2007.
7(3): 519. 2007.
7(3): 519. 2007.
7(3): 519. 2007.
7(3): 519. 2007.
7(3): 520. 2007.
8(1): 15. 2008.
7(3): 520. 2007.
7(3): 520. 2007.
7(3): 520. 2007.
7(3): 520. 2007.
7(3): 520. 2007.
7(3): 520. 2007.
7(3): 520. 2007.
7(3): 520. 2007.
7(3): 520. 2007.
7(3): 520. 2007.
7(3): 520. 2007.
7(3): 520. 2007.
7(3): 520. 2007.
7(3): 520. 2007.
7(3): 520. 2007.
7(3): 520. 2007.
7(3): 520. 2007.
7(3): 520. 2007.
7(3): 520. 2007.
7(3): 521.2007.
7(3): 521.2007.
7(3): 521.2007.
7(3): 521.2007.
7(3): 521.2007.
7(3): 521.2007.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2008.








LANKESTERIANA


Camaridium pygmaeum M. A. Blanco, nom nov.
Camaridium ramonense (Schltr.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium rhombeum (Lindl.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium scalariforme (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium sigmoideum (C. Schweinf.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium soconuscanum (Breedlove & D. Mally) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium standleyi M. A. Blanco, nom. nov.
Camaridium stenophyllum (Schltr.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium strumatum (Endres & Rchb.f.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium suaveolens (Barringer) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium synsepalum (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium tigrinum (C. Schweinf.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium tricarinatum (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium tuberculare (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium tutae (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium vaginale (Rchb.f.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium valerioi (Ames & C. Schweinf.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Camaridium 1 i "i., IIr. -1-I,,, (L. 0. Williams) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Chondroscaphe endresii (Schltr.) Dressier, comb. nov.
Christensonella cepula (Rchb.f.) S. Koehler, comb. nov.
Christensonella neowiedii (Rchb.f.) S. Koehler, comb. nov.
Christensonella pacholskii (Christenson) S. Koehler, comb. nov.
Christensonella squamata (Barb. Rodr.) Carnevali, comb. nov.
Coryanthes kaiseriana G. Gerlach, sp. nov.
Coryanthes maduroana G. Gerlach, sp. nov.
Cryptocentrum Benth. subgenus Anthosiphon (Schltr.) Camevali, comb. et stat. nov.
Dendrophylax monteverdi (Rchb.f.) Ackerman & Nir, comb. nov.
Dichaea elliptica Dressier & Folsom, sp. nov.
Echinella vittata (Pupulin & M.A. Blanco) Pupulin, comb. nov.
Echinorhyncha antonii (Ortiz) Dressier, comb. nov.
Echinorhyncha Dressier, gen. nov.
Echinorhyncha ecuadorensis (Dodson) Dressier, comb. nov.
Echinorhyncha litensis (Dodson) Dressier, comb. nov.
Echinorhyncha vollesii (Gerlach, Neudecker & Seeger) Dressier, comb. nov.
Echinosepala vittata (Pupulin & M.A. Blanco) C.O. Murales & N. Villal., comb. nov.
Elleanthus ligularis Dressier & Bogarin, sp. nov.
Encyclia cajalbanensis Mujica, Bocourt & Pupulin, sp. nov.
Encyclia monteverdensis M. A. Diaz & Ackerman, sp. nov.
Epidendrum cancanae (POrtiz) Hagsater, comb. nov.
Epidendrumfuscinum (Dressier) Hagsater, comb. nov.
Epidendrum macdougalli (Hagsater) Hagsater, comb. nov.
Epidendrum misasii Hagsater, nom nov.
Epidendrum montis-narae Pupulin & L. Sanchez S., sp. nov.


7(3): 521. 2007.
7(3): 521. 2007.
7(3): 521. 2007.
7(3): 521. 2007.
7(3): 521. 2007.
7(3): 521.2007.
7(3): 521.2007.
7(3): 521.2007.
7(3): 521.2007.
7(3): 521. 2007.
7(3): 521. 2007.
7(3): 521. 2007.
7(3): 522. 2007.
7(3): 522. 2007.
7(3): 522. 2007.
7(3): 522. 2007.
7(3): 522. 2007.
7(3): 522. 2007.
3: 28. 2002.
7(3): 522. 2007.
7(3): 522. 2007.
7(3): 522. 2007.
7(3): 523. 2007.
8: 23. 2003.
4(1): 70. 2004.
7(3): 543. 2007.
4(1): 53. 2004.
3: 25. 2002.
4: 17. 2002.
5(2): 94. 2005.
5(2): 94. 2005.
5(2): 94. 2005.
5(2): 94. 2005.
5(2): 94. 2005.
4(3): 202. 2004.
7(3): 539. 2007.
4(3): 211. 2004.
4(1): 50. 2004.
5(1): 73. 2005.
5(1): 73. 2005.
5(1): 74. 2005.
5(1): 74. 2005.
1: 7. 2001.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2008.








Index of taxa and combinations


Epidendrum paruimense G. A. Romero & Camevali, sp. nov.
Epidendrum parviexasperatum (Higsater) Hagsater, comb. nov.
Epidendrum stolidium Hagsater, nom. nov.
Epidendrum x monteverdense (Pupulin & Hagsater) Hagsater, comb. nov.
Epidendrum zunigae Hagsater, Karremans & Bogarin, sp. nov.
Euryblema Dressier, gen. nov.
Euryblema anatonum (Dressier) Dressier, comb. nov.
Euryblema andreae (Ortiz) Dressier, comb. nov.
Govenia viaria Dressier, sp. nov.
Guarianthe Dressier & W.E. Higgins, gen. nov.
Guarianthe aurantiaca (Bateman ex Lindl.) Dressier & W.E. Higgins, comb. nov.
Guarianthe bowringiana (Veitch) Dressier & W.E. Higgins, comb. nov.
Guarianthe patinii (Cogn.) Dressier & W.E. Higgins, comb. nov.
Guarianthe skinneri (Bateman) Dressier & W.E. Higgins, comb. nov.
Inti M. A. Blanco, gen. nov.
Inti bicallosa (Rchb.f.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Inti chartacifolia (Ames & C. Schweinf.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Ixyophora Dressier, gen. nov.
Ixyophora aurantiaca (Senghas & Gerlach) Dressier, comb. nov.
Ixyophora carinata (Ortiz) Dressier, comb. nov.
Ixyophora viridisepala (Senghas) Dressier, comb. nov.
Lankesterella glandula Ackerman, sp. nov.
Lepanthes gerardensis M.A. Blanco, sp. nov.
Lycaste bruncana Bogarin, sp. nov.
Malaxis brevis Dressier, sp. nov.
Malaxis insperata Dressier, sp. nov.
Malaxis rostratula Dressier, sp. nov.
Malaxis triangularis Dressier, sp. nov.
Mapinguari Camevali & R. Singer, gen. nov.
Mapinguari auyantepuiensis (Foldats) Camevali & R. Singer, comb. nov.
Mapinguari desvauxianus (Rchb.f.) Camevali & R. Singer, comb. nov.
Mapinguarifoldatsianus (Camevali & I. Ramirez) Camevali & R. Singer, comb. nov.
Mapinguari longipetiolatus (Ames & C. Schweinf.) Camevali & R. Singer, comb. nov.
Masdevallia vilcabambensis L. Valenz. & Suclli, sp. nov.
Maxillariella M. A. Blanco & Camevali, gen. nov.
Maxillariella acervata (Rchb.f) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella alba (Hook.f.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella anceps (Ames & C. Schweinf.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella appendiculoides (C. Schweinf.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella arbuscula (Lindl.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella brevifolia (Lindl.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella caespitifica (Rchb.f.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella cassapensis (Rchb.f) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.


4(3): 229. 2004.
5(1): 74. 2005.
5(1): 74. 2005.
5(1): 74. 2005.
8(2): 63. 2008.
5(2): 94. 2005.
5(2): 94. 2005.
5(2): 94. 2005.
3: 26. 2002.
7: 37. 2003.
7: 38. 2003.
7: 38. 2003.
7: 38. 2003.
7: 38. 2003.
7(3): 524. 2007.
7(3): 524. 2007.
7(3): 524. 2007.
5(2): 95. 2005.
5(2): 95. 2005.
5(2): 95. 2005.
5(2): 95. 2005.
4(1): 49. 2004.
8: 19. 2003.
7(3): 543. 2007.
4(1): 97. 2004.
4(1): 97. 2004.
4(1): 97. 2004.
4(1): 97. 2004.
7(3): 525. 2007.
7(3): 525. 2007.
7(3): 525. 2007.
7(3): 525. 2007.
7(3): 525. 2007.
8(1): 17. 2008.
7(3): 527. 2007.
7(3): 528. 2007.
7(3): 528. 2007.
7(3): 528. 2007.
7(3): 528. 2007.
7(3): 528. 2007.
7(3): 528. 2007.
7(3): 528. 2007.
7(3): 528. 2007.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2008.








LANKESTERIANA


Maxillariella caucana (Schltr.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella cobanensis (Schltr.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella costaricensis (Schltr.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella curtipes (Hook.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella densifolia (Poepp. & Endl.) M. A. Blanco & Carnevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella diutuma (Ames & C. Schweinf.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella elatior (Rchb.f.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella estradae (Dodson) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariellafunicaulis (C. Schweinf.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella graminifolia (Kunth) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella guareimensis (Rchb.f) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella houtteana (Rchb.f.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella infausta (Rchb.f) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella lawrenceana (Rolfe) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella linearifolia (Ames & C. Schweinf) M. A. Blanco & Carnevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella longibracteata (Lindl.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella luteorubra (F. Lehm. & Kraenzl.) M. A. Blanco & Carnevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella mexicana (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella microdendron (Schltr.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella nitidula (Rchb.f.) M. A. Blanco & Carnevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella oreocharis (Schltr.) M. A. Blanco & Carnevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariellapardalina (Garay) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella pastensis (Rchb.f) M. A. Blanco & Carnevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariellaponerantha (Rchb.f.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella procurrens (Lindl.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariellaprolifera (Sw.) M. A. Blanco & Carnevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariellapurpurata (Lindl.) M. A. Blanco & Carnevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella robusta (Barb. Rodr.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella sanguinea (Rolfe) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella spilotantha (Rchb.f.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella stenophylla (Rchb.f. ) M. A. Blanco & Carnevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella stictantha (Schltr.) M. A. Blanco & Carnevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella tenuifolia (Lindl.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella tuerckheimii (Schltr.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella variabilis (Bateman ex Lindl.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella vinosa (Rolfe) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella vulcanica (F. Lehm. & Kraenzl.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella xyucatanensis (Camevali & R. Jimenez) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Maxillariella xanthorhoda (Schltr.) M. A. Blanco & Camevali, comb. nov.
Mormolyca at utitolia (Lindl.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Mormolyca aureoglobula (Christenson) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Mormolyca chacoensis (Dodson) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Mormolyca cleistogama (Brieger & Illg) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.


7(3): 528. 2007.
7(3): 528. 2007.
7(3): 528. 2007.
7(3): 528. 2007.
7(3): 528. 2007.
7(3): 528. 2007.
7(3): 528. 2007.
7(3): 528. 2007.
7(3): 528. 2007.
7(3): 528. 2007.
7(3): 528. 2007.
7(3): 528. 2007.
7(3): 529. 2007.
7(3): 529. 2007.
7(3): 529. 2007.
7(3): 529. 2007.
7(3): 529. 2007.
7(3): 529. 2007.
7(3): 529. 2007.
7(3): 529. 2007.
7(3): 529. 2007.
7(3): 529. 2007.
7(3): 529. 2007.
7(3): 529. 2007.
7(3): 529. 2007.
7(3): 529. 2007.
7(3): 529. 2007.
7(3): 529. 2007.
7(3): 529. 2007.
7(3): 529. 2007.
7(3): 530. 2007.
7(3): 530. 2007.
7(3): 530. 2007.
7(3): 530. 2007.
7(3): 530. 2007.
7(3): 530. 2007.
7(3): 530. 2007.
7(3): 530. 2007.
7(3): 530. 2007.
7(3): 531. 2007.
7(3): 531. 2007.
7(3): 531. 2007.
7(3): 531. 2007.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2008.








Index of taxa and combinations


Mormolyca dressleriana (Camevali & J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Mormolyca hedwigiae (Hamer & Dodson) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Mormolyca lehmanii (Rolfe) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Mormolyca moralesii (Carnevali & J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Mormolycapudica (Camevali & Tapia-Mufioz) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Mormolyca richii (Dodson) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Mormolyca rufescens (Lindl.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Mormolyca sanantonioensis (Christenson) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Mormolyca schlimii (Linden & Rchb.f.) M. A.Blanco, comb. nov.
Mormolyca sotoana (Camevali & G6mez-Juarez) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Mormolyca suarezorum (Dodson) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Mormolyca tenuibulba (Christenson) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Myoxanthus vittatus Pupulin & M.A. Blanco, sp. nov.
Oerstedella x monteverdensis Pupulin & Hagsater, sp. nov.
Oncidium zelenkoanum Dressier & Pupulin, sp. nov.
Omithidium adendrobium (Rchb.f.) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium affine (Poepp. & Endl.) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium cachacoense (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium canarense (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium condorense (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidiumfasciculatum (C. Schweinf.) M.A. Blanco & I. Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidiumfimbriatilobum (Carnevali & G. A. Romero) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium gualaquizense (Dodson) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium haemathodes (Ruiz & Pav.) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium lasallei (Foldats) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium machinazense (D. E. Benn. & Christenson) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Omithidium maldonadoense (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium mliiitritlorium (D. E. Benn. & Christenson) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium nicaraguense (Hamer & Garay) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium oxapampense (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium patellum (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium patulum (C. Schweinf.) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium pseudonubigenum (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium pustulosum (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium rauhii (D. E. Benn. & Christenson) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium repens (L. O. Williams) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium rigidum (Barb. Rodr.) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium scandens (D. E. Benn. & Christenson) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium scullianum (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium sillarense (Dodson & Vasquez) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Omithidium simplex (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco & Ojeda, comb. nov.
Palmorchis eidae Dressier, sp. nov.
Paphinia vermiculifera G. Gerlach & Dressier, sp. nov.


7(3): 531. 2007.
7(3): 531. 2007.
7(3): 531. 2007.
7(3): 531. 2007.
7(3): 531. 2007.
7(3): 531. 2007.
7(3): 531. 2007.
7(3): 531. 2007.
7(3): 531. 2007.
7(3): 531. 2007.
7(3): 531. 2007.
7(3): 531. 2007.
2: 16.2001.
8: 32. 2003.
8: 37. 2003.
7(3): 532. 2007.
7(3): 532. 2007.
7(3): 532. 2007.
7(3): 532. 2007.
7(3): 532. 2007.
8(1): 15. 2008.
7(3): 532. 2007.
7(3): 532. 2007.
7(3): 532. 2007.
7(3): 532. 2007.
7(3): 532. 2007.
7(3): 532. 2007.
7(3): 533. 2007.
7(3): 533. 2007.
7(3): 533. 2007.
7(3): 533. 2007.
7(3): 533. 2007.
7(3): 533. 2007.
7(3): 533. 2007.
7(3): 533. 2007.
7(3): 533. 2007.
7(3): 533. 2007.
7(3): 533. 2007.
7(3): 533. 2007.
7(3): 533. 2007.
7(3): 533. 2007.
3: 26. 2002.
8: 27. 2003.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. 0 Universidad de Costa Rica, 2008.








LANKESTERIANA


Pescatorea ecuadorana (Dodson) Dressier, comb. nov.
Pescatorea hemixantha (Rchb.f.) Dressier, comb. nov.
Pescatorea hirtzii (Waldvogel) Dressier, comb. nov.
Pescatorea lalindei (Linden) Dressier, comb. nov.
Pescatorea lawrenceana (Rchb.f.) Dressier, comb. nov.
Pescatorea pulvinaris (Rchb.f.) Dressier, comb. nov.
Pescatorea violacea (Lindl.) Dressier, comb. nov.
Phragmipedium andreettae P.J.Cribb & Pupulin, sp. nov.
Phragmipedium manzurii W.E. Higgins & P Viveros, sp. nov.
Pleurothallis grammata Dressier, nom. nov.
Polycycnis blancoi G. Gerlach, sp. nov.
Prosthechea micropus (Rchb.f.) W.E. Higgins, comb. nov.
Prosthechea raniitlon, Mora-Retana ex Pupulin, sp. nov.
Rhetinantha M. A. Blanco, gen. nov.
Rhetinantha aciantha (Rchb.f) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Rhetinantha acuminata (Lindl.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Rhetinantha cerifera (Barb. Rodr.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Rhetinantha divaricata (Barb. Rodr.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Rhetinantha encyclioides (J. T. Atwood & Dodson) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Rhetinanthafriedrichsthalii (Rchb.f) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Rhetinantha mariaisabeliae (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Rhetinantha monacensis (Kraenzl.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Rhetinantha neilii (Dodson) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Rhetinantha notylioglossa (Rchb.f) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Rhetinantha ophiodens (J. T. Atwood) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Rhetinanthapastorellii (D. E. Benn. & Christenson) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Rhetinantha schistostele (Schltr.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Rhetinantha scorpioidea (Kraenzl.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Rhetinantha witsenioides (Schltr.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Sauvetrea bomboizensis (Dodson) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Sauvetrea bomboizensis (Dodson) M.A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Sauvetrea chicana (Dodson) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Sauvetrea cornuta (C. Schweinf.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Sauvetrea laevilabris (Lindl.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Sauvetrea machupicchuensis (Christenson) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Sauvetrea napoensis (Dodson) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Sauvetrea sessilis (Lindl.) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov. comb. nov.
Sauvetrea trigona subsp. amaroensis (D. E. Benn. & Christenson) M. A. Blanco, comb. nov.
Scaphyglottis bidentata (Lindl.) Dressier, comb. nov.
Scaphyglottis cuniculata (Schltr.) Dressier, comb. nov.
Scaphyglottis imbricata (Lindl.) Dressier, comb. nov.
Sobralia gloriana Dressier, sp. nov.
Sobralia nutans Dressier, sp. nov.


5(2): 95. 2005.
5(2): 95. 2005.
5(2): 95. 2005.
5(2): 95. 2005.
5(2): 95. 2005.
5(2): 95. 2005.
5(2): 95. 2005.
6(1): 1.2006.
8(3): 89. 2008.
3: 28. 2002.
4(1): 67. 2004.
4(3): 223. 2004.
3: 23. 2002.
7(3): 534. 2007.
7(3): 534. 2007.
7(3): 534. 2007.
7(3): 534. 2007.
7(3): 534. 2007.
7(3): 534. 2007.
7(3): 534. 2007.
7(3): 534. 2007.
7(3): 534. 2007.
7(3): 534. 2007.
7(3): 535. 2007.
7(3): 535. 2007.
7(3): 535. 2007.
7(3): 535. 2007.
7(3): 535. 2007.
7(3): 535. 2007.
7(3): 535. 2007.
8(1): 15. 2008.
7(3): 535. 2007.
7(3): 535. 2007.
7(3): 535. 2007.
7(3): 535. 2007.
7(3): 535. 2007.
7(3): 535. 2007.
7(3): 535. 2007.
3: 28. 2002.
3: 28. 2002.
3: 28. 2002.
5: 11. 2002.
5: 13. 2002.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. C Umversidad de Costa Rica, 2008.








Index of taxa and combinations


Sobralia mariannae Dressier, sp. nov.
Sobralia crispissima Dressier, sp. nov.
Sobralia quinata Dressier, sp. nov.
Solenidium portillae Dalstrom & Whitten, sp. nov.
Stanhopea confusa G.Gerlach & Beeche, sp. nov.
Stanhopea manriquei Jenny & Nauray, sp. nov.
Stanhopea naurayi Jenny, sp. nov.
Stelis megachlamys (Schltr.) Pupulin, nom nov.
Stellilabium erratum Dressier, sp. nov.
Stellilabium smaragdinum Pupulin & M.A. Blanco, sp. nov.
Steniafalcata (Ackerman) Dressier, comb. nov.
Stenotyla Dressier, gen. nov.
Stenotyla lankesteriana (Pupulin) Dressier, comb. nov.
Stenotyla lendyana (Rchb.f.) Dressier, comb. nov.
Stenotyla picta (Rchb.f) Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon acicularis (Dressier) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon alexii N.H. Williams & Dressier, nom nov.
Telipogon alticola (Dodson & R. Escobar) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon anacristinae (Pupulin) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon andinus (L.O. Williams) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon barbozae (J.T. Atwood & Dressier) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon bennettii (Dodson & R. Escobar) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon bergoldii (Garay & Dunst.) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon boliviensis (R. Vasquez & Dodson) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon boylei (J.T. Atwood) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon bullpenensis (J.T. Atwood) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon butchii N.H. Williams & Dressier, nom nov.
Telipogon calueri N.H. Williams & Dressier, nom nov.
Telipogon campbelliorum (J.T. Atwood) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon /,,i. ,irl- i.. (Ames & C. Schweinf.) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon embreei N.H. Williams & Dressier, nom nov.
Telipogon erratus (Dressier) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogonfortunae (Dressier) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon helleri (L.O. Williams) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon hystrix (Dodson) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon ibischii (R. Vasquez) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogonjostii (Dodson) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon microglossus (Schltr.) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon monteverdensis (J.T. Atwood) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon morganiae (Dodson) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon morii (Dressier) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon niri Ackerman, sp. nov.
Telipogon ortizii N.H. Williams & Dressier, nomn nov.


5: 13. 2002.
5: 10.2002.
6: 27. 2003.
6: 1.2003.
4(3): 217. 2004.
4(2): 109. 2004.
5(1): 77. 2005.
4: 74. 2002.
2: 11.2001.
5: 28. 2002.
5(2): 93. 2005.
5(2): 96. 2005.
5(2): 96. 2005.
5(2): 96. 2005.
5(2): 96. 2005.
5(3): 168.2005.
5(3): 170. 2005.
5(3): 168. 2005.
5(3): 168. 2005.
5(3): 168. 2005.
5(3): 169. 2005.
5(3): 169. 2005.
5(3): 169. 2005.
5(3): 169. 2005.
5(3): 169. 2005.
5(3): 169. 2005.
5(3): 169. 2005.
5(3): 170. 2005.
5(3): 169. 2005.
5(3): 169. 2005.
5(3): 170. 2005.
5(3): 169. 2005.
5(3): 169. 2005.
5(3): 170. 2005.
5(3): 170. 2005.
5(3): 170. 2005.
5(3): 170. 2005.
5(3): 170. 2005.
5(3): 170. 2005.
5(3): 170. 2005.
5(3): 170. 2005.
4(1): 48. 2004.
5(3): 169. 2005.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. C Umversidad de Costa Rica, 2008.








LANKESTERIANA


Telipogon pampatamboensis (Dodson & R. Vasquez) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon perlobatus (Senghas) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon pseudobulbosus (D.E. Benn. & Christenson) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon reventadorensis N.H. Williams & Dressier, nonL nov.
Telipogon roberti N.H. Williams & Dressier, nom nov.
Telipogon selbyanus N.H. Williams & Dressier, nonL nov.
Telipogon smaragdinus (Pupulin & M.A. Blanco) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon tanii (Dodson) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Telipogon tsipiriensis (Pupulin) N.H. Williams & Dressier, comb. nov.
Trichopilia x ramonensis J. Garcia & Mora-Ret. ex C.O. Murales, nothosp. nov.
Warczewiczella guianensis (Lafontaine, Gerlach & Senghas) Dressier, comb. nov.
Warczewiczella lobata (Garay) Dressier, comb. nov.
Warczewiczella palatina (Senghas) Dressier, comb. nov.

RHAMNACEAE
Krugiodendron acuminatum J. A. Gonzalez & Poveda, sp. nov.

RUBIACEAE
Hoffinannia stephaniae L.A. Gonzalez & Poveda, sp. nov.


RUTACEAE
Amyris magnifolia G6mez-Laur. & Q. Jimenez, sp. nov.

SCROPHULARIACEAE
Gibsoniothamnus ficticius J. F. Morales, sp. nov.


STERCULIACEAE
Byttneria osaensis Cristobal, sp. nov.


SYMPLOCACEAE
Symplocos retusa Kriebel, sp. nov.
Symplocos striata Kriebel & N. Zamora, sp. nov.


5(3): 170. 2005.
5(3): 170. 2005.
5(3): 71. 2005.
5(3): 171.2005.
5(3): 171.2005.
5(3): 171.2005.
5(3): 171.2005.
5(3): 171.2005.
5(3): 171.2005.
5: 18.2002.
5(2): 96. 2005.
5(2): 96. 2005.
5(2): 96. 2005.


8: 16.2003.


4(3): 183. 2004.


6: 5. 2003.


4(1): 2. 2004.


4(3): 175. 2004.


4(1): 57. 2004.
4(3): 171. 2004.


LANKESTERIANA8(3), December 2008. C Umversidad de Costa Rica, 2008.




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