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Title: Lankesteriana
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098723/00002
 Material Information
Title: Lankesteriana la revista científica del Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Jardi´n Bota´nico Lankester
Jardín Botánico Lankester
Publisher: Jardi´n Bota´nico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Place of Publication: Cartago Costa Rica
Cartago Costa Rica
Publication Date: October 2001
Frequency: three times a year[2002-]
irregular[ former 2001]
three times a year
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Botany -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Epiphytes -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Orchids -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Plantkunde   ( gtt )
Botanische tuinen   ( gtt )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Costa Rica
 Notes
Language: In English and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No. 1 (mayo 2001)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Issues for May 2001-Oct. 2003 designated no.1-8; issues for Apr. 2004- designated vol. 4, no. 1-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 1 (abr. 2004).
General Note: International journal on orchidology.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098723
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 48491453
lccn - 2001240973
issn - 1409-3871

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Dedication
        Dedication 1
        Dedication 2
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text

ISSN 1409-3871



LANE STERIANA

No. 2 OCTUBRE 2001


Dora Emilia Mora de Retana, 1940-2001
C A RLO S 0 M O RA LES.......................................................................................................................................................... 1

Dora Emilia Mora de Retana, a remembrance
JO H N T A TW O O D .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

Stellilabium erratum, a comedy of blunders
R O BERT L D RESSLER ........................................................................................................................................................ 1 1

Myoxanthus vittatus (Orchidaceae), a new species from Costa Rica
FRANCO PUPULIN and M ARIO A BLANCO ............................................................................................................ 15

The genus Christensonia
E RIC A C HRISTENSON ................................................................................................... ................................ 19

Endophytes of Serapias parviflora Parlatore and
Spiranthes spiralis (L.) Chevallier (Orchidaceae):
description of endophytes ofS. parviflora,
and in vitro symbiosis development
in S. parviflora and Spiranthes spiralis
PIER LUIGI PACETTI and SABINE RIESS .......................................................... ................................ 23


LA REVISTA CIENTIFICA DEL JARDIN BOTANICO LANKESTER
UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA









LANKESTERIANA
LA REVISTA CIENTIFICA DEL
JARDIN BOTANICO LANKESTER
UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA


Editors
CARLOS 0. MORALES
FRANCO PUPULIN

Editorial Board
MARTA ALEIDA DIAZ ERIC HAGSATER
JOHN T. ATWOOD DORA EMILIA MORA-RETANA
ROBERT L. DRESSLER PHILIP SEATON
JOAQUIN GARCIA-CASTRO JORGE WARNER

Scientific Board
J. ACKERMANN M. GRAYUM
D.H. BENZING B.E. HAMMEL
G. CARNEVALI D.H. JANZEN
M. CHASE M. LOWMAN
T. CROAT H. LUTHER
P. CRIBB J. MONGE-NAJERA
G. GERLACH A. PRIDGEON
L.D. GOMEZ G. ROMERO
J. GOMEZ-LAURITO N.H. WILLIAMS

LANKESTERIANA is published at irregular intervals at prices listed below by the Jardin Botanico Lankester,
Universidad de Costa Rica, P.O. Box 1031-7050 Cartago, Costa Rica, A.C. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to
Jardin Botanico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica, P.O. Box 1031-7050 Cartago, Costa Rica, A.C.
EDITORIAL OFFICE: Jardin Botanico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica, P.O. Box 1031-7050 Cartago,
Costa Rica, A.C.
MANUSCRIPTS: Send to Editorial Office
INFORMATION FOR CONTRIBUTORS: Send request to Editorial Office.
MEMBERSHIP OFFICE: Jardin Botanico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica, P.O. Box 1031-7050 Cartago,
Costa Rica, A.C.
SUBSCRIPTION RATES: $ 4.00 per issue CR, $ 6.00 elsewhere.
SUBSCRIPTION TERM: Calendar year only, including three copies. Differences in issue number will be
compensated with next year subscription.
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Colones. Pay toJardin Botanico Lankester, Fundevi.
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INFORMATION PARA LOS CONTRIBUDORES

LANKESTERIANA, la revista cientifica del Jardin
Botanico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica, se ded-
ica a la publicaci6n de todo tipo de articulos de botani-
ca, con especial atenci6n a las epifitas y a la sistemiti-
ca, la ecologia, le evoluci6n y la fisiologia de las
orquideas, asi como a revisiones de libros y conferen-
cias en estos temas. Se aceptan, ademis, comunica-
ciones breves y comentarios, que serin titulados como
tales. La revista public articulos en espafiol con
resume en ingles o en ingles con un extenso resume
en espafiol. Los manuscritos serin evaluados critica-
mente por dos o mis revisores. Los autores son invita-
dos pero no obligados a cooperar econ6micamente para
la reducci6n de los costs de impresi6n de sus articulos.
Los manuscritos deben inviarse a: Editores de
Lankesteriana, Jardin Botanico Lankester, Universidad
de Costa Rica, P.O. Box 1031-7050 Cartago, Costa
Rica, A.C. Los textos deben ser todos a double espacio,
incluyendo nombre del autor, titulo, resume, agradec-
imientos, cuadros, leyendas de ilustraciones y bibli-
ografia citada. Las piginas deberan ser numeradas con-
secutivamente, empezando con la pigina del titulo y
terminando con la filtima pigina de las leyendas de
ilustraciones. Los cuadros se imprimiran en hojas sepa-
radas. Cada cuadro y figure deberi tener referencia en
el texto. Las leyendas cada ilustraci6n se imprimirain en
piginas separadas. Los herbarios se citarin segfin el
Index Herbariorum, las publicaciones en series se abre-
viarin segfin el Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum
(BPH) y lo autores de nombres cientificos segfin el
Draft Index of Author Abbreviations. Las ilustraciones
originales deberin montarse en cartulina gruesa. Las
figures estarin numeradas consecutivamente de acuer-
do a su aparici6n en el texto.
Enviar el original y dos copias a double espacio. No
enviar las ilustraciones originales hasta que se haya ter-
minado el process de revision editorial y cientifica. El
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los revisores. Despues del process de revision, deberi
enviarse tambi6n una copia electr6nica del manuscrito
en un disquete, procesado en Word u otro program
compatible con Word, sea para sistema PC o
Macintosh.


LANKESTERIANA, the Scientific Journal of Jardin
Botinico Lankester Universidad de Costa Rica, is
devoted to the publication of any article on botany,
with a special emphasis on epiphytic botany and orchid
systematics, ecology, evolution, physiology, as well as
reviews of books and conferences on these topics.
Short communications and commentaries are also wel-
comed, and should be titled as such. The journal pub-
lishes papers in Spanish language with an English sum-
mary or in English with Spanish extensive summary.
Manuscripts wil be evaluated critically by two or more
referees. Authors are encouraged but not required to
help ,-f'i Hi- costs of printing their papers.
Submitted manuscripts should be sent to: Lankesteriana
Editors, Jardin Botinico Lankester, Universidad de
Costa Rica, P.O. Box 1031-7050 Cartago, Costa Rica,
A.C. Text should be doubled-spaced throughout,
including authors name, title, abstract, acknowledg-
ments, tables, figure captions, and Literature Cited.
Pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning
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ure captions. Tables should be typed on separate sheets.
Every table and figure must be referenced in the text.
Figure captions for each plate should be typed on sepa-
rate pages. Nomenclature material should follow Index
Herbariorum for designation of herbaria, Botanico-
Periodicum-Huntianum (BPH) for abbreviations of ser-
ial publications, and the Draft Index of Author
Abbreviations for authors of scientific names. Original
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Figures must be numbered consecutively according to
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Submit double-spaced manuscripts the original and
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until after the review process should any changes be
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above will be returned for modification before being
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tronic copy of the manuscript must be submitted on
diskette, processed on Word or Word compatible pro-
grams, both for PC or Macintosh systems.


INFORMATION FOR CONTRIBUTORS















ESTE FASCICULO DE LANKESTERIANA
SE DEDICA A LA MEMORIAL DE

DORA EMILIA MORA DE RETANA
EMINENTE BOTANICA E INVESTIGADORA
POR MUCHOS ANOS DIRECTOR DEL JARDIN BOTANIC LANKESTER
EN RECONOCIMIENTO POR PARTE DE TODOS LOS COLEGAS
DE LA GRAN HERENCIA CIENTIFICA QUE NOS HA DEJADO










































-4
I


DORA EMILIA MORA DE RETANA
(1940-2001)




ISSN 1409-3871



LANE STERIANA

No. 2 OCTUBRE 2001


Dora Emilia Mora de Retana, 1940-2001
C A R L O S 0 M O R A L E S ...................................................................................................................................................... 1
Dora Emilia Mora de Retana, a remembrance
JOHN T. ATWOOD ......................................................................... 9
Stellilabium erratum, a comedy of blunders
R OBERT L D RESSLER ............................ ... .................................................................... 11
Myoxanthus vittatus (Orchidaceae), a new species from Costa Rica
FRANCO PUPULIN and M ARIO A B LANCO ................................................. ......................... ........................ 15
The genus Christensonia
ERIC A. CHRISTENSON ..............................................................................................................................................ERIC A. CHRISTENSON 19

Endophytes of Serapiasparviflora Parl. and
Spiranthes spiralis (L.) Chevall. (Orchidaceae):
description of endophytes of S. parviflora,
and in vitro symbiosis development
in S. parviflora and Spiranthes spiralis
PIER LUIGI PACETTI and SABINE R IESS ....................................................................... .............................. 23


LA REVISTA CIENTIFICA DEL JARDIN BOTANICO LANKESTER
UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA











LANKESTERIANA
LA REVISTA CIENTIFICA DEL JARDiN BOTANICO LANKESTER
UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA






Copyright 2001 Jardin Botanico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Fecha de publicaci6n valida / Effective publication date: 29 de octubre del 2001

Diagramaci6n: Jardin Botanico Lankester
Digitalizaci6n de las imagenes: Carlos Ossenbach y Asociados
Imprenta: Litografia Ediciones Sanabria S.A.
Tiraje: 500 copias

Impreso en Costa Rica / Printed in Costa Rica


R Lankesteriana / La revista cientifica del Jardin Botanico
Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica. No. 1
(2001)- San Jose, Costa Rica, Editorial Universidad
de Costa Rica, 2001--
V.
ISSN 1409-3871
1.Botanica Publicaciones peri6dicas, 2. Publicaciones
peri6dicas costarricenses


0








IANKESTERIANA2 1-7 2001


DORA EMILIA MORA DE RETANA, 1940-2001


CARLOS 0. MORALES

Jardin Botanico Lankester, Apdo. 1031-7050 Cartago, Costa Rica, y
Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de Costa Rica. 2060 San Jose, Costa Rica


El 12 de julio de 2001 muri6 Dora E. Mora de
Retana, quien desde 1979 hasta febrero de 2000 fue
director del Jardin Botanico Lankester, de la
Universidad de Costa Rica (U.C.R.). Ella dedic6 la
mayor parte de su energia vital a estudiar las
orquideas y a promover la conservaci6n de la flora
tropical; esto ultimo desde su nombramiento como
autoridad cientifica en el Comit6 de Flora de la
Convenci6n Internacional sobre Comercio de
Especies Amenazadas (CITES). Despu6s de Rafael
Lucas Rodriguez (1915-1981), ella fue durante
much tiempo la unica orquide6loga costarricense
con formaci6n acad6mica y cientifica en el campo
de la botanica.

Dora Emilia nacio el 24 de agosto de 1940 en
Cartago. Realize los studios primaries en la
Escuela Sagrado Coraz6n de Jesus, los secundarios
en el colegio hom6nimo. En la Escuela de Biologia
(U.C.R.) obtuvo los titulos de Profesora en
Ciencias, Bachiller en Biologia y Licenciada en
Biologia. En 1969 empez6 a laborar en la Catedra
de Fundamentos de Biologia, Escuela de Estudios
Generales (U.C.R.). En 1973 inici6 labores en la
Catedra de Biologia General de la Escuela de
Biologia. En esta misma unidad de la U.C.R.
empez6 en 1978 con la Catedra de Botanica
General y a partir de 1984 ofreci6 el curso de
Orquideologia, entire otros. Los primeros studios
publicados por Dora Emilia (ver adelante) se refe-
rian a la anatomia y al desarrollo de una especie
muy conocida por los orquide6logos y aficionados
a las orquideas en Costa Rica: Acnistus
arborescens (L.) Schltdl. (Solanaceae), un arbusto
o arbol pequefio llamado gaitite, a cuya corteza
suave y corchosa se adhieren facilmente las raices
de las orquideas epifitas.

Con la direcci6n de Dora Emilia, lenta pero pro-
gresivamente el Jardin Botanico Lankester dej6 de


ser una pequefia finca de 10,7 hectareas para con-
vertirse en un jardin botanico de renombre mundial,
especialmente por su extraordinaria colecci6n de
orquideas. Gran parte del desarrollo y del progress
del Jardin se deben al esfuerzo y a la energia de
Dora Emilia y al empefio de los buenos traba-
jadores que siempre ha tenido el Jardin. La capaci-
dad de trabajo de Dora Emilia muchas veces me
sorprendi6: podia empezar su dia de trabajo a las 7
horas y estar active sin descanso hasta las 20 horas,
todavia en los ultimos afios cuando ya podia
haberse pensionado y retirado. Sus actividades eran
tan versatiles, que en un solo dia podia visitar el
Jardin Lankester, en Cartago, para coordinar
labores prioritarias, ir a San Jose a dar classes de
botanica u orquideologia, viajar al Ministerio de
Recursos Naturales (ahora, Ministerio del
Ambiente) a tender algun asunto propio de
CITES, ir a tocar las puertas de las autoridades uni-
versitarias para exigirles apoyo para el Jardin
Lankester y, no pocas veces, al final del dia, visitar
a Joaquin Garcia1 para identificar species y, jun-
tos, preparar publicaciones sobre orquideas. Sin
embargo, una vez Dora Emilia me revel6 que se
cansaba much trabajando en herbarios; fue
durante una de las visits de John T. Atwood (SEL)
al Herbario de la Universidad de Costa Rica (USJ)
y al Herbario Nacional de Costa Rica (CR). "El, en
cambio, es incansable", me dijo Dora Emilia en CR
sefialando a Atwood, quien estaba de pie y muy
concentrado revisando ejemplares de Maxillaria.
Es obvio que Dora Emilia preferia estudiar sus
queridas orquideas in vivo.
Muchas personas recuerdan a Dora Emilia como
una persona accessible, comunicativa, en6rgica, dis-

1 El Dr. Joaquin B. Garcia falleci6 el 22 de agosto del
2001 y sus cenizas yacen desde el 2 de septiembre en el
Jardin Botanico Lankester. En dos meses consecutivos,
Costa Rica perdi6 a sus dos mejores orquideologos nativos.








LANKESTERIANA


puesta siempre a ayudar y a compartir ideas y
conocimientos. Asi la recuerdo yo desde que fui su
asistente en el Jardin Botanico Lankester y cuando,
por no haber otros estudiantes interesados, tome su
curso de Orquideologia por tutoria. De este modo
el trato era much mas personal que en un grupo de
estudiantes. Yo la seguia por el Jardin Lankester,
anotando en mi cuaderno las caracteristicas de
generos y species que ella me mostraba. Recuerdo
muy bien que jamas perdi6 la paciencia conmigo;
todo lo contrario: parecia muy satisfecha de que
alguien mas se interesara por las orquideas y era
evidence que le gustaba transmitir sus conocimien-
tos sobre estas plants. Yo s6 muy bien que otros
no piensan igual. El character generalmente sobrio y
apacible de Dora Emilia se volvia f6rreo e irre-
ductible al defender sus ideas y sus acciones frente
a las de otros; una virtud que muchos costarricenses


no tienen, todavia fuertemente influidos por pre-
ceptos (pseudo)reli-giosos que dan a entender que
oponerse a los arguments de otros solo genera ren-
cor. Esto no es nuevo; ya lo habian notado los
antiguos romanos: "obsequium amicos, veritas
odium partt; es decir, la cortesia hace amigos,
mientras que la verdad genera odio. Sin embargo,
especialmente en el ambito cientifico y cuando se
trata de hacer progresar a una sociedad que, en va-
rios aspects, esta anquilosada, es indispensable la
confrontaci6n de ideas y la discusi6n nudis verbis,
para lograr el mejor acuerdo.
La huella de Dora Emilia y sus contribuciones a
la orquideologia perduraran sobre todo en el Jardin
Botanico Lankester, en el Herbario de la
Universidad de Costa Rica (USJ) y en sus publica-
ciones, donde se preserve su legado cientifico y el
fruto de su esfuerzo practice.


SPECIES DESCRITAS POR DORA EMILIA MORA DE RETANA,
COMBINACIONES NUEVAS Y NOMBRES INEDITOS


En total, son 10 species nuevas, 7 combi-
naciones nuevas, 4 taxones ineditos y 3 nombres de
herbario. Todos los ejemplares de los herbarios
USJ y CR, citados a continuaci6n, fueron recolecta-
dos en Costa Rica.

Cyclopogon prasophylloides (Garay) Mora-Ret. &
J. Garcia, Brenesia 37: 80. 1992.
Basi6nimo: Beadlea prasophylloides Garay, Bot.
Mus. Leafl. 28: 301. 1982.
Con excepci6n de C. olivaceus (Rolfe) Schltr.,
tanto en CR como en USJ los ejemplares de este
genero terrestre estan sin determinar, lo que parece
reflejar la dificultad de estudiarlo.

Encyclia ionocentra (Rchb.f.) Mora-Ret. & J.
Garcia, Brenesia 33: 124. 1990.
Basi6nimo: Epidendrum ionocentrum Rchb.f.,
Gard. Chron. N.s. 20: 8. 1883.
Epidendrum prismatocarpum Rchb.f. var. iono -
centrum (Rchb.f.) Teuscher, Amer. Orch.
Soc. Bull. 38: 398. 1969.
Hormidium ionocentrum (Rchb.f.) Brieg,
Orchidee (Hamburg) 3. Auf. 1: 576. 1977.
Prosthechea ionocentra (Rchb. f.) W.E.
Higgins, Phytologia 82(5): 378. 1997.
La publicaci6n en Brenesia citada arriba incluye


una comparaci6n descriptive y dibujos de las flores
de Encyclia ionocentra y E. prismatocarpa
(Rchb.f.) Dressler; la primera ha sido confundida
con la segunda. Siguiendo a Higgins en Phytologia,
ambas species se tratan ahora en el g6nero
Prosthechea, como:
Prosthechea ionocentra videe supra), Puntarenas;
Monteverde, Bullpen, ca. 1550 m. F. Pupulin,
Dora E. Mora, G. Barbosa & curso de
Orquideologia # 880. 16/7/1998 (USJ-71146) y
Prosthechea prismatocarpa (Rchb.f.) W.E.
Higgins, San Jose; Perez Zeled6n, Villa Mills,
Carretera Interamericana, Cordillera de
Talamanca, ca. 3000 m. Gustavo Vargas # 302.
26/4/1987 (USJ-71202).
"Encyclia tardiflora (sp. nova?)", nom. herb.
Este nombre inedito ha sido utilizado por R. L.
Dressler y Dora E. Mora para un taxon del cual
existen dos ejemplares en USJ:
Alajuela; Palmares, orillas del Rio Rastrojos.
"Florece en pseudobulbos viejos" [fide Dora E.
Mora, de alli el nombre propuesto "tardiflora"].
Wilber Barahona s.n., en floraci6n el 26/II/1994
(USJ-51074).
Alajuela; Palmares, a orillas del Rio Jesus Maria.
Dora E. Mora s.n. Marzo de 1994 (USJ-57851).








MORALES Dora Emilia Mora de Retana


La especie referida debe tratarse actualmente en
el g6nero Prosthechea.

"Epidendrum boothii (S.) Mora & Garcia", nom.
herb.
Este nombre, asi anotado en un ejemplar de
herbario: Heredia; Horquetas de Sarapiqui,
Quebrada El Tigre. 600 m. Tania Bermtdez # 5.
14/6/1997 (USJ-63874), es un error, porque existe
Epidendrum boothii (Lindl.) L.O. Williams, Ann.
Missouri Bot. Gard. 26(4): 282. 1939, cuyo basio-
nimo es Maxillaria boothii Lindl., Edwards's Bot.
Reg. 24: misc. 52-53. 1838.
En todo caso, en mayo de 2001 Eric Hagsater
anot6 en el ejemplar el nombre de la especie en uso
actualmente: Nidema boothii (Lindl.) Schltr.

Epidendrum crassus [sic] (Dressler) Mora-Ret. &
J. Garcia, Brenesia 33: 124. 1990.
Basi6nimo: Epidanthus crassus Dressler,
Orquidea (M6x.) 9(1):15. 1983.
Sin embargo, ya existia Epidendrum crassum C.
Schweinf., Bot. Mus. Leafl. 15: 141. 1952. Un
principio basico del C6digo Internacional de
Nomenclatura Botanica es que dos species dife-
rentes no pueden tener el mismo nombre cientifico.
Asi, Barringer propuso el nuevo nombre
Epidendrum insolatum Barringer, Brittonia 42(4):
245. 1991 [1992] para el taxon descrito por
Dressler como Epidanthus crassus.
En Brenesia 37: 126. 1992, Mora-Retana & J.
Garcia mencionan "Epidendrum incrassatum",
como un nombre sugerido por Robert Dressler para
Epidanthus crassus. Sin embargo, desafortuna-
damente el articulo se public incomplete (ifalt6
una pagina!), de modo que ese nombre nunca se
public validamente. Cuando me di cuenta de este
error en Brenesia, le sugeri a Dora Emilia que pu-
blicara la informaci6n faltante en el siguiente
numero de la revista; no obstante, ella ya no tenia
voluntad para hacerlo, porque tenia sus energies
concentradas en nuevas publicaciones y proyectos.
De modo que el nombre asignado por Barringer a
esta especie tiene prioridad.
Cartago; Cordillera de Talamanca, km 37, Carretera
Interamericana sur. Dora E. Mora & Rosa
Sandoval s.n. Abril de 1990 (USJ-37187, 37188).


Epidendrum epidendroides (Garay) Mora-Ret. &
J. Garcia, Brenesia 33: 124. 1990.
Basi6nimo: Neowilliamsia epidendroides Garay,
Orch. Dig. 41(1): 20-21. 1977.
Cartago; Parque Nacional Tapanti, sendero
Palmito, 1450 m. Dora E. Mora s.n. 22/10/1992
(USJ-45209).

Epidendrum talamancanum (J.T. Atwood) Mora-
Ret. & J. Garcia, Brenesia 33: 124. 1990.
Basi6nimo: Epidanthus talamancanus J.T.
Atwood, Icon. Pl. Trop. 14, pars 1: pl. 1315.
1989.
Cartago/San Jose; Cordillera de Talamanca, km 36,
Carretera Interamericana sur, 1850 m. Inge
Mack # 15 (USJ-49873).
Varios nombres gen6ricos utilizados en d6cadas
pasadas se tratan actualmente como sin6nimos de
Epidendrum L. Entre 6stos, tenemos en la flora de
Costa Rica Epidanthus L.O. Williams, Nanodes
Lindl., Neolehmannia Kmzl., Neowilliamsia Garay
y Physinga Lindl. Los studios epidendrol6gicos
llevados a cabo por Eric Hagsater (AMO) han sido
critics para entender poco a poco la circunscrip-
ci6n del g6nero Epidendrum y poder diferenciarlo
de los g6neros vecinos, como Encyclia y
Prosthechea.

Fernandezia tica Mora-Ret. & J. Garcia, Brenesia
39-40: 164. 1993.
El 27 de octubre de 1992 fue sorprendente el
hallazgo repentino de una sola plant florecida de
esta especie en la zona de Vara Blanca, Heredia, a
ca. 2000 m de elevaci6n. La unica evidencia ante-
rior de esta especie era una acuarela pintada por
Rafael Lucas Rodriguez en agosto de 1977, de
entiree El Empalme y Ojo de Agua", Cordillera de
Talamanca videe Rodriguez, R.L. et al. 1986.
Generos de orquideas de Costa Rica. San Jose,
Edit. Univ. de Costa Rica. p. 253). En la acuarela
se anot6 Fernandezia costaricensis (Ames & C.
Schweinf.) Garay & Dunsterv., un nombre que no
debe usarse por choque de sinonimia con otra
especie diferente: Pachyphyllum costaricense
(Ames & Schweinf.) L.O. Williams. Por ello fue
necesario tanto asignar un nuevo nombre como


Octubre 2001








LANKESTERIANA


describir y publicar la nueva especie. En 1997
fueron halladas otras plants de esta especie.
Heredia; camino a Vara Blanca, ca. 2000 m. John
T. Atwood & Oscar Rodriguez # 4181.
27/10/1992 (Holotipo, USJ-45216).
Heredia; Cerro Chompipe, 2200 m. Dora E. Mora
& R. L. Dresser s.n. 27/8/1997 (USJ-67288).

Kefersteinia excentrica Dressler & Mora-Ret.,
Orquidea (Me6x.) 13(1-2): 261. 1993.
Cartago; La Selva, camino a Taus, 1300-1400 m.
R.L. Dresser & Dora E. Mora s.n. 9/11/1984
(Holotipo, USJ-45426, isotipo en alcohol, USJ).
Alajuela; Cataratas de San Ramon. Dora E. Mora
s.n. Julio de 1990 (USJ-45427, indicado como
paratipo, con un duplicado en alcohol).

Macroclinium doderoi Mora-Ret. & Pupulin,
Selbyana 18(1): 7. 1997.
Cartago; Turrialba, Cafio Seco. Torito, ca. 1500 m.
Robert L. Dressier, Dora E. Mora & R. Dodero
s.n. 19/7/1994 (Holotipo, USJ-57025).

Macroclinium robustum Pupulin & Mora-Ret.,
Selbyana 18(1): 7 & 10. 1997.
San Jose; Alajuelita, en lomas sobre Barrio La
Mora, ca. 1850 m. Franco Pupulin & M. Flores
# 315. 17/7/1995 (Holotipo, USJ-57743, isotipo,
USJ-68694).

Maxillaria cedralensis J.T. Atwood & Mora-Ret.,
Selbyana 18(1): 31. 1997
San Jose; Cordillera de Talamanca, Dota, El
Cedral. 2000 m. Dora E. Mora & curso de
Orquideologia s.n. Abril de 1990. (Holotipo,
USJ-31579).

"Maxillaria humilis Atwood & Mora-Retana,
ined.", Brenesia 37: 99. 1992.
Nombre inedito incluido en la lista de orquideas
de Costa Rica.

Maxillaria rodrigueziana J.T. Atwood & Mora-
Ret., Icon. Pl. Trop. 14: pl. 1361. 1989.
Esta especie fue dibujada por Rafael Lucas
Rodriguez en junio de 1974 videe Rodriguez, R.L.
et al. 1986. G6neros de Orquideas de Costa Rica.


San Jose, Edit. Univ. de Costa Rica. p. 215) y fue
dedicada a el p6stumamente. Habia sido confundi-
da con Maxillaria speciosa Rchb.f. de Sudamerica
y con M. arachnitiflora Ames & Schweinf. El tipo
de M. rodrigueziana es de El Cope, Panama (T.
Antonio 2137, MO, SEL), pero la especie se halla
tambi6n en Costa Rica a alturas medias de la
Cordillera de Talamanca. Es una de las species
mas atractivas del g6nero en Costa Rica y sus flores
entiree junio y julio) son muy fragantes.
San Jose; La Paulina, San Pedro, Montes de Oca.
1160 m. Planta cultivada. Rafael Lucas
Rodriguez #1003A. 5/6/1965 (2 flores) (USJ-
10937).

"Oerstedella satanica Hagsater & Mora-Retana,
ined.", Brenesia 37: 101. 1992.
Asi se menciona en la lista de orquideas, pero
permanece in6dita. En USJ se us6 provisionalmente
un segundo nombre para el mismo taxon:
" Oerstedella diabola, ined.". El Ing. Eric Hagsater
(AMO) me comunic6 en julio de 2001 que todavia
no esta seguro de la identidad de este taxon, por
cuanto hay varias species similares involucradas.
El epiteto satanica se refiere al callo del labelo "con
dos proyecciones elevadas semejantes a cuernos",
segun la descripci6n in6dita.
San Jose; Cordillera de Talamanca, Perez Zeled6n,
Villa Mills, ca. 3100 m. Dora E. Mora s.n.
Marzo de 1990 (USJ-31992, 32890, 32889).

Ornithocephalus grex-anserinus Dressler & Mora-
Ret., in Dressler, Novon 7(2): 120. 1997.
Esta extrafia y bella plant ha sido recolectada
solamente una vez. El aspect de aves en vuelo de
las flores motive a los autores para asignar el nom-
bre latino grex anserinus (bandada de gansos).
Alajuela; canton Alajuela, distrito Sarapiqui,
alrededor de la Laguna Maria Aguilar. Dora E.
Mora, F. Pupulin & A. Herrera s.n. 5/5/1992, en
floraci6n el 11/11/1993 en el Jardin Botanico
Lankester, cuando prepare el esp6cimen tipo
(Holotipo: USJ-49975).

Reichenbachanthus lankesteri (Ames) Mora-Ret.
& J. Garcia, Brenesia 37: 81. 1992.








MORALES Dora Emilia Mora de Retana


Basi6nimo: Hexisea lankesteri Ames, Sched.
Orch. 9: 47. 1925.
Sin embargo, existe un basi6nimo anterior y, por
tanto, prioritario, que habia pasado desapercibido
durante much tiempo; se trata de .,,!' -l'm..i,,
subulata Schltr., del cual Dressler hizo la combi-
naci6n valida ahora para esta especie:
Reichenbachanthus subulatus (Schltr.) Dressier.
No existe hasta ahora material de esta especie en
USJ. En CR solo un ejemplar, determinado hace
muchos afios por C. Schweinfurth como Hexisea
lankesteri: Alajuela; San Ramon. La Palma. 1175
m. Alberto M. Brenes 2292. 29/8/1924 (CR-33931).

Scaphyglottis geminata Dressler & Mora-Ret.,
Orquidea (M6x.) 13(1-2): 192. 1993.
Cartago; Turrialba, Pejibaye, Taus. Dora E. Mora
& R.L. Dresser # 31. 20/8/1984 (USJ-32348).
[En vez de agosto, podria ser octubre, al com-
parar con otro esp6cimen de Dressler].

Trichocentrum costaricense Mora-Ret. & Pupulin,
Selbyana 15(2): 94. 1994.
Alajuela; San Ramon, Los Lagos. 800 m. Mario
Blanco 1813, Robbin Moran, E. Watkins, E.
Vargas. 23 de enero de 2001 (USJ-76755).

Trichocentrum dianthum Pupulin & Mora-Ret.,
Selbyana 15(2): 90 & 92. 1994.
San Jose; Perez Zeled6n, Las Nubes de Quizarra,
1000 m. J. Cambronero s.n. 1988 (Erbario
Franco Pupulin). Floreci6 en cultivo en marzo de
1989 (Holotipo, USJ-38972).

"Trichopiliapendula J. Garcia & Mora-Retana,
ined.", Brenesia 37: 113. 1992.
Nombre anotado en la lista de orquideas, pero
no se public.

"Trichopilia x ramonensis J. Garcia & Mora-
Retana, ined. (nat. hyb.)", Brenesia 37: 113. 1992.


Nombre incluido en la lista de orquideas para
designer un hibrido natural: T. marginata Henfr. x
T. suavis Lindl. En Die Orchidee 51(4): 443-445,
Ehrenfried Lucke public notas sobre reproduccion
y floraci6n de este hibrido. El naturalista aleman
Clarence Klaus Horich (1930-1994) habia enviado
semillas a Alemania en enero de 1993, que exitosa-
mente dieron origen a plants que florecieron siete
afios despu6s. Lucke sefiala, de paso, que el nombre
Trichopilia x ramonensis no ha sido validamente
publicado, lo cual es correct.
En USJ hay dos ejemplares determinados con
este nombre:
Alajuela, San Ramon. 800 1000 m. Luis Acosta
s.n. Febrero de 1987, floreci6 en cultivo en
marzo de 1990 (USJ-31985).
Alajuela; Cataratas de San Ramon. 800-1000 m.
Luis Acosta s.n. 19/3/1992 (USJ-44878).

"Trichopilia xanthina Mora-Retana & J. Garcia",
nom. herb.
Alajuela; San Ramon. Dora E. Mora s.n. Floreci6
en el Jardin Botanico Lankester, junio de 1990
(USJ-31981).
Este nombre fue anotado por Dora Emilia en la
etiqueta de herbario, pero nunca se public. Mario
A. Blanco determine este esp6cimen en 2000 como
T. galeottiana A. Rich. & Gal.

Trichosalpinx navarrensis (Ames) Mora-Ret. & J.
Garcia, Brenesia 37: 125. 1992.
Basi6nimo: Pleurothallis navarrensis Ames,
Sched. Orch. 9: 34-35, fig. 5. 1925.
No existe hasta ahora material de esta especie en
USJ. En CR solo hay un ejemplar: Puntarenas;
Peninsula de Osa. Aguabuena de Rinc6n, Fila Casa
Loma, siguiendo el antiguo camino a Rancho
Quemado. 80 43' 00" N, 830 32' 00" 0. 500 m.
Gerardo Herrera 4440. 2/10/1990 (CR-210573).


SPECIES DEDICADAS A DORA EMILIA MORA Y A SU FAMILIAR

1. Epidendrum mora-retanae Hagsater, Icon. Panama entire 600 y 1800 m de altitude. El holotipo
Orchid. 2, pars 1: pl. 160. 1993. es de Panama; Cuesta de Piedra, Finca El Milagro,
Alajuela; Lajas de Alfaro Ruiz. Dora E. Mora s.n. 800-1000 m. Leg. Eric Hdgsater 6499 & R.L.
Julio de 1997 (USJ-67287). Dresser (AMO).
Esta especie habitat desde Nicaragua hasta 2. Kefersteinia retanae G. Gerlach ex C.O.


Octubre 2001








LANKESTERIANA


Morales, Brenesia 52: 75. 1999 [2000]
Gunter Gerlach (M y Jardin Botanico de
Munich, Alemania) public esta especie en
Brenesia 41-42:100, 1994, pero faltaba information
necesaria para validar el nombre. En Brenesia 52:
75, 1999, se aporta esa informaci6n.
San Jose, Perez Zeled6n, Pefia Blanca. 600 m.
Guinter Gerlach s.n. Floreci6 en cultivo en el
Jardin Botanico de Munich en junio de 1992
(Holotipo, USJ-69249).

3. Sobralia doremiliae Dressier, Novon 5(2): 142.
1995.
Cartago; Paraiso, Orosi, Parque Nacional Tapanti.
Dora E. Mora & R.L. Dresser s.n. 12/11/1993
(Paratipo, USJ-50001).
En el articulo, Dressler explica que prefirio
eliminar la a de Dora en doremiliae para evitar una
pronunciacion err6nea. En latin clasico,
doraemiliae se pronunciaria "doraimiliai", mientras
que en latin vulgar, que es mas utilizado por los
botanicos, la pronunciaci6n de doremiliae es
"doremilie".

4. Stelis morae Luer, Lindleyana 11(2): 103, f. 32.
1996.
El ejemplar tipo (C. Luer 17375) fue recolectado
por Dora E. Mora & R.L. Dressler en San Carlos de
Alajuela en enero de 1990. En floraci6n en el
Jardin Botanico Lankester el 7/3/1995. La
publicaci6n indica que el holotipo esta en el
Herbario Nacional de Costa Rica (CR), lo cual no
es cierto. Un isotipo debiera hallarse en MO. Un


solo ejemplar en USJ:
San Jose: Perez Zeled6n, sin mas datos. Leg. W.
Fonseca s.n. (F. Pupulin 1710). Floreci6 en culti-
vo en San Isidro del General. 21/1/1999. (USJ-
71130).

5. Telipogon retanarum Dodson & Escobar,
Orquideologia 17(2): 114. 1987.
Una de las muchas species de orquideas del
Parque Nacional Tapanti, en Cartago. Es end6mica
en Costa Rica y probablemente posee poblaciones
muy pequefias, pues solo se conocen dos ejem-
plares tipo de 1984 y, de la misma localidad, dos
ejemplares mas de 1985, como consta en
Orquideologia 17(2): 119. 1987.
Cartago; Parque Nacional Tapanti, 1630 m de alti-
tud, ca. a 6 km de la entrada, 200 m despu6s de
una catarata grande. Rodrigo Escobar, D.
Portillo & M. Retana 3628. 8/8/1985 (USJ-
27440).
Este ejemplar tiene una etiqueta manuscrita de
Dora Emilia, con el # 3555 de R. Escobar et al. de
1984, que es el tipo de la especie. En marzo de
1992, tanto Dora Emilia como Rodrigo me indi-
caron que el ejemplar de USJ era un isotipo. Sin
embargo, al revisar la publicaci6n en
Orquideologia y una etiqueta de herbario mas una
nota que envi6 Escobar en julio de 2001, es claro
que se trata de R. Escobar et al. # 3628, que no es
un tipo. Aun asi, es un ejemplar tan valioso como
un tipo, pues procede de la localidad tipica y hasta
ahora es el unico de esta especie en los herbarios de
Costa Rica.


PUBLICACIONES DE DORA EMILIA MORA DE RETANA Y SUS COLEGAS
(En orden cronol6gico)


Mora, Dora E. 1971. Desarrollo y crecimiento del
apice vegetative en Acnistus arborescens. I.
Estructura, cambios plastocr6nicos y primeros
estadios en el desarrollo de la hoja. Rev. Biol.
Trop. 19(1,2): 171-189.

Mora, Dora E. 1975. Desarrollo y crecimiento del
apice vegetative en Acnistus arborescens. II.
Desarrollo del procambio y los tejidos vasculares
de la hoja y crecimiento de la lamina foliar. Rev.
Biol. Trop. 23(2): 155-163.


Mora-Retana, Dora E. (sin afio, circa 1983).
Gongora. In: Asociaci6n Costarricense de
Orquideologia (ACO). Orquideas, su cultivo en
Costa Rica. San Jose, Impresora Delta. p. 26-28.

Rodriguez, R.L., Mora, Dora E., Barahona, Maria
E. & Williams, N.H. 1986. G6neros de orquideas
de Costa Rica. San Jose, Edit. Universidad de
Costa Rica. 334 p.

Mora Monge, Dora E. & Valerio G., C. 1988.








MORALES Dora Emilia Mora de Retana


Polinizaci6n y producci6n de frutos en la guaria
morada (Cattleya skinneri, Orchidaceae) en
Costa Rica. Orquideologia 17(3): 242-251.

Mora-Retana, Dora E. & Garcia-Castro, J. 1990.
Nuevas combinaciones de Orchidaceae de Costa
Rica. Brenesia 33: 123-126.

Mora, Dora E. 1991. El g6nero Lockhartia Hook.
In: Orquideas Nativas de Colombia 54(2).
Sociedad Colombiana de Orquideologia.

Mora-Retana, Dora E. & Atwood, J.T. 1992.
Orchids of Costa Rica, part 2. Ic. Pl. Trop. 15, pl.
1401-1500.

Mora-Retana, Dora E. & Garcia-Castro, J.B. 1992.
Nuevas combinaciones en Orchidaceae de Costa
Rica (II). Brenesia 37: 125-126.

Mora-Retana, Dora E. & Garcia-Castro, J.B. 1992.
Lista actualizada de las orquideas de Costa Rica
(Orchidaceae). Brenesia 37: 79-124.

Dresser, R.L. & Mora-Retana, Dora E. 1993.
i., _-l m.1 i geminata, an attractive new species
from Costa Rica. Orquidea (M6x.) 13(1-2): 191-
194.

Dresser, R.L. & Mora-Retana, Dora E. 1993.
Kefersteinia excentrica, a distinctive new species
from Costa Rica. Orquidea (M6x.) 13(1-2): 261-
264.

Garcia-Castro, J.B. Mora-Retana, Dora E. & Rivas,
Marta E. 1993. Lista de orquideas comunes a
Costa Rica y Panama. Brenesia 39-40: 93-107.

Mora-Retana, Dora E. & Atwood, J.T. 1993.
Orchids of Costa Rica, part 3. Ic. Pl. Trop. 16, pl.
1501-1600.

Mora-Retana, Dora E. & Garcia-Castro, J.B. 1993.
Fernandezia tica Mora-Retana & J.B. Garcia,
una nueva especie orquidacea de Costa Rica.
Brenesia 39-40: 163-165.

Gonzalez, Maria I., Mora-Retana, Dora E. &
Warner, J. 1994. Crecimiento de Cattleya
dowiana (Orchidaceae) en varias condiciones de
cultivo. Rev. Biol. Trop., 42 (1/2):73-79.


Pupulin, F. & Mora-Retana, Dora E. 1994. A revi-
sion of the Costa Rican species of Trichocentrum
(Orchidaceae). Selbyana 15(2): 87-103.

Mora-Retana, Dora E. & Warner, J. 1995. La con-
servaci6n de las orquideas en el Jardin Botanico
Lankester. In: Asociaci6n Costarricense de
Orquideologia (ACO). Orquideas de Costa Rica
y su cultivo. Vol. I: Cattleya y g6neros
relacionados. San Jose, Litografia e Imprenta Lil.
p. 54-56.

Gonzalez L., Maria I. & Mora-Retana, Dora E.
1996. El color de las flores en la taxonomia de
cuatro species de Stanhopea (Orchidaceae).
Rev. Biol. Trop. 44(2): 525-539.

Mora-Retana, Dora E. & Gonzalez L., Maria I.
1996. Variabilidad floral de cuatro species de
Stanhopea (Orchidaceae). Rev. Biol. Trop. 44(2):
517-523.

Atwood, J.T. & Mora, Dora E. 1997. Maxillaria
cedralensis, a new species from the highlands of
Costa Rica. Selbyana 18(1): 31-32.

Mora, Dora E. & Warner, J. 1997. Orquideas de
Costa Rica. Cartago, Jardin Botanico Lankester,
Universidad de Costa Rica. 32 p.

Mora-Retana, Dora E. & Pupulin, F. 1997. Two
new species ofMacroclinium (Orchidaceae) from
Costa Rica. Selbyana 18(1): 7-10.

Atwood, J.T. & Mora-Retana, Dora E. 1999.
Orchidaceae: Tribe Maxillarieae: Subtribes
Maxillariinae and Oncidiinae. In: Burger, W.
(ed.). Flora costaricensis. Fieldiana, Bot., n.s. 40:
1-182.


Agradezco sinceramente la colaboraci6n de Robert L.
Dresser (FLAS), tric Hagsater (AMO) y Jorge Warner
(Jardin Botanico Lankester) en la preparaci6n de este
escrito.


Octubre 2001






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IANKESTERIANA2 9 2001


DORA EMILIA MORA DE RETANA, A REMEMBRANCE


JOHN T. ATWOOD

Marie Selby Botanical Gardens
Missouri Botanical Garden


It was with severe regrets that I learned of the
untimely death of Dora Emilia Mora de Retana. In
1985 while completing the Orchidaceae for Flora
of La Selva Biological Station, I started a search for
a Costa Rican with whom to collaborate on a larger
project. After Robert Dressler suggested
approaching Dora Emilia Mora, I visited the
Universidad de Costa Rica where I found her work-
ing patiently with a student over herbarium speci-
mens. I introduced myself forwardly proposing to
collaborate on treatments of Costa Rican orchids,
an approach that visibly overwhelmed this reserved
Costa Rican professor. But I vowed to develop a
project that would benefit her and Costa Rica as
much as myself and Selby Gardens. We made a
pact-I would push her and she would push me.
This led over several years to mutually beneficial
interactions resulting in three hundred Costa Rican
orchids illustrated under Icones Plantarum
Tropicarum. This activity culminated in a volume
with the Field Museum of Natural History featuring
subtribes Maxillariinae and Oncidiinae with help
from Franco Pupulin, German Carnevali, and
Joaquin Garcia.
Dora Emilia invited me frequently to visit
Lankester Gardens to share a garden visibly thriv-
ing despite dauntingly severe budget constraints.
She kept a vision of Lankester Gardens not only as
a tourist garden for generating revenues but as a
garden dedicated to Costa Rican orchid research.
The living collection of Costa Rican native orchids
served as a basis for most of her descriptions and
line drawings.


In later years I learned that much of her success
maintaining Lankester Gardens lay in creating a
positive working atmosphere for fostering students,
employees, and orchid enthusiasts. Garden
Manager Oscar Rodriguez would proudly show his
inspired landscapes-the cactus garden, the water-
fall, even a Japanese garden; Jorge Warner his
propagation lab; Carlos Quir6s the exquisitely
curated orchid collection. Carlos, Jorge, and Oscar
would soon visit Selby Gardens with Dora Emilia's
help. Their enthusiastic interaction and good cheer
proved them to be the best of ambassadors. Dora
Emilia also introduced Costa Rican orchid society
member and collaborator Joaquin Garcia to me, a
man of prodigious memory. One evening he
brought me a spidery flowered maxillaria to my
hotel. I identified the maxillaria as Maxillaria
arachnitiflora, but the plant was odd in that it was
somewhat miniature for the species. I was telling
him nothing new, but for that moment the plant
would remain M. arachnitiflora. Dora Emilia made
several visits to Selby Gardens finalizing treat-
ments of Costa Rican orchids, once bringing her
husband Marco who volunteered his time complet-
ing the organization of the spirit collection.
Beyond her professional accomplishments, her
greatest legacy is to rise above personal ambitions
to foster efforts of those around her. Because of
her, Lankester Gardens is blessed with a talented,
imaginative, and altruistic staff continuing the tra-
dition of fostering others, a tradition that will carry
this garden to a higher level of international recog-
nition. In a very real sense her spirit lives on.






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IANKESTERIANA2 11-13 2001


STELLILABIUM ERRATUM, A COMEDY OF BLUNDERS


ROBERT L. DRESSLER

Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A.
Florida Museum of Natural History; Marie Selby Botanical Gardens
Mailing address: 21305 NW 86th Ave., Micanopy, Florida 32667, U.S.A.


RESUMEN. Se describe Stellilabium erratum, una especie de Tapanti y el valle del Rio Pejibaye, de
plant y flores relativamente grandes para el g6nero. La column y el labelo son trilobados y los
16bulos laterales de la column llevan setas conspicuas.

KEY WORDS: Orchidaceae, Stellilabium sect. Taeniorhachis, Stellilabium erratum, Costa Rica


The collection of tiny orchids for botanical study
is frustrating. If it is available, one gathers what
seems to be abundant material but when the plants
are dried, there is little left. The plant to be
described here is large for a Stellilabium, being
about 20 cm tall and branched. Even so, each plant
may have few flowers at a given moment. I first
saw the species along the Rio Pejibaye at La Selva
de Cartago in 1984, where we were mistakenly
calling the locality Taus, which I mistakenly
spelled as Taos. Being reluctant to gather enough
material for a good specimen, I convinced myself
that it must be a named species. We photographed a
flower, and a photograph was published in the
Field Guide (Plate 30, fig. 4, Dressler 1993) as
Stellilabium bullpenense Atwood, which it is not by
any stretch of the imagination. A few minutes after
photographing that Stellilabium, we crossed a pas-
ture and found another species at the edge of the
forest. This tiny plant, with a single flower, was
pressed and I later made a label for it, as number
310 of the plants collected by Dressler and Biologia
350 and sent the label to the University of Costa
Rica Herbarium (USJ), where the first set of speci-
mens is deposited.
When I looked at the Stellilabium specimens at
USJ in 1999, I found my label number 310
mounted with a plant of the large plant from the
gallery forest. Someone else had pressed a
specimen, and the tiny plant for which the label
was intended was simply lost among the newspa-
pers.
Later specimens were collected by Dressler and


Mora in 1991, by Atwood and Mora in 1992, and
by Pupulin, Spadari and the Orchidology Course in
2000. The best of these specimens originally had
several flowers but they were destroyed by insects.
The remaining specimens have only a few flowers,
but the label of Atwood & Mora 4202 mentions two
flowers in alcohol. I asked Franco Pupulin to
search for the flowers in alcohol, and he found
them to be the same as his own collection from the
same locality. There is not much good material of
this species, but it is more than is available of most
other Central American species of Stellilabium and
with Franco's excellent drawing it can finally
receive a name.

Stellilabium (Taeniorhachis) erratum Dressler, sp.
nov. FIG. 1.
TYPE: COSTA RICA. Cartago: Canton Paraiso,
Dist. Orosi, Tapanti, Sendero Orop6ndola, en P. N.
Tapanti, 1350 m, 2 nov. 1992, epifita, flores
moradas, J. T. Atwood & D. E. Mora 4202 (holo-
type, USJ).

Rhachis alata, labellum trilobatum, medio infla-
tum; column trilobata, lobulis lateralibus setis stel-
latis praedita, lobulo medio hispido.

Roots flattened, 1.5-2 mm wide; leaves 16-37 x 3-
4 mm, elliptic-oblanceolate, acute; stems basally
terete, then sulcate; peduncular bracts 1.8-2.4 x 1.5
mm, acute; rachis flattened, 1-1.2 mm wide, up to
16 cm long; floral bracts 1-1.2 x 1.3 mm, triangular,
acute; pedicel and ovary 6.5 mm; flowers dark
wine-purple; dorsal sepal 3-3.5 x 2-2.2 mm, ovate,






LANKESTERIANA


5 mm

F I If.


I 1 mm I


3 mm


1 _3 cm


1 5mm


L 1mm


Figure 1. Stellilabium erratum Dressier. A Habit. B Flower. C Perianth parts flattened. D Column and lip, lateral
view. E Bristles of lateral lobes of column. F. Bristles of midlobe of column. G. Pollinarium without and with anther
cap. Based on Pupulin et al. 2266.


457








DRESSLER Stellilabium erratum


subacute; lateral sepals 3-4 x 1.6-2 mm, obliquely
ovate, obtuse, apiculate; petals 3.3-3.5 x 0.9-1.1
mm, narrowly elliptic-oblong, subacute, margins
ciliate; lip 3-3.5 x 3-3.3 mm, 3-lobed, lateral lobes
1.3-2.5 x 0.4-0.5 mm, lanceolate, fleshy, papillose,
midlobe 2.5-3 x 1.5-2.5 mm, ovate-triangular,
acuminate, thickened in middle, puberulent-papil-
lose; column 3-lobed, lateral lobes 1.3-1.5 x 0.4-0.8
mm, oblong, flattened, the dorsal margins with
dense band of stellate bristles ca. 0.7 mm long,
midlobe rounded, ca. 1.5 mm, bristles simple, ca.
0.4 mm; capsule ovoid, ca. 7 x 3 mm, including
beak ca. 1.5 mm, fruiting pedicel ca. 3 mm.

Among Central American species of
Stellilabium, S. erratum is distinguished by its large
size (for a Stellilabium), by the deeply 3-lobed lip
and the deeply 3-lobed column. The 3-lobed
column would suggest its placement in
Dipterostele, according to Garay and Romero
(1998), but none of the species described from
South America has the flattened, tapeworm-like
rachis of the Central American complex. The
section Taeniorhachis has been proposed for the
Central American group (Dressler 1999). The
available samples of DNA are very few (one
species each of Dipterostele in the strict sense,
Stellilabium in the strict sense and Taeniorhachis),
but the analysis does suggest that the three may be
distinct groups (N. H. Williams, pers. comm.)


Further and better samples, though, may well show
that all three are subgroups of Telipogon in the
broad sense. The epithet erratum, or error, refers to
the improbable series of errors that started when we
first saw the plant by the Rio Pejibaye.

PARATYPES: Same locality as type, 1200 m, 9 apr.
2000, F. Pupulin, L. Spadari y Curso de
Orquideologia 2266 (USJ). "Taos," altura aprox.
1000 m, 11 dic. 1984, por el borde entire selva y
potrero, R. L. Dressler y Biologia 350 no. 310
(USJ). La Selva. Valle del Rio Pejibaye, elev.
aprox. 1000 m, 18 marzo 1991, epifita, cerca del
rio, flores morado-rojo, R. L. Dressler y D. E. Mora
de Retana 6136 (USJ).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. I am very much indebted to
the late Dora Emilia Mora, for helping me to reach
this and many other interesting localities, and
Franco Pupulin for the excellent drawing.



CITED LITERATURE
Dresser, R. L. 1993. Field guide to the orchids of
Costa Rica and Panama. Ithaca, Cornell University
Press.
Dresser, R. L. 1999. A reconsideration of Stellilabium
and Dipterostele. Harvard Pap. Bot. 4: 469-473.
Garay, L. A., & G. A. Romero-Gonzalez. 1998.
Schedulae Orchidum. Harvard Pap. Bot. 3: 53-62.


Octubre 2001






Page
Missing
or
Unavailable








IANKESTERIANA2 15-18 2001


MYOXANTHUS VITTATUS (ORCHIDACEAE),
A NEW SPECIES FROM COSTA RICA

FRANCO PUPULIN1 and MARIO A. BLANCO2

1 Jardin Botanico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Research Associate, Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, Sarasota, U.S.A.
P.O. Box 1031-7050 Cartago, Costa Rica. fpupulin@cariari.ucr.ac.cr
2 Institute Centroamericano de Investigaci6n Biol6gica y Conservaci6n
P.O. Box 2398-250 San Pedro de Montes de Oca, San Jose, Costa Rica
Present mailing address: Herbarium, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida
385 Dickinson Hall, P.O. Box 117800 Gainesville, Florida 32611-7800, U.S.A.

ABSTRACT. The taxonomic position of Myoxanthus Poepp. & Endl. (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae)
is discussed and Silenia Luer is maintained as a subgenus of Myoxanthus. A new species of
Myoxanthus is described and illustrated. Myoxanthus vittatus Pupulin & M.A. Blanco is apparently
endemic to the low, tropical wet forests of central Pacific Costa Rica, where it has been collected in
two different places. It differs from closely related species for the small size of the plant, the whitish
flowers, longitudinally striped with purple, the densely pubescent ovary, and the ligulate, obtuse lip.
The new combination Myoxanthus tomentosus (Luer) Pupulin & M.A. Blanco is proposed.

RESUMEN. Se discute la posici6n taxon6mica de Myoxanthus Poepp. & Endl. (Orchidaceae:
Pleurothallidinae) y se mantiene a Silenia Luer como subg6nero de Myoxanthus. Se describe y se
ilustra una nueva especie de Myoxanthus. Myoxanthus vittatus Pupulin & M.A. Blanco es aparente-
mente end6mico de los bosques tropicales de bajura en el Pacifico Central de Costa Rica, donde ha
sido recolectado en dos diferentes localidades. Difiere de las species afines por el tamafio pequefio
de las plants, por sus flores blanquecinas con estrias longitudinales purpura, por el ovario densa-
mente pubescente y por el labelo ligulado y obtuso. Se propone la nueva combinaci6n Myoxanthus
tomentosus (Luer) Pupulin & M.A. Blanco.

KEY WORDS: Orchidaceae, Pleurothallidinae, Myoxanthus, Myoxanthus sect. Silenia, Myoxanthus
vittatus, Costa Rica


The circumscription of genera within the largest
tribes of the Orchidaceae has not yet reached a gen-
eral agreement among taxonomists. The subtribe
Pleurothallidinae, restricted to the tropics and sub-
tropics of the New World, is perhaps the largest
taxonomic orchid group, with 28 genera and an
estimation of more than 3000 species (Dressler
1993).
The genus Myoxanthus was first described by
Endlicher on M. monophyllus (Poeppig &
Endlicher 1835), based on a plant collected in the
Peruvian department of Huanuco by Poeppig. In
1847 another species currently assigned to
Myoxanthus was identified as a distinct genus and
described as Duboisia by Karsten (later renamed


Dubois-Raymondia Karsten due to the priority of
Duboisia R. Br. in the Solanaceae) (Karsten 1847,
1848). A third attempt to assign species of
Myoxanthus to a new genus was made by Barbosa
Rodrigues (1882), who described Chaetocephala to
accommodate its former Restrepia lonchophylla. In
the opinion of leading orchid taxonomists at that
time, notably Lindley, Reichenbach, and Cogniaux,
the criteria selected to define the new genera were
insufficient to sustain the proposals, and
Myoxanthus species were newly submerged into
the conglomerate genus Pleurothallis.
It was not until 1982 when the genus
Myoxanthus was resurrected by Luer who recog-
nized 34 species sharing a combination of








LANKESTERIANA


characters sufficiently distinct to warrant generic
recognition, among which the presence of tubular
sheaths concealing the ramicaul, often bearing
digitate trichomes, a leaf abscission layer without
the "node" which may be found in racemose
species of Pleurothallis, the fascicled
inflorescence, and the often thickened apices of the
petals, sometimes developed into osmophores
(Luer 1982). The original circumscription of
Myoxanthus was emended by Luer (1992) in his
systematic monograph of the genus, with the
description of subgenus Silenia to include the P.
aspasicensis complex, encompassing 3 species with
a fascicle of single, successive flowers borne
terminally from the ramicaul, fleshy flowers exter-
nally short- pubescent, and ciliate anther cap.
Eventually in 1995 Luer proposed to include
Myoxanthus subgenera Satyria and Silenia in
Pleurothallis subgenus Acianthera in order to
restore a circumscription of Myoxanthus sensu
strict (Luer 1995).
The generic delimitation of Myoxanthus among
other pleurothalloids is supported by a unique
assemblage of morphological characteristics and
anatomical features revised by Pridgeon and Stern
(1982). The presence of two series of foliar veins
and a medullated stele in the root is characteristic
of Myoxanthus and may be found elsewhere in the
Pleurothallidinae only in Octomeria and in the
Pleurothallis aspasicensis complex. Spiral thicken-
ings in hypodermal cells and mesophyll idioblasts,
which are present in most pleurothallids, are
notably absent from all the tissues of Myoxanthus
and the P. aspasicensis complex (Pridgeon & Stem
1982).
In view of the diagnostic anatomical characters
which allow recognition of evolutionary affinities
in the Pleurothallidinae and to preserve the natural-
ness of Myoxanthus, we prefer to maintain the P.
aspasicensis complex as Myoxanthus subgenus
Silenia and we therefore propose the following
Myoxanthus species new to science:

Myoxanthus vittatus Pupulin & M.A. Blanco, sp.
nov. FIG. 1

TYPE: COSTA RICA. San Jose: Perez Zeled6n, El
Brujo, near Rio Division, 450 m, 30 Jan. 2000,


flowered in cultivation at Jardin Botanico
Lankester, 3 June 2001, M.A. Blanco 1324 (holo-
type, USJ!; isotype, SEL!).
Species Myoxantho aspasicensi (Rchb.f.) Luer
similis, sed plant floribusque omnine minoribus,
ovario pubescente, sepalis purpureo vittatis, interne
laevis, synsepalo lanceolato, apice petalorum
dorsaliter tuberculato, labello ligulato apice laevi
differt.

Plant epiphytic, cespitose, up to 17 cm tall, roots
coarse. Ramicauls stout, erect, 4-7 cm long,
enclosed by 3-4 loose, tubular sheaths sometimes
fragmented. Leaf erect, thickly coriaceous, narrow-
ly lanceolate-elliptic, minutely emarginate, 7-10 cm
long, 1.3-1.5 cm wide, cuneate below into a condu-
plicate, sessile base. Inflorescence a fascicle of sin-
gle, successive flowers, at the apex of ramicaul,
the peduncle sparsely pubescent, 8-13 mm long,
subtended by a papyraceous spathe 1.4-1.6 cm
long; pedicels 2-3 mm long; ovary less than 1 mm
long, densely pubescent. Flowers small, whitish,
longitudinally striped with purple, fleshy, densely
short-pubescent externally, glabrous within. Dorsal
sepal linear-oblanceolate, obtuse, 10-12 mm long,
3 mm wide, 5-veined. Lateral sepals connate into a
lanceolate, shortly emarginate, concave synsepal,
10-13 mm long, 4-5 mm wide, each half 4-veined.
Petals fleshy, linear-oblong, obtuse, minutely apic-
ulate, adaxially provided with a tuft of short papil-
lae near the apex, 4 mm long, 1 mm wide, 3-
veined. Lip 3-lobed, ligulate, subacute, 4 mm long,
2.5 mm wide between lateral lobes; the apical lobe
smooth, slightly undulate along the margins; the
lateral lobes erect, narrowly uncinate, antrorse; the
disc with an erect, narrow, low, channeled callus
above the base, extending in front into a low keel
just to near the lip apex, laterally provided with a
pair of low lamellae extending to the apex, hinged
on the end. Column arcuate, semiterete, 1.6 mm
long, provided with narrow wings above the mid-
dle, the foot less than 1 mm long. Anther cap glo-
bose, with long hairs on the upper margin, 2-celled.
Pollinia 2, obovoid, flattened, on a short caudicle.
ETYMOLOGY: from the Latin vittatus, "longitu-
dinally striped", in reference to the stripes on sepals
and petals.








PuPULIN and BLANCO Myoxanthus vittatus


1 5 mm I


S3 mm


11 cm I


5 cm


3 mm


, 1 mm


Figure 1. Myoxanthus vittatus Pupulin & M.A. Blanco. A Habit. B Flower. C Dissected flower ( petal to the left
in abaxial view). D Column and lip, lateral view. E Lip, spread. F Pollinarium and anther cap. ILLUSTRATION VOUCH-
ER: M.A. Blanco 1324 (USJ). Drawn from the holotype.


Octubre 2001








LANKESTERIANA


DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY: Known only from two
specimens from the same area in central Pacific
Costa Rica, epiphytic in tropical wet forest, pre-
montane belt transition, at 450 m elevation.

PHENOLOGY: Flowering occurs from March to June.

PARATYPE: COSTA RICA. San Jose: Perez Zeled6n,
Viento Fresco del Brujo, 450 m, epiphytic on culti-
vated trees in the village, 21 Jan. 2001, flowered in
cultivation at Gaia Botanical Garden, 13 June 2001,
F. Pupulin, D. Castelfranco & L. Elizondo 2878
(USJ, Spirit Coll.!).

Myoxanthus vittatus is closely related to M.
aspasicensis, Pleurothallis tomentosa, M. sem -
pergemmatus and M. uncinatus, but it is distin-
guished by the small size, the densely pubescent
ovary, the whitish flower striped with purple, the
sepals adaxially smooth, and the ligulate, obtuse
lip.
Pleurothallis tomentosa Luer was described
from a single Costa Rican collection made by
Endres around 1867 and kept at Reichenbach's
herbarium in Vienna, and it is supposed to be
extinct (Luer 2000). This species may be easily dis-
tinguished from M. vittatus by the purple-black
flowers with an oblong lip, rounded at apex. In
order to avoid paraphyly in Myoxanthus as intend-
ed here, a new combination is required for Endres'
species:


Myoxanthus tomentosus (Luer) Pupulin & M.A.
Blanco, comb. nov.
Bas.: Pleurothallis tomentosa Luer, Orqui-
deologia 21(3): 337. 2000.


CITED LITERATURE
Barbosa Rodrigues, J. 1882. Chaetocephala, Gen. Spec.
Orch. Orchid. Nov. 2: 37.
Dressier, R.L. 1993. Phylogeny and classification of the
orchid family. Dioscorides Press, Portland.
Karsten, H. 1847. Duboisia. Allg. Gartenz. 15: 394.
1848. Dubois-Raymondia. Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 6:
397.
Luer, C.A. 1982. A reevaluation of the genus Myoxanthus
(Orchidaceae). Selbyana 7(1): 34-54.
1992. Icones Pleurothallidinarum IX. Systematics
of Myoxanthus. Addenda to Platystele, Pleurothallis
subgenus Scopula, and Scaphosepalum. Monogr. Syst.
Bot., Missouri Bot. Gard. 44: 1-128.
1995. A re-evaluation of the Pleurothallid subgen-
era Satyria and Silenia (Orchidaceae). Monogr. Syst.
Bot., Missouri Bot. Gard. 57: 146.
2000. Miscellaneous new species in the
Pleurothallidinae. Orquideologia 21(3): 318-340.
Poeppig, E.F. & S.L. Endlicher. 1835. Myoxanthus mono .
phyllus. Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 1: 50, t. 88.
Pridgeon, A.M. & W.L. Stern. 1982. Vegetative anatomy
of Myoxanthus (Orchidaceae). Selbyana 7(1): 55-63.








IANKESTERIANA2 19-21 2001


THE GENUS CHRISTENSONIA HAAGER


ERIC A. CHRISTENSON

1646 Oak Street, Sarasota, Florida 34236, U.S.A.


ABSTRACT. The monotypic Vietnamese genus Christensonia Haager is discussed and illustrated by a
detailed line drawing. A warm-growing, lowland plant, C. vietnamica is an exciting addition to the
tropical horticulture as well as a taxonomic bridge between the genera Aerides, Rhynchostylis, and
Vanda.

RESUMEN. Se discute y se ilustra con un dibujo de plumilla detallado el g6nero monotipico vietnami-
ta Christensonia Haager. Una plant de clima calido, native de tierras bajas, C. vietnamica es un
interesante aporte a la horticulture tropical, asi como un puente taxon6mico entire los g6neros
Aerides, Rhynchostylis y Vanda.

KEY WORDS: Orchidaceae, Aeridinae, Christensonia, Christensonia vietnamica, Vietnam


In 1993 Czech botanist Jiri (George) Haager
kindly honored me by describing a new genus of
Vietnamese orchids Christensonia (Haager 1993).
In that account and later mention of the genus
(Christenson 1996), space consideration did not
allow publication of an excellent line drawing of
the type plant by Haager. This article rectifies this
situation.
A member of the subtribe Aeridinae (synonym:
Sarcanthinae), Christensonia exhibits a mosaic of
characters found in the closely related genera
Aerides Loureiro, Rhynchostylis Blume, and Vanda
Jones.
Christensonia differs from Aerides by having no
column foot. And unlike most species of Aerides,
the lip of Christensonia is not flexibly hinged
below the lateral lobes allowing deflexion of the lip
by pollinators. Christensonia is similar to
Rhynchostylis, especially in having a narrowly lin-
ear stipe to the pollinarium, but differs by having a
clearly three-lobed lip. In addition, plants of
Christensonia are miniature and few-flowered
compared with Rhynchostylis.
Christensonia is perhaps most similar to Vanda.
In particular, Christensonia shares two characteris-
tics with Vanda. First, the spurs are straight and in
the same plane as the midlobe of the lip. Second,
the only flexible portion of the lip is the base of the
midlobe.


The green and white flowers of Christensonia
are unlike the generally white and rose-purple pat-
terns seen in Aerides and Rhynchostylis. However,
they are similat to some species of Vanda, especial-
ly those of Vanda section Cristatae Lindley which
are sometimes segregated as the genus Trudelia
Garay (q.v., Christenson 1994). Nothing is known
of the pollinaton biology of Christensonia nor the
significance, if any, of the green and white floral
coloration.
Plants of Christensonia have entered horticul-
ture and are readily available commercially in the
United States. A plant cultivated in Sarasota,
Florida, for several years has proven to be vigorous
and trouble-free to grow. Its first flowering was on
a plant of the similar size to the one shown in the
drawing. Plants in the Czech Republic and the
United States flower in july. Its flowering season in
nature is unknown.

Christensonia vietnamica J.R. Haager, Orchid
Digest 57(1): 40. 1993.

TYPE. Southern Vietnam, Prov. Khanh Hoa,
Ninh Tay village, 100 m, April 1989, collected by
0. Dubec and J. Jurak, flowered in cultivation in
Prague, PR 11392 holotypee, PR). FIG. 1.

Monopodial epiphytes. Stems to 30 cm long.
Leaves strap-shaped, erose at apex, to 6 x 1 cm.






LANKESTERIANA


*
-'4


Figure 1. Christensonia vietnamica J.R. Haager. 1. Habit. 2. Leaf apices. 3. Flower from below. 4. Longitudinal sec-
tion of the lip. 5. Anther. 6. Pollinarium. 7. Pollinium. 8. Stipe. 9. Sepals and petal. 10. Fruit. 11. Cross-section of the
ovary. Drawing of the type plant by Jfri Haager.








CHRISTENSON The genus Christensonia


1I'- .-,. _.... .... 1-3, erect, few-flowered, to 8 cm
long. Flowers 3-5, resupinate, somewhat nodding,
the sepals, petals and lateral lobes of the lip yellow-
green, the midlobe of the lip white. Sepals and
petals subequal, to 1.6 x 0.7 cm, the dorsal sepal
oblong-elliptic, obtuse, convex, the lateral sepals
obliquely elliptic-obovate, obtuse, convex, the
petals elliptic, obtuse, somewhat incurved. Lip
three-lobed, to 3.4 cm long from the apex of the
spur to the apex of the midlobe, the lateral lobes
rectangular, obtuse, to 0.7 x 0.3 cm, the midlobe
fan-shaped with a broad claw, with finely toothed
and undulate margins, to 1.8 x 1.6 cm, the spur with
small, scale-like, internal glandular processes


below the apex. Column very short, to 0.3 cm long.
Pedicel and ovary six-winged, twisted.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. I graciously thank Jiri
Haager for honoring me with this commemoration
and for lending the accompanying illustration for
this article.
LITERATURE CITED
Christenson, E.A. 1994. Taxonomy of the Aeridinae with
an infrageneric classification of Vanda Jones ex R. Br.
Proc. 14th World Orch. Conf. 206-216.
1996. Sarcanthinae genera 22: Christensonia.
Orchids 65(3): 282-283.
Haager, J.R. 1993. Some new taxa of orchids from
Southern Vietnam. Orchid Digest 57(1): 39-44.


Octubre 2001






Page
Missing
or
Unavailable








IANKESTERIANA2 23-30 2001


ENDOPHYTES OF SERAPIAS PARVIFLORA PARL.
AND SPIRANTHES SPIRALIS (L.) CHEVALL. (ORCHIDACEAE):
DESCRIPTION OF ENDOPHYTES OF S. PARVIFLORA, AND IN VITRO
SYMBIOSIS DEVELOPMENT IN S. PARVIFLORA
AND SPIRANTHES SPIRALIS


PIER LUIGI PACETTI and SABINE RIESS

Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita della Tuscia, 1-01100 Viterbo, Italy

ABSTRACT. Endophytes were isolated from Serapias parviflora (Orchidaceae) roots. They are
described and partially classified under microscope, after growth on PDA. Two fungi had symbiotic
characters: A-Sepa-1, an ascomycete, and B-Sepa-1, a basidiomycete. At the same time, many plants
of S. parviflora and Spiranthes spiralis were asymbiotically obtained by sterilisation of seeds and
sowing on modified Frosch medium. After transplantation to symbiotic medium (modified Basic
Oats), they were inoculated with isolated fungi. Serapias parviflora was used as control and S. spi -
ralis was used to establish specificity between hosts and endophytes. The two fungi were able to
induce symbiosis in S. I 9., i .... in vitro, while only B-Sepa-1 induced symbiosis in S. spiralis
roots in vitro. We conclude that specificity between these fungi and the two orchid species studied
in vitro is different, possibly substantiating the hypothesis of a potential and ecological specificity.

RESUMEN. Hongos end6fitos fueron aislados de raices de Serapias parviflora (Orchidaceae). Fueron
descritos y clasificados parcialmente bajo el microscopio de luz luego de ser cultivados en PDA.
Dos de ellos presentaron caracteristicas de simbiontes: la Cepa-A-1, un ascomicete, y la Cepa-B-1,
un basidiomicete. Al mismo tiempo muchas plants de S. parviflora y Spiranthes spiralis fueron
obtenidas asimbi6ticamente por esterilizaci6n de semillas y cultivo en un medio Frosch modificado.
Luego de transplantarlas a un medio simbi6tico (Oats modificado), las plants fueron inoculadas con
los hongos aislados. Serapias parviflora fue utilizada como control y S. spiralis lo fue para estable-
cer especificidad entire hospederos y end6fitos. Los dos hongos fueron capaces de inducir simbiosis
in vitro en raices de S. parviflora, mientras que solo la Cepa-B-1 indujo simbiosis in vitro en raices
de S. spiralis. Concluimos que la especificidad in vitro entire estos hongos y las dos species de
orquideas estudiadas es diferente, posiblemente apoyando la hip6tesis de una especificidad ecol6gi-
ca potential.

KEY WORDS: Orchidaceae, Serapias parviflora, Spiranthes spiralis, symbiotic fungi, endophytes,
Italy.


Introduction. Orchids need endomycorrhizae to
develop: green orchids need fungi for the early
developmental stages, while orchids lacking
chlorophyll are always completely dependent upon
fungi. Endophytes of orchids are always Mitosporic
Fungi. Three classes are recognized in this group:
Hyphomycetes, Coelomycetes, and Agonomycetes.
To the latter class belong sterile fungi that may pro-
duce chlamydospores or sclerotia and the genus
Rhizoctonia DC., whose members may also


produce sclerotia. Most orchid endophytes are
ascribed to this group. Only few traits were used to
describe this genus (Curtis 1937) but unfortunately
they have no taxonomic value since they do not
allow discrimination between very similar
Rhizoctonia species with very different perfect
states. Rambelli (1981) suggested the presence of
dolipores or clamp connections as a character to
assign a fungus to the basidiomycetes when
reproductive structures are absent. Moreover, Riess








LANKESTERIANA


and Scrugli (1987) suggested to classify orchid
endophytes in four morphometrical classes: A, B,
C, and D. This classification has no taxonomic
value, but because fungi are studied when they are
into cortical cells, it gives information on fungal
ecology. Three ascomycetes strains with
Rhizoctonia-like anamorphs were isolated from
Pterostylis sp. but no seeds germinated when they
were inoculated with these fungi (Warcup 1975).
Some tropical orchids have ascomycetes as
symbiont (Dreifuss & Petrini 1981 and 1984);
formerly these fungi were described as
Ascorhizoctonia Chin S. Yang & Korf, but since
they are saprobe fungi and do not produce sclerotia
they can not be ascribed to the genus Rhizoctonia
DC. (Andersen 1986). Septum ultrastructure of
Leptodontidium orchidicola Sigler & Currah
(Mitosporic Fungi) isolated from tropical orchids
reveals that this anamorph is related to ascomycetes
in having Woronin bodies near its septum pore.
One of the first questions about the relationship
between orchids and endophytes deals with the
specificity. Bernard (1909) hypothesised a high
level of specificity but such close relationship was
soon rejected. Burgeff (1936) proposed that
specificity existed between some fungi and
ecological host groups, and Curtis (1937) suggested
a closer relationship between fungus and habitat.
Hadley and Harvais (1967) questioned Curtis'
ecological specificity because not all fungi isolated
from ripe plants were able to support host seed
germination. Further works built up evidence in
favour of the absence of specificity (Downie 1959,
Hadley 1970). Riess and Scrugli (1987) observed
that some orchid species (Ophrys bombyliflora
Link. and Ophrys tenthredinifera Willd.) had dif-
ferent endophytes when collected in different sites.
They also observed, in the same work, that in
Limodorum abortivum (L.) Sw. there were simul-
taneously two endophytes with different morpho-
logical characters. Similar results were obtained
from Curtis (1937), Downie (1943), Talbot and
Warcup (1967), and Harley (1969). Masuhara and
Katsuya (1989, 1994), by studying Spiranthes
sinensis (Persoon) Ames var. amoena (M.
Bieberstein) Hara, suggested two kinds of specifici-
ty: 1) "ecological specificity", i.e. when pelotons


are into root cortical cells or into the protocorms
in nature (in situ); and 2) "potential specificity", i.e.
associations between orchids and fungi in other
conditions, both in vitro or ex vitro. Masuhara and
others (1993) observed ecological specificity only
in some fungi with potential specificity. For
example, Microtis parviflora R. Br. (Orchidaceae)
has a narrow ecological specificity in the field,
while showing a broad potential specificity in
vitro. The factors that contribute to ecological
specificity could be fungal growth and survival in
the soil, which are influenced by environmental
factors, or fungal density in the field (Masuhara
and others 1995). Milligan and Williams (1988; in
Masuhara & Katsuya 1995) suggested that differ-
ences between ecological and potential specificity
could be due to a succession of fungi in orchid tis-
sues, but further investigations are necessary to
confirm this hypothesis.
Our study was carried out in two steps: 1) isola-
tion and description of Serapias parviflora
endomycorrhizal fungi; 2) description of associa-
tions, in vitro, between S. parviflora and fungi, and
between Spiranthes spiralis and fungi. S. parviflora
was used as control and S. spiralis was used to ver-
ify the existence of specificity between host and
endophyte.

Materials and methods. Serapias parviflora
roots samples were collected at Allerona Scalo
(Umbria, Italy) on 05/16/1999. The whole plant,
together with a clump of soil, was collected, in
order to prevent root damage. Samples were pre-
served in sterilised envelopes at 50 C until fungal
isolation (two days after collection). To remove
fungi and bacteria from external surfaces, roots
were sterilised by immersion on H202 (30%) for 4
minutes; then they were rinsed 4 times in sterile
distilled water. Roots were cut, 1 cm segments
were sowed on Petri dishes with PDA and strepto-
mycin (a broad-spectrum antibiotic) and then incu-
bated at 20 C. Fungi were observed under phase
contrast microscope, scanning and transmission
electron microscope and confocal laser microscope.
For the latter there is no need of a particular prepa-
ration but fungi stained better when coloured with
acid fuchsin. Fungi observed under TEM were








Octubre 2001 PACETTI and RIESS Endophytes of Serapias paiiillora and Spiranthes spiralis


Figure 1. B-Sepa-1 monilioid cells (SEM, x 2000).

treated as follows: growth on liquid medium, fixa-
tion for 2 hours in para-formaldehyde/glutaralde-
hyde (2%/2.5% v/v) in phosphate buffer 0,025 M
pH 7 at 25 C, rinsed 3 times in phosphate buffer
0,025 M, postfixation in OsO4 1% in 0,05 M phos-
phate buffer v/v for 12 hours at 40 C, dehydration
in a graded ethyl alcohol series for 15 minutes each
(10%, 30%, 50%, 75%) and for 1 hour in pure ethyl
alcohol, embedding on Spurr's epoxy resin and
polymerisation for 8 hours at 70 C. Thin sections
(70 nm), stained with uranil acetate, 10% v/v in
50% ethanol (v/v) for 7 minutes at 70 C and fresh-
ly prepared lead citrate (1% v/v on 50% ethanol
v/v) for 12 minutes at 25 C were observed.
Fungi were inoculated in S. parviflora plants to
confirm symbiosis and in Spiranthes spiralis
plants to establish specificity. All plants were
asymbiotically grown from seeds (modified Frosch
medium) and transplanted on medium for symbiot-
ic growth (modified Basic Oats medium, Riess and
Pacetti, 2001) before inoculation.

Results. Many fungi were isolated from roots of
Serapias parviflora but only two strains had char-
acters of symbiotic fungi: mycelium with septa,
monilioid cells, sclerotia, without asexual spores
(grown on PDA until substrate exhaustion). Two
fungi were able to form, in vitro, typical pelotons in
S. parviflora and Spiranthes spiralis root cortex
cells. They were called B-Sepa-1 and A-Sepa-1.
B-Sepa-1 (PDA) produces floccose to veluti-
nous colonies, without water-soluble pigments and
substrate pigmentation. Mycelium superficial and


Figure 2. B-Sepa-1 sclerotium (SEM, x 1000).

from white to light grey. On PDA, monilioid cells
(fig. 1) and sclerotia (fig. 2) are differentiated.
Vegetative hyphae hyaline, septated, with constric-
tion on branched point and with smooth wall (fig.
3). Thin wall and hyaline monilioid cells, from
ellipsoidal to spherical, 4,5 x 6,5 mm, organised in
septated chains and branched or linear chains (fig.
4). Sclerotia torulose, 120 x 70 mm. Dolipores
always present under TEM (fig. 5).
A-Sepa-1 (PDA) consisting of floccose and from
light yellow to yellow colonies with white to light
grey micelium on peripheral area. Uncoloured exu-
date, from dark grey to black water-soluble pig-
ments and monilioid cells are produced. Vegetative
hyphae hyaline, septated, with smooth walls.
Hyaline monilioid cells are differentiated. Spherical
to irregular, 4,5-15 x 6,5-15 mm, organised in lin-
ear and never branched chains. Thick and irregular
electron dense layer around hyphae (fig. 6),
Woronin bodies near septum pore (fig. 7).
Symbiosis between S. parviflora and B-Sepa-1
was observed under microscope. In these associa-
tions there is a massif fungal penetration of roots,
preferentially through hairs (fig. 8) but in some
case there is epidermal penetrations too.
Subepidermal invasion is confined to the first two
cortex layers. Pelotons and digested pelotons can
be observed from the third to the eighth cellular
layer. In some sections we can find both pelotons
(fig. 9) and digested pelotons (fig. 10) in the same
cell. We can also assume an infective cyclical pat-
tern by observing mycelium intercellular connec-
tions (fig. 11).


7 74 4 _tzal








LANKESTERTANA


Figure 3. Trasversal section of B-Sepa-1 hypha (TEM,
x 22500).


Figure 5. B-Sepa-1 septal ultrastructure with dolipore
(TEM, x 45000).


In S. parviflora roots, inoculated with A-Sepa-1,
there are few observations of epidermal penetra-
tions (fig. 12). There is a slight subepidermal inva-
sion and there are pelotons (fig. 13) and digested
pelotons in the inner layers of the cortex (from the
third to the sixth). Pelotons occupy a smaller cyto-
plasm portion compared to B-Sepa-1 in the same
orchid.
As to S. spiralis inoculated with B-Sepa-1, it is
possible to say that fungus preferentially penetrates
through hairs (fig. 14), even if epidermal penetra-
tion is quite frequent (fig. 15). It is impossible to
see subepidermal invasion because the first five
layers are completely invaded by pelotons and
digested pelotons (fig. 16 and 17). In this case,


Figure 4. B-Sepa-1 monilioid cells (confocal laser
microscope, x 80).


Figure 6. Trasversal section ofA-Sepa-1 hypha, with a
thick and irregular electron-dense layer surrounding the
cellular wall (TEM, x 30000).

intercellular micelium connections are very clear.
Beyond the fifth cellular layer of the cortex there is
no fungus but there are many starch granules (fig.
18).
In S. spiralis, inoculated with A-Sepa-1, there
are only very few partially or completely digested
pelotons. Epidermal invasion is the only means
observed for fungal penetration; hairs root invasion
is never observed.
Fungal hyphae diameters are quite constant both








Octubre 2001 PACETTI and RIESS Endophytes of Serapias pa'iillora and Spiranthes spiralis


Figure 8. S. parviflora hair massively invaded by B-
Sepa-1 (confocal laser microscope, x 40).


Figure 7. A-Sepa-1 septal ultrastructure, with Woronin
bodies (TEM, x 45000).


Figure 9. B-Sepa-1 pelotons in S. ptu'i/lrt root cor-
tex, stained by acid fuchsin (phase contrast microscope, x
40).

in pure cultures on PDA and in the hosts: in B-
Sepa-1 diameters are on average 2 mm, while in
A-Sepa-1 diameters are on average 3,5 mm.

Conclusion. Endophytes isolation from roots of
Serapias parviflora reveals the presence of two
fungi. Our technique allows us to determine only
the division. A-Sepa-1 is an ascomycetes (presence
of Woronin bodies), and B-Sepa-1 is a basid-
iomycetes (presence of dolipores). We can also
recognize Riess and Scrugli morphometrical class-
es: A-Sepa-1 belongs to class B, with diameters of
hyphae ranging from 2,6 to 5 mm, while B-Sepa-1
belongs to class A, having hyphae with diameters
less than 2,5 mm. Molecular markers could certain-


Figure 10. B-Sepa-1 partially digested pelotons in S.
pu'ifirii root,, stained by acid fuchsin (x 40 ).

ly provide diagnostic tools for lower taxonomical
levels and taxon fingerprints. .
We can not tell if S. parviflora needs two fungi
simultaneously or in succession for its develop-
ment. Only observations of endophytes in samples
living in the same site could maybe answer this
question.
A-Sepa-1 and B-Sepa-1 behave differently when
inoculated in plants of S. parviflora and Spiranthes
spiralis: B-Sepa-1, the basidiomycetes, is a good
symbiont for both orchids, i.e. it is always possible
to see all typical mycorrhizal phases, their cyclical
pattern and the absence of fungi in orchids root
vascular tissue. A-Sepa-1, the ascomycetes, is a
good symbiont only for S. parviflora, in this orchid
we can observe fungal confinement in the first
layer of root cortex, starch accumulation in the
inner layers, cyclic infections and absence of fungus
in vascular tissue. A-Sepa-1 is not tolerate by S. spi -
ralis: there is a massif epidermal penetration but








LANKESTERIANA


Figure 11. B-Sepa-1 pelotons with intercellular con-
nections, stained by acid fuchsin (confocal laser micro-
scope, x 24).


Figure 13. A-Sepa-1 pelotons in S. ,pari'ira, stained
by acid fuchsin (phase contrast microscope, x 20).

there is no penetration through hairs. The very few
pelotons are digested immediately and mycelium
can not invade the other cells: typical symbiotic
alternation of infection and digestion seems to be
shifted toward digestion.
Symbiosis between A-Sepa-1 and S. parviflora
and digestion of fungus in S. spiralis suggest a dif-
ferent potential specificity of the fungus for the two


Figure 12. A-Sepa-1 epidermal penetration in S. parvi -
flora (phase contrast microscope, x 40).


Figure 14. B-Sepa-1 penetration in S. spiralis root by
hair (x 40).

hosts: S. parviflora is micorrhizated by the two
fungi and S. spiralis only by B-Sepa-1, in vitro. If it
is true, inoculation of fungi in S. parviflora and S.
spiralis and their infective patterns are an addition-
al confirmation that there is no species-specificity,
but potential or ecological specificity between
orchids and fungi, as suggested from Masuhara and
Katsuya (1989).








Octubre 2001 PACETTI and RIESS Endophytes of Serapias pai'illora and Spiranthes spiralis


Figure 15. S. spiralis epidermal root cell penetrated by
B-Sepa-1 (SEM, x 1,000).


L .. tJdw~~fRV^5


Figure 16. B-Sepa-1 pelotons in S. spiralis root cells
(confocal laser microscope, x 40).


Figure 17. B-Sepa-1 pelotons in a S. spiralis root sec-
tion (SEM, x 500).



The different pattern of infection of the two
fungi in S. spiralis could also suggest that there is a
fungal succession in this host, and that A-Sepa-1
can not induce symbiosis in S. spiralis in the phase
of development studied.

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