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Title: Lankesteriana
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098723/00001
 Material Information
Title: Lankesteriana la revista científica del Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Physical Description: v. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Jardi´n Bota´nico Lankester
Jardín Botánico Lankester
Donor: unknown ( endowment )
Publisher: Jardi´n Bota´nico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Jardín Botánico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Place of Publication: Cartago Costa Rica
Cartago Costa Rica
Publication Date: May 2001
Copyright Date: 2010
Frequency: three times a year[2002-]
irregular[ former 2001]
three times a year
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Botany -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Epiphytes -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Orchids -- Periodicals -- Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Plantkunde   ( gtt )
Botanische tuinen   ( gtt )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Costa Rica
 Notes
Language: In English and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No. 1 (mayo 2001)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Issues for May 2001-Oct. 2003 designated no.1-8; issues for Apr. 2004- designated vol. 4, no. 1-
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 1 (abr. 2004).
General Note: International journal on orchidology.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098723
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 48491453
lccn - 2001240973
issn - 1409-3871

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Full Text
ISSN 1409-3871


LANE STERIANA


No. 1


Addenda Orchidaceis Quepoanis
FRANCO PUPULIN


MAYO 2001


LA REVISTA CIENTIFICA DEL JARDIN BOTANICO LANKESTER
UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA

















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CLEVELAND
BOTANICAL
GARDEN




ISSN 1409-3871


LANE STERIANA


No. 1


Addenda Orchidaceis Quepoanis
FRANCO PUPULIN


MAYO 2001


LA REVISTA CIENTIFICA DEL JARDIN BOTANICO LANKESTER
UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA











LANKESTERIANA
LA REVISTA CIENTIFICA DEL JARDIN BOTANICO LANKESTER
UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA






Copyright 2001 Jardin Botanico Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica
Fecha de publicaci6n vdlida / Effective publication date: 15 de mayo del 2001


Diagramaci6n: Jardin Botanico Lankester
Digitalizaci6n de las im4genes: Carlos Ossenbach y Asociados
Imprenta: Litograffa Ediciones Sanabria S.A.
Tiraje: 500 copias


Impreso en Costa Rica / Printed in Costa Rica


R Lankesteriana / La revista cientifica del Jardin Botanico
Lankester, Universidad de Costa Rica. No. 1
(2001)-- San Jos6, Costa Rica: Editorial Universidad
de Costa Rica, 2001--
V.
ISSN 1409-3871
1. Botanica Publicaciones peri6dicas, 2. Publicaciones
peri6dicas costarricenses


0










UN HOMENAJE AL STUDIO DE LAS EPIFITAS
A HOMAGE TO THE STUDY OF EPIPHYTES

JORGE WARNER

Director, Jardin Botdnico Lankester Universidad de Costa Rica
P.O. Box 1031-7050 Cartago, Costa Rica, A.C. jwarner@cariari.ucr.ac.cr


Estimado lector:
En sus manos esta el primer niimero de LANKESTE-
RIANA, la publicaci6n cientifica del Jardin Botgnico
Lankester de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Su nom-
bre honra la memorial de Charles Lankester, gran na-
turalista ingl6s fundador de este Jardin que lleva su
nombre desde 1973. En los iltimos afios el Jardin
Botdnico Lankester ha hecho, a travds de sus investi-
gadores, importantes contribuciones al conocimiento
de la flora de Costa Rica, principalmente mediante
exploraciones botdnicas y studios taxon6micos que
han conducido al descubrimiento de numerosas
species nuevas para la ciencia. Sus programs de
educaci6n ambiental y de micropropagaci6n de
species amenazadas de extinci6n han contribuido
significativamente a disminuir la presi6n de recolecta
sobre las poblaciones naturales.
LANKESTERIANA represent un gran hito en la historic
del Jardin Botdnico Lankester. Nace con el apoyo de
la Universidad de Costa Rica como parte de una
estrategia para enfrentar los retos del nuevo siglo con
renovado entusiasmo y reafirmar el papel protag6ni-
co del Jardin Botdnico Lankester en la investigaci6n,
la educaci6n ambiental y la conservaci6n de la flora
epffita neotropical.
LANKESTERIANA publicard principalmente trabajos
cientfficos originales sobre sistemdtica y ecologia de
plants epifitas, ademis de studios relacionados con
morfologia, gen6tica, propagaci6n y conservaci6n.
Se enfatizard en investigaciones que tengan como
sujeto de studio species originarias de Mesoam6-
rica, especialmente orquideas. Esta region posee una
variada flora, donde casi 20% de las families de plan-
tas incluyen epffitas.
Confiamos en que el esmerado trabajo de sus edi-
tores, el apoyo entusiasta de su Comit6 Cientifico y
las contribuciones de la comunidad cientifica harin
possible el 6xito de esta nueva publicaci6n.


Dear reader:
This is the first issue of LANKESTERIANA, the scien-
tific journal of Jardin Botanico Lankester at
Universidad de Costa Rica. Its name honors the
memory of Charles Lankester, British naturalist and
founder of the botanical garden entitled to him since
1973. Thanks to the botanical exploration and taxo-
nomic studies carried out by its researchers, the
Jardin Botdnico Lankester has made important con-
tributions to the knowledge of Costa Rican flora and
revealed many species new to the science. Its pro-
grams of environmental education and micropropa-
gation of threatened species consistently contributed
to reduce the collecting pressure on natural popula-
tions.
LANKESTERIANA means a big step in Jardin Botinico
Lankester history. It was born with the support of the
Universidad de Costa Rica as part of a strategy to
face the challenges of the new century with renewed
enthusiasm and to confirm the leading role of Jardin
Botanico Lankester in research, environmental edu-
cation and conservation of neotropical epiphytes.
LANKESTERIANA is mainly devoted to the publication
of original research on systematic and ecology of
epiphythes, as well as morphology, genetic, propaga-
tion and conservation. The journal emphasizes
research on Mesoamerican species, mainly orchids.
This region has a rich flora where almost 20% of the
plant families includes epiphytes.
We trust the conscientious work of its editors, the
enthusiastic support of its scientific committee and
the contribution of scientists around the world will
promote the success of this new journal.








LANKESTERIANA 1: 1-28. 2001.


ADDENDA ORCHIDACEIS QUEPOANIS

FRANCO PUPULIN

Jardin Botinico Lankester Universidad de Costa Rica
P.O. Box 1031-7050 Cartago, Costa Rica, A.C. fpupulin@cariari.ucr.ac.cr
Research Associate, Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, Sarasota, U.S.A.



ABSTRACT. Sixteen orchid species are first reported for the area of Quepos in addition to those recorded for
Manuel Antonio National Park, Costa Rica. Generic descriptions are provided for the genera not previously
recorded for the area, and each species is described and illustrated. Data on distribution and phenology are
provided, together with keys to the genera including more than one species in the area. A new species,
Epidendrum montis-narae Pupulin & L. S.nchez, is described and illustrated. Two previously recorded
species, Epidendrum isomerum and Oncidium polycladium, are illustrated from material collected within the
study area.
KEY WORDS: Orchidaceae, Taxonomy, Tropical Wet Forest, Costa Rica, Quepos


The epiphytic flora of Costa Rican Pacific lowlands
failed to attract the interest of botanists. Species rich-
ness in epiphytes is greater in premontane and lower
montane rain forests reflecting a correlation with mois-
ture availability through cloud cover and mists, and
with the notable exception of La Selva Biological
Station (Atwood, 1987) most of the better sampled
areas for epiphytic flora in Costa Rica are in mountain-
ous regions. Also when the level of total rainfall is
approximately the same, epiphytic abundance and
diversity are influenced by the seasonal distribution of
the rain, and species richness is usually greater in
Caribbean lowlands than in Pacific forests, which expe-
rience several months of dry-season. However, in the
last few years many new plant species and new records
were reported from central Pacific Costa Rica, which
proved to be a very rich and botanically underexplored
area (Dressler & Pupulin, 1996; Hodel et al., 1997;
Estrada & Cascante, 1998; Pupulin, 1998b; Sanchez,
1998; Pupulin, 2000).
The present paper follows the work by Pupulin (1998b)
intended to elucidate the orchid flora of the area of
Quepos, and includes new records and taxa originating
from field collections done in the region. The study area
corresponds politically to the Cant6n de Aguirre,
province of Puntarenas, and it is representative of the
tropical moist, transition to wet forests of the lowlands
and firsts highs (usually under 200 m elevation) of
Costa Rican Pacific drainage. It takes the name used in
this paper from the ancient Quepo tribes settled along
the coast of central Pacific Costa Rica before the arrival
of the Spanish conquerors. After the destruction of their
culture and the deportation of the last natives at the end


of the eighteenth century, the actual name of the village
of Quepos is the only memory of the ancient masters of
these lands. Generic descriptions are provided for all
the genera not previously reported for the area, whereas
accounts on the already recorded genera may be found
in Pupulin (1998b). For each of the new records a
detailed description, illustration, and notes on distribu-
tion and phenology are provided. Nomenclatural
changes are given for the taxa of which recent system-
atic studies were done. All the drawings are based on
specimens native to the study area.

SPECIES DESCRIPTIONS

1. CAMPYLOCENTRUM Benth.

1. Campylocentrum tyrridion Garay & Dunst.,
Venez. Orch. Ill. 2: 54. 1961. FIG. 1.

Plant epiphytic, acaulescent, a leafless cluster of
roots. Roots conspicuous, flexuous, glabrous, pro-
duced from the cormlike body of the obsolescent
stem, less than 1 mm in diameter. Inflorescence 1 to
many patent racemes, usually produced in pairs, with
filiform, glabrous peduncle, to 11 cm long; floral
bracts inconspicuous, scarious, triangular, acute.
Flowers small, distichous, white with yellowish spur.
Sepals ovate to broadly ovate, obtuse, 1-nerved, 1.2
mm long, 0.5-1.0 mm wide. Petals oblique, elliptic-
ovate, obtuse to acute, about 1 mm long, 0.5 mm
wide. Lip simple, triangular, obtuse, extended at the
base into a curved, saccate, conspicuous, bulbous
spur, about 2 mm long including the spur, 0.6 mm
wide. Column very short, with terminal anther, about







LANKESTERIANA


3 cm


S 2 cm


2mm


2 mm
I 1


Figure 1. Campylocentrum tyrridion Garay & Dunsterville. A Habit. B Flower. C Dissected perianth. D -
Inflorescence. ILLUSTRATION VOUCHER: F. Pupulin 1029 (USJ).







PUPULIN Addenda Orchidaceis Quepoanis


0.5 mm long. Pollinia 2, on a short hyaline stipe; vis-
cidium elliptic. Anther cap cucullate, ellipsoid, 1-
celled.

DISTRIBUTION: Guatemala and Belize to Venezuela
and Peru.
QUEPOS AREA: Near Naranjito, about 50 m, in Citrus
orchard, 2 Jan. 1999, flowered in cultivation at Gaia
Botanical Garden, 9 May 1999, F. Pupulin, D.
Castel-franco & L. Spadari 1029 and 1030 (USJ!).
PHENOLOGY: flowering occurs from April to July.
Although populations of aphyllous Campylocentrum
were usually accepted as C. fasciola (Lindl.)
Cogniaux (Schweinfurth, 1961; Dodson & Dodson,
1980; Hamer, 1985; Brako & Zarucchi, 1993;
McLeish et al. 1995), specimens of leafless, acaules-
cent Campylocentrum from Pacific Costa Rica
(Puntarenas, C. Todzia 219, SEL, and D.G. Cufodon-
tis 155, AMES) consistently differs from C. fasciola
in the shape and size of lip and spur.

KEY TO THE CAMPYLOCENTRUM SPECIES OF QUEPOS AREA
1. Plant leafless, acaulescent .................... C. tyrridion
1. Plants with conspicuous leaves on elongate stem.... 2
2. Stem < 20 cm long; leaves < 5 cm long...............
.......... .................... .... C. micranthum
2. Stem > 30 cm long; leaves > 7 cm long...............
....................................... ......... C. panamense

2. COELIOPSIS Rchb.f.

Cespitose, epiphytic, herbs with sulcate pseudobulbs,
2-4-foliate at apex. Leaves plicate, prominently
veined, oblanceolate, persistent. Inflorescence a sim-
ple, short, pendent raceme from the bases of pseudo-
bulbs, many-flowered. Flowers small. Sepals sube-
qual, fleshy, the dorsal free, the lateral ones connivent
at the base forming a mentum; petals smaller than
sepals; lip 3-lobed, the lateral lobes erect, the midlobe
rectangular-ovate, truncate, with ciliate margins.
Column short, subclavate, winged, with terminal,
operculate anther. Pollinia 2, waxy.
A probably monotypic genus restricted to the
Neotropics, only known from Costa Rica and Panama.
1. Coeliopsis hyacinthosma Rchb.f., Gard. Chron. 9.
1872. FIG. 2.
Plant epiphytic, cespitose, forming large clumps.
Roots fleshy, glabrous. Pseudobulbs ovoid to sub-
cylindric, sulcate, to 8.5 cm long, about 3.5 cm wide,
basally covered by 3-5 papyraceous sheaths, 2-4 foli-
ate at apex (rarely monophyllous). Leaves oblanceo-
late, acuminate, plicate, prominently veined, 30-50
cm long, 5-7 cm wide. Inflorescence basal, pendent, a


terete, subcapitate, many-flowered raceme to 8-12
(18) cm long, covered at the base by imbricating,
brown, papyraceous sheaths. Flowers rather showy,
white, the lip blotched with orange within the gorge.
Dorsal sepal ovate, acute, concave, free, 1.8-2.0 cm
long, 0.9-1.2 cm wide. Lateral sepals obliquely
lanceolate, acute, 2.0-2.2 cm long, 1.0-1.2 cm wide,
connate at the base to form a conspicuous mentum.
Petals lanceolate, acute, about 1.5 cm long, 0.6 cm
wide. Lip 3-lobed, strongly reflexed at apex, 1.6-1.8
cm long, 1.3-1.5 cm wide; lateral lobes erect with
spreading, apically ciliate margins; the midlobe rec-
tangular to ovate, obtuse to truncate, with ciliate mar-
gins. Column subclavate, winged, about 10 mm long,
with a purple blotch at the base. Pollinia 2, elliptic,
on a short stipe. Anther cap cucullate, white.

DISTRIBUTION: Costa Rica and Panama, rather fre-
quent in wet forests to about 1000 m.
QUEPOS AREA: Villa Nueva, finca Walker, 200 m, col-
lected by Mrs. Merli, flowered in cultivation at Gaia
Botanical Garden, 27 Apr. 1999, F. Pupulin 1153
(USJ!).
PHENOLOGY: flowering occurs in March to May.

3. EPIDENDRUM L.

1. Epidendrum congestoides Ames & C. Schweinf.,
Sched. Orch. 10: 61. 1930. FIG. 3.

Plant epiphytic, cespitose, erect or pendent, with
abbreviate, foliaceous stems to 6 cm tall. Stems simple,
laterally flattened, to 5 cm long, about 0.7 cm in diam-
eter, completely concealed by closely appressed leaf
sheaths, 5-7-leaved. Roots filiform, flexuous, glabrous,
produced at the base of the stem. Leaves distichous,
lanceolate-elliptic to elliptic-ovate, retuse, irregularly
bilobed at apex, fleshy, 1.8-2.7 cm long, 0.8-1.0 cm
wide, not articulated to the sheaths, persistent.
Inflorescence terminal from the upper leaf of mature
growths, sessile, 2-flowered. Ovary triquetrous, sessile,
glabrous, about 1 cm long. Flowers small, resupinate,
greenish suffused with pale purple, the lip green.
Sepals subsimilar, spreading, free, ovate-lanceolate,
acute, apiculate, concave, dorsally carinate, 10-12 mm
long, 4-5 mm wide. Petals drooping, triangular-subfal-
cate to subfalcate-ovate, acute, with entire margins, 8.0
mm long, 3.2 mm wide. Lip with a ligulate claw adnate
to the column, the claw 6.8-7.0 mm long, the lamina
widely reniform, obtuse, apiculate, obscurely cordate
at the base, 3.0 mm long, 7.5 mm wide, the lateral
lobes suberect. Column short, stout, incrassate at apex,
provided with a pair of subrhombic, lateral teeth, the
clinandrium erose-lacerate, arcuate, 4.5 mm long.


Mayo 2001







LANKESTERIANA


E















1 cm


2 cm


3 mm


10cm


2 cm
I i


Figure 2. Coeliopsis hyacinthosma Rchb.f. A Habit. B Flower. C Dissected perianth. D Column and lip,
lateral view. E Column, ventral view. F Operculum and caudicle. ILLUSTRATION VOUCHER: F. Pupulin 1153
(USJ).







PUPULIN Addenda Orchidaceis Quepoanis


1 cm


E





S 5 mm


2 cmi


2 mm


1 cm I I 1 cm I

Figure 3. Epidendrum congestoides Ames & C. Schweinf. A Habit. B Flower. C Dissected perianth. D -
Column and lip, lateral view. E Column, ventral view. F Operculum. ILLUSTRATION VOUCHER: D. Castelfranco
s.n. (Herb. Gaia Bot. Garden).


Mayo 2001







6 IANKESTERIANA N 1














2 cm

E f,.















5mm








5cm











S 2cm 1cm

Figure 4. Epidendrum isomerum Schltr. A Habit. B Flower. C Dissected perianth. D Column and lip, lat-
eral view. E Column, ventral view. ILLUSTRATION VOUCHER: F. Pupulin 1658 (USJ).







PUPULIN Addenda Orchidaceis Quepoanis


Pollinia 4, laterally compressed, on a short caudicle.
Anther cap cucullate, 4-celled, tridentate at apex, the
lateral teeth longer.
DISTRIBUTION: Endemic to Costa Rica.
QUEPOS AREA: Naranjito, finca Juan Sdenz, flowered
in cultivation at Gaia Botanical Garden, 14 June
1998, D. Castelfranco s.n. (Herb. Gaia Bot. Garden!).
PHENOLOGY: flowering mostly occurs in May and June.

2. Epidendrum isomerum Schltr., Fedde Rep. Sp.
Nov. 2: 132. 1906. FIG. 4.
Recorded by Pupulin (1998) for the area of Quepos,
this species was not illustrated in the orchid florula of
Manuel Antonio National Park. An illustration is pro-
vided here based on a specimen collected by D.
Castelfranco at Naranjito, finca Juan Sdenz, 10 Oct.
1998, flowered at Gaia Botanical Garden, 5 Oct.
1999, F. Pupulin 1658 (USJ!).

3. Epidendrum montis-narae Pupulin & L. Sanchez,
sp. nova FIG. 5.
TYPE: COSTA RICA. San Jos6: Dota, eastern slopes
and crest of Cerro Nara, 1050-1140 m, Premontane
rain forest to Cloud forest, 15 Jan 1999, F. Pupulin,
D. Castelfranco & L. Spadari 1140 holotypee, USJ!;
clonotype, AMO!).

Epidendro hameri Higsater & L. Sanchez simile sed
caulibus compressis, foliis superioribus non imbri-
catis, floribus majoribus, viridiflavis, sepalis, petalis et
labello dissimilis.

Plant epiphytic, cespitose, 11-20 cm tall. Stems foli-
aceous, simple, laterally complanate, slightly fracti-
flex, 8-18 cm long, about 0.4 cm wide in diameter,
covered by amplexicaul green sheaths, many-leaved.
Roots basal, fibrous, flexuous, glabrous, produced at
the base of the stem, about 1.8 mm in diameter.
Leaves 4-8, alternate, distributed along the stem; blade
elliptic to elliptic-ovate, irregularly bilobed at apex,
coriaceous, somewhat erect, 2.4-3.7 cm long, 1.4-1.8
cm wide, articulated to the sheaths, persistent.
Inflorescence apical, terminal from the mature growth,
5-7-flowered, subcorymbose, short raceme usually
less than 1 cm long, concealed at the base by a large,
cucullate, broadly ovate, green bract. Flower bracts
much shorter than the ovary, triangular, inconspicu-
ous, about 3 mm long. Ovary subclavate, terete, round
in section, to 2.5-3 cm long. Flowers simultaneous,
resupinate, greenish to yellowish green at anthesis,
turning pale-golden bronze with age, fragrant at night,
the scent fruity. Sepals subsimilar, spreading, free;
oblanceolate-elliptic, acute, the margins revolute, the


dorsal 21 mm long, 6.5 mm wide; the laterals subfal-
cate, 23 mm long, 5.3 mm wide. Petals horizontal to
slightly drooping, linear-ligulate, acute, margins revo-
lute, 21.0 mm long, 2.1 mm wide. Lip with a long
claw adnate to the column, the claw 7.7 mm long, the
lamina 3-lobed, subreniform to transversely elliptic
when spread, 11.2 mm long, 17.1 mm wide; lateral
lobes larger than midlobe, reniform semiorbicular,
entire; midlobe rounded, entire, forming 2-lobes, the
lobes small, with a shallow sinus provided with a short
apicule; disc with a pair of short, erect calli at the
insertion of the column. Column straight to somewhat
arcuate, stout, 12.5 mm long, the erose clinandrium
projecting sligthly beyond the apex of column, the
rostellum slit slotted. Pollinia 4, obovoid, laterally
compressed, on short, granular caudicles. Anther cap
cucullate, subspherical, 4-celled.

ETYMOLOGY: named from the type locality along the
slopes of Cerro Nara, in central Pacific Costa Rica.
DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGY: Only known from Costa
Rica, on the eastern slopes and crest of Cerro Nara
and Rio Savegre area. Growing epiphytic in premon-
tane rain forest to cloud forest, between 90 and 1100
m altitude.
PARATYPES: Quepos area. Savegre: Santo Domingo,
along the banks of Rio Savegre, 27 Nov. 1999, F.
Pupulin, D. Castelfranco, L. Spadari & J. Matei 1848
and 1849 (USJ!). Without specific locality, a confis-
cated plant flowered at Gaia Botanical Garden, GBG-
1353 (USJ!).
PHENOLOGY: flowering occurs at least in November.

Epidendrum montis-narae is a member of the Epiden-
drum difforme complex and can be recognized by lat-
erally compressed stems, elliptic-ovate, suberect
leaves, 5-7, greenish to yellowish-green flowers,
oblanceolate-elliptic, acute sepals, linear-ligulate, acute
petals, 3-lobed lip, subreniform to transversally elliptic
when spread, semiorbicular, entire lateral lobes, mid-
lobe forming two small lobules, with a shallow sinus,
apiculate. It is a close relative to Epidendrum hameri
Higsater & L. Sanchez, from Pacific slopes of Volc6n
Mombacho in Nicaragua, but this has somewhat later-
ally compressed stems, imbricating upper leaves, 1-2
small, very pale yellow-green, translucid flowers, obo-
vate, rounded sepals, linear-spatulate, rounded petals,
dolabriform, crenate lateral lobes. Another similar
species from Pacific slopes is E. citrosmum Hagsater,
endemic to the semideciduous and deciduous forests of
the Sierra Madre in Mexico, but this species has terete
stems, bright green flowers, sepals and petals rounded,
clinandrium obsolete.


Mayo 2001








LANKESTERIANA


2 cm
l I


5 cm


3mm
t 1


2 cm 3 cm

Figure 5. Epidendrum montis-narae Pupulin & L. Sinchez. A Habit. B Flower. C Dissected perianth. D -
Column and lip, lateral view. E Column, ventral view. F Operculum and pollinarium. ILLUSTRATION VOUCHER:
F. Pupulin, D. Castelfranco & L. Spadari 1140 (USJ).


E


















1 cm
I I


C






-







PPUPLIN Addenda Orchidaceis Quepoanis


5 cm


F





1 mm


'V


2 cm I 5mm

Figure 6. Epidendrum strobiliferum Rchb.f. A Habit. B Inflorescence. C Dissected perianth. D Column
and lip, lateral view. E Column, ventral view. F Operculum and pollinarium. ILLUSTRATION VOUCHER: D.
Castelfranco s.n. (Herb. Gaia Bot. Garden).


Mayo 2001







LANKESTERIANA


4. Epidendrum strobiliferum Rchb.f., Nederl.
Kruidk. Arch. 4: 333. 1859. FIG. 6.
Isochilus ramosus Focke, Tijdschr. Natuurk.
Wetensch. 4: 69. 1851.
Epidendrum strobiliferum var. swartzii Rchb.f. ex
Griseb., Fl. Brit. W. Ind.: 618. 1864.
Epidendrum mosenii Barb. Rodr., Gen. Sp. Orch.
Nov. 2: 144. 1881, non Rchb.f. 1880.
Epidendrum rodriguesii Cogn., Martius Fl. Bras.
3(5): 170. 1898.
Epidendrum verecundum Schltr., Fedde Rep. Sp.
Nov. Beih. 17: 42. 1922.
Sphatiger strobiliferus (Rchb.f.) Small, Man.
Southeast. Flora: 390. 1933.

Plant epiphytic, pendent, up to 50 cm tall. Stems
foliaceous, simple or usually many-branched, some-
what fractiflex, covered by amplexicaul rugose
sheaths, about 0.5 cm in diameter, the branches about
10 cm long, many-leaved. Roots fibrous, flexuous,
glabrous, produced at the base of the main stem, less
than 1 mm in diameter. Leaves ligulate to elliptic-
lanceolate, coriaceous, obtuse to retuse, 0.8-4.5 cm
long, 0.5-0.9 cm wide, articulated to the sheaths,
deciduous with age. Inflorescence terminal at the
apex of lateral branches, a 2-5-flowered distichous,


condensed spike, concealed by large, cucullate,
broadly ovate, obtuse, glumaceous floral bracts.
Flowers non-resupinate, small, yellow to yellowish
green, coriaceous. Sepals subsimilar, broadly ovate to
ovate-lanceolate, acute, 3-4 mm long, 1.3-2 mm wide.
Petals oblique, linear-oblanceolate, obtuse to acute, 3
mm long, 0.5 mm wide. Lip shortly unguiculate, the
claw adnate to the column, the lamina ovate to cor-
date, acute, strongly nerved, with somewhat involute
margins; disc with a pair of short lamellae, 3 mm
long, 2.0-2.7 mm wide. Column short, stout, with a
pair of porrect, acute auricles at apex, about 2.2 mm
long. Pollinia 2, on a short caudicle. Anther cap
cucullate, ovate, bilobed at apex, 2-celled.

DISTRIBUTION: Florida, the West Indies, Mexico to
Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, the Guyanas, Brazil,
and Peru, rather common in lowland forests.
QUEPOS AREA: Naranjito, Finca Levi Chac6n, about
100 m, March 1998, D. Castelfranco s.n. (Herb. Gaia
Bot. Garden!).
PHENOLOGY: flowering mostly occurs in October and
November.
Because of the new additions to the genus
Epidendrum for the area, the following key is provid-
ed for field identification.


KEY TO THE EPIDENDRUM SPECIES OF QUEPOS AREA

Inflorescence basal ............................................................. ................................................. E. stamfordianum
Inflorescence term final ................................................................................................................... ...... ............ 2
2. Stem s branched ................................................................................... ....................................................... 3
3. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, acuminate; flowers solitary.................................. ............ E. isomerum
3. L eaves w ider, retuse; flow ers 2-4 ............................................................................................................... 4
4. Plant < 20 cm long; flowers bract conspicuous, overlapping....................................... E. strobiliferum
4. Plant > 20 cm long; flowers bract inconspicuous........................ ......... ........... E. sculptum
2. Stem s not branched ......................................................................................................... ........................... 5
5. Leaves not articulate; plant < 7 cm high..................................................................... .................... 6
6. Lip blade ovate, with entire margins; petals serrulate........................... ..... E. congestum
6. Lip blade reniform, with serrulate margins; margins of petals entire........................... E. congestoides
5. L eaves articulate; plant > 15 cm high........................................................................................................... 7
7. Inflorescence 1-flowered; midlobe of lip acuminate...................... ......... ........... E. nocturnum
7. Inflorescence many-flowered; midlobe of lip notched .................................. ..................... 8
8. Lateral lobes of lip overlapping to median lobe when spread................................. E. amparoanum
8. Lateral lobes of lip not overlapping to median lobe.......................................... E. montis-narae


4. GONGORA Ruiz & Pav.

Cespitose, epiphytic herbs with ridged pseudobulbs,
2- (rarely 3-)foliate at apex. Leaves plicate, petiolate,
elliptic, thin, prominently veined. Inflorescence a
pendent raceme from the base of pseudobulbs, many-
flowered. Flowers large, facing the rhachis. Sepals
subequal, the lateral sepals often reflexed, the dorsal


sepal and the petals inserted on the upper portion of
the column; lip fleshy and complexly 2-parted; the
hypochile with or without lateral callosities, usually
provided at apex with 2 slender antennae; the
epichyle with a gibbose-conical projection above the
basal constriction. Column slender, arcuate, dilated
apically, provided with a foot, with terminal, incum-
bent, operculate anther. Pollinia 2, waxy.






PUPULIN Addenda Orchidaceis Quepoanis


3 cm


D ,,\ \ -- D Tf

I 20 cm









1 cm










i 5mm 3 cm

Figure 7. Gongora claviodora Dressier. A Habit. B Flower. C Dissected perianth. D Column, ventral
view. E Pollinarium and operculum. ILLUSTRATION VOUCHER: D. Castelfranco s.n. (Herb. Gaia Bot. Garden).


Mayo 2001







LANKESTERIANA


A somewhat difficult genus of 40 species restricted to
the Neotropics.

1. Gongora claviodora Dressier, Orquideologia 7
(2): 75. 1972. FIG. 7.

Plant epiphytic, cespitose, to about 30 cm tall. Roots
slender, glabrous. Pseudobulbs elliptic to ovate-ellip-
tic, sulcate, 4 cm long, 3 cm wide, 2- (rarely 1-) foliate
at apex. Leaves petiolate, elliptic, abruptly contracted
at the shortly acuminate apex, rigidly undulate, 16-23
cm long including the conduplicate petiole, about 6 cm
wide. Inflorescence an arcuate to pendent, 6-8-flow-
ered raceme, arising from the base of mature pseudob-
ulbs, brownish red spotted with dark brown, to 30 cm
long. Floral bracts greenish white, ovate-lanceolate, 5
mm long; ovary with pedicel stout, terete, 3 cm long.
Flowers showy, not resupinate, velvety red, fragrant.
Dorsal sepal elliptic, acute, with reflexed margins,
abaxially provided with a wide keel, inserted dorsally
along the column, 17-19 mm long, 9-10 mm wide.
Lateral sepals obliquely ovate, subacuminate, keeled
along 3 nerves, 30 mm long, 18-20 mm wide. Petals
falcate, acuminate, inserted at the apex of the column
foot and adnate to the column to about the middle, 9.0
mm long, 3.5 mm wide. Lip fleshy, complexly 2-part-
ed, basally articulated with the column foot, to 25 mm
long; the hypochile saccate, of 2 erect, lateral lobes
provided at the base with two short lobules and toward
the apex with a pair of upturned, slender, acuminate
bristles; the epichyle triangular. Column arcuate, terete,
slightly widened toward the apex, 24 mm long includ-
ing the foot. Anther cap operculate, ovate. Pollinia 2,
narrowly oblong, on a short pandurate stipe.
DISTRIBUTION: Nicaragua and Costa Rica, previously
reported mainly from higher altitudes.
QUEPOS AREA: Santo Domingo de Savegre, 85 m,
along the banks of Rio Savegre, 27 Nov. 1999, F.
Pupulin, D. Castelfranco, L. Spadari & J. Matei 1844
(USJ!).
PHENOLOGY: flowering occurs at least in April.

5. HEXISEA Lindl.

Cespitose, epiphytic herbs with simple or branched,
segmented stems, 2-foliate at apex. Leaves coria-
ceous, usually deciduous, linear-ligulate.
Inflorescence a simple, short raceme at the apex of
the growths, few-flowered. Flowers small but showy.
Sepals subequal, spreading, the dorsal free, the lateral
ones sometimes shortly connivent at the base; petals
similar to the sepals; lip simple, adnate at the base
with the column, the base of the lamina geniculate


and provided with a fleshy callus. Column short,
proximally adnate to the lip, winged, with incumbent,
operculate anther. Pollinia 4, waxy.
A genus of about 6 species from Central and South
America.

1. Hexisea bidentata Lindl., J. Bot. (Hooker) 1: 8.
1834. FIG. 8.
Plant epiphytic, cespitose, with sometimes
branched stems composed of elongated swollen sec-
tions, to 50 cm tall. Roots slender, glabrous.
Pseudobulbs segmented, subcylindric to fusiform,
sulcate, to 10 cm long, 1 cm wide, the basal one stipi-
tate, producing a new growth and leaves at apex.
Leaves coriaceous, linear-ligulate, obtuse to retuse, 7-
11 cm long, 1-2 cm wide. Inflorescence a short, few-
flowered (1-7) raceme, to about 1 cm long, covered at
the base by scarious, imbricating bracts. Flowers
spreading, showy, bright orange to red with a brown
callus at the base of lip. Dorsal sepal lanceolate to
elliptic-lanceolate, acute, concave, dorsally carinate,
11-13 mm long, 3-4 mm wide. Lateral sepals
obliquely ovate-lanceolate, acute, concave, dorsally
carinate, 12-13 mm long, 3-4 mm wide. Petals linear-
lancelate to linear-oblong, acute, 10 mm long, 3 mm
wide. Lip oblong-oblanceolate, 8 mm long, 3 mm
wide, the claw adnate to the base of the column to
form a saccate cup, the disc provided with a basal
fleshy, bifid callus, rounded and recurved at the
geniculate base. Column short, adnate to the column
in the proximal half, provided at apex with short,
rounded wings, about 5 mm long. Anther cap opercu-
late. Pollinia 4, waxy, in two collateral pairs.
DISTRIBUTION: From Mexico to Costa Rica, Panama,
and South America, epiphytic in low and medium
altitude forests.
QUEPOS AREA: Villa Nueva, finca Walker, about 200
m, collected by Mrs. Merli, 1995 (Herb. Gaia Bot.
Garden!).
PHENOLOGY: flowering occurs at least in July and
August.

The shallow nectary and red flowers of Hexisea have
been traditionally used to separate it from
Scaphyglottis, but such features probably represent an
adaptation to hummingbird pollination, and the dis-
tinction between the two genera is questionable.


6. MAXILLARIA Ruiz & Pav.
1. Maxillaria hedwigae Hamer & Dodson, Ic. P1.
Trop. 800. 1982. FIG. 9.







PUPULIN Addenda Orchidaceis Quepoanis


E













5mm


10 cm


A c




" ,
\,


D ,





1 cm .'s
i --------I ., '..


3 cm
1


Figure 8. Hexisea bidentata Lindl. A Habit. B Flower. C Dissected perianth. D Column and lip, lateral
view. E Column, ventral view. F Operculum, pollinia and caudicle. ILLUSTRATION VOUCHER: F. Pupulin 2194
(Herb. Gaia Bot. Garden).


3mm


i i
6'


2cm


Mayo 2001






LANKESTERIANA


F






\ 5mm




1 .1 cm '











10cm
\.


















3 cm C






D'







1 cm 3cm

Figure 9. Maxillaria hedwigae Hamer & Dodson. A Habit. B Flower. C Dissected perianth. D Column
and lip, lateral view. E Column, ventral view. F Pollinarium and operculum. ILLUSTRATION VOUCHER: F.
Pupulin 1840 (USJ).







PPULIN Addenda Orchidaceis Quepoanis


Plant epiphytic, cespitose, erect, usually forming
small clumps. Roots fleshy, glabrous. Pseudobulbs
ovoid to ovoid-conic, somewhat complanate, rugose, to
4.5 cm long, 2.8 cm wide, basally covered by 4-6
papyraceous, acute sheaths, 1-foliate at apex. Leaves
petiolate, narrowly elliptic to ligulate, acute, coria-
ceous, with a prominent midvein adaxially, to 35 cm
long 3.7 cm wide, the petiole about 3 cm long.
Inflorescences basal, erect, to 5 cm long, covered at the
base by 3-4 imbricating bracts and an inflated bract
toward the middle. Flowers rather showy, white to yel-
lowish cream, the lip bright orange. Dorsal sepal ellip-
tic, apiculate, 1.8-2.0 cm long, 0.9 cm wide. Lateral
sepals obliquely elliptic, concave, 1.8 cm long, 0.7 cm
wide. Petals elliptic, acute, 1.6 cm long, 0.6 cm wide.
Lip 3-lobed, 1.3 cm long, 0.8 cm wide; lateral lobes
erect, linear-lanceolate, acuminate; the midlobe
oblong, truncate to retuse, obscurely verruculose at
apex; disc with a spatulate, glossy callus extending to
the middle. Column arcuate, subclavate, winged, about
10 mm long, with a short foot. Pollinia 4, narrowly
obovate, on a saddle-shaped stipe. Anther cap cucul-
late, white.

DISTRIBUTION: Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua,
Costa Rica, and Colombia, in wet, low altitude
forests.
QUEPOS AREA: Santo Domingo de Savegre, 85 m,
along the banks of Rio Savegre, 27 Nov. 1999, F.
Pupulin, D. Castelfranco, L. Spadari & J. Matei 1840
(USJ!), 1843 (Gaia Botanical Garden, FAA collec-
tion!) and 1860 (USJ!).
PHENOLOGY: flowering occurs nearly all year long.

Although difficult to distinguish from the closely allied
M. acutifolia Lindl. in dried material, the bright orange
lip easily separate this species in living, fertile speci-
mens. Previously reported from Guatemala to Costa
Rica (Atwood, 1987), the range of this species is here
extended to Colombia on the basis of the photograph


of an unidentified species published in Native
Colombian Orchids (Escobar, 1991: 323, photo 366).

2. Maxillaria scorpioidea Kraenzl., Svensk. Vet.
Akad. Handl. 46: 71. 1911.
Maxillaria rhodosticta Kraenzl., Fedde Rep. Sp.
Nov. 24: 223. 1928.

Plant epiphytic, cespitose, erect, usually forming
small clumps. Roots fleshy, glabrous. Pseudobulbs
ovoid to ovoid-conic, somewhat complanate, rugose,
to 4.5 cm long, 2.8 cm wide, basally covered by 4-6
papyraceous, acute sheaths, 1-foliate at apex. Leaves
petiolate, narrowly elliptic to ligulate, acute, coria-
ceous, with a prominent midvein adaxially, to 35 cm
long, 3.7 cm wide, the petiole about 3 cm long.
Inflorescences basal, erect, to 5 cm long, covered at
the base by 3-4 imbricating bracts and an inflated
bract toward the middle. Flowers rather showy, white
to yellowish cream, the lip bright orange. Dorsal
sepal elliptic, apiculate, 1.8-2.0 cm long, 0.9 cm
wide. Lateral sepals obliquely elliptic, concave, 1.8
cm long, 0.7 cm wide. Petals elliptic, acute, 1.6 cm
long, 0.6 cm wide. Lip 3-lobed, 1.3 cm long, 0.8 cm
wide; lateral lobes erect, linear-lanceolate, acuminate;
the midlobe oblong, truncate to retuse, obscurely ver-
ruculose at apex; disc with a spatulate, glossy callus
extending to the middle of lip. Column arcuate, sub-
clavate, winged, about 10 mm long, with a short foot.
Pollinia 4, narrowly obovate, on a saddle-shaped
stipe. Anther cap cucullate, white.

DISTRIBUTION: From Mexico to western Panama,
Brazil and Ecuador, in wet forests at low and interme-
diate altitudes. In Central America seemingly restrict-
ed to the Pacific drainage.
QUEPOS AREA: Villa Nueva, finca Walker, 200 m,
1997, Merli s.n. (Herb. Gaia Bot. Garden!).
PHENOLOGY: flowering usually occurs January to
March.


KEY TO THE MAXILLARIA SPECIES OF QUEPOS AREA

1. Pseudobulbs 2-3 foliate at apex ...................................................................... ................... M scorpioidea
1. Pseudobulbs 1-foliate at apex ................................................................................................................................ 2
2. Plants with pseudobulbs scattered on a long rhizome.................................................... ....................... 3
3. Inflorescence erect................................................................................. ......................... M oreocharis
3. Inflorescence pendulous ............................................................... M neglect
2. Plants cespitose (rhizome short)............................................................ ............................................... 4
4. Basal leaves (cataphylls) absent............................................................. ........................... M hedwigae
4. Basal leaves (cataphylls) present................................................................................................................. 5
5. Plant small, about 5 cm tall........................................................... ....................... M ponerantha
5. Plant more than 15 cm tall................................................................ .......................... M crassifolia


Mayo 2001







IANKESTERIANA


Cr


1 cm


I./


10 cm




C


3mm
I !


S1 cmI 3 mm
t t


2 cm
!


Figure 10. Oncidium polycladium Rchb.f. cx Lindl. A Habit. B Flower. C Dissected perianth. D Column
and lip, lateral view. E Column, ventral view. F Pollinarium and operculum. ILLUSTRATION VOUCHER: F.
Pupulin 1911 (USJ).


g ~~S~'t



e,
:r0,i~f$_







PUPULIN Addenda Orchidaceis Quepoanis


7. ONCIDIUM Sw.
1. Oncidium polycladium Rchb.f. ex Lindl., Fol.
Orch. Oncidium, 47. 1855. FIG. 10.
Recorded by Pupulin (1998) for the area of Quepos,
this species was not illustrated in the orchid florula of
Manuel Antonio National Park. An illustration is pro-
vided here based on a specimen collected by D.
Castelfranco at Quepos, in a small quebrada within
the finca of Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderfa,
1996, flowered in cultivation at Gaia Botanical
Garden, 9 Jan. 1999, F. Pupulin 1911 (USJ!).

8. PROSTHECHEA Knowles & Westc.
Epiphytic herbs with ovoid or elongated, heteroblas-
tic pseudobulbs, 1- to 3-foliate at apex, the base
involved in papyraceous sheaths. Leaves condupli-
cate, oblong to linear, subcoriaceous. Inflorescence
terminal, sometimes produced from a spathaceous
bract, few- to many- successively flowered raceme.
Flowers from small to large and showy. Sepals sube-
qual, free, spreading; the petals usually similar to
sepals or slightly narrower or broader; lip free from
the column or adnate only at the base, simple, provid-
ed with various kinds of calli. Column stout or slen-
der, footless, often provided with apical wings.
Pollinia 4, waxy.
A neotropical genus of about 92 species.

1. Prosthechea abbreviata (Schltr) W.E. Higgins,
Phytologia 82(5): 376. 1997 (publ. 1998).
Epidendrum abbreviatum Schltr., Repert. Spec.
Nov. Regni Veg. 3: 107. 1906.
Epidendrum prorepens Ames, Sched. Orch. 2: 33.
1923.
Encyclia abbreviata (Schltr.) Dressier, Brittonia 13:
264. 1961.
This species has been treated by Pupulin (1998a,
1998b) as Encyclia abbreviata. Since its description
in 1828 the classification of the genus Encyclia has
been problematic due to the unreliability of the floral
character selected to define the genus, e.g. an adnate
lip encircling the column. Parsimony analysis of the
subgenera of Encyclia (Higgins, 1997) based on holo-
morphology showed that the genus is neither cohe-
sive nor monophyletic. Morphological, chemical and
molecular data (nuclear genome and chloroplast
genome) supported the raise of Encyclia subgenus
Osmophytum to generic level and its treatment as
Prosthechea.

2. Prosthechea chacaoensis (Rchb.f.) W.E. Higgins,
Phytologia 82(5): 377. 1997 (publ. 1998). FIG. 11.


Plant epiphytic, cespitose, erect. Roots fleshy,
glabrous. Pseudobulbs ovoid to fusiform, 4-10 cm
long, 1.8-3.0 cm wide, basally covered by 3-4 bracts
becoming papyraceous with age, 2-foliate at apex.
Leaves oblong-elliptic to elliptic, obtuse, 10-24 cm
long 1.5-3.5 cm wide. Inflorescence a terminal
raceme 2- to several-flowered, to 15 cm long.
Flowers showy, fragrant, whitish green, the lip veined
with purple. Dorsal sepal elliptic, acute, 1.7 cm long,
0.6 cm wide. Lateral sepals obliquely subfalcate-
elliptic, acute, concave, 1.7 cm long, 0.7 cm wide.
Petals elliptic oblanceolate, acute, 1.3 cm long, 0.8
cm wide. Lip short unguiculate, widely ovate to
orbicular, obtuse to apiculate, cochleate, basally
adnate to the column, 1.0-1.4 cm long, 0.9-1.3 cm
wide, provided at the base with an oblong-sub-
quadrate, pubescent callus. Column subclavate, tri-
dentate at apex, about 8 mm long. Pollinia 4, narrow-
ly obovate, strongly complanate, on short granular
caudicles. Anther cap cucullate, yellow, 4-celled.

DISTRIBUTION: Widespread from Mexico to South
America.
QUEPOS AREA: Naranjito, about 50 m, epiphytic in
Citrus orchard, 2 Jan. 1999, F. Pupulin, D.
Castelfranco & L. Spadari 1034 (USJ!).
PHENOLOGY: flowering occurs in March and April.

3. Prosthechea prismatocarpa (Rchb.f.) W.E.
Higgins, Phytologia 82(5): 380. 1997 (publ. 1998).
FIG. 12.
Epidendrum prismatocarpum Reichb.f., Bot.
Zeitung (Berlin) 10: 729-730. 1852.
Encyclia prismatocarpa (Reichb.f.) Dressier,
Brittonia 13: 265. 1961.
Plant epiphytic, cespitose, erect. Roots fleshy,
glabrous. Pseudobulbs ovoid to elliptic-ovoid, some-
what elongate, 4.5-9.0 cm long, 2.5-4.0 cm wide, 2-3-
foliate at apex. Leaves oblong-elliptic to elliptic,
obtuse, 13-20 cm long 2.6-4.0 cm wide. Inflorescence
an erect, terminal, few-flowered raceme, to 11 cm
long, emerging from a papery bract to 6 cm long.
Flowers showy, not fragrant, greenish yellow spotted
with brown, the lip blotched with rose-purple. Sepals
subsimilar, elliptic-lanceolate, acute, slightly concave
at the base, 2.1 cm long, 0.5 cm wide. Petals ligulate-
oblanceolate, subfalcate, acute, 1.8 cm long, 0.4 cm
wide. Lip shallowly 3-lobed, clawed, the claw adnate
to the column, acuminate, 1.8 cm long, 0.9 cm wide,
the lateral lobes rounded, the midlobe trullate-lanceo-
late; the disc with a callus formed by a fleshy keel
bilobed at apex, extending to the insertion of the
midlobe. Column stout, straight, about 9 mm long,


Mayo 2001







LANKESTERIANA


F m





i 1 3mm


E





B





i 1 cm

I 10cm




I 2 cm I





D





2 cm 3 cm

Figure 11. Prosthechea chacaoensis (Rchb.f.) W.E. Higgins. A Habit. B Flower. C Dissected perianth. D -
Column and lip, lateral view. E Column, ventral and dorsal views. F Operculum and pollinaria. ILLUSTRATION
VOUCHER: F. Pupulin 1034 (USJ).







PUPULIN Addenda Orchidaceis Quepoanis


E












1 cm


F




3mm




B I


7


,' 2
A .




/

A


'1


10 cm






." 1i

***^


3cm


j .. '

p.L


2 cm


3 cm
I I


Figure 12. Prosthechea prismatocarpa (Rchb.f.) W.E. Higgins. A Habit. B Flower. C Dissected perianth.
D Column and lip. E Column, ventral view. F Pollinaria and operculum. ILLUSTRATION VOUCHER: F. Pupulin
1431 (USJ).


Mayo 2001


*\


i








IANKESTERIANA


5 cm


5 mm
!. 3


E




3mm
I I


C








1 cm
I I


Figure 13. Scaphyglottis boliviensis (Rolfe) B. R. Adams. A Habit. B Flower. C Dissected perianth. D -
Column and lip, lateral view. E Pollinaria and operculum. ILLUSTRATION VOUCHER: F. Pupulin 1854 (USJ).







PUPULIN Addenda Orchidaceis Quepoanis


provided with 2 fleshy, lateral teeth and a central, lac-
erate projection. Pollinia 4, narrowly obovate, strong-
ly complanate, on short caudicles. Anther cap opercu-
late, 4-celled.
DISTRIBUTION: Costa Rica and Panama.
QUEPOS AREA: Villa Nueva, finca Walker, about 200
m, collected by Mrs. Merli, 1988, flowered in cultiva-
tion at Gaia Botanical Garden, 20 Apr. 1999, F.
Pupulin 1431 (USJ!).
PHENOLOGY: flowering occurs from April to August.
Typical forms of P. prismatocarpa usually grows in
premontane and lower montane forests above 1000 m
elevations. It is probable that this taxon include in
Costa Rica more than one species, and the above
mentioned plant is accepted here as P. prismatocarpa
waiting for a careful study of this complex based on
more distributional and morphological data. The
specimen from Quepos area may be distinguished
from P. prismatocarpa as accepted by Atwood and
Mora-Retana (1992: 1427) for the rhizome abbreviate
vs. elongate, the inflorescence produced on the previ-
ous pseudobulbs vs. on the new growth, the shorter
inflorescence (10 cm vs. 20-30 cm) and spathe (6 cm
vs. 10 cm), the non-fragrant flowers, the sepals acute
and slightly concave vs. acuminate and somewhat
reflexed at the base, respectively.
KEY TO THE PROSTHECHEA SPECIES OF QUEPOS AREA
1. Pseudobulbs well spaced on the rhizome; plants
creeping; leaves < 1 cm wide.............. P. abbreviata
1. Pseudobulbs clustered on the rhizome; leaves > 1 cm
w ide......................................... ..... ............... 2
2. Lip cochleate; inflorescence <10 cm long ............
............................................ ... P. chacaoensis
2. Lip sagittate; inflorescence >10 cm long.....
........................................... .. P. prismatocarpa

9. SCAPHYGLOTTIS Poepp. & Endl.

1. Scaphyglottis boliviensis (Rolfe) B. R. Adams,
Phytologia 64(4): 257-258. 1988. FIG. 13.


Hexadesmia boliviensis Rolfe, Mem. Torrey Bot.
Club 6(1): 122. 1896.
Scaphyglottis huebneri Schltr., Beih. Bot.
Centralbl. 42(2): 95. 1925.

Plant epiphytic, cespitose, sometimes pendent, 25-
35 cm tall. Roots slender, glabrous. Pseudobulbs nar-
rowly cylindric, slightly swollen, apically 2-foliate at
apex, provided with 1-2 sheaths on the lower half.
Leaves subcoriaceous, linear-attenuate, 7-13 cm long,
0.3-0.5 mm wide. Inflorescence of 1-2 terminal flow-
ers. Flowers small, white to greenish white. Dorsal
sepal oblong-oblanceolate, acute, carinate at apex, 5-
6 mm long, 1.5 mm wide. Lateral sepals narrowly
ovate, the base forming a mentum around the column
foot, the apex recurved, 6.0 mm long, 1.7 mm wide.
Petals elliptic, falcate, acute, 5.5 mm long, 1.0 mm
wide. Lip hinged to the column foot, 6 mm long, 3.0-
3.5 mm wide, apically 3-lobed, the lateral lobes
rounded and clasping the column, the midlobe subtri-
angular, recurved, the disc provided with a broad,
lamellate callus extending to the insertion of the mid-
lobe. Column slender, footed, about 5 mm long, with
a pair of stigmatic arms at the apical third. Pollinia 4,
in two pairs.

DISTRIBUTION: Nicaragua to Venezuela, Brazil,
Bolivia and Peru, usually in wet forests from low-
lands to about 1000 m elevation.
QUEPOS AREA: Santo Domingo de Savegre, along the
banks of Rio Savegre, 85 m, 27 Nov. 1999, F.
Pupulin, D. Castelfranco, L. Spadari & J. Matei 1854
(USJ!).
PHENOLOGY: flowering occurs most of the year.

Along the Pacific lowlands of central and southern
Costa Rica, together with S. boliviensis also the close-
ly related S. laevilabia Ames may be found.
However, the latter species usually forms chains of
superposed pseudobulbs, and shows an ecallose lip
(Adams, 1988; Atwood, 1989: 1387).


KEY TO THE SCAPHYGLOTTIS SPECIES OF QUEPOS AREA

1. Plants with superposed pseudobulbs forming chains............................................................ ..................... 2
2. C olum n w ith stelidiar arm s............................................................................... ........................... S. stellata
2. Column without stelidiar arms...................................................... S. prolifera
1. Plants cespitose, without superposed pseudobulbs.............................................................. ....... ............... 3
3. Inflorescence many-flowered (>10); flowers 3 mm tall......................... ......... ............ S. micrantha
3. Inflorescence 1-2 flowered; flowers about 1 cm tall............................................. S. boliviensis


10. SOBRALIA Poepp. & Endl.

1. Sobralia macrophylla Rchb.f., Bot. Zeitung 10:
71. 1852. FIG. 14.


Plant epiphytic, cespitose, erect, to 60 cm tall.
Roots fleshy, glabrous. Leaves plicate-veined, elliptic,
abruptly acuminate, thin, 12-16 cm long, 4.5-8.0 cm
wide. Inflorescence apical, a 1-flowered raceme sub-


Mayo 2001







LANKESTERIANA


E












S 2 cm


10cm


S3 mm


10 cm


D
/'


S 3 cm


, 5 cm


Figure 14. Sobralia macrophylla Rchb.f. A Habit. B Flower. C Dissected perianth. D Column and lip, lat-
eral view (the lip longitudinally sectioned). E Column, ventral view. F Operculum and pollinaria. ILLUSTRATION
VOUCHER: D. Castelfranco s.n. (Herb. Gaia Bot. Garden).







PUPULIN Addenda Orchidaceis Quepoanis


tended by infundibuliform sheaths. Flowers large,
yellowish white, the inner part of the lip yellow.
Sepals subsimilar, lanceolate, acute, dorsally carinate,
7 cm long, 1.4 cm wide. Petals lanceolate, obscurely
falcate, acute, minutely erose at apex, 7 cm long, 1.5
cm wide. Lip obovate, retuse, the basal margins
clasping the column, the distal third with undulate-
crisped margins, 7 cm long, 5.3 cm wide; callus at the
base of the lip formed by two low, rounded keels.
Column elongate, subterete, with two subquadrate


teeth at apex, about 3 cm long. Anther cap cucullate,
obscurely 2-celled. Pollinia 8, mealy.

DISTRIBUTION: Nicaragua to Venezuela, Brazil,
Bolivia and Peru, usually in wet forests from low-
lands to about 1000 m elevation.
QUEPOS AREA: Quepos, Cerritos, 14 Jan. 2000, flow-
ered in cultivation at Gaia Botanical Garden, acces-
sion number GBG-1342, 4 Apr. 2000, D.
Castelfranco s.n. (Gaia Bot. Garden, FAA collection!).
PHENOLOGY: flowering April to July.


KEY TO THE SOBRALIA SPECIES OF QUEPOS AREA

1. Stem apically compressed; lip not deeply concave; flowers yellowish white............................... S. macrophylla
1. Stem terete throughout; lip deeply concave; flower purple............................ ..........................S. decora


11. STANHOPEA Frost ex Hook.

Cespitose, epiphytic herbs with ovoid, ridged, mono-
phyllous pseudobulbs. Leaves plicate, petiolate, ellip-
tic-lanceolate to broadly elliptic, coriaceous, promi-
nently veined. Inflorescence a short, pendent raceme
from the base of pseudobulbs, 2- to many-flowered,
the rhachis enveloped in several broad, papyraceous,
imbricating bracts. Flowers usually large, on long
pedicels. Sepals membranaceous, concave, the dorsal
sepal erect, the laterals broader, reflexed, somewhat
connate at the base; petals membranaceous, similar to
the dorsal sepal but usually smaller; lip simple with a
saccate hypochile and reduced apical lobe (Sect.
Ecornuta) or complexly 2- to 3-parted with saccate
hypochile, short mesochile usually provided with lat-
eral horns and spreading epichile (Sect.
Eustanhopea). Column elongate, somewhat arcuate,
with or without terminal wings and terminal, incum-
bent, operculate anther. Pollinia 2, waxy.
A Neotropical genus of some 50 species.

1. Stanhopea cirrhata Lindl., J. Hort. Soc. London 3:
37. 1850. FIG. 15.

Plant epiphytic, cespitose, erect, to 70 cm tall. Roots
flexuous, glabrous, somewhat directed upward.
Pseudobulbs pyriform, strongly sulcate, monophyllous,
5.0-5.5 cm long, 4.0-4.5 cm wide, concealed at the
base by bracts becoming papyraceous and fibrous with
age. Leaves coriaceous, petiolate, elliptic, acute, promi-
nently ribbed abaxially, 40-50 cm long including the
petiole, 12-18 cm wide. Inflorescence a pendent, 2-
flowered raceme to 25 cm long, the peduncle con-
cealed by ovate, inflated bracts about 5 cm long; ovary
6-7 cm long including the pedicel. Flowers small for
the genus, with cream sepals and yellow-orange petals;


the lip yellow-orange with horns tinged with wine-red
to black. Dorsal sepal elliptic-ovate, concave, reflexed,
strongly contracted at the apiculate apex, adnate to the
base of the lip, 4.0-4.5 cm long, 2.3-2.5 cm wide.
Lateral sepals ovate, acute, connate at the base, adnate
to the base of the lip, 4.0-4.5 cm long, 2.3-2.5 cm wide.
Petals elliptic-ovate, strongly reflexed, with somewhat
undulate margins, 3.2-3.5 cm long, 1.3-1.5 cm wide.
Lip fleshy, abaxially flattened, to 3.2 cm long, 2.1-2.4
cm wide; the hypochile deeply concave, carinate, with
infolded margins, provided with 2 fleshy horns; the
epichile suborbicular, obtuse to acute, slightly
recurved. Column stout, broadened toward the middle
and provided with narrow wings, about 2.5 cm long,
the subquadrate apex with a pair of filiform, upcurved
projections. Pollinia 2, elliptic, on a broad stipe, pro-
vided with a viscidium at the base.
DISTRIBUTION: Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, in
seasonally dry lowlands to about 800 m elevation.
QUEPOS AREA: Naranjito, about 100 m, collected by
D. Castelfranco, April 1999, flowered in cultivation
at Gaia Botanical Garden, 12 Dec. 1999, F. Pupulin
1872 (USJ!).
PHENOLOGY: flowering occurs from September to
November.

11. VANILLA Sw.
1. Vanilla planifolia C. Jackson, Andr. Bot. Repos. 8:
t. 538. 1808. FIG. 16.
Plant hemiepiphytic, a scandent vine with leafy
stems. Roots fleshy, produced singly at each node.
Stems terete, grooved, to 8 mm in diameter, with dis-
tichous leaves produced at the nodes. Leaves ovate-
elliptic to oblong, acute to acuminate, fleshy, 8-19 cm
long, 2-8 cm wide. Inflorescences from the axils of


Mayo 2001






LANKESTERIANA


4-- k







2 cm


-I


20 cm
(/

SI 20 cm


\. B


5 cm


5 cm


3 cm


Figure 15. Stanhopea cirrhata Lindl. A Habit. B Flower. C Dissected perianth. D Column and lip, lateral
view. E Column, ventral view. ILLUSTRATION VOUCHER: F. Pupulin 1872 (USJ).







PUPULIN Addenda Orchidaceis Quepoanis


D
Uu.i




E -.-:


A


i3 cm


I 2cm
2cm


5 cm I


Figure 16. Vanilla planifolia C. Jackson. A Habit. B Flower. C Dissected perianth. D Column and lip, lat-
eral view. E Column and lip, longitudinal section. F Column, lateral and ventral views. ILLUSTRATION VOUCHER:
F. Pupulin 1429 (Herb. Gaia Bot. Garden).


Mayo 2001


10 CM








LANKESTERIANA


the leaves, a short, successive, many-flowered, erect
raceme, to 7 cm long; floral bracts oblong, obtuse, 6-
10 mm long. Flowers showy, greenish yellow, the lip
with bright yellow in the gorge. Sepals similar, linear-
oblanceolate, obtuse to acute, 5.0-6.5 cm long, 1.0-
1.5 cm wide. Petals linear oblanceolate, acute, 4.6-6
cm long, 0.8-1.1 cm wide. Lip clawed, obovate-sub-
rhombic, obscurely 3-lobed in front, 4-5 cm long, 1.6-
3.0 cm wide; the lateral lobes erect, clasping the col-
umn; the midlobe retuse, with ruffled margins; disc
with a tuft of long laciniate scales and longitudinal
lines of short papillae extending to the apex of lip.
Column slender, terete, abaxially pubescent, about 3
cm long. Pollinia 4, soft and mealy. Anther cap
cucullate, white.

DISTRIBUTION: Mexico to Panama, perhaps also in the
West Indies, widely cultivated throughout the
Neotropic for the flavor of Vanilla extract.
QUEPOS AREA: road between Quepos and Manuel
Antonio, km 2.7, epiphytic on large trees at Gaia
Botanical Garden, 18 Apr. 1999, F. Pupulin 1429
(Herb. Gaia Bot. Garden!).
PHENOLOGY: flowering occurs in April and May.

KEY TO THE VANILLA SPECIES OF QUEPOS AREA

1. Lip with verrucose longitudinal lines....... V. planifolia
1. Lip without verrucose longitudinal lines.. V. pompona

12. XYLOBIUM Lindl.


Cespitose, epiphytic herbs with ovoid or semiterete,
short or elongate, 1-3-leaved pseudobulbs. Leaves
plicate, petiolate, acute to acuminate, subcoriaceous,
strongly veined. Inflorescence a short or elongate,
erect or arching, many-flowered raceme from the
base of pseudobulbs. Flowers usually showy, on short
pedicels. Sepals subequal, membranaceous, spread-
ing, dorsally carinate, the dorsal sepal free, the later-
als broader, adnate to the foot of the column, forming
a short to conspicuous mentum; petals membrana-
ceous, similar to the dorsal sepal but usually smaller;
lip simple or 3-lobed, the lateral lobes erect, the base
articulate with the column foot, the disc smooth or
provided with callus or erect keels. Column short,
stout, semiterete, slightly arcuate, the apex sometimes
narrowly winged, the base produced into a foot, the
anther terminal, incumbent, operculate. 1-2-celled.
Pollinia 2 or 4, waxy.
A Neotropical genus of some 20 species distributed
from Mexico to Peru and Brazil, and the Antilles.


1. Xylobium foveatum (Lindl.) Nicholson, Ill. Dict.
Gard. 4: 225. 1887. FIG. 17.
Maxillaria foveata Lindl., Edward's Bot. Reg. 25:
Misc. p. 2. 1839.
Maxillaria concava Lindl., Edward's Bot. Reg. 30:
Misc. p. 4. 1844.
Maxillaria stachyobiorum Rchb. f., Bot. Zeitung
10: 735. 1852.
Xylobium concavum Hemsl., Godm. & Salv., Biol.
Cent. Am. Bot. 3: 252. 1883.
Xylobium stachyobiorum (Rchb. f.) Hemsl., Godm.
& Salv., Biol. Cent. Am. Bot. 3: 252. 1883.
Xylobium ecuadorense Rolfe, Kew Bull. 341. 1913.
Xylobium filomenoi Schltr., Fedde Rep. Spec. Nov.
Beih. 9: 100. 1921.

Plant epiphytic, cespitose, erect. Roots slender,
glabrous. Pseudobulbs oblong-ovoid, sulcate, 5 cm
long, about 3 cm wide, 2-foliate at apex, covered at
the base by 4-6 scarious, evanescent sheaths. Leaves
plicate, petiolate, elliptic-oblanceolate to elliptic,
acuminate, coriaceous, to 32 cm long, 5.5 cm wide.
Inflorescences 1-2, erect to arcuate, many-flowered
racemes produced from the base of pseudobulb, to 22
cm long, provided with 5-7 infundibuliform, acute,
scarious bracts. Flowers rather showy, fragrant, white
to pale cream, the lip pale yellow, veined with pale
tawn. Dorsal sepal oblong, acute, with slightly revo-
lute margins, 12 mm long, 3 mm wide. Lateral sepals
obliquely oblong-elliptic, acute, carinate, with revo-
lute margins, shortly connate at the base to produce a
conspicuous mentum, 13 mm long, 4 mm wide.
Petals oblique, oblong-elliptic, acuminate, 11 mm
long, 3 mm wide. Lip obovate-elliptic 3-lobed, 12
mm long, 8 mm wide, the lateral lobes elliptic,
obtuse, erect, the midlobe suborbicular, obscurely
retuse, fleshy, abaxially provided with a prominent
keel; disc with a 3-carinate callus projecting to the
middle of the lip. Column stout, semiterete, 8 mm
long, with a foot about 4 mm long. Anther cap oper-
culate, subglobose, 1-celled. Pollinia 4, waxy.

DISTRIBUTION: Mexico to Peru and Guyana, in sea-
sonally wet forest.
QUEPOS AREA: Villa Nueva, finca Walker, 200 m, col-
lected by Mrs. Merli, flowered in cultivation at Gaia
Botanical Garden. 20 Dec. 1999, F. Pupulin 1900
(Gaia Botanical Garden, FAA collection!).
PHENOLOGY: flowering occurs from November to
February.

RESUMEN. Diecis6is species de orquideas se registran
por primera vez para el area de Quepos, ademis de







PUPULIN Addenda Orchidaceis Quepoanis


2cm


E5












5 mm


S3mm


20 cm


1 cm


1 2 cm


Figure 17. Xylobium foveatum (Lindl.) Nicholson. A Habit. B Flower. C Dissected perianth. D Column
and lip, lateral view. E Column, ventral view. F Operculum and pollinarium ILLUSTRATION VOUCHER: F. Pupulin
1900 (Gaia Bot. Garden, FAA Collection).


Mayo 2001







LANKESTERIANA


aqu11as incluidas en el tratamiento de la familiar en el
Parque Nacional Manuel Antonio (Pupulin 1998b). Se
proven descripciones de los g6neros que no habian sido
previamente registrados para el area, y cada especie es
descrita e ilustrada. Se proven datos sobre distribuci6n
y fenologia, junto con claves para los g6neros que
incluyen mis de una especie en el area. Una nueva
especie, Epidendrum montis-narae Pupulin & L.
Sinchez, es descrita e ilustrada. Dos species que habian
sido comunicadas previamente, Epidendrum isomerum y
Oncidium polycladium, se ilustran de material recolecta-
do en el area de studio.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. I am grateful to Dario
Castelfranco, Director of Gaia Botanical Garden, for
the facilities offered and the good days spent in the
field. I would thank M. Laura Spadari, who rendered
many of the drawings. Mr. Walker and Mrs. Merli
liberally provided for this study orchid specimens
from their collection. Field work was in part support-
ed by a grant of Gaia Botanical Garden.


CITED LrrERATURE
Adams, B. R. 1988. New species and combinations in
the genus Scaphyglottis (Orchidaceae). Phytologia
64(4): 249-258.
Atwood, J.T. 1987. The vascular flora of La Selva
Biological Station, Costa Rica Orchidaceae.
Selbyana 10(1): 76-145.
1989. Orchids of Costa Rica. Part 1. Ic. P1.
Trop. 14: 1301-1400.
& D.E. Mora-Retana. 1992. Orchids of Costa
Rica. Part 2. Ic. P1. Trop. 15: 1401-1500.
Brako, L. & J. L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the


Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Mon.
Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45: 1-1286.
Dodson, C. H. & P. M. Dodson. 1980. Orchids of
Ecuador. Ic. P1. Trop. 1: 1-100.
Dressier, R.L. & F. Pupulin. 1996. Macroclinium
allenorum, a new Costa Rican species well illustrated
forty years ago. Lindleyana 11(1): 34-36.
Escobar R., R. (ed.). 1991. Native Colombian Orchids,
vol. 3. Medellin, Editorial Colina.
Estrada, A. & A. Cascante. 1998. Matisia tinamastiana
(Bombacaceae): una nueva especie arborescente del
Pacifico central de Costa Rica. Brenesia 49-50: 79-
85.
Hamer, F. 1985. Orchids of Nicaragua. Part 6. Ic. P1.
Trop. 13: 1201-1300.
Higgins, W.E. 1997. A reconsideration of the genus
Prosthechea. Phytologia 82(5): 370-383 (publ. 1998).
Hodel, D., G. Herrera & A. Cascante. 1997. A remark-
able new species and additional novelties of
Chamaedorea from Costa Rica and Panama. Palm J.
137: 32-44.
McLeish, I., N. R. Pearce & B. R. Adams. 1995. Native
Orchids of Belize. Rotterdam, Balkema.
Pupulin, F. 1998a. Orchids of Manuel Antonio National
Park. San Jose, MesoAmerican Press, 75 pp.
_____. 1998b. Orchid florula of Parque Nacional
Manuel Antonio, Quepos, Costa Rica. Rev. Biol.
Trop. 46(4): 961-1031.
2000. New species of Costa Rican
Orchidaceae. Lindleyana 15: 17-28.
Sanchez G., J. 1998. Tachia parviflora Maguire &
Weaver (Gentianaceae): un nuevo registro para Costa
Rica. Brenesia 47-48: 87-88.
Schweinfurth, C. 1961. Orchidaceae, Orchids of Peru.
Fieldiana, Bot. 30(4): 787-1005.




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