• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Abstract
 Introduction
 A review of the related litera...
 Research methodology
 Findings, discussion, and...
 Appendix A: Letter of introduc...
 Appendix B: Cover letter with instruction...
 Appendix C: Cover letter to faculty...
 Appendix D: Distribution of subjects...
 Appendix E: Results of chi-square...
 Appendix F: Demographic information...
 References
 Biographical sketch














Title: Counselor education students' attitudes toward women
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098642/00001
 Material Information
Title: Counselor education students' attitudes toward women
Physical Description: x, 106 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Werner, Linda Iris, 1951-
Publication Date: 1979
Copyright Date: 1979
 Subjects
Subject: Counseling -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
College students -- Attitudes   ( lcsh )
Women   ( lcsh )
Sex role   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 99-105.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Statement of Responsibility: by Linda I. Werner.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098642
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000087450
oclc - 05514294
notis - AAK2817

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Dedication
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Tables
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Abstract
        Page ix
        Page x
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    A review of the related literature
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
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        Page 31
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        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Research methodology
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Findings, discussion, and conclusions
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
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        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Appendix A: Letter of introduction
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Appendix B: Cover letter with instruction to student
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Appendix C: Cover letter to faculty or student distributing questionnaire packets
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Appendix D: Distribution of subjects by selected variables and sex
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Appendix E: Results of chi-square analysis
        Page 96
    Appendix F: Demographic information questionnaire
        Page 97
        Page 98
    References
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Biographical sketch
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
Full Text













COUNSELOR EDUCATION STUDENTS' ATTITUDES
TOWARD WOMEN



















By

LINDA I. WERNER


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PIIILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1979

















DEDICATION



In memory of my father, who was always

very proud of me.
















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


My sincere and deepest appreciation is extended to

the following:

Dr. Robert O. Stripling, Chairman of my doctoral

committee for his encouragement,support and valued friend-

ship. His patience and sense of humor helped soothe many

moments of frustration and despair.

Dr. Larry C. Loesch, a member of my committee, for his

continued support and constructive suggestions. His

friendship over the past five years will be remembered.

Dr. Phyllis Meek, a member of my committee, for her

continuous "female" support and many invaluable suggestions.

Dr. Art Sandeen, a member of my committee, for his

inquisitiveness and encouragement to find the answers.

Ms. Sue Rimmer, for her assistance with the statistical

analysis.

My mother, Dorothy Werner, whose encouragement,

support, love and wisdom made my education possible.

My brother, Keith Werner, whose sense of humor and

corny jokes are always worth a good laugh.










To Pat, whose support and love helped make the

completion of this dissertation a reality. His ability

to help me keep "things in perspective" was only surpassed

by his warmth and encouragement.

Ms. Katherine B. Williams, for her patience and

perfection in typing this dissertation.

















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . ... iii

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . .. vii

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . ... . . ix

CHAPTER 1, INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . 1

Statement of the Problem . . . . . 1
Rationale . . . . . . . . . 3
Purpose of the Study . . . . . . 4
Definition of Terms . . . . . . . 5
Organization of the Study . . . . . 6

CHAPTER II, A REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE . 7

Traditional Views of Men and Women . . . 7
Incidence of Mental Illness . . . ... 15
Attitudes Toward Women . . . . . .. 20
Effects of Sex-Role Stereotyping ... . 20
College Students . . . . . .. 22
Clinicians . . . . . . .. 25
Trends in Attitudes Toward Women ... . 31
Counselor Education Students ...... 34
Studies not in Support of Previous Findings 36
Vocational Counseling . . . . . .. 38
Movement Toward Androgyny . . . . .. 41

CHAPTER III, RESEARCH METHODOLOGY . . . .. 45

Overview . . . . . . . . ... 45
Hypothesis . . . . . . . ... 46
Data Collection Procedures and Selection
of Subjects . . . . . . . ... 47
Instruments . . . . . . . ... .48
Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) . . .. 49
The Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) 51
Sex-Role Questionnaire (SRQ) . . .. 53
Demographic Information Questionnaire (DIQ) 54
Analysis of Data . . . . . . . 54
Limitations of the Study . . . . ... 55










Page

CHAPTER IV, FINDINGS, DISCUSSION, AND CONCLUSIONS 56

Description of the Sample . . . . .. 56
Results Related to the Null Hypothesis ... .63
Summary of the Results . . . . . ... 78
Discussion . . . . . . . . ... 80
Implications . . . . . . . ... 83
Conclusions . . . . . . . ... 85

APPENDIX A LETTER OF INTRODUCTION . . . .. .87

APPENDIX B COVER LETTER WITH INSTRUCTION TO STUDENT. 89

APPENDIX C COVER LETTER TO FACULTY OR STUDENT DIS-
TRIBUTING QUESTIONNAIRE PACKETS . . 91

APPENDIX D DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS BY SELECTED
VARIABLES AND SEX . . . . . .. .94

APPENDIX E RESULTS OF CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS ... .96

APPENDIX F DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION QUESTIONNAIRE .. 97

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . .. . 99

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . .. .106

















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Distribution of Subjects by Region, Academic
Level of Classification, and Sex . . ... .58

2 Distribution of Subjects by Sex, Age, and
Marital Status . . . . . . ... 59

3 Distribution of Subjects by Sex and Race . 60

4 Distribution of Subjects by Sex and Under-
graduate Major . . . . . . ... 61

5 Distribution of Subjects by Sex and Employ-
ment Status of Mother and Father . . ... .62

6 One Way Analysis of Variance of SRQ Scale
Scores . . . . . . . . . 64

7 One Way Analysis of Variance for SRQ and
BSRI Scale Scores . . . . . . ... 66

8 One Way Analysis of Variance for AWS Scale
Scores and Sex of Subject . . . . .. 67

9 Summary of Pearson Correlation Coefficients
Among SRQ, BSRI, and AWS Scale Scores ... .69

10 Analysis of Variance of AWS Scale Scores and
the Variables of Sex and Marital Status . . 70

11 Summary Table of Analysis of Variance of SRQ
(male and female) Scale Scores and the Vari-
ables of Sex, Marital Status, and Race . . 72

12 Summary Table of Analysis of Variance of BSRI
Scale Scores and the Variables of Sex, Marital
Status, and Race . . . . . . ... 74













13 Summary of Table of Pearson Correlation
Coefficients among AWS, SRQ, and BSRI
Scale Scores and Sex . . . . . .. 75

14 Summary Table of Analysis of Variance of
AWS, BSRI, and SRQ Scale Scores and
Region . . . . . . . . ... . 76

15 Results of Chi-Square Analysis . . ... 96

16 Distribution of Subjects by Selected
Variables and Sex . . . . . ... 94


viii


Table


Page














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy





Counselor Education Students' Attitudes
Toward Women



By

Linda I. Werner

March, 1979



Chairman: Robert O. Stripling
Major Department: Counselor Education

The purpose of this study was to investigate sex-role

stereotyping among counselor education students and to

examine the relationship among sex-role stereotyping, atti-

tudes toward the rights and roles of women in society, and

sex-role orientation. Certain demographic characteristics

also were studied.

Three psychological instruments, the Attitudes Toward

Women Scale (AWS), Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI), and the

Sex-Role Questionnaire (SRQ) as well as the Demographic In-

formation Questionnaire (DIQ) were presented to 300 subjects

enrolled in counselor education programs throughout the

United States.









Pearson product-moment correlations and analysis of

variance were used to analyze the hypotheses. This study

did not find any evidence of sex-role stereotyping among

counselor education students. It did find, however, that

female counselor education students have more liberal

attitudes toward the rights and roles of women in society,

than have male counselor education students. In addition,

a significant relationship was found between age and amount

of quarter hours completed and scores on the Attitudes

Toward Women Scale. Several possible factors may have been

responsible for this. Those that were reviewed included

(1) current changing attitudes toward women, (2) length of

counselor education program, (3) geographic differences,

and (4) racial differences.















CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Statement of the Problem

One of the major goals of counseling has been to help

people toward self-development by assisting them in self-

exploration, self-acceptance, and self-realization (Stevens,

1971). Rogers (1961) asserted that personal growth will

occur spontaneously as the client increases his capacity

to interact within the therapeutic relationship; then,

according to Rogers, change and personal development will

have occurred. The therapeutic relationship is a powerful

interaction within which the counselor exerts an influence

on the social standards and attitudes of the client

(Broverman, Broverman, Clarkson, Rosenkrantz, and Vogel,

1970). Counselors are most helpful if they encourage both

male and female clients to fulfill themselves to the extent

of their individual potential rather than adjusting to

existing sex-role stereotypes.

The effects of stereotyping by sex have become an

important concern because of the likelihood that stereotyp-

ing is psychologically damaging and serves to limit human

development (Maslin & Davis, 1975; Randolph & Zimmerman,

1974). Since counselors are products of the same culture

as their clients, they are bound by the same societal









attitudes and behavior patterns (Abernathy, 1976; Beguaret,

1976; Guttman, 1974; Schlossberg & Pietrofesa, 1973).

While it is difficult and often painful to examine criti-

cally one's own profession, counselors need to be concerned

about whether the influence of the sex-role stereotypes on

their professional activities serves to reinforce tradi-

tional views of males and females. If this is in fact

occurring, it is possible that clients are being taught to

adjust to existing restrictive sex roles rather than being

encouraged toward maximum realization of individual poten-

tial. If counselors reinforce sex-role differentiation,

men and women will be prevented from developing as full and

complete human beings (Bem, 1975).

There have been many studies conducted which provide

evidence for the existence of sex-role stereotypes.

Broverman et al. (1970) found that when sex was not spec-

ified, traits perceived as stereotypically male by mental

health professionals more closely approximated a profile

for "healthy males" and "healthy adults" than the profile

for "healthy females." Results confirmed the hypotheses:

(1) mental health professionals hold different standards

of mental health for males and females; (2) the differences

between the standards parallel stereotypic sex-role differ-

ences; and (3) the professionals' standards of mental

health for an adult, sex unspecified, would more often be

considered as healthy for men than for women. Five years

later Maslin and Davis (1975) used a sample of counselor







3

education students in replicating the Broverman study. The

results basically confirmed the previous research with the

exception that females held approximately the same set of

expectations for all healthy persons regardless of sex,

while males held somewhat more stereotypic expectations of

healthy females as compared with standards of health for

adults, sex unspecified.

Research on vocational counselors also reflects the

sexism found in the mental health workers in the Broverman

study. Thomas and Stewart (1971) investigated attitudes of

vocational counselors toward the vocational and educational

goals of females, using tapes of female clients' case his-

tories. They were seeking to determine if counselors re-

sponded differently to female clients with traditionally

feminine goals than to those with more masculine goals.

Results indicated that all the counselors rated conforming

goals as more appropriate than deviant goals. Those female

clients with deviant goals were rated as more in need of

counseling than female clients with conforming goals.

Abramowitz, Abramowitz, Jackson, and Gomes (1973) reported

that counselors attributed greater psychological maladjust-

ment to politically radical female clients than to mni..



Rationale

Stereotyping occurs when there is strong agreement

concerning the norms and beliefs about the different

characteristics of men and women (Broverman, et al., 1970).







4

Most counselors agree that sex-role stereotyping does occur

and its effects are potentially damaging (Maslin & Davis,

1975; Broverman et al., 1970; Helwig, 1976; Chessler, 1972).

There has been little specific research designed to investi-

gate whether or not sex-role stereotyping exists among stu-

dents in counselor education programs. In addition, there

has been limited research which has investigated possible

regional differences.

If sex-role stereotyping is found to be prevalent among

counselor education students, effective ways of changing

such attitudes and behaviors may be sought and incorporated

into counselor education programs. Counselor educators

would have to accept bias as a "fact" and help students be-

come aware of the necessity for confronting the issue as it

pertains to their counseling relationships (Oliver, 1975).

Intervention would need to be made in curricula to ensure

that all counselor education program graduates are aware of

the seriousness and ramifications of the sex bias issue.

One of the primary purposes of this current study was to

obtain empirically grounded base line data on this issue.



Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to determine if sex-role

stereotyping exists among counselor education students with

regard to their attitudes toward the rights and roles of

women. It also sought to determine if a relationship exists

between the degree of sex-role identification with the same









or opposite sex and the tendency to sex-role stereotype.

The following questions were investigated:

1. Do counselor education students stereotype by sex?

2. If so, do male students in counselor education

differ from female students in counselor education with re-

gard to the tendency to stereotype by sex?

3. What relationship exists between counselor educa-

tion students' sex-role identification and the tendency to

stereotype by sex?

4. Do male and female students in counselor education

differ with regard to attitudes toward women?

5. What relationships exist among age, amount of

quarter hours completed, and (a) tendency to stereotype

by sex, (b) attitudes toward women, and (c) sex-role orien-

tation?

6. What differences exist between male and female

married and unmarried subjects and white and ethnic minority

subjects and (a) tendency to stereotype by sex, (b) atti-

tudes toward women, and (c) sex-role orientations?



Definition of Terms

Sex-role.--The complex of behaviors considered char-
acteristic of or appropriate to persons occupying the male
or female status and the attributed expectations concerning
those behaviors (Hartley, 1964, p. 3).

Sex-role stereotype.--The highly consensual norms and
beliefs about the differing characteristics of men and
women (Broverman et al., 1970, p. 1).









Sexist-counseling behavior.--Any behavior on the part
of the counselor which only encourages the expression of
feelings, thoughts, attitudes, and behaviors on the part of
the client in line with traditional sex-role stereotypes and
actively discourages non-sex-role feelings, thoughts, atti-
tudes, and behaviors (Randolph & Zimmerman, 1974, p. 83).

Counselor Bias.--This is an opinion, either favorable
or unfavorable, which is formed without adequate reasons
and is based upon what the bias holder assumes to be appro-
priate from the group in question (Schlossberg &
Pietrofesa, 1973, p. 44).

Androgyny.--Psychological androgyny is a state or con-
dition in which a person has a high degree of both masculine
and feminine characteristics, depending on the situational
appropriateness of these behaviors (Bem, 1974, p. 155).



Organization of the Study

The remainder of this study is organized into three

chapters and five appendices. A review of the literature

related to attitudes toward women and stereotyping by sex

is presented in Chapter II. Chapter III contains a de-

scription of the methods and procedures employed. A

summary of the results, discussion, and implications are

presented in Chapter IV.















CHAPTER II

A REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

The review of the literature related to the investiga-

tion is divided into several broad areas:

(a) traditional views of men and women, (b) incidence of

mental illness among women, (c) effects of sex-role stereo-

typing, (d) attitudes toward women among college students,

(e) attitudes toward women among clinicians, (f) trends in

attitudes toward women, (g) attitudes toward women among

counselor education students, (h) vocational counseling,

and (i) the movement toward androgyny.



Traditional Views of Men and Women

To understand the current literature concerning psycho-

therapy for women, one needs to have some knowledge of the

early development of psychotherapy for women. There appear

to have been three major phases in the development of

psychotherapy for women (Osmond, Franks, & Burtle, 1974).

The first phase developed out of the witchcraft craze of the

sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. During that period,

numbers of men, women, and children were put to death

because of the belief that they were either witches or

bewitched. It is believed that most of those caught in the









witchcraft craze were women. There can be little doubt

that many of those who were bewitched and those who were

held to be witches suffered from mental illness. Although

the furor of the witchcraft craze decreased during the eigh-

teenth century, it was not until the end of the eighteenth

and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries that reform-

ers developed retreats or asylums for those who were

mentally ill. It was at this time that medical attention

became focused on the problems of mental illness in women.

The second phase, which consisted of two major events,

had an enormous bearing on women's affairs. The first event

was the use of the science of bacteriology which was the

result of the development of antisepsis and later asepsis

by Pasteur and Lister. These discoveries had a bearing on

the health of mothers and their children. The second event

was the introduction of anesthesia, which not only changed

the scope of surgery, but allowed women to bear children

with less pain than previously experienced. These two

events had an effect on the physical health as well as on

the psychological outlook of women. Women no longer con-

sidered themselves fortunate to have survived pregnancy,

nor did they experience the loss of as many children.

The third phase occurred during the 1860's with the

establishment of a profession for women by Florence

Nightingale. Before this time, women had little opportunity

to acquire professional or administrative skills. Florence

Nightingale recognized both the need for nursing and the









need for women to have an appropriate profession. Society

began to become aware of the fact that women were no longer

subjected to the perils of childbirth and loss of children,

and positive attitudes toward women started to occur more

rapidly. Within this background of social and medical

progress, the lives of women became less perilous and more

hopeful; the need for adequate contraception and family

limitation became apparent. These three phases have con-

tributed greatly to the women's movement in history (Osmond,

Franks, and Burtle, 1974).

Almost all personality theorists have been greatly

influenced by Freud (Williams, J., 1977). Freud viewed the

world as dominated by men. He believed that normal female

sexuality was based upon passivity and masochism. Although

Freud did not equate femininity with passivity and mascu-

linity with activity, he was referring primarily to

sexuality and not necessarily personality characteristics.

According to Helene Deutsch, a supporter of Freud, passivity,

an attitude of receptive waiting and expectancy, is the

central attribute of femininity. Deutsch points out that

this pasivity asserts itself because of its constitutional

origins in the body's hormones, anatomy, and reproductive

organs.

Karen Horney, who disagreed with Freud and Deutsch,

was nonetheless greatly influenced by the psychoanalytic

movement. She believed that there was a masculine bias in

psychoanalysis which reflected an earlier time when only







10

masculine development was considered and when the evaluation

of women was measured by masculine standards. One of the

strong differences between the views of Homey and Freud

was in the area of social conditioning. Horney believed

that social conditioning taught women the importance of

modeling themselves after the patriarchial idea of woman-

hood, in which a woman's only desire was to love a man and

to be loved by him, to admire and to serve him, and to adapt

herself to him. Horney viewed males as having more oppor-

tunity for achievement in the world of work and creative

activity. In addition, she rejected Freud's libido theory

which had its emphasis on biological instincts and drives,

and its pessimistic view of man as a driven creature at odds

with himself and the world. Horney viewed the child as

born with the potential for growth, for self-actualization,

which could be facilitated by a healthful environment

(Williams, J., 1977). While Horney was hopeful, she also

believed that

women who nowadays obey the impulse to
the independent development of their
abilities are able to do so only at the
cost of a struggle against both external
opposition and such resistance within
themselves as are created by an intensi-
fication of the traditional ideal of the
exclusively sexual function of women.
(1967, p. 183)

In summary, the oppression of women in personality

theories is apparent. Theoretically, women are viewed

negatively, as inferior, competitive, castrating, over









emotional, and innately dependent and weak (Barrett, Berg,

Eaton, & Pomeroy, 1974; Rice & Rice, 1973).

Traditionally, one who is defined as feminine is char-

acterized as being subjective, intuitive, passive, tender-

minded, sensitive, impressionistic, yielding, receptive,

empathic, dependent, emotional, conservative, masochistic,

narcissistic, obedient, servile, and subordinate; and has

an intuitive perception of feeling, a tendency to unite

rather than separate, to love and be loved (Bardwick, 1971;

Williams, J., 1977). Such a woman perceives of herself as

the "other," the counterpart of the man and the children in

her life. She realizes herself indirectly by fostering her

family's fulfillment. Her achievement is to help others

achieve. Her distinguishing feature is that she fulfills

herself by proxy (Steinman, 1974). The main focus of femi-

nine concern is a concentration on marriage, home, and

children. The "normal" woman is one who gives priority to

those role activities called feminine. The "normal" woman

is one who is passive with men, nurturant, cultivates

attractiveness, and maintains her own lovability (Bardwick,

1971; Sherman, 1976). There is an expectation that women

will emphasize nurturance and life-perserving activities,

both literally as in the creation of life and symbolically

by providing care and healing for, and administering to,

the helpless, the unfortunate and the ill (Keller, 1974;

Reeves, 1971). Hole and Levine (1971) state that tradition-

ally women need to be "appreciative yet challenging, must









be strong yet weak, vulnerable yet able to protect them-

selves, smart enough to get a man but not smart enough to

threaten him" (P. 204). Adult men and women tend to equate

assertive, independent strivings in girls and women with a

loss of femininity (Lerner, 1974). In addition there was a

ban on the expression of direct aggression, assertion, and

power striving except in areas clearly marked woman's

domain. Women are taught to inhibit aggression. There is

also a ban on the open display of sexual urges and women

taking the sexual initiative (Keller, 1974; Sherman, 1976).

Bardwick (1971) focuses on the differences between the

sexes. Girls and women, she concluded, differ from boys

and men by displaying greater motoric passivity. Girls and

women are also less aggressive. Aggression in females is

more often subtle, less easily recognized for what it is,

than the obvious, overt, immediate aggression of males.

Normal women accept the necessary physical discomforts of

pregnancy and childbirth. Women's narcissism serves as a

kind of defense in which integrity of the self does not dis-

solve in the face of agreeing to other persons' demands.

Healthy dependency for women is characterized by sensitivity

to the needs of those who are important to them, which

allows appropriate nurturance of supportive behaviors,

establishment of self in a loving, intimate behavior, and

gratification of maternal needs.

A more modern perspective on women views women as more

active. They embrace a self-achieving orientation. They







13

strive to fulfill themselves directly by realizing their own

potentialities. Their distinguishing feature is that they

seek fulfillment through their own accomplishments. The

advances in contraceptive measures have released contempo-

rary women from the constrictions of their homes and enabled

them to become more concerned with their own self-achieve-

ment and activity outside the family constellation

(Steinman, 1974).

In contrast to the traditional definition of feminin-

ity, one who is defined as masculine is characterized as

being objective, analytic, active, tough-minded, rational,

unyielding, intrusive, counteracting, independent, self-

sufficient, emotionally controlled and confident, aggress-

ive in the face of attack, in control of repressive urges

and suppression of strong emotions, especially anxiety, and

sexual aggressiveness (Bardwick, 1971; Sherman, 1976).

Stevens (1974) focused on what "real" men are taught:

1. The real man must prove his masculinity
in financial, intellectual, sexual and
physical tests of varying kinds.

2. The future, rather than the present,
is the central value of life, what is
happening now is irrelevant when con-
trasted with "how things come out in
the end."

3. The key to successful masculinity is
rationality, and all emotions par-
ticularly tender, dependent emotions,
are hindrances to this.









4. The people whose judgment counts are
men; women, since they are emotional
rather than rational, are not really
people and are valuable only for
sexual release and the propagation
of the species. (p. 16)

Men and women have been prevented and discouraged from

achieving authenticity. Men are taught strength and domin-

ance and decision making (Davis, 1974). Women are taught

dependence, docility, and letting others decide for them

(Williams, E, 1976). There are many paradoxes in the defi-

nition of the male role. There are also many distinctions

between traditional and modern male roles. There is

evidence to suggest that the male role contains many con-

stricting, restricting, and limiting features from which

men need to free themselves. The paradoxes concern what

traits, attitudes, and interests men are expected to show.

Men are taught that physical strength and accomplishment

are dominant images of masculine achievement, but it is

intellectual and interpersonal competencies which are neces-

sary for the kinds of achievement rewarded by society. Men

are expected to show greater emotional control than women,

and are often described as being more alienated from their

feelings; but at the same time, men appear to become angry

or violent more easily than women. The traditional male

role encourages physical forms which validate masculinity.

The modern male role encourages interpersonal and intellec-

tual skills rather than physical strength. The traditional









male role pattern is one in which emotional and inter-

personal relationships are not stressed. Within the modern

male role, interpersonal skills are expected insofar as

these promote smooth collaboration with others. The tradi-

tional male expects women to acknowledge and defer to male

authority. The modern male appreciates companionship and

intimacy in his relationships with women. Elements of the

traditional male role clearly persist, but the elements are

increasingly less dominant (Pleck, 1976).



Incidence of Mental illness

There exist sex differences in the proportion of males

and females in the diagnostic categories of mental disorders

(Williams, J., 1977). Today more women are seeking psychi-

atric help and being hospitalized than at any other time in

history. Data indicate that there are more female first

admissions to mental hospitals, psychiatric treatment in

general hospitals, psychiatric out-patient clinics, private

out-patient care, and private physicians (Gove & Tudor,

1973). In 1950, women accounted for 47.2% of admissions to

mental hospitals; in 1970 this increased to 49.9% and today

admissions exceed 50% (Howard & Howard, 1974; Levine, Kamin,

& Levine, 1974). There is a higher percentage of women

than men diagnosed schizophrenic, psychoneurotic, depressed,

or hysterical (Chessler, 1972; Holter, 1970). In fact,

women are reportedly twice (21.2%) as likely as men (9.8%)

to be perceived as suffering from depression (Williams, J.,









1977). More women than men go "crazy" and more often;

their behaviors are self-destructive rather than other de-

structive (Chessler, 1973).

The Joint Commission on Mental Health and Illness

appointed a committee to research the female career as a

psychiatric patient. The committee's findings reported

greater distress and symptoms in women than in men in all

adjustment areas. Divorced and separated females reported

a feeling of impending breakdown more often than single,

widowed, and married groups of either sex. The unmarried

(single, divorced, separated, widowed) have a greater

potential for psychological distress than do the married.

While the sexes did not differ in the frequency with which

they reported "unhappiness," the women reported more worry,

fear of breakdown, and need for help (Chessler, 1972).

One needs to examine the issue of why more women than

men become mentally ill. Women may be more likely to be-

come mentally ill because of their roles in society

(Williams, 1977). There is a striking contrast between the

traditional belief that women more than men require mar-

riage and children for fulfillment. There is evidence that

marriage, and especially the child-rearing years, are

correlated for women with less happiness, more stress, and

more overt mental illness. The findings of the Quality of

American Life Survey (Seiden, 1976) reveal that women, as







17

a group, exceed men in self-reported overall life satisfac-

tion under the following circumstances:

Married, age 18-29 no children (17 points),
never married, over 29 (12 points), never
married, age 18-29 (11 points), widowed
(5 points), married with children
(3-1 points), declining as the children
are younger). In addition, single and
widowed females reported themselves as
being more satisfied than single and
widowed men. (p. 1120)

It is interesting to note that these findings are in con-

tradiction with the results of the research of the Joint

Commission on Mental Health and Illness.

Traditionally, the single role, that of housewife,

which includes wife and mother, has been perceived as the

major role of women in society. Men have two major roles,

head of household, which includes father and husband, and

worker. Women find that they have only one source of grat-

ification and find the role of housewife to be relatively

unstructured and invisible. Women find their major instru-

mental activities frustrating and requiring few skills

(Gove & Tudor, 1973; Williams, J., 1977). Women mature

without accurate information about the toll that marriage

and child-rearing may take on their lives. Marriage and

parenthood are a challenge and a source of stress; there-

fore, there is an increased risk of impaired physical and

mental health (Seiden, 1976).

The increase in the incidence of mental illness is

understood, in part, by the help-seeking nature of the

female role (Chessler, 1972). More women experiencing







19

they diagnose their female patients as "crazier" (Chessler,

1972). There is a possibility that the therapist-patient

relationship reinforces a system of beliefs and attitudes

that is psychologically damaging to the patient and psycho-

logically rewarding to the therapist. The female sex-role

encourages women to seek psychiatric help and otherwise

admit emotional and physical distress, while men are en-

couraged to be strong and not need help (Chessler, 1973).

Another important issue concerns those who provide

psychological treatment and the representation of female

professionals in the field. In the United States, the

American Psychiatric Association documented membership of

17,298 (14,267 men, 1,691 women, 1,340 sex of name unclear).

During the last decade 90% of all psychiatrists were men.

In 1970 the American Psychological Association documented

membership of 30,839. Of this total only 15% were women.

Combining these two professions, only 12% of over 41,000

professionals were women (Chessler, 1972; Levine, Kamin &

Levine, 1974).

In summary, the sex-role exploration of higher rates

of mental disorder in women is based on the components of

the adult role and its potential for producing stress

beyond the coping capacity for many women.







22

to the formulation of goals for female clients which feature

adjustment to their traditional place in society.



College Students

Sex-role definitions exert a major influence on self-

concept and behavior of both college men and women

(Abernathy, 1976; Broverman et al., 1972). Rosenkrantz,

Vogel, Bee, Broverman, and Broverman (1968) conducted a

study which focused on the relationship of self-concept to

differentially valued sex-role stereotypes in college

students. Results indicated that there is high agreement

between men and women as to what typical men and women are

like. The concept of sex-role stereotypes implies extensive

agreement among people as to the characteristic differences

between men and women. Of the 41 stereotypic items,

29 (70%) were male valued; that is, the masculine pole was

more often perceived as more desirable by subjects than the

feminine pole of which only 12 (30%) items were female

valued. Male and female college students perceived them-

selves as differing along a dimension of stereotypic sex

differences. Results also indicated that despite continuing

changes in the status of women and changes in permissible

behaviors accorded men and women, sex-role stereotypes con-

tinued to be defined and agreed upon by college men and

women. Both men and women agreed that a greater number of

the characteristics and behaviors stereotypically associated







23

with masculinity are socially desired than those associated

with femininity.

Ginn (1975) implemented a checklist of 75 problems to

obtain an estimate of the types of concerns that males and

females would present at a counseling center. Basically

there was no disagreement as to what problems were female

and what problems were male. Of 75 problems on the check-

list, 35 were perceived as being more typically female,

whereas only 16 were perceived as being more typically male.

Only 22 problems were equally presented by men and women.

Both men and women agreed that women tend to have more prob-

lems. Male problems consisted of educational-vocational

concerns about effectiveness in college, post-college plans,

alcohol, drugs, sex, and anger. Female problems consisted

of physical complaints, relationships, and emotionality.

Women in college were concerned with feminine goals

and with the realization that their identity would be close-

ly tied to the men they marry. There was a conflict between

their individual aspirations and their culture's definition

of femininity. Independence and occupation can become im-

portant when affiliative gratification is certain and when

feminine identity is achieved (Bardwick, 1971). McKee and

Sherriffs' (1956-1959) early studies, which were concerned

with the self-concepts of college women, have been reaffirmed

by the results of more recent studies. College men and

women regard the male sex group more highly than the female

sex group. Subjects were asked to indicate on an adjective









checklist those characteristics which are true of men and

women in general. Male subjects emphasized masculine favor-

able characteristics, but female subjects emphasized

feminine unfavorable characteristics (Abernathy, 1976).

Kravetz (1976), on the other hand, reports that for a group

of 150 women affiliated with social and political groups,

women agreed with the same set of expectations of mental

health for men and women. Their descriptions of healthy

men and women did not support the existing sex-role stereo-

types.

Gump (1972) explored the self-concepts of women in

relation to ego strength, happiness, and achievement plans.

The view of femininity most acceptable to women students

was one which attests to the importance and feasibility of

assuming the roles of wife and mother. In addition, women

expressed the desire to pursue careers which would gratify

their needs for self-realization and achievement. Even the

achievement-oriented women were pursuing careers traditional

for women, and most of them wished for husbands and fami-

lies. Though subjects were not traditional in the sense

that the roles of wife and mother were sufficient for ful-

fillment, they were not proposing radical alterations. For

ego strength, the data suggest that quality is inversely

related to adoption of the female role. Subjects who

obtained the highest ego strength scores were actually pur-

suing both plans for marriage and career.









Fuller (1964) reported that clients referring them-

selves to a counseling center prefer male therapists. He

indicated that greater prestige is assigned to the masculine

role. Girls expressed more negative attitudes toward their

own sex as they matured, and the older males attributed

more unfavorable characteristics to women than did any other

group in the study. Both men and women attributed more

positively valued characteristics to men. In regard to the

differences found between groups, lower-class men held more

traditional views than did upper-class men and graduate

students. Non-student males consistently expressed more

liberal views than enrolled males, whereas non-student

females consistently held less liberal views than enrolled

females (Etaugh & Bowen, 1976).



Clinicians

Cowen (1961) stated that

stereotypically masculine traits are
more often perceived as desirable than
are attributes which are stereotypically
feminine. (p. 266)

He also indicated that the social desirabilities are posi-

tively related to the clinical ratings of these same

behaviors in regard to "'normality-abnormality,' adjustment

and health-sickness" (p. 226). Given the relationship

existing between masculine versus feminine characteristics

and social desirability, on the other, Cowen asserted that

it seems reasonable to expect that clinicians will maintain







26

parallel distinctions in their concepts of what, behavior-

ally, is healthy or pathological when considering men versus

women.

Broverman ot al. (1970) administered the Stereotype

Questionnaire to trained psychologists, psychiatrists, and

social workers. They were seeking to affirm whether a

double standard of mental health did exist. Results indi-

cated the following:

1. High agreement exists among clinicians
as to the behaviors and attributes
characterizing healthy adult men, adult
women, and adult sex unspecified.
Agreement holds for both male and
female clinicians.

2. Social desirability, as perceived by
non-professional subjects, is strongly
related to professionals' concepts of
mental health.

3. Clinicians tend to consider socially
desirable masculine characteristics
more often as healthy for men than
for women. (pp. 5-7)

In addition, clinicians were more likely to suggest

that healthy women differ from healthy men by being more

submissive, less independent, less adventurous, less aggres-

sive, and so on. Broverman et al. suggested that this is

certainly an unusual way of describing a healthy mature

individual. Clinicians' concepts of healthy adult males

did not differ significantly from their concepts of healthy

adults sex unspecified. However, the concept of healthy

adult women did differ significantly from the concept of

healthy adults sex unspecified. The results support the







27

clinicians' acceptance of an "adjustment" notion of health.

For a woman to be healthy, from an adjustment viewpoint,

she must adjust to and accept the behavioral norms for her

sex, even though these behaviors are generally less socially

desirable (Broverman et al., 1970, 1972).

A replication of the Broverman et al. study, conducted

by Fabrikant (1974), focused more on the background, t:i dining

and attitudes of the therapist. As a group, the therapists'

responses to many of the questions indicated a more liberal

view. Therapists expressed a more liberal view in the areas

of marriage, career satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and

freedom to choose life roles. Women clients and male and

female therapists agreed that the female client should be

less dependent on her husband financially and socially, but

not sexually. Female therapists agreed that there is a

difference in goals for the female client based on the

therapists' sex. Male therapists agreed that the sex of

the therapist was less important in goal setting than the

ability of the therapist. The therapists next responded to

an adjective checklist describing sex-role characteristics

as applied to either the male or female. The words were

grouped with respect to the positive and negative values

placed on them by society. The male therapists rated 70%

of the female words as negative and 71% of the male words

as positive. The female therapists rated 68% of the female

words as negative and 67% of the male words as positive.

The results parallel those of other studies.









The American Psychological Association established a

task force in 1975 to examine the extent and manner of sex-

bias and sex-role stereotyping in psychotherapeutic practice

as they directly affect women as students, practitioners,

and consumers. An open-ended questionnaire was developed

to elicit descriptions of incidents or circumstances that

were perceived as indicative of sex bias or sex-role stereo-

typing in psychotherapy with women. Women identified four

general areas of sex bias and sex-role stereotyping. They

viewed clinicians as fostering traditional sex roles. They

also perceived male clinicians as holding biased expecta-

tions and as devaluing women. Women clinicians stated that

there was an overuse of psychoanalytic concepts and

Freudian interpretations. In addition, women were

concerned about being used as sex objects and being seduced

by therapists.

Johnson (1974), using four stimulus conditions,

investigated the stereotypic attitudes of mental health

professionals. The stimulus conditions were: well inte-

grated female, poorly integrated female, well integrated

male, and poorly integrated male. Results indicated signi-

ficant differences between the means for these four

conditions. The well integrated male and female ratings

were in the direction of the male sex-role stereotype,

while the poorly integrated male and female ratings were in

the direction of the female sex-role stereotypes. While

male and female subjects essentially agreed in their rating,







29

the female subjects rated the poorly integrated female sig-

nificantly more in the direction of the feminine sex-role

stereotype than did male subjects.

Helwig (1976) reported bias among employment counselors.

Employment counselors were administered the Attitude Toward

Women Scale during three counselor in-service sessions.

The mean score for the scale was 64.8 (0-75), range 30-75.

Analysis showed a sex difference in mean scores--male 63.0,

range 30-75; female 70.3, range 50-75. Correlation between

score and age was highly significant, but because of the

small sample size, the author cautions that the correlation

be treated tentatively. Results indicate that male

employment counselors were more traditional and sexist in

their attitudes toward women than are female employment

counselors.

Abramowitz et al. (1973) investigated the role of

political bias in clinical evaluation. Counselors were

presented with bogus clinical data in the form of four ver-

sions of a history--left-oriented male, left-oriented

female, right-oriented male, and right-oriented female.

Leftism received less favorable clinical judgments than

rightism. Clinical inferences about men are less strongly

related to the evaluator's political philosophy than infer-

ences about women. Greater maladjustment was imputed to a

left-oriented, politically active female than to an identi-

cally described male. This supports the contention that

mental health activities may serve to stigmatize unfairly









persons whose behavior or values pose a challenge to the

dominant mores.

Kahn's (1977) research demonstrated that counselors

are presenting more liberal attitudes. The focus of the

study was to explore the possible impact of the women's

movement on mental health professionals' thinking about

women clients. Also investigated was the relationship of

the sex of the therapist and the feminist awareness of the

therapist with reported clinical opinions and judgments.

Results indicated that many more of today's clinicians are

more likely to expect the same characteristics in a mentally

healthy woman as were previously expected of mentally

healthy men or adults in general. One interesting result

was that after viewing vignettes of female clients, some

male clinicians judged women who lacked traditional femi-

nine traits as more pathological while judging women who

possessed traditional masculine traits as healthiest. Male

clinicians were still most likely to maintain a double stan-

dard which revealed the influence of traditional stereotypic

expectations. Feminist therapists were least likely

reveal traditional stereotypes.

Petro (1977) investigated the effects of the counsel-

or's sex, masculine/feminine sex-role stereotyping, and

sexual identity on level of affective sensitivity. Results

indicate that counselors' sex-role stereotypes are similar

to those held by members of the larger society. Counselors

identified more with masculine stereotypes and viewed males







31

as more positive than females. Male counselors denied those

aspects of themselves that could be viewed as feminine. In

addition, the higher the male competency, the higher was the

counselor's sensitivity to males. A similar study surveying

male care givers found that all subjects maintained a mascu-

line preference for boys but felt that girls should be

androgynous (Robinson, 1977). Nowacki and Poe (1973) in-

vestigated the generalizability of the Broverman et al.

study to introductory level psychology students. Results

confirmed that there was a significant difference between

the mean ratings for mentally healthy male and female and

between the ratings made by male and female students.

Brown and Hellinger (1975) investigated social workers'

attitudes toward women. Results indicate that social work-

ers did not tend to have attitudes toward women that were

more contemporary than those of other therapists. In fact,

while there was a strong leaning toward the contemporary

side of the continuum, psychiatric nurses had the highest of

the contemporary ratings. Additionally, the fewer the num-

ber of years of experience, the more traditional were the

ratings. Over 50% of all therapists questioned held a rela-

tively traditional stance, with males obtaining higher

traditional scores than females.



Trends in Attitudes Toward Women

There have been two recent studies which measured

differences in attitudes toward women over a span of time.









The first study, conducted by Mason, Czajka, and Arber

(1976), examined recent changes in United States women's

sex-role attitudes. Five surveys were administered between

the years 1964 and 1974. Issues addressed in the survey

were definition of gender roles, desirability of the tradi-

tional sex division of labor within the family, consequences

of maternal employment for children's well-being, and rela-

tive rights of the sexes in the labor force. Results

indicated that women's sex-role attitudes were a function

of education and employment experience in the cross section

and that recent sex-role attitude change has occurred at

approximately the same rate in all educational and socio-

economic strata. Between the years 1964 and 1970, before

the women's movement, a sizable attitude shift was noted

among college-educated women. There was a change from a

majority of women in support of the traditional arrangement

to a smaller majority in support. In 1970, there was evi-

dence of more egalitarian beliefs and fewer sex-role-related

traditional beliefs. Between the years 1970 and 1973 there

was a sizable increase in the percentage endorsing the obli-

gations of husbands to share housework with wives, rights

of women to be considered for top jobs on an equal footing

with men, rights of women to keep their jobs while bearing

children, and the psychological feasibility or moral accept-

ability of a life without marriage and motherhood. Between

the years 1973 and 1974, the data provide evidence that the

women's movement had directly contributed to recent declines









in support for traditional sex roles. The changes in

college graduates before 1970 suggest that other forces in

society were already providing an impetus for sex-role atti-

tude change. There is support for the belief that the

woman's movement accelerated the pace at which attitudes

changed.

An additional study by Engelhard, Jones, and Stiggins

(1976) investigated counselor attitudes toward women over

a span of six years. The three dimensions that were focused

on were the dual role of full-time worker and mother, sex-

role definitions, and the perceived utility of women's

special talents. Results indicated that the working-

mother factor fostered the most conservative counselor

attitudes. Male and female counselors were further apart

in their attitudes on this factor than they were on either

of the other two. The working-mother factor was resistant

to change between the first and the second survey (1968-

1969 and 1971-1972). After 1971, attitude change appears

to have progressed with more openness to the working-

mother factor. Women counselors were much more open to

diverse sex-role definitions. There was agreement between

men and women counselors concerning the value of women to

society. While male and female counselors differed on all

three dimensions, there was agreement that the narrow,

restrictive sex-role definitions are no longer appropriate.









Counselor Education Students

Specific research designed to shed light on whether or

not sex-role stereotyping exists among counselor education

students has been sparse. Maslin and Davis (1975)

administered the shortened version of the Stereotype Ques-

tionnaire to a sample of full-time graduate students in

counselor education. Subjects were assigned by sex to one

of the three sets of instruction (adult male, adult female,

adult sex unspecified) which resulted in six groups.

Results indicated that group means for males and females

given adult male instructions were almost identical. The

group mean for males given adult female instruction was

considerably lower than the group mean for females given

the same instructions. These results only partially con-

firmed results of previous research. Females held

approximately the same set of expectations for all healthy

persons regardless of sex, while males held somewhat more

stereotypic expectations of healthy females as compared

with standards of health for other persons. Further

results confirmed previous findings that professional con-

cepts of mental health for adults were in accord with

non-professional ideas of socially desirable traits, re-

gardless of sex. Maslin and Davis (1975) suggested that

one possible explanation for the differences between re-

sults in their study and that of Broverman et al. (1970) is

that there was a five-year span between the two studies.

During those five years the egalitarian beliefs and ideas









associated with the feminist movement gained increasing

attention and support. The Maslin and Davis study gave

minimal support to the existence of a double standard of

mental health. It is significant, though, in the fact that

there were consistent expectations for healthy adults and

healthy males, but different expectations were maintained

for females.

Beach and Kimmel (1976) investigated the attitudes of

counselor education students toward the rights and roles of

women in society and compared them among sample groups of

high school students, college students, teachers, profes-

sors, and persons in business. All subjects were

administered the Attitudes Toward Women Scale and a bio-

graphical questionnaire. Results indicated that all

counselor education students scored highest (most liberal)

on the vocational, educational, and intellectual roles sub-

scale of the AWS and scored lowest (most traditional) on

the sexual behavior subscale. Female counselor education

students had significantly higher mean scores on the total

AWS than male counselor education students. In a compari-

son of counselor education students with other groups,

those women professionals in education attending a summer

workshop on women had the highest mean scores (139.26),

followed by those who had attended a conference on sexism

(130.10), counselor education students (119.03), and

finally by rural high school seniors (85.69). Results

indicated that as a reference group, counselor education







36

students were no more liberal than other comparison groups

and, in fact, earned considerably lower scores than some of

their other colleagues. One interesting finding was that

counselor education students' attitudes were not signifi-

cantly related to the number of hours they had completed

in their programs. Beach and Kimmel (1976) concluded that

although teacher humanism may be espoused
as a distinctive goal for guidance pro-
grams, belief in sex equality as part of
humanism does not necessarily result; the
guidance curriculum as it was structured
did not appear to liberalize counselor
trainees' attitudes toward women. This
fact dramatizes the need for change in
the program. (p. 217)

Trotsky (1977) conducted an investigation to determine

if male and female counselor education students would emit

significantly different responses to a new video-taped

client stimulation. Subjects were exposed to a video tape

of the "Our Gang" series, which included vignettes relating

to interpersonal interactions. Results indicated that

female raters assigned higher ratings to female clients and

male raters assigned higher ratings to male clients. In

general, female raters assigned higher ratings overall.



Studies Not in Support of Previous Findings

Stricker (1977) critiqued existing research concerning

sex-role stereotyping, and supported the position that the

current data do not point out conclusive evidence for the

existence of sexism in therapy. He stated that research

has not produced any direct evidence about the treatment of










women in psychotherapy. He did not find current method-

ology appropriate and suggested that the methodology of

choice would be to observe the therapy, describe it in a

systematic way, and then draw conclusions. He added that

the problems in sampling patients and therapists in therapy

are enormous. In regard to the results of past studies, he

stated that "while males do respond to negative character-

istics of females, this is not a case of sexism but rather

a case of a general rating style that is also applied to

men" (p. 16). There are no data to support this conclusion.

Stricker critiqued several studies, but concluded that

assuming a double standard of mental health and negative

evaluations of women exist is premature in light of the

data. While he admitted that sex-role stereotyping is

widespread in our society, it is most likely to occur when

generic groups are rated and least likely to occur when

specific individuals are rated. To support his conclusions,

Stricker referred to the study conducted by Maxfield.

Maxfield (1977) surveyed members of the American Psychologi-

cal Association and administered a sex-role stereotype

questionnaire and questions based on six case vignettes.

His results did not support the existence of a bias against

women. Differences favored females nearly as often as they

favored males. Maxfield's questionnaire asked clinicians

to fill out responses for healthy mature adults and typical

adult psychotherapy patients. His results are based on a

fairly small sample size.










Titus-Maxfield (1976) reported that the tendency to

stereotype diminishes when information other than gender is

available. She investigated the effects of sex-role stereo-

typing on the evaluations of applicants to a Ph.D. program.

It was reported that male and female applicants were not

evaluated in a systematically different fashion. There was

no evidence of a widely reported tendency to favor males

over females. This study demonstrated that when equally

qualified men and women were evaluated with reference to a

specific role model, sex-role stereotypes were of no

importance.

One final study, by Johnston (1975), investigated the

attitudes of male graduate students toward women. Atti-

tudes were assessed in relation to general authoritarianism

and principles related to equality and women's rights.

Results indicated that there was no significant difference

between mean scores on the Dogmatism Scale and the Women's

Liberation Questionnaire among graduate students in law,

engineering, business, and public administration.



Vocational Counseling

Research on vocational counselors reflects the sexism

found in mental health workers in the Broverman et al.

study (1970). Counselors have displayed sexist bias in

counseling females in career planning. Counselors are not

aware of pertinent factors regarding women in the world of

work. They are misinformed about the percentage of women









working, the extent to which women are discriminated

against, the increasing discrepancy between men's and

women's incomes, the probability of women getting leader-

ship positions, occupational alternatives needed by women,

the general ability of women, and the length of time

women spend in the labor force (Guttman, 1974; Oliver,

1975).

For example, Thomas and Stewart (1971) examined coun-

selor attitudes toward the vocational and educational goals

of females, using a sample of school counselors. The

purpose of the study was to determine if high school

counselors responded differently to female clients with

traditionally feminine goals than to those with more mascu-

line goals. Counselors listened to tapes of females,

either describing a conforming goal (home economist) or a

deviant goal (engineer). Counselors then rated each client

on appropriateness of the choice and need for counseling.

Results indicated that (1) female counselors gave higher

acceptance scores to all clients than did male counselors,

(2) all counselors rated clients with conforming goals as

more appropriate in career choice than clients with deviant

goals, and (3) female counselors rated clients with deviant

goals as significantly more in need of counseling than

clients with conforming goals.

Schlossberg and Pietrofesa (1973) tested the hypothe-

sis that counselors are biased against women entering a

masculine field. Counselor education students were taped










while conducting interviews with coached clients who were

undecided about whether to pursue a career in education or

engineering. The results indicated a definite bias by both

male and female counselors against women entering a mascu-

line occupation.

It is also important to understand the sex-role atti-

tudes and career choices of male and female graduate

students. Given the difference in degree of role conflict

likely to be experienced by women entering traditionally

feminine versus traditionally masculine occupations, it

seems probable that differences exist between the types of

women who enter these professions. It is possible that

women who choose traditional feminine occupations do so

partly because they are more conservative in their atti-

tudes toward women's activities and perceive more potential

role conflict between career and family than do women choos-

ing traditionally maculine occupations. Also, attitudinal

differences exist between men entering traditionally mascu-

line professions and those entering traditionally feminine

professions. A sample of graduate students was administered

the Attitude Toward Women Scale. Results indicated that

graduate women were more non-traditional in their attitudes

toward women's roles than were the men. Men choosing mascu-

line occupations were far less liberal than men choosing

feminine occupations. Anderson's (1977) study evaluated

factors related to sex-role which contribute to the under-

representation of women in graduate schools. She reported







41

that interpersonal affiliative relationships were the major

concern of most senior college women regardless of their

degree of psychological femininity. The women believed

that their self-actualization was associated with fulfilling

their sex-role identity as adult females.



Movement Toward Androgyny

American society has long considered masculinity to be

the mark of the psychologically healthy male and femininity

to be the mark of the healthy female. The concept of

androgyny which was introduced by Bem (1975a) was an attempt

to "help free the human personality from the restricting

prison of sex-role stereotyping and to develop a conception

of mental health which is free from culturally imposed

definitions of masculinity and femininity" (p. 1). Bem

stated that the

ideal or healthy personality has tradi-
tionally included a concept of sexual
identity with three basic components:
(1) a sexual preference for members of
the opposite sex; (2) a sex-role identity
as either masculine or feminine, depending
upon one's gender; and (3) a gender identity,
i.e., a secure sense of one's maleness or
femaleness. (p. 1)

Androgyny is a concept viewing an individual as being

able to be both instrumental and expressive, both assertive

and yielding, both masculine and feminir, depending upon

the situational appropriateness of these various behaviors

(Bem, 1975b; Bem & Lenney, 1976). While it is possible for

individuals to be androgynous, traditional sex roles prevent









this possibility from ever becoming a reality for many

individuals (Bem, 1972).

Bem (1975b) investigated the behavioral adaptability of

the androgynous individual and the behavioral restriction

of the non-androgynous individual. It was hypothesized that

feminine and androgynous subjects would be more nurturant

and playful than masculine subjects. Additionally, it was

hypothesized that masculine and androgynous subjects would

both remain more independent from social pressure than

feminine subjects. The first hypothesis was tested by ob-

serving the subjects interact with a kitten. Results

indicated that feminine and androgynous men did not differ

significantly from one another, and both were significantly

more responsive to the kitten than masculine men. The

androgynous women, like the androgynous men, were quite

responsive to the kitten, but the feminine women were sig-

nificantly less responsive, and the masculine women fell

ambiguously between. The second hypothesis was tested by

asking subjects to rate a series of cartoons. Results

indicated that masculine and androgynous subjects did not

differ significantly from one another, and both were signi-

ficantly more dependent than the feminine subjects. This

was true for males and females.

A further investigation was conducted to clarify

whether the feminine women's low level of nurturance was

unique to her interaction with a human baby, and in addi-

tion, to listen to a fellow student who openly shared some









of his or her unhappy emotions. Results indicated that

feminine and androgynous subjects did not differ signifi-

cantly from one another, and both were significantly more

nurturant with the baby than the masculine subjects. The

results did not differ significantly for men and women.

This study indicated that the low nurturance of the femi-

nine woman does not extend to her interactions with humans

(Bem, Martyna, & Watson, 1976).

A further study by Bem and Lenney (1976) suggested

evidence for the hypothesis that cross-sex behavior is

motivationally problematic for sex-typed individuals and

is actively avoided as a result. Subjects were instructed

to select one activity, from activities which were arranged

in pairs, that they would prefer to perform during the

photography session which was to follow. Results indicated

that sex-typed subjects were significantly more stereotyped

in their choices than androgynous subjects who did not

differ significantly from one another. Subjects were then

asked to perform three masculine, three feminine, and three

neutral activities while the experimenter pretended to

photograph them. They then indicated how they felt after

each activity on a series of rating scales. Results indi-

cated that sex-typed subjects felt significantly worse than

androgynous subjects, who, again, did not differ signifi-

cantly from one another. The masculine men and the feminine

women experienced the most discomfort and felt the worst

about themselves after performing cross-sex activities.







44

Zeldow (1976) examined the relationship between psycho-

logical androgyny and attitudes toward feminism among

college students. Results indicated that (1) women were

more liberal than men, (2) feminine men were more conserva-

tive than feminine women, (3) feminine men were slightly

more conservative than androgynous and masculine men,

neither of whom differed from each other or their female

counter-parts, (4) androgynous individuals had the most

profeminist attitudes.

In summary, while the past literature reveals the

existence of sex-role stereotyping in areas including

counseling, there has been much progress in the direction

of increasing awareness of stereotypes and their debili-

tating effects.
















CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY



Overview

The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to deter-

mine if sex-role stereotyping existed among counselor

education students and (2) to determine if a relationship

existed among sex-role stereotyping, attitudes toward the

rights and roles of women in society, and sex-role orienta-

tion. The study included a sample of 300 subjects from

counselor education programs within the United States offer-

ing both master's and post-master's degrees. Subjects

selected were currently enrolled on a full-time or part-

time basis.

The relationships among attitudes toward women, sex-

role orientation, and the tendency to stereotype by sex,

for a sample of counselor education students were investi-

gated through a descriptive research design (Isaac &

Michael, 1971). All subjects were administered the Atti-

tudes Toward Women Scale, Bem Sex-Role Inventory, Sex-Role

Questionnaire, and a Demographic Information Questionnaire.

The remainder of this chapter will be concerned with

the (1) hypotheses, (2) data collection procedures,








(3) selection of subjects, (4) instruments used, (5) data

analysis, and (6) limitations of the study.



Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1. There are no differences between male

and female counselor education students in regard to the

tendency to stereotype by sex.

Hypothesis 2. There are no differences between coun-

selor education students' sex-role identification and the

tendency to stereotype by sex.

Hypothesis 3. There are no differences between male

and female counselor education students with regard to atti-

tudes toward women.

Hypothesis 4. For counselor education students there

are no relationships among age and amount of quarter hours

completed and (1) the tendency to stereotype by sex,

(2) attitudes toward women, and (3) sex-role orientation.

Hypothesis 5. For counselor education students there

are no differences between male and female married and

unmarried students and white and ethnic minority students

with regard to (1) the tendency to stereotype by sex,

(2) attitudes toward women, and (3) sex-role orientation.









Data Collection Procedures and Selection of Subjects

Fifty departments of counselor education were selected,

representing proportionately the four regions (Southern,

North Atlantic, Western, and North Central) of the United

States as listed in the Personnel and Guidance Standard

Reference (1972). The chairperson of each of these programs

received a letter (Appendix A) requesting that individual's

assistance in obtaining data for this study. It was re-

quested of the chairperson to designate a faculty member or

graduate student to distribute and return questionnaires,

if the chairperson was unable to personally assist the

researcher. A postage paid self-addressed postcard was

included, for the chairpersons' response.

Following receipt of the postcards acknowledging will-

ingness to participate, the researcher mailed questionnaire

packets and information sheets to the chairperson, faculty

member, or graduate student who was to distribute and re-

turn materials (Appendix C). Each counselor education

student received the following: (1) letter to the student

(Appendix B), (2) Attitudes Toward Women Scale, (3) Bem Sex-

Role Inventory, (4) Sex-Role Questionnaire, and (5) Demo-

graphic Information Questionnaire (Appendix F).

It was requested that these materials be distributed

to 25 master's level students and to all post-master's level

students in the counselor education department. The number

of students in each counselor education department was

obtained from the Counselor Education Directory (Hollis &

Wanta, 1977).








48

Counselor education programs from which the data were col-

lected had a minimum of 25 master's and 7 post-master's

level students.

It was expected that the students would require an

average of 30-45 minutes to complete all of the instruments

in the packets. Participation in the study was on a volun-

tary basis, and those students not wishing to participate

were requested to return the packets. This was stated in

the instruction sheets within each packet.

It was expected that at least 50% of the chairpersons

from counselor education programs initially contacted would

agree to furnish data and that a 50% rate of return from

this number would provide a minimum sample of 300 master's

level subjects and 200 post-master's level subjects. Even

though approximately 50% of the chairpersons agreed to give

assistance to the researcher, this resulted in only a 30%

overall return rate of questionnaires yielding a sample of

300 subjects (200 master's level subjects and 100 post-

master's level subjects) from a total population of

900 subjects.



Instruments

The instruments used in this research were the Bem Sex-

Role Inventory, Attitudes Toward Women Scale, and the

Sex-Role Questionnaire. Additionally, The Demographic

Information Questionnaire developed for this study was







49

administered to all subjects. The Demographic Information

Questionnaire had no evaluative purpose.



Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI)

This scale was developed by Sandra Bem of Stanford

University (1974). The BSRI is a paper-and-pencil instru-

ment which distinguishes androgynous individuals from those

with more traditional sex-role self-concepts. The BSRI

treats masculinity and femininity as two orthogonal

dimensions (qualitatively different aspects) rather than as

two ends of a single dimension.

The BSRI consists of twenty masculine personality

characteristics and twenty feminine personality character-

istics which are listed as adjectives. Masculine

personality characteristics include ambitious, independent,

assertive, and strong. Feminine personality characteristics

include affectionate, gentle, understanding, and sensitive

to the needs of others. The forty personality character-

istics were all rated by both male and female raters as

being significantly more desirable in American society for

one sex than for the other. The BSRI also contains twenty

neutral characteristics which serve as filler items; truth-

ful, happy, conceited, and unsystematic.

The instrument utilizes a seven-point Likert format

with responses ranging from one (never or almost never ture)

to seven (always or almost always true). The subjects are

asked to choose one of these seven categories as a response









for each item on the scale. To score, subjects were

divided at the median of both the masculinity and feminity

scales and were classified as masculine, feminine, androgy-

nous, or undifferentiated. Subjects who scored above the

masculinity median and below the femininity median were

classified as "masculine," those who scored above the

femininity median and below the masculinity median were

classified as "feminine," those who scored above

both medians were classified as "androgynous," and those

who scored below both as "undifferentiated" (Bem, 1974).

Bem (1974), reports normative data collected on

560 males and 250 females (N=810). Internal consistency

was measured by computing a coefficient alpha for the

Masculinity, Femininity, and Social Desirability scores.

The scores proved to be highly reliable: first sample-

males, .86; females, .80; social desirability, .75; second

sample-males, .86; females, .82; social desirability, .75.

Test-retest reliability was conducted with a sample of

56 subjects collected over a four week period. Pearson

product-moment correlation coefficients for the sample

yielded highly stable results (masculine .90, feminine .90,

androgynous .93, and social desirability .89). Bem also

investigated the relationship between masculinity and

femininity to test if the scales are logically independent.

Results from the normative sample revealed them to be

empirically independent; first sample-males, r=.ll; fe-

males, r=.14; second sample-males, r=+.02; females, r=-.07.









The Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS)

This scale was developed by Janet Spence and Robert

Hclmreich of the University of Texas, Austin. The

AWS has been widely supported (Beach & Kimmel, 1976; Kil-

patrick & Smith, 1974; and Lunneborg, 1974). It is a

25 item self-report instrument which is designed to survey

the current attitudes which members of society hold concern-

ing the rights and roles of women in society. This is a

shortened version of the original 55-item form. Correla-

tions between subjects' scores on the 25-item version and

the full scale were .97 for both the male and female

students. The items have been categorized into six indepen-

dent subscales. The six subscales are (1) vocational,

educational, and intellectual roles (17 items); (2) freedom

and independence (4 items); (3) dating, courtship, and

etiquette (7 items); (4) drinking, swearing, and dirty

jokes (3 items); (5) sexual behavior (7 items); and

(6) marital relationships and obligations (17 items).

The instrument consisted of 25 declarative statements

for which there are four response alternatives: agree

strongly, agree mildly, disagree mildly, and disagree

strongly. Each item was given a score ranging from zero

to three, with zero representing choice of the response

alternative reflecting the most traditional conservative

attitude, and three indicating the alternative response

reflecting the most liberal, profeminist attitudes. Since









the statements for some of the items are conservative in

content while others are liberal, the specific alternative

(agree strongly or disagree strongly) given a zero score

varies from item to item. Each subjects' score was ob-

tained by summing the values of the individual items. The

range of a possible score was zero to one-hundred and sixty-

five.

Collins (1974) investigated the validity, reliability,

and subscore differentiation on selected measurement

characteristics of the AWS. The primary focus was to assess

reliability, validity, and restriction of range problems.

Results indicated that the AWS has satisfactory test-retest

reliability (r=.95) and satisfactory criterion-related

validity. Restriction of range was found at the liberal

end of the scales.

The AWS was also validated by Kilpatrick & Smith (1974)

by administering the scale to a group of women members of

the National Organization of Women. The authors concluded

that this scale is a valid measure of feminist attitudes,

based on empirical data which indicated that the NOW group

scored significantly higher (more liberal) than the norma-

tive control groups of the Spence & Helmreich study.

Additionally, construct validity was ascertained by corre-

lating the AWS scale scores with the Kirkpatrick Belief

Pattern Scale for measuring attitudes toward feminism.

Spence and Helmreich reported internal consistency









coefficients based on computation of Cronbach Alphas on

the original sample to be .92 for both samples.



Sex-Role Questionnaire (SRQ)

This scale, developed by Paul Rosenkrantz et al.

(1968), was designed to measure current sex-role percep-

tions. The SRQ contains 82 bipolar statements which focus

on the traits and behaviors currently assigned to men and

women. These bipolar statements are separated by 60 points.

Subjects are instructed to "imagine that you are going to

meet someone for the first time, and the only thing that

you know in advance is that he is going to be an adult

male." Subjects were instructed to mark on the 60-point

scale the extent to which they expected each item to char-

acterize the adult male. After completion, subjects were to

repeat the same instructions for describing an adult female

and to repeat again for a self description. There is no

validational data on the SRQ. The authors assert that

although the instrument has no available validational data,

the questionnaire appears to tap meaningful dimensions as

was attested to by the fact that a high consistency of

responses occurs across individuals with respect to how they

perceive men and women. Correlations were computed for

male valued items (items on which the masculine pole and

the socially desirable pole coincide) and female valued

items (items on which the feminine pole and the socially

desirable pole coincide) and self items. For the









"competency" (male valued) items, correlations of the odd

with the even items are .81 for the male response, .83 for

the female response, and .89 for the self response in

150 subjects. For the "warmth-expressiveness" (female

valued) items, correlations between the odd and even items

are .80 for the male response, .58 for the female response,

and .72 for the self response in the same sample of

150 subjects.



Demographic Information Questionnaire (DIQ)

This questionnaire developed by the researcher was

administered to subjects in order to obtain the following

information: age, sex, race, marital status, number of

quarter hours completed, employment status of mother and

father, number of brothers and sisters, place in birth

order, and highest educational degree of mother and father.



Analysis of Data

The responses from each instrument were totaled for

each subject and group means were calculated. Hypotheses 1,

2, 3, and 5 were tested by the statistical method of analy-

sis of variance. If a significant F ratio was found for

the main effect, the multiple comparison procedures of

Tukey's Honestly Significant Differences (HSD) was used to

determine where significant differences lie. In all tests

for significant differences, a confidence level of .05 was









used. Hypotheses 4 was tested by calculating Pearson

product-moment correlations. The correlations were used to

determine if there were significant relationships between

the dependent variables (test scores) and the independent

variables (age and amount of quarter hours). The point

biserial procedure was used to determine if there were sig-

nificant relationships between the continuous variables

(test scores) and the dichotomous variable (sex).



Limitations of the Study

The following limitations applied for the purposes of

this study:

(1) There was no control groups or comparison groups;

therefore, results were limited to counselor education

programs.

(2) There was uneven sample sizes between the masters'

and post-masters' subjects; therefore, results were limited

to each group and only broad generalizations can be made

about each group.

(3) There was a possibility that subjects responded

in a socially desirable manner rather than in a manner which

reflects subjects' own attitudes.















CHAPTER IV

FINDINGS, DISCUSSION, AND CONCLUSIONS

This study was designed to investigate sex-role stereo-

typing among counselor education students and to examine

the relationship among sex-role stereotyping, attitudes

toward the rights and roles of women in society, and sex-

role orientation. The population studied consisted of

master's and post-master's counselor education students

from a sample of counselor education programs throughout

the United States. Those demographic variables considered

to be most relevant with respect to the population of this

study were (1) sex, (2) marital status, (3) race, (4) num-

ber of quarter hours completed in a counselor education

program, (5) age, and (6) geographical region of United

States. This chapter will be divided into five sections:

(1) description of the sample, (2) analysis of the find-

ings, (3) discussion of the findings, (4) implications, and

(5) conclusions.



Description of the Sample

The sample consisted of 300 counselor education

students from 19 colleges or universities in 17 states

throughout the United States, enrolled during the spring

and summer quarters of 1978. The sample of colleges and









universities was distributed among the four geographic

regions of the United States designated by the Personnel &

Guidance Standard Reference (1972): West-3, North Atlan-

tic-3, South-6, and North Central-7. A breakdown of the

sample by region, academic level classification, and sex

is offered in Table 1. Of the 300 subjects, 41.3% were

males and 58.7%, females. Master's degree subjects com-

prised 70% of the entire sample and post-master's students,

30%.

Of the 300 subjects, 59.6% were over the age of 26,

with a model age range of 26-30, closely followed by those

over 30. Single subjects comprised 47% of the total sample,

with 43% married, and 10% either divorced or separated

(Table 2). A breakdown by race reveals that 89.33% of the

total sample was white; 3%, hispanic; 1.33%, Asian;

6%, black; and .33%, other (Table 3). Of the 300 subjects,

64.76% held liberal arts degrees; 4.02%, science degrees;

and 30.87%, degrees in education (Table 4). A small

majority (53.19%) of the fathers and 18.12% of the mothers

of female subjects were employed full-time. For the male

subjects, 40.06% of the fathers and 17.44% of the mothers

were employed full-time. Of the 300 subjects, 8.05% of the

male subjects were from families where the mother was never

employed, as compared with 19.79% of female subjects

(Table 5). Additional demographic data are offered in

Appendix D. A Chi Square analysis which was used to
















TABLE 1

Distribution of Subjects by Region, Academic
Level Classification, and Sex



SEX AND ACADEMIC LEVEL
Male Female
REGION Master's Post-Master's Master's Post-Master's Total

WEST 4 2 9 7 22

NORTH
ATLANTIC 27 25 53 17 122

SOUTH 38 12 49 16 115

NORTH
CENTRAL 11 5 19 6 41

TOTAL 80 44 130 46 300
















TABLE 2

Distribution of Subjects by Sex,
Age, and Marital Status


Variables


Males % of Total


20 23
23 26
26 30
over 30


Marital Status

Single
Married
Divorced
Separated


Females % of Total


5.83
12.33
11.66
12.00



21.33
17.00
2.33
.66


10.66
12.00
18.33
17.66



25.66
26.00
6.33
.66


















Distribution of


TABLE 3

Subjects by Sex and Race


Sex
Race Males % of Total Females % of Total

Hispanic 7 2.33 2 .66

White 107 35.66 161 53.66

Asian 1 .33 3 1.00

Black 8 2.66 10 10.00

Other 1 .33 0 0
















TABLE 4

Distribution of Subjects by Sex and
Undergraduate Major


Sex
Undergraduate
Major Males % of Total Females % of Total

Liberal Arts 89 29.86 104 34.89

Science 6 2.01 6 2.01

Education 29 9.73 63 21.14















TABLE 5

Distribution of Subjects (N = 297) by Sex and
Employment Status of Mother and Father


Males
(N=124)

Employment
Status of
Father

Worked full-time 119


Worked part-time 2


Worked occasionally 2


Not present 1


Employment
Status of
Mother

Worked full-time 52


Worked part-time 16


Worked occasionally 32


Never Worked 24


Sex of Subjects
% of Males Females
(% of Total)* (N=173)


95.96
(40.06)

1.61
.67)

1.61
.67)

.80
.33)





41.93
(17.44)

12.90
5.36)

25.80
(10.73)

19.35
8.05)


% of Females
(% of Total)*





91.32
(53.19)

1.73
(1.01)

.58
( .33)

6.35
3.70)





31.21
(18.12)

15.02
( 8.72)

19.65
(11.74)

34.10
(19.79)


*% of total sample.









determine significant relationships between each of the

demographic factors and the scores on all the instruments

is included in Appendix E.



Results Related to the Null Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1:

It was hypothesized that there would be no significant

difference between male and female counselor education stu-

dents in regard to the tendency to stereotype by sex, as

measured by the Sex-Role Questionnaire (SRQ). A one-way

analysis of variance was employed to investigate the possi-

bility of any significant differences. The results are

reported in Table 6. An analysis of the Masculine Sex-Role

Questionnaire (MSRQ) and Feminine Sex-Role Questionnaire

(FSRQ) mean scores and standard deviations by sex is also

depicted. For the MSRQ, males had a mean score of 5.1723

and females 5.1041. For the FSRQ, males had a mean score

of 5.3897 and females, 5.5066. Analysis of the data indi-

cated that there was no significant difference on the basis

of the sex of the student and masculine and feminine ques-

tionnaire scores. Therefore, Hypothesis 1 is not rejected.



Hypothesis 2:

It was hypothesized that there would be no significant

differences between counselor education students' sex-role

identification and the tendency to stereotype by sex, as

measured by the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI). The median
















TABLE 6


One Way Analysis of Variance of SRQ



Masculine Sex Role Questionnaire


Group

Male
Female
Total


Scale Scores


Mean S.D.

5.1723 1.4080
5.1041 1.4615
5.1323 1.4376


Analysis of Variance
Sum of Mean of


Source df Squares


Between groups
Within groups
Total


1 0.3395
298 617.6267
299 617.9661


Squares Ratio


0.164


0.3395
2.0726


Probability

0.6860


*p >.05


Feminine Sex Role Questionnaire


Group

Male
Female
Total


Analysis of Variance
Sum of Mean of
Source df Squares Squares


Between groups 1
Within groups 298
Total 299


0.9928
711.4692
712.4619


F F*
Ratio Probability


0.9928 0.416
2.3875


0.5195


*p >.05


Mean

5.5066
5.3897
5.4381


S.D.

1.5871
1.5150
1.5436









score for males was 5.10 and for females, 5.05. An

analysis of variance was employed, and an inspection of

Table 7 indicates no statistically significant differences

between subjects' scores on the FSRQ, MSRQ, and the BSRI.

Therefore, Hypothesis 2 is not rejected.



Hypothesis 3:

It was hypothesized that there would be no significant

differences between male and female counselor education

students with respect to scores obtained on the Attitude

Toward Women Scale (AWS). The range of scores on the AWS

for males was 30-75, with a mean score of 58.24. For

females, the range was 24-75, with a mean score of 64.84.

The analysis of variance reported in Table 8 indicates a

statistically significant difference between male and

female scores on the AWS, at the .01 level of confidence.

Females scored significantly higher than males on the AWS.

Therefore, Hypothesis 3 is rejected.



Hypothesis 4:

It was hypothesized that there would be no relation-

ship among age, amount of quarter hours completed in a

counselor education program, and the

(a) tendency to stereotype by sex

(b) score on the AWS

(c) sex-role orientation.
















TABLE 7

One Way Analysis of Variance for SRQ and
BSRI Scale Scores


MSRQ


Source

Main Effects
BEM
Explained
Residual
Total


Sum of Mean of F F*
df Squares Squares Ratio Probability


9.252
9.252
9.252
608.700
617.952


3.084
3.084
3.085
2.056
2.067


1.500
1.500
1.500


0.215
0.215
0.215


*p >.05


FSRQ


Source df

Main Effects 3
BEM 3
Explained 3
Residual 296
Total 299


Sum of Mean of F
Squares Squares Ratio


10.158
10.158
10.158
702.285
712.443


3.386
3.386
3.386
2.373
2.383


1.427
1.427
1.427


Probability


0.235
0.235
0.235


*p >.05
















TABLE 8

One Way Analysis of Variance for AWS Scale
and Sex of Subject


Mean and Standard Deviation

Group N

Male 124

Female 176


Total


Mean

58.2419

64.8409

62.1133


Source

Between Groups


Within Groups

Total

*p >.01


Sum of Mean of F F*
df Squares Squares Ratio Probability

1 3167.7810 3167.7810 29.817 0.0000*
106.2411

298 31659.8359

299 34827.6133


S.D.

10.8622

9.8987

10.7926








Analysis of the data, using Pearson product-moment

correlations, indicated that there were no significant

relationships among age, amount of quarter hours completed

in a counselor education program, and scores on the MSRQ,

FSRQ, and the BSRI. There was, however, a significant

relationship (..01 level of confidence) between age and

amount of quarter hours completed and scores on the AWS.

Results indicate that there is a positive correlation be-

tween scores on the AWS, age, and amount of quarter hours

completed. As the age of the subject increased, the score

on the AWS increased (indicating more liberal views).

Additionally, the more quarter hours completed, the higher

the subject's AWS score (Table 9). Therefore, Hypothesis 4a

is not rejected, 4b is rejected, and 4c is not rejected.



Hypothesis 5:

It was hypothesized that there would be no significant

differences between males and females, married and unmarried

students, and white and ethnic minority students in counsel-

or education programs with regard to the

(a) tendency to stereotype by sex

(b) scores on the AWS

(c) sex-role orientation.

The statistical procedure employed was the factorial analy-

sis of variance. Results indicate (Table 10) that for the

AWS the variables of sex, race, and marital status yield

significant findings. In order to determine where the

















TABLE 9

Summary of Pearson Correlation Coefficients
Among SRQ, BSRI, and AWS Scales Scores


MSRQ

r=0.0177

s=0.380




r=0.0195

s=0.371


FSRQ

0.0128

0.413




0.0206

0.363


ATWS

0.1701*

0.002




0.1988*

0.001


BSRI

-0.0369

0.262




-0.0653

0.184


HOURS
















TABLE 10

Analysis of Variance of AWS Scores and the
Variables of Sex and Marital Status


Source df


Sum of Mean of F F*
Squares Squares Ratio Probability


Sex 1 2965.728 2965.728 28.417 0.000*
MS 3 747.078 249.026 2.386 0.069
SEXXMS 3 438.493 146.165 1.401 0.243
Explained 7 4353.430 621.918 5.959 0.000
Residual 292 30474.195 104.364
Total 299 34827.625 116.480


Analysis of Variance of AWS Scores and the
Variables of Sex and Race


Source df


Sex
Race
SexxRace
Explained
Residual
Total


Sum of Mean of F F*
Squares Squares Ratio Probability


2860.403 2860.403
788.539 197.135
218.446 72.815
4174.844 521.855
30652.781 105.336
34827.625 116.480


27.155
1.871
0.691
4.954


0.000*
0.115
0.558
0.000


Analysis of Variance of AWS Scores and the
Variables of Marital Status and Race


Source df

MS 3
Race 4
MXXRace 6
Explained 13
Residual 286
Total 299

*p >.05


Sum of Mean of F F*
Squares Squares Ratio Probability


1017.387
1164.173
844.793
2958.176
31869.449
34827.625


339.129
291.043
140.799
227.552
111.432
116.480


3.043
2.612
1.264
2.042


0.029*
0.036*
0.274
0.018






71

significant differences occurred, Tukey's test of Honestly

Significant Differences (HSD) was used. Results indicated

that for the marital status, single subjects differ signi-

ficantly from separated subjects; and for race, whites

differ significantly from ethnic minorities (ethnic minori-

ties scoring higher than whites). Table 11 reports results

of the analysis of variance for the MSRQ and FSRQ scales of

the SRQ. The MSRQ scale did not reveal any significant

differences; however, the FSRQ scale did reveal significant

differences for the variable of race. Tukey's HSD indicates

that whites differ significantly from ethnic minorities.

Table 12 reports results of the factorial analysis of

variance for the BSRI and the variables of sex, race, and

marital status. No significant differences are reported.

A Pearson product-moment correlation was calculated for all

scores and the variable of sex. A significant correlation

coefficient is reported in Table 13 for the AWS; no signi-

ficant relationships were found for the MSRQ, FSRQ, and the

BSRI. Therefore, Hypothesis 5a is rejected for the FSRQ,

(significant differences were found), but not rejected for

the MSRQ scale of the SRQ, (no significant differences were

found), Hypothesis 5b is rejected, (significant differences

for the AWS scale were found), and Hypothesis 5c is not

rejected, (no significant differences for the BSRI were

found).

In addition, Table 14 reports results for an analysis

of variance for scores on all instruments and the variable
















TABLE 11

Summary Table for Analysis of Variable of SRQ (Male)
Scale Scores and the Variables of Sex
and Marital Status


Source df

Sex 1
MS 3
SEXXMS 3
Explained 7
Residual 292
Total 299


Sum of Mean of F F*
Squares Squares Ratio Probability


0.241
8.361
13.085
21.787
596.165
617.952


0.118
1.365
2.136
1.524


0.118
1.365
2.136
1.524


0.731
0.254
0.096
0.159


Summary Table for ANOVA for SRQ (Male) Scores and
the Variables for Sex and Race


Source df


Sex
Race
SexxRace
Explained
Residual
Total


1
4
3
8
291
299


Sum of Mean of F F*
Squares Squares Ratio Probability


0.911
15.813
6.451
22.604
595.347
617.952


0.911
3.953
2.150
2.826
2.067


1.445
1.932
1.051
1.381


0.505
0.105
0.370
0.204


Summary Table for ANOVA for SRQ (Male) Scores and
the Variables of Marital Status and Race


Source df

MS 3
Race 4
MXxRace 6
Explained 13
Residual 286
Total 299


Sum of Mean of F F*
Squares Squares Ratio Probability


9.955
16.737
8.996
34.193
583.759
617.952


3.318
4.184
1.499
2.630
2.041
2.067


1.626
2.050
0.735
1.287


*p >.05


(Continued)


0.184
0.088
0.622
0.219















TABLE 11

(Continued)


Summary Table for ANOVA for SRQ (Female) Scores and
the Variables of Sex and Marital Status


Source df


Sex
MS
SEXXMS
Explained
Residual
Total


1
3
3
7
292
299


Sum of Mean of F F*
Squares Squares Ratio Probability


0.978
6.039
2.768
9.804
702.639
712.443


0.978
2.013
0.923
1.401
2.406
2.383


0.406
0.837
0.383
0.582


0.524
0.475
0.765
0.770


Summary Table for ANOVA for SRQ (Female) Scores and
the Variables for Sex and Race


Source df


Sex
Race
SexxRace
Explained
Residual
Total


4
3
8
291
299


Sum of Mean of F F*
Squares Squares Ratio Probability


1.734
35.483
6.869
43.384
669.094
712.443


1.734
8.871
2.290
5.419
2.299
2.383


0.754
3.858
0.996
2.357


0.386
0.005*
0.395
0.018


Summary Table for ANOVA for SRQ (Female) Scores and
the Variables of Race and Marital Status


Source df

MS 3
Race 4
MXxRace 6
Explained 13
Residual 286
Total 299


Sum of Mean of F F*
Squares Squares Ratio Probability


8.170
36.857
10.872
53.787
658.656
712.443


2.723
9.214
1.812
4.137
2.303
2.383


1.182
4.001
0.787
1.797


0.317
0.004*
0.581
0.043


*p >.05

















TABLE 12

Summary Table of Analysis of Variance of BSRI Scale
Scores and the Variable of Sex and Marital Status


Source df

Sex 1
MS 3
SEXXMS 3
Explained 7
Residual 292
Total 299


Sum of Mean of F F*
Squares Squares Ratio Probability


0.119
3.419
1.122
4.651
356.657
361.308


0.119
1.140
0.374
0.664
1.221
1.208


0.097
0.933
0.306
0.544


0.755
0.425
0.821
0.801


Summary Table for ANOVA for BSRI Scores and
the Variables of Sex and Race


Source df


Sex
Race
SexxRace
Explained
Residual
Total


4
3
8
291
299


Sum of Mean of F F*
Squares Squares Ratio Probability


0.053
1.439
2.938
4.488
356.820
361.308


0.053
0.360
0.979
0.561
1.226
1.208


0.043
0.029
0.799
0.458


0.835
0.882
0.495
0.885


Summary Table for ANOVA for BSRI Scores and
the Variables of Race and Marital Status


Source df


MS
Race
MXxRace
Explained
Residual
Total


Sum of Mean of F F*
Squares Squares Ratio Probability


3.087
1.173
9.973
14.557
346.751
361.308


1.029
0.293
1.662
1.120
1.212
1.208


0.849
0.242
1.371
0.924


0.468
0.914
0.226
0.529


*p >.05

















TABLE 13

Summary Table of Pearson Correlation Coefficients
Among AWS, SRQ, and BSRI Scale Scores and Sex




SEX AWS MSRQ FSRQ BSRI

r=-0.3016 0.0234 0.0373 0.0175

s= 0.001* 0.343 0.260 0.381

*p >.05

















TABLE 14

Summary Table of Analysis of Variance of
AWS Scale Scores and Region


Group

West
North Central
South
North Atlantic
Total


Mean

67.0454
63.7705
59.1652
62.8049
62.1133


S.D.

8.1968
9.6558
11.3809
11.7051
10.7926


Sum of Mean of F F*
Source df Squares Squares Ratio Probability

Between groups 3 1889.2122 629.7373 5.659 0.0009*
Within groups 296 32938.5034 111.2787
Total 299 34827.7248



Summary Table for ANOVA for BSRI Scores and Region

Group N Mean S.D.

West 22 1.8636 1.0372
North Central 122 2.4508 1.1649
South 115 2.3391 1.0833
North Atlantic 41 2.2683 0.9226
Total 300 2.3400 1.0993


Source df

Between groups 3
Within groups 296
Total 299

*p >.05


Sum of Mean of F F*
Squares Squares Ratio Probability


6.7018
354.6169
361.3186


2.2339 1.865
1.1980


0.1356


(Continued)
















TABLE 14

(Continued)


Summary Table for ANOVA for SRQ (Male) Scores
and Region


Group

West
North Central
South
North Atlantic
Total



Source

Between groups
Within groups
Total


N

22
122
115
41
300


Sum of
df Squares

3 12.7790
296 605.1904
299 617.9692


Mean

5.7977
5.0752
5.1551
4.8815
5.1323


Mean of F
Squares Ratio

4.2597 2.083
2.0446


S.D.

1.8461
1.3000
1.5623
1.1279
1.4376


F*
Probability

0.1025


Summary Table for ANOVA for
and Regior


Group

West
North Central
South
North Atlantic
Total




Source

Between groups
Within groups
Total


SRQ (Female) Scores


Mean

6.3300
5.3181
5.4369
5.3197
5.4381


Sum of
Squares

19.8312
692.6363
712.4675


S.D.

1.8680
1.3378
1.6897
1.3901
1.5436


Mean of F F*
Squares Ratio Probability

6.6104 2.825 0.0390*
2.3400


*p >.05










of region. Significant differences were found by region

at the .01 level of confidence for the AWS scale. No sig-

nificant results are reported for the BSRI, MSRQ, and FSRQ

scales.



Summary of the Results

The findings demonstrated that:

1. There was no significant difference on the basis of the

sex of the counselor education student in regard to the

tendency to stereotype with respect to SRQ scores.

2. There were no significant differences between counselor

education students' sex-role identification and the tenden-

cy to stereotype by sex, as measured by the BSRI and SRQ

scales.

3. There was a significant difference between male and

female counselor education students and scores obtained on

the AWS. Female counselor education students achieved

significantly higher scores, indicating more liberal atti-

tudes toward the rights and roles of women in society, than

male counselor education students.

4. There was no significant relationship among age, the

amount of quarter hours completed in a counselor education

program, and the tendency to stereotype by sex, attitudes

toward women, and sex-role orientation as measured by the

BSRI and SRQ scales. There were, however, significant

positive correlations among age, amount of quarter hours










completed and scores on the AWS (higher scores indicating

more liberal attitudes).

5. There were significant differences among sex, race,

marital status and the tendency to stereotype by sex, atti-

tudes toward women, and sex-role orientation as measured by

the AWS scale. No significant differences were found among

race, sex, marital status, and the tendency to stereotype

by sex, attitudes toward women, and sex-role orientation as

measured by the BSRI and MSRQ scales. However, there was a

significant difference between race and the tendency to

stereotype by sex as measured by the FSRQ.

This study did not demonstrate any substantial evidence

of sex-role stereotyping among counselor education students.

It did find evidence of a significant difference in atti-

tudes toward women between male and female counselor

education students. Several possible factors may be contri-

buting to these findings, including (1) current changing

attitudes toward women, (2) length of counselor education

programs, (3) geographic differences, and (4) racial differ-

ences. The length of counselor education programs is a

possible factor for the following reasons: (1) there is

a trend to lengthen masters' level counselor education pro-

grams and (2) this study included a sample of both master's

and post-master's level counselor education students.










Discussion

Changes in Attitudes Toward Women

Results indicate that there was a significant differ-

ence between male and female counselor education students

in regard to their attitudes toward women. It was found

that female counselor education students tend to have more

liberal attitudes toward the rights and roles of women in

society. That is, more female than male subjects indicated

an expectation and approval of relatively non-traditional

behaviors among women in current day society, such as in

the area of out-of-home attainment of financial autonomy,

educational and vocational pursuits, and increased social

freedoms. Beach & Kimmel's study (1976) and Helwigs' (1976)

offer support to the finding of females attaining higher

scores on the AWS indicating more liberal attitudes toward

the rights and roles of women in society. A longitudinal

study by Engelhard, Jones & Stiggins (1976) concluded that

while there are signs of significant attitude change on

the part of both male and female counselors, females are

more accepting of less restrictive sex-role definitions.

Both studies and the work of Maslin & Davis (1975) indicate

that the recent increase of public interest in women's

rights and the women's movement in general, including the

strong political efforts directed toward obtaining ratifi-

cation of the Equal Rights Amendment, which was under way

during the time period of the current study, is being









manifested by a considerably greater degree of change in

female attitudes toward other females than in those of their

male counterparts.

This finding occurred despite the fact that over twice

as many of the male counselor education students reported

that their mothers were employed outside the home sometime

during their up-bringing. This at face value might suggest

that these males would be expected to score more liberally

regarding attitudes toward women than the females who for

the most part reported mothers who were never employed out-

side the home. Contrary to Broverman's et al. (1970) finding

which suggested that maternal employment can be correlated

with the tendency to stereotype, the current study suggests

no such correlation. Broverman's study expected to find

that those subjects for whom the mother was employed out-

side the home would stereotype less than subjects whose

mothers were never employed outside the home. Engelhard's

et al. study (1976) indicated that data collected before

1974 yielded conservative counselor attitudes about the

working mothers' role; after 1974 data indicated more

acceptance of the dual role on the part of counselors.



Length of Counselor Education Program

Another finding was a positive correlation between age

(and/or quarter hours completed) and attitudes toward the

rights and roles of women in society, as measured by the

AWS. This result stands in contradiction to previous







82

findings in this area (Beach & Kimmel, 1976) which indicated

that counselor education students' attitudes were not signi-

ficantly related to the number of hours completed in

guidance programs. Some possible causes for the difference

in results might include the fact that the present study

sampled both master's and post-master's counselor education

students and also that the data were obtained from counselor

education programs representing a wide cross-section of

geographic regions. This finding might suggest that the

increase of quarter hours completed in a counselor education

program may produce the kind of attitude change desired by

those concerned about sexism.



Regional Differences

Another interesting and potentially valuable aspect of

the data was the finding of a significant regional differ-

ence in counselor education students' attitudes toward women.

In essence, students enrolled in counselor education pro-

grams in the North Atlantic, North Central, and Western

regions scored higher (more liberal) on the AWS, while those

from programs in the Southern region scored substantially

lower (more conservatively). This finding is not at all

unexpected given the consistency with which trends appear in

virtually all types of economic, political, and socio-

cultural reports comparing different sectors of the

country's populus. A review of the literature was unable

to produce any studies which considered regional differences.









Racial Differences

A low positive correlation was found between race and

the Feminine Scale (but not the Masculine Scale) of the

Sex-Role Questionnaire. In essence, ethnic minority coun-

selor education students displayed a greater tendency to

stereotype females than did non-minority students. This

tendency did not occur in their perceptions of males. One

conceivable explanation for this discrepancy may be that

the tendency to cast females into traditional stereotypical

roles has been reduced less for the students of ethnic

minority backgrounds than for the non-minority student.

This has occurred despite increased public awareness and

media coverage of the women's movement. Perhaps this is

related to concerns of higher priority in such areas as

health economics and the effects of discrimination in

general.



Implications

The results of this study have implications for both

counselor preparation and practice, as well as for further

research. Although there is evidence to suggest that the

attitudes of counselors toward women may be changing,

continued concerns regarding counseling available to women

remains. Attention needs to be focused on the knowledge,

attitudes, and skills needed for competency in counseling

women. These concerns lead to several significant impli-

cations for both counselor educators and counseling practice.








Counselor educators need to be aware of the necessity

for confronting the issue of sex bias with counselor educa-

tion students and within the counseling setting. Counselor

education students must be made aware of and sensitive to

the presence of differences in tendencies to stereotype by

sex that might exist within themselves and effect their

interaction with potential clients. Counselor education

students should be helped to learn how to stay aware of,

and alert for the possibility of differences that these

tendencies might produce. Counselor education programs

should identify professional competencies needed by counsel-

or education students to prepare them for satisfactory

practice with women clients. Through planned courses,

practicum and internship placement, and supervision students

should be exposed to both cognitive and experiential pro-

cesses which will serve to increase awareness of the issue

of sex bias.

There are several important implications for further

research. It is necessary that continued research into the

exploration of counselor education students' attitudes

toward women be conducted with larger samples and with the

samples broken down into finer gradations of experience

and level of preparation, in order to ascertain if data

would yield consistent results.

It would be beyond the findings of this study to con-

clude that counselor education students think and act in a








stereotypical manner during actual counseling situations.

Therefore, there is a need for research designed to assess

and monitor personal functioning within counseling settings,

as well as attitudes, values, and biases that may influence

effectiveness in counseling. It would be of value to deter-

mine whether or not stereotypical attitudes effect behavior

(non-verbal) and verbal responses of counselors within the

actual counseling situation. Research which would clarify

the issue of possible sex bias and its effects would be

valuable.

Additionally, further research is needed to explore

counselor educators' attitudes toward women. It would be

important to determine if the attitudes toward women of

counselor educators parallel those of counselor education

students revealed in the present study (especially in light

of the fact that the majority of counselor educators are

male). Research needs to be conducted to compare counselor

education students' attitudes toward women with those of

potential client population groups.

Further research is needed in order to improve and

refine instruments for ascertaining more reliably attitudes

toward women, sex-role orientation, and the tendency to

stereotype by sex.



Conclusions

From the above results, it would appear that several

conclusions are warranted. A review of the literature shows








that attitudes toward women have become more liberal over

the past several years. This is true especially for female

counselor education students. It would appear that attempts

need to continue to be made to ensure that all counselor

education graduates will be sensitive to the issue of sex-

role bias inasmuch as this may lead to more effective

counselors for all prospective clients.

This study also suggests that those counselor education

students who had completed the most hours in counselor edu-

cation espoused the most liberal views. This factor needs

to be considered for successful program planning and curri-

culum development.

A conclusion that can be suggested tentatively is one

that involves the result of ethnic minorities being more

stereotypical in their attitudes than non-ethnic minor-

ities. This factor needs to be considered for curriculum

planning, effective practicum and internship placement, and

supervision.















APPENDIX A


Linda Werner
3800-90 S.W. 34th Street
Gainesville, Florida. 32608

March 15, 1978

Dear

I am a doctoral student in the Department of Counselor
Education at the University of Florida. For part of my
research, under the supervision of Dr. Robert O. Stripling,
I am requesting your cooperation and assistance in collect-
ing the data for my dissertation.

This research focuses on the investigation of a
possible relationship between counselor education students'
attitudes toward women and sex-role orientation. For this
project, data sampled from both master's level students and
post-master's level students are required. In order to
obtain this information, your help is being requested with
regard to the following:

(1) distribution of 25 packets (each containing a
cover letter with instructions, a demographic
information form, and three attitude/orientation-
measuring instruments) to 25 students in your
master's level program, and
(2) distribution of these same packets to each of
your post-master's level students.

These packets take approximately 30 minutes to complete
and a postage paid envelope will be enclosed.

If you are personally not able to help me, it would be
appreciated if you could designate a faculty member or grad-
uate student who will be able to distribute and return these
packets.







88


A postcard is enclosed for your return response.
Return of this postcard within the next seven days will
be deeply appreciated. Thank you for your time and
cooperation.

Sincerely,



Approved: Linda Werner
Graduate Student
Counselor Education

Robert 0. Stripling
Distinguished Service Professor















APPENDIX B


3800-90 S.W. 34th Street
Gainesville, Florida 32608

April 10, 1978


Dear Fellow Graduate Student:

I am collecting information for a study exploring atti-
tudes toward women among counselor education students. I
would like to request your cooperation in completing the
attached instruments. These questionnaries will be anony-
mous; however if you would desire specific information
please request this by indicating your name and mailing
address on the last page of the questionnaire packet. In
addition, a summary of results of the entire study will be
made available through your department chairperson.

Participation is completely voluntary. If for any
reason you would rather not participate in this study,
please return the packet unopened. Your answers to the
questionnaire will be strictly confidential and will be
used for statistical purposes only.

Please open the packet and complete the instruments in
the following order:

1. Begin with the first instrument (yellow) and com-
plete all items

2. proceed to second instrument (green) and complete
all items

3. proceed to third instrument (blue) and complete
all items and

4. proceed to fourth and final instrument (white) and
complete all items







90


5. fold materials and place in envelope and return
to faculty member or graduate student who
initially distributed them.

I thank you for your time and cooperation.

Sincerely,



Linda Werner
Graduate Student
Counselor Education
University of Florida.




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