Group Title: effects of jogging and assertiveness training on self variables and assertiveness in women
Title: The effects of jogging and assertiveness training on self variables and assertiveness in women
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Title: The effects of jogging and assertiveness training on self variables and assertiveness in women
Physical Description: x, 147 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rudner, Rebecca Ann, 1947-
Copyright Date: 1979
Subject: Women -- Psychology   ( lcsh )
Jogging -- Psychological aspects   ( lcsh )
Assertiveness (Psychology)   ( lcsh )
Self   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Rebecca Ann Rudner.
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 137-146.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098639
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000090238
oclc - 05785401
notis - AAK5628


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To Jan
and the women who participated in this study, risked
extending their limits and realized new possibilities for growth


My deepest appreciation is expressed to Tad Landsman for

the nurturance and unconditional positive regard he has given .me

for almost five years, for the high standards of integrity and

scholarship he has taught me, and for modeling the beautiful and

noble person. He has strengthened my faith in myself, and this

work would not have been completed without him.

-v heartfelt thanks and warmest gratitude is given to Jim

Morgan, who was never too busy for my questions, who lifted me with

his humor and encouragement, and who offered the gift of his


A special expression of my love and thanks is offered to my

children, Leborah and Benton, for their acceptance, unwavering de-

votion and loyalty to an often-absent mother.

Lovn and gratitude are expressed to ?aul wheeler for his

unfailing encouragement and support and for his willingness zo be my

sounding board and comforter.

Sincere appreciation is expressed to members of my doctoral

committee: Dorothy Nevil-2, for sharing her perceptions on women's

issues; Ruth Alexander, whose knowledge of physical conditioning ailed

the development of this research; and David Suchran, for his enthusiasm

for boiy-mnind integraticn. Thanks are also expressed to Bob Ziller

for his willingness to "play" with crazy ideas and tease out under-

lying dynamics with me.

Gratitude is expressed to Jaquie Resnick, 2eth Stephenson, Marie

Sheffey and Jeannette Wouda for their active participation as assert-

iveness trainers in this study. Special thanks are also given to Jan

Jiles for training the joggers in this study and to Ret Thomas for his

contagious enthusiasm and for being the coaches' coach.

Many thanks are expressed to Helen Beckum, Jacquie Druash and

Nancy Herford for their help with the mechanics of this publication.

Their cooperation and assistance has been invaluable, and their friend-

ship prized.

Special appreciation is given to Priscilla Mu1nson, Ellen Amatea,

Tom Anderson and Linda Anderson of The Family Institute for the steady

source of warmth and encouragement they have provided. To my dear

friends Jan Jiles, Natalio Chudnovsky, Mike Nolan and Judy Nolan, -my

sincerest love and gratitude is given for their immeasurable support

and countless expressions of caring.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . iii

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix


i INTRCDUCTION . . . . . . . . .

Rationale for the Study . . . . . . 5
Purpose of the Study . . .... 7
Importance of the Study . . . . . . 7
Definition of Terms . . . . . 9
Organization of the Study . . . . .. 12

II REVIEW OF LITERATURE . . . . . . . 13

Overview of Assertiveness Training . . . .13
Implications of Assertiveness Training for
Women . . . . . . . . . 18
Assertiveness Training Procedures . . . . 22
Body-Mind Integration . . . . . . .. 2
Body mage . . . . . . . . . 32
Fitness Programs . . . . . . . . 4
Self-Concent . . . . . . . . . 38
Self-Complexity . . . . . . . . 41
Self-Resort Measurement of Self-Concept . . .

Overview . . . . . . . . . . 44
Hypotheses . . . . . . . . 44
Pcpula .ion . . . . . . . . 46
Procedures . . . . . . . . . '*18
Treatment Programs . . . . . . 51
instrumentation . . . . . . . . 55
Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . ?2
LiMi:rations . . . . . . . . . 2



IV THE FINDINGS . . . . . . . . . .

Sample . . . . . . . . . . .
Findings Related to the Null Hypotheses . . .
Other Findings . . . . . . . .
Summary of the Results . . . . . . .






Discussion . . . .
Conclusions . . . .
Implications . . . .
Summary and Recommendations












. . . . S

. . . 100

. . . 101

. . . . 102

. . . 105

. . . . 10C6

. . . . 111

. . . . 118

K FOGGING . . . . . . . . .

L SELF-COMPLEXITY TASK . . . . . . . .

M PHYSICAL IMAGE SCALE . . . . . . . .



PEFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . .

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . . . . .










1 Subject Drop-Out Rate According to Group . . . . 64

2 Mean Age, Marital Status, Education Level, Jogging
Classification and Amount of Weekly Exercise by
Group . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

3 Mean Differences in Self-Complexity Task (Total
Score) by Group . . . . . . . . . . 69

4 Mean Differences in Self-Complexity Task (Positive
Scores) by Group . . . . . . . . . . 70

5 Mean Differences in Self-Complexity Task (Negative
Scores) by Group . . . . . . . . . . 71

6 Self-Complexity Task: Analysis of Covariance . . 72

7 Mean Differences in Physical Image Scale by Group . 74

S Physical Image Scale: Analysis of Covariance . . 75

9 Mean Difference in Index of Adjustment and Values
(Self-Concept Scale) Scores by Group . . . . . 77

10 Index of Adjustment and Values, Self-Concept Scale:
Analysis of Covariance . . . . . . . . 78

11 Mean Differences in Index of Adjustment and Values
(Self-Acceptance Scale) Scores by Group . . . . 79

12 Index of Adjustment and Values, Self-Acceptance
Scale: Analysis of Covariance . . . . . . 80

13 Mean Differences in Index of Adjustment and Values
(Ideal Self Scale) Scores by Group . . . . . 82

14 Index of Adjustment and Values, Ideal Self Scale:
Analysis of Covariance . . . . . . . . 83

LIST OF TABLES (continued)


15 Mean Differences in College Self-Expression Scale
Scores by Group . . . . . . . . . .. 85

16 College Self-Expression Scale: Analysis of
Covariance . . . . . . . . . . 96

17 Differences in Self-Concept/Ideal Self Discrepancy
(Adjustment) by Group . . . . . . . . 87

IS Mean Differences in Run/Walk One-Mile Test Scores
by Group . . . . . . . . . . . 88


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



Rebecca Ann Rudner

June 1979

Chairmen: Dr. Theodore Landsman
Major Department: Counselor Education

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of jogging

and assertiveness training on selected self variables and assertive-

ness in women. The self variables included self-complexity, physical

self-image, self-concept, self-acceotance and ideal self. A jogging

treatment, an assertiveness training treatment, a combined assertive-

ness training/jogging treatment and a no-treatment control condition

were compared in terms of their effects on the self variables and

assertiveness. The study also assessed effects of the various treat-

ments on adjustment, which was defined as the difference between an

individual's self-concept and his or her concept of the ideal self.

The sample consisted of forty-nine women students and spouses of

students who volunteered to participate in the study. Their ages

ranged from eighteen to forty-one. Both graduate and undergraduate stu-

dents doeno-strating various levels of physical fitness were included.

Findings included significant increases in physical self-image

demonstrated by subjects in the jogging and assertiveness training/

jogging treatment conditions following treatment. Significant in-

creases in personal adjustment were reported for the jogging, assert-

iveness training and assertiveness training/jogging groups. The

assertiveness training and assertiveness training/jogging groups also

demonstrated significant increases in assertiveness following treatment.

No significant changes in self-complexity, self-concept, self-

acceptance or ideal self were reported for any group. No significant

changes in physical fitness following participation in a fogging

or assertiveness training/jogging treatment were indicated.

The following conclusions were derived from data presented in

this investigation:

1. Significant increases in physical fitness do not appear

to be a necessary condition for the occurrence of positive changes in

physical self-image.

2. Personal adjustment may be enhanced by a variety of treatment

modalities ranging from the extremes of a didactic assertiveness train-

ing program to an experiential jogging program.

3. Assertiveness training appears to significantly increase

participants' assertiveness.


Counselor trainees learn that a counselor's task is to facilitate

personal growth in clients. Trainees are exposed to a variety of per-

sonality and counseling theories throughout their training, and they

are encouraged to practice an array of counseling techniques, with the

expectation that they will effectively promote personal growth in their

clients. Carl Rogers has identified three characteristics cf personal

growth (Rogers, 1961) which lend themselves to use as models in the

process of developing personal growth. These are: (1) an increasing

openness to experience; (2) increasingly existential living; and (3) an

increasing trust in one's organism.

Client-centered therapy, developed by Rogers, has been demon-

strated to facilitate personal growth in individuals (vRogers, 1951).

Other therapies, while focusing on the development of personal growth

along the dimensions similar to those conceptualized by Rocers, employ

therapeutic procedures which vary markedly from Rogers' client-

centered techniques to achieve the same outcomes of increased openness

to experience, increased existential living and increasing trust in

one's own organism. These approaches include Gestalt therapy (Perls,

1969). existential therapies (May, 1953; Frarki, 1959), Eastern ap-

proaches (Watts, 1957, 1975; Leonard, 1975), bioenergetics (Lowen, 1I75).

and psychcsynthesis (Assagicli, 1955). The Eastern approaches,

bioenergetics and psychosynthesis depart from traditional therapies

in their wholistic approach to mental health, with techniques to inte-

grate the body, mind and spirit. Although these approaches strive

to facilitate personal growth along the sane dimensions conceptual-

ized by Rogers (1961), their body integration techniques differentiate

them from clienr-centered and other therapies.

In 1973 Esalen Institute created a center to explore the possi-

bilities of sport and human growth. Currently, there appears to be

widespread interest in the psychological correlates of physical activ-

it- as they relate to the process of personal growth similar to that

described by Rogers in 1961. For example, Murphy (1977) describes

sort as a "liberating discipline of sorts" (p. 21) which joins will,

awareness, imagination, emotion, the senses, -he intellect and motor

control in surpassing previous performance,. Inner harmony is found

through success in sports. "-y focusing on the subjective experience

of the athlete, Ravizza (1977) indicates emotional and cognitive as-

pects to sports which can be quite intense. During -heir greatest mo-

ments, athletes achieve expanded views of themselves as fully function-

ing individuals and report peak experiences similar -to those described

by YMaslow (]968). Leonard (1975) describes the "ultima-e athlete" as

one who explores both inner and outer being, i:h joins the body, mind

and spirit in the dance of existence, who plays the game of life in-

tensely with freely chosen discipline and a heightened awareness that

the prize is the plav itself, and who is willing to accept the pain and

joy that awareness brings.

In accordance with this quest of spirit through the body:

Spino (1976) focuses on running as a way to self-understanding. He

believes that running can be a form of meditation and that blending the

power of body and mind can induce new plateaus of creative achievement

in individuals. Leonard (1975) describes psychological effects of

jogging, such as a growth in confidence and "the expanded glow of

being" (p. 183). Other positive emotional effects of running are cited

by Albin (1978) who, like Spino (1975), suggests that running is similar

to meditation. Some of the effects cited by Albin are personal satis-

faction, sense of mastery, enhancement of self-esteem, feelings of com-

petence and power, stress reduction, sense of well-being, awareness of

body flow, sense of unity with nature and a recapturing of =ne "joy of

the child in myself" (p. 4). Hilyer and Mitchell (1978), by system-

atically investigating the effects of a facilitative physical fitness

(jogging) and counseling program on college students, suggest that both

jogging and counseling and jogging alone are able cr effect positive

changes in the students' self-concepts. Cooper (1968) reports other

psychological effects of running which have emerged through systematic

research. These include increased optimism, decreased depression, in-

creased insight into problems, improved self-image and feelings cf self-

satisfaction and well-being,

Most of the popular literature dealing with running and jogging

has focused on the effects of physical conditioning on men. Recently,

however, a strain of literature has emerged which addresses the impli-

cations of women's running (Cooper & Cooper, 1372; Ullyot, 1976). Until

1972, officials of the Boston Marathon (a prestigecus 26,6-mile race

including the country's top distance runners) declared that women were

not able to r,'m such distances and were not allowed to participate,

although Roberta Gibb ran unofficially in the "men only" event in

1966 (Gibb, 1978). In 1972, women were officially recognized as com-

petitors, and 227 women were entered in the 1978 Boston Marathon.

Twenty-nine of these women finished the 26.6-mile course in under

three hours (Hansen, 1973).

Surprisingly, since races of 800 meters and up for women are a

comparatively recent phenomenon, medical evidence suggests that women's

physiology gives them an advantage over ren in long distances races.

Endurance rather than power seems to be their natural strength (Ullyot,

1976). According to Germany's Dr. Ernst Van Aaken, women's physiological

advantages for distance running are: (1) lighter bone structure;

(2) higher fat-to-muscle ratio (fat is lighter than muscle, and women

may burn a higher percentage of fat than men); and (3) enzyme systems

which oxidize fat more efficiently than in men (Ullyor, 1976).

From the growing numbers of women participating in the Bostonx

Marathon each year, it appears that many women are expanding their tra-

ditionally non-athletic repertoire of behaviors to become more physically

active. They have managed to overcome early childhood influences

(Baumrind, 1972; Kagan, 197S; Harrison, 1973), school influences

(Baumrind, 1972; Kohlberg, 1966; Weitzman, Eifler, Hodaka 5 Ross, 1972)

and the general influences of society in adulthood (Mead, 1970;

Tesch, 1972; Whiteley, 1973) which serve to maintain a traditional

passive feminine stereotype. Instead, these women have risked enter-

ing the traditionally masculine world of long-distance running which

allows them to experience for themselves the positive psychological

effects which were cited earlier and which relate to the larger process

of personal growth as outlined by Rogers (1961). Thus, when women allow

themselves to expand beyond the passive feminine stereotyped behaviors

they have been taught, they expand the possibilities of their experience

to include the heretofore "men only" sport of distance running which has

been demonstrated to enhance personal satisfaction and facilitate per-

scnal growth.

There is evidence to suggest that a lack of assertiveness is re-

lated to a person's feeling a lack of self-worth (Alberti S Emmons,

1974). Rathus (1975) suggests that nonassertive persons are afraid

to try new things and that most clients appear in need of some form of

assertiveness training which will instruct them in ways to relate more

effectively to others. Salter (1949) indicates that most people who

seek therapy are probably in need of some type of assertiveness train-

ing, either as a central treatment modality or as an adj unct technique.

The success of assertiveness training as a technique for changing

behavior has been fairly well established (Salassi, Galassi & Litz, 1974a;

McFall & Marston, 1970; Rimm, Hill, Brown Z Stuart, 1974; Wcipe

Lazarus, 19G6). However, some therapists contend that changing an indi-

vidual's behavior is pointless if that person still feels unhappy,

worthless and upset (Rogers & Dymond, 1954). Percell, Berwick and

Reigdl (1374) state that little research attention has been paid to the

effects of assertiveness training on the subjects' cognitive structure.

Rationale for the Study

Behavior change resulting from assertiveness training has been

widely documented. It has been pointed out, however, that the benefits

of assertiveness training are questionable if there is no concurrent

attitudinal change, and there has been little investigation to sate of

changes in self-concept resulting from assertiveness training programs.

Humanistic psychology is expanding its methodologies inrc wholistic

treatment approaches which include working with the client's bcdy to

achieve personality change. Although supporters of this approach claim

significant results in improving clients' self-concepts (Albin, 1978;

Collingwood 6 Willet, 1971; Cooper, 1968; Harmett, 1967; Hellison,

1969; Hilyer S Mitchell, 1978; Leonard, 1975; Rothfarb, 1970), the re-

search appears scanty and non-substantive.

It may be reasoned that assertiveness is a behavioral skill that

can be taught and learned, but that the skill is pointless if it is

not used by the client. Several factors may prevent the use of assert-

iveness skills, once learned: lack of self-confidence; limited self-

complexity, causing the client to perceive herself exclusively as non-

assertive or aggressive; a cognitive belief system which denies the

client certain basic interpersonal rights. For example, if a women be-

lieves that she does not posess certain interpersonal rights (e.g., the

right to refuse a request without feeling guilty), then her cogn-izve

belief structure will prevent her from using asser-iveness skills to

establish those interpersonal rights with others.

A jogging program may produce positive changes in a woman's self-

concept. She may experience herself as more complex and as having

greater physical boundary definition after she completes th1 program.

She may become more confident in her physical abilities and develop

greater trust in her body. vWith these self-concept changes, her cog-

nitive belief structure about herself may change, and she may claim

certain basic interperscnrc rights, which she previously denied, as her

own. This change in belief structure is a necessary condition for the

effective use and internalization of assertiveness skills. Thus, the

blending of a behavioral (assertiveness training) approach with a

wholistic, humanistic approach (jogging) into one treatment modality

holds the potential for exerting a strong impact on both self-concept

and behavior change in clients.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of

jogging and assertiveness training on three self variables (self-

complexity, physical image, and discrepancy between perceived and ideal

self), assertiveness and physical fitness in women. Three treatment

approaches were examined in terms of their effect on these variables.

These included: (1) a jogging program; (2) an assertiveness training

program; and (3) a combined assertiveness training/jogging program.

Importance of the Study

This investigation may have important implications for counseling

practice and theory, counselor training, and for clients who receive

the treatmen-s. The multi-disciplinary approach, which includes the

areas of physical education, counseling and psychology, requires co-

operation of the separate disciplines in creating new possibilities for

education and psychotherapy. Collaboration of these professionals may

become a common procedure. Therapy teams, with each co-therapist rep-

resenting a separate discipline, may be indicated. The use of consulta-

tive services provided by physicians, nutritionists and physical con-

ditioning experts by counselors and psychologists may increase. There

may be an impetus to expand the relatively new subspecialty of sports

psychology and increase the number of practicing sports psychologists.

Because of the multi-disciplinary nature of the treatment program,

counselor training may be expanded to include the study of physiology

and psychophysiological functioning. In addition, counselor educators

may recognize the impact of physical fitness on counselors as well as

on clients and develop fitness programs for counselor trainees (Hilyer

6 Mitchell, 1978). Thus, counselor educators would become more wholistic

in their approach to counselor training.

Theoretically, the blend of behavioral and phenomenological em-

phases speaks directly to the issue of the primacy of behavioral change

versus attitudinal change. The results of this study may lend support

to cognitive dissonance theory by indicating that public behavior causes

a chift in private attitude (Festinger, 1957). In other words, clients

who perceive themselves initially as weak and inept (private attitude)

may, after participating successfully in the jogging program (public

behavior), resolve the resulting dissonance by relabeling themselves as

strong and competent. This could be supportive of Bem's (1967, 1970)

position that behavior causes attitudes.

This investigation may have several implications for those who

receive the treatments. The clients may learn to respond more effectively,

with a higher probability of getting their needs met, through the use

of appropriate assertive communication. Their general physical fitness

levels may improve, and the jogging program may serve as an intro-

duction to a physically-fit lifestyle which becomes integrated through-

out the individual's life. Recipients of the combined assertiveness

training/jogging program may learn to appreciate, both experi'entially

and cognitively, and to attend to the wholistic nature of their psycho-

logical functioning. By extending their present physical limits,

clients may experience becoming more than what they are. As the pos-

sibilities of extending their present behavioral and physical limits

are realized by the clients, the concept of extending limits may gen-

eralize beyond assertiveness and jogging, thereby opening new avenues

for personal growth and change.

Definition of Terms

The terms listed below are defined as follows for the purposes

of this study.

Increasing openness to experience is seen as a movement away

from the pole of defensiveness toward the pole of openness to experi-

ence. This movement allows an individual to become more able to listen

to him- or herself and to experience what is going on within, rather

than shutting experiences out of awareness (Rogers, 1961).

Increasingly existential living involves an increasing tendency

to live fully in each moment. There is fluidity present in existential

living, in which the self and personality emerge from experience rather

than experience being translated or twisted to fit preconditioned struc-

ture. In this way, the individual becomes a participant in and an

observer of the ongoing process of organismic experience, rather than

being in control of it (Rogers, 1961).

Increasing trust in one's organism is a means of arriving at the

most satisfying behavior in each existential situation. Essentially,

this means that if an individual is fully open to his or her experience,

then doing what "feels right" (trusting one's total organismic reaction)

proves to be a competent and trustworthy guide to satisfying behavior

in new situations (Rogers, 1961).

Assertive behavior means expressing thoughts, feelings and be-

liefs in direct, honest and appropriate ways which lo not violate

another person's rights. Assertion means respect for personal rights

and the rights of others (Lange & Jakubowski, 1975).

Nonassertive behavior is illustrated by failure to express honest

feelings, thoughts and beliefs which may consequently permit a person

to be taken advantage of. In addition, ncnasserrive behavior is ex-

pressive of one's thoughts and feelings in such an apologetic, diffi-

dent, self-effacing manner that others can easily disregard them

(Jakubowski-Spector, 1973). This behavior shows a lack cf respect for

one's own needs (Lange S Jakubowski, 1976).

Aggressive behavior means directly standing up for personal rights

and expressing thoughts, feelings and beliefs in ways which are usually

inappropriate and violate the rights of others. This behavior shows a

lack of respect for the rights of others (Lange E Jakubowski, 1976).

Assertiveness training includes the following four procedures

which aim to help individuals to: (1) understand the difference be-

tween assertion, aggression and nonasseroion; (2) identify and accept

both personal rights and the rights of others; (3) reduce existing

cognitive and affective obstacles to acting assertively; and (a) de-

velop assertiveness skills through active practice methods (Jakubowski-

Spector, 1973).

Jog and run are used synonomously to indicate moving steadily

with springing steps so that both feet leave the ground for an instant

in each state (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary).

Aerobics refers to a variety of exercises including running,

swimming and cycling that stimulate heart and lung activity for a time

period sufficiently long to produce beneficial changes in the body

(Cooper, 1970).

Aerobic capacity is the maximum amount of oxygen that the body

can process within a given time (Cooper, 1970).

Physical fitness indicates an ability to rapidly breathe large

amounts of air, forcefully deliver large volumes of blood, and effectively

deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. The best indicator of overall

physical fitness is aerobic capacity (Cooper, 1970).

Self-concept means how the individual perceives and experiences

the self.

Self-comolexity refers to the degree of differentiation of the

self-concept (Ziller, 1973) and reflects the number of dimensions along

which stimuli relevant to the self are ordered (Harvey, Hunt & Schroder,


Cognitive dissonance exists when a person posesses two cognitions,

one of which is the obverse of the other (Festinger, 1957).

Cognitions refer to thoughts, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors

of which the person is cognitively aware (Wrightsman, 1972).

Cognitive dissonance theory holds that a stats of dissonance,

which arises when a person recognizes that two of his or her attitudes

and/or behaviors are in conflict, motivates the person to reduce or

eliminate the dissonance. If the dissonance occurs between one's at-

titude and one's behavior, either could be modified (Festinger, 1957).


Organization of the Study

The remainder of this study is presented in four chapters plus

appendices. A review of the related literature in body-mind integration,

assertiveness training and self-concept research is presented in Chapter

II. Chapter III outlines the methods and procedures for conducting the

study. The results of the study are reported in Chapter IV. Chapter V

presents a summary and a discussion of the results, limitations of the

study and recommendations for further study.


The review of literature includes an overview of assertiveness

training, implications of assertiveness training for women and assert-

iveness training procedures. Relevant literature in body-mind

integration, body image and self-concept is also reviewed.

Overview of Assertiveness Training

In Conditioned Reflex Therapy, Andrew Salter (1949) describes a

form of assertiveness training. He calls the outward expression of

friendly, affectionate and other nonanxious feelings excitatory and

writes that excitatory exercises are antithetical to inhibitory re-

sponses. Wolpe (1969) believes that assertive is a more accurate ad-

jective since anxiety, too, is a form of excitation.

The major credit for the current development of assertiveness

training is given to Joseph Wolpe (1958, 1969) and Arnold Lazarus

(Wolpe 6 Lazarus, 1966), who distinguish assertion from aggression and

use a variety of role-play techniques in their therapy (Lange S

Jakubowski, 1976). Rathus (1975) indicates that, in recent years,

assertiveness training has received increasing attention in the lit-

erature as a behavioral procedure for substituting withdrawing or in-

hibited behavior with socially appropriate, expressive behavior.

Lange and Jakubowski (1976) contend that assertiveness training

is not a fad. Instead, they suggest that assertiveness training is an

outgrowth of cultural changes which occurred in the sixties, and they

cite two cultural changes which are particularly important. First,

personal relationships have become highly valued. These authors sug-

gest that greater emphasis on personal relationships developed because

it has become more difficult to achieve self-worth through traditional

sources, such as marriage, job advancement and job security, and people

have begun exploring other ways of upgrading the quality of their

lives. Personal relationships are being valued as a major source of

self-worth and satisfaction in life. The second cultural change re-

ported by Lange and Jakubowski (1976) involves a widening range of

socially acceptable behaviors. For example, the authors indicate that

alternative lifestyles have become more acceptable. As these changes

occur, people find themselves deficient in the skills required to make

choices and behave appropriately. Individuals also lack the cognitive

and behavioral skills to act on their own choices and to defend their

choices when criticized or blocked by other people. It is within this

cultural context that Lange and Jakubowski see the value of assertive-

ness training in developing personal growth and enhancing personal


The advent of the assertiveness training movement was signaled

by the publication of Your Perfect Right by Alberti and Emmons in 1970.

They express the opinion that if persons go through life inhibited,

giving in to the wishes of others, holding in desires or, conversely,

destroying others in order to have their own way, their feeling of per-

sonal worth will be low. Alberri and Emmons demonstrate concern about

societal tendencies to evaluate and judge persons on scales that make

some people "better" than others, and they present the following

assumptions for examination:

adults are better than children
men are better than women
bosses are better than employees
whites are better than Blacks
physicians are better than plumbers
teachers are better than students
government officers are better than voters
generals are better than privates
winners are better than losers

The social structure in which we live perpetuates these myths

and influences the self-worth of the people in these roles, according

to Alberti and Emmons. Assertive persons feel fully in charge of them-

selves and view their self-worth in terms of personal capabilities

and not in terms of a hierarchy of roles. These authors suggest as-

sertiveness training as a means of achieving a positive sense of self-

worth, a better life and a happier existence.

A consensus regarding a definition of assertiveness has not been

reached (Shelton, 1977). The following is representative of several

concepntualizations of assertiveness appearing in the literature. Alberti

and Emmons (1970, 1974) and Lazarus (1971) agree that assertiveness is

a type of interpersonal behavior which enables a person to stand up for

his or her own rights without violating the rights of others. Lange and

Jakubowski (1976) add to the definition that assertiveness is the direct,

honest expression of personal feelings, thoughts and beliefs in an ap-

propriate way which respects the rights of others. Serber (1972)

contributes the ability to express and receive tenderness and affection

as a component of assertiveness.

Carkhuff and Berenson (1967) introduce the idea that assertions

involve confrontation skills, defined as verbal statements which ac-

curately point out discrepancies in another's behavior or communica-

tion without hurting or belittling the other person. Wolpe (1966)

speaks of assertiveness as being the outward expression of practically

all feelings other than anxiety. According to Wolpe, assertive ex-

pression inhibits anxiety. Rathus (1975) defines assertiveness as the

expression of oneself in a positive, productive manner, including smil-

ing at others and engaging in small talk about the weather. Rathus

describes assertive individuals as those who may insist uoon that which

they feel is correct, but who will also confess to error without loss

of self-esteem.

The descriptions of an assertive person by Alberti and Emmons

(1970, 1974), Lazarus (1971), Lange and Jakubowski (1976), Serber (1972),

Carkhuff and Berenson (1967), Wolpe (1969) and Rathus (1975) are similar

to the description of the fully functioning person described by Carl

Rogers. Rogers (1961) describes the fully functioning person as one who

is not static, but is flexible and growth-oriented. Such a person is

able to trust him- or herself. The process is one of becoming, of

openness to experience and the adaptability to exist in the present.

Rathus (1975) indicates the nonassertive person is afraid to try new

things and is inhibited in the ability to grow. On the other hand, the

assertive person is open to new experiences and is willing to try new

things. Galassi, Galassi and Litz (1974) describe the assertive person

as expressive, spontaneous, well-defended, achievement-oriented, able

to influence and lead others and confident. Raimy (19u8) finds that,

at the onset of therapy, clients refer to themselves in disapproving

or ambivalent self-references. As counseling continues, there are

fluctuations in self-approval. The client begins to make more self-

approving statements. At the end of counseling, Raimy notes that

clients who improve make a greater number of self-accepting statements,

while those who have not improved are still ambivalent and disapproving

of themselves. Schwartz and Gottman (1975) find that low-assertive

persons make more negative than positive self-statements and that high-

assertive persons make more positive than negative self-statements.

Their research suggests that there is a parallel between the fully func-

tioning person and the assertive individual.

A parallel concept is suggested by Landsman (1967), Maslow (1968)

and Shostrum (1964). Landsman conceptualizes self-actualization along

three dimensions: relationship to the self, relationship to the en-

vironment and relationship to other people. He also postulates an

active versus massive dimension to the actualization process. Landsman

(1967) describes the beautiful and noble person as one who has inner

compassionate and spiritual feelings that must be expressed to others.

There appears to be a relationship, then, between assertiveness and

self-actualization as it is conceptualized by Landsman. Assertion re-

quires an active stance, an understanding and acceptance of one's own

interpersonal rights, and a recognition of one's needs. Assertion

directly affects one's relationship to other people.

Shostrum (1964) presents the self-actualized person as able to

experience and incorporate opposites into a personal lifestyle. Ac-

cording to Shostrum, this person is able to appropriately express such

feelings as anger, tenderness, caring, lust, weakness and power. The

assertive person, as described by Lange and Jakubowski (1975), is able

to express feelings, thoughts and beliefs in a direct, honest and

appropriate way that considers the rights of others. The literature,

therefore, suggests that the fully functioning person has the skills

emphasized in assertiveness training.

Implications of Assertiveness Training for Women

Differential treatments of men and women at all stages of growth,

from childhood on, teach women to be nonassertive and dependent, and

they are rewarded for this behavior (Baumrind, 1972). Early childhood

influences, school influences and the general influences of society in

adulthood are examined in this section.

Even before a girl infant is born, she is disadvantaged because,

generally, both men and women express a preference for having male

children (Dinitz, Dynes S Clarke,1954). That is not surprising, since

both sexes rare men as more worthwhile than women (McKee & Sheriffs,

1957). Parents have higher achievement expectations for boys than for

girls, and the higher expectations of parents for their male children

may result in a self-fulfilling prophecy, with male children achieving

greater goals than their sisters because they were expected to (Baumrind,

1972). It follows that mothers are more achievement-oriented toward

their sons and adopt a more business-like posture toward them. Today's

mothers are too frequently models of resignation and self-effacing

generosity to their daughters (Baumrind, 1972), and poor mothers seem

to project their greater sense of impotence and inadequacy onto their

daughters (Kagan, 1975).

Lipman-Blumen (1972) suggests that differences in sex-role

ideology are a function of very subtle factors. Harrison (1973)

suggests that parental biases are most evident in the toys which

parents buy their children. She asserts that traditional "boy" toys

(chemistry sets, trucks, guns) allow the child to learn to manipulate

his environment, while traditional "girl" toys (dolls, play ironing

boards, toy make-up kits) perpetuate the dependent, nonassertive

female image.

Baumrind (1972) contends the pattern of teaching girls to be

dependent and nonassertive blossoms in the schools, where sex-role

stereotyping is probably the major cause of assertive inadequacy in

girls. Baumrind continues by stating that teachers continue to mirror

society's sex stereotyped attitudes by ignoring the subtle as well as

blatant ways in which girls are rewarded for nonassertive behavior.

Not only is it suggested that teachers influence a girl's per-

ception of sex roles, but there is evidence that books used in schools

also depict sex-role stereotypes. Weitzman, Eifler, Hodaka and Ross

(1972) report that between 1967 and 1972 the ratio of male to female

characters in prize-winning picture books for preschoolers (which has

long favored males) has increased. Weitzman et al. believe the prev-

-alence of male characters suggests that males are more interesting

than females. Beginning readers show girls and boys playing with dif-

ferent toys, men working and women staying at home (Baumrind, 1972),

again reinforcing the assertive male and nonassertive female


The impact of sex-role stereotyping in the schools is made very

clear by Kohlberg (1966), who suggests that high general intelligence

appears to predispose young children toward high same-sex-typing on

standard measures of sex-typed interests. Yet, adolescents are pre-

disposed toward low same-sex-typing on such interest measures.

Kohlberg's evidence indicates that there is considerable influence

from the schools and homes which causes children to differentiate sex

roles on the basis of projected stereotypes, and that highly intelligent

children quickly perceive the appropriate sex-role stereotypes and

adopt them.

There is evidence that school counselors are not free of sex

bias (Mitchell, 1973; Schlossberg & Goodman, 1972; Schlossberg 5

Pietrofesa, 1973). Schlossberg and Pietrofesa (1973) indicate that

female counselors are as biased as male counselors against women en-

tering masculine professions, and that they unwittingly tend to influence

the career decisions of female students toward traditionally feminine

areas. Severe limitations of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank are

documented by Schlossberg and Goodman (1972), who suggest that there is

a tremendous amount of sex bias in the instrument. It is possible that

biased instruments which are used in vocational planning and develop-

ment may compound the sex bias in counselors demonstrated by

Schlossberg and Pietrofesa (1973).

Mitchell (1973) claims that the sex-role stereotyping to which

young children are exposed has an impact on their psychological growth.

According to Harrison (1973), dependence and nonassertion are being

cultivated in female school children, and it is not surprising that

many woman are either finding themselves nonassertive and therefore

ill-equipped for independent living or they find themselves with a need

to invent a self, since they exist only in connection with their men.

"Checking it our with the man" (p. 30) is what these women do with their

decisions, ideas, plans and values in order to see if they are okay and

approved of by a higher authority (Whiteley, 1973).

Tesch (1972) finds that many contemporary women are confused be-

cause the old nonassertive stereotype they adopted during school years

does not serve then in adulthood. According to Tesch, these women find

their nonassertion a handicap to gaining the personal power necessary

to be an independent person. As one woman explains, "I am a woman. I

have been socialized to want to be desirable to men, to be 'feminine.'

Yet to be successful in my chosen field and in school, I must exhibit

'masculine' traits. It is confusing and disruptive to me" (Tesch, 1972,

p. 3). A similar idea is expressed by Mead (1970), who suggests that

women are traditionally unsexed by success.

According to Zinberg (1972), many educated women are seeking to

fulfill their need for accomplishment outside the home, since relatively

few of these women perceive domestic roles as a long-term source o5 a

sense of achievement. Zinberg demonstrates that the need to acquire a

feeling of accomplishment is a developmental need associated with ego

strength and is independent of sex; in other words, a woman's need for

a sense of accomplishment is as strong as a man's. Women are recog-

nizing their need for accomplishment, as indicated by rising career as-

pirations of college women (Wilson, 1971). More than half expect to

work outside the home for a significant number of years, and the pro-

portion anticipating or desiring large families is sharply declining.

According to the Women's Bureau (1969), chances are two in five that a

married woman with one to three years of college and living with her

husband will be in the labor force; if she's divorced, chances are two

out of three that she's working; chances are better than one in two

that she's working if she has four years of college or more; and the

chances of finding a woman holding a doctorate or comparable degree in

the labor force are eight in ten (Whiteley, 1973). No direct asso-

ciation between career success and marital status in women has been

found (Aregger, 1966; Astin, 1971).

Assertiveness Training Procedures

Assertiveness training involves the therapist in attempts to

directly fester assertive behavior in clients. Rathus (1975) states

that people develop an increasing tendency to exhibit new behavior

patterns when they perceive them to have more of an effect than the old

patterns. Jakubowski-Spector (1973) views assertiveness training as

including four basic procedures:

1. teaching people the difference between assertion,
aggression, nonassertion and politeness;

2. helping people identify and accept both their
own personal rights and the rights of others;

3. reducing existing cognitive and affective
obstacles to acting assertively;

4. developing assertive skills through active
practice. (p. 2)

Morris (1973) tests three primary components of assertiveness

training: role-playing, modeling and social reward/coaching. He

describes role-playing as having the client rehearse how he or she

should act in a particular situation. The client usually plays him-

or herself and the therapist plays the person to whom the client reacts.

Morris indicates that modeling and role reversal are used to allow the

client to observe how a more assertive person would respond in a spe-

cific situation. Social reward and coaching from the therapist includes

comments on the progress the client is making and providing feedback

to facilitate further improvement.

Bandura (1969, 1971) refers to the use of modeling in group

assertiveness training and indicates that by observing the model's as-

sertion and the consequence for such behavior the nonassertive person

can vicariously learn the assertive behavior in a similar manner to

acquiring it from direct experience. According to Lange and

Jakubowski (1976), "Modeling procedures provide a short-cut method

for giving information about various assertive behaviors, especially

complex assertive behavior. Modeling may also provide permission for

nonassertive persons to engage in similar assertive behavior. This

procedure may reinforce the nonassertive person's existing assertive

skills" (p. 177).

Evidence presented by Bandura (1969) and his associates

(Bandura, Grusec S Menlove, 1967; Blanchard, 1970; Lovaas, Freitag,

Nelson S Whalen, 1967) has consistently demonstrated modeling to be

an effective, reliable and relative to other procedures, rapid tech-

nique for both the development of new responses and the strengthening

or weakening of previously acquired responses. The exact contribution

of modeling to assertiveness training is questioned by McFall and

Twentyman (1973), however. They note that modeling research often in-

cludes the aspects of coaching and instruction, and that these aspects

may play an important, heretofore underestimated role in producing be-

havioral outcomes. Lacks and Jakubowski (1975) note individual re-

searchers' differences in modeling, as one researcher includes rein-

forcement and another does not.

Eisler, Hersen and Agras: (1973) supportt the use of modeling in

assertiveness training, finding that modeling is more effective in in-

creasing clients' assertiveness than practice alcne. Others,

including Gutride, Goldstein and Hunter (1973) indicate that modeling

with rehearsal and feedback is more effective than no treatment. McFall

and Twentyman (1973) find that modeling adds little to either behavioral

rehearsal or coaching in training subjects to assertively refuse re-

quests. An explanation of their results is offered by Lange and

Jakubowski (1976), who suggest their results occurred because of the

simplicity of the task. These authors further suggest that modeling

could be more important in training assertive responses in complex


Behavior rehearsal is another technique that has received a

great deal of attention in the assertiveness training literature. Lange

and Jakubowski (1976) outline seven components of this procedure:

1. Modeling. The participant observes the trainer
or other person exhibiting an assertive response
and vicariously learns the behavior.

2. Covert modeling. The participant imagines
another person responding assertively.

3. Rehearsal. The participant practices responding
assertively while the trainer or another person
role-plays others in the situation. The parnic-
aipant repeats the assertive responses until

4. Covert rehearsal. The participant imagines how
he or she would act assertively.

5. Role reversal. The participant assumes the role
of the recipient of the assertive response.

6. Reinforcement. The trainers and others involved
in the training provide positive feedback to
specific assertive behavior.

7. Coaching. The trainers and others involved give
explicit descriptions of what constitutes an
assertive response. (p. 155)

The specific components of effective behavior rehearsal have

received a good deal of attention in the literature from several

authors (Eisler, Hersen 5 Agras, 1973; Friedman, 1971a, 1971b; Kazdin,

1973; McFail & Lillesand, 1971; McFall S Marston, 1970; McFall &

Twentyman, 1973: Rimm S Masters, 1974; Young, Rimm & Kennedy, 1973).

This literature does not suggest that one component is more effective

than another or which combinations are most effective.

Videotape procedures are also used in assertiveness training, and

their relative effectiveness has not been fully established (Lange S

Jakubowski. 1976). McFall and Twentyman (1973) find no difference be-

tween the usefulness of audio and video modeling tapes, although both

yield significant results in their study. Goldstein and Goldhart (1973)

find that telling clients to respond independently and providing them

with two detailed verbal descriptions of such behavior is as effective

as elaborate audiotaped procedures. Lange and Jakubowski (1976) claim

that many trainers believe video modeling is superior to audio modeling.

They note that videotaped modeling procedures permit clients to ob-

serve nonverbal behaviors such as facial expression and hand gestures,

nonverbal behaviors which play an important role in assertion and which

cannot be presented on audiotape.

Mahoney (1974) and Meichenbaum (1.975) note that several modeling

videotapes could be beneficial if they demonstrate a model using cog-

nitive coping strategies while engaging ir an assertive encounter.

McFall and Twentyman (1973) indicate the need for video modeling tapes

to give exact descriptions of what makes up an appropriate assertive


Galassi, Galassi and Litz (1,74) investigate a multifaceted ap-

proach to assertiveness training and measure videotape feedback as one

component. Although the individual contribution of video feedback to

assertiveness training is not clearly assessed by this study, subjects

in the study rank videotape feedback as number one and number four in

importance among ten components of the assertiveness training program.

Bailey and Sowder (1970) also support the importance of video feedback

in modifying behavior. Lange and Jakubowski (1976) suggest that trainers

might adopt the technique of interpersonal process recall (Kagan, 1975)

to help trainees focus during the videotape playback on thoughts and

feelings during the behavior rehearsal, and thus get at internal dialogs

that may prevent the accomplishment of an assertive response.

Lange and Jakubowski indicate that assertiveness training may be

accomplished individually or in groups and that "research has yet to com-

pare the relative effectiveness of group assertiveness training with in-

dividual training" (Lange & Jakubowski, 1976, p. 3). These authors ex-

press a preference for group training and believe it to be more effective,

and they present four basic types of assertiveness training groups:

1. exercise-oriented groups which involve a set
of exercises for participants;

2. theme-oriented groups that focus on a par-
ticular type of assertive activity such as
giving constructive criticism;

3. semi-structured groups that use a variety of
intervention techniques such as values clari-
fication and conflict resolution; and

4. unstructured groups in which the role-play
situations are oriented to the needs brought
to each group by the participants.

Goldstein and Goldhart (1973) view the group as a more efficient

application of the procedure to larger numbers of individuals, but point

out that the trainer must be able to keep the group moving on course.

Bodner (1975) suggests that assertiveness training groups seem to

function best when they consist of from eight to ten members and two

therapists. He indicates that both homogenous and heterogenous groups

have been conducted with successful results.

Rimm, Hill, Brown and Stuart (1974) report that group treatment

has the advantage of efficiency. Lazarus (1971) points out that the

group may be used as an effective forum for deciding what responses are

appropriate in a given situation. Lazarus also suggests that a group

may be used to provide relatively massive social reinforcement for more

effective behavior. Rimm et al. (1974) provide additional support for

the value of assertiveness training presented in a group setting, offer-

ing an assertiveness training program for subjects exhibiting antisocial

aggression in certain social situations.

Body-Mind Integration

Michael Murphy (1977) suggests some surprising and significant

similarities between sport and religion. Murphy claims that, for some

people, sport is a liberating discipline which allows transcendant ex-

periences similar in many ways to those of shamans, Sufis, Zen masters

and yogis. Murphy categorizes reports by athletes of altered states of

consciousness which they experience as follows:

extraordinary clarity
extraordinary focus and concentration
access to larger energies, insights and behaviors
communication with or perception of disembodied
ecstasy, delight, supreme aesthetic enjoyment

Murphy likens the extraordinary powers which are stimulated by

sport to "siddhi," a Sanskrit word focr extraordinary powers or

capacities which emerge with the practice of a liberating discipline.

According to Murphy, every game or athletic pursuit makes a demand upon

its participants: one must submit to particular rules, ordeals and re-

quirements, and to do this one must relinquish old patterns. Murphy

claims that when you play wholeheartedly you are stretched and extended,

and this leads to a sense of grace and power. To perfect skill, responses

and habits that impede performance must be given up, and to some extent

the individual must acquire (or open to) another nature. Such success

in sports elicits inner harmony. The will, awareness, imagination, emo-

tion, the senses, the intellect and motor control are often joined in

surpassing one's previous performance. According to Murphy, yoga means

joining, and "to join the soul with God requires that we join cur many

parts" (Murphy, 1977, p. 33).

In The Ultimate Athlete, Leonard (1975) claims that there is an

inner athlete that dwells within each of us. More than an abstract

ideal, this inner athlete is a living presence that can change the way

we feel and live, going beyond fitness and entering the realms of "music

and poetry, of the turning of the planets, of the understanding of

death" (p. 8). Leonard calls for a oneness of body, mind and spirit,

claiming the ideal unity of the spiritual and physical was lost long

ago in specialization, professionalism and the .obsession with winning.

He looks for a workable approach to athletics which "will revive the

tingling aliveness of every limb, and the connectedness with nature and

other people that only a full appreciation of embodiment can bring" (p. 8).

Leonard criticizes coaches and physical education instructors for

their emphasis on performance at the expense of experience, using coldly

scientific methods to coax every last centimeter cr half-second from the

athlete, who is treated essentially as a machine. He further describes

a split between body and spirit which results in athletes' becoming in-

sensitive and authoritarian and in intellectuals' becoming disembodied

brains, unaware of the consequence of their thinking. Another criticism

of traditional athletics has to do with the institutionalization of and

overemphasis on competition, where winning has become a way of life in

sports, blinding us to its other possibilities.

In Beyond Jogging, Spino (1976) attempts to show how blending

the power of body and mind can carry us to new plateaus of creative

achievement. He suggests that the experience of running is similar to

meditation and that the mind has more chance for expansion as the indi-

vidual becomes physically fit. As the individual becomes more fit and

spends less time concentrating on the physical activity of running, the

possibility of transcendence emerges. Altered states of consciousness

are possible with optimum fitness.

Spinoc further suggests that heightened awareness in running can

be achieved by integrating meditation practices with physical activity.

The goal is to close the gap between states of awareness achieved

while meditating and the reality of running. Spino calls for visuali-

zation techniques that enable the natural running consciousness to grow

richer. He explains that these mental techniques could be as basic to

conditioning as physical activities.

The traditional emphasis of research on sports has been to develop

techniques to improve physical performance. The major emphasis in

sports research has been on motor performance, and the subjective experi-

ence of the athlete has been minimized (Kleinman, 1973; Park, 1373).

Ravizza (1977) presents an investigation of the personal experiences

of athletes which attempts to achieve a characterization of those ex-

periences involved in an athlete's greatest moment while participating

in sport. Ravizza's subjects are 16 men and four women athletes rang-

ing in age from 19-40 who relate experiences in different sports (foot-

ball, volleyball, lacrosse, hockey, golf, swimming, track and field,

jogging, surfing, skiing). Five of the athletes describe experiences

which took place while participating in informal activities, such as

recreational and intramural activities, while the remaining 15 describe

experiences related to formal activities such as interscholastic, inter-

collegiate or international contests.

Ravizza presents the qualities used by subjects to characterize

the experience of their greatest moment. Loss of fear and ability to

execute basic skills were reported by 100% of the subjects. Ninety-

five % report no thinking of performance, total immersion in activity,

narrow focus of attention, perfect experience, temporary phenomenon, God-

like (in control) feelings and self-validating experience. Ninety % of

Ravizza's subjects characterize their experience as involuntary, unique,

unified and integrated perception of the universe and passive (effort-

less) perception. Eighty-five % of the athletes report time-space

disorientation, and 80% experience awe and wonder of the experience

and transcendence of ordinary self.

According to Ravizza, the athletes' reports contain many simi-

larities to Maslow's (1968) description of peak experience. Athletes

give their experiences total attention, resulting in temporary ego

loss, union with the experience as a whole and disorientation in time

and space. Some describe feeling in total control of the situAtion,

which is similar to Maslow's report of the feeling of being Godlike.

Ravizza describes the reported experience as being perfect; consequently,

the athlete is passive in the experience since it is effortless. The

usual fears associated with the activity are non-existent. Another

parallel to Maslow's description found by Ravizza is the awe and wonder

that accompanies the experience and the sense that it is an involuntary

and ecstatic phenomenon.

Ravizza's study indicates that, in addition to the motor aspects

of sport, there is also an emotional and cognitive aspect which can be

quite intense. He finds that during athletes' greatest moments they

obtain expanded views of themselves as fully functioning individuals.

Ravizza suggests that the inclusion of athletes' subjective experiences

along with more traditional sport research will allow for a more ccm-

plete investigation of the total sport experience thar has been pre-

viously possible.

Glasser (1976) suggests that running can be a positive addiction,

an important pathway to inner strength and a satisfying life. Glasser

defines any positive addiction according to six criteria:

1. it is something noncompetitive that you choose
to do and you can devote an hour (approximately)
a day to it;

2. it is possible for you to do it easily and it
doesn't take a great deal of mental effort to
do it well;

3. you can do it alone or rarely with others but
it does not depend upon others to do it;

4. you believe it has some value (physical, mental
or spiritual) for you;

5. you believe that if you persist at it you will
improve, hut this is completely subjective--
you need to be the only one who measures
that improvement;

6. the activity must have the quality that you
can do it without criticizing yourself.
(Glasser, 1976, p. 93)

GIAsser asserts that positive addiction develops inner strength

in the individual which serves to overcome or greatly reduce symptoms

of emotional distress, which Glasser claims are choices of the weak.

People lacking inner strength may choose to give up, to act cut (tan-

trums, delinquency, crime), to become involved with their own emotions

(depression, fear, anxiety, anger, suspicion), to become crazy (psy-

chotic, paranoid, delusional), to become psychosomatic (headaches,

neckaches, migraine) or to develop a negative addiction (to alcohol or

heroin, for example). Those with strength, however, live with more con-

fidence, more creativity, more happiness and usually have much better

health than nonpositively addicted people who lead similar lives. They

are able to see what they need to do and how to do it in the struggle

to achieve love and worth. Most important, they have the strength to

follow through and do those things which will make them happy.

Glasser claims that running produces the non-self-critical state

more effectively than any other practice. By working up to a point

where one can run an hour without fatigue, it is almost certain that

the positive addiction state will be reached. "If it were un to me to

suggest a positive addiction for anyone no matter what his present

state of strength, from the weakest addict to the strongest among us,

I would suggest running" (Glasser, 1976, p. 123).

Body Image

The relationship of body image, how an individual perceives his

or her body, to self-concept has been empirically investigated. According

to Snygg and Combs (1959), the physical body is the most constant as-

pect of experience and plays a large rcle in defining the self. Zion

(1965a) indicates that the security one has in one's body is related to

the security with which one faces one's self and the world. Zion cor-

relates personality indices and social adjustment factors with feelings

towards the body and suggests that environmental adjustment may be cor-

related with self-image acceptance. In her study of college freshman

women, Alexander (1972) concludes that accepting the environment appears

to be related curvilinearly to accepting one's self-image. In other

words, extreme levels of self-image acceptance and rejection significantly

relate to satisfaction with other people in the individual's environment.

Snygg and Combs (1959) contend that the physical body is

the most constant aspect of experience and plays a large role in de-

fining the self, and their contention is supported further by Zion

(1965b). Secord and Jourard (1953) suggest that the cathexis (de-

fined by Secord and Jourard as one's perceived degree of satisfaction

or dissatisfaction) of the body and the cathexis of the self tend to be

commensurate. Even more important than actual body physique is the way

in which a person experiences his or her body (Haronian S Sugerman,

1964). Rosen and Ross (1968) suggest that the relationship between

self attitudes and body attitudes is a function of the aspects en-

tering into their measurement. According to these authors, the more

important the aspect to the individual, the higher the correlation.

Body image appears to be a highly subjective phenomenon which becomes

integrated into the individual's self-concept.

Jourard and Remy's (1957) findings indicate that the appearance

of the body as a determiner of both self-esteem and acceptability to

others is more important among women than among men. Fisher (1964)

suggests that women have greater awareness of their bodies than men.

In his investigation of six differences in body perception, Fisher ex-

amines the assumptions that women are less satisfied with their bodies

and less able to arrive at an articulated, realistic body concept.

Fisher's data indicate that a person with definite body image bound-

aries is goal-oriented, self-steering and posesses an articulated

sense of identity. Clear-cut boundaries seem to be accompanied by

the ability to behave as a distinct and unique person. The degree of

body awareness in women, which is positively related to boundary defi-

niteness, appears to be an expression of individualism and differentia-

tion. A woman who is highly aware of her body may be viewed as one

who expresses herself with a clear sense of self-identity. Con-

versely, a woman with little body awareness may he characterized as

being only a hazily-defined individual.

Fitness Programs

Collins (1972) illustrates the importance of self-improvement,

in general, as an instrument of self-concept change. Using the Ten-

nessee Self-Concept Scale, she finds a significant positive change in

the self-concepts of adolescent girls who present various combinations

of economic and emotional problems. The girls participate in a self-

improvement program focusing on knowledge of and skill in personal

health, hygiene, grooming and social behavior.

Collingwood and Willet (1971) present a classic study relating

the overall effect of physical conditioning on both the physiological

and psychological realm.s. The subjects are five obese males, ages

thirteen to fifteen, who participate in a three-week conditioning

program which includes jogging, gym exercise, floating, sprints, dis-

tance swimming and group counseling. Assessment instruments include

physical measures, the Body Attitude Scale (a 15-item modification of

the Osgood Semantic Differential) and the Index of Adjustment and

Values (measures self-concept, self-acceptance and ideal self). Sig-

nificant improvement is demonstrated in most physical measures, arid

significant positive changes in self-concept and self-acceptance are

noted. Collingwood and Willet attribute the changes to actual success

experiences enjoyed by the subjects throughout the conditioning program

and to positive feedback from peers in the group counseling situation.

Hellison (1969) compares two physical conditioning programs

in terms of their effect on attitudes toward the self, the body and

physical fitness. Subjects are college students. Both conditioning

groups meet for a total of eight weeks with one group meeting for 30

minutes four times per week and the other group meeting for 30 minutes

two times per week. Physical fitness is measured by the 12-minute

run, dominant hand grip strength, timed sit-ups and the maximum number

of pull-ups possible. Attitude toward the self is measured by

Rosenberg's 10-item Guttman scale and two open-ended questions. Body

attitude is determined by the evaluative dimension of a semantic dif-

ferential. Hellison's results indicate greater physical and affective

improvement in the four times per week group. Two meeting times per

week appears to be sufficient for physical but not for affective at-

titudinal change. Hellison concludes that body conditioning has

greater effects on self-attitude than on body attitude and, like

Collingwood and Willet (1971), suggests that attitude change is a

function of the conditioning experience rather than of the outcomes

of increased strength and endurance.

Still other investigations indicate a positive relationship be-

tween physical fitness programs and positive self-concept changes

(Hammett, 1967; Hilyer & Mitchell, 1978; Rothfarb, 1970). Hilyer and

Mitchell (1978) systematically investigate the effects of a facilita-

tive physical fitness (running) and counseling program on college stu-

dents and suggest that both running and counseling and running alone

are able to effect positive changes in the students' self-concepts as

measured by the Tannessee Self-Concept Scale. Rothfarb (1970) also

uses the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale to show a positive relationship

between self-esteem and the amount of exercise undertaken by college

men. Significant differences in self-esteem are found between a group

who exercise regularly or systematically and a group of non-exercisers.

Hammett (1967) indicates that high school girls demonstrating a high

level of physical fitness show a significant positive correlation be-

tween enhanced body image and fitness when contrasted with girls who

demonstrate a low level of physical fitness. Hammett's self-esteem

measures include the Draw A Person Test and a semantic differential.

Cooper (1968) reports several psychological effects of running. These

include increased optimism, decreased depression, increased insight

into problems, improved self-image and feelings of self-satisfaction

and well-being.

The literature presents conflicting evidence to support the posi-

tive relationship between physical fitness and self-concept. Neale,

Sonstroem and Metz (1969) compare high-level and low-level fitness

adolescent boys and report no significant difference in general

self-esteem. Holycak and Allen (1972) describe an exploratory physical

education program which fails to produce any significant changes in

the professed self-concepts of junior high school girls as measured by

the How I See Myself Scale. Further studies by Green (1970) and

Christian (1969) also tend to support a poor relationship between

physical fitness programs and positive changes in self-concept. One

possible explanation for these nonsignificant results is the suggestion

that the positive experience of participation in conditioning programs

is more influential in changing self-concepts than the actual physical

outcomes of increased strength and endurance (Collingwood & Willet,

1971; Hellison, 1969). Some conditioning programs may allow more

positive experiences for the participants than others.

In addition to physical fitness programs offered to school

children and college students through departments of physical educa-

tion, other non-traditional fitness programs are beginning to emerge.

For example, the Department of Counselor Education at Auburn University

now offers "Physical Dimensions of Counseling," a five-credit-hour

graduate course designed to acquaint counselor trainees with the

physical aspects of the helping relationship. The course is justified

by the Counselor Education Department as follows:

The use of basic physical fitness and challenge
response activities as both a direct and in-
direct counseling tool to help others gain self-
esteem or improve their self-concept has been
well-documented. Counselors may use this tool
to help others gain self-esteem or improve their
interpersonal skills in counseling while teachers
and coaches may utilize the same skills in their
teaching procedures. The need for helpers to be
physically fit so as to better meet the demands
placed upon them in the helping relationship has
also been documented. The energy level of the
helper is an important factor in being facilitative
and in helping others take appropriate action steps.

This course will increase the knowledge and
insight cf the students into their own physical
being and personal fitness and will also give
them the experience of using this tool in an
actual helping relationship. (from the request
for addition of a new course, CED/HPR 551 Physical
Dimensions of Counseling, Department of Counselor
Education, Auburn University, 1976)

Another new non-traditional fitness program is a course titled

"Management of Stress via Running and Physical Fitness" offered at the

Medical University of South Carolina. According to the course di-

rector Dr. Lois Veronen (1978), the course is designed for management

level personnel with the philosophy that an individual who is physically

fit, alert, and who understands the mechanics of stress will be able to

handle stressful situations. The course will aid the participants

to identify job-related situations which create stress, to cite detri-

mental aspects of stress on the human organism, to cite three benefits

of physical fitness as represented by current research, to practice

and acquire cognitive and physical relaxation techniques and to en-

courage and promote physical fitness through running.


Ruth Wylie (1974) calls the current status of theory concerning

self-referent constructs primitive. She contends that neither the

existentialists nor the behaviorists (both relative newcomers in the

area of personality study) have been concerned with contributing to

a scientific psychology of personality which makes use of self-

referent constructs. According to Wylie, the existentialists employ

self-referent constructs but deliberately avoid scientifically useful

clarification of terms and propositions. The Skinnerians, by contrast,

stress the importance of the scientific approach but argue vigorously

against the scientific utility of introducing any constructs, including

self-referent constructs. Wylie suggests that the continuing primitive

state of formal theories involving self-referent constructs has serious

implications for the adequacy of methodology in research relevant to

the self-concept.

The word self is used in many different ways, and these usages

can be dichotomized into those which refer to self as agent or process

and those which refer to self as object of the person's own knowledge

and evaluation (English S English, 1958; Hall 6 Lindzey, 1970; Symonds,

1951). Most research today refers most closely to the second (self

as object) meaning, although the self-concept variables under considera-

tion are hypothetically assigned behavior-determining roles as

well (Wylie, 1974).

The self-concept is defined as what an individual sees about him-

or herself and includes the totality of ways of seeing oneself (Combs,

Courson & 3oper, 1963). According to Rogers (1951), the self-concept

may be thought of as an organized configuration of perceptions of the

self which are admissable to awareness. Rogers' definition of the self-

concept includes such elements as the perceptions of one's character-

istics and abilities, the percepts and concepts of the self in relation

to others and to the environment, the value qualities which are per-

ceived as associated with experiences and objects, and goals and ideals

which are perceived as having positive or negative valence.

Aspy (1971) claims that good self-concepts are the result of

positive experiences, and this has been supported by studies

(Collingwood S Willet, 1971; Hellison, 1969) which indicate that the

positive experience of participation in conditioning programs is more

influential in changing self-concepts than the actual physical outcomes

of increased strength and endurance. Snygg and Combs (1959) closely

examine the effects of body conditioning on self-concept and reject

the notion that changes in the self often occur by seeking to achieve

the ideal. These authors present evidence to suggest that maximal

change is brought about not by rejecting the present or longing for

goals beyond possible achievement, but through first accepting the

present and bringing both ends of the continuum together. According to

Snygg and Combs, whether or not an individual in a body conditioning

program perceives a change in the self depends upon:

1. the place of the new concept in the person's
present self-organization;

2. the relation of the new concept to the person's
basic need;

3. the clarity of the experience of the new

Benjamins (1950) suggests that not only is the self-concept

influenced by the individual's behavior, but also that self-concept

reciprocally provides some influence on behavior. Bem (1967, 1970)

proposes a radical notion in his self-perception theory: attitudes

do not cause behavior--behavior causes attitudes. According to Bem's

theory, then, we infer our own attitudes about ourselves (self-concept)

from the way we behave. In other words, we do not jog because we per-

ceive ourselves as strong and confident; rather, we perceive ourselves

as strong and confident because we jog.


Ziller, Martell and Morrison (1977) propose that the self-

concept may be described in terms of complexity, the degree of differ-

entiation of the self-concept. Complexity of the self is one aspect

of cognitive style, and it reflects the number of dimensions along

which stimuli relevant to the self are ordered. Ziller et al. assume

that facilitation of ordering and organizing stimuli is associated

with attending to a wider range of stimuli and suggest that individuals

with complex self-concepts may be aware of or consider a great number

of stimuli as being potentially associated with the self. In terms

of interpersonal perception, the complex person has a higher proba-

bility of matching some facet of the self with a facet of the other

person, since for the multifaceted person there are a larger number of

possible matches. Ziller et al. hypothesize that the complex indi-

vidual is more inclined toward assimilation of self and others or

perceiving some similarities between self and others. In general then,

Ziller et al. suggest that persons with more complex self-concepts at-

tend to a broader range of social stimuli, perceive more similarities

between self and others, are more ooen to feedback from others and are

more responsive to a wide variety of others.

Self-Report Measurement of Self-Concept

Historically, self-concept has been measured by self-report

methods. Rogers (1951) claims that self-reports are valuable sources

of information about the individual. Strong and Feder (1961) agree

with Rogers, stating that each evaluative statement a person makes about

the self can be considered a sample of self-concept from which in-

ferences may be made about the various properties of that self-

concept. Allport (1937) asserts that the individual has a right to

be believed when reporting feelings about him- or herself and suggests

that if an investigator wants to know more about a person, the investi-

gator should ask that person directly.

Combs and Soper (1957) suggest that the degree to which the self-

report can be relied upon as an accurate indication of the self-concept

depends upon such factors as the clarity of the subject's awareness,

command of adequate symbols for expression, social expectancy, the

cooperation of the subject and the subject's freedom from threat.

Wylie (1961) lists other influences on self-report responses:

the subject's intent to select what he or she wishes to reveal to the

examiner; the subject's intent to say that he or she has attitudes or

perceptions which the subject does not have; the subject's response

habits, particularly those involving introspection and the use of

language; situational and methodological factors which may exert

other superficial influences on the responses obtained.

Purkey (1970) criticizes the use of self-report to measure

self-concept. He believes that while the self-concept is what one be-

lieves about oneself, the self-report represents only what one is

willing and able to disclose to someone else. Wylie (1974) also crit-

icises the status of self-concept measurement. She recognizes that

no one instrument intended to measure self-concept variables has been

developed by the process of beginning with close attention stating

rigorous conceptual definitions, followed by item building or item se-

lection relevant to the conceptual definitions and followed by the


application of all appropriate modern procedures for refining a pur-

ported index of a construct and establishing its construct validity.

Wylie identifies two especially noteworthy shortcomings which charac-

terize even the most thoroughly studied instruments: (1) lack of

clarity in the establishment of the basic construct definitions; and

(2) failure to apply multitrait-multimethod analyses and other tech-

niques for establishing discriminate validity. .Wylie further suggests

that part of the difficulty stems from inadequate delineation of the

constructs by personality theorists.



This study investigated the effects of a jogging and assertiveness

training program on self variables and assertiveness in women. Three

treatment approaches were examined and compared: a jogging program,

an assertiveness training program and a combined assertiveness training/

jogging program. A no-treatment control group was used for further

comparisons. The research design for this study was a nonrandomized

control group pretest/posttest design (Isaac & Michael, 1971).

This chapter describes the hypotheses which were tested, popu-

lation and sampling procedures, instrumentation, procedures, experi-

mental treatments, data analysis and limitations of the study.


Hvyothesis 1.
There is no difference in self-complexity among
groups of women who complete either a jogging
program, an assertiveness training -rogram, a
combined assertiveness training/jogging program
or women who receive no treatment.

Hypothesis 2.
There is no difference in physical self-image among
groups co women who complete either a jogging pro-
gram, an assertiveness training program, a com-
bined assertiveness training/jogging program or
women who receive no treatment.


Hypothesis 3.
There is no difference in self-concept among groups
of women who complete either a jogging program, an
assertiveness training program, a combined assertive-
ness training/jogging program or women who receive
no treatment.

Hypothesis 4.
There is no difference in self-acceptance among
groups of women who complete either a jogging pro-
gram, an assertiveness training program, a combined
assertiveness training/jogging program or women who
receive no treatment.

Hypothesis 5.
There is no difference in ideal self among groups
of women who complete either a jogging program,
an assertiveness training program, a combined
assertiveness training/jogging program or women
who receive no treatment.

Hypothesis 6.
There is no difference in assertiveness among
women who complete either a jogging program, an
assertiveness training program, a combined
assertiveness training/jogging program or women
who receive no treatment.

In addition to the above null hypotheses which were tested in

this study, another had originally been included:

There is no difference in physical fitness among
groups of women who complete either a jogging
program, an assertiveness training program, a
combined assertiveness training/jogging program
or women who receive no treatment.

This hypothesis was unable to be tested because only one-half of the

total subjects completed the physical fitness pretest. It appears the

researcher failed to sufficiently motivate subjects in the control and

assertiveness training conditions to participate in the physical fit-

ness assessment. Appointments for the testing were broken, with

subjects claiming forgetfulness and schedule conflicts. The decision

was therefore made to exclude this hypothesis from the study.


The population for this study was women who were enrolled as

either parttime or fulltime students or who were spouses of students

enrolled at the University of Florida or Santa Fe Community College.

There were no restrictions based on age, race or level of educational

classification. The population was restricted to women who would vol-

unteer to participate in an assertiveness training/jogging program,

since the sample was drawn from women who voluntarily responded to

advertisements of the training program.

Tha sample was selected by the following procedures. The re-

searcher advertised the availability of an assertiveness training/

jogging program through student-related news media including the stu-

dent newspaper and campus radio and television stations:

Two women's groups focusing on jogging and
assertiveness skills will begin on Tuesday,
October 17, 7:00-9:00 p.m. and Wednesday,
October 18, 4:00-6:00 p.m. at the University
Counseling Center in 311 Little Hall, An
attempt will be made to overcome whatever
blocks exist to acting assertively and
assertive behaviors will be developed and re-
fined through active practice methods. Indi-
vidual jogging programs for each woman will be
developed and carried out with grouo support
and encouragement. All women students and
student spouses are invited to participate.
Please call the Counseling Center, 392-1575,
to register.

Women who responded to the advertisements were screened according to

guidelines for selecting assertiveness training group members outlined

by Lange anr- Jakubowski (1976). These authors suggest nme group

leaders explain the goals and format of the training and identify the

prospective subject's need for assertiveness training. Subjects were

questioned as to their expectations and needs related to assertiveness

training and jogging, and the group leaders determined the subjects'

motivation for assertiveness training and jogging and that the pro-

cedures used were acceptable to the subjects.

Women accepted as subjects after the initial screening were

randomly assigned according to a table of random numbers to either:

1. Experimental Condition 1, which received the jogging

program. These subjects received the assertiveness

training program after the study was completed.

2. Experimental Condition 2, whicn received assertiveness

training. These subjects received the jogging program

after the study was completed.

3. Experimental Condition 3, which received both the jog-

ging program and the assertiveness training program.

4. Control Condition, which received protesting and post-

testing, but had no treatment. These subjects had

treatment delayed (same treatment as Experimental Con-

dition 3) until the study was completed.

Subjects were asked to sign an informed consent statement

(Appendix A), a waiver releasing the University of Florida from._ny

liability for injury or accident that might have occurred during the

training (Appendix B), and to submit a permission statement from a

physician stating that the subject was physically capable of partici-

pating in the jogging activities (Appendix C). The signing of all

release forms was completed before the treatment programs began in

crder for participants to be accepted as subjects. Three experimental

and one control group were formed, making a total N of 49 for the study.


After the initial screening interview, subjects in all experi-

mental and control conditions were pretested with the Self-Complexitv

Task (SCT) of the Self Social Symbols Task, the Physical Image Scale

(PIS) of the Alexander Self-Concept Inventory, the Index of Adjustment

and Values (IAV, including the self-concept scale, self-acceptance

scale and ideal self scale) and the College Self Expression Scale (CSES).

The Run/Walk One-Mile Test was administered to subjects in Experimental

Conditions and 3. An appointment for protesting (about one hour

required for paper-pencil measures) was made with each subject during

the initial screening interview. Subjects were asked to come to the

University Counseling Center testing room at a convenient time to com-

plete the protests and the demographic data form (Appendix D before the

first treatment session. The Run/Walk One-Mile Test was administered

during the first jogging sessions at the University track.

Posttesting was completed during the final sessions for both

assertiveness training (Experimental Conditions 2 and 3) and jogging

(Experimental Conditions 1 and 3) groups. The control group was ad-

ministered postrests during Week 8 of the training program. Indi-

vidual appointments were made, and those who were unable to keep the

appointments were mailed their posttests and asked to return them. Post-

testing for the Run/Walk One-Mile Test was carried cut during the final

jogging sessions for subjects in the jogging and assertiveness training/

jogging conditions.

Two of the experimental conditions (2 and 3) in this study re-

quired assertiveness training, which was provided by the researcher and

four other trainers, all of whom met the following requirements

for trainers:

1. Be a counseling psychologist or a graduate student

in counselor education or counseling psychology;

2. Have had a course in group procedures;

3. Participate in a one-hour workshop to acquaint them

with the format of the study and to insure that each

leader understands the treatment program;

4. Be acquainted with the assertiveness training literature

(by reading at least one assertiveness training book) and

have participated in and/or led an assertiveness training


Trainers were provided written instructions for conducting each

session. Two trainers were assigned to each assertiveness training

group, and the researcher consulted weekly with all trainers to insure

the program was being conducted according to the outlined procedures.

The jogging component of the program was led by the researcher

and one other trainer who was a graduate student in counselor educa-

tion, was knowledgable in the area of exercise physiology and was an

experienced jogger. Consultation for the jogging component was pro-

vided by Dr. Ruth Alexander, Professor of Physical Education and

Coordinator of Women's Athletics at the University of Florida.

Two sections of assertiveness training were offered each quarter

for subjects in the assertiveness training and assertiveness training/

jogging groups. Subjects in these two experimental conditions were

able to choose which of the sections' meeting times was most con-

venient and to attend the session of choice. Each section contained

a blend of subjects assigned to both the assertiveness training and

assertiveness training/jogging conditions. Similarly, two sections

of jogging were provided each quarter for subjects in Experimental

Conditions 1 and 3, and subjects were allowed to choose the most con-

venient section. Again, both jogging sections contained a blend of

subjects assigned to both the jogging and assertiveness training/

jogging conditions.

Subjects were assured by the interviewer during the initial

screening interview that all information would remain confidential

and was to be used only for the purposes of this research. Subjects

were also informed that the assessment data would aid in evaluating

the effectiveness of the training program. A copy of a statement

summarizing the treatment program and results was available to all

participants upon request when was completed.

The importance of attendance was stressed by the interviewer

during the screening interview. Assertiveness training and assertiveness

training/jogging subjects who missed more than two assertiveness train-

ing sessions were excluded from the study although they were allowed

to continue the training. Joggers in the jogging and assertiveness

training/jogging groups who failed to jog at least three times each

week were also dropped from the study even though they were allowed

to continue in the program.

Treatment Programs

Jogging Program

Subjects assigned to the jogging and assertiveness training/

jogging conditions met for approximately one hour each week at the Uni-

versity track. The groups jogged (and walked, as necessary) around the

two-mile vita parcours at the University of Florida. In addition to the

weekly group meetings, subjects were expected to jog at least two other

times each week individually, either before or after the group meeting.

Competence levels for each subject were determined by the Walk/Run One-

Mile Test during the first jogging session. General objectives were

established for each competence level (Alexander, 1977), as follows:

1. Beginner (runs one mile in more than 10 minutes):
To develop the novice jogger to a
level whereby regular jogging could
be participated in for conditioning,
endurance and fun.

2. Intermediate (runs one mile in 8-10 minutes):
To develop the present jogger to a
level of distance running to challenge
and benefit the individual.

3. Advanced (runs one mile in less than 8 minutes):
To provide a regular jogging and running
program for the already identified

Alexander further delineates 20 specific objectives for each com-

petence level which may be used as individual guidelines (Appendix E).

Subjects were expected to keep a record of their weekly jogging

experiences (Appendix F), and these experiences were shared during

weekly group meetings. Exercise physiology information, problems and

frustrations encountered, successes and feelings about running were also

shared during the weekly group meetings in a nondirecive counseling

mode following each session's run.

Assertiveness Training Program

The goals of the assertiveness training program were:

1. to teach the participants the necessary skills to increase

their frequency of assertive responses;

2. to teach the participants to understand, clarify and express

their feelings, opinions and attitudes;

3. to help the participants accept their own rights and dis-

tinguish personal rights from the rights of others;

4. to teach the participants the difference between assertive,

nonassertive and aggressive responses;

5. to held the participants develop an assertive attitude that

fits with their own personal style;

5. to help the participants feel less anxiety in social interactions.

Groups met for one two-hour session each week. The eight-week

training program was conducted according to the following format:

Session I Introduction

Objectives: 1. to present the goals of the training to -he


2. to define and present the components of

assertive behavior, nonassertive behavior

and aggressive behavior;

3. to establish rapport and build group trust.

Format: 1. introductory exercise. Trainees pair off

and get to know each other, then introduce

-artner to the large group.

2. Minilecture. This includes an explanation of

the eight-session program, methods to be used

and expectations for attendance and posttesting.

3. Class discussion. Explore group definitions of

assertiveness, nonassertiveness and aggressive-

ness and identify their behavioral components

(Appendix G).

4. Class exercise. Divide the group nto triads to

practice assertive, nonassertive and aggressive

responses to given situations such that each

member of the triad has an opportunity to prac-

tice all three responses and receive feedback.

5. Class discussion. Allow trainees to discuss

their expectations and anxieties arising from

participation in an assertiveness training


Session 2 Inerpersonal Rights

Objectives: 1. to recognize and act on interpersonal rights;

2. to understand one's belief system in relation

to personal rights and how this determines which

type orf response is chosen.

Format: 1. Minilecture. Explain the relationship between

beliefs and behavior.

2. Interpersonal rights exercise. Divide the class

inco two smaller groups and comment on inter-

personal rights within the small group, identifying

those which are blocks to assertive behavior.

3. Class discussion. in the large group, have rep-

resentative members from each small group share

their perceptions of interpersonal rights.

Session 3 Rational-Emotive Principles and Cognitive Restructuring

Objective: 1. to present a conceptual framework for using

cognitive restructuring procedures with behavior

rehearsal procedures.

Format: 1. Rational-emotive principles exercise. This in-

cludes a presentation of Ellis' A-B-C paradigm

(Ellis, 1962).

2. Class exercise. Apply Ellis' paradigm to situa-

tions in the Assertiveness Questionnaire (Appen-

dix I) and identify blocks to assertive responding.

3. Class discussion. Allow trainees to explore,

share and rehearse relevant personal situations

and apply Ellis' paradigm.

Session 4 Assertiveness Skills

Objectives: 1. to learn how to make and refuse requests;

2. to learn how to deal with persistent persons;

3. to understand personal rights related to re-

fusals and requests.

Format: 1, Minilecture. Identify cognitive steps in

assertiveness and explain basic techniques for

responding (Appendix J).

2. Making and refusing requests exercise. Provide

practice making and refusing requests, emphasizing

the type of relationship involved in the situation.

3. Dealing with persistent persons exercise. Pro-

vide additional practice in making and refusing

requests when the other person does not accept

the first response.

Session 5 Positive and Negative Assertion

Objectives: 1. to identify and importance of both positive and

negative assertion;

2. to learn how to show recognition of the other

person's situation and/cr feelings;

3. to learn how to express caring, appreciation, praise;

4. to learn how to criticize and to receive criticism;

5. to learn how to confront another person assertively.

Format: 1. Minilecture. Outline Smith's (1975) fogging

technique (Appendix K), empathic assertion and

confrontative assertion techniques.

2. Class exercise. Allow trainees to share personal

situations requiring empathic and confrontative

assertion and rehearse these situations. Elicit

group feedback.

Session S Videotaped Behavior Rehearsal

Objective: 1. to increase assertiveness skills.

Format: 1. Class discussion. Review life situations.

2. Class activity. Select pertinent life situa-

tions for videotaped behavior rehearsal. Use

video playback to elicit group feedback.

Session 7 Videotaped Behavior Rehearsal

Objective and Format same as for Session 6.

Session 9 Sunmary



1. to identify continuing blocks to assertive


2. to reinforce skill acquisition.

1. Class discussion. Discuss present blocks to

assertive communication and identify success


2. Positive feedback exercise. Every trainee makes

a positive statement to another trainee in the


3. Posttesting.

Assertiveness Training/Jogging Program

This program included both the Jogging program as outlined for

Experimental Conditions I and 3 and the Assertiveness Training Progran

as outlined for Experimental Conditions 2 and 3.


The instruments used in this research were the Self-Complexity

Task of the Self Social Symnols Task, the Self-Image Scale of the

Alexander Self-Concept Inventory, the Index of Adjustment and Values,

the College Self-Expression Scale and the Run/Walk One-Mile Test.

Self-Complexity Task (SCT)

The Self-Complexity Task (Appendix L) is part of the Self Social

Symbols Task described by Ziller, Hagey, Smith and Long (1969). The SCT

was designed to measure the number of facets of the self perceived by

the individual. Complexity of the self-concept is assumed to be meas-

ured by enumerating the number of adjectives checked as descriptive of

the self. The complexity measure consists of 109 high-frequency ad-

jectives selected from the Thorndike-Lorge Word Bock which are pre-

sented in adjective checklist form. The subject is asked to check each

adjective which he or she thinks is self-descriptive. The complexity

of the self-concept is defined operationally as the number of facets of

the self perceived by the individual. The number of adjectives checked

is totaled to yield a numerical score (range is 0-109) for each subject.

Split-half reliability (odd-even, corrected for length) was

established at .92 in a study involving i00 randomly-selected students

from grades 7-12 (Long, Henderson S Ziller, 1968). Test-retest relia-

bility after one month for a group of college sophomores was .72

(Ridgeway, 1965).

Research substantiating the validity of the Self-Complexi-y Task

shows that the index is not associated with intelligence or self-

esteem, but is associated with self-ratings of complexity as well as

with ratings of the complexity of photographs taken by the subject to

describe the self with person orientation as measured by the California

Psychological inventory (Ziller, 1973; Siller, Martell S Morrison,

1977; Ziller, Stone, Jackson S Terbavic, 1977). The SCT also correlates

significantly with Pettigrew's measure of category width (195S), a

measure frequently included within the cognitive complexity-si.plicity

category (r=.26, p <.05). Normative data for this instrument has

not been reported.

Physical Image Scale (PIS)

The Physical Image Scale is part of the Alexander Self-Concept

Inventory developed by Ruth Alexander (1967). The PIS consists of 25

questions designed to measure physical self-image acceptance. The

questions yield "yes-no" and "satisfied-dissatisfied" answers; subjects

receive one point for each positive answer and one point fcor each

"satisfied" answer. Points are totaled to yield one numerical score

for each subject. A reliability coefficient of .71 was attained by

using an odd-even split-half technique and applying the Spearman-

Brown formula to the data. Validity and normative data fcr this

instrument has not been reported.

Index of Adiustment and Values (IAV)

The Index of Adjustment and Values is a self-report instrument

constructed by Robert Bills (Bills, Vance & McLean, 1951) to provide

a measure of self-concept, self-acceptance and ideal self. It also

suggests a measure of adjustment, which is defined as the discrepancy

between self-concept and ideal self scores.

The adult form of the IAV consists of L9 adjectives, and the

subject is instructed to respond to each adjective as it relates to him

or her. Each adjective is used in two different sentences. The subject

is asked to rate the frequency with which each sentence is true of him

or her using a Likert-type scale with five choices: seldom,

occasionally; about half the time; a good deal of the time; most of

the time. Subjects are asked to use each adjective in the following

sentence: "I am a (an) person" and then to use

the adjective in a second sentence: "I would like to be a (an)


Split-half reliability was measured by giving the IAV to 237

students and correlating the odd-numbered items with the even-numbered

items (r=.91, p < .001). The index was readministered to 175 of the

same 237 students six weeks later to yield a test-retest reliability

of .83, p < .001. Self-acceptance scores were further tested using 568

college students. This procedure yielded a test-retest correlation of

.83 after a six-week interval and a .68 and .79 correlation for two

samples after a sixteen-week interval (Wylie, 1974).

The validity of the IAV was determined by using independent raters

to evaluate responses to the IAV compared to the Rorschach. A correla-

tion of r=.60, p <.05 was obtained. Wylie (1974) also reports mod-

erate to high construct and convergent validity of the IAV.

College Self-Expression Scale (CSES)

The College Self Expression Scale (Appendix 0) was developed by

Galassi, Delc, Galassi and Bastien (1970) and has been widely accepted

as a measure of assertiveness (Bodner, 1975; Lacks S Jakubowski, 1975;

Lange Jakubcwski, 1976; Sheltocn, 1977).

The CSES is a 50-item self-report inventory which was designed

t: assess assertiveness in college students. The scale attempts to

measure positive assertiveness, negative assertiveness and self-denial.

The CSES items indicate the subject's level of assertiveness in a

variety of social situations which the average college student en-

counters with family, strangers, roommates, business relations,

authority figures and opposite-sex peers.

The CSES utilizes a 5-point Likert-type format with responses

ranging from 0 to 4: 0 is almost always or always; I is usually; 2 is

sometimes; 3 is seldom; 4 is rarely or never. Subjects are asked to

choose one of these five categories as a response for each item on the

scale. Twenty-nine items are negatively-worded and 21 items are posi-

tively-worded. Theoretically, the range of scores possible is from

0 to 200 with high scores being indicative of a generalized assertive

response pattern.

Galassi et al. (1974) report normative data collected on 120

males and 141 females. The overall mean for this group was 123.8u.

The mean score for males was slightly higher than that reported for

females. 127.29 and 121.11.

Test-retest reliability collected over a two-week period yielded

correlation coefficients for two samples of .89 and .90.

Galassi et al. (1974) report two forms of validity obtained for

the scale. The CSES was correlated with the 24 scales of the Adjective

Checklist to provide concurrent validity. It correlated positively

and significantly (correlation coefficients not reported) with 11 scales

that Gough and Heilburn (1965) suggest measure dynamics considered to

be parts of assertiveness. The CSES correlated negatively (correlation

coefficients not reported) with scales of the Adjective Checklist tnat

indicate negative or inadequate celf-evaluation. The CSES was un-

reated rto the su:scale of aggression on0 the Adjective Checklist (r=.17),

an important finding since assertiveness is often confused with ag-

gressiveness. Concurrent validity data was obtained by correlating

student teachers' scores on the CSES with their supervisors' ratings

of their assertiveness. The correlation was low but significant

(r=.19; p< .005). Although the concurrent validity of the CSES is

low in absolute terms, it is comparable to the concurrent validity

data reported for other similar scales (Lacks & Jakubowski, 1975).

Run/Walk One-Mile Test

This is a modification of Cooper's (1968) 1.5-mile test,

shortened by .5 miles for the purposes of this study. Subjects are

asked to run (and walk, as necessary) a distance of one mile as

quickly as possible, and finishing times are recorded. This appears

to be a practical method for measuring and comparing the aerobic

capacity of large numbers of people. The One-Mile Test is used as a

screening procedure to assign subjects to either beginning, inter-

mediate or advanced jogging levels. Beginners generally run/walk

the mile in ten minutes or more; intermediate joggers generally run

the mile in eight to ten minutes; advanced joggers generally complete

the one-mile distance in less than eight minutes.

Data Analysis

A one-way analysis of covariance was computed for each scale,

including the SCT, PIS, IAV (Self-Concept, Self-Acceptance and Iteal

Self Scales) and the CSES. Pretest scores for each scale were used

as covariates tc control initial uncontrolled differences between

groups on each relevant variable. Analysis of covariance added sta-

tistical control (Kirk, 1968) to this study since subjects assigned

to the three experimental groups and one control group were not equated

at the beginning of the study on relevant variables (self-complexity,

physical self-image, self-concept, self-acceptance, ideal self and

assertiveness). The acceptable significance level for each analysis

was .05.


Although the analysis of covariance technique helped to equal-

ize uncontrolled pretest differences between groups on the variables

of self-complexity, physical self-image, self-concept, self-acceptance,

ideal self and assertiveness, it was possible that some overlooked

variable biased the experiment.

Because the subjects in this study were not randomly selected

from the general population of female university students and student

spouses, a possible source of invalidity is an interaction of selec-

tion and maturation factors which may be mistaken for effects of the

experimental treatments. It may be that, because thev volunteered for

the training, subjects comprising the sample would become more assertive

and experience more complex self-concepts and more positive self-

images and self-acceptance without participating in the treatment

programs, whereas women who did not volunteer for the program would not.


This study sought to examine the effects of jogging and assert-

iveness training on self variables and assertiveness in women. Three

treatment approaches were examined and compared in terms of differences

reported on instruments which measure self-complexity, physical self-

image, self-concept, self-acceptance, ideal self and assertiveness. A

no-treatment control group was also used for comparisons. The Sta-

tistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for the

analyses of covariance, I-test analyses and chi-square analyses of

scores on the selected measures and on demographic variables. The ac-

ceptable level of significance for all analyses was p < .05.


The study initially included 91 women who were either Lniversity

of Florida students, spouses of University of Florida students or

Santa Fe Community College students. Fifty-four % of the subjects

dropped out of the study, leaving a total of 49 women who completed the

program. The drop-out rate for the jogging group was 41%; 37% dropped

out of tha assertiveness training group; '4% dropped out of the assert-

iveness training/jogging group; 59% of the subjects assigned to the

control gocup failed to complete the program. Drop-out data is pre-

sented in Table 1.


Subject Drop-Out Rate According to Group

Group N %

Experimental Group 1 8 41%

Experimental Group 2 7 37%

Experimental Group 3 10 43%

Control Condition 17 59%

Total 42 54%

Table 2 provides demographic information for the sample by group.

The sample included 20 graduate students, 24 undergraduates, 4 spouses

of University students and 1 Santa Fe Community College student. Thirty-

seven were single, 12 were married, and their ages ranged from 18 to

41. Thirty-five of the subjects (71%) were 18-25 years old, and 14

(29%) were over 25.

Fourteen subjects in the jogging and assertiveness training/

jogging groups were beginning joggers according to criteria established

in Chapter III. Eight subjects were intermediate joggers and 2 were

classified as advanced joggers. Subjects in the assertiveness training

and control groups were not tested for physical fitness; therefore,

there is no fitness data reported for these two groups.

The amount of weekly exercise reported by the subjects upon entry

into the program was varied. Twelve % reported no weekly exercise;

51% reported 1-2 hours of weekly exercise; 24% reported 3-4 hours of

weekly exercise; 12% reported spending 5 or more hours in weekly ex-

ercise. Major types of exercise reported by the subjects were jogging

(24%), bicycling (18%), walking (12%) and calesthenics (10%). Other

exercise activi-ties reported were racquetball, swimming, dance, horse-

back riding, yoga, tennis, karate and volleyball.

Subjects were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions

and to a control condition. Exceptions to the randomization procedure

were made for students who were finishing their last quarter on campus

and who wished to complete both the jogging and assertiveness training

components before they left. They were assigned to Experimental Con-

dition 3, assertiveness training/jogging. Another exception was made

for a wcman who was pregnant and originally assigned to the assertiveness


Mean Age, Marital Status, Education Level, Jogging Classification
and Amount of Weekly Exercise by Group

Experimental Experimental Experimental Control
Condition 1 Condition 2 Condition 3 Condition
(Jog) (AT) (AT/Jog)



Mean Age



Marital Status

Education Level
Grad. Student
SFCC Student

Jcgging Classificatic

N % N % N % N %

3 25.0% 3 23.1% 3 25.0% 3 25.0%
9 75.0% 10 76.9% 9 75.0% 9 75.0%

6 50.0% 5 38.5% 5 50.0% 3 25.0%
5 42.0% 6 41.7% 5 46.2% 8 67.0%
0 0.0% 2 15.4% 1 8.3% 1 8.0%
1 8.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0%


Weekly Exercise
1-2 hours
3-4 hours
5+ hours







training/jogging group. She was allowed to join the control condition.

Twelve subjects assigned to the jogging condition completed the pro-

gram; 13 subjects assigned to the assertiveness training condition com-

pleted the program; 12 subjects assigned to the assertiveness training/

jogging condition completed the program; and 12 subjects assigned

to the control condition completed the program.

Chi-square analysis was computed across groups for marital

status, education level, jogging classification and amount of time spent

exercising each week (self-reported) to determine whether or not the

groups differed significantly on these variables. The chi-square

revealed no significant differences among groups. A one-way analysis

of variance was computed to determine any difference among groups in

age of subjects. No significant differences in mean age were revealed.

Results of the chi-square analysis and the analysis cf variance suggested

no significant differences among groups on demographic variables.

Findings Related to the Null Hypotheses

Differences between women participating in a jogging program, an

assertiveness training program, a combined assertiveness training/jogging

program and those who received no treatment were examined in terms of

differences in self variables and assertiveness. Findings regarding

the null hypotheses follow.

Hypothesis 1.

There is no difference in self-complexity among groups
of women who complete either a jogging program, an as-
sertiveness training program, a combined assertiveness
training/jogging program, or women who receive no

The Self-Complexity Task was used to assess differences in self-

complexity among groups, with high scores on the SCT indicating high

self-complexity. Individual scores ranged from 10 to 77. Table 3 pre-

sents a comparison of mean differences between pretest and oosrtest scores

on the SCT for each group as well as a paired t-test for mean differences.

The two-tailed t-cest revealed no significant differences between pretest

and postcest measures for any group, suggesting no change in subjects'

self-complexiry as a result of treatment.

Table 4 reports a t-test (two-tailed) for significant differences

between pretest and posttest mean Positive scores for the SCT. This

score reflects the number of positive adjectives checked by subjects on

the SCT to describe themselves. The t-test indicated no significant

changes in Positive scores, suggesting that subjects experienced no

significant changes in the number of positive adjectives they used to

describe themselves.

Table 5 reports a t-test for significant differences between pre-

test and posttest mean Negative scores for the SCT. This score reflects

the number of negative adjectives checked by subjects on the SCT to

describe themselves. The c-test indicated no significant differences

in number of negative items checked, revealing that subjects experienced

no significant changes in number of negative adjectives used to de-

scribe themselves.

An analysis of ccvariance using SCT pretest scores as the co-

variate is reported in Table 6. The analysis yielded no significant

main effects, indicating no significant differences in self-complexity

among groups following treatment. Hypothesis I was therefore not



Mean Differences in Self-Complexity Task (Total Scores)
by Group

Group Pretest Posttest Difference df t-value

Condition 1

Condition 2


Condition 3












- .67


11 .35

12 .56

11 .30

11 .86


Mean Differences in Self-Complexity Task (Positive Scores)
by Group

Group Pretest Posttest Difference df t-value

Condition 1
X 24.25 25.75 1.50 11 .56
SD 11.51 12.28 8.32
SE 3.32 3.55 1.49

Condition 2
T 27.92 31.92 4.00 12 1.43
SD 13.41 16.88 10.01
SE 3.72 4.68 2.80

Condition 3
X 25.83 27.33 1.50 11 1.22
SD 14.73 14.46 8.97
SE 4.25 4.18 3.85

S 32.00 31.50 .50 11 .23
SD 13.78 11.30 9.46
SE 3.98 3.26 2.98


Mean Differences in Self-Complexity Task
(Negative Scores) by Group

Group Pretest Posttest Difference df t-value

Condition 1


Condition 2

Condition 3









- .67




11 .94

12 -3.29

11 -1.10

11 -1.51


Self-Complexity Task: Analysis

of Covariance

Source df Sum of Squares Mean Square F-ratio

Covariate 1 7793.379 7793.379 96.451*
(SCT pretest)

Main Effects 3 55.293 18.431 .228

Explained 4 7848.672 1962.168 24.284

Residual 44 3555.270 80.802

Total 48 11403.941 237.582

p < .05

Hypothesis 2.

There is no difference in physical self-image among
groups of women who complete either a jogging pro-
gram, an assertiveness training program, a combined
assertiveness training/jogging program, or women
who receive no treatment.

The Physical Image Scale provided a measure of physical self-

image, with individual scores ranging from 10 to 49 and high scores

indicating positive physical self-image. Table 7 presents a compari-

son of mean differences in pretest and posttest scores among groups.

The two-tailed paired t-test indicates significant changes in physical

self-images among subjects in the jogging and assertiveness training/

jogging groups. This suggests that subjects who participated in the

jogging component of the treatment program demonstrated significant

positive increases in physical self-image. Subjects in the assertive-

ness training and control groups demonstrated no significant changes.

Table 8 presents an analysis of covariance with pretest scores on the

PIS as the covariate which demonstrates significant effects resulting

from treatment. Both the analysis of covariance and paired t-tests

demonstrated significant differences in physical self-image among


This increase in physical self-image suggests that subjects

who completed the jogging component of the treatments both perceived

their bodies more positively and demcnstreated more satisfaction with

their physical appearance than controls and subjects who received only

assertiveness training. Hypothesis 2 was therefore rejected.


Mean Differences in Physical Image Scale by Group

Group Pretest Posttest Difference df t-value

Condition 1


Condition 2


Condition 3














11 2.92*

12 1.04

11 3.15*

11 .98

'p < .05


Physical Image Scale: Analysis of Covariance

Source df Sum of Squares Mean Square F-ratio

Covariate 1 2875.283 2875.283 72.012*
(PIS pretest)

Main Effects 3 104.119 34.706 3.869:

Explained 4 2979.402 744.850 18.655

Residual 44 1756.828 39.928

Total 48 4736.230 98.671

*p < .05

Hypothesis 3.

There is no difference in self-concept among groups
of women who complete either a jogging program, an
assertiveness training program, a combined assertive-
ness training/jogging program or women who receive
no treatment.

The Index of Adjustment and Values provided a measure of self-

concept, with individual scores ranging from 121 to 189 and high scores

indicating a positive self-concept. The differences in mean scores

among groups are presented in Table 9. No significant differences in

pretest and posttest scores were indicated for any group by a paired

t-test (two-tailed) analysis. An analysis of covariance with the self-

concept scale pretest scores on the IAV as the covariate (Table 10)

yielded no significant differences among groups. Because the data

yielded no significant differences in self-concept among groups,

Hypothesis 3 was not rejected.

Hypothesis 4.

There is no difference in self-acceptance among groups
of women who complete either a jogging program, an
assertiveness training program, a combined assertive-
ness training/jogging program or women who receive
no treatment.

The IAV also provided a measure of self-acceptance, with indi-

vidual scores on this scale ranging from 121 to 195. High scores

suggest a higher degree of self-acceptance. A paired t-test (two-

tailed) analyzing mean differences in self-acceptance scores for each

group is presented in Table 11. No significant differences were indi-

cated, suggesting that no significant changes in self-acceptance occurred

in any group as a result of treatment. An analysis of covariance with

pretest scores on the self-acceptance scale of the !AV as the ccvariate

(Table 12) also reported no significant differences in self-acceptance


Mean Difference in Index of Adjustment and Values
(Self-Concept Scale) Scores by Group

Group Pretest Posttest Difference df t-value

Condition 1


Condition 2

Condition 3













- .25

11 1.70

12 1.69

11 1.56

11 .07


Index of Adjustment and Values, Self-Conceot Scale:
Analysis of Covariance

Source df Sum of Squares Mean Square F-ratio

Covariate 1 10805.988 10805.880 76.244*
(IAV pretest)

Main Effects 3 509.832 169,944 1.199

Explained 4 11315.820 2828.955 19.960

Residual 44 6236.105 141.730

Total 48 17551.926 365.665

-p < .05


Mean Differences in Index of Adjustment and Values
(Self-Acceptance Scale) Scores by Group

Group Pretest Posttest Difference df t-value

Condition 1

Condition 2

Condition 3














11 .91

12 1.70

11 1.70

11 1.31


Index of Adjustment and Values, Self-Acceptance Scale:
Analysis of Covariance

Source df Sum of Squares Mean Square F-ratio

Covariate 1 13425.617 13425.617 96.303*
(IAV pretest)

Main Effects 3 880.125 293.375 2.104

Explained 4 14305.742 3576.436 25.654

Residual 44 6134.035 139.410

Total 48 20439.777 425.829

*p < .05

among groups. Because the data suggests no significant differences

among groups, Hypothesis 4 was not rejected.

Hypothesis 5.

There is no difference in ideal self among groups
of women who complete either a jogging program, an
assertiveness training program, a combined assert-
iveness training/jogging program or women who
receive no treatment.

The IAV also provided a measure of the ideal self, with indi-

vidual scores ranging from 157 to 209 on the ideal self scale. High

scores reflect higher values toward which the subject is striving. No

significant changes in ideal self were indicated by a two-tailed

t-test of mean differences for all groups (Table 13). This suggests

that subjects in the experimental and control conditions did not change

their concepts of an ideal self significantly as a result of treatment.

Table Il presents an analysis of covariance for the ideal self scale

with pretest scores as the covariate which yielded no significant dif-

ferences among groups. Hypothesis 5 was therefore not rejected.

Hypothesis 6.

There is no difference in assertiveness among groups
of women who complete either a jogging program, an
assertiveness training program, a combined assertive-
ness training/jogging program or women who receive
no treatment.

A measure of assertiveness was provided by the College Self-

Expression Scale. Individual scores ranged from 71 to 152 with high

scores indicating assertive responses. A paired t-test (two-tailed)

revealed significant differences between pretest and posttest measures

of assertiveness for the assertiveness training and assertiveness

training/jogging groups. A change in the direction of increased


Mean Differences in Index of Adjustment and Values
(Ideal Self Scale) Scores by Group

Group Pretest Posttest Difference df t-value

Condition 1


Condition 2


Condition 3










- 3.83


- 4.58


11 -1.36

12 .74

11 -1.57

11 .84


Index of Adjustment and Values, Ideal Self Scale:
Analysis of Covariance

Source df Sum of Squares Mean Square F-ratio

Covariate 1 4030.027 4030.027 42.440*
(IAV pretest)

Main Effects 3 382.083 127.361 1.341

Explained 4 4412.109 1103.027 11.617

Residual 44 4177.781 94.950

Total 48 8589.891 178.956

assertiveness was noted in the jogging group, but this difference

failed to achieve .05 significance (p < .09). Table 15 presents the

results of the t-test analyses. An analysis of covariance with pretest

scores on the CSES as the covariate revealed significant differences in

assertiveness among groups following treatment (Table 16). Hypothesis

6 was therefore rejected.

Other Findings


The total of the discrepancies between the self-concept and the

concept of the ideal self was considered to be a measure of adjustment.

The smaller the discrepancy, the greater the individual's personal

adjustment. Table 17 presents a t-test (two-tailed) analysis of self-

concept/ideal self discrepancies on the Index of Adjustment and Values

for all groups. Significant increases in adjustment (decreases in

self-concept/ideal self discrepancy) were revealed for all three treat-

ment groups. Controls demonstrated no significant change. These re-

sults suggest that subjects in the treatment conditions changed their

perceptions as a result of treatment such that their self-concepts

became more similar to their concepts of an ideal self, resulting in

increased personal adjustment.

Physical Fitness

Physical fitness was measured by the Run/Walk One-Mile Test and

was used to assess fitness levels of the jogging and assertiveness train-

ing/jogging groups. Table 18 presents a two-tailed t-test for differences

in physical fitness scores for the two groups. Although subjects in


Mean Differences in College Self-Expression Scale Scores by Group

Group Pretest Posttest Difference df t-value

Condition 1

Condition 2

Condition 3















11 1.85

12 4.41*

11 7.41*

11 .23

..p < .05


College Self-Expression Scale: Analysis of Covariance

Source df Sum of Squares Mean Square F-ratio

Covariate 1 7655.863 7655.863 58.757*
(CSES pretest)

Main Effects 3 3191.223 1063.741 8.164*

Explained 4 10847.086 2711.771 20.812

Residual 44 5733.063 130.297

Total 48 16580.148 345.420

*p <.05


Differences in Self-Concept/Ideal Self Discrepancy
(Adjustment) by Group

Pretest Posttest
Discrepancy Discrepancy
Group (Adjustment) (Adjustment) Difference df t-value

Condition 1


Condition 2

Condition 3











- 7.09



11 -3.92*

12 -3.15*

11 -3.75*

11 1.23

*p < .05


Mean Differences in Run/Walk One-Mile Test Scores by Group

Pretest Posttest
Group (minutes) (minutes) Difference df t-value

Condition 1
X 10.40 9.20 -1.20 11 -1.70
SD 1.11 2.14 2.41
SE .32 .62 .69

Condition 3
7 10.40 9.50 .90 11 -1.68
SD 1.71 1.98 2.25
SE .49 .57 .63

decreased in the number of minutes required to run one mile, the

analysis indicated no significant changes in physical fitness as a

result of treatment.

Summary of the Results

Hypothesis 1: Not rejected.
There is no difference in self-complexity among
groups of women who complete either a jogging
program, an assertiveness training program, a
combined assertiveness training/jogging program
or women who receive no treatment.

Hypothesis 2: Rejected.
There is no difference in physical self-image among
groups of women who complete either a jogging pro-
gram, an assertiveness training program, a com-
bined assertiveness training/jogging program or
women who receive no treatment.

Hypothesis 3: Not rejected.
There is no difference ir self-concept among groups
of women who complete either a jogging program, an
assertiveness training program, a combined assertive-
ness training/jogging program or women who receive
no treatment.

Hypothesis 4: Not rejected.
There is no difference in self-acceptance among
groups of women who complete either a jogging pro-
gram, an assertiveness training program, a combined
assertiveness training/jogging program or women who
receive no treatment.

Hypothesis 5: Not rejected.
There is no difference in ideal self among groups
of women who complete either a jogging program,
an assertiveness training program, a combined
assertiveness training/jogging program or women
who receive no treatment.

Hypothesis 6: Rejected.
There is no difference in assertiveness among groups
of women who complete either a jogging program, an
assertiveness training program, a combined assertive-
ness training/jogging program or women who receive
no treatment.



Drop-Out Rate

The fact that over one-half of the women selected as subjects

drooped out of the study before the program was completed (Table 1)

raises questions about the research. An obvious question is, "Why?" The

large drop-out rate may be explained, in part, by motivational factors,

Many subjects who were originally assigned to the no-treatment control

group did not complete posttests and showed no interest in receiving

jogging and assertiveness training during the following term. Most of

these women, when contacted by telephone, reported that they had lost

interest in these activities, were too involved with jobs or classes, or

had schedule conflicts which prevented them from completing the post-

tests and participating in the program. Other subjects had moved and

left no forwarding address. Still another group of subjects assigned to

the treatment groups did participate in the jogging and assertiveness

training but did not meet attendance criteria for inclusion in the study.

Such behavior leads to a question concerning differences in motiva-

tion between tnose women who completed the program and those who dropped

out. If there was a difference in motivation, then it may bs that those

women who completed the training were different in some important way from

the general population of women. Subject motivation may therefore be

viewed as an uncontrolled variable and possible source of contamination.

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