Title: Relationships between self-concept and illicit narcotic use among addicts in chemotherapeutic treatment
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Title: Relationships between self-concept and illicit narcotic use among addicts in chemotherapeutic treatment
Physical Description: vi, 77 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Medzerian, George Joseph, 1949-
Copyright Date: 1979
 Subjects
Subject: Narcotic addicts -- Rehabilitation   ( lcsh )
Self-perception   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by George J. Medzerian, Jr.
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 70-76.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098638
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000097766
oclc - 06609837
notis - AAL3207

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RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SELF-CONCEPT AND ILLICIT NARCOTIC USE
AMONG ADDICTS IN CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC TREATMENT









By

GEORGE J. MEDZERIAN JR.


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED T T THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REOUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


.97rS













ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I wish to acknowledge my appreciation of the following

individuals.

Dr. Gary Seiler, my chairman, who encouraged me, sup-

ported me and understood me throughout this project.

Dr. R. 0. Stripling, committee member, for his wisdom.

Dr. Robert Ziller, committee member, for his expertise

in my research area.

Dr. Barbara Lewis-Medzerian, my wife and colleague, for

her genuineness, consideration, and love.

George and Theresa Medzerian, my parents, who struggled

along with me as I pursued my goals.

Mark Leary, my statistician, who knows his business and

made the impossible, possible.

My close friends Dan, Joyce, Vaughn, Lindsey, Bill,

Chris, Carolyn, Paul and Carrie--thanks for putting up with

me.

Arnold Andrews, my friend and the associate executive

director of the research site, for his assistance in the

data collection.

Mcllie, my daughter, whose faith in her dad made this

easier.

















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

. . . . ii


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . .


ABSTRACT . . . . . . .


CHAPTER

I


INTRODUCTION . . .
Statement of Problem
Definition of Terms
Purpose of Study . .
Assumptions . . .
rationalee ..


II RE''IEW OF RELATED LITERATURE . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . .....
The Nature and Development of Self Concept .
The Self-Concept and Behavior . . .
The Self-Concept of Drug Abusers . ....
The Self-Concept of Male Narcotic Addicts
The Self-Concent of Female Narcotic Addicts
Self-Concept Sex Differences Anong
Narcotic Addicts . . . .
Self-Concept Race Differences of Narcotic
Addicts . . . . . . . ..
Instrument of Self-Corcept Measure .. ...
Summary of Literature review . . . . .


II MYETHODOLCGY . . . .
Population and Sample
Research Design . .
Research Instruments .
Research Hypotheses
Research Procedures
Data Analysis . .


IV FIDINGS . . . . . .
Hypotheses Testing . . . . . ...
Interpretation ...........

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMDYENDATICNS ...
Summary . . . . . ............
Conclusions . . . ............
Recommendations ......................


. . . . . . 38
. . . 38
. . . . . . 40
. . . . . . 41
. . . . . . L2
. . . . . . 43
. I . . . 44


. . . . . . .

. . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .










TABLE OF CONTENTS
(Continued


Page

APPENDIX A
DEMOGRAPHIC COMPARISONS . . . . . .... .. .. 67

APPENDIX B
DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION FORM . . . . . . . 69

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

IO RAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . . . . 77









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SELF-CONCEPT AND ILLICIT NARCOTIC USE
AMONG ADDICTS IN CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC TREATMENT

By

George J. Medzerian Jr.

December 1979

Chairman: Dr. Gary Seller
Major Department: Counselor Education

This study investigated the relationships between self-

concept and illicit narcotic use among addicts in chemother-

apeutic treatment, and described the interactional effects

of race and sex. The volunteer research sample consisted of

53 narcotic addicts maintained on methadone at Operation PAR

Comprehensive Drug Treatment Program, in St. Petersburg,

Florida. Research subjects were compared demographically to

federal Client Oriented Data Acquisition Program recon G

along the parameters of race, sex, age, and number of prior

treatment episodes. The MacAndrew Scale score of the Minne-

sota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was also obtained for

all research subjects. The sample proved to be representa-

tive along all parameters, excluding race, in which case

there was an overrepresentation of white addicts.

Twenty-two selected components of the Tennessee Self

Concept Scale, Clinical and Research Form, were used as the









measure of self-concept. Illicit narcotic use was measured

by means of positive opiate urinalysis results from samples

collected randomly during the ten week data collection

period. Correlations were computed between the 22 selected

self-concept component scores and urinalysis results scores

using the Pearson product-moment correlation, and a multiple

regression was computed using the all possible subset regres-

sion equation. Three self-concept variables correlated at a

significant level with illicit narcotic use: the Personal

Self scale, the Social Self scale, and the Neurotic (N)

scale. The subset regression yielded six variables (Total

Conflict, Moral-Ethical Self, Personal Self, Social Self,

Variability, Neurotic) which, when numerically weighted,

predicted illicit narcotic use at a significant level (P<.02).

The six components selected in the set accounted for 28S of

the variance in positive narcotic urinalysis results.

Pearson correlations were computed to determine any interac-

tional effects of race or sex on the relationships among

self-concept components and illicit narcotic use. Interac-

tional effects were noted.

One limitation was noted in this research. The sample

size of 53 allowed for hypotheses testing, but constricted

interpretations of the data. A larger sample may have

provided data which could be interpreted with more strength.













CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


In the past decade, narcotic use and abuse has increased

in the United States. The etiology of addiction has been

studied from varied and divergent orientations: psychologi-

cal (Wieder and Kaplan, 1969; Yorke, 1970), pharmacological

(Dole and N;yswander, 1967), genetic (Collier, 1965; Weisman,

1972), sociological (Berlinger, 1966; Merton, 1969), social

protest (Chein, 1969), and, the stepping stone theory

(Anslinger, 1960). To date, three primary modalities of

rehabilitation treatment for the narcotic addict are avail-

able: (1) the outpatient drug free counseling program,

(2) the inpatient therapeutic community, and (3) the chemo-

therapeutic treatment program. Of these modalities, 51

percent of all narcotic addicts in treatment are involved in

the latter, often called the methadone maintenance and

methadone detoxification program (National Institute on Dru-g

Abuse, Statistical Series, 1977).

Recent statistical information indicates that the

chemotherapeutic programs are not meeting adequately the

needs of the narcotic addict who is seeking rehabilitation.

Frcm demographic data and program census records compiled

from the federal Client Oriented Data Acquisition Program









(CODAP), only 10 percent of the clients treated in chemo-

therapeutic programs terminate in a condition of total drug

abstinence, that is, "drug free," The remaining clients

leave treatment through transfer to other agencies (16%).

through discharge by program staff for non-complience with

program rules and regulations (10%), or for unspecified

reasons. The majority of clients continue to abuse narcotics

while undergoing treatment, and, eventually return to "the

streets."


Statement of Problem

The primary beneficial effects of the chemotherapeutic

program is that of providing psychological and physiological

stability to the narcotic addict. This enables the client

to function relatively well while receiving the therapy

needed to readjust lifestyles and behaviors.

The addict, upon entering treatment, is placed on a

dosage of methadone, a synthetic narcotic drug. The reported

beneficial aspects of methadone are numerous: cross toler-

ance with heroin and other opiates, long acting effects,

controlled purity and dosage levels, and oral ingestion.

The addict who is maintained on a stable dosage of methadone

does not experience euphoria from the drug because of drug

tclorance effects and does not experience withdrawal fro

the drug due to the long acting effects and controlled

purity and dosage. Psychological and physiological changes









associated with drug injection, such as the "rush" from the

injected drug into the bloodstream, are minimal because

methadone is administered orally. Hence, it would seem that

the chemotherapeutic treatment program is the ideal method

in treating narcotic addicts. An addict stabilized on a

dosage should have no reason to continue illicit narcotic

abuse. Some do. When the addict uses an illicit narcotic

while undergoing methadone maintenance treatment, the chances

of rehabilitation are minimized. The illicit narcotic

effects the stabilized methadone dosage, and the beneficial

aspects of chemotherapeutic treatment are decreased. As

identified earlier, the leading factor in narcotic addicts

terminating treatment from the chemotherapeutic treatment

program is continued illicit narcotic use.


Definition of Terms


Chemotherapeutic treatment. A modality of drug rehabil-

itation which utilizes the synthetic narcotic drug, methadone,

to provide psychological and physiological stability to the

addict while the addict is undergoing counseling and

psychotherapy.


Drug abuse. The use of a substance to an extent that

the substance interferes with the individual's adjustment and

functioning in life.


Illicit narcotic. Any unprescribed or illegal opiate

or synthetic opiate substance.









Narcotic. Any opiate or synthetic opiate substance.


Narcotic addict. An individual who uses opiate or

synthetic opiate substances to such an extent that sudden

discontinuence of that substance produces psychological

and/or physiological cravings.


Self-concept. A phenomenological construct which

encompasses the total accumulative perceptions one has

towards the behaviors, feelings, and cognitions perceived

within self.


Self-concept components. Delimited self-concept elements

which individually reflect specific areas of self-perception

and self-evaluation, and which collectively determine an

individual's overall evaluation of self worth.


Purpose of Study

The purpose of this study has been to investigate and

describe the relationships which exist between illicit

narcotic use among narcotic addicts in chemotherapeutic

treatment and self-concept, or, the set of conditions and

feelings one has toward self (Secord and Backman, 1964).

More specifically, the study was designed to investigate

these questions. What relationships exist between overall

self perception (self-concept), self-concept in selected

areas (self-concept components), and illicit narcotic use?









Does the sex of the addict have any effect on these relation-

ships? Does the race of the addict have any effect on these

relationships?


Assumptions

Two assumptions underlie this research. Both pertain

to the external validity and generalizability of this study.

First, it is assumed that the research program is representa-

tive of the typical chemotherapeutic, methadone maintenance,

treatment program in the United States. This assumption is

substantiated by state and federal laws which insure consis-

tency among licensed chemotherapeutic treatment programs.

These laws, mandated and enforced by the U.S. Department of

Health, Education, and Welfare, and the National Institute

on Drug Abuse, standardize procedures for (1) direct medical

services, (2) direct counseling and psychotherapeutic ser-

vices, (3) client screening for program admissions,

(") methadone dosage administration, (5) illicit drug screen-

ing by chemical urinalysis, and (6) program staff hiring

criteria.

Secondly, it is assumed that the subjects selected for

this research are representative of typical narcotic addicts

in chemotherapeutic, methadone maintenance, treatment in the

United States. Subjects selected for this research were

compared to federal CODAP demographic information on the

parameters of age, race, sex, and number of prior









rehabilitation treatment episodes. In cases where the

research subjects differed from the average addict, demo-

graphically, these were noted in a later section of this

study which pertains to the limitations and generalizability

of the research results. Subjects were compared along the

parameters of personality type. MMPI-MacAndrew Scale infor-

mation was obtained on all research subjects who participated

in this research. Past research (MacAndrew, 1965; Cavoir

et al., 1967; Rhodes, 1969; Kranitz, 1972; Cryns, 1974;

Fracchia et al., 1974; Ross and Berzins, 1974; Lachar et al.,

1976) indicates that addicts present a personality type

which can discriminate them from normal and psychiatric

populations. The MacAndrew Scale scores obtained from

research subjects used in this study were examined to verify

that the sample was representative of individuals with

addictive personality types. Using the above information,

the researcher was able to control for external validity and

ascertain the generalizability of the research findings.

One additional factor warrants attention. Federal and

state laws governing the operations of chemotherapeutic

treatment programs dictate that all clients be provided with

the opportunity to participate in group and individual

counseling while in treatment (Licensing Regulations for

Drug Abuse Treatment and Education Centers in Florida,

Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, 1975). In









this study, the effects of counseling on the measurable

self-concept of the addict did not effect external validity.

The self-concept is a relatively stable construct (Hobbs,

1952; Fitts et al., 1971; Ziller, 1976) and did not fluctu-

ate during the ten week research period.


Rationale

With the increased use and abuse of narcotics in the

United States, there is a need to reassess and augment

current treatment methods. To reiterate, an existing problem

in the chemotherapeutic treatment program is difficulty in

client retention. Illicit narcotic use while in treatment

is a major factor in treatment termination.

This research provided a self-concept profile of the

narcotic addict in chemotherapeutic treatment who uses

illicit drugs. Robinson (1973) states that the self-concept

is "the single most significant key to a persons behavior

. to understand a person, and hence, to assist in his

rehabilitation, one must understand the nature of his self-

perception" (p. 1). Others (Fitts, 1972d; Snygg and Combs,

1949; Combs and Snygg, 1959; LaBenne and Greene, 1969) state

the importance of understanding the dynamic relationships

between manifested behaviors and the self-concept. From the

information obtained by this research, more specialized

treatment plans may be developed for the narcotic addict in

chemotherapeutic treatment, and client retention in ongoing

rehabilitation may be enhanced.













CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Introduction

Although self-concept has been the focus of extensive

theoretical exploration for the past forty years, it has

only been recently that researchers have approached self-

concept theory in an empirical manner to determine the

implications on the applied behavioral sciences of counseling

and psychotherapy (Wylie, 1974). Self-concept theorists

have agreed that the self-concept is the single most impor-

tant element within the social/psychological framework of

the individual (Robinson, 1973). It is the single most

important organizing influence upon the individual and gives

stability to behavior (LaBenne and Greene, 1969). Once

established in youth, the self-concept is relatively stable

(Hobbs, 1952; Fitts et al., 1971; Ziller, 1976).

In this chapter, a review of related literature on the

self-concept of drug abusers is presented. This review

includes (1) the nature and development of self-concept,

(2) the self-concept and behavior, (3) the self-concept of

drug abusers, (a) the self-concept of male narcotic addicts,

(5) the self-concept of female narcotic addicts, (6) self-

concept sex differences of narcotic addicts,









(7) self-concept race differences of narcotic addicts,

(8) instrument of self-concept measure, and (9) summary.


The Nature and Development of Self-Concept

Generally, the self-concept can be understood as a

psychological construct of self-perception in relationship

to objects and processes and, as a construct, "it is not an

inner entity, a specific substance, or a psychic agent which

can be seen . [it is] an imaginary mechanism" (LaBenne

and Greene, 1969, p. 9). Self-concept may be conceptualized

as an "object in the perceptual field, an organized system

of perceptions which are learned in the course of genetic

development" (Hobbs, 1952, p. 1). Erickson (1968) stated

that the self-concept is a phenomenological construct which

composes the core of an individual's identity. It is the

principal organizing influence exerted upon the individual

which provides stability an order to human behavior (LaBenne

and Greene, 1969).

Secord and Packman (1964) defined self-concept as "a

set of cognitions and feelings toward oneself" (p. 574).

Responding to the need to obtain empirical research data,

several theorists have attempted to deliniate elements

comprising the essence of the self without losing the rich-

ness cf the construct (Wylie, 1974). By extracting and

concretely defining specific elements or components of self-

concept in measurable terms, researchers can investigate









better the importance of the self-concept in relation to

human behavior.

Ziller (1976) identified the components of the self-

concept in predominantly intrapersonal terms, including

self-esteem, social interests, self-centrality, complexity,

majority identification, identifications, power, marginality,

inclusion, and openness. Hobbs (1952) listed components

which are more interpersonal in nature. They include percep-

tions of "one's personality traits, physical characteristics,

relationships with people and with environment, and the

ideals and values associated with experiences, ambitions,

and objects" (p. 1).

Secord and Backman (1964) presented the self-concept as

a construct which includes three aspects: (1) the cognitive

self, (2) the affective self, or one's feelings about self,

and (3) the behavioral self, the tendency of one to act

toward self in various ways. Fitts (1965) expanded this

system to fifteen interactional components. Beginning with

Seccrd and Backman's three aspects cf self-concept (cognitive,

affective, and behavioral self), Fitts conceptualized each

as acting within perceptions of physical self, mcral-ethical

self, personal self, family self, and social self. Thus,

the interaction of the first three components with the

latter five components yields fifteen basic self-concept

components.









The process of self-concept development within each

individual has been hypothesized from two major divergent

orientations (Webster and Sobieszek, 1974; Wylie, 1961).

These orientations have been labeled the developmental self-

orientation and the social self-orientation. The latter has

been categorized further into the social self-behavioral and

the social self-perceptual orientations.

The developmental self-theorists formulated the self-

concept as being similar to personality and as developing

"in a way similar to and heavily influenced by the biological

growth of the body" (Webster and Sobieszek, 1974, p. 1).

The self-concept is the culmination of unique traits, habits,

attitudes, and values which develop from a set of inherited

instincts, personality predispositions, collective conscious-

ness, and psychic energy. Early developmental self-theorists

such as James and Cooley conceptualized the self-concept as

instinctual from birth (Hobbs, 1952). Later writings by

Cooley maintained the basic developmental self-crientation,

but acknowledged that society has some extraneous or vicari-

ous effects upon the self-concept development and maintenance.

The social self-theorists stressed the importance of

the individual's contact with others in the development of

the self-concept (LaBenne and Greene, 1969). Theorists of

this school stated that significant others are essential to

the self-concept and that the self or personality cannot be









examined without "reference to the shaping effects of others"

(Webster and Sobieszek, 1974, p. 1).

The two factions of the social self-theorists are the

behaviorally oriented and the perceptually oriented. The

former conceptualized that an individual develops, maintains,

and augments self-concept in response to external stimuli,

be it either person or object. Self-concept development is

contingent exclusively upon the social-environmental influ-

ences available to the individual. The perceptual theorists

have also stressed the importance of external influences on

the development of the self-concept. This relationship is

not presented in the basic stimulus-response paradigm.

Instead, emphasis is placed upon the perceptual fields of

the individual. Fitts et al. (1971) stated that the self-

concept is "strongly phenomenological in nature and based

upon the general principle that man reacts to his phenomenal

world in terms of the way he perceives this world" (p. 3).

The paradigm proposed by the perceptually oriented social

self-theorists is expressed in a stimulus-crganism-response

paradigm.


The Self-Concept and Behavior

Empirical research has shown that there is a direct

relationship between self-concept and manifested behaviors,

perceptions, and performance (LaBenne and Greene, 1969).

Maslow (1968), Rogers (1961), and Fitts et al. (1969, Fitts,









1970; Fitts 1972b) hypothesized that the more actualized the

individual, that is, the more positive the self-concept, the

more effective the individual will perform.

Robinson (1973) stated that the self-concept is the

single most significant key to a person's behavior. "To

understand a person, and hence, to assist in his rehabilita-

tion, one must understand the nature of his self-perception

and the standards he uses to judge himself" (p. 1).

Fitts (1965) emphasized the dynamic relationship between

self-concept and behavior. "Those people who see themselves

as undesirable, worthless, or 'bad' tend to act accordingly.

Those who have a highly unrealistic concept of self tend to

approach life and other people in unrealistic ways" (p. 1).

Those individuals who have self-concepts which are deviant

also tend to act or behave in deviant ways.

Snygg and Combs (1949) stated that "all behavior,

without exception, is completely determined by and pertinent

to the phenomenal field of the behaving organism" (p. 15).

Branden (1971) stated that the nature of an individual's

self-esteem and self-concept "has profound effects on a

man's thinking processes, emotions, desires, values, and

goals. It is the single most significant key to behavior"

(p. 109).

The relationship between self-concept and behavior has

been explained within self-concept theory. Ziller (1976)









hypothesized a helical theory of personal change which

proposes to clarify the interactional effects of various

psychological constructs. The theory purports that a hierar-

chical order exists in elements which may effect change on

self-concept. These elements presented in rank order are:

Self-concept
Roles
Behaviors
Values
Attitudes

Attitudes are the least difficult to change, values are

more difficult to change, and so on as the hierarchy pro-

gresses. The self-concept is the most crucial element of

the system and it is the most resistant to change. "Moreover,

if the self-concept is changed, there is a higher probability

that other components in the system will change" (Ziller,

1975, p. 107). Within this theoretical framework, change in

any component will increase the probability of a change in a

lower order component or components. Changes in behavior

will increase the probability of changes in values and

attitudes. Conversely, changes in lower order components

may also effect change in higher order components if signif-

icant disequalibrium within the system is present. Changes

in behavior will, theoretically, elicit change in all lower

order components and this dynamic disequalibrium will increase

the probability of change in higher order components, such

as roles and self-concept. Hence, vicariously, a change in

behavior will elicit a change in self-concept.









The empirical research delineating the relationships

between self-concept and behavior is extensive (Fitts,

1972d). Kunter (1974) studied the relationships between

self-concept scores of drug-dependent males involved in

treatment in a therapeutic community and selected behavioral

indices. Utilizing a sample of 48 subjects, the author

reported that the positive changes in self-concept scores

over time involved in therapy paralleled positive changes in

measurable behavioral indices. A direct relationshiD existed

between self-concept and the selected behaviors to be

measured.

Moos, Mcos, and Kulik (1977) investigated behavioral

and self-concept antecedents and correlates of alcohol

consumption and abuse patterns among college students. The

sample included 239 subjects. The authors reported that

self-concept scores were effective in differentiating between

those individuals who would begin to use alcohol during the

freshman year of college and those who would remain

abstainers.

Other research has examined the relationships between

self-concept and academic achievement (Long, 1972; Holmgren,

1972), spouse and family interactional behaviors (West,

1973; Dcwie, 1973; McCahan, 1973), job effectiveness (Willi-

ams, 1973; Denton, 1973), physical and motor task behaviors

(Cummings, 1970; Spurlock, at al., 1972; Finkral, 1973)









and leadership behaviors (Feistritzer, 1973). Fitts et al.

(1971), Fitts (1972a; 1972b) and Wylie (1961; 1974) presented

comprehensive monographs and literature reviews of research

pertaining to the direct relationships which exist between

an individual's self-concept and selected manifested

behaviors.


The Self-Concept of Drug Abusers

In discussing the self-concept of drug users and drug

abusers, Fitts stated,

We have no data to present for this
category at this time. However, a
number of studies employing the Ten-
nessee Self Concept Scale are under
way. As these data accumulate, they
may provide some understanding of
people who become dependent upon
drugs. We predict that these data
will be similar to those for alco-
holics and persons with other perscn-
ality disorders and that they will
again show self-defeating behavior ro
be closely associated with a negative
and deviant self-concept.
(1972a, p. 87)

Cappanari et al. (1969) compiled research on the self-

concept of drug abusers. The sample for this research was

ccmposed of multiple drug abusers who were apprehended as

drug offenders by the police. The majority of the subjects

were polydrug abusers, that is, they abused more than one

substance. The substances ranged from marijuana to heroin.

Cappinari reported that the multiple drug abuser seemed to

have low levels of self-esteem, had difficulty postponing









gratification, and unrealistic fantasies of the future and

"sabotage their own infrequent efforts at achievement" (p.

2).

Robinson (1973) reported her findings in research

conducted to determine the self-concept profile of drug

abusers. Her sample was composed of 125 heroin addicts and

80 polydrug abusers who were being treated at an outpatient

drug treatment and rehabilitation center. She reported that

all clients perceived themselves as acting and behaving in

ways more negative than the normal person; yet, conversely,

these same clients seemed to accept themselves as being

deviants, as reflected by a normal range self-satisfaction

score. Heroin addicts scored lowest in how they perceived

themselves morally and ethically, whereas polydrug abusers

scored lowest in how they perceived themselves in relation-

ship to their families. Robinson further stated that "except

for the two scales, Identity (row 1) and Family Self (column

D), where mean scores were identical for the two groups,

heroin users have more negative concepts of self than do

multiple drug abusers" (p. 6).

Drug use and abuse among high school students was the

focus of self-concept research conducted by Pulliam et al.

(1971). A sample of 200 high school students was selected,

and divided into three research groups: (1) drug abusers,

(2) drug users, and (3) drug abstainers. The groups were









asked to complete a self-concept measuring instrument, the

Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS). Pulliam reported that

no significant differences existed among the three groups in

reported self-concept scores, except, the experimenters and

abusers rated themselves as less morally and ethically good

than did the drug abstainers.

Incarcerated female drug abusers and narcotic addicts

who were receiving rehabilitative treatment at a therapeutic

community within the prison system were studied by Medzerian

(1978). The purpose of the study was to determine if the

self-concept of the incarcerated female drug abuser was

different from that of a normal population. Limited by a

small sample, three significant differences were extracted.

The subjects reported a self-concept profile which indicated

a lower sense of personal worth and feelings of inadequacy

as a person. They perceived themselves as acting and behav-

ing in more negative ways than others and they expressed a

high variability in their total self-concept, which would

indicate little personality integration.

From the research cited above, the drug abuser differs

from the normal population in certain areas of self-concept.

Research also indicates that there is a difference between

the reported self-concept profile of the drug abuser and the

narcotic addict.









The Self-Conceot of Male Narcotic Addicts

Although the male narcotic addict has been the target

of much psychological research, little data are available on

the self-concept of this group. Deren and Koslowski (1977)

stated that "most studies on addicts personalities have been

based on male samples and have concentrated on psychopatho-

logical diagnostic classification rather than general person-

ality characterization" (p. 549). Another limitation is

that much of the self-concept research with drug abusers and

addicts does not report separate findings for polydrug

abusers, occasional users of narcotics, narcotic addicts, or

for males, females, blacks, or whites.

Lindblad (1977) reported a controlled study of self-

concept of 70 white middle class narcotic addicts. Experi-

mental and control groups were matched on the basis of

socioeconomic standards, age, and sex. The sample was not

composed entirely of males; hence, the reported results are

not exclusively representative of male narcotic addicts.

Since the majority of the sample was male (75%) the findings

warrant mentioning. The research indicated that the experi-

mental group, the narcotic addicts, scored lower in the

Total P scale of the TSCS, the scale which measured overall

level of self-esteem or overall evaluation of self-concept,

than the non-addicted control grcup. From information

obtained by subject completion of an independently









administered questionnaire, Lindblad reported several other

differences between the addicted and non-addicted groups.

The majority of the narcotic addicts: (1) presented a

significantly more negative self-attitude than their matched

control, (2) perceived the relationship between their parents

as non-compatible, (3) reported living with someone other

than their natural parents during their childhood,

(4) perceived their father as showing little affection

toward them, (5) reported dissatisfaction with themselves as

a child, did not get along with childhood peers, and, as a

child, perceived themselves as not meeting the expectations

of those significant others, (6) perceived their relation-

ships with siblings as non-cohesive, and, (7) described

their home life as unpleasant.

Porteus (1973) reported a self-concept analysis of

heroin addicts, drug free ex-addicts, and methadone main-

tained patients. The TSCS was administered to the three

groups (N=47); and self-concept scores were computed, com-

pared, and analyzed. Forteus stated in his findings that

heroin addicts scored significantly lower on the overall

level cf self-concept and scored significantly lower on all

self-concept subscores, or self-concept component scores.

No significant difference in self-concept scores were noted

between the methadone maintained patients and the drug free

ex-addicts. The author also reported no significant differ-

ences between the three groups in expressed self-criticism.









Personality characteristics of male and female addicts

were studied by Deren and Koslowski (1977). From a sample

of 1735 male and 348 female narcotic addicts, data were

collected using the 16PF, a diagnostic personality assessment

instrument. In both groups, males and females, the narcotic

addicts scored lower on emotional stability in comparison to

the normative group.

Guidroz (1970) evaluated four treatment approaches for

the narcotic addict. From a mixed sample of 38 addicts, of

which the majority of subjects were male, the author obtained

self-concept evaluations by administering the TSCS. Only

Total P scores, the scale which measures the overall level

of self-esteem or overall evaluation of self-concept, were

reported. Guidroz indicated from his research that the

narcotic addicts expressed and reported low levels of self-

concept as compared to norm groups for the self-concept

assessment instrument.


The Self-Concept of Female Narcotic Addicts

Many researchers (Chambers and Inciardi, 1971; Baldinger

et al., 1972; Zahn and Ball, 1974; Levy and Broudy, 1975)

have drawn attention to the noticeable lack of research

concerning the female narcotic addict. Williams and Bates

(1970) stated,









. the research to date has been
largely concentrated on male addicts,
apparently because there are so many
more known male addicts than female.
Although a substantial amount of data
have been accumulated on male addicts,
there is very little literature on fe-
male addiction and nothing on the ty-
pology of female addicts. (p. 246)

With the addiction rate among women increasing at a faster

rate than among males, research has been warranted (Prather

and Fidell, 1978).

One hundred sixty-eight female addicts who were receiv-

ing treatment at the federal drug rehabilitation program in

Lexington, Kentucky, were studied to determine demographic

profiles. Chambers et al. (1970) reported that 74% of the

women came from homes in which the primary wage earner was

employed as a blue collar worker. Fifty-four percent had

been reared in homes in which the parents were divorced or

separated. The educational level of the subjects was low;

the average grade level was 10.6. The majority of the women

at the time of their admission to the program were obtaining

money from illegal sources; 47% had a history of prostitution.

Rather and Fridell (1978) studied drug use and abuse

among females. From data obtained from heroin addicts,

several conclusions were presented. The female addict

generally had a poor relationship with her mother and a

strong relationship with her father. The majority of the

sample were limited in formal education, usually lacking a









high school diploma. The women seemed to use a wider variety

of drugs than male drug abusers.

From demographic and social history information, Ellin-

wood et al. (1966) studied the family relationship of the

female narcotic addict in rehabilitative therapy. The

author reported that female narcotic addicts present a high

incident of incest and sexual relationships with stepfathers,

older relatives, or mother's paramours which may account for

the high incidence of frigidity and homosexuality among

female addicts.

Levy and Doyle (1974) studied female narcotic addicts

who were receiving treatment in a chemotherapeutic treatment

program. The subjects were asked to present what they

perceived as the major personal problem areas in their

lives. The compiled information indicated the following

problem areas: childishness (91%), inability to express

feelings (74%), bad feelings about their own bodies or

physical characteristics (70%), and, poor family relation-

ships (44%). When asked to list their perceived limitations,

the respondents listed: lack of job training (87%), lack of

education (85%), being looked down on because of being an

ex-addict (62%), and, poor physical health (45%).

Kilmann (1974) studied the personality characteristics

of female narcotic addicts involved in drug treatment in a

voluntary therapeutic community. The Personal Orientation









Inventory (POI) was administered to 84 female narcotic

addicts. The subjects ranged in age from 18 to 34; 7C% were

white, 30% were black. Test results indicated that the

level of self-regard and the level of self-acceptance for

the addicted sample was lower than that of a normal

population.

Female addicts scored significantly low
on scales that purport to assess (1) the
ability to live meaningfully in the pre-
sent, (2) the tendency to hold and live
by values of self-actualizing people,
(3) the ability to like one's self be-
cause of one's strength as a person,
(4) the acceptance of one's self in spite
of one's weaknesses or deficiencies.
(Kilmann, 1974, p. 310)

The author stated that when subjects were compared to normal

adults, the female addicts seemed to be less satisfied with

their lives and with themselves.

From information stated above, the female narcotic

addict and drug abuser present a self-concept which is quite

different from that presented by normal groups and have more

deviant profiles in many respects. "They are more acquies-

cent, more neurotic, and show less positive regard for

themselves in relations to their identity and physical self"

(Robinson, 1973, p. 15). Female narcotic addicts have a

similarly deviant profile. Self-acceptance, physical ade-

quacy, and self-worth are substantially lower among female

narcotic addicts.









Self-Concept Sex Differences Among Narcotic Addicts

The first comprehensive study of sex differences among

narcotic addicts was reported by Ellinwood et al. (1966).

The author studied 111 narcotic addicts who were selected

from the population of addicts receiving treatment at the

United States Public Health Service Narcotics Hospital in

Lexington, Kentucky. Eighty-one subjects were male and 30

female. The average age of the sample was 31 years old.

Sixty percent were white, 40% black. The stated reasons for

starting drugs were similar for both sexes: subcultural

motivations, curiosity, pleasure, kicks, and acceptance.

Twenty-five per cent of all the subjects reported having

alcoholic fathers, 40% reported being reared in broken

homes. Ellinwood found that male addicts came from large

families, female addicts from smaller families. Male

addicts seemed to have fewer role models as adolescents;

female addicts identified with parental models. In child-

parent relationships, male addicts described their mothers

as indulgent, whereas female addicts described their mothers

as overprotective, distant, and authoritarian. Males de-

scribed their fathers as punitive or indifferent; women

perceived their fathers as seductive and indulgent. Men

seemed to be more resentful of authority, more dependent and

more rebellious than women. When confronted by psychological

conflicts, male addicts tended to act out, whereas, female









addicts resorted to somatic illnesses, or personal solutions.

Both sexes stated that they felt markedly distant from

others and that they could not trust others.

Miller et al. (1973) reported on the value patterns of

narcotic addicts as a function of race and sex. The sample

which consisted of black males, black females, white males,

and white females, was selected from narcotic addicts in

treatment at the National Institute of Mental Health Clinical

Research Center, Lexington, Kentucky. Female addicts reported

high values of cleanliness, forgiveness, happiness, inner

harmony, and self respect. Male addicts reported high

values of ambition, intelligence, logicalness, and self

control. "It is interesting that sex role stereotypes of

values emerge among addicts who popularly are thought to

reject so many common cultural values" (Miller et al., 1973,

p. 595). The author further stated that the differences in

values between the male and female narcotic addicts seemed

to reflect general sex stereotypes rather than a unique

value system associated with narcotic addiction.

Olson (1964) studied personality differences between

male and female narcotic addicts. The Minnesota Multiphasic

Personality Inventory (MMPI) was administered as the person-

ality assessment instrument. The author reported that

female addicts showed a greater lack of self confidence than

the male addicts, and the males presented themselves as more









guarded. Maglin (1974), in a study of sex role differences

among narcotic addicts, reported similar findings.

Robinson (1973) presented a comprehensive study of sex

differences in self-concept among a sample of 125 narcotic

addicts and non-opiate substance abusers. The subjects were

in treatment at the Nashville Drug Treatment and Rehabilita-

tion Center. Of the heroin addicts selected for the research,

77% were males and 23% females. Robinson reported that the

female heroin addicts are less accepting
of themselves, feel less adequate physi-
cally, and have a poorer sense of self-
worth than do male heroin addicts. They
are a great deal more acquiescent and
impulsive, more inconsistent and more
neurotic than are male addicts. Females
who abuse non-narcotic substances are not
significantly different from males in
their sense of personal worth or in their
satisfaction with themselves, but have a
poorer sense of identity, and a poorer
regard for their physical selves. They
are not significantly more impulsive or
acquiescent than males as was noted for
heroin addicts, but show more inconsis-
tency in their responses. Female non-
narcotic users are more neurotic than
males, are not as able to cope with
stress, and show an overall greater de-
gree of pathology. (p. 15)


Self-Concept Race Differences of Narcotic Addicts

As noted, little research has been conducted with

narcotic addicts to examine the self-concept differences

between races. Below is a review of this limited research.

A comprehensive study of racial differences among

female narcotic addicts was reported by Chambers et al.









(1970). The sample consisted of 168 females with self-

stated addiction histories who were in rehabilitative treat-

ment at the United States Public Health Hospital, Lexington,

Kentucky. "The study was designed to ascertain any signif-

icant differences between white and negro addicts" (Chambers

et al., 1970, p. 258). The author found, in this basically

demographic study, that a significant difference existed

between races in the occupations the subjects reported for

their families. The majority of white addicts reported

fathers who worked at white collar jobs, and black addicts

reported fathers employed at blue collar jobs. Chambers

also reported that significantly more black female addicts

were reared in broken homes.

Miller et al. (1973) described the value patterns of

drug addicts as a function of race and sex. The sample was

selected from narcotic addicts in treatment at the National

Institute of Mental Health Clinical Research Center, Lexing-

ton, Kentucky. Findings indicated that blacks rated the

values of a comfortable life and equality higher than white

addicts. Whites preferred true friendship and love which

"seems to indicate that white addicts place a relatively

higher emphasis on the importance of interpersonal relations

and intimacy than do black addicts" (Miller et al., 1973, p.

594). The authors further stated that black addicts seemed

to be more concerned with conventionally defined social









values such as equality of opportunity and a reasonable

level of income and socioeconomic achievement. The black

addict seemed to be less alienated from the socially accepted

values of ambition in work, high intelligence, and achieve-

ment than the white addict. Miller et al. stated that the

white addict

. is much more concerned with values
related to both interpersonal and intra-
personal considerations. They would
like to develop non-judgemental, cheer-
ful, loving, intimate, peaceful relations
with peers of both the same sex and of
the other sex, and, perhaps, even more
importantly, they would like to develop
such attributes as part of their own
self-image. (p. 595)

Self-concept differences between racial groups have

been studied, but most often with normal college student and

adult populations. Thompson (1972) reported a review of

this research. The author stated that blacks showed a

characteristic self-concept profile, as measured by the

TSCS. Generally, the black subjects presented a lower

overall level of self-esteem when compared to white subjects.

Blacks generally reported positive physical self-perception,

and a more positive personal self-perception, but, a more

negative moral and ethical self-perception. Blacks reported

a higher level of defensiveness as reflected by lew self-

criticism scores and high defensive posture scores on the

TSCS. Blacks scored differently than whites on the empirical

scales; black samples had higher general maladjustment and









psychosis scores and low personality integration scores.

Studies cited in this research indicate that blacks had

lower levels of self esteem than did whites, especially in

the younger age groups.

An overview of research on self-concept differences

between black and white narcotic addicts was reported by

Robinson (1973). Results indicated that blacks are more

aquiescent than whites, and are more inconsistent, but,

conversely, express more positive regard for their self-

perceived identity. Although the black addict seems to be

much more deviant than the white addict, this may be due to

the effects of including the black female narcotic addict in

the overall self-concept profile of blacks.

The profiles of black females as a whole
show more deviant features than black
males or than either white males or fe-
males, and this is especially true in
terms of their poorer physical self,
their inconsistency among the external
subselves, and their impulsiveness and
acquiescence. (Robinson, 1973, p. 15)


Instrument of Self-Concept Measure

To reiterate, the self-concept is a phenomenological

construct, hence, "it is not an inner entity, a specific

substance, or a psychic agent which can be seen . (it

is) an imaginary mechinism" (LaBenne and Greene, 1969, p.

9). The question of how to measure such a construct has

been the focus of much discussion (Wylie, 1974). Generally,

most theorists and researchers agree that the self-concept









construct must first be operationally defined in measureable

elements before any research can be conducted (Fitts, 1965;

Wylie, 1961; 1974).

Of the numerous self-concept assessment instruments

developed within the past twenty years, the most widely used

in research is the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS). A

description of this instrument follows.

The TSCS is composed cf 100 self-descriptive statements

which the subject uses to portray a picture of self. Ninety

items assess the self-concept. The remaining 10 items measure

self-criticism and are idenricial to the MMPI L-scale items

(Bentler, 1972). The 90 self-concept measuring items were

developed through a multistaged procedure.

The original pool of items were derived
from a number of other self-concept
measures including those developed by
Balester (1956), Engel (1956), and Tay-
lor (1953). Items were derived also
from written self-descriptions of
patients and non-patients. After con-
siderable study, a phenomenological
system was developed for classifying
items on the basis of what they them-
selves were saying. This evolved into
a two dimensional, 3 x 5 scheme em-
ployed on the score sheet. (Fitts,
1965, p. 1)

The final items used on the TSCS were selected by a panel of

seven clinical psychologists who were asked to classify each

item into basic constructs. "The final items included only

those on which the judges showed perfect agreement" (Suinn,

1972, p. 366-367). The original norming procedures for the









TSCS were accomplished with a sample of 626 subjects of

varying age, race, sex, and socioeconomic status (Bentler,

1972).

The TSCS can be administered in a group or individual

setting and can be completed by test subjects in ten to

twenty minutes. The minimal grade level of readability

recommended by the author is grade six; the minimum recom-

mended age is twelve.

The TSCS manual reported a test-retest reliability

coefficient of .80. The validity has been established by

four procedures: content validity, discrimination between

groups, correlation with other personality measure, and

personality changes under particular conditions (Fitts,

1965). Research on the construct validity of the TSCS,

using a principal component factor analysis indicates that

this self-concept measure does provide the proposed measures

of the self (Vacchiano and Strauss, 1968). Fitts, referring

to the validity of the TSCS, stated that "it has been used

in numerous studies with Blacks and its validity with Blacks

is evidently as good as with Whites" personall communication,

1978). The TSCS also discriminates well with people of

other countries, races, and cultures.

Twenty-nine scales compose the TSCS. Of these, 22

assess some element of the self-concept. A description of

each self-concept component scale is listed below.









Self-Criticism Score (SC). This score is a measure of overt

defensiveness. It is derived from 10 items taken from the

MMPI L-scale. These are mildly derogatory statements that

most people admit are true for them.


Total P Score (P). This score reflects the overall level of

self-esteem. High scores indicate feelings of self-worth

and value, self-confidence, and positive self-appraisal of

one's own behavior. Low scores reflect self-doubt, anxiety,

depression, unhappiness, and little self-confidence.


Row 1--Identity. This scale reports how one's own basic

identity is described. The identity self is probably the

most basic aspect of the self-concept. This is similar to

the cognitive component of the self concept.


Row 2--Self Satisfaction. This scale measures how the

individual feels about the self that is perceived. This is

similar to the affective component of the self-concept.


Row 3--Behavior. This scale measures how the individual

evaluates the behaviors and actions that are perceived in

one's self. This is similar to the behavioral component of

the self-concept.


Column A--Physical Self. This scale measures the individual's

self-perception of health, sexuality, skills, physical

appearance, and body image.









Column 3--Moral-Ethical Self. This scale measures the self

from a moral and ethical framework. Moral worth, feelings

of "good" and "bad," relationships to and with God, and

satisfaction with one's religion are measured.


Column C--Personal Self. This scale describes the individ-

ual's sense of personal worth, feelings of adequacy as a

person, and the evaluation of the individual's personality

apart from body image and interpersonal relations with

others.


Column D--Family Self. This scale reflects one's feelings

of adequacy, worth and value as a member with the primary

group (family and close friends). It refers to the individ-

ual's perception of self in reference to closest and most

immediate circles of associates.


Column E--Social Self. This scale describes the self as

perceived in relationships with others. It reflects the

individual's sense of adequacy and worth in social interac-

tions with other people in general.


Variability--(V). This scale measures the amount of incon-

sistency from one area of self-perception to another. An

elevated scale reflects a high degree of inconsistency which

may indicate little unity or integration.









Distribution--(D). This scale summarizes the response

patterns the individual chooses in evaluation of self. It

is also interpreted as a measure of self-perception; an

elevated scale indicates that the individual is definite and

certain in what is stated in regards to self, whereas a low

score indicates uncertainty in self-evaluation or over

defensiveness.


True-False Ratio (T/F). This scale measures response set or

response bias, an indication of whether the individual's

approach to the task involves any strong tendency to agree

or disagree regardless of item content.


Net Conflict Score. This score is similar to the T/F ratio

scale but more directly measures the extent to which an

individual's responses to positive items differ from, or

conflict with, responses to negative items in the sane area

of self-perception. This scale can be used to discriminate

aquiescense and denial.


Total Conflict. This scale evaluates confusion, contradic-

tion, and general conflict in self-perception. This scale

differs from the V scale in that it measures inconsistency

between positive and negative items within each specific

self-concept component cell, and not between self-concept

component cells.









Defensive Posture Scale (DP). This empirical scale is a

more subtle measure of defensiveness than the SC scale. An

elevated scale indicates a positive self description stemming

from defensive distortion; a depressed scale indicates lack

of the usual defenses for maintaining even minimal self-

esteem.


General Maladjustment Scale (GM). This empirical scale

measures adjustment-maladjustment. It discriminates psychi-

atric patients from non-patients but does not diagnose the

nature of pathology.


Psychosis Scale (Psy). This empirical scale best differen-

tiates psychotic patients from other groups.


Personality Disorder Scale (PD). This empirical scale

differentiates people with basic personality defects and

weaknesses in contrast to psychotic states or the various

neurotic reactions.


Neurotic Scale (N). This empirical scale differentiates

people with neurotic reactions from those in psychotic

states or those with basic personality defects and weaknesses.


Personality Integration Scale (FI). This empirical scale

differentiates individuals with average or better levels of

adjustment and personality integration from others.









Number of Deviant Signs Score (NDS). This empirical scale

is the best index of psychological disturbance. Disturbed

persons often obtain extreme scores on either end of the

continuum (Fitts, 1965, pp. 2-5; Thompson, 1972, p. 23).


Summary of Literature Review

From the preceding literature review, it is noted that

the narcotic addict presents a self-concept profile which is

quite different than that presented by a normal population.

The male addict also presents a different profile than the

female addict; the black narcotic addict presents a different

self-concept profile than the female addict; the black

narcotic addict presents a different self-concept profile

than the white addict.

Self-concept theorists hypothesize, and self-concept

researchers substantiate that a direct relaticnship exists

between self-concept and manifested behaviors. Individuals

who perceive themselves unrealistically or perceive them-

selves as deviant will act and react to people and events in

their lives in unrealistic and deviant ways.

The self-concept is the key in understanding the behav-

iors of the narcotic addict, and it is the major indicator

of methods of rehabilitative treatment needed to assist this

individual in making necessary behavioral changes.













CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY


The purpose of this research was to investigate and

describe the relationships which exist between the self-

concept and illicit narcotic use among narcotic addicts in

chemotherapeutic treatment. As previously stated (Chapter

II) the narcotic addict has been shown to present a distinct

and unique profile of self-concept which differs from the

self-concept of the normal population. It has been stated

that a dynamic relationship exists between the self-concept

and certain manifested behaviors.

In this chapter, the methodological and procedural

elements of this research are presented. The areas include:

(1) population and sample, (2) research design, (3) research

instruments, (4) research hypotheses. (5) research procedures,

and (6) data analysis.


Population and Sample

The sample for this research consisted of the total

population of narcotic addicts maintained on methadone at

the research site, except those who met the criteria for

exclusion: (1) addicts who had been in chemotherapeutic

treatment for less than six weeks, and (2) addicts who were









undergoing methadone detoxification. These individuals were

not included in the research because they may not have been

physiologically stabilized on a methadone dosage.

The research site was Operation PAR Comprehensive Drug

Treatment Program, r.ethadone maintence modality, in St.

Petersburg, Florida. Operation PAR is a state and federally

licensed multimcdality program which operates through funding

provided by federal grants, state allocations, and local

community match monies. In addition to a methadone maintenance

and methadone detoxification program, Operation PAR incorpo-

rates a therapeutic community, a day treatment program, a

polydrug outpatient clinic, and an outreach drug education

program. Prior research, although unpublished at this time,

has been compiled at this site, and the program administra-

tion encouraged this research study.

In this research, 53 subjects participated, representing

four distinct groups:

(1) White male narcotic addicts (n=25)

(2) Black male narcotic addicts (n=8)

(3) White female narcotic addicts (n=14)

(4) Black female narcotic addicts (n=6)

Data on age, sex, race, and the number of prior treat-

ment episodes were recorded for all research subjects and

compared rc federal CODAP records to determine the general-

izability of the sample. The subjects were similar along









the parameters of age, sex, and number of prior treatment

episodes, but differed significantly along the parameter of

race, in which case the sample was overrepresenzative with

white subjects (Appendix A, Table 3). MMPI-MacAndrew Scale

scores were obtained to determine if the sample was similar

in personality to typical narcotic addicts. The MacAndrew

Scale is a statistically derived measure of addictive prone-

ness based on a deliniated personality configuration of the

MMPI which is common to narcotic addicts. The sample in

this research was found to have a mean MacAndrew Scale score

of 28, which indicates a high level of addiction proneness

and a significant similarity in personality type to the

typical narcotic addict. Therefore, the sample was represen-

tative of typical narcotic addicts.

For this study, subjects were not informed of the exact

nature of the research because factors such as social desira-

bility might have effected self-reported scores (Drude,

1973). All subjects were given a consent for research form

prior to participation and were verbally informed that

participation was strictly voluntary. A five dollar incentive

was offered to each participating individual.


Research Design

The independent variables in this research were the

self-conceot component scores of the TSCS, Clinical and

Research Form. A description of each of the self-concept









components has been presented in the previous chapter. The

dependent variable was illicit narcotic use, as measured by

positive opiate and/or positive synthetic opiate urinalysis

reports from samples collected from the research subjects.

The research design is presented below in graphic form.


t t t t t X t t t t t

Weeks: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


In this design, X represents the administration of the TSCS

to the research subjects. The t represents the testing for

illicit narcotic use by means of urinalysis. Each subject

was required to submit to one urine collection for urinalysis

each week during the ten week research period. The samples

were collected by the medical staff at the research site on

a random basis; the subjects did not know in advance when

the samples were to be collected.


Research Instruments

Twenty-two selected self-concept component scales of

the TSCS were employed as independent variables. They are:

(1) Self Criticism, (2) Total F, (3) Row 1--Identity, (4) Row

2--Self Satisfaction, (5) Row 3--Behavior, (6) Column A--

Physical Self, (7) Column B--Moral-Ethical Self, (8) Column

C--Personal Self, (9) Column D--Family Self, (10) Column E--

Social Self, (11) Variability, (12) Distribution, (13) True-

False ratio, (14) Net Conflict, (15) Total Conflict:









(16) Defensive Posture, (17) General Maladjustment,

(18) Psychosis, (19) Personality Disorder, (20) Neurotic,

(21) Personality Integration, and (20) Number of Deviant

Signs.

The method of measuring illicit narcotic use was posi-

tive opiate or positive synthetic opiate reports derived

from laboratory analysis of urine samples collected from all

research subjects. The two methods of urinalysis were thin

layer chromotography (TLC) and EMIT (a TLC semi-quantitative

analysis). Both measures have reported validity coefficents

of .98. The testing was done at Smith-Kline laboratories

in Tampa, Florida, and at Bayfront Medical Center, St. Peters-

burg, Florida.


Research Hpootheses

The following research hypotheses were tested in this

research.


Hypothesis 1. There are no relationships among self-concept

components and illicit narcotic use among narcotic addicts.


Hypothesis 2. There is no racial effect in the relationships

among self-concept components and illicit narcotic use among

narcotic addicts.


Hvoothesis 3. There is no sex difference in the relation-

ships among self-concept components and illicit narcotic use

among narcotic ad.dicts.









Research Procedures

Cooperation of the research site was secured. From

program census records of narcotic addicts in chemothera-

peutic treatment at the research site, subjects were selected.

All subjects involved in treatment were used, excluding

those enrolled in methadone detoxification or those who had

been in methadone maintenance treatment for less than six

weeks. Those subjects who met the criteria for research

were notified of the time and date for group administration

of the TSCS.

The administration of the TSCS, Clinical and Research

Form, was conducted at the research site, with groups of

five to ten subjects. The subjects were presented a consent

for research form, a demographic information form (Appendix

B), a TSCS answer sheet and a TSCS test booklet. Subject

participation in this research was voluntary. A five dollar

incentive was offered to all voluntary subjects. The TSCS

was administered and scored by the researcher, and the 22

self-concept component scales were recorded.

Five weeks after the administration of the TSCS, weekly

urinalysis reports dating from 10 weeks prior were obtained

from client records maintained by the medical staff of the

research site. The reports were screened to extract all

those urinalysis results which reflected a positive opiate

and/or a positive synthetic opiate sample. The 22 selected









self-concept component scores were then compared to the

positive urinalysis results to test the hypotheses.


Data Analysis

The methods of data analysis used for hypotheses testing

were the Pearson product-moment correlation and the multiple

regression equation procedure labeled the all possible

subset regression. These statistical procedures are described

below in detail.

The Pearson product-moment correlation measures the

degree of rt\itionship between two variables. In this

research, Pearson correlation was computed between the one

dependent' V6riable, illicit narcotic use as measured by

random ur'.alysis, and each of the 22 independent variables,

the 22 selected self-concept components. The numerical

coeffic,:.t computed determined the degree of the relation-

ships between each set of dependent-independent variables.

Further computations determined the interactional effects of

race and sex.

The multiple regression equation involves the correla-

tion between a dependent variable and a combination of two

or more independent variables, the latter being optimally

weighted as to predict the dependent variable. In this

research, the 22 selected independent variables correlated

highly with each other, presenting the statistical condition

of multicollinearity. To adjust for this condition, the all





45


possible subset regression was used (Frane, 1977). This

procedure provides a multiple regression by analyzing all

possible sets of independent variables correlated with the

dependent variable to extract the independent variables

which, when weighted, best predict the dependent variable.

A set of selected self-concept components was extracted,

and weighted, to serve as predictors of illicit narcotic use

among narcotic addicts in chemotherapeutic treatment.













CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS


This research examined and described the relationships

among 22 selected self-concept components of the TSCS and

illicit narcotic use among addicts in chemotherapeutic

treatment, and evaluated the interactional effects of race

and sex. The subjects were selected frcm Operation PAR

Comprehensive Drug Treatment Program, methadone maintenance

modality, in St. Petersburg, Florida. The sample consisted

of males, females, blacks and whites. In this chapter, the

research data are presented to substantiate the acceptance

or the rejection of the research hypotheses.


Hypotheses Testing

Hvyothesis 1. There are no relationships among self-

concept components and illicit narcotic use among narcotic

addicts.

A Pearson product-noment correlation was computed

between the dependent variable, illicit narcotic use, and

each of the 22 independent variables, the 22 selected self-

concept component scales of the TSCS. The results, presented

in Table 1 indicate that significant relationships exist

between three of the self-concept component scales and the









Table 1. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficents
between urinalysis results and 22 selected self-
concept components.


Self-concept Components Correlation Coefficents


Self-Criticism .096

Total P .049

Row 1--Identity -.025

Row 2--Self Satisfaction .112

Row 3--Behavior .024

Column A--Physical Self -.034

Column B--Moral-Ethical Self -.004

Column C--Personal Self .221

Column D--Family Self <.000

Column E--Social Self .192

Variability (V) -.082

Distribution (D) .067

True-False Ratio (T/F) -.004

Net Conflict -.059

Total Conflict .098

Defensive Posture (DP) .019

General Maladjustment (GM) .086

Psychosis (Psy) -.089

Personality Disorder (PD) .032

Neurotic (N) -.117

Personality Integration .142

Number of Deviant Signs -.008









urinalysis results of the research subjects. These indepen-

dent variables are Column C--Personal Self, Column E--Social

Self, and the Neurotic (N) scale.

High correlation coefficents existed among the 22

independent variables in this study; hence, the all possible

subset regression format of the multiple regression equation

was used. This statistical method of data analysis is

warranted in such conditions of multicollinearity (Frane,

1977).

The all possible subset regression procedure groups

independent variables into subsets which are predictive of

the dependent variable. In this research, 376 regressions

were computed in the process of isolating the subset which

best predicted illicit narcotic use among narcotic addicts

in chemotheraceutic treatment. The selected subset consisted

of six self-concept components, which when treated as a

whole, can predict the probability of illicit narcotic use.

Table 2 lists these variables and, based on a two-tailed

test, provides the significance of each variable if analyzed

individually within the set.

A regression equation was derived from data by numer-

ically weighting the six selected independent variables.

This formula predicts the probability of illicit narcotic

use based on the self-reported scores of six selected self-

concept components of the TSCS. The regression equation is

presented below.










Table 2. Self-concept components which are predictive of
illicit narcotic use among addicts in chemothera-
peutic treatment (from the all possible subset
regression equation).


Self-concept Regression T-Test 2-Tail Test of
Ccmponent Coefficent Statistic Significance (p)


Total Conflict .283 1.52 .137

Column B--
Moral-Ethical
Self -.423 -1.28 .208

Column C--
Personal Self .125 2.80 .007

Column E--
Social Self .842 2.08 .043

Variability (V) -.195 -1.11 .275

Neurotic (N) -.939 -3.01 .004









U/A = -2.36 + (.028) (Total Conflict) + (-.042) (Column B)

+ (.126) (Column C) + (.084) (Column E) + (-.019) (V)

+ (-.09s) (N)


The relationship between the selected subset and urinal-

ysis results was shown to be significant at an acceptable

level F (t,46) = 2.93, p<.02.

A squared multiple correlation coefficent was computed

by correlating the set of six variables as a whole with the

urinalysis results data. The coefficent of .276 indicated

the variance in urinalysis accounted for by the set of six

variables, that is, of all the factors that contribute to

illicit narcotics use, the six selected self-concept compo-

nents of the TSCS account for approximately 28% of the

total.

The data indicate that a relationship does exist among

selected self-concept components and illicit narcotic use

among narcotic addicts. Although few independent variables

correlated at a significant level with urinalysis results in

the simple Pearson product-moment correlation, the relation-

ships between the selected set of independent variables and

urinalysis result scores were significant at the .02 level.

Therefore, the research results dictate rejection of the

null hypothesis.









Hypothesis 2. There is no racial effect in the rela-

tionships among self-concept components and illicit narcotic

use among narcotic addicts.

A Pearson product-moment correlation was computed

between each of the 22 selected self-concept components of

the TSCS, the independent variables, and the urinalysis

results scores, the dependent variable, by race. The result-

ing coefficents of 14 black subjects and 39 white subjects

were compared to note any difference in relationships due to

the interactional effect of race. From the statistical

tests utilized in the testing of hypothesis one, the analysis

of interactional effects was computed using the variables

selected only from the set of best prediction. Table 3

lists the six selected self-concept components and the

correlation coefficents between each component and urinalysis

results for both blacks and whites. Several differences

were noted between correlation coefficents on each variable

according to the race of the research subject.

In examining the relationships, as represented by

correlation coefficents, between the six self-concept compo-

nents and illicit narcotic use, the black subjects presented

higher correlations than whites in five of the six variables:

Total Conflict, Moral-Ethical Self, Personal Self, Variabil-

ity, and Neurotic. The white subjects presented stranger

relationships between Social Self scores and illicit narcotic









Table 3. Pearson product-moment correlation
between urinalysis results and six
concept components, by race.


coefficents
selected self-


White Subjects


Black Subjects


Total Conflict

Column B--
Moral-Ethical Self

Column C--
Personal Self

Column E--
Social Self

Variability (V)


Neurotic (N)


-.196


.138


.089


.247


.256

.044

.021


-.092

-.490

-.111


~









use. Race difference does appear to have an interactional

effect on the relationships among selected self-concept

components and illicit narcotic use among narcotic addicts;

hence, the research results dictate rejection of null hypoth-

esis two.


Hypothesis 3. There is no sex difference in the rela-

tionships among self-concept components and illicit narcotic

use among narcotic addicts.

Pearson Droduct-moment correlations were computed

between the self-concept components and the urinalysis

scores, for 33 male and 20 female research subjects in the

sample. Comparisons between the ccefficents for the differ-

ent sexes was done to ascertain if differences in the degree

of relationships between the independent variables and the

dependent variable existed. Table 4 presents the six selected

self-concept components used, and the correlation coefficents

between the six variables and the urinalysis results scores.

Sex difference of the research subjects did effect the

relationships between the variables.

The correlation coefficents between illicit narcotic

use and scores on the scales Personal Self and Social Self

were higher for male subjects than for female subjects.

Correlation coefficents between illicit narcotic use and

Total Conflict, Moral-Ethical Self, Variability, and Neurotic

scales on the TSCS were higher for female subjects. The sex










Table 4. Pearson product-moment correlation
between urinalysis results and six
self-concept components, by sex.


Males


coefficents
selected


Females


Total Conflict .029 .153

Column B--
Moral-Ethical Self .021 .033

Column C--Personal Self .227 .220

Column E--Social Self .254 .090

Variability (V) .084 -.461

Neurotic (N) .012 -.101


____









of the research subject did have an interactional effect on

the relationships among selected self-concept components and

illicit narcotic use, as measured by urinalysis scores. The

research results dictate rejection of null hypothesis three.


Interpretation

Before addressing the interpretation of the research

findings, a limitation of the research warrants attention.

The size of the sample was limited due to the availability

of research subjects, narcotic addicts in chemotherapeutic

treatment. Although relationships between self-concept and

the selected manifested behavior, illicit narcotic use, were

evident in the findings and interactional effects of race

and sex were noted, the extent of these relationships could

be further substantiated with a larger sample. Noting this

limitation, an interpretation on the research findings

follow.

Findings of this research indicate that significant

relationships exist between components of self-concept cn

the TSCS and illicit narcotic use among addicts in chemother-

apeutic treatment. The component areas which relate highest

to drug use are personal and social self-perception compo-

nents, personality integration components (V), and measures

of general contradiction or confusion. These self-concept

components were numerically weighted and incorporated into a

regression equation which can determine the probability of









an addict continuing narcotic use while in chemotherapeutic

treatment. In past chapters, it was noted that the self-

concept of narcotic addicts is dissimilar to that of a

normal population and can be used to differentiate between a

narcotic user and a drug abstainer. This research further

indicates that the self-concept can be used to differentiate

between addicts who will abstain from illicit narcotics

while in treatment and those who will continue to abuse

illicit narcotics. It should be restated that this study

was correlational and hence, addressed no causality. Rela-

tionships are noted between several self-concept component

areas and illicit narcotic use, but, the cause of the rela-

tionships cannot be ascertained.

Interpretation of the interactional effects of race and

sex on the relationships among self-concept and illicit

narcotic use must be done cautiously, due tc the sample

size. The self-concept components of blacks which related

highest to illicit narcotic use were Total Conflict, Varia-

bility, and Personal Self. These are measures of confusion,

contradiction, general conflict in self-perception, person-

ality integration, and self-evaluation of adequacy as a

person. The self-concept components which related highest

for white subjects were Personal Self and Social Self,

measure of adequacy in interactional activities and the

evaluation of personal adequacies. Generally, findings tend





57


to indicate that intrapersonal self-concept components

related high for blacks, and both intrapersonal and interper-

sonal self-concept components related high for white subjects.

In the analysis of the interactional effects of sex on

the relationships among self-concept components and illicit

narcotic use, highest relationships existed for females in

the areas of Total Conflict, Personal Self, and Variability.

These are intrapersonal components. Personal Self and

Social Self related highest for males, areas both inter- and

intrapersonal.













CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Summary

This study investigated the relationships between self-

concept and illicit narcotic use among addicts in chemother-

apeutic treatment, and described the interactional effects

of race and sex. The volunteer research sample consisted of

53 narcotic addicts maintained on methadone at Operation PAR

Comprehensive Drug Treatment Program, in St. Petersburg,

Florida. Research subjects were compared demographically to

federal Client Oriented Eata Acquisition Program records along

the parameters of race, sex, age, and number of prior treat-

ment episodes. The MMPI-MacAndrew Scale score was also

obtained for all research subjects. The sample proved tc be

representative along all parameters, excluding race, in

which case there was an overrepresentation of white addicts.

Twenty-two selected components cf the Tennessee Self

Concept Scale, Clinical and Research Form, were used as the

measure of self-concept. Illicit narcotic use was measured

by means of positive opiate and/cr positive synthetic opiate

urinalysis results from samples collected randomly during

the ten week data collection period. Correlations were

ccmputed between the 22 selected self-concept component









scores and urinalysis results using the Pearson product-

moment correlation, and a multiple regression was computed

using the all possible subset regression equation. Three

self concept variables correlated at a significant level

with illicit narcotic use: the Personal Self scale, the

Social Self scale, and the Neurotic (N) scale. The subset

regression yielded six variables (Total Conflict, Moral-

Ethical Self, Personal Self, Social Self, Variability,

Neurotic) which, when numerically weighted, predicted illicit

narcotic use at a significant level (D<.02). The six compo-

nents selected in the set accounted for 28% of the variance

in positive narcotic urinalysis results. Pearson correla-

tions were computed to determine any interactional effects

of race or sex on the relationships between self concept and

illicit narcotic use. Interactional effects were noted in

six self-concept component areas.

One limitation was noted in this research. The sample

size of 53 allowed for hypotheses testing, but constricted

the interpretations of the data. A larger sample may have

provided data which could be interpreted with more strength.


Conclusions

In the past ten years, narcotic addiction has increased

in the United States at an alarming rate. Although treatment

programs have been initiated at local, state, and federal

levels, there is sufficient information which indicates that









these programs are less than optimally effective. The

chemotherapeutic, or methadone maintenance and detoxification,

program provides rehabilitative services to the majority of

narcotic addicts who are in drug abuse treatment, but,

client retention has been a significant problem. The addict

in treatment frequently continues to use illicit narcotics,

and eventually is discharged from treatment by the program

staff, or leaves treatment voluntarily. In both cases, the

addict forfeits the possibility of rehabilitative therapy

and maintains instead the narcotic habit and the deviant

lifestyle "on the streets."

An understanding of the narcotic addict who continues

to abuse drugs while in treatment is essential if client

retention in rehabilitation is to be realized. This study

examined the relationships between illicit narcotic use and

self-concept, the set of feelings and cognitions one has

toward self. As stated in previous chapters, past research

has indicated that there is a relationship between self-

concept and manifested behaviors. This hypothesized rela-

tionship is also founded in the framework of self-concept

theory.

From the data obtained and analyzed in this study, the

following conclusions were derived.

1) There is a relationship between 22 selected self-

concept components of Tennessee Self Concept









scale and illicit narcotic use among addicts in

chemotherapeutic treatment.

2) Three selected self-concept components of the

Tennessee Self Concept Scale correlate at a signif-

icant level with illicit narcotic use among specif-

ic addicts in chemotherapeutic treatment.

3) There is an interactional effect of race on the

relationships between selected self-concept compo-

nents of the Tennessee Self Concept Scale and

illicit narcotic use among addicts in chemothera-

peutic treatment. The relationship for black

subjects tended to be most strong among self-

concept variables which measure intrapersonal

dynamics.

4) There is a demonstrated interactional effect of

sex on the relationships between selected self-

concept components of the Tennessee Self Concept

Scale and illicit narcotic use among addicts in

chemotherapeutic treatment. The relationship for

female subjects seem to be most strong among self-

concept variables which measure intrapersonal

dynamics.

5) When used in a selected set, and numerically

weighted, the self-concept components of the

Tennessee Self Concept Scale can be an effective









predictor of illicit narcotic use among addicts in

chemotherapeutic treatment.


Recommendations

In this section, suggestions for implementing the

research findings are presented. These augmentations to

current procedures used at the drug treatment programs may

assist the program staff in their efforts to provide more

effective services to the narcotic addict in therapy. The

findings of this study are applicable to various areas of

the drug treatment program: (1) central intake units,

(2) treatment plan development, (3) evaluation of counselor

effectiveness, (4) documentation and accountability, and,

(5) further substance abuse research.

At the central intake unit of a comprehensive drug

treatment program, the intake counselor must determine what

modality of service is best suited for the narcotic addict

who is seeking treatment. The decision must be made between

the therapeutic community, the methadone maintenance program,

the methadone detoxification program, or the outpatient

counseling program. The results of this research provide

new information on which the intake counselor can make a

judgement. All new applicants can complete the TSCS. From

test results the counselor can apply the predictive formula

derived from this research to determine the likelihood of

the new applicant using illicit narcotics while in treatment.









If it appears that the addict has a tendency to continue

illicit narcotics, alternative modalities such as the thera-

peutic community may be suggested. If the addict presents a

self-concept scale which indicates little probability of

continued narcotic use, the intake counselor may suggest

methadone detoxification or low dose methadone maintenance.

More appropriate referrals can be made and more applicable

services may be offered the addict seeking treatment.

One of the most crucial elements in any rehabilitation

attempt is the development and implementation of the client

treatment plan. Again, the research findings can assist the

drug treatment counselor. The research findings indicate

that the TSCS provides data which convey the relationships

between the addict's personality and continued illicit

narcotic abuse. If TSCS scores were obtained for all addicts

in chemotherapeutic treatment, the primary counselors could

use the results to determine the weak areas of the addict's

self-concept. Specialized treatment plans based on self-

concept building exercizes in the specific weak areas could

be implemented as part of the addict's treatment. Should

the addict be weak in intrapersonal areas, a specific format

of individual counseling may be needed; should the addict be

weak in interpersonal skills and component areas, group

counseling may prove effective, in that it enhances social

interactional abilities. The TSCS is also an especially









good assessment instrument in that it is appropriate for

both diagnosis and treatment. The test results can be used

as a basis for psychological and psychosocial evaluations,

which are required by law for all addicts who are in treat-

ment. The results can also be discussed with the addict, in

that the subscales on most of the TSCS are easily explained

and understood. Abnormal psychopathology, emphasized in

many personality assessment instruments, is not stressed in

the TSCS; hence, discussion of the test results should be

much less threatening to the addict in treatment.

Counselor effectiveness and counselor accountability is

a frequently discussed issue. The results of this study can

be applied to this area. Using the TSCS as an evaluation

method when the addict enters treatment, the program staff

can determine weak areas in self-concept and develop

appropriate treatment plans. Retesting could be done period-

ically, and test scores compared. This could provide an

index of counselor effectiveness in changing the behaviors

determined modifiable in the initial assessment. The post

test can also be used to evaluate any changes in the addict's

tendency to continue illicit narcotic use while in

chemotherapy.

The research findings are applicable to program documen-

tation. Again, using protests and post tests of the TSCS,

the staff can document client change during treatment. The

regression equation can be computed, and empirical









documentation will then be available as to the amount of

change in the probability of the addict continuing to use

illicit narcotics. Such data are invaluable to funding

agencies who need documentation of program effectiveness to

justify allocations of monies. Judicial agencies, such as

the probation and parole commission, need to be certain that

drug treatment programs are viable rehabilatative services

for their clients. The documentation suggested above will

assist them in referral work, and in assessing individual

client progress while in therapy.

The findings of this study suggest new directions in

drug treatment research. It is recommended that the TSCS

regression equation be used in a study to validate its

effectiveness in predicting illicit narcotic use among

addicts in chemotherapeutic treatment. Secondly, it is

recommended that this study be replicated using a larger

sample size so that the interactional effects of race and

sex can better be ascertained. Finally, it is suggested

that this study be replicated with a sample composed of

narcotic addicts, poly-drug users, and drug abstainers, of

different ages, sexes, and races, to develop a predictive

formula of drug abuse proneness. Such a scale derived from

the TSCS would be applicable for counselors who work in the

area of drug prevention and early intervention and would be

useful for drug education specialists who work within the

educational setting.



































APPENDICES













APPENDIX A
DEMOGRAPHIC COMPARISONS


Table 1
Comparison of sample to National Institute on Drug Abuse
Statistical Series, CODAP 1977, Annual Data on addicts in
methadone maintenance treatment, by sex (in column percentage)


Sample CODAP

Males 63 62

Females 37 38

Total 100 100





Table 2
Comparison of sample to National Institute on Drug Abuse
Statistical Series, CODAP 1977, Annual Data on addicts in
methadone maintenance treatment, by age (in column percentage)


Sample CODAP

Under 18 0 2

18-20 6 13

21-25 20 25

26-30 52 30

Over 30 22 30

Total 100 100









Table 3
Comparison of sample to National Institute on Drug Abuse
Statistical Series, CODAP 1977, Annual Data on addicts in
methadone maintenance treatment, by race
(in column percentage)


Sample CODAP

Black 25 56

White 75 33

Hispanic 0 10

Other 0 1

Total 100 100


Table 4
Comparison of sample to National Institute on Drug Abuse
Statistical Series, CODAP 1977, Annual Data on addicts in
methadone maintenance treatment, by number of prior
treatment episodes (in column percentage)


Sample CODAP

None 11 23

1 prior 18 32

2 prior 25 22

3 or more 46 23

Total 100 100














APPENDIX B
DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION STORM




Identifying Number
(for coding only)


Age

Are you: Black
White
Other


Are you: Male
Female


(Check one, please)



(Check one, please)


How many years have you been addicted to narcotics?


less than 1 year
1 to 2 years
2 to 3 years
3 to 4 years
4 to 5 years
5 or more years


How many different times have
drug addition?

This is first time
two times
three times
four times
five times
more than five times


(Check one, please)




you received treatment for your





(Check one, please)











69













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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


George J. Medzerian Jr. was born on January 14, 1949,

in Springfield, Massachusetts. Upon discharge from the

United States Navy, he returned to Erie, Pennsylvania, and

received the Bachelor of Arts degree from Gannon College in

1973. For the next three years, he was employed as a psycho-

logical counselor with community agencies and worked with

narcotic addicts, poly-drug abusers, and alcoholics.

He attended the University of South Florida and was

awarded the Master of Arts degree in social and behavioral

sciences, rehabilitation counseling, in 1976. In January,

1977, he began course work for the Doctor of Philosophy

degree through the department of Counselor Education, College

of Education, University of Florida. His subspecialization

is substance abuse counseling in the community agency area.









certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.




Gary Seile Charian
Assistant ofesso of Counselor
Education


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.




R. C. Stripling
Professor of Counselor Education


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.




Robert Ziller
Professor of Psychology


This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty
of the Department of Counselor Education in the College
of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was
accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

December 1979


Dean, Graduate School




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