Group Title: acoustical/temporal analysis of emotional stress in speech
Title: An Acoustical/temporal analysis of emotional stress in speech
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 Material Information
Title: An Acoustical/temporal analysis of emotional stress in speech
Physical Description: xx, 160 leaves : graphs ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hicks, James Woodrow, 1950- ( Dissertant )
Hollien, Harry ( Thesis advisor )
Rothman, Howard B. ( Reviewer )
Brown, William S. ( Reviewer )
Paige, Arnold ( Reviewer )
Gerhardt, Kenneth ( Reviewer )
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1979
Copyright Date: 1979
Subjects / Keywords: Stress (Psychology)   ( lcsh )
Speech   ( lcsh )
Speech thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Speech -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Abstract: The external manifestation of emotions has been of interest to researchers for many years. For example, as early as 1872 Charles Darwin discussed the use of facial and body movements as indicators of emotion in his book The expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals . However, Darwin's text is only descriptive in nature. Subsequently, various physiological measures have been correlated to emotional states; among these measures have been (1) heart rate, (2) galvanic skin response (GSR), (3) electroencephalogram (EEG) , (4) respiration and (5) blood pressure. However, more recently scientists have investigated speech parameters as possible indicators of the emotional state of the speaker. There are many instances in which knowledge about the emotional state of an individual would be desirable. It also would be advantageous to obtain this information without any direct, physical contact with the individual—as is currently required with the above mentioned physiological measures. A research thrust aimed at determining the acoustical/temporal speech parameters correlated to emotional stress should be useful to the area of speech communications. Most of the previous investigations have been limited in scope. For instance, many have analyzed only one parameter—primarily fundamental frequency (f ) —and/or had very small subject populations . The thrust of the current study focuses on an acoustical/ temporal analysis of the effects of stress on speech. Included in the study were both laboratory induced stress and a "real" situational stress. The laboratory stress was induced via an electrical shock as the stressor. The situational stress- environment consisted of a university level public speaking course in which the students were recorded while delivering speeches to an audience of their peers Included in the analysis were several characteristics within the intensity, fundamental frequency and temporal domains. The following parameters were analyzed within the intensity domain: (1) maximum, (2) mean and (3) mode of the intensity distribution. The mean and distribution of speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) were analyzed within the frequency domain. The temporal parameters included: (1) speech/pause ratio, (2) speech rate, (3) the time energy distribution, (4) the number of speech bursts, (5) the number of pauses, and (6) speech time/total time ratio. In addition, the number of disfluencies in each speech sample also was measured. A comparison was made between speech samples produced normally and under stress. The comparison was based on the acoustical/temporal parameters analyzed. The results of the data analysis indicate that measurable acoustical/temporal changes do occur in speech produced under stress as compared to normal, non-street speech. However, the magnitude of these changes seems to be a function of the type of stress. For the situational stress experiment, 68.8% of the parameters differed significantly between the normal and stress speaking conditions, whereas only 18.8% changed significantly in the laboratory stress experiment . It was found that for the laboratory stress paradigm all of the parameters increased for the stress speech, relative to normal. However, only the maximum intensity, time-energy distribution and the number of disfluencies increased significantly. That is, the stress induced by electro-shock did not alter the subjects' speech patterns to any great extent. However, significant differences were found to exist between the normal and stress speech samples in the situational stress experiment. Specifically, significant decreases were found for the intensity measures as well as the number of speech bursts and pauses. Conversely, the mean SFF and temporal parameters (except for speech rate) were found to increase significantly. Based on these findings, the general effects of stress on speech seem to: (1) decrease intensity, (2) increase SFF, (3) slightly decrease snpf>ch rat-.e. and (4) decrease? the number of speech bursts and pauses, resulting in longer speech bursts. However, the variability in these parameters also increased indicating that the observed changes may not be uniformly consistent for all individuals. Therefore, baseline (normal) data maybe required for. an individual before the presence of stress in that individual can be detected.
Statement of Responsibility: by James Woodrow Hicks, Jr.
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 154-158.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098636
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000097489
oclc - 06572942
notis - AAL2929


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