?AILE OF GO!ITE:UTS
Educational System in Austria ----- 3
Educational System in Egypt ------ 7
Education in Iraq ----- 9
Education in lorway ---- 12
Education in Poland ------ 15
Foreign Language Teaching in Romania ----17
Educational System in Spain ----- 18
Education in Switzerland ----- 21
Education in Thailand (Siam) 2----- 24
Education in the Union of South Africa ---- 26
IOTE; A Comprehensive Education Chart has been published titled
REVIEW: OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM' IN THE SOVIET UNION." Contents
are based on diplomatic sources. Price--50 cents each or 3 for
Today many American students are taking courses in foreign affairs. They are
constantly seeking new ways to interpret the way of life in other nations. Few of
them have taken courses in foreign education or in the way classes are conducted
in most of the United Nations or Allied States.
There is great need in the USA for an understanding of Education in many
nations especially in the Communist Countries and those nations whose leaders
practice dictatorial ways.
As one who has been a keen student of Latin America for many years I can see
the need for a comprehensive study of Foreign Educational Methods. For this reason$
the present volume is the first of four planned to give Americans an insight
into these different systems. The contents are based on primary or diplomatic
sources from the countries discussed in the various chapters.
It is the hope of the Editor that many more Professors of Education in the
USA will find time to discuss comparative systems of Education in their courses.
There is much to be learned from the Soviet Way of Education as there is from
the Spanish or Argentine Educational System. The American Way does not build
a better man than do any of the rest. Each strives to influence the minds of
youth. Each tries to influence the youth of the nation, In the final way
of life, the Educational System which teaches fair play and cooperation among
all peoples will win out. The national group which tells its youth of other
countries' internal affairs will have a better chance of survival in the world.
It may interest my readers to know that a Special Chart on Soviet Education
has been compiled by the author based on diplomatic sources. Price-50a.
Let us all know our neighbors.
Spoken by Ben F. CrowsonJr., Editor
Box 6188, Washington, D.C.
June 1, 1951 Price per copy-$1.,00.
THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN AUSTRIA
Austria's resurrection has confronted the Federal Department of Education with
the foremost task of familiarizing the Austrian youth and the rest of the population
with the democratic way of life by means of a long range educational program, part
of which in a negative sense, is the deletion of any vestiges of nazi ideology. The
necessary personnel measures were therefore carried out in every field stressing at
the same time spiritual renovation. Immediately after the liberation took place, the
curricula introduced by the nazis were rescinded in all schools and the Austrian
types of schools were re-installed. The newly issued directives on education and
tuition establish that appropriate education has to render the Austrian people con-
scious of the particular character of their nation and state and lead the way to
true democracy, humanitarian views and worldmindedness. It took great efforts to
substitute new Austrian textbooks for the banned nazi books, to purge teachers' and
students' libraries and to publish new youth books promoting the Austrian idea in a
manner adapted to youthful readers, Series of obligatory courses were held in each
province for the re-education of elementary and junior high school teachers (the term
of "junior high school" being used here to describe the Austrian type of "Hauptschule",
covering the higher grades of American elementary school and the junior grades of
American high school in the age group 10 to 14), The body of secondary school teach.
ers (Mittelschullehre) were organized in study groups and made familiar with the
new problems. Meeting of historians and germanists laid down the policy for framing
the ideological shape of youth. Similar educational courses were set up for teachers
at technical craft schools, commercial schools and vocational schools for women. In
all types of schools the wrong nazi principles of physical culture were abolished
and for all schools including those at college level a physical education has been
established which encompasses the entire human being, its body and its soul, in
recognition of the high value such a system has for promoting physical health and
building up a strong character. Another way of strengthening the worldmindedness of
youth apart from tuition, has been found in promoting oxchango of correspondence with
students abroad and in international meetings and camps. The Federal Department for
Education takes special care of youth 3 outside the school through a newly established
Youth Activity Section (Jugendreferat), An efficient control of youth literature is
exercised by granting printing permits only for good youth books; this is an effective
weapon against worthless literature. A big literary contest open for youthful par-
ticipants, brought good results. The refounded Association for Young People's
Lodges (Jugendherbergeverband) is concerned with the promotion of tramping among
The Federal Department for Education has established a long range education pro-
gram for all types of schools and educational efforts. In addition, the Federal De-
partment for Education furthers all endeavors aimed at making the Austrian people in-
creasingly conscious of their national cultural heritage. By ways of study groups,
reading circles and authors' recitals, the getting intimately acquainted with works
of the Austrian and world literatures is made possible. Musical education, too, is
being promoted by classes listening to music, by attending concerts and operas, and
by having the students themselves present musical works; interest in fine arts is
likewise being promoted.
Education toward world citizenship is being furthered not only by incorporating
cultural achievements of other nations into the curriculum, but also by fostering
participation of students in meetings and deliberations of the League for the United
Nations, and so forth.
The People's Universities movement (Volkshochschulbewegung) is above all in
full swing in Vienna (at present numbering 12 People's Universities totalling 16,000
participants), but the province capitals, too, have at least one well frequented
People's University. People's Universities and public libraries are being main-
tained by urban communities, associations, parishes, Chambers of Labor (Arbeiterkam-
mern), and firms (factory libraries). In addition all three political parties, the
Trade Unions Association (Gewerkschaftbund) and most of the Roman Catholic education-
al institutions affiliated with the Catholic Action, are very busy in the field of
education. A home called "Iathildenheim" established near the town of Leoben for
educational purposes serves mainly as a center for popular training courses design-
ed for all professions which have to deal with peasantry (teachers, physicians,
Judges, priests). In addition, there is the Styrian province-owned Home at St. Martin,
and an educational Home for peasant instruction with up-to-date equipment at Tolett
Castle near Grieskirchen, Upper Austria. The number of participants in individual
lectures held at the People's Universities and other popular educational institutions
is considerable; for instance, in July, 1946, it amounted to 375,400 for the whole
Universities and colleges had to suffer the most serious damages both materially
and spiritually during the war. Here are especially to be mentioned the great changes
in the body of teachers which were necessitated by political reasons, and the com-
pulsion to admit to school only such students as would in themselves be a guarantee
for a true Austrian spirit. Longwinded negotiations were often required to bring
back scholars of great distinction who had emigrated in 1938; wellknown scholars
already responded to the call, others will follow. In spite of all difficulties
and reverses the foundations are now laid which make it possible for the Austrian
scientific schools to thrive anew. The students of colleges and universities have
shown a high degree of comprehension and discipline in the preparation and carry-
ing through of elections of delegates to the Students' Representative Body,
Among the elementary schools, junior high schools (Hauptschulen), secondary
schools (Mittelsohulen) and teachers' colleges in Austria, 95 schools have been com-
pletely destroyed, 176 have been heavily damaged and over 1,000 less damaged. The
nutritional situation of the students could be kept from becoming a catastrophe
only by the help of the Allied Powers and other foreign countries, As to the
national-socialist school system, the elementary and secondary schools were re-
shaped by transitional measures in the spirit of the Austrian School Laws, follow-
ing on the lines of the Austrian School System of the First Republic. The Kinder-
garten and the four-grade elementary school lead on the one side to the four-grade
junior high school (Hauptschule) in the spirit of the Junior High School Law of 1928,
on the other side to the eight-grade secondary schools-gymnasium (iith emphasis on
humanities, Latin and Greek), Real Gymnasium (mixed type, featuring science, mo-
dern languages and Latin), Real Schule (with emphasis on science and modern languages)
and secondary schools for women--in the spirit of the Secondary School Law of 1928,
Thus it was possible to incorporate the greatly developed system of lower and higher
commercial schools, of technical craft schools, art-craft schools and of the spe-
cialized vocational schools for women (women craft schools and household schools)
which are now entirely under the administration of the Federal Department of Educa-
tion, as schools for Vocational Training together with the schools of General In-
struction mentioned above, into ONE School System. For the promotion of backward
students and students lacking one of the five senses, terminal classes, auxiliary
schools and special schools were reintegrated in this school system. On 3 September,
1945, "General Rules for Education and Tuition in Austrian Schools" were issued
which superseded national-socialism by the belief in the Austrian people and the
Austrian State, the leadership principle by the belief in the superiority of true
democracy, and the idea of brutal force by humanitarian principles, established as
a goal for Austrian education. On 18 October 1946, the curricula for elementary
schools, of 1930, with up-to-date amendments, were introduced in all secondary
schools and high schools were applied as a practical test to be in force until the
end of the scholastic year 1947-48. Because all the textbooks of the national-
socialist era had to be destroyed, it became necessary to take up immediately the
production of new textbooks. Upon order of the Educational Directorate of the
Allied Commission for Austria, a uniform textbook for all Austrian schools was
being worked on,
THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN EGYPT
The Egyptian Minister of Education is responsible to Parliament and his cabinet
for the activities of the Ministry of Education i, e. he submits his ministry's
budget, explains why money is needed, why it should be spent on one type of activity
rather than another or why it has not conformed to the last year's plan, if any,
Naturally, all activities, suggestions, changes or augmentations are done by the
experts of the ministry, and the minister's initiative in matters of general policy
would always depend on his talents and ambitions. Disciplinary action against the
senior staff, promotion and the appointment of candidates for posts ultimately fall
within his authority.
The minister is also the nominal head of the senates of the various Egyptian
universities, but his authority is naturally limited to the reconciliation of the
policy of his cabinet to the academic policy of the universities. In other words,
he does not interfere in curriculums, course planning or the promotion and appoint-
ment of staff, but he can be very useful in increasing the university governmental
subsidies. This implies that the universities have their own funds besides the
support of the state,
Egypt has a prevailing system of education as well as a number of secondary
ones. Since a consideration of the subsidiary systems, such as those of the Kuttab
and of experimental education would take us into details which the length of this
article does not justify, the writer thought it best to limit himself to explaining
the prevailing system.
At the age of seven, a child enters primary school (now free). The duration
of the primary school is four years, terminating in the Primary School Certificate.
The subjects studied are Arabic, a foreign language, pharaonic history, natural
history, religion, good citizenship, the elements of ethics, arithmetic, geography,
and drawing. There are also optional subjects such as music and the various hobbies.
For recreation there are games, drill, drama and tap dancing. The Primary School
Certificate allows a pupil to enter a.) a secondary school, b.) to join an inter-
mediate technical, agricultural or clerical college,
At about twelve years secondary education begins; this ends in the Secondary
School Certificate. Here we have specialization into three groups science, art
and mathematics. The subjects would naturally vary according to the group a pupil
selects. The total subjects from which he chooses are mathematics, higher and
lower (this includes algebra, geometry, trigonometry and mechanics), modern lang-
uages, Arabic, Latin, geography, history, economics, physiologyJ physics, chemistry,
natural science, logic--in short, all the subjects a secondary school pupil in
America or Europe would take; the standard is about the same as that of the General
Schools in England, except that no amount of distinctions in subjects would exempt
the pupil from matriculation. The literal translation of the name of this certifi-
cate is the Certificate of General Culture and it entitles a pupil to enter the
higher training schools outside the universities. These schools differ from the
university colleges in so far as they stress the practical rather than the theo-
retical and academic. Hence, for the purpose of working in a bank or on a farm or
in business, the higher training schools give better help.
To enter a university, an Egyptian boy or girl has to spend one more year at
school to get his or her Direction Certificate. This certificate is equal to the
London Matriculation or the Oxford and Cambridge examinations. It is also recog-
nized by these three universities as an exemption from their entrance examinations.
It is called Direction because the subjects taken (8) are entirely selected with a
view of going to a definite college. To enter the Faculty of Medicine, a student
must take physiology, biology, anatomy, botany, at least one European language, and
so on, It follows from this that such a student could not have taken art subjects
in his secondary school i. e. he must come from the scientific group. Those who
wish to enter the Faculty of Art spend their year studying their own language and
two others besides, geography, history (which includes European as well as Egyptian),
the Egyptian constitution, lower mathematics, logic; in short, any of the subjects
an English student takes if he is studying for an Arts degree. The difference is
that, whereas the English boy takes six subjects for his matriculation, the
Egyptian boy takes nine. On the other hand, the latter probably does not dig in as
The course in an Egyptian university is four years for all courses up to the
first degree except medicine, which is five years. For the mastership, the second
university degree in all courses is two more years, except medicine which is three
and for the doctorate one more year.
Post graduate courses in medicine, engineering and education are planned by
the universities, but that is outside the curriculum and they are all highly spec-
ialized. The Ministry of Education has over a thousand scholarships for university
and higher school graduates to spend between three and five years in Europe or
America. The successful applicants are known as mission members. Of these, there
are at present about three hundred in the U.S.A., doing either research work for
a doctorate, or practical rvork, mainly in the various kinds of engineering. In
Britain there are about five hundred and in the rest of Europe about two hundred.
The greater majority of the mission members are people who have already started
their career in Egypt and are given leave to do their research work abroad.
(This article was prepared from material furnished by M. M. Mosharrafa, Head
of the Cultural Department of the Egyptian Education Bureau, Washington, D. Cc)
EDUCATION IN IRAQ
One may say of the education in Iraq today that it is nationalist, democratic
and progressive. The aim is to make the students nation-conscious. The traditions
of Iraq as a center of Arab culture in the past are also emphasized. There is
equal opportunity for education for all the people in the country. Education recog-
nizes no class, race or denominational distinctions. Primary schooling is free and
the secondary education, universal. Iraq has added to the curriculum from western
education, physical hygiene and social preparation as well as industry and agri-
culture. However, this does not interfere with the study of literary and spiritual
heritage of the Arabs,
In the present system there are three stages. Six years of primary and five
years of secondary education are followed by higher training. As a basis for study-
ing the language, literature and history of their country, the children in the pri-
mary schools develop their capacity for observation and thinking. Primary education
is free and compulsory, although it has not yet been enforced everywhere,
In the past few years many state elementary schools have been opened, the
majority of which receive a State grant,
In the Primary Schools the following subjects are taught: religion, reading,
writing, arithmetic, history, geography, civics, object lessons (special emphasis
on health and agriculture), handwork and drawing, physical training and singing,
and English which is taught in the fifth and sixth years.
In the secondary stage of education the special aptitudes of the students are
encouraged. Also the pupils are preparing for higher education.
In addition to the Secondary Schools there are two Technical Schools for Boys,
a School of Home-Crafts for Girls, an Agricultural School, a School for Health
Officials, and a School for Nurses and Midwives.
The curriculum in the Intermediate Schools is as follows religion, Arabic,
English, Mathematics, biology, elementary physics and chemistry, hygiene, physical
training and drawing. In the second stage of the secondary education there is a
special course for girls dealing with child welfare. The program for boys is
divided into three branches, namely, scientific, literary and commercial.
There are no universities in Iraq, however the following colleges fulfill
many of the university's functions: The College of Engineering, The College of
Medicine, The College of Pharmacy, and The College of Law.
In the preparing of teachers for the schools of Iraq there are three levels,
the Intermediate, the Secondary and the High level. The Rural Training School for
Boys and the Elementary Training School for Girls, at the Intermediate Level, is a
five year course in teaching which prepares the teacher for primary subjects. The
students in these schools come mostly from the rural areas, small towns and villages.
Not only does the Rural Training School give ordinary academic and education instruc-
tion, but special emphasis on agriculture and hygiene. Special attention to domestic
science and child welfare is given in the Girls' Elementary Training School.
The Primary Training School, on the Secondary level, is for men. There is a
three year course in education offered after they have passed their intermediate
public examination. Among the subjects taught are physical education, handicrafts,
and hygiene. There is also a school for girls on this level offering a three year
course in education. The girls are admitted after passing their intermediate public
Students are admitted to the Higher Teachers' Training College for a five year
course after they have passed their secondary public examination. This college pre-
pares teachers for the intermediate and secondary schools of Iraq, The students
may specialize in Arabic literature, Chemistry and Biology, Mathematics and Physics,
Social Sciences or Education and Physchology.
The Ministry of Education is aiming for a primary education which is universal,
a secondary and technical education which answers the increasing educational and
technical needs of the country. To combat illiteracy tribal schools have been open-
ed, and books are distributed free to the poorer students. The schools are also a
means for improving the health of the nation* All students are given instruction
in the principles of health and hygiene. Free meals and medical attention are being
provided where necessary,
In 1939 the Iraq School of Fine Arts was established, where instruction in Paint-
ing, Sculpture and Drama are given. It incorporates the Institute of Music which
was opened by the Ministry of Education in 1937.
In the field of music a taste for western music is shown, along with their
own compositions. The Iraq Army sent an officer to London for musical education.
He reorganized the military band and in 1941 it was possible to create an Iraqi
SymphaV Orchestra. The concerts were given in the new Concert Hall which is dedi-
cated to King Faisal II,
There is also considerable advancement in modern art. In 1943 the Iraq Gov-
ernment opened its first gallery of modern art. In 1930 the Iraq Ministry of Educa-
tion sent students abroad to study the painting and sculpture of Europe, thus en-
abling her to bring her own art upt to modern times.
THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF NORWAY
The elementary school course which lasts seven years forms the basic school
training which all young people must undergo. The elementary schools in towns and
in the rural districts have been organized differently because of great distances
and variety in local conditions. In towns the classes are divided into 7 ascending
classes limited to 30 pupils each; while in the rural sections a system of atten-
dance on alternate days has been inaugurated. The children's daily work at home on
the intervening days is considered to mature character and spiritual development.
Elementary education is free. Not many private schools exist,
In the towns the pupils of the elementary school are given thorough medical
supervision. This is paid for by both the municipality and the State. The State
contributes to the salaries of the teachers. Free dental care is also given the
The subjects studied in the elementary school are as follows: Christian know-
ledge, Norwegian, arithmetic, writing, singing, local knowledge, natural science,
drawing, gymnastics, carpentry, sewing, history, geography, house-work and garden-
ing. In history is included sociology; natural science comprises outlines of the
principles of health. Instruction in English is taught in the two top forms and is
generally practised in the town and some of the country districts. Pupils who do
not belong to the State Church (Evangelical-Lutheran) are not required to take in-
struction on Christian knowledge. In elementary schools with a sufficient number
of classes, boys and girls are as a rule taught separately, other wise mixed classes
are the general practice in Norwegian schools.
Each municipality may adopt any eighth obligatory school year, arranged as a
continuation course. This is for general education and also emphasis on technical
The Folkehoyskoler or People's High Schools draw most of their pupils from the
country districts and among the industrial workers. Instruction is given in soci-
ology and current affairs. The customary length of the course is six months.
Technical (Trades) schools are designed to give practical instruction and theo-
retical knowledge as a supplement to the training obtained by employment. There are
two groups-one provides instruction before the time of apprenticeship (apprentice
schools), during the time of apprenticeship (schools for foremen and work managers,
courses of various kinds for skilled workmen, journeymen and masters, technological
institutes), elementary technical schools and technical trades schools; the second
includes commercial schools,
Some are State schools who may demand contributions from the municipality of
county; others are municipal or inter-municipal schools. The municipality provides
the premises, the running expenses are shared by the State. Industrial schools also
may be sponsored and carried on by business houses and similar organizations. They
receive a grant from the State after approval by the Supervising Board.
There are two kinds of higher schools, realskoler and gymnas or secondary
schools and colleges.
The Realskole provides a more advanced general education which can serve as
the basis for further specialized training. The three-year realskole is based on
the elementary school with instruction in one foreign language (English). The high-
est class may vary somewhat according to the requirements of the different parts of
the country. For instance, in the country a special three-year winter-realskoler is
provided in order that the young people can take part in the work of the district
through the summer. Two-year county realskoler are provided for particularly gifted
pupils who are admitted by competitive examinations. The 4-year realskole is intend-
ed for girls; there are few schools in Norway for girls.
The "Gymnasium" is also based on the elementary school, and is coordinated with
the secondary school (realskole). For practical and financial reasons the two first
classes of both types of school are similarly organized. The "Gymnasium" provides
a higher general education, serving as a foundation for studies at other higher
schools and the University, The five-year gymnasia are based on the elementary
special school with instruction in one language (English); the six-year gymnasia may
be established without a foreign language. The following branches may be taken in
the gymnasia: mathematics, natural science, English, Latin and Norse.
The course of instruction in the secondary and elementary schools is concen-
trated on knowledge of the pupil's own country and people, coupled with a broad and
objective understanding of Scandinavia and the rest of the world.
The Teachers' Training Colleges, of which there are nine, take their pupils
from the elementary school after a course at a continuation school or people's high
school. There is a four-year course and English is taken as the foreign language.
After passing the teaching-test and having been appointed to a teaching post, a
teacher may apply for leave to acquire special training in one or more subjects.
These courses are taken in the State Gymnastic College, the Art and Manual Training
College, the Domestic Science College for Women and the Woments Needle Work College.
The University of Oslo consists of five faculties, Theology, History and Phi-
losophy, Law, Mathematics and Natural Science and Medicine. The University has ex-
tensive self-government under the Academic Collegium composed of the Deans elected
by the Faculties. The presidency is held by the Rector. The students of each Fac-
ulty elect a separate committee, the chairman of these form a joint committee for
all the students.
The Oslo University is the mother institution of all other Norwegian Academic
Colleges. Instruction is free everywhere, except at the College of Dentists. The
number of students is restricted in all Colleges, and also in the Medical Faculty
of the University.
The whole education system of the Kingdom is controled by the Ministry of Church
and Education 7ith few exceptions. The Advisory Boards, the Education Board, the
Teachers' Training School Board and the Technical School Board, whose members are
appointed by Royal nomination for five years at a time, deal with matters of a
pedagogical nature. The matters of finance, appointments and administration are
left to the Ministry.
The Under-Secretary for School Affairs in the Ministry of Education is brought
in from professional school service and appointed on the basis of competition. In
local administration of education authorities,the headmaster (rektor) is the respon-
sible chief for the higher schools, but there is in addition a Board of Governors
composed of representatives of the municipality, the State and a member elected by
the teachers of the school. The Board's function is to safeguard the financial in-
terests of the school etc. For the elementary schools the Supervisory Board has
directors acting as supervisors for all the elementary schools within a given diocese,
THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN POLAND
Pre-School Training--Pre-School training for children between the ages of 4
and 7 has as its main purpose the supplementing of normal home education. Kinder-
gartens are organized and maintained by state and local governments; however, there
are also those privately operated by social agencies, trade unions, and religious
Primary School--The elementary school forms the basis of the entire system of
Polish Education, and is compulsory as well as free. It consists of eight consec-
utive one-year classes.
Secondary Schools (Lyceum)--There are two types of lycea, one for general aca-
demic education and the other for technical courses, both of which have 4-year pro-
grams. Graduation from a primary school is the only entrance requirement. In ad-
dition to the above lycea, there still remain 4-year gymnasia based on the six-year
elementary schools, but these are temporary remnants of the old school system and
are gradually being eliminated.
Special Schools for Defective Children--Special schooling for handicapped
children has nov been made available by the new school reform. This objective has
been partially realized by the creation of 3 schools for the blind, 9 for the deaf,
5 for delinquent children and 35 for the mentally retarded. All are eight-year
schools, with 8 one-year classes.
School Organization and Administration-The administrative school system is
unified under the authority of the Minister of Education, For administrative pur-
poses, Poland is divided into 14 school circuits, each headed by a curator appointed
by the President on the recommendation of the Minister of Education and the approval
of the Council of Ministers. The curators have wide powers in the field of public
schools and pre-school administration. The 14 districts are further divided into
283 smaller units, each headed by an inspector, whose functions fall into 3 cate-
gories: 1) he represents the curator in the sphere of elementary education; 2) he
mediates between the higher school authorities and the teachers; 3) he mediates
between the municipality and the school.
Teachers--The requirements for a qualified primary school teacher are that he
must have completed his secondary education and have been graduated from a two-year
pedagogic college. In addition, he must serve two years as a "trial teacher" in a
primary school, after which time he can take his qualifying examination. Because
of the post-war shortage of teachers, an emergency program was created which still
exists. Pedagogic courses of six weeks to six months duration are given to grad-
uates of secondary schools who wish to enter the teaching profession. Such teachers
are considered unqualified and temporary. Qualified teachers of secondary schools
must possess a master's degree, complete a period of trial teaching and take a
special teacher's examination. Because of the great demand for secondary school
teachers, those who do not meet the above requirements may still gain the status of
qualified teachers if they pass a special examination. For all teachers, qualified
as well as unqualified, special courses are organized by the Ministry of Education
in order to acquaint the teachers with the newest findings in educational theory
and practice, as well as in their specialized fields.
Curriculum--The curricula generally include the teaching of the Polish lang-
uage, grammar, writing and literature; history of Poland and Europe; geography,
sciences, art, foreign languages and religion. Recently compulsory instruction in
one foreign language was introduced in the upper classes of the primary school.
Students have a choice of English, French, Russian or German, Latin is taught to
the students of the Academic Lycea. Also stronger emphasis is now being placed on
perceptional aids in learning; mathematics and the natural sciences are more system-
atically and fully treated; and an acquaintance with Polish democratic traditions
is fostered. Religious instruction by priests is provided in each school, although
it is not compulsory. After the war, most Polish schools opened without text books,
but now with the large amount of money and effort which is being expended in dev-
eloping Poland's educational system, there has been a rapid growth in the publish-
ing of textbooks6
The following precepts were adopted with Poland's new educational system as
the objective of Polish education: regard for human dignity, love of truth, justice,
freedom and peace; a sound attitude toward work; the futhering of a healthy national
pride coupled with self-criticism; the elimination of all remnants of Nazi ideology;
and the furthering of the principle of international cooperation.
FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING IN ROMANIA
The new methods of teaching foreign languages today in Romania are greatly
improved in technique and also afford the pupils a chance to learn about the pro-
gressive moments in other countries. They have a chance to read new, progressive
literary sjorks as well as the classics.
The old-fashioned method of teaching was boring and uninspired. After study-
ing French for eight years a pupil was unable to read a current newspaper,
In the teaching of French literature only Corneille, Chateaubriand, and Baude-
laire were taught, while Moliere, Victor Hugo and Anatole France were not mentioned.
Many students had never heard of Anatole France or Francois Villon.
In order that students will be able to read the most advance scientific works
in Russian, necessary for those who will help to build Socialism, the Russian lang-
uage is taught from the earliest classes.
At the secondary school stage French, English and German are also taught.
Through these languages a knowledge of political, social and economic conditions
and ideas of the various countries is learned. Emphasis is laid on the living lang-
uages, as used by workers and scientists.
Through the languages the student learns of the achievements of the Soviet
workers and of the struggle for a better life by those in France, Germany and Eng-
In the Eglish textbooks one will find the works of Howard Fast, Caldwell,
Shakespeare and Byron. American literature is also currently taught in secondary
Through the mastery of these foreign languages, the Romanian students will be
able to contribute to the solidarity of the peoples of the world.
THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN SPAIN
The universal heritage of Spanish learning, principally forged in the lecture
rooms of Salamanca, in the libraries of Clcala or in Valladoid suffered over the
last century the effects and evolutions required by the trend of centralizing mod-
ernization. Consequently the educational system of Spain, as in most European
countries, is organized, developed and financed by the state through the Ministry
of Education. Private enterprise, private study and tuition, and the teaching Orders
of the Catholic Church, flourish side by side with the official state educational
organizations, but in various manifestations of learning, the State reserves for
itself the right to issue official decrees, patents, and certificates of sufficiency,
for which official examinations must be passed before obtaining. Some nine hundred
million pesetas is appropriated yearly by the Spanish state for educational purposes.
Eementary Schools--There are in general three types of elementary schools in
Spain: the State-endowed, the Church schools, and those supported by private enter-
prise. The State-endowed schools are free institutions, providing food and cloth-
ing for needy children, and transportation for those living too far away.
Elementary education is obligatory; the maternity schools care for children
up to four years of age; four to six is the Kindergarten age; elementary instruction
is given from six to ten, while a higher type of curriculum is taught from ten to
twelve years, and from twelve to fifteen years, the instruction is termed profes-
sional initiation. From six years upwards, separate schools are provided for each
sex, with women teachers in charge of girls and men in charge of boys. The Catholic
religion is taught in all the State-endowed schools. Special schools are also pro-
vided for by the Spanish State. Boarding institutions for orphans andd stitute
children are termed "Home Schools." More ample education is provided for adults
in school buildings, as well as primary preparatory schools for children with abil-
ity to cope with higher studies. By the special initiation courses a special cur-
riculum is taught whereby the youths are able to study agriculture, industrial or
commercial subjects, and in the case of girls, handicrafts and household economy.
Special schools for disabled people such as the deaf and dumb have also been or-
ganized. Tuition missions are also sent by the State to visit far away habitations
to provide some intellectual comforts.
The scholastic year last 240 days. There are at present some 46,000 State
schools. The 1945 law governing primary education has completely modified the old-
fashioned conceptions and has set the basic teaching of the country on new and mod-
Secondary Education-The official State seven years course of Secondary Educa-
tion known as the "Bachillerato" is organized from and given in the 119 Institutes
throughout the country. Here again are found the private tuition, the teaching
Orders, and private enterprise, closely cooperating with the Institutes and depend-
ing from them, but distinctly more numerous than the State-endowed.
The "Bachillerato" commence with an entrance examination when a child is ten
years old, and after seven yearly courses, each one terminated with yearly examin-
ations, the State Certificate examination is taken before a Board of University
professors, the standard for which is extremely high. This State Certificate quali-
fies the successful candidates to sit for the entrance examination to any of the
University Faculties, Army, Navy, Special Engineering Schools or similar institutions
of High Grade Education. Special institutes for girls are provided in which, other
than the general curriculum, they receive special instruction in home economics,
arts and crafts, infant welfare, first aid, etc. The curriculum adopted since 1938,
is that of cyclic advancement in the following basic subjects: Religion, Latin,
Greek, Spanish Language and Literature, Geography, History of Spain, English, French,
Italian, German, Algebra, Arithmetic, Geometry, Physics and Chemistry, Physical
and Artistic training. Some 190,000 students matriculate each year.
Professional and Technical Studies-Twenty-seven Commercial Schools have been
established as well as 55 "Escuelas Normales" which prepare students for the teach-
ing profession. Vocational schools, training schools within industrial plants, and
courses on scientific husbandry have also received special impetus in the last few
Higher Education--There are twelve State Universities: Barcelona, La Laguna,
Madrid, Murcia, Oviedo, Salamanca, Santiago, Sevilla, Valladolid, Valencia and
Saragoza. There are three private Universities, and two ecclesiastical. Special
facilities are provided for impoverished students. The university year is divided
into two quatrimesters: examinations are held in each subject as well as a general
examination for degrees when the full course has been completed. Five to seven
years are needed to obtain the degree of Licentiate oscilates, while another year
is required for a doctorate,
Outside the University proper, but on an equal intellectual standing, are the
Professional and Technical Instruction Schools. These are the Architect School and
the six Engineering Schools: Agricultural, Industrial, Mining, Forestry, Naval and
Public 7orks, Other numerous centers exist where different degrees and certificates
are sought after, some on a superior level, others a little lover. The great major-
ity of these educational centers are state dependent,
The Higher Council for Scientific Research--El Consejo Superior de Investi-
gaciones Cientificas was instituted in 1939, as a coordinating center for all sci-
entific activities and research institutions in the country. There are six Asso-
ciations in the Council divided into 59 different Institutes and Centers of inves-
tigations, each with its own particular branch of study.
EDUCATION IN SWITZERLAND
The great majority of schools in Switzerland are public ones, i.e., schools
which derive their financial support from public funds which may be federal, can-
tonal or communal.
In accordance with the principle of federalism which favors the cultural iden-
tity of the different regions in Switzerland, direction of the public schools is
primarily left to the cantons. Thus the secondary and high schools are exclusively
a cantonal concern, 7ith regard to primary schools, however, which are also canton-
al, the federal government assumes certain financial responsibilities and with them
general supervisory functions,
Articles 27 and 27 bis of the Federal Constitution establish certain directives
for primary schools. Thus it is prescribed that the canton must provide for suf-
ficient primary education, that the primary schools must be exclusively under the
control of the state, and that their attendance is compulsory and free. Furthermore,
public schools are open to the members or adherents of any religious groups, whose
different convictions shall in no way be stifled. If any of these conditions is
violated by a canton, the federal government is empowered to intervene,
The cantons are entirely free with regard to the organization of secondary
and high schools, as well as technical schools. Secondary schools usually extend
from the fifth or sixth school year to the ninth, and are distinguished from the
corresponding primary school grades in that their curriculum is more extended and
includes two national languages (compulsory), as well as the third national langu-
age or English, which is elective. Upon graduation from secondary schools, the
pupils usually take employment or go to trade schools.
In contrast to secondary schools, the high schools (pre-gymnasium and gymnasium)
prepare the students for university studies. The high schools are divided into a
lower and upper level. The lower level, which begins with the fifth school year,
extends through the eighth; and the upper level, the gymnasium proper or, as they
are sometimes called, the Kantonsschulen, extends over an additional period of
4-1/2 to 5 years. Upon graduating from high school the student has thus had at
least 12-1/2 years of schooling and is more advanced than an American high school
graduate because his training has been more intensively preparatory for the uni-
versity level. Practically all Swiss high school graduates enter universities.
The universities again are cantonal or communal institutions, with the excep-
tion of the Federal Institute of Technology at Zurich which is financed and super-
vised by the federal government. The federal government, however, has laid down the
minimum conditions for admission to the universities in the so-called Maturitaet-
sordnung. The Maturitaet is the final examination that must be taken by all stu-
dents upon graduating from high school. It varies with the different cantons, but
must contain the federal minimum requirements. There are three types of Matura
which correspond to the three division of the high schools:
Type A (Humanities) with Latin and Greek
Type B (Sciences) with Latin
Type C Natural Sciences and Mathematics
In some cantons, there exists a fourth type, Commerce and Bushess Administra-
hE professional degrees are conferred by cantonal authority except in the cases
of physicians and dentists, who must pass federal examinations.
The equivalent of the American college does not exist in Switzerland.
Roughly speaking, it could be said that the curriculum of the Freshman and
Sophomore years is included in the Swiss high school, whereas the Junior and Senior
years are incorporated in universities.
Distribution of Students among the Difference Types of Public Schools in 19L44
Primary School ( 8 or 9 grades) - - - 440,813
Secondary School ( 4 grades) - - - - 49,22
Trade and Technical Schools - - - - - 190,000
High Schools, lower level - - - - - 25,025
High Schools, upper level - - - - - 12,460"
University Students - - - - - - - 12,104*
Federal Inst. of Technology - - -- - 3,222
Note the close correspondence between the number of high school students
and university students.
Federal Subsides to Cantons For Education in 1944a
For Primary Schools - - - - - - 3,669,625 Swiss francs
For Agricultural Schools - - - - - 870,595 Swiss Francs
For Trade & Inds. Schools - - - - - 4,354,342 Swiss francs
For Commercial Schools - - - - - 2,396,728 Swiss francs
For Schools of Home Econ. - - - - -- 1,429,181 Swiss francs
Special Note: There does not exist a Minister of Education in the Federal Gov-
ernment, since Educational matters are under the jurisdiction of the different cantons.
THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THAILAND
Any account of education in Thailand (Siam) must take into consideration the
prominent part the Buddhist monks have played in the moral and intellectual model-
ing of the youth of the country. The idea of national education is a fairly modern
one, even in European countries. Not until the advent of democracy did people recog-
nize the right of the individual to be given full opportunity for education, Up to
the reign of King Chulalongkorn (1868-1910), education in Siam was in the main, tn-
trusted to the monks, who have always considered the work as one of purephilanthropy
and abstract merit acquiring, no payment in return being asked for or expected. Boys
were sent to live with these monks who taught them the three R's together with some
elementary notions of Buddhism. The boys paid for the instruction received with
During King Chulalongkorn's reign education in Siam made a good headway. Soon
after his accession in 1868 His Majesty opened the first government school in Siam.
This was an elementary school for princes and the sons and relations of high of-
ficials. The curriculum of this school included Siamese, English, arithmetic and
elements of public administration. The year 1890 saw the first step towards a na-
tional system of education when a government Department of Education was set up.
Later primary schools began to make their appearance one after another through the
length and breadth of the Kingdom. A few years later, the Department of Education
was raised to the status of a ministry under which also placed the Department of
The year 1892 saw the opening of the first Secondary School. Soon afterwards
some other schools could boast the same level of scholarly attainments. By the
beginning of the reign of King Vajiravudh (1910) resident educational officers were
appointed to all provinces and model schools with trained staffs were set up in
various centers. The year 1921 saw the promulgation of the Primary Education Act
which was enforced in all provinces except that of Bangkok,
The Siamese Government early realized the vital importance of vocational edu-
cation, and the following vocational courses have long been provided:
1. Training of teachers.
2. Arts and crafts.
5. Training of nurses and midwives.
The present system of education may be outlined as follows:
a. There is a Compulsory Primary (Prathom) Course of four years (the beginning
of the school age is fixed at 7 and the leaving age at 14). The curriculum of this
primary course includes Siamese, nature study, civics, arithmetic and drawing.
For small children between the age of four and seven there are kindergartens.
Though at present still few and far between the kindergartens are enjoying a great
popularity and their prospects are very bright,
Children intending to proceed to the Secondary Schools can do so at the end of
their third year at the Primary Schools. But those who lack means to continue their
education in the secondary schools can, having finished the 4-year Compulsory Pri-
mary Course, enter lower vocational schools where practical courses in agriculture,
weaving, tailoring, carpentry, metal work, boat-building, etc. are provided generally
free of charge.
b. There is a Secondary (Mathayom) Course of eight years. The organization
of the last tvo years of the Mathayom Course has long been a matter of controversy.
The secondary course had long been organized as an 8-year one. It is true that the
University is not the only opening for the Secondary Schools students. Those who
have gone through the third class of the Secondary School, if they wish, can enter
the intermediate vocational schools which provide three-year courses in tailoring,
home economics, etc. These intermediate vocational schools prove, however, not so
popular as they should be for only a few Mathayom students decide upon this early
break in their education. As to those who have completed the sixth Mathayom, they
can choose the higher vocational schools which offer courses in modern languages,
commerce, engineering, building, arts and crafts as an alternative to the University.
In this connection it may be added that there is every reason to believe that voca-
tional education in Siam is undergoing a thorough transformation.
c. University Education. At present there are four universities in Siam,
namely Chulalongkorn University, the University of Moral and Political Sciences,
the Medical University and the University of Agriculture. Chulalongkorn University
is the oldest and is composed of the Faculties of Arts with the Department of Edu-
cation attached to it, Sciences, Engineering, Architecture, Commerce and Accountancy.
The University of Moral anc Political Sciences offers courses in law, politics,
economics and accountancy. The Medical and Agricultural Universities offer courses
in the subjects indicated by their names.
Besides the Universities, higher education is given by various technical and
professional schools which are not under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Public
Instruction, e. g. the Military College, the Naval College. These schools are run
by their respective ministries.
Schools in Siam are divided into three types according to their management and
a. Government Schools. These are wholly maintained and controlled by the
Ministry of Public Instruction. Besides the schools run by this ministry there are
others which are under the control of various ministries as already mentioned.
b. Local or Munical Schools. These schools are under the management of the
local government. They receive, however, grant-in-aid from the Central Government
and are under the control of the Ministry of Public Instruction.
c. Private Schools. A private school either a school managed as a private
enterprise or one maintained and controlled by an individual or community. All pri-
vate schools are governed by the Private School Act B. E. 2461 (1918) and must be
registered at the Ministry of Public Instruction. A large number of private schools
are due to the initiative and under the control of the Roman Catholics and the Amer-
EDUCATION IN THE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA
In the educational field, South Africa is justly proud of her universities.
There are five such institutions of higher learning. To serve in an executive
capacity over these schools and the general education of the country there is a
Union Education Department headed by a Minister of Education. Each of the 4 prov-
inces has its own Director of Education, Under the Director there are school dis-
tricts. Each school is operated by a School Co-mittee elected from among parents
of the children. There are three groups of schools--private, aided private and
public or government institutions. Private schools collect fees. Public schools
are nearly all free. In many instances text books must be bought in the secondary
Most children begin school at the age of six. There is a primary course last-
ing from 1 to 5 or 6 years. The secondary course is divided into 2 periods each
lasting 2 years. At the end of the first period a student receives a junior cer-
tificate while a senior certificate is given at the end of the second period. Ex-
aminations determine whether or not a student receives these certificates. Educa-
tion is compulsory for all children of European parentage from the age 6 to 16. It
is also interesting to note that South Africa is bi-lingual-English and Afrikaans.
Parents may choose either or both languages as a medium of instruction.
The curriculum of the Primary grades is generally as follows: Bible, langu-
ages, history, geography, arithmetic. Girls are also taught needlework and domestic
The secondary course consists of English or Afrikaans; a second modern lang-
uage; biology, chemistry or physics; and hygiene and physiology; mathematics; and
two minDr subjects are required which may range from music to math.
The normal day schedule lasts 5 hours in the public schools and less in the
primary grades. Principals are given a free hand in making up syllabuses and select-
ing audio visual aids. All schools are undenominational. Religious instruction is
always given during a day's period of study but the children are not required to
participate if the parents do not wish it.
One special feature of most of the public schools is the hostel accommodation
whereby pupils can live while attending school. The average rate per quarter is
$32.00. Each of these hostels is supervised by school committees and are not con-
ducted as profit making establishments.
In the higher education field there are 10,000 students, some 250 professors
and more than 800 lecturers,, TheCr are -lso more than 2,000 foreign students. Aside
from the five leading universities there are also schools for the Bantu race and re-
search and medical centers. The government subsides amount to about 1 percent of
the state revenue. Interest free loans are granted to teachers and medical students.
In the field of technical education the Union has passed Apprentice Legislation
which requires every apprentice to attend classes during his training period. There
are about 15,000 apprentices attending the 8 technical colleges. Correspondence
courses are also given covering such fields as nursing, teachers, accountancy,
physical education, etc. In native education there are more African native girls
in schools than boys.