Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Legal provisions for Chicago...
 Extent of popular voting in...
 Character of propositions...
 Character of the voting
 Character of the voters -- typical...
 Votes of women on propositions
 General summary and conclusion
 Back Cover

Group Title: referendum in Chicago
Title: The Referendum in Chicago
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098591/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Referendum in Chicago
Physical Description: 64 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gardner, C. O ( Clarence Oran ), b. 1885
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Publication Date: 1920
Subject: Referendum   ( lcsh )
Politics and government -- Chicago (Ill.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: "One chapter of a thesis on the 'Referendum in Illinois', presented to the faculty of the Graduate school in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy."
Statement of Responsibility: by Clarence Oran Gardner ...
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098591
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 20664333
lccn - 20020530


This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 3 MBs ) ( PDF )

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Legal provisions for Chicago referenda
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Extent of popular voting in Chicago
        Page 8
    Character of propositions submitted
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Character of the voting
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Character of the voters -- typical wards
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Votes of women on propositions
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    General summary and conclusion
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Back Cover
        Page 65
        Page 66
Full Text

11 J 1r i 'r.NIN81 l .1




CL1. Tof Florida

i '


U'L\ t .ltW








SD 1.473

.r 3 ^(^ 3


I ia.l PrIovi.:iI:,i lhr (CI I..i:II Rei er.-iiI:a--
Contin n II' t 1, il.iat[i i 4
'Ol: ll lllU t Il':i' i t %v .I 'Olnl lln -ll lav'. ;
E .xi ItinL s-' ur'. folr re.rl':l-r iicn in (.hicai : . .
Ext,.lnl -l Plopular \V..ti_, in Cb.i.' v.. I

Char,-'tr <>1' Proo-ilioh, Sumittd-
\Aille xJioli i H iil.;I'r .. .)
BonIml issues...... . 10
ttret railways-Trmiprtili<-n 1:'

(Ch'iractir of the Votir.- .. .
Effrct of.ballot fo'ri~.is i f'i t;,- i' f! ". .
I'PvijI .'of'propositins on tirl- lI,.iIl.*'''.. \' : 9i
'or 'lhr of ptopoP jtii ;-s.I t.,lb, I, llo* % I t :
(' lir'c: t: r of the Voter'- 'l":a\ i- _1 ;'?
l\t>. .'sf \Vomen on M,:ia-ur.- .
Gr.r. raIl Summary and C'ni I.i'o -I


3 1262 084 50I 863
3 1262 08450 846 3

LE,;.\i. POr'tVI'll-iN I'.i; ('{ Il \GO) I RE tLI;N- .\

.A t no ti!c ill tl histoiy .,1' Illini,, i c.'n pi,,lpulr \i.,lli ,ni lh1.ii
melvaiure- li-e i.rci-erl re.,,irid-d ais a inlIv.,tl.ioni. It is truie that
tiht fir-t ,.o- stitutit.,i i.i I the ',aute, in efrt-et fr.om llS 14S.
did mnt ,,_an-tin ;rinv form of Il.,.:,l r.f'erertlojni, h it the st:- ll e- I|;i.-
lature: ', ery e,i rlv a lii, )ed th.e t i;ii:ti'e .I ri.'f.rrin; a,:'t- of Ic:,'c l
nature 1' t i \ o fI;rs i .,I loaet ;il oiimll unl itie i:f r nl jp]:.]:r. l. ,\ hlrie'f
siummiari. i, the nlitltr o tli: I.; i ; n.l (ci" uh'i sl>. e.l) t pr'.-\i-
ieis fc.,r xi,tint_' on I f .i a i e; e ii rl e .i p[.li;AI l.l Id be ( 'lii.',i, \xill
erv ,~is i a pp r:rlo ri.att: inItrdiji- tion tI I ,tl iil:ila 'i *.if tlI,. ;onc u il
o ,rl. ai.itir it if the re''*r'i -ndlil it the miet r ,pi li .,f the .;-, t:
Ti'r e,:'rlier laI. calling Ir prIp lr.i;r v\te II,' l'Cl ctuniiini;-
tie,: related fer the, c- iiot pIarl t'j ".-'inrit and i ,liecip;iIl :orr;ln-
izaltioiti. The cutti.imar\v thod ofl *.,rganizit;n nie' I ,junties ;iii.J
detfertmining thllir Ii.-uttd.irie's vv ht direct Ia't .1.' th lexislfiatIre
or by it re i.i l ,n misi io, ,Ip[.,.inted i\- it, it later alt..ratiiis
i l l hi't nii.Jari.'- r .ci'. i, ~' n Ient i'.,i't fr-.|Utiutlt[,i le t tll tie eJe' i-c.:il
let tile locr,il vot.rs- ;lret Ited.1 T i ins and I itie''s rin: liteL .r1ir.ttrte J
lJilt r -i.'ti :lti l _i.,rtei I;t t !,t llr ..luet lii -I lefIil ieI. I,:,lJ l rO ti-
fiethiont anit.I ;t oi.th er times W.ent in lt'o:.-t without a; hetcl refer-
eII,.-e. In 1,S..1 ; g ner .-l ,.liarter law [i t trm l ni definitely r,:. nize,
thie rc lier:-A I i .v; 1 iivce, ifry pairt. ..f li [ii': > .th Ilo; itii i['ii 't :
*.,r diss-ohl itInI E1\:I. altlr this tin,., hol ,:.r. '1.a i,.,t inl'rerluelt rnd 4.oii,, ,',f tlh,:m I.e,,l iije( f,,r :1 ..[f, .r> .ii*.,:1. 1 h.,.;il
d1kloptior, vdi.hli ..*.ojtr; did rirt. TI'r'-i: thu.- ;seemi to hIa. Iee,
n., fiJed p.)li,-'y wih r f'r>:n.-. .. the i 1,,,, of thi.- r-:l',:r:rid m l-
though it hauld> he nrteil thlt. when a |.leb:es,_ite 1a 1,lnt recu.ir. pra,_tic-al\- tilt .minf re iult v.., ,ft,,n ,tll itlC 1 If avin thl>

For llij:rr:t.";. c.i pro..,Jur..- ollc .r, d=J '-. L.. I' 7l'-lis, pp 1-. I|.,
17, :J; Lja -', ISF ,, pp .:; 4',, .,S I l",, I. .'.'. L :. $3't, p -''

\ Ku ~ %

'hlinrter originate in the lI:.-.l miornnuimin ity and ithLn 'intl to the
SIc'ki:..ilatur for enactment.'
Tle *c-..ini slat. mm:on tititition. adloptidl in ISM4. rt,.mgnized
what had .i'lmie tr I n the pmrevailiUg pra.tiet and tm ide a ru'fer-
ini. iinu iandii ftirry on1 -ich qU|i]m-ion- :' eh.il2aniii, tHli- .lcation i.t
a county -scat, d.l.pitirng to-iwnship i.rjignizati-i n within the e:conty
anid :iltrinii co-i:.ity Ijoundary lin.t The. l,.-.: proi. i-.io:u- \,cre
.iontinurJ,. in the new i onstitnti:.n i:,i IS'18i and I:lon other a.IlM.:l
vhich re'qire'd that the .ul-tiimn if atl.iianhininr t'wn uip ,- ..ia-
izntion likt wii:- rm,:''ive thr .i--,iit ,of the ioters. No important
,,ipu[jsition tin the prin'iple ,f the Im,-.il refe-reni.lum ,-en,- to have
lIevie-lopedd. I\hn tlit, -til.jmt a .- .lisCu-c'.Cd .At Al1 in tbh ,.-onsti-
tuti-m.in conve-nti-in any i.littererice- of opinion. that a.r;:, ri-late
I,, imnthimsi of -ubhiitting thie measures Ior to the majoritiec t. lie
\hlile rplele.-ceile, were thu,- i.inmtitutimn.lly r-illriiril on the
ql.im;tions nit:ited. tll.- k.i.-tiire *oiltiini:iJ to pr.i\iJ. to.ir .ith..rs.
A. i e..arly as 1S:i51 thel inc-,orl,:.ratio:n .if I- c.:l hl.inl district-r was-
Iit t io the deci -i'ln of thell v\-t.r l r .ii:iI, and loc;a, l .pti.-n ., u th':
W-le of intmxii.:nts "ia. ,.tal lthed in inmo-rpo:,ratm..I torivri and city
iw'rdJ-. A.\nothmr law "of 1S6'. pace-.d to prevent ,Joii:'nli animalss
Iroili riilining at lar;'-. "is ud. ii.. de *rlliill.on : inly in Ith. ose coli.in-
ies tha:t mui;hlt liter .adopt it by Ipoul.ir \l:at. Prior to. the ahd.p-
tiiin i..l their prtcnt -ons ituti..ii in 1s';l intL.u>ne- of "i.')rtin;ig.-nt
legi-sl-tion"' .-f thi- the niil.li r lid.- Wii,:.rtc.-iI i C' i*:;i-. ;anm lii0iinl.-10 Se-viutefen
*r.\ i-.ion'- for I ii l oinrg i-n ile.iciire'f aire tm le fh ')lnid in the lmI:w
p.is.e. hlu-.i en lbilJ .iii 19il.. iand imor.' than lifty idui'rine the
foll,-Mins ,J,:,adJ:.
ThIro'nreh the prl'm-_c ,s'crilid the- le-i-.ilatu.ir hlis f:,i!id it
.'-miiv nienit tl o -i hill. thei rc.-I n-i.ility U|..,in the s'lo li.l--er ,if li..il

E: I 1 \l.. '.[i i '. Lrraiit..,I p-....:i..al .: liurl. r i j.': .:,i i'. > rir.- rilurm ,
'J: ",.r.. La.r.n ..ll.. I II~' i I.:. *[c 1 '.,. L. .' l.h''. 214. 1411 .It
ihi- :-::iD,. ti..: .r. M.I. C i'rin n'-. .*r ra":.'.j urd,..r i cl'irrir -ikth I:i.1
ino pr.:.' i-i.:. f-r I,-,:il ranlfrit iirin It.,, p 214 In I-* Qu ii:.y. Sr, iii: l.J
r.l 'a .rm r'::'. 'I *: ,b :rrr- -, . .:ii j:r ub .c t o I. l..:'il .[.: .r'. lhile
L -,:.-.n C v : r-r .ri-:,J ihl t.r '"hili ,*:1 r Irn int, ,.t D |-,.i : .i.l :. L.tk-., ',O1',,
.' 122 ,', 74 S.. i I-.. rm :, 1: .1 "Ch rt.r. :,l Cbi,:.a' ... Par II. 11. 1,. I
: lh ,: ,::. '.r r n t...ri'l [.r ''. i : ,, _: m"i :, E i i.. i.lit: t 1.. r 'l, ..i. [t, l..Jh, I-
'if. li -.a rh..ir .t p.,jl r fpr'.'r l lr. r.r" ,i'i, l .y ti,' r..i..ri'.j.-Jui h.Il
hbe.:n r, .i .rni v i t he ii- .' tijr. hl' PhI ..-I ,le .!iri ill. 12 III .:*''
Fi r 'i' lin.., -:, D[ ,tnr- .,', 'l (.''.,ii.n; i.t .r.il C. ir- r .:-in, 1'-0. -pp
,.,I ,n7, I -,l.il,

- 4-

voters. uint is con'tittioiial right t. do 1 o has nr.it gon.rii uiilUes-
ticrned. A; early .1 1 S' a test o; nn.i e of th: v.idity of the
p'ro'eduire. An u:'l of 1S4'; ini irovidi.d for the ditiImn .'l
Gall.tin (C'oninr if the vNlter .", the cAlnry al:pr.ov:d. Thie voters
gave their assent anI nlvv. governnii,:lnts i:.'r e taiilidi.dl in < -
cr rdt n:t: u itlh the 1- ,. A ca':s ,,. lr,'i.uglit iii tih lirni of I
mljnd.inius to Ul'uiii[.'l tihe fruert ri.-'.,rder .1 deedl to: [,:rt.oirm
i:vrt;i d tl.ies ol rlO ie tfi.e. tile .ii-.ti,-ii l-eing lIl;-cI oni tlihe th.l.rtge
tih:-t the z, It tunier \. hidc tih: dJivi i..in a .iA-let'il cn-iitituted n i
ille.'al I.:'atin ,1 le1gidltive pe,.ver. Tl e court, in rel'uiing the
mnl.-ln -ulii s nd u, lliolWiiu;' the l:i\. -' iiJ: ".- lan miri,' Clepei.I
upon :i fil.i.i ." I' : :iiI :1r dI..itiii -iII:, y tor it, taki ,ng' r' d'f.-t, r nti that
(',lItiji n,?l" y ilr i Jr;e tr.iio tile voilliltnrfi' iet ol (A lhe:." Tl,:
law iw; det.liredl C.'omliete and\ [.perleit i i;t *aniel' frm rhe le-.i'-
liture. ilrltough tlh:. prin' i:i.pl p.ro \idon c.re t lake effle ulpon
a rontinienii-. the determiniiti,,in if wlhic did not d.p.: :nil upon
the exteiti ,.Il li.hiliiatie plower hly tlt: |o, _pl. iit lup|l>n an ex-
prie-.ion \hii:liI they vere .,autlhri.7,-l to nmala: inl. te exetution
rather iarii the etaCletiiunt II' thle hi,. Tile Ic-illt ire 11 Iv thll
rol ,.'II.:gite It I, i-liatile i.'.overs. hut the reter nc'ii, e of a l ..il
nie 'iiit? .l t rhe. v ,i- .t-r *A I 1i li-Ir: ity ll:i :h. t(d dJoes t o.t 'onl litlt.le
I ti_- I II dI-] atl,:h .i It I i."
In all Mu.:,?;,; m'lilL e,: ,- the decisi,..n in People \ ReynlId
hlia leen f-lli-v ed. The act at ISIh7 to ire ir t :indometim: animal,
from rmlhtih,1 ,,t \ar', \'.a, d iU-lH1 .' .1as n-.1; p,,h_.r .,,:t ,:,f the same
y r lir pu O. lor I' 'cal ,:voite 'in the iqucstiun of establishing a
park d.istric in hilh 1 lia .ii..ir li.il op.ti:'on lua a- upheld, the court declared
,le legisntu'ire may eum.i la.- whi;, h will iee..iu ferprative by a xAte
:of the :.I:iopl? tlih ditri>:lt all>.:t>.l, Jprovide.! the law contains
,in entire .and pertet:. de-lir',ti.,in *t th.: legi-a;iluoi will."''8 In all
tih, Illiiois dele i'iions particular e.Lruipha;< I ha !-uen placed on the

P...pi, r'.: 0.. :. G iiL t I1 10 111 R '.rr., I '-9.
SEdmin':.r F.:,n.:u ,I Ill. 1 0 I 0 1 .*11.
S".,,pl.-,. 'lt r n, 57 III. W. ..-. al1 .h* lL:.-r vs. H us:-.r *:t I:.,
I1 I. ll 4.,1 W ''.,: F;..: ?.. K. :W,, rTh ,:r .,. 2-'5 III. G:. A, i 1'07). But .. :t.lu't
.*[ p ,C..rlnn .1 rn J! ,'.lurl t:, d I'ri-n nn to t -i ij -r;... i ..i iiinexation Jp.:.n p-:rl-
ui:.n If thI. .t e .- r .. I i-'r:r h "-rin' , .. ,n de.l nation of l.;islAti-..
p,' .r Io s jj .l].i;il :.lli, -r I.'ri of (G..a .l..jr;..r :. i-, kinson et :Jl, 7 III.
15I 1i 74 i.
.4 III. I I,..

point tleat t hi laii qfuetiCti.Il Id \"tr( compiJtle:- al itii: p rr'. t in f-.'rnl
\1'l ii i licFy .iijir t Ited f'i.jn tl I .le t .iind llt r.-. n i li CeenieITi- li a h v
I.,en tl i- e]eteriiiningl' la t in dI.ecidii- l tng te ii i: 'ti', li .Il EJ'l'.:g' .ti[n n
,-I Ip.u% r.
Li oral rp o nlitiient i -lr, li n ii- i\. k L-.n iel l t ;(n.-i J -.iI tilr:- l 'rlr rnlll
that. since all li-oca.ltifs are- not aAiected like. it a; im nt.ilt tI.,, |l i:nl
l:gi- lati,.ri u cli- is jiJdrid n vY tlih corin tituijt ln. Sucjih as tlie
p iit ;adt .-I c l fJ t a li t tci : Ceoii' ili' -i-.i'li e',.,v'rlllliiit.. n k i r l i iti:.-
hili li p tro\ idJe- fI'r a referE'-iiJi.li n oe tlhei- Iii-tion of it1 :loiiti:io
l.v nny city. Th (:'ui t. i:,. ,\':.e r. %il tl :hliu d very little ilipiortaini.'
Io tli n couittenti on I- d in tlih o e of Thli Pl'(:,pi: .: I d- niJnndil
Jifniel::J thei l -i-.il. t withiijo t artuelint-rit. ine-re--l stl tin,- t .hat Siiqlh
l.in-a i n i ii i; !o local .I special i th: t' in t-! ;l 'it t U.a1:he
ttd-rni '. trc It -ed ii z lie coon t i Iiti,,ni.'
In Iins e i. It r,.fore,. the l-g:forlity ol i..ri I tiini.- tl it Ii l I lat i n!
a Tf(.,li! I, gI I gii siliii ii e s I o. 11r.1 loi r Oltl i ( 0 (.jU(e-l ir dl. U Il
Clh-i cain iilithIer I.t jucrce flully oiftthake d .l i col is tit htini :i l atiri tr. r po o. ,1i n tih.aIl.tt ion of t' d e i.,-ca tilo .i-
tional prohibition of local and special legislation,. SI'-tl.itit ni le
operative throughout the state through a s.ito l rfrtrini
not directly authorized by the constitution l4\,:- n,.it Icen t.elrl
the state courts for consideration and the or i; no Cn rtninty tlit
they would be so treated."o
The existing legal sources for referend a v'thi jin Ith ct. eT.
Chicago include not only some of the laws jt ]d-scril.-ieil. blit
a few other provisions that relate particularly to thli:it I...al ,:.mn-
munity. Of the latter, one of the most important i tlhe lon-
stitutlonal amendment of 1904. This ameruinic~ -nt r.'-ultrud fri-ohi
the state cOn nstiti tii t Iir l r'luir,' rhint t of uniformity in l ;k i-.lati. n-i for
cities. The principle of ni.i foil'rniity was carri,-i ouit l.y tlHit enairt-
men tof a generril i.innc:.ilpal liarter law in 187:m, l hii: iiilllpo.i.l t i:
same type of gm-'ernilitll and C-.,nferred thl (.-siinr po.wers- on i-ll
cities of the state. Since Chicago was the only lirgt- urb.-in center

9 252 iil 'li T ,,. .I, ii.:.u ". r: i .-;hed by a v,.,,- of f.-.,ir I.:. Ihr->-. Th.
initiative arnd r,.f,.rr,.rJu -r.r...ii.i:i ,'f ihe law were ; Ol &Ai itacked utl ,.-n'r -
fully as vI.:. l"ng ih,:- !'-..J, ral o ifril t. of republic jini c'.. rrlliur i, ihc
states. On thi r rinir ltI.- c,:.urt i,,.I rh i, the guaran',,.- vi, iri- ..Jd J i,.. a- r-rl%
only to t.,, jlt, q. -'ernrnin:T.l uijJ ijl W o m unicipal;lii: ..r,,l ,.lj.r 1, .:. l 1 -. I b-
divisions. I- --t: --:,rl l-.:.itfr ..n, 116 Ill. 587.
10 For d- i:i..i: in oih,.r :.-lu i: :i... Oberholtzer, F. 1' "** I, lb: r.i.-lh n.
in Americ(:i' l1'.2', pp. ?iI- -217, .'i i. .. rel. Van Ai:a [: .. Fr '..i, 14' l i-...
320 (1910).


ili th, stite _hi': fi'oud lr::llI i.-onstdntly handicapped in her
efft'-rt- tp ii \ol ii r.l. piol lenis I,'culiarly her own with machinery
,J.siiiJd prinitrily b,.'r 11111(i.h -I:ller urban communities. The
.'iiiwn.lneit o:l I'1114 ,oiLlit tio I.lieve the situation by authoriz-
irlnp -iple:;;l le.-iilatiii lhr Chiii..qi. but, to prevent the recurrence
'I1 ;Il.'.i,_ ri;iii-; from[n r.tc.i interference in local matters, it was
liirthe-r ;ir\vidl'll tlihIA Ih. -I'..t al laws must be approved by the
'I.tTS t tl .: elty I:.efor':. Ic'(o:IIIMI effective. The city electorate
li.1% thlu ai i f-Rr-I-tit- -tl i .i.. All -ich legislation.
Olih'r \,.'ry Iprliic: sloL:lr.'- of Chicago referenda are to found
in In a I r:'lJirillg the .il.iii ion of all propositions to enlarge
ior rc(dite l- th. terrili.'ri.l I."_,ludaries of the city, or to incur city
ir t:ouiity *dJrblt I.. i iIL Ioinds. A large majority of the measures
th.t lhavie iqqai-.il 1.11 h.: Chicago ballot are directly traceable
to these laws.
It may thus be seen that whatever experience Chicago has
had with the referendum has resulted from provisions for special
references of particular kinds of questions. JThe nearest approxi-
mation to a comprehensive local referendum law, available for
Chicago, is to be found in the state Public Policy Act of 1901.
It provided for state-wide votes on questions of general policy, but
it also permits the voters of a local community, on petition of
twenty-five percent, to have submitted any question of local
pIolih: ." Its purpose is to afford an opportunity for the voters
ttI tfxpre"- their views, the record to serve as a guide to
officials in gauging public sentiment. The results of the voting
are supposed to have, and do have, whatever weight the city
authorities see fit to attach to them. Chicago voters have operated
the law very frequently to aid in solving some of their most vital
local issues. As will be pointed out later, it played a conspicuous
llt' in tlit settlement of the extended controversy with the street
rnlv : utilities. Under it the voters have also expressed opinions
On -:h-li -:uilijects as municipal ownership of gas and electric
liliIiii; utilities (1902), popular election of members of the Board
of Eldul.ation (1904), development of a comprehensive subway
-y't il 1i 14), home rule with respect to public utility regulation
11914' aid prohibition (1919). The advice of the voters has not
:1Ih 1y hi.i:n followed, but it has usually been taken seriously.

Hurd, Revised Pl.iute', 1905, p. 967.



Ri'-1'.:int- of Chi,'a.-o had their firl t opportunity to vote on
a l:,"'il propositiou whlin. in IS:3. ; n mna.- mnettin' wn:as hllt' to
de,.id-e lIh...iter incorpor.ition .1 a tvwn na-r J .-iialblI. Thirtcn
w\rve lprt:~enInt and tin elv \xu,tt'd in f:\i:vr :ot inri-orpora tini. Tli
next lwc' years witinesioi a r*lumrl:al-le gircn.-wth in tih' :iz': ot tlhe
villa' \\liiih -l.' led to a leniand f'r i city cliairt-r. A loial
o m:niimitte-,- n- ; ( Jiid -.- iliii ttedt it t'.r tin- ;aIrprri\' l it tlle lo\\ met- tin1'" i:,l 11.I.ry
2:,. 1:37. Here tlhe lo..intn \\ws ai pro:\,'J tina liniiouly hitterr
wh.li;i it \w.s firzrdt.d to the -tate le.i-l.itilre Ifor ft'ormn,..l ':n:,:t-
mlienit. Fro.n that hldy it enierged, slightly .Ut.iiiJend':J, .' til fiir-t
charter of the city.2
Chicago's first organic law was thus based on popiula;r J ppr,: \nl
obtained not through the modern instrument known ii the retlr-
endum, but through its near relative, the direct primnar: n:--enilhly.
Under the charter the participation of the voter- iii ._o:\ rnniti i
was confined almost exclusively to the election of offic;.il. O.-
casionally, however, some public questions w.-er selnit'e.l.
Among these may be mentioned the vote on th. a.id:,ptio:,n if
township government in 1849 and the question .:,f rmlluii.ip;l-
ization of the waterworks which was decided in the allirintiv'-
in 1851.13
But these were isolated instances. It was int iintil after
the adoption of the state constituiton of 1870 that u!e!-.asure
began to be referred for popular ratification with faiy degri-e .o
regularity. The first Chicago referendum under the nta .on-
stitution resulted from its prohibition of spei.al egiilation for
cities. To conform to the new requirements a1 g'n.lra: l ch.irler
law was passed in 1872 and in the following year the q(.lestionI of
its adoption came before the voters of Chicago. Accou panp yin2

12 James, E. J., "Charters of the City of Chicago,' Pi ri 2. p.. *.7, *9
The special town charter for Chicago, passed in 1835, 1;:.- ,'*i io'I:.:II ir.j
the village. Ibid. p. 91. At the first city election of MA, 1I'l, ih- i..il
vote cast was 1709. The population of the city was 32'.': <.- ,.r.pjr- r.,hr
350 in 1833. Illinois Blue Book. 190(I, . I .; \ .-rl -...rl. "* ,r* I lli-:.-.r\
of Chicago," No. 7, p. 6; No. 8, pp. 2:'-. : -.:l-., .\rdJr-.,. .\. T. *Hir..r
of Chicago," Vol. 1, p. 128; Hugo Gros:. r, '"Hi.:r f Cl. :i ... Inr.jr u'tt.i..
published by the League of American ?Iurn;i:i[jl.i.. li.i,.
13 Andreas, Vol. 1, p. 156.


it ".t, a ie':t nnd propositilI to adopt thi, principle of minority
rr.ir':--. nillation inl thi: :-ily 'Oui.il.. Tli.- campaign which preceded
tlil L)tiing was onile 1 tlih most intiir--tingi in the early history of
lliI, city aid i d-,r:trilb.t-l mnort.- l ully V lbtr. It is sufficient to note
here th .-it tih- nenw .'lihr rtler im-it n i rl tihei approval of the voters while
t ittC,.ni III,'a urL a. r. i',:i.t i (.''.vrwl' Ilini gly.
State--wijie menr:i, res. ii the it'orii i constitutional amend-
ilnt-ll or Iiv\. requirlil!': i ..)lplar r;tiliiation. now began to appear
re'iiiil-ntlvy, lilnd occ.i-ionall.y a .,l i :Aiiil:xation measure or a
c.intlll ho.iiin i- -ui.. _.111J H.UiiJ it .ay IL to tle ballot. From 1880
tn 1IsM0 -!ilit l nh i r er, -il.lliLt,:. .1alnl in the decade imme- -
dilatt-ly. toll, .i; ll tl h iu nuil ei' v.-,i- niir: tlian tripled. But most
iI ('Chita:'.' e':p.:rikce iin direct ;otiingi is onfined to the period
from IS'il to tl i prie--iit timne ID-urinI these thirty years over
O.trn1 liunldijt-d ;ald s\ev.nt i t a' ilrlIa- lar~ 11.1 been submitted, most
of vl iiih hli e' l.i Io:al .pr>.po.- itions. It i- now a rare occurrence
for .1 yari to: .l,.-'- vii-,.liot tlic r:liert.'en.lum being called into
opleratit.,ii on -mite- -,rt of iiite. In Inlt, til "little ballot," which
i; the n;iilm: i-i:-J popu.l;ily to describe the ballot on which mea-
-sur-_ .iprper. r;.akel it, app:-arance with almost as great a regu-
larity :t, "lc-,.*',tiol d.ivs tlI -ii,-elves. The referendum is now viewed
I-y ,. ,il r -i,.iitllt :I N11i (a an I.,ntial feature of the machinery of local
L.o t-l crrurllit and !iai- l.-ei -o considered for more than a genera-
t io.ii.


For rplrpr,.t- il'of aiily'-i most local measures that have been
uijulbmittel in (.liic.aio may l classed as annexation propositions,
prtopr-..l, to i--I, It.,.ini, loir -undry purposes or measures relating
to loc.il purlblii ultlitii'. .\i attempt will be made to describe
I-rieltiy Lit. tCr-aitLml'-lt o i-a.ii of these types of questions.
\-ry litti. n.-ed I: I -iid a- to annexation measures. Although
Irqiieiitlly ;ip[pe.lriir L ;ri tle Iallot, they have not presented very
t-rilous pr':bill or t lit: \ote.Ltr. The law requires not only the
alpprl'.-al at tll, vi.erti- i ('liia::g'. but also that of the voters of
tli: territory Lt. Ie aniit-xedi. Si:.metimes the people to be ab-
sorlit-d tlj.tiLt -trl-unvl-il.' to incorporation, and this leads to
rcpealt.d Ieulmini--i.nl otl tel, same question. For instance, the


proipol'ilioni l. anlnex Cicer'. a ,mall community completely u r-
rounded hy the city. has appeared on the Chirago. Ialot no IsF-
than eihlt time,. and the proposition ol annexing Murgan Park
haI- been referred .evLcn tilme-.
Alth.,ui.li the re-idints of territories to le aInnex'ed frequently
reject ii(,h pro-,po;ilk'.-tlii, is never true ,.,f the Chii,'ato voterI-.
Their >.piiniun of the deiirabiility of territorial expansion i' un-
varyiing anid hy do not fail to reuiiter enplihatic approval o.f .-uch
proposition' at every ,pliorlunity. Merits of specific proposi-
iLions eein, to liavei little weic.ht :i compared to the larger ik'ue.
The prol.poitions a;re never ceornilered a, c.ontru\erial -o. far a-
the city i; cr:,ncerned,. and a, a: re-sult. tlhy arie ;eldomin the sll je'-t
o.if cuiumiernt or di;-r-.ion in tlie pres.- durin,- theL pre-elerti'on
period. De-pite tlhi; Iiandi.iap they ii.ually attract the atlttnlion
of a comniiendalily large riroportlion ol the voter; .t the poll.
WhIen sulb-.iltted alone, from i ll''. to 7.'-. of thie aclii~e voer,- ill
normally vote on tleni under the sel.arate I._allot ;y;tciri ni'\
u-ed. \Wen suiibmitted "ith other proipomition,. they can Ihe
eI.e-tei' tdo I.poll an avcragle \lite a. t< nipare*d v.ithl the lhlier
mewniire.. Sonietimen, h,,wevei. their record is niiiulC alo've tithe
average. a- in thie elc.'tion of 1911 iwhlc an 1n Oak P.irk .,nlnexalion
ii',Iasurv received more V\.te; tliarn .any other of tihe lic proposi-
tion, on the- ballot. and hi Jei t h J ite e ict tllht it labored under
a, decided disaJianta~.e Ivy Ieilin thl la-t on the list.

BuNL I -.i.i-

Thie .ec.'nd cl-(n e of nien tlre- to 1ie di-cu--,d rvelatei- to the
i'iulinc: ol Ibonds fBoth county and miuniciipal Iiond i-,ue, re-
quire popular raltiBelitiotr, wilth the result tliat the voters are kept
l.uiy niiiiliiininr all -orls of project; tliht haI e to be tinanced by
I..rrowiin Sini'c,. IsS7 over ixty-[ive p.iropiosition,; of this ch-lr-
acter ha\e IWeen referred to III' terms s and u i11-ni:iy a.1 "evIenl at
ile elcil ion. The: Ipropo.l ii uijn.illy Ilie-entd oii I the Iialliot iii
simple formal, with a tatement of Le aiiount to Ihe hiorromed anrd
the purpO.e of the lprolo.ied :.r.pendituire. Not only arc Ihallothii'
rco Jiitioi-, favor.ile to an intelli-iit \-'le. [Iul i:iond i -;e pro-
pIo-.' -re nii, in.illy the '.our'e.. of *:.-oiidl'i.ile di-t iui ,-,n duii g iii
Ilie pre-ele'i.li.in pri-od. It is rii;toni,iiry f(or thie riicvnew er. to
fe-ature man i ot tlhe.e Ipropovition- in news i well a, editorial

- 10-

c(illiun .iiiand snne paper atno- m in'v.riably recommend approval
or rejection of ipropoit.ion-. 'he voter- are thus usually supplied
. ith anIciuiate -ronnie of ini'fornm.ti,,n and recommendations in
adv'aiv.e (it the electlioi.,-.
It i- Ion:etlime- ,aid that thrb priople can be depended on to
rlfavor bond issue re-.arlc-- of hleir merits or demerits, because
IlorrTTing mo-ny Im;ns -liftiing .lAurdens to future generations
that have to ipay the Iillk." ('hiic:no' experience does not seem
Io bear oul. tIe a ilniptio:n. Priror It 1912, it is true, the voters
ii.,proved ':ii' mIot prCopioiltions to in'.r.-ase municipal and county
deb.ts. Of a tlotal ol"' tIenti.y ieli mnic-ures, only three were re-
jected. One county hlr nd i,-ine iibi emitted in November, 1900,
ni s defeated I-i .1, ote of over tlihr-e to one, after powerful oppo-
*ilion :on thie: part. olf lIte inc I ':l-aer of the city,15 and despite
politi,:-al inflniiii:-c ccrtc-l in favor of the measure. A proposal
to borrow $3,500,000 to complete the construction of the City
Hall became practically a political issue in 1910. The Mayor
exerted his influence to secure its adoption and it was asserted
that one party machine ordered its workers to instruct voters to
"slash" the measure regardless of merits. The measure was ap-
proved by a very large but close vote, over 25,000 voters marking
it without considering at all seven other propositions submitted
at the same time.
Since 1912 twenty-nine proposals, involving the borrowing
of over $40,000,000 have been approved and seventeen, with a
total of over $20,000,000 have been rejected. Four of six prop-
ositions submitted in April, 1914, were rejected. The huge
$4,000,000 county hospital issue, opposed by most of the press
as well as by the Chicago Medical Society, was rejected chiefly
because of distrust of the authorities that would control the
i\Jxpeiditur,.' .ind ithe vagueness of the plan for the hospital.16
The Blircai of l-'lilc: Efficiency pointed out during the campaign
.ii ' .ijit : ti, hat ', been the experience in Philadelphia. "The history
of th.. .*ut.ini:i;.iir.i I ii. .sures to make loans and increase the debt of Phila-
dtelphi., iri rih p,-i friv years, affecting, as they do, the pecuniary fortunes of
I-,er prnrp.-lrr.-ri-liirLI .-rizen should be conclusive-They are approved upon
the ord-r '..' th p.-.lnrr. -- managers without the slightest popular contest."
Ob.rholt.-r F P "Th.- rfir.,.lii. in America" (1912) p. 503.
*'* Se i:'ie ,lI THE CH iC.\GO TRIBUNE of Nov. 9, 1900.
NEWV'. April I'-Il. iTh: lnMar urged the voters to approve the bond
'.-e.: Tl'.; Chir,.acL .\::ociation of Commerce likewise endorsed all proposed


tlhat te pl.l i,.' ..: l fire tIod iititi- -were iiinrletuce-. '.-ry.. $., .S.SllIIl
of previous i -il wAs Atill av.iil;il'le Tlihes' tv.qo propo lakl wv-re
rejected 1-y thie vo\.te.r-. lThe ..thll'r i-ne that rut'l Viil d-fel'.It
\\A- fur ijud'nlcnr nthond. r,.[)r. 'Thi-re i. little dounllt thit tlie v, orer- e' cpre-- rl the Letter ...pirni.nu
of thll. c.I.tmn rt6il'ty. in Je.iliiig ,.it thli li hrid proi.po-i.l- .-t this
c'lc t ion
S \Cn l.lund i-sue Ipropoi-ti,-:.t. -iihrnitted Ap.ril 1i. IV.i;",
r>':eiv:-d v ry little i:ppo-itii.,u I.y th,- pr':-- ain.J ill were .,IIr .',
liy the lne i the inl. uapatlheti'- Ire-el',-.iut.n r.:'r-
ernduniri ..aiil,.iin- ":.- tha, t of Apr il. 1917. when live lnd pro-
pr .-al- ,-ppeared. A ll I-,,. lpt .l i .1 l .ti l.ll.ll.eI 1 i 1i- for I thinn; t l ean.I.'.-
w-rure a.ppi rol ',.'d. ]itit coi: 'n ,i y I.\.ls_ \ ol:te<. T h' IIe.. r.- I I'- C .'! r,
.lthl:, li c-ntr it-l ting ver t ltil.e ti. popu!.i ul.ir :.ili,; tliennl, t. *,,i t-
era.lly f.ivor.-d all Liv;. iii.: eure'." Mentii,:rn ho.'ld al-.... I:. uiM.oJe
o:.f tlie Nu\venl.cr (le.tion of i l.ld r1.r n four .,r,:p.".Il o I,:. bIrrOw,
ii:'noV were n'ulmniitted]J .in.Il a r.er,- rejet..'Jd b, Itle \l.ter, o ,f tih.
'*ilt. Tih.: imu-l. i important i-_ue,. tlia:t of u.i.lt.il.i.itl.i f1 r roadJ
iiii.roiv-,nu'rit in thl **iouinty. altlhotiih di.i-aill*r,:-:'J of i iy the
city voitur-.' w a a. .i ally o*.irried lIy a l.ir,.. ft'avoratile rural
polt'. Thi: press' .a e 'ity. ui wel\ v i, hi relr .'rc ta:ive ,-,al
*rn,in?-Ltlionl- ii tite \W.,ita!' (I'lir,, Cit. 1P,~litinr-' ('I Coniii-ion.
liireiiui o l Pul. li' Eftfineiiy .niJ 1i;i"ny ottlieri l .tid ;hil\,.'i-.aited

i- ine, proipo-d r,...;i. ,ed little *, i-id.r,itiii in the 41ene'rdil Ji--
.l IiIl iiI th ." p[r, l :it i in ,-lt .f iIh' vl i' :i h, Ie f n.I v..i- a d-
'iers -"
'.\lahit.v,:r fhe v. i-,l.ni f I the v .r in ,ltin. on pir.,p>.ials
to. I.rro-tv nion,-y. tlher'_- ..i Ie lillle du-iilt :il.".u. cir power
of diiriirino.tiii. For the L.t teun ,.tr- it lir: ee l i It- niorm.al
thi5i for -olinf I. l.indl i- -' It. I.. in,10:lcd t i i-f ii, .i i l.' ; l iC l,-e
for.'. ; l tion or rje> ti.n. Iii 1l1l1' th tir-I tlhr-,e -u,.L pr': po-.il, were
ST u.. T i IP .N E h-.., ., ..rf, -I.t...,-. J t- F-'arm i'cl.rj ,...rJ ii:u.:, ,.bil,
th-.- D \IL I NEl L r-rcr- ., .-f -ll i;-. :. s itdl r-lj. t(Aine.
T]e. v, r.'i ..I .i th- EECOFiD-HErl.tLDL ,,i lm THl.iiTNE. T..:
\'ENINGi; i l' T ii i.l rn,- I' ..mn.-'i t.'',ni ..tiJ rtit- D U\ILY NE\ S ,p-
p..r il th j: J ]. ', ;'- i,:,r ...m l,.,rl I.r'In,,_
T t .. ,ic:s .,A rh- ,..nr, ,.r.n ih;. ;4 ij.. u,.jl r ,, -fk ..t ,or. the r-, ult i ...;-
IJ-, th'- m ,' ljur '.- ,n, tJ ri.,i ..rl.. h,: pr,.4 ,'.'hith .n 10 ij ,r.i 'r hiih
t ..", lilJ 1,.' i a 0t.:' I.,. .'lk-i ; r-eril 1 -'. 1:. L. t d-Ir . Hi- ,ip-.ri: r ..
i ;n ',jrre,1 ., 0Ih ,I rt., O ib .h. I L --, r,-.rt -., th, t,..L-b ur,. it,.;,' ti rJ ,.. .. -,,
,nd th-e I ,, rr .,.;il r.- i '.,.r' '*:'m -ii ,r, ,- in .-. u ,.,ur.:
-** I. IC \;' DAILY NEl\V, N 1..'. i: iC'.i.C TIlI-N.',E N.,-. .5

12 -

nppIr.V'eIi ,nIl tile la.- tNo, reject: d.r? in the November election of
the ..ain. year. tie fir-l tx.l, prrp.i-.a-l were approved by approxi-
niately '.25.111111 lilajurily, the third i'L.;.ited by 50,000 majority
and thie l-iithi .a iprov'-,e.- I \ alit the- same margin. Perhaps
thei- I,.,i t intern:- tiic ;'.- li,:' .vd. tlit nI le spring election of 1914
Shen -ix I\,il prrmp.i- il r1 .,ppr red The first two on the ballot
' cre:' reic .te.d I.iy >vc. r t .\\t.i l... i.l:. lli: l .lir l approved by a majority
of jll.linll. lhie iflirth reje-itedl Iy a votr- of three to one, the fifth
:IJpprT~vd I,'. '25..l.. i.i m.ij' rily and tIhe- l-t measure rejected by a
majority of" :al-,ou 1-411.iiii. 11 :-l a r .-ord displays no lack of
lip rpl ie ,l tlhe i.irl 'f the ele,-torite.
Iloni i_.: hI -nii uijirilt:d. ,,rdiniarily attract 65% or 70%
ot hl.'-,e tin;ng at lthe cloi:tiion. .\ leant a fourth of the voters
Si., b.h ill.,it li.ir ..-:idid:lte % "ill ;,-let.ir.l the referendum ballot. A
priopoi:1sl i.Ap.rl, 1.111i Lt.. I r.orr., '.m ,1..11.1.l,00 for the county poor
house obtained over 87% of the vote for councilman, and an issue
of $3,000,000 for a new county jail received a total of only 54%
of the votes for candidates at the November election of 1917.
Disregarding votes from 1890 to 1900,21 these two instances
represent the extremes. The percentages normally run higher
than those on annexation measures. They are also subject to
more decided fluctuations.


The referendum has also had a very conspicuous part to
play in the solution of the problem of local transportation. In
1900 the city was at the threshold of a prolonged campaign to
improve the street railway service. The traction difficulties had
their origin far back in the days prior to the adoption of the
pre-ent 4tate .~onititution, and the situation in 1900 can be more
c'liIrlcy-i i:.iiIreIlentlhd .it'fr a brief review of preceding events.
In I n'.!l :an11l IS;I. inide:r -pecial acts of the legislature, the
Railw.-y (Cilnli.,li tle N,,rth Chicago City Railway Company
and; tle (Chli:.ago. \\'Vet Divi ion Railway Company to operate
lii- in llthe ..ity .1:1i ~lib:llihb for periods of five years each.22

-l r..r .;;. -, .i i ..i ti r. p i-r....J see Supra, p. 25.
i .:l I '.a.r..,l.-i tr.' alr.ur ..-i the C( i...i -.. reaction qu.:-, ...i -.e Fairlie,
J. A T* h- .-tru-t I.iI .'. u u -..nii in ("!.,: ,i.." in the Quirrlrl Journal
,:,l L '..,.,ii r,,i, ;, V ,\ I.| 11 ;;7 1 [ r ,;.


An aII latry.' .uct olf 186.5 furnished the bai-is for the later
coitroversy. Under it tlhe (Cou.cipaiiier t laimelll their frInchli.-,.
hlid i':.i'on extnde-d t-..r ninety-nine year_ from th.e Jatie of the
origin.il .irants. Fr-:om lthe-. begin ring. thle ity eniedl tinl vlidity.
i.l tihe laii f. I-uit iln 1SS.', n I n I, 1 .- que.,'ti.n :1I fIrauehi,- renewal
are<.', in:. delinit,.' ettlein-iit wav., iire n ei. l inst d. Ia t ir.tr
C' oliir Iiriii \1e i ri e orteid .t Lo [lu 'i,; ;i ii Oll iio i -il 0 Itcnjinii
the Itruinhiie s i',r twenty years without prejudice t,. the right
*f the cityv o:r the 'oml.anit e. Final :l'ition wia thius pl. f.:t n.
until [ i jll',. In the ieii nti'ii c th:- cI ni| iiei i ll- weL i their pr oper-
ties to deteriorate and thereby arious-Je, general diss.itisf.tioin
by poor service, and for justification, they pointed tIo tlih. un-
certainty of a future extension of their privileges. Wlii-l v.ari,-Li,
attempts to obtain long term renewals were made Jduring li't
niineties they all ended in failure.23
Such was the status of the problem in 1902. A .,.nsideral.le
public opinion favoring municipal ownership of thil lin .i: l d
developed as a result of the street railway companies' policy.
As the time for the municipal elections drew iicnr. it v. a.
decided to test the strength of this movement by invoking. tlih
Public Policy Law, which had been passed the pr,.vi. iu y,-ar.
The real issue was franchise renewal vs. municipal purchawiic .i .d
operation of the lines although the proposition, a siilmittdI.
merely asked for a vote on the question of municipal on nership.-'
The result was decisive. With four-fifths of the ,ti:. vi o 'tcrs
marking the measure, five favored municipalization t.. every
one who opposed.
The results of the referendum seemed clear and I-onincinen
but obstacles, almost insuperable, remained to be. ov-rci-.i hflfore
definite action could be taken. The utility compani'.-s litur.illy
opposed any steps toward municipalization and, to Ilor'k any
action to oust them, proceedings were started in the Fe'deral
Circuit Court to test the v'li'lily .o'f the ninijty-t-i' year franiidiis
act of 1865, which was th,'- ouniir- (.f the di;rite. li July. lOy:l.
23 In 1897 the state legiIl~Lur.. p-::,:d tr.. AII..u lat. ,..,''rIrni ...u ..illr-
the power to grant street rilil'.' rr ..[l::: ,...r tilt -yVar I'rn- Lud.J.r th..*
Cities and Villages Act of 1'- 2 t--, eyi \':ar: w : tIh,: iiaximu[ .'.., r'..at
was the popular outcry agairn- h i .h I-a l,-.h t th,. Cbi.a., '.It\ .....u.D' rIr.iiri'.
from taking advantage of the Ii-v a.id tivu : ar: lat,:r i ti, r'.p'.aul.d.
24 On the ballot it read a fIilo Ar.. iou in fa -or f1 rnuni. ipal ,n:., n..r-
ship of street railways?" \th ,t hi: -.-h'l,.n 'a: ubmitt,.rriir.J a iinlar prop-
osition with reference to the iiihtiing uttiliie'


the old Iran:hi'es expired and Coiunicil extended them for ninety
ldys: p:cnding ta pierman.-unt adjusIn.tmeit.-' ul not only were the
utilitie% opposed; rianI'y Ieoplc aniiie to fedI that municipal owner-
il. to: purchase or or olrate the linell, and rould not proceed until
the ;tate legi-.lature had zranted the nee-e-ziry power. Further-
Iimoire. even tlioul the nlce-as. ry authority might be obtained,
action wild pr,-,hthobbly e idl.'ayed h iy y:tr olf litigation, already
,begun in the (Court.:l.' (OranlzuiJ op)l..oiti:lii to municipal owner-
-.lip I,,ari to appe.ir.
(Onc otl t he-e dtficulctie, a;- Sp,'edlylv ovrcome when, in its
Il..3 sessi tnhe Il.fi-lal.ire i:issed] th i Mueller law. It au-
thoriizei. citle- to- prih:lh.i~e an'I opirrate street railways after
the o\,ter. .ri'f Ull\ city had. I.y P jplular vote. accepted the law.
It alCo provided for approval by I tie: voters of any definite plan
under it for ptur:lh.i-e or roperatirn. The referendum was thus
iimade a n':,:e%-ary part of any furthLr action. In October, the
City (C'outli:il provided hby ordJinaniie for Iuinmitting the question
o-' ,aldo lting the Mueller .aw at the htrtlieco-,ming spring election
:f 1'.1.14. The voter-. adotuled it ly a majority of over five to one,
and tihu.i ettledi the question of thle polI:,i: r of the city to act.
Before iroieeuding tlrther. however. it r..is thought desirable
to turn t., tl Ic people lor ':nliLtennirtnit. ?o a t thle same election two
,liiestionil o| public poli:'y ivwere s.l-nmittnitd One inquired whether
it would lie i\ie. dliould tIhe Mueller l.w he adoptedd, to proceed
at .ionc to acqu:.iire Ilie properties. I'he other asked whether the
voter. w~ouild approve a pi licy of li,:eni-in2. the companies to
operate until imunicipaliza.tioin Lould I-e effected, rather than
riiinii thie frauthi:i .-' Tlie voters answered both queries in
the .ilrrninatie hy alnmot i.lin[tii:al \vote,. The most interesting
fe.llure ot the volin w.s- that it hliov.el a clear loss of 20,000

CiICA.\GO TP.i I:UNE, Jlul, ..1,I... At iti close of the period a
furthl.r r-xlt.n':.n .n 1 n -in.-r Jsi waI u,,.,- It ,.] N.. 30.
:- ".,1 l~'I : 1, '3z i f e .r r.r-:-d tv Iil' Cir.r if 1 .1Jration early in December.
C H IC ,\G O I R I BI-iN E F i, 1,'. PI,...
-J Th- q 4u.- ti.'r r.rr, a..rdrl .'ii it- ballot i n, f allows:
1 SI.:lI tih.: City C."ut., il, up.'ni rii- II..pl n l. .f e Mueller law, proceed
T iihoul .J ay :i., t,. .ui,. th. *...w :r hip l.[ th.. rltr-t railways 'Jn.-lr the power
..u.'nirr,:J. t 1, ll. : iu.:;ll:r \la .
2. sIbaj l tt,- Citi Co>ua..il, im-'a,:.;J ,..f cgratInII_ any franchises, proceed
at ImO, urnJd.r tlh.. .,ir p p .h,:, . p.:,..:r .Jnd .:.itb r .: t:llug laws to license the
:tr..,.t rail r i .)rrnipjar,. until tnmuin.ipal :.'r n.r:hip i:an be secured, and com-
p..I i'h..r.I to li% l : .'l.I' .rv i i.. ?'


votes for tLhe .taii- ol municipal o*viershlip. Th- total iuljI:r
ol voters part ;I.ripati ; in thi. rel..r- rindiin] \wa nilrnio t .xactv ltlh
;.imlt .1i it liod letiln t.o ,-.ir; l.nito? r'. l tlh. a uirllmn.itile ra-
jority haJd .1 vindl.'d Ireon lt\-.. to orn to tHo to: on:'. Buit it v;i
-till trong; enriO:L li to l-;i little iunc.rtainty aihoiut tl.- 4i-,h -
htL- vot.r-. 'slitc tIe hit lihat inmot .: t li..- uj_-" apr rs hail.
du1rinu1 tihe .iijpairn, ;tronly ur;ed tlien to rejc.t loitlI I.rolphr si-
tioii .-'
The ;ildv'to int ot munuiciial ovwner-ipij-) b.'galn at ,nI.t t(o L-:e
.oun il to carry ouit ti lic nsiig npoli_.y thli. r vol.:r d: ;rdl.
but events conspired to prevent. In May the Cirniit Court
rendered its decision which virtually upheld the claini. of tihn
street railway companies with respect to lines op<,.;rat.ed pri.r
to 1875, i. e., before the cities and villages act, limiting, fr.in:li,i.'
grants to twenty years, had been adopted by Chliapo.:' Al-
though the city appealed at once to the Supreme Couirt. tLh.-
decision convinced many that the only practical soltutini ,;i-
to resort to franchise grants. Council decided that thli d...ii-:in
changed the outlook so completely that it would Ili jii-,tfit:.d
in disregarding temporarily the voice of the people an ext.pre-red
through the referendum. In August it prepared .1 te.ntiativt_
ordinance to extend the franchises for thirteen year.- i'until 191i I.
at the end of which period, the city was to have tilh ri-lit to
purchase. In return, the companies were to surr,.nd:-.r tlitii
claims under the ninety-nine year act of 1865, mal:e erxteniiiv..
improvements and turn into the City Treasury anni ll., tife
percent of the gross receipts.30
Opposition to such a program was inevitable. A tptition
was soon circulated to invoke the public policy act ine..-. more
to determine what the voters thought of the propu-.l, .and th1.
whole matter was deferred until the April elections ,ilwen a iitn
Mayor was to be elected. This was considered .ll tb. i ore
desirable because the traction question was certain to lie tl:h
main political issue in the mayoralty co:iitl:st. i or ILrri-on,
although an earnest advocate of the rfI'Iercnduili, had c.,'"i..- to
favor the franchise policy proposed by C'ouilln:i! iu li.ieu :" ullnic-
ipal ownership. This was probably'the -hi,.l' r.iason lonr hi- dlcat.

28 CHICAGO TRIBUNE, April 5, 1904.
29 Ibid., April 7; May 27, 1904.
30 Ibid., Sept. 3, 1904.


lor lncomiiirlitili IIn tihe Dl)llinerlrti. tic'k t. .III.ge )uilnne. 1he
noi-in re \ Io iipIpjl.'inled limi, v. a, a ii j rdn'it lippi f rti r ot' imii -
diji inu l c[i( -p I ovi:iI 'l ll' ipi T ie llepi.il.,li:i:-; s-. nilllia ittjd l r.

The ;l rell.nioul C:'iili.ilin :rtin'ed 11 r;ilt intere-t inJ i :ll-id t'orth
; large \ote .Il.i t Dtill! ni i rl'?-.Ltel d W ith ,1 'l .'I.I.hI illiajoritv.
Thi' tIt.il V'ot.' lor lALr was .i.i.:.,. Til.- three pulii ):l.y
vte-s .\e'rn ul'eliiinly o))pp,'- od ttliiJn, lth eel raiila.iVy ,Il -
tion hi grnrllin r r:ii, a iin' '. .dilptio il til tlin prI)roljp'iId o:rdiiliniice
t.i reje>.t.ed I,*y j4 l;t 01 to 1.i.1'.b ;illd c-\l:-ii S-.tL'n, i er ppo.-Iitiion
n\,s. i'il tei1' -l Cr.,iiir t ,*.l'.iiihn :111iV 'rin li-hie to lie (I_'in| iuo
Stre'vt .1il';i1 (A ((inIIi.IIly >or t .n iy nitlitr ia ti|ll .n y l Bll .i.e
uf tie >.lu:. LIyhoejilt ><.ii L" :st Ui.ih," VNol'_-t I.'tile out t, \W ,te
for tih mi' ,nilid.ll.ne;, I,(o n'ei'ni noit ,.u"-to rin'ld ll to t:ikin.I, prt in
thel iilii ;pial el- tlionmi. Fri'rin thi, ;nrphii. m,' to tnlak, tihe
opIjonelnti ol1 tlhe Iraniic:l ie ilic:y t C'ounj iil obtiltai(.nled tWice as
ili:llV \ %,l A f i t li(-, 1 n0 0 IO :"'.t'rned it.
A.nther \- r v l.,i.' eJ duriini v hn h thlin itn- tiivo'>ir. I,-i.l.ied
I>,y \11int .ippi::reir'd to it. tin' phil.1iC .pilpiinol 101 t[hit CUlillilnnily,
All,\'I rovc- t, l~In' I.i ,- i.li t'Ll lh .1 iu a -tilk' (.',:in:1-il. Fiirt ier rel'-
'-rei'ln i v '(- Iit' .i l-. ir in er. tif l Nl l'iler T hie.. ri[n Vi-ot,'rA l:ld
a'doipt-ed tic. act anii d ;l ier.v 11d the l"nel;iral I.poli,.- ,' In IiliiC-
ilip), i7,titi, iidli'r it I.i iit i,.Il. d : iit l I ,IliI I,.1 ll1. 11 'lt \X Ili .Il fl tallnn '.
(' ll, i il ImI. ii el. d t. -n illinit tll Ii'r p i-.l tiolti i l 1)ll1ii.-lipral
operation iiinder thine Muellr I. w'. It .arried. it Voiild n iid;:e
im-.hli iprl. iir:- ln.I., .dilng -ind tlinia dil'i-red I'rolln llnil.- r preoll ling
ile'.il-ir>'_ tlh1.t 'v.-r nert I ly t'\I)rt--it lon '' 4 ,inliphini Thii I.nl't

'fr" i- -,i f1 i in ,th t'rni :tniV'. til'- dinll.r-ni -. \.i-ry -i.lnt,13
iand -iilll .1 tlir'-t-f-lir il.nijority reniiIired bny l,i\ til l nen-!i -

F r I upi., t i. ., [- .0 'i1).
STh. pr,.,.j, ii',.,ir: .i c appc rd oIu tl i- L I., I J it h- f,..lii,..rg i r lim :
I -h.ll Ih '': Co:'uLi l i.': ni- .. r ilr ,L.- r p..rlr.d I.', ih, L.,
TrJr:pr.ii.rl tii ,n iururil-. i.. ihe C''.iri:il .Aui ut -'24, I'1114, i.rar in'g ;.1 rlu-
*_ 4:h t." I ie < li.:lCu rr- l r 'i il-." i\ i .'_, *
2 P,1lI i he (Ci I o',' ri. l Pi 5 : .ir. i.rdJ;ir:an : rirl i_, .ini., frrn hb;- t.
Ihe C'hi. -_- ir. ls jilr. ,-, I (.',
:. 1',11H C r' i'l.7 'Ou,_.:l I 0 l: .. *'_r.liri ,.0 -r.it1iur. i f.Li r 'hi ,"
t i ', i r .I r.nl j i.,l:,lajr u. ', '
Th.; *...r r. -i 12.-.116 r...r IL.: un .i:urfe A.id 11 .-.2 *-J iLu-1 .

- 17-

tire % defeated. Thl'i re~ijlt; tbo.wed llut the idhll .cate i ot
munic-ip.l o.iwne.-rd'ip had oi' uipproI\im:ately 30.1i00 .i( pporttr%
While their opponenlt- howed a A.uin oil" .lilli.I. The major prop-
oitiion Va utcc(:-omp;inied 1,\' tlo oth,:er.-one to, iNSue street
r:ilw\v:;. *::e'rti ti.ate; to delr.ay tlhIe .'Nxp,.n're o:.l iiliuijiipal purc.'ha.
,:f the line,: the mother. a piibli, piii( ilue'tion :orf a e>n>'r.ial
iliature .-In [lie dleirrFliility' oIi irninediati: mlninriializrtii. '
BIctlh carried. lout ..v .ucih -m.all Imajiritie; that the re,-ult wa\.
i.on-iierreJ irndi.td'ivic. aniil. intt-rpreted in ic,.iiiecitioi with pre-
viou v'li- <;-e andl the e'Il :l d.l',:i. l th,, l"ri in ii:'t'-tioni il Ilie
l.*allot, in tlie --pinioni oft ni ny people .inmouiitedi pr: r:tically to
a repudiaition lhe poli' y ol munif ipal .u wner.hiip. Thi opinion
\wa .tr,~ irlgtlhi'il 'i y the fact that tli r'terreniidiiii attran'ted ;J
lar,:''r proportion tI lh .li v ;ti\e voter; than in ainy ouhi.r lprviou.'
halliting.. Tlb? vlolini could tlhu- lbe cinstru.i d ai' c. more
complelli? ,?Xpri:'.ri iotn o1' [lll. Upiio ll.' tai ha prev\tihi.-ly 1.1:1:I
Tie- reiIut- oA I thlie' relerend.t ri.atinally m'ivmoiraged hien.it'i oI a. Iraiinrhie-gran.iitJg p.lii:'y to proceedl with a prO:L r
alonen the.i line'. Thtir pirollemn v1 i wa i -mt"Il hit simiplified.
Thie -treet rail".;iys hiid leeln reiider.' miiiire: traiit.ale Iy a V:-
ci'ioni huon their' Spreme oumrt ,ol t'he UTlnited State'r. \\hi:chl ouer-
rule'd the (ircnuit (.'iurt iandl mniae i -Hle<.ti' Io: t olf thel" cdainiii
iI the .oilmpaili'. ililuiir thie idinety-iiiim: year :it." .\A Wli-
f;a(:try l'rain-:hii-e now s.eeinmed I postiililityl. Alter in..i.i.liationti
"iltli tile ( ilp.lrili'.. (_'ouni -il paru it-i in orrJiii.iii:c' pr,,. idinii
ir at m.oir ilatii l i of prilatie operatioi:n iini'r li<.cii -e revoi:i-:,l.
on -'i muntlih notice. The city res'er\edl te rihtl to, purchuine
lor the ;ujin "i1 5.11ii.l)iliiIl pli i *ot,- ol future impro.vem'ient-.
A originally. fra miild. the ordlina .ic d:ld not provide lor r:till-
cattio l..y p,,pular vote. bl.ut pretu'--re troug h to l.,ear ly tlhe
Miy,,r a nd friud]- ,I lhe r:f'-erndin, led to ,.111 ;auiiInAdment re-

T hI. .4u,-I ....- ', r.i'r, ..r, th- b ll: .t f.ll..x. .
I i ll tl. C'r. (oun il.' pr.'..'-1i ril.,ui 3J. t. ...cmur. nirnir..pil m nt.r-
-hip .1" all -lrf a i r, ilam -\ .m. i .'.':i unr.1,- ilre I .IIkr Ih v ii; ii- .1 ,. p, -iri.;:
(l Ir ,p.niim-, Irifn.-hi-e i..rJdin.inr'. i..r :,i ,r h r Lr ir ntin fr.n t.m'r,: 1. pri .p i ,
".'nlp.mrd .;"
I l. r p r.c iv r .ru- i 'r,- -'lu l -, ',. cl stL -*:.i lr or C.'rn-
.JTrl.- (l,: ,,-,.r iO' i,-, 2'A-.isJ d- "... iil 'S. r4p1 ,)'t. l,
BI'Iir h I:'I.;.' -,-,:.'1 U.1 l W-_1).

- IS-

Z r- '- i a a -
-- -rr .--.: ) i

S. ..-

-- ,

r c
--- -- ------

t:. %


^1 ~ ~ ~ 00 0--00-------0-

00 co
HMlc 8 S
3 -- - 0004-C-

2Z ol col e--
CA -

02 q3 &a raE-c

CC) CD c C)C6C)

U 0 003 03 3

Oi C 0. 04c o lA .
0) 0 0)hg <
.- -0Q




:i,.iiriing suIlmiii.-sionJ, on o pietiiii:, ;it tihe im in.ii. ipal h.t lhin of
P,. Mu '
T i.' \i..tt.l -..<,:'u:,:d to: Ieali:, tl t tht nI r ln- ut ,oni-
trvi'r'sv haid at li-t rei:alied a c-ri-i.. Eic-ht.-nirnie pc'r:-cnl. .
the 3S:.I'M- pi.rticipLatuiL a the elec:ti.n:. nmarkel: the rcter:.n-
j,.n, 1 .illot. Thin? ri'pr clted liciarly "',. ol the' entire rt-is-
tered electoi,ite aind 'waj the nuiat .iinpl:i.ie e-\pretion ft tihe
p iupulr iill that 11ii. thus t: rI ,-ce-il ,,iit ed i.'n .aln pulIiIL (Ile -
hion. Tl :' io di.: .:' v.l 1 ,. [pte,-! I-, :-ai ,]itij l by ,1, 1 o .:r f.i.000.
',jth affirniAitivc ad nle;ga'it-e stes "ere iu hI lai;:'i th!;n at
the elMiutir.,n ii the preI.',idin v\ear. b.ut th ,: . pail i.-ni:rer-lip. ri'pr.:';eintid I -y tie n':. ti v, te :. '-" 1in,'d ,:,unl
12.tilit.~ i ot, Ii 111 th0 r : oppulifli- s k nlliid --e. ne--. l i ll rlj 411(-
1'^. (I`I. ,_t'--. ".v iil,- tlhir o[pi-i.| heiil" tl ,.,I ', l i' .7.1 '1inr !e' lll-p-
pur ers."-
It ni.nlcl. thul;4 eemn tlih.t Ilert v.a ,*-il.it-h, i ha.in e ',f iip;ln-
iO.m on the Antje.-t L ii Ilunicip.liz:ntiLin In: .ic,:n lfl,.i and wi'i;.
But it !-h:,uld I:., r .in e ,'Ie.,-d th.it e,-n'lit -, l hId ls:, h ;i-'ed.
In 11t 1'? there -ei nime to l-e little It. .,ie ,-I t*ettiini thl'e r'.u.ti a:i.lr\
,:,tm ,.iie-s .t .i r:rei: t.:,i a I.ranri hiii.: thAl t vwo ld h h..il d i:.it ,-t.suir-
ar:ic's ofI better ,:-r\ ih: rh,.e public. The \-,ter~ tin mid to iuniic-
ipa.dl iv, ner-hip andi opernati.ii tas the i..inl. prumikini coh it. n. ..r-
prhp A,- .an ll Ied i 'u t ti'e. u..lo:n i ith |hi-h to:. li-t the tra.itioii
:.l:,ii[llpine. \B l1r417. hi w.lver, tle lOminiI iet. dep ri-ed i-,, tih1t r
in li l ,iippi'orts I ly tle deql'-t i n -.i lbl tl,: tlilrenl;e ('utLlrl .3!ld ( 1l tl
i:ity'" lurelti.]'d J,.I *" : r to inuni,?ipaiiz :'ere, imni:re r',::nli.il ta y.
T1he ,:.i' -ny .tiz-t iiiiit Ip inllerpreti-d i. -.iish._iig .a prelerei-nu
lfor luni:ir.aip. .li'-atil,.n rallier than I co.'nti lni ti i.n -o l' th uld rir,. iue.
and the voting .ii aI!.i' pi ijeilornt.cii, lr ',.b 'hnite' plan that prom-
ised immediate icli-f. .ilthlioulh in i.,lvi3g [privaie control. to- a
still vague and -t..-irt.iin pr.,.iraini ut i.iieI.iclili,.atioi.
The acceptance or le ordinian.,r ,f I'l9i7 ,ttled th? tra,-tion
prinl.,cliln -o far ais (:oiIlceried 1il- fi.- l.in.,- lil1"., hill lle in'r-e:1 -
inr.ly iniportart ,pr..,hlem _Ii ra Iid tI.ioniiporlt lion reminained.

** e TiP T-'opew .p F. is a "..il.dI. .:r :ln:t 1. rt 'I r.._ru. 6 b.
..rd;nan,.. Th,: C( IC.i:'' !' THI[ Bu'iE ;r. 1rt.:J ., :;ra'v I ..t,. ,l.,.b 1
D :,ir r ,J .I: jli l .r r i.. i rr jri ri .: . r- r- .'s r- t i'zi d L t [I': l' :d r,.'cl-. J,
h-.:..:,-\er ni..pl r;in l'.-il ,,,l r rl,- r-r,.e,- : t- fe' -r.-r I 1.,Lr ,*, rI **.,ibti p.'upl.
V ert. .p irF c tIl' li;L 11 01h ;'n I re!i ridijrrt i j3 a irI urita .u T tI, :,--. e h.-
ir t r,.-n problem . :'-: r ,- C 'HIC.\' Ax T NIB Ni E. ) .. -l 1, 1ii,.
STihe CHIC.\'t; T 'IBHIN, CHICA'G INTER;-i'CE.\'.. ind thl
D.A ILY NEW S ill i .:.r- r,,- t.. ,-..pi ...r n ..1 It. i.r.J ni . th J. : Ir Eiu .-e,
the -i.-.-4'i- ful can .Ji .t- t..-r n -.-:.r The H-ir l piper. re ,ppr:.-.

- 20-

M.II y plan. fi. ip. sI-.'c; r sulJi\ys and extensions of elevated
lin.' had I.I.II '. ,lv\ld. I:lt tli,:. hrst to receive definite approval
of tllh cilty aiuliwritit- i i l[ ihe -o-called comprehensive scheme
o:f 1.114 TIi' ..randii:is,' Io-l.ii. v. Iich called for total expenditures
lI' i:v.'-r 'i Iiihmlir.d iiil;-i1 Illlir', was designed to meet all pos-
-il.il- tr:LIsi..>. rt.lliti n rt:'.qui; r,-ii,,.uL S for a long time to come. It
"w.- s4u'iported h, the i\M.yozr. hut the press was practically unan-
ilnioiu in :,opp..-ing it c!li:.y I.ri:use it was said to be too indefin-
it,. tor. Irl.'r,- a tin.rn.i! iiird.!'rt:aling, and went far beyond the
inw of th: city.'t Tih pr'..lpoition attracted wide interest, but
iintJ v.iith o..'iln .lming disapproval at the polls and the project
w.is .Ir,:p[,I ,.
II aipp'-r:i d ;gain, however, in a different guise at the No-
vember election of 1918. On August 22 of that year the City
Council passed an ordinance providing for an elaborate scheme
for the consideration of surface and elevated lines and the con-
struction of new subways. The city was to construct the sub-
ways, but the operation of the entire transportation system was to
be vested in the Chicago Local Transportation Co. The city
was to receive a subway rental amounting to 6% on its investment
while rates of fare, at least for ten years, were to be controlled
by an irremovable board of trustees. The plan amounted prac-
tically to a revision of the settlement of 1907. It met with the
vigorous opposition of Mayor Thompson, and of labor, chiefly
because, it was claimed, it failed to protect the city's interest.40
On the other hand, it received practically the unanimous sup-
port of the press, some of the papers devoting more space to
the question than they gave to the rival candidate for office.
A .n i._ lit i,1 civi, associations also endorsed the ordinance.41
Thi: I.'r-v.ilinr; ii.,ir-ssion among the masses that the proposed
iiTrran.-.ii..'nt woul.l result in increased fares probably contribu-

'ui, .,. Il.- p' ition of the CHICAGO EVENING POST, theDAILY
N lV.". *I,.I t L. I.EC iRD-HERALD. The POST referred to the scheme
,-- tr,: ,',..., .prl...h r-,. l,: -ui ,,,ay."
'" Thi. Ci'I:.I'c Fi:J.rion of Labor, the Cook County Realty Board,
lit C'iii.'..':' PrItrln:jl r.,jal.ir League and the Greater Chicago Federation
ncr,_ th. .A;.l .i orear;:ar.rrn in opposition. Former mayors Harrison and
u;.,;,: A- 0l ,*,'*
1 .\rni.i.: ilhn, w-r.- ih- Chicago Association of Commerce, the Chicago
:..Jl EL: ire ,o:r-I, iht- ''.c-:-.is' Association of Chicago, the Civic Federation,
It._- '_'ti. ..o ir.,-,, n C'iii .,Ad many improvement :A ;o. i.Laon1 The news-
[.p'.r-i r .,..I ,., i, ., n, r .. r the ordinancewere the CHICA'.\ ii TRIBUNE,
E\VT-iI: i I.)T D'1ILY NEWS and the HERALD-E"'K.iIINEL.


ted m,,re than .any other (ie tarc-tr t1i its final detect. In th,-
Ionig hi-dtory oil' popular vot in 'i Chi'ca:'.o. uo olher nid.~urc h.Lad
ever s.iii-.ied, in dr;iwiig oult sii :h ;a large proportion of the
\olter. Stated in -pecirec terms. the vole ou th -: lr;tionl m ii.i:-
iur repr [.,si-elnt d "'c, of the enilire clec'orantc an over ,'.r-' i. of
tlie v ite .it the elerrtion.


Some voters are, of course, never attracted i.,y ribli:rcid:n
Thern.' ;L nl\ay-. a certain proportion of stay-at-ihoime th.t .~ain
not hie ir.-n i ut to elections by any issues, be they inl:n or minc.s-
uire, aid ot thli.e who ballot for candidates many will di-r'i ~grd
lroil.'-.itiioi-. In Chicago, the silent vote, so L.r ai (on.:ern-.
re.ferndCl lias varied enormously. At one election it ainmouti'I
to S"; '-, n,' the registered vote, while at another, it .inoiunited
to only 24%. These are the extremes, but the v.,ri.atiou Ilas
r'i-.n so marked that no statement of averages for the april
from 1890 to the present would be of value. )0 tlhos- voter-
participating in the elections, from 10% to as many .i S;'r,. I ha.
refrained from voting on propositions. At times, tlihrcfor'e tie
silent vote has been a negligible quantity while on other o,:..-
sions it has been so large as seriously to impair the \:1IiI: of the
the vote as a means of reflecting public opinion.
Various factors have contributed to product the-e rniiult,.
One of the most important is the element of publicity -ivcn the
measures prior to the voting. Unfortunately, tih, law' -i t ll
State make no provision for pre-election publicity, .i(nd it .ny sM.li
is to be had, it must come from the press, from tih .ativitiei
of civic bodies or from candidates for othti::., wnlo interest thl.ii-
selves in measures. Many propositions hb.ie u ndoul.itedll y i u '-
fered from lack of publicity. It is p.r.l'ably oin: ofl the re.d-)on
why state-wide measures, not directly allecting th fewer voters than do local measures. They hl;'-c no hlowal ptori-
sors to explain their merits. On the other hand. th.:- numeroi.-
measures involving the street railday ,-.ontri\ver.y .iniJ iminy
bond issue proposals have lhad their ative aio ol tl'e pres-
and the other agencies imenti,:ion.l. Suii:h pni.'po-iti.ll-. a:-


the lr.oLtion ]i-rdinnii::'. 1ul.nmitlted in Aliil. ].i107, aniidJ the com-
prl-ho'.n;i-- ii ,ulawai -chiemne ,ct 1914. be(_ani-. in ta(t, the vital
iuer's nof thel.: ., .il'.iign r and lneri,-l)lp rs. I.lcal chivi:- organiza-
iions .iid political iiharlhine- .-ill rnntrilited nto present them to
the vtr fromni ll aiinl'-. lldi'lr -iu< ri instances it is not
-'ir)ri-inig thli. thel-e lu,:'t:.ir- aIl.rae:,J ;ir more voters than
,ioher Ipr -'. fa'l ioran ly l.ack,:. 1.' I Iuhl.11:iky.
;,:.nl:ir:l di;'liio. 'i ne i iire~ dliirinrj the campaign is a
gr.ea .;i in ibriniig .'ut a lir',: v:'t'.- But I l-rr are other factors,
-'oni:' of : h, ilire.t el't.-(. on thlr iz',-' f th.- v.'te. S,)in have been so im-
Ilonrta it in t(_'itin in Chi'ca4, that [!Ie. deserve more ex-
telinjil icn:idi-l'ra in.. \ hii :.n 11,i thnin.v hI mentioned the form
ol the I'a.llit Irs 1 in the \otiig, the liietli.'d of presenting the
iiim'.ur :I1 on lh.:- I..llli't and the position on the ballot.
Tin, inlpi'.rt.IItl changes in ballot forms have been made
diJirirn. ti i pteri-d iinider review. Prior to 1890 the so-called "party
ball,:I'" u a. ui.,'l. It was customary for each political party to
rp;nt it; oin I-,allit. and include thereon or not, as it preferred,
:ii.y l)r-.'.s-itini that was to be submitted to the electors. If
the party kladJers I.,.-ked with favor upon a proposal, they caused
to :,b printed 'in iih ballot the affirmative side of the proposition
onliy. \'hn -uI h it ballot was cast by the voter, it constituted
a hllaink,:l alppr:,;val '1f everything on it, including the proposition,
unl-' thlit \,ti,'r indicated disapproval by "scratching" it. If the
party l' id ler disliked the measure, they could print only the
iin: .it-. I'f lith pr.ilOosition or sometimes, with equal effective-
iic-. omit it altc,.'lther.42 Under such conditions it is obviously
i"1:'le 1- to. I'.ook t, thL election returns for much light on the sub-
ic it >o ?l,'e-t:.ral interest, for there were too many opportunities
t..ir .iiitn.atlii votin_. Such was, in fact, encouraged as a device
t. oil.'baiii lo.>rniil ;ani tion of propositions that had to be approved
I i nin :i iij:.rity o:f i!l the voters at the election, as required by
thI.- statte onliituti<:.n. From the records it appears that most
ni\ea-i.irD:. in thi IpLriod succeeded in attracting from 85% to
90', lif th .oAter>-? talking part in the election. In f.[l., a satr,
cori-titutilInal ,iamnlme ment proposed in 1886 received over 96%
'" TI a. ir iru.. ..ht.n the proposition required a mrn ijrir at the election,
w I'r,:,ju..r ll n ih.. i I e.

- 23 -

of tli: total v.ote in C'liic,:.l anJ i:ione ,Jtli.r siL ilar ,i' i;e.rc in
I 5On oltaic-ned O''-, oI thi':- :nitire vot':, for ean nidate.
Th,: u [llitii, dle' vii. .xr llnieiii. vould iiI thi..mi.l i. ,ii--
crrejit any au1i v .icnptioni that these Il..i: nt.'lt,: iiliiatedl n .I:-
tern-ive ele(t-oral intern:t in ti:fret:i:la. l.iii there .are ollth.r reasons
for kslp.tiai-ii. RI.lferetin-e to one el:ktioi will. pI,[ha;ips, iltfirIe
a' ;i illIltritioi of [' a ii,:arr', to line .ien ;: iiorin.il >.in-
*Jitio,.. In April. IS'7. here was ;ii.miitteii .it .a i....(.i.! :lI?-t,:ii
lhe [i.roii:riitiol to nihdoit for (liiciia: thic gt.'e'ral rity cl iarter
Inaw of lbS71. It x.js :iJ1 uitt;1 i: ly 11 e 1:1f tlhe nic) t iiii[iiirt.ii. l i 'llt -
tii.ni that Lhed, (c.oilroiintI tlhe v oter- .if the c it did. jlalifi l clI.iile5 in tlie 'rg:anic lhiw. 'I prIr,<', wn, 41ivih i]d
on thle I ie-li,:,i ol ; I.!o, ti ,:. il II a 1 Je% ote l ia, h -p, e .-I: to l..'
,Jii .!-,._.io, ,:l th, ,., r N ol iti-l -lS.l i _'l 'i 1-k n i .ls and the
inil-'0Cir. eC o'f tlhe dqo(-ltio:I., th:- .,n1ll: o:.1 tlihe voIter- rI-luel] tlo
intere-, t their el'.- e-. \\ill! a tIotlI ele' tor.ite ol al.o.it i;ii.uli,.I."
ail..out oni-I.iitd went to tlie Iail-. A I,r'_-e .lro,:,.rli..n ,of thii
iniiil..?r conu.i,;te-il 'f p.irty-w\orr.:'r'S *'llc l :,ut :it th-: I1.che't lI
tliheir leader. and iii-.tri.u: til lh:w v:te.''
A s'e(oi.j.l plropoli'"iri, t tlhii ele.li.,n r.rl.'ted to Lthe aidloption
of minority representation in the City C'oinil. Re. o itio
oti iiii:'ority parties was a live issue at the tiui:. The iir .lile
coutitiltio: n had just established cumulative voting iin -el:- tinr
lieiiler.- ,:,i the lower house of the state legiklnture. arnd tlih: lny'. i
had made minority voting optional for tlrhe itii:-. -iiJ.-dI. l .y
the vote at this election, one could hardly i:yl it w n a poiuljr
measure. While approximately 22,000 cast Iba!llt floir or ;,iaiii-.t
4 The CHICAGO TRIBUNE opposed. while li- i'HIi'.'Ai- TIM 1
and the INTER-OCEAN favored the measure. Tt- ...'p!:,..,' t. lJL '.-.I
about the Citizens' Associati..,. ih: "I;ri,. rrl ji \ u." i- Li.. tht.. .,t 'I l..lrrn. i
and their machines worked :Ir'i..-:,ul..I i.:r ih I i. ClCi[('A.' Ti '-',.
April 25, 1875.
"4The DAILY INTEI.-OCE.AN .\..rl *i' 17;. Thr. r,:,!.:,.. ,a ,.,r
the total vote for the city cl.rL: v. '.4.l,.'t'. ''r : rr, ic-, l I: : :if int..r,:
on the part of the voters s'I CHIC.'G T:IHi?.'E. Ar.ri 2'4, 'l",; ,:..
the INTER-OCEAN of the c,-,. a,.-
45 A contemporary account lbhri.rn ai ti, i .t-r.. rlig i.l-Ilighl ,1, ,.rt,. ,:,! t, ,.
methods used at the electio.. .i n r. t:.l thIatI t.l:t .,r p:rdl Jlr, h-,n..l ,:,,utr
tickets to the voters explain.ii th.tr h( ... '. r- "ill ricLLr T .- rti.l:'-t '~..r.-
marked "For" and, if cast. c(:.'ut- r.l .,it- lhr th- rii:.iuj,- "Th .- n i,,r-..iri
Hugh Reed was one of the ju',c.-- II iih- .ndir. '.ir J .poll nl., c .I .' 'ir-;.
'run it' himself in his own p...ulitr rn ,. Il. n. ij ru l-. Jl-,. .'.I11111. I -i . .u ,r
the window with a handful .:, .' ri.. l.l 1. Itrn- i h.iwiJd :.L.. 'I *,r' t .,'rr
and thus succeed in making nrii ..ri thi.t cr '-ti' r hi :' .I .:r :'ot.
CHICAGO TRIBUNE, April 24, 1'. ; -.. i1-., Sp:,rlini S E MJiiip:l
History and Present GoverrntiEr c:.l th, -rh Cit. ('ChI fi:" ,p ,':4

.-'-optioin .' tli.- hart-:r l;.w onIly one-third of them (7.1041 con-
-id(leril iin rintly re 're-i nlt- ti.,i i rt rlivy 4.f tlir 'tittenlion. Of
tliis ritu l..o'r L.5Wtl flavored and I"-)..'11) i .) i ed Ait.pti_..n.
A. previon[l ,i- tteld. tlih..-e tvi,.. imea.sures n,.irc submitted
it I s special election n wlien t'r- : \\erei n-. officials to be cil,:Sen.
'Te izie I.,I lt, tl:tal \.tI 'l i illits Lit lead partly explained for it
is nlni:-lil in!iriibily tru- Ilhat \,:lcrs .;ill not come out to the
I.,l.1 ill .0i great niii l.i'.-r, le!n tlhelr- i- nothing to be done but
arippro'-e r diir lro':* :,t' it prii...ii:ili...n. But even after deduc-
li.-. lr ns : ilar.l: e f.I.r thIis lactor. thlie re-tilts must be considered
as mii lat i;tnctlryl.' riil a cou uln,.-Uir.'ry ;ic-:'.ounts of the election
stri i~tIiH i lle hblief tlhait ele':-t:r.l lethargy prevailed rather
tLiii tihe rv are' co(:iltr':\ve'.ri ian iin turi airnd I.f _'Icl importance as to warrant
rcloe :altt.-ntion.l a.nd wi..ld inlter-t't. it ik unreasonable to suppose
tliit tnle .tliher lu.-:aures. i-iuIally .if much less importance, sub-
mittreil in lit, yeiar.r bfl'forc I .i.i. ver, actually attracting the
att.lientlii <.t \voter-. ie.lSfp;te tie high lprcrentages shown in the
licilal rletulrn. Fi.r them, the ballot laws were chiefly responsible.
A cli.iance in th: l. I.llot laws completely reversed the situation
alt,:r I-YW). In that year the official "Australian" ballot was
inlitallij.l for tl, elecli in of candidates as well as for referenda.
Oi'e I,.lltl 'utli: .-.i. for all and when measures were referred, they
lhadI t.-. Ie riitel on the official ballot in both the affirmative
a.nd iieLti.-. <.'r in -uch a fashion as to require a definite
.tirii.itive r in:.e.ative vote from the elector before his vote
'.:uld I.e counted at till. For referenda, it had, therefore, pre-
,:i,-ely tlhe m..- elleC:t as does the office column ballot in voting
o:r *-indid.atts. Tlih:-e was no longer opportunity for blanket
..r ajuto.inlati \-,ti;n_'. 'f.-.r, although the voter may vote the straight
ti(cl::t for radi.!.te-s for office, he was compelled to seek out a
prop.ilsition .inld I mak a separate mark for it. The results were
:nli-hteniir,. In Noyi.. ... 19ie. 95 1 I.t:i.. .1.re the new law went
intt, effect, lile !,, ip,iitilins were voteil on hy .,in ,iit >r. c. o.' al..i-,it,
b't- it tlie 't.aiil nliel.cr A:I' voters at tlhe ,lcii- lnc A yea.ir later.
tiinder th\. iv. l.w. .1 prpi.,-tii:i rei-: i.d l'7. -t'he ti tral \'itt'.
wli\ lih ni'. ,'carr later I .~c lie I,:--.;I.I-es atltra.ct d ri~.pet-iic ely

t'i[u .ri.' I':.r itLiran;e, with the xi.'- on ,, -nilar ti,.. -r: ,ibrmnir r-
i1 .1 -p,_,.Ill :-I :. ri.rn n .i.pri m b-r 17, lji.l7 lhii r....-i *.tI A .'" i b .. i.:-;
e.i: i...r an- idai, 11 iI .. I i. ,-. held fi-. i...ntl, pr".i i i.:.j .


Il! :anr, It I 1 .'--, I the voter-. D u rrin; the t.ii -\',c:itr pclri:
kIlS l0-191.ilti vhiV,: lh. n,.v: law w;-a OilIhrativ,:', tw :ity-tn o-i rni-a,-
ur>:- a pp,.art'i in (C'lhl (iC:. icg-Ihterni of whi .h ra ehiv~]-i It.. thili
otie-tth-ird i lij-t i t votl vote it tlhe el kcti.' and .ii lil re.. Ii than oii.-

from tho,-e prrvioiiu-ly .uilInmitted. nor wt' s tlheI- ariy imtat ri,l!
different. inl Ihli' inia~,unlt oir pu.tlic'ity oljtaii.tid. \Viti no merhain-
ic-al aid ini r,..',;ti-..rin v,:t, f.,i priop:p itiori-. it prov d to ic n a-\l
to impai:,. Ill-_ to get ,,:ort: th.mi a third : o tlie \o ..r% r o ttted t,,
them. The actual results on local measures were not -o: ,ii:l-
trous for they required only a majority voting on each Iro'o.'li-
tion. Ftit Iroi the point of view of electoral interest in rf.l'r'--ndll.i.
the. furni-h.idl ground for discouragement. For proposed a:tniid-
nme-ntl t i Hi state constitution, the apathy of the voter- pr.'v,, I
:atal. Tli,;r defeat was inevitable for they could not lio-r. tI.
ol-ltin thi.: r,.-luisite majority at the election. As soon :li this
wai fully realized, there developed a strong demand for n ,:liahr,
in tlh I'altlt laws that would insure better results.
The remedy was found in the separate ballot law : of ISl'tl.
In general it provided that all propositions submitted for popular
approval be referred on a special ballot and not printed rotn l.lh:
official ballot for candidates. One referendum ballot m;ay -.i.hl.
for all measures or separate ballots may be provided for i:lliviili.al
propositions. The essential point was that the voter ",z- ,It
longer forced to search for a measure on which he cared to: .. pr t-,
an opinion by going over the long and cumbersome ,:illo:t f',r
candidates. His attention was attracted to it at once I,>. it,
being presented to him on a separate form.
It would seem, however, that the general provision f,,r tlli
separate ballot applies only to instances when the le'i-il.itunr
has made no other provision for submi,-ioii. In 1! 104 a.in aiil-
ment to the Torrens land law was pa-,.-d. I..ut it .larioptionI in
any local coiiuiiinity was' c.jit'ltit.ed 'n i .irprovil iby tlih
voters theriil. Thi.- 'i-t provided th.i. Fhl, tt.u. liiin o. ailptiopt
should be .sul'ijit',el "at the top of thin. I.allo; t' !.' -i-eJ I'or -itld
election." '-,The voters of Cook Copnty pr':c eedrtl to. ,Jopt tlie
law at the:election r.f -Nve\ml., 19I1'. Th:i mi-:-tr .ppieanred
at the.top of the -.;;ir;atl. bVallot on vhlirli \va. printlcd Lllr.c
other propositions. Later, the legality of the elec:-tion "a%. t-ti-Jl
in the courts on the claim that the method of submissioi t:i,


iiiipr.oper -ince the? la.tv ir'eril..id d ubinis'ion on the candlit.Iit's'
hall.t rather than thie e-p.rate: b.illit. T'IIe Court 'u t.in,-.'l theI
eliiiii iand declared the \'it.L: illle.l l.n t11he rl.ll t t thl e iinttnt
ofT the Iei;-latnl re ni- to h-t-'e thi- Iie.I-urce -ipp[ear ";'t ith' t.rop
III the heillot that ,n,,,t [e i ui I.'." tlhi.t the I-allot on wi;cch the
niin11 es tf cainldidl.tte f:r Otf .ieppv.ared. iandli "not the top of
;ny Iaellott that mi4.'ht lie u-.ed."' Tlhe pIn_,-ition of the Court
tihu etaIl.-ihi:d a nireinm lti.n ang.-in tlhe use of the separate
Iill.:'t where their .i(t Itre-.ril.,iri the rulertcunum contained no
very ,Jiinite' t.Liteniemnt o, n thie iil.jje:t It is clear that when
an ant of tlI- ,-ort i *-ilelit a to. thie iietliiod if submission, then
the '-eparat hall.-t leaw appl'--. It nayi ali:' lIe clear that when
the le'ti-.l.tur, ilreiitnd. t:- di-:aird thIe --,iaralt- ballot in a particu-
lar .a, it ni.i di s,- l,v, .a ustte me'iit tl. th,t effect in the act.
But Ih.re the.' intent .lf thL, le,'i-Ilaturi wa;n not < lear and the element
of fourilt n.ea rn.e'ol\'ved .npniniht it uie-.
Nhlul.te-V,'r tlie l>'.,iilIitie'-., tle e.?,rnate l.allot has been em-
|playe'd for .ll refrl'r-eiinda: in ('hlic:iEo inlcel itt adoption in 1899
.ind with 4trikin" rei-ltk. It imlure tlihn dienjl.,led the proportionate
numirilr o.f o active vltenr- participation in referenda. The vote
:,in lprop:,,:itio:lin ha lallein li :lonw .',i,'', ot tLh total vote at the
lt-cti:on-i in ',-ilyh tlrfnee ini~tL;nr" out V fI' o.\ver one hundred and
tCIeny-i\~:. nwhlile ti le ili:rnr l l 'rer,'eint,-'.4e" 'of participation has
in:ii ,-Ihoeint ;il. Sniiie f t lii ilCIrr'.Ie iin et.,ling can unquestion-
:illy h1e .ttribhuteid to a ,i.in-taiilly in.re.n'-iu"J amount of general
e:i-c,'.us.io, ,.,f ime auree .ubm'Iittre:.. to a loi,--er use of the refer-
-ldijnii. aind to i an anakeied interest in )op jul.r voting in general
u.;i.lLJ y tie r-lid c.iitc ,le-i of' direct le:e.-lition in the United
St,-ite- Ne.'. rtlhe, le . dc'l deadly ,labrupt chl.lige in results after
th1 tpar.nt.e lih.iilt laIw n- it intlL e-llt'cIt p,.ints clearly to the
.e..icluUl:.lii that the l.-ille:t Ifiormn itei f v.;-a tlh chief factor.
To. siiiinn riri;?. three h. l.llt I..rni- I, n e' li..:e:n used in Chicago
'.iiin'.- the ie'rloid e hennii the ref''iieiiduini haI been in operation.
Prie-r to 1I9. tlte pirty Il.llot yv;tern. ithi it attendant mechani-
cal v-Ating .ind i "ithi little talhl:lr:e'iit e:'let:' or iiite:re-t in rini'aMijre-.
pr:educ.(::.n larcl '.i:.tic... Fro:um 1Sl!l t.:, lS*n* eincluni.en the Iffici.,l
ballot. itli onre Li.allot cr'. in lIoth en.u iinJdate for e.,ie. .i.d
rle'ere-rida. aind ith .in ei iually ulire'-po i:iv a' ,dien for prorp-

H; H r. e, (. ,..k County. -.21 Ill. 7'..

O)-itiO:1, -. rl'.-.ilt,: I ll 11 ,lr "X\ti:-1 .l-.I' ;I .4-ll '. Ott 1:111 n '.C i4 Urci .
Finally tlih- : cle ir te I.lilit ad "i pt;e.i i n11 -1.'!'. p ier.tin. ..t ti i
% l iil I Ipul.lir intfcrp i ill nutihl., t L- i [ '.r ao:l< t. 11:.:d the it v .ro* :
t i a po itio t In id-l n y la eiVLr I ti : l i Xt it ill.'. D ir-;re .rtilll thii l
*:-il':et in '.iar in f. lel'ct ral inut'r.-t I ll. f ti f t lie hollt is th. i-
it:e- i to ihav \ : a rii. a l d ll 'Ill.l.Ii in ri lt l-. *..r1 I.:. .tii, tile


T 6ir1 u i t nii lutiL -ITIi i 1.11 i.L I 1- O0!.i l i, ;0 i l0.1 lut'; :,ill inl-
1,.e-t.int f.it'tor in .Jet, rn t nini ti: eize o-f 'a Vi ot t. -.n it. pa; ti'- la.rl
ihien a nuinhler o qup th.i ..t ,:.r tit th n -ane ,.l.cti,.i. Tlnh
.irl '. t ..i .J I. I i I., l ; h Iii I 1l rt I :''ro ni ,! I.y (ca .l Ji:;i te '
hr ffire. sveii, vrter-. .iq[r..hin._ their 'Jliy at thle pnll-
W n till fi l'- i inal ,. ill lull J |.-hi(c t( i eil'1.1'; thli; t hl t nittr:i, t
thi eir a ,Iiti._Il. li t I .:'.'1i: c'ir.: p' l.-f'ored th eir l.l llr .ire i rn--
[t!et:d .il fai' l to :e I-\ 'er~ .1 b h c uic: I', i l'rtnliale l ri.l.lli-t
':r ,I. in .in ti .' lit \\'ith ,.- t., ': t-) .u t,ltio ,i ,:,f -.uhi lii poliy
thi- li fix -e tlhe or,..krn o'f prirof-po-tio:ns I. y Ire'qirfing tli,tt tlley
shall appear o n the ballot in the order in which thy are tlfil
in the office of the Secretary of State. When the: a,'r ir. I o l'.il
provisions to govern, a scramble usually ensues l'y a::ker- of
particular propositions, who have their favorites 1l.:ed rir-t.'
It is difficult to say just how important the elem.iit of pi)-iti,'i
has been in Chicago voting. First place on the "little. Ilalltl"
seems to have a decided advantage, although at .ii.,>--i:.ithl of
the elections with three or more referenda, the larc,:-t vote hi.,
been cast on some other measure. At the Noveml er electi,.-n
of 1904 seven propositions were submitted. Th:- propon d
constitutional amendment authorizing special lefz-oiti- i : I',fr
Chicago was given first place and polled the liare-t vi.,l.:. tlit
that might have been expected because.- ul iC- imiIprt:niice M.i '

8 Compare with the effects shown on the v...ir n r.,...-' i ru.ia'jr
"The Working of the State-Wide Referendum in lIIzi.i.i, '. O *..rul.'r, ir.
in the American Political Science Review, AuguE -1 I 1.
1" When the proposition to issue bonds for ith '..r,pt,.:..r, :.i e I!i .
hall appeared in 1910, Alderman Toell, Chairmr. -'I ih.- Firman- C'.,iii.iii1:
of Council, said: "In spite of my certainty that ihhe- ..I.r; rt .i... Ii.. -ir-
uation, I am glad that the bond issue comes fir ,r **n iI.- ..ll..r, I.:.r .. r**tr i
haste might vote for only three or four of the r-:.-i:, a]r n -. 'nl.'rirr.i t,j tl-r
or he might mark the ones near the end carelessly." CHICAC; C, T 11.i. :'E.
Nov. 8, 1910.


diro:t iiir:-l. r I -'liC.'io voters. The second and third prop-
.-ition:,l I.the Tor'eii-i 1.indi. title act and the adoption of voting
Ulililni.-o I r-e.<:ivld ;il:,urt tlh< same number of votes. Proceeding
,lin l thi.- lit there ": a cr:dual decline in the size of the votes,
oruie o:1 nlii'l mna.y h attributed to lack of attention on the
p-irt :f i- \ t.-r--. T'lh third question was a local bond issue,
.A Iile thi. r :-iij; irn- t -c i ere state-wide public policy measures.
In i1ll tlh:re w.;is i ,l. rcal .. of 46,110 votes from the top of the
l.tllo:,t li tlhe l httiin. 'v.lih represents 16% of the highest vote.
Simnilarly in 19111 alboult '7o of those who voted on the first
propo-,ition :,n1 tile h-allot ine-lected the list of seven. Two local
I.on.,I! i-i.-Ii hlr::rld.i e the li-t ..f questions, followed by three state-
wide li|u ti:on-,. :,F i.,iblli,: policy relating to direct legislation,
. ivil er'i.ie :itd (l:,lirrpt practices at elections, which were in
tln. I: lll:'v cwed l.y tl. o h:,..il questions of annexation. The position
on the ballot vwa clearly a factor of some importance in this
vote, although it should be noted that the nature of the questions
was such as to excuse the voter for carelessness.50 Again, in
April, 1919, there was a decrease of 20% in the vote on a ballot
with four propositions. But the leading question, that of pro-
hibition, always attracts a large vote when submitted. The
other propositions related to borrowing money.
On the other hand, there are even more instances when the
voters have clearly shown their ability to overcome obstacles
of position and single out questions that were handicapped by
being disadvantageously placed. In April, 1915, in a list of 12
propositions, the tenth obtained the largest vote and the varia-
tion in totals shows that the voters used considerable discrim-
ination in selecting the questions they cared most about. The
-.tre i- true of the balloting of April, 1914, which was the only
-:.tluhr ei.'ction when as many as twelve questions were submitted.
One mi.lit naturally expect the factor of position to be increas-
ingly important as the ballot grew larger and more complicated,
hi-it uij~:h has not been true.

*" rFjlAic policy measures are not taken seriously by some voters because
I h.. ,...t,:: have no legal effect. Annexation measures are not controversial
.U-J arrt Ibus neglected by some.


W l[iil; ')I'1 Pl
The separate hb.llot law ol I S! required that the "iuhlanc"
ofa ji ru..itiol shall h,.- printed oin the ballot in clear and con-
rie t-rnm,. If ,obs.(rved. thi_ enaitlet the voter to -'ra;il: the fun-
d.ini-nt.1di of the nie.iaurr in vwhiclh lie I; to \lite % -,n thughl
the p'ruilo_-tiuoh ii ,entirety i!e w Lit. him.
Un 'ortiuntii.ly, it is still io-iiihli: [,r the leh-ilaittire to L dliire-
a.rd thi' jiru. isjin o 'f -.OIit: other ftorim :o irs:lilt:tiio-, of aiiv particular iIeasure.
Tlii. wn -ci tetl:d in the -.i-. f v i-a-irt v%-. City o4f Chii.o "'
whihi-i involved thlv mnilloil ili lhich llihe plroput-ed charter for
(4'h ica. liad I'eeil sutl.iiitt'ld in 1ll.95 ]Hatiihnti'-,ii by the, voter
wa. iprovidedl ;n tei- act, whlici stilhullti d the fIll' 'nin t,.rni
fir siJlinll i.. ioll

"For the adopitio n roI the a:tl t. :iiI Cnr.l the .:t Y.-:
enlitled 'An act to Lirovide f'or the ine:.ririoria- -- -
tIlonu of cities. ;and illnie-'." Nil

The viter- nere tliu- co.oil'ro.tiied \\itlL t.ll ttl: I.f thi :i.C il
cliueliLuu. lut u'ot it- substance .i' required by the ; ei;iarate I::Il-
lot Anw The i: ,urt held that tle re iijireienlts of the [ieci;al
a,,t of 10i3 lhaa d l-.,:n o l,..rvcd r :id tn it it- provisions ip--o fa.r'L
s;uper-i-dd tlio-c of the' Lener:il Liw.
In general it may be said that mol [.pL rop.oliioLi' i t hi \,.?
heen submitted by virtue ol -..pe-.il -.r-t of the lgis..iturr hiave
usually appeared by title only The 'Specli.il Charter A.t oi 19U11
r'fi'.rred to above, amendments to the uli iuicip.l 'courtI lal ;iii
a.lt to grant municipalities poI-cr to fi r.ites- for electricity irnl
, n;. and amendments to the st.ite Fanking ln aire exa.i ilili- of iil.u-
mini-ions in this form.62 The iahbtlrdit l' illthu Ii c.en(lii. a licea'.-
ire to the voters may be illustr-itcd byy rclerrin : toi a i irlip',iosticon.
in 1911, to increase the salnrie-, ol nlumiti.iipal co ,Lrt judge It
tool,; the form of an amendment to ll:.- 'ri'inl co3rt l-.Iw :' arnd
appeared on the ballot thus:

- 223 11. 371 (1906).
'2 For examples to the contrary !...: Hurd, Rvi.-'id .'Silji Iil'll.. p. 5.4\,
549, 984.

-30 -

"'FI.r i.-..i]:lintili t. : ii i; entitled 'An act to amend the act
eiiitiflI''i "An act in ire:lti-:n : to the municipal court in the city of
C(hii..agi'." .illpr.vt.il May IS. 1)05; as amended by an act ap-
plr..'i.vd Ji!: :1i Iliii. i :itit:dll.j "An act to amend an act entitled
A.n .i:-t in relatiii ti a; nJiiiicipal court in the City of Chicago',"
aI-pri\ ,:,l M ay I. I. I .'.'"
"'.-\inrit ,.,,n-_ii n'- to in act," etc.
\WIen -' vr. ral Ir, r':i it i ..Iin .- r>.' submitted in such technical form
a- tle:' .l::~ie. t[lie ,tler i In ,mlin to become confused, despite any
,h'rffir he ui-.lil Ii.ivI. id. I.ldl.,i'lre going to the polls to familiarize
Iiiinellf itl tl'ii.' It lihe lia made no such effort, the wording on
the .l:illu.t i-.;n iii;ri.ely Ie <.f .IIy assistance. Being unacquainted
with th>.' ic-ui1.. lii jll:l'neil II must be a snap judgment, which
iiii-jhi h o.'' ~lnie valiie, if i ie were told on the ballot in a simple
inimer ilhait I i-ue ieill.y I vas. He may or may not approve
..I' i(.r,:,-ii.' ju.l-,i'.' -:.lari:-s -ind might have some valid reason
I'or hi ii.victii in. ullt li could he express any real opinion
.,rn ;i ijue, titin jiilI til i.ne indicated above? In such instances
thil. il.e1-li-.i.ht :lt'1] xi Oti:.r ilai- t either r vote blindly or refrain from
\',AO l,' ; t :,ll.
Ie I ei .iI- I.' lI .'. : ; ..'n.. : not to vote. Questions submitted
lIy title :'ril y hIr- in!iari.d l: ly iiceived a very small vote in com-
Izri 'ni with either in--ni -:- clearly explained on the ballot.
In 191b (Novembcr) over IUU,U00 voters who had marked three
pri:-:eding measures deliberately refrained from marking a pro-
inored amendment to the state banking laws (submitted by ref-
i:1. :n':e to title only), but did vote on the next proposition to issue
state bonds. The two amendments to the municipal court act,
Jlminitted in 1917, received the same kind of treatment.54 To
-ubIuit measures in the forms in which these appeared on the
Ialllot was a deliberate invitation to blind voting, if not worse.
Tlie voter's silence constitutes not so much lack of interest as
' n exhibition of good judgment and discrimination.

*6 At the November election of 1917 two measures submitted related to
uil :ndments to the municipal court act. The ballot contained no explanation
r h [,ropiulri.ns beyond a mere reference to the sections of the law to be changed.
:'.. i.:, elections of April, 1914, April, 1916, November, 1911, November,
1':i11, N: ..rnl-.ir, 1905 and November, 1898.


(I'II.\A.TER or \'OrER,-TYPIC.AL V.\ D.D

1i the pret- in;r ..li- c :us .io:. tlihe vlt? ha r bli etii c uI trn.iidrI l
,>?n rii.' t, itid l e t11I :l ilt-IYz f-rimi (le li- i.i t 1 .l i re,'. i._I the elu'L-
tol rc 1:u s 'i "IIK,, Tiie le-tolte i'. :*! oee.:i. n conlomInrat

enti ,it i h. F..,ii -.l r :.i pli'] til. h l. .I iV. irt t'l h-e a- i i t I [iti. .r f
.Iluy p.ir-triuli c. ir i l at. -irecti.Al it i Xrte 'h:d. a'i n l t i n:,'
it lif, :-r lrinm lar l ol .'a lii:r i i .-',: i l.'rt p;m ol trne rni nl tc -i
iilit re. o t tJ .-i .- Lit: .tI it ie I,-ld:11' \,.iti -. I il .gU,-lit.'A ill Al,.tU

\ t:er- t i' o;iot \':ti e i (lt l -N'.-, buit I.,y i ut .,' i- ld preil i itn 1- a-.i d
thii-e pn .,litic:.l .t i-tion1 ni e ihi e r T ierlc_ t It ociI ,,.io!,ri: Il unit' .
11 i |il.. il'.i .i tv-'i. I-. ma 1 t i. : l ii r .l t[d i c:0 i ti t.i a er ypgIe
il v:tier l n..v l i : ,I lti : t- nl.,. ina iter- a n ,, t h .iti.-i l.v.e a l id 'o i pl re
'>.ating th,'-r.i! t>:, ,.ltmi',ih nbeth- r any li'-hIt it!.-.v II_, 'hI:'d o:n
:,m of tlh' i-,,int mtentliottlri l. For i: ; purtpo,,, tlhi, Fir-.t.
Stcon.1. Filtlh aud T, ntl j i ', nrl v. vret ?lio en .i, t pi<.cal pl.,.orcr
,.Ia- di-itri:t. o:f \'nii'iio -iort-. Thie Fir-t 1\\'A IrN l r :d.I |ri>:. th:'
,I,:,nlt>,wn u.iesi (litri-.-l ki,:,, n a; thi: "L,: -,p" ,IHowi imo-t
ifI tiht- voters ar;i i-ne:Tr.ntl. \(:i'v p -,'.. nl t piermani ntly a-ttlachc.
t':, ipr-.ioLrty l. .I :'. n in int ofl i .,li tical i( cme; m ight I.e, e:'tii l.
TIh( !I:,l,',in. Ioi,, >.,te i? \cry im ..oiltant. The 'ec,.- il W arl.
(co:lor:.-d v,'o.tr i'r in -_Lpri.. ,e. I'r'..ltin tiY :.n in ,:.:,lor'd r. -
il.' lie in llt t t, ky-,'ard ,litriict M, o.t ,,f tlhe \A..l'r i '- A .,1 Irili
.tr,,:.t'io,:l. bui t ik.i ,-. al- .ill i ., A:1 "' .o thlrii E uropF:-.,n to--kl:.
The Tenth W:ui, i- o thcuinitul s(ec:t;,n,. ..verhlminll J.?i-l.
It i- a p.rl. oI t.,- Ghu k .th, ,li.trit. Tv., olli.r %.art. thtue T ,(.nity-
.ei.-llh .nd Thiirty-hrs-t. may b i..l to:. I)( t pic l of .- ,r.a
v,.terz. Tl,< T'1 .nty--'v c.lntl,. situate,,l in tlh" ,uitlyinw- dJittric: t
to I it .l nor ,th ;edt.i i; p,-,pll l ith 1u.i-..-- a.l..I irof._si,, -l Ime:l
.,f ..l- :ll inr il;.. T!.he Thirt.',-tlirt \V.rd. lon the co tli -idt. pri-.in Eopl.- ,.,I:_l. i_ ,:.1 tlihe nm t gzt-n, ral 1y ,.-. ;\-:ejl. thil hI re-
he Ip_ ileri ts u il:lilly 1-,: n tlhd ir on homn \Althou:glih (-,nti.jllyv


.I re-idei tiail 4-"tionl. il Ii:-, an iri[ -iprt iLt business district. Finally,
Iw.':i oth:Llr v..tired were tcli ,.n a. v.ry well-to-do or rich wards.
Tlih'y ;ir tll, Si:llth. on the s.,utlh -iie,. adjacent to the University
.udl ,ifhern thhi Univ\erity ir f.,...-:--e are felt, and the Twenty-
fir-t. I:oiipiri.si;g thll: I.:.!iui\ive rrl side residential section.55
Th- f,,rmelr ik -imitimn:- r.lo,'rr.id tI.. as the "intellectual" ward
.ald thii,. latter ai lIhe "-ilk -i.ckling" ward.
) On tlhe 1:,:i;i o i nt. r.i t h:wlii.u in referenda, the "intellectual"
:'ixth anrid Ii-_ [Iv., "',\a r;,,-" war.'r-l- .are clearly entitled to first
rank. Dlrin;, th Ip. rioi:. from No .,viu!,er, 1911, to 1918, in eleven
ele-Cti_,- ii.,lyz-.iid. thi" ni.-rrl I;ad all the other five in the
prolportioi:iati: !iiumil.,r i.o' eliillr \'t.rr- as well as the proportion-
.ite !in!iil:..-r I,1 al'ctih \,:ot-r- Ilhal marked referendum ballots.
The Tw nrillty-.- viithl .aipl iper t'.i hilve had fewer stay-at-homes
th.in iY. ot her I-. I.uit .lI hqii't. nI l participated in the elections,
ri-ln ti'.-ly fte.-r nerr inlini:d to:. iilti:rest themselves in proposi-
ti.rin t.han in th-" Sixth W.trdl." These two wards (the Sixth
.inil l\\inty- ,.ciilthli, .,lh..ost il'.,,ri;tbly register a much larger
proportional vote on measures than the city as a whole. In
other words, they are conspicuously above the average for the
city in the interest they display in measures submitted. The
average for the city is reflected in the voting in the Thirty-first
and rich Twenty-first, the former ranking slightly above and
the latter slightly below the city as a whole.
The remaining four wards, including various types of poorer
and less intelligent voters, appear to have displayed the least
interest and consequently the greatest amount of electoral lethargy.
At least voters in these sections refrained from voting on measures
to a greater extent than elsewhere. The First Ward has by far
the poorest record in this respect. There are fewer eligible voters
who go to the polls and of those who do, fewer vote on propositions.
Of' [lie "poorer class" group, the "stock-yards district" (Fifth
\V'irdl should be ranked first, but even there the percentage of

Ttr.r.. i. hLo.' :r. n important lodging house vote in this ward that
i.t.,,lJlj L,.: ,.:,[i.:lJ,:r,:,J
TLt: ip. rr.ntl .'.. I th.:e voting for candidates who also voted on meas-
ur..s hi, h..-t ,i ta -i th in ten out of eleven elections, while in seven
Iria,nIr.. rli Tr-i;,-.;. rWth Ward had the highest percentage of the regist-
r:1 ,t-.

- 33 -

p.iirti.-ip.itin i iiii. :h below the ity' avert.;" Thne f.Ili..xin
t.-Ilel s4l4n lh.- n[hi ,ii ,v t nd

I.. L 1.. -191 .

2 -d 1 ,1 -'I 10 1

N\ ... t,1 u, "-.r rl-

I r "' > 27 l 1 S i i
r.. ,0' ,. t -."- l.i 2''" :; 41 4; 7 .
B.,,:,r r ,i ,i .' 2 2 .- ; I l:; 2 21

T .,; l N .:. I.t:q u .l ^ .* '.'l1 '..i 2 :.,-,.1 7

,.,.'l .ri -1 ln.'J p 'r-
,..'[. l.ac ,.I rc -o..r .,J
B v. Iv "'2.", *. :; 4 .' 7 ,, ,,
Fr...nw 2.',; l:. 1 ,l -- 21 II I'. "- 2' 4.. :3: 4I>
Fr.:.r.u .0' 1... 7., ', '7. -* :.:' ..N -*'. 2' 4 17 2

T lt i N ...: 'lu.; t r, .,., .. *'.: ..4 '., ',l

.A\lthoueh the wr.ird tudi:-l l. I -. thn idplaye i;1 d .,me-: iinrkeil
.ll',:-.ren I z in l thii,. c ti' t l l il.tr lt l ow il i pupil. r v i.nti n;
there i ; a rtlh -r mn.:,rl;:.,--l ,inilaritv i In li,:. (larntcr Of' (Iqu -,|.11 -
that s.t.i-'ld to h\ ,\ ih t,':t' -.:t," thei'm ,,n t. A; a rule h uil i-.ne
Plr:,pil,.1l, hl.vit" ,.:rn-iljce l the li .i.ll.it .ith O.lther quC'jtion i t <_ally
,i t llir)r il .iort:llcii e ,.'_. .,il' i..Ill; ini t:'rr l., -r.- 'd. Ili -e?\:r l in-
Lstn'.- I(: ,mine pr,,ipI itio, nattrac-ted tlh mt v)te- ii aIll
the, v.,rtk. For exi-mpl,-. iindj to inpf ru\e the. lrlor ih191"..
:envi rsi <-itv -,an' ( ]!'l'_;,, lb .,n 1- l'uf r t : l., titiiu l,0.,,b:.lih P l W,10 .
!,ive bo.-n thl fa'.vrilt.. in 1 Ill t1 w,,rd. .altho.mh th-';e pro(lp> i-
tif,-. hi t'e ot t alwyPA hl'?;Ad<'ed tlh likt Of quC'i.-ti,.,s -u,,liitt,-d. In
thl.- April ck::tion A, 1011 ithe. (.LouqAlrchn-.nive ljvway pr.p,,-iti.nm.
,hi\ ch 1%n, the fl' urit <:o n:t li.t ,, l\velv_ in the <-ity \ tini lk : i-.

': A.lth:. lh In uuj l i l.r..'. ili, dirwr~e-; niL ilnlbhtr thm. "p_,.r...i.nt
of M ter..-i" 'or th. i.tw :, v., oj- r.r ,'n i'n til i 4th W ar' J ,-n lt.,--i, of thl.
,L rln,'-.urts- ,vbri alt J.


attracted mnor,- voi.t, ir the Firsl. S.:c nd al.: Fifth \\';,rdi than
.mly .'thur iieasur,:.. Tlis k vx.ils true t the question of a twoi-
platooii y-tenm fur theI File D,[pj:irtlenlt thI: year follotinug.
But iin hotl thllse cl:.etlions mIsi-. t i:,f tli:i vi.t:rA in the other wards
ii.tlh. Ihl. '27th .iin :ll.ti, turnId lo .Ind i-sues for bathing
heaih-e and i']...- it.Il ts their ci-hif -sou.ir: of interest. In general
it mnaiy IIe -.;iiil tlit 1inlIi ['ri 'l.-1a, .1a Ibth- ..,instruction of new
F.ritl:.es, xv ili-uiing ot Tu l'fth I r'ie-t. :1.\ d -l:ol:ini.nt of the harbor
.111i the 'c:. Jtriiction o-f thi.in Ih.lu.-Ihe li .e attractedd the great-
i.st interest v,.i, \ i ul .muiittvd-,. s.trik!iig tril.nt. to the effective-
In,. o th .. dlli.tntional Illai- n i. in, euItioii- with the City Plan.
Propo-ial I. t.orrow ,ii..n:.. :illlhoughi Ij!ost prominent in
dlr,awin; .,nIt v.'ter. Inat: noIt .te:en treatnil .like in the various
iarJ'is. Thl: "IloCleint1 hloui-"I Fir-t ; rid thl.- coloredd Second vote
(nsi-.iAtelntl y in lt.\or i.-f zill Il0n.ii prop-..isal-. regardless of their
iwtliire. This is equally true of the rich and ultra fashionable
nortlj -idc v.- rl Twenty-first). On the other hand the "Ghetto"
dlintrict ITenlth Ward) has just as consistently opposed all bond
i I. l-r ally purposes whatsoever. In the other wards results
hae \xariedl a they might be expected to vary if the voter used
intllllige.n,_ .'' Iit whether or not more intelligent in voting,
tllh halv un111I:'estionably been more discriminatory in selecting
c.rtaiii i -iie-e for defeat and others for success. The Sixth Ward
lhai heel ii ii'Jiti to approve most measures of this character
;anid le Tv. ..'i.ut'-seventh just as strongly to reject them. The
liara.:tr :of the proposals seems to throw little light on the
re.iaon fur .utI. differences. It is certainly true, however, that
thl I, poorr o:ters are not always the advocates of bond issues,
minor ol:, the ricl-r and well-to-do voters favor or disapprove as

Not onily on bond issues, but on other propositions as well,
the voters ol the Tenth Ward seem to be confirmed objectors.
The; IL.'a r,:ejjc:ted all but thirteen of sixty measures included
in think r-:vi'ew. M\-t of the few that have met with favor have
Ileen St.at-wide ijirtlionis or local questions of annexation. But
c\ien lour of the latltr hta\' suffered defeat in the Tenth-a fate
that Ie:fell their, in none of the other wards. The Tenth Ward
\'vo:er- reje-ted thirty-four out of thirty-eight bond proposals.
l" Th-e a-;i 't..ra i jult Sa marked in the "stockyards" ward (Fifth) as
ii tlh- ",ri l ll:t.t't il c.ird .'xtr.hi.


Aside fioij L., i Ind Ui'' antd thie alInt:(X tiilin t iicld-tir. [ 't. il1 tih y
.ipplir d r,-, 1 <. i' e iui :ibi ttedt met their .,ppr,-mal. Tl':i y
di.l-approi'led :fI tii: cottipjrl:l( -i i\. -ublh: y ;. uIf tlln idea oIl honir
rule. f:r Ith, ciry. oif :in innr-st.. in h iinth 1o trrml of *'ity oteciab-.
.1 .han;r,-' in the, nniii al i rtl ..i wtL and. the J unbl.le plat,'-on
-.-ttlin for ti(. Finr Dr ep.-url t.iiit.
G(.nerally Il':.'!:in':. iini. iinre otiih r than b-ond] iisuei haInv
lieen deajil ithll in nmui.h tlhe .i-ne f'it ioLi in the (.ihbt wards.
Tihe va iatiIr.- il, li ,i:,n ii:, tlh:io o:t Hlit T(nth ima.y be lue:in-
mentioned briefly. The comprehensive subway ],ri-i'i.sitio:ri nw
al.[r,'.eCId in the First and Second Wards, althoui-- r. jil..tin in
th.l othiir wards and by the city. The increase in te.nurer ot tHi. :
measure, already mentioned, was likewise carries in thii- First.
although rejected in the remaining wards and in tI :it: ii ai ;a
whole. The Fifth Ward joined with the First in favo'rinw thlit
double platoon system, while the other wards rejc:'t:ld ihe uiela-
ure; and finally, the Twenty-seventh and Thirty-list \Vnrdsi
favored the proposed amendment to the municip.il court ;I( t i
1916, while the other wards united in disapproval. 'hir.-e ;al
practically the only instances where the varioi ty|i:- v. ar'ls
differed in their conclusions on public questions other tlhan boind
issues. On these they seem to have disagreed abl.,uilt ;,. fre-
quently as otherwise.


A study of the operation of the referendum in C.'hica..o ouild
no longer be complete without some mention of the pIart t.il:(in
by the women in popular voting. With respect to I'..tIl siulfrtuge.
women now possess the franchise on the basis o: e(.qultitty v. th
the men. A state law of 1913 extended them thie plivilhyC ,I
voting for all elective officials not directly provided] h-,i in Lthe
state constitution. In effect, it meant tlimt wl..n and wo\:.siiin V.>.ri
to share alike in municipal elections, ,in,-l.. llni<-iparl iote- hllve
a statutory basis, while the women iere t:o i.e delba Iltd F'r':'i
voting for county and state officials, k Ii.u-c p1.:iions %ilt' rF r-nat.,-!
directly by the constitution. This v.a .as far .is thte I'iltilalure
could go without a constitutional amienilni.tiil. Loci:l il 'r-aLi-:e
59 Except in one out of four submission .-ii thn h tI. ..:. :i, '.: .: :liut
of 3250.

--36 -

nii.ce-arily in:ludiJid ln. riliht to '\ tt on in:;l measures as well
a1 men. l.,.ii :-v the pariticil,",ti n ,i f -.1' ii.ln iLn local referenda.60
ThIe limiltJ chara.(.t'r i.if tli- tote vn.li,-i women thus enjoy
nui k I:. .,:.,I con-t.ritly in ind lin i any :ittetinpt to analyze re-
i.utL1. It i, .a \ery \ital point iln ;ary cl- iruison with the mas-
culine vote. In 'hica, o nhi-n lI::':l ]r,;l:,i,.iilions are submitted
ait the I.rii- mliilunicii'al eleitii'. llm I atll v.'w.men vote on both
:an.,ii.t',..s a n.I Iri-'.l ,-itii n- and :, lair cominiarison of the sort
menlti-ied n;ay I)e jiniid-'. ,ut it. f',r iri.triice, local measures
are -ul.bmitt.-J at judi:iall el:ti': it s Jun ii- r November, as they
freqenuitly .ire. .mci a c ll-'mi-rri-on r.nild .le obviously unfair
heca--cl.- tht 'i. ni.i-:uliiIi \v'ote: i.l t.i diral. ii ,it by an incentive-
tllat 'f \ori til' ftr I,-aici-l it:; fi'r tFi,:e--v.lich does not exist
fIor tlie v.imerin. TI.t- lItther :.-;.n tlhen \lte i'nly on local proposi-
tins ,niid it i naiitural fi:r them toi dil.ilay less interest in the
t :.l:.tin tli.ai the r,,en i al;.[i'ar t*, iliNi c_-.
The v..n-iiil i ul Chiia--ii mae their 1-.mal bow as electors
;in .\A il. '114. under cir,:'umtiian,:ces tl iit i,-re somewhat unusual.
In thii- firht Iplri:e. ilth, -ii i tl'hre n; wai- nii miyoralty contest to
.tlir the imrua;i: ti.ni anid iget ,i-it the \vnte. nevertheless aldermen
hadn t,. b. -: chl....i in all the r.i. ai the -'l.'-ction of aldermen
frequently develops iri-td i o.ile'ts I,.,ti in the primaries and
tin.Il tlecLtii.ni. It '...i:ll v ard, great ilnterePt might thus be looked
I',r. hiile in toitll,: Ih. l r \i'- r s C:ii'._ ;ret.t iriienitive for a large regis-
tratlni. .1 certain ,mlii.,nt oif apathyy miculiht l.e expected partic-
ul, rly .,'f i' .. i 4-Ltrs. Mire,\tr,. the littlele Iallot," as the ref-
i-erendln I.i. llt:1t i:s s ied. A, n rrih .L lig.i--r nd more complicated
than ;any in tlie irevioris hi-tory 'If ti.' city. A total of twelve
I'roi-ll','iti:,ri al -ipt;;are-d. 'ix .,nf lhich wrer, pi.rliosed bond issues.
Two Itlhers nv.ire li- -exi ition iuc,.;J urt.,. uice related to an amend-
mi.ent to itl nii- i :cil: al icuiit a(ct, id .iiiiit tl r to the increase in
t,: rln liir .ertail c.ilt officials. aind twi, rct lers were local public
]ili,:"y ,cii(-tioinc -".n the s..l.'j.c.t ,..I home riul fir the city and the
mi eheinci'-e .uliv.ly yt,:.m. 'ri-The hlt ic'entioned question
v ';a tile inc.' o i.e of .rl te. Io:- inter,-st. The women were thus
i:'ccfrniite.d ,titli a sc\'ere t e't lln tihir initial appearance. On
tbi. othi'r hlaniii. theit- iten'e interi-i;t dei'veliopied during the cam-
p.aign for tli c ult'r, i ;ae still in evidemne anid the added feeling
'" *liUe..u .. l,.:,nd iiuri jr.. pr.... ii....1 r Lb, :iatute women may also
ult rn thin i.

tlial thlii jui tiic; ati on ot t-qii'll l t.ii r.ag.- itself w.ias on trinl niior'
tlh;n c(ountrbfalaiu, d tlh. rtderQe cir,'iililtan:'l:e jutit ui.ted.
Tlhe outo:,:Ime of:t til. ,l.c-tion v..l a watchlitd n itlh girat int-re'--t
b- .1111 .ninl n ith rl iv.-v ou~' -em rn y other. D)i-a itrilu- etictt
..l Lll lln alld in i-n ,lll vr':-I I1r : '.-, .: :o. Iiii.'. V. lii': Otlit 1- n, i.::ll-
Fii:I-ntly i.re:l.dic-t'd .a m.it I-nlarlenlmnt ol tot;la without .an
Il i iv- \. -Ih:ue ,-- in r',iilt.-. iitll rar.i; it arnd their .-r.m '..r-. li-iih
h.,:n ik;IJdiri- foir IteII- ballot a: anll aiid t. the rel-m:rni Iorcr-- in the
fight lor a o'-leanor counil n an'd uiprigltne--- in governmennt Entlli-
,i.it d(lec.il-rd C.ornfidentlv tiht it w.,uhlJ 1.l:'11 the de:-lth ktli-ll
lor "J ark l: r.::-." f'.Ir t le. vo. in c-:.luld b:I I,':oulnte-(d i:,n t t tlhr,:ow
thiii ;niflu.n>-'- on the ide -l ,I right cl,'.-rly I'-fuar- tIhat it Ifill. t dI:i o1. hl-,cI-':- their e.>i,-loppo iCton.
.\A nii rate lit:- :or-,eu-l.'-ii,..-- ,: -it rc tlih n euinlairg ,:- ent of tilt
,l'eti-,rate by tihe intr:'du.i-ti':n l atn *eitirelvY nvew eliienrt ci.i.ld
Inot I he- I.re-c ii' ad i :;tuice.
Thl- ar'mtual ri-.iult- a; tlhi- :il-e.-teel ttl,- rul rendiuin uiy I.,:
reivitwvIi l lbrithV1v. Pr \viIu.- r,.-r i-tratl,-.1h- iJ .I,pI[r.:,oximult'al
41 l.,1m. TIhe. total V.-aI in- r>' d ;i to Icl';-.d!I';. IIl ; o hi h cI .I- .'1.5:s,
\ I'r:e I: a I d1 ?1 14 vi :-re x-,i i t -ri T he,- \\ ..tl r t li n .id .c 1.i1.
-oti-nIihat I--s than t.ne-third ul the: toI.tal." Tlhe :' e.t-iil[[re-li'-ii.
:Lih ,:' ;I A l ,- itioi n w .i votd on by ."i''.-. of the rec-icter,:l i, ln
and 55:)". ot tl-e ropi otrl Vr onion. It re. civtd the la rgt \ ot,'
Irorim th in,-n as iv,,11 tlJ : I. ontii:n. Of thot-. \ otii,' flr
c.riidtI S', ,,o ti. : mut.n v\ot': '-i th -luihixayr nrii ;iire artid
t i'', ol th,- :nmior, id il;i-nw I. The \,ot'-r on the. other n1,:.s-
iPr,-.- varied in a.tiuit the -,it': ri.iro,:trlion. ThIl iItri-t '.t of thle
,III--li ll huI ; jirov :'- to -enti-r i :ibonit tlhe _.atti i-_ e- th.i t .ittrit.ttl. t
the ini'n. altlihou: h it n\evr r'-re.i--hd quit- the -:iri: ipr:p.rtioir-.
M ro--it -r,. thli re-tilt onr tlit- r':-l:-erit lll miiii-nr,' iere nol
altr':-r'd li the -I-litst di-g e by the addition, o hl \mote- Fy the-
wom-i:n. toi thly apploii d and l Ji-aitpro\ved ol the.' :me prop-:,--
iti'ionr _a did the, men. It v.otichl s.mi that the "-finoin e-ithl-r
l..ill.-d:. thi ': uidail.ii' of tli, nior,- ex\ei-riencud mal -i elet-tor: or
tlh ey ,e-|lwret-el their own ipiniorn n the- en'rit- of iiTi'nr-re' :,rni
tlhii proved t.. I,.: thel- -ama,': s- that ot th'- men. Th- I-.irS :and
hlop, ol thi ,- li >h h .a I .,nti,-ip.,tr d "'r,-.olhitio.-,I r," r._-uIllt-
% Ffr tli ill:1. -a(d .
in e !,:,+ l'-i 4 th, Fr,., ,..rt,... F rtI.,n ]o, .w h . _'. ', .\r tt t n- : ,tLll
1 .-ptil 1, I'l th, rvi-I.r dtk.:,n -- j l'.ll.., Ii -.r, .A ,")i i.',l \\'..t..n .i:'.,'l-\ i
T ..rtjl. i. '..': .

- 3S -

The eonditionn under hichl tihe first balloting of the women
wz\;I. !aid nily lhiiav .: 1.il .-n \:eptional, but the results have not
povcI tc' I.e -so Sirc'r 1114 tll' nr.oinen have been participating
in ,ill lci,'l elt~'tion .ind liavre hellped in the solution of some
fortlvy-_ix ref:r:ndiumi mCl.,-IsIrIC. They have swelled the total
vote. but haI: not materially .iffel led it otherwise. On forty-
three of the forty-six propositions the women have voted as the
mlen. approving those the men approved and rejecting those
tlit t',:r(. not Inaored by the men. So closely attuned have
Ibeenl thli nma-ciline and feminine political minds, that even when
lthe vot'e \\- vry close indeed, a slight majority of men
:,ppronving onid be accompanied by a slight majority of approv-
ing woineln, iand vice versa. For instance in April, 1916, a
propos:iitiotn ":.t -intend sections 16, 40, 47 and 48 of the munici-
pal court n.-t" appeared on the ballot alone. It was an aldermanic
clct'tion and the attention of both men and women was directed
chielly to personalities in ward politics. The measure was rejected
by the 11;o of the men voting at the election, but by a margin
of l.5101 t \otes out of 217,000. It was likewise rejected by the
:W'T,. :of the women at the election and by a margin of 42
v.ite_- ot of 54,000.
The illustration mentioned may not be considered a good one
bec.Ii ec of the nature of the measure. But, in fact, similar results
a;plly tl, all kinds of propositions that have appeared. Women
nmay n.t perhaps be expected to differ from men on the desira-
bility ofl' most bond issues, the regulation of street railways,
annxratiin measures, etc. But another sort of question appeared
in .Aprl. 1919, when the voters were asked to express an opinion
az to prohibition. The question, intended to test the local popu-
larity ol recently enacted national prohibition measures, was
one of zcneral policy and thus had no binding effect. Both men
and wonen were found to oppose prohibition, the former by a
vote Ilron four to one, the latter by less than two to one. Thus
.1 larger proportion of women favored prohibition than is true
ol tile men, but it is clear that both men and women overwhelm-
in!lly (-'.lpo' fed.62
The c.% ir, be taken as a clear expression of public opinion for the
opposiricon \i'i% wn~ actually a inijtUriit of the entire registered vote of the
ci :, while the r,:' i:tration was it : lar.. :1, save one, in the history of the city.
In c.th r wonrd.. if all the silent voters had voted for prohibition the results
ncilhl o..,t hli' I:,:n changed.


.\tlII.touiil thi.' lomen thiu v-teulI :1-t Ilil tiihe l s Drel I.I thel' Sl.'i-
j: ct of prohibit l .un. thli y t -hiitvv d Loute inclination t. vote differ-
t.i tly.. (IOn thr'e otihr pr:p-.tr -itl.ion i thls I.,ldinny \\.va miore
nm:rl:ed. In April. 1917, tv.ii propo,-i-e] bond ,-iue-, orne to provide
for : -.\-tc .t w a;nt. *ii-p:,sl. 1nd the other to c'-[ntruct comttort
-tatio;i ture :ilpro-,VrtJ by the rmeni and ri-jcte :l. y i tl,,-. (n'i n.
:iii l.tli '-th meas'I T. obtained t-,tal lav-rail:- inmjorities and c.irriedl
d:.;-iit: lt def'l' tion iii thl \':i1:- i..1I x1 -ru:J. Re.suilt- :'re tlIh
nim lani._`,+l in I-th inst.ance,. .\._",in. ait tli.: ju]i cii l (lecti-on
n. Nwi\,nllhter, 11'17. v il in-.nly ..','. nf thIn ret'-iteredJ ni-,wlron \i ti il,
the-.Y l'vord the pr,:p,:o.d cou. ty<:,!\ htid i--ue i'-or road iH.1o:4 -
iernt, vh'ile ti-e male \(voter of thI i c; re je>ctel it."' Ti,- pr''p-
o'-itioii. hoiiicever. reli.ted ui.it .inly t,.. i--iiin' l,.-ndos. lut toi' levy-
il .,:'rit l ta-tl:e tO ni~e't tle i -'-: t -,f th.I J l..L. It ':-emu that
1t- ilein uiili] \'tl o tl ii the iri-lmer luiilt liit t- n tih latter ;Ian
_in':1 l.,:,l!i i0.il tioil 1. ,:.-r> ciO:, l.,in:'.d in ont pro,, o-s tion thI- .l.4
:.I' tih -.i womini hiadl ,r-. wei-hit." rBit ller,:n i. r>:,:'rn t:, l-Iieve
th.lt :I I],t're c'iipl.te- vote ,il thie pj:art it tle ivimner-n Will ha\,:'
b l-'i .n lt il t; i i:tir i\ -' i.i t II r l i'i.llr.t v.,:eire 1., it dil iert:' t th.tir
thi.': of tin rIe. In tlhi i-iit wv:rds pre\ioul.y ::oncidred.
thli w'omn i otii d atJ did lh,. it- .T -'Xcerpt in the Tenth. Th,:.re
o, l 124 u im:, ,. A: st: l- ; ,ll,..l- 1.,i, tl,.- .,r-opo-sitio, a;-nd they div id'.d
:; t I: 1I1 in fr ,.r.
'Ti-re h. : i, -eliI l.,tit t t .'o ul,: F urue up,-il 11 ii7i l tile ri'tIlt-l
were ll'.:[.; l dire,:ly .ly lb:e ,.,te ,t the ,nomnen. lO)n ,.,n,- i,:,; i--in
(.11lit'. 1!-h15) a plropop-nl' to l:iorrotn morn('y ti..r lii( ('',-inty P-oor
IjIloIMe v. aiR dJe-:iJ-id in the ifedti'" :1 iiidve'r;, ti-alt' 1i.i I.
'hi n .li? i,:.lI v.. \. tr,:.il :ly ,l": .. 1 '; ..':4.1 lor ; and1 t;.0 .i..,iil'l 1.
r hilh" th,', fet W.-,:1,,'n who %A .nit to: thi. p, .1,I ,..rpp -d l., y a i F-< iently
Iar__'i \'ote tit turn tihe R:.il But ri- .1 a mere im liniJiil it \,i4.,i'iin
iere ''liy;. (th.lrv.i-e -, i dillerent ret-ilt Il ni'lt hii: l.t .en ib-
t.1in ,l.' O n thi lr r I l h i t:lo, l.li:r, 0:ip :",rs t,:, h,1\,1 bee it ,
r,*jl ,.JilT.renre o-n r ,l|inir, i b let -,+en the in,:- 'iiJ i ,ouie ln 1r,'1,II1
4.il a r>.,]po itil I., ,-.. -i. i tru<:l I e I (,-i, nty ltN i b[ I I l:.i I:Ilnd

TI,. rural iiUDIn v' ir.-t, j lt,.-lr, P. St itr.n-r-l, a Ehrni.ll r -i'tl th
Ilb.tUi urf Js 'jrri d ,'-r rh .- Oir'r i'n ,n ,r th. Iit. .ni.rn.
'* T a..t .l on..- .llf p..re.r.,t I.i t .r r.i-.t li.r'.J 'o,.tin. .L '':,r- (:.tl .- tr, he'
p.ulk In tl... ..I I.r w ,ar.ls AuJ Hi..-l r .-.,r, n .ot.J a- ,hJ -.11- r...* I. lu fli\
IWard_. .- 1 I. 1, -' f. l ir r. iJ r r dilff..rirl oparioD in thr.r. iW ard. -.
I. r -' 1 .

- -II -

is;~iu;. uiltnittid in April. ')19. The men voters of the city
diil !ni iall., e. n h liil- the i oinen favored in such large numbers
a.- t. :, :laie tl, [ial rt:--ijts or the city. This is the only instance
tl,.,t I.Ic ; ri.-en vI.-n t mniy fairly be said that there developed
:Iny ii,irk:-d Jill.r'enL-. :,if opinion between men and women on a
pulillc, ,l.atlv-iI .
Su>.l ii the [i .cr 1 ,, :j, r,',i:,'rd of the wouen of Chicago with
thI I. .cal rif'eri niluni. TheI interest they seem to display in public
ineo urei t iiidic.li l...y the voting, is uniformly below that
io thl' m- ii hiit the dliffir-rr e is not sufficiently great to have
.Iny otlier etfe,.t thla t il.Juce slightly the total percentage
i:if .il \.:t :r- .t tI.-- elec'ti-.n-. who participated in the voting on
qlue-tiouii -uLiiittrd. In other words, more women, in propor-
[1.n [1.. Ih..-e \.:L. ar: c.uaill6:d, or who vote for candidates, will
r.--'r:,in trmcn i,.ting on ;iri-,positions than is true of the men.
But thle.; wvi.l, v..t aIlm,,ot invariably register the same sort of
:nI oPini'iii i.-n .ll .i:iri. oit i!.-asures as do the male voters. Such
.1 rijllt miilit ieli hil\:- I,,-en expected and no reason can bc
'Ceeii V hy it ishi ild i.J c.ol.r.icue to hold for the future. Radical
iinoaj\.tiio n .-.cal ,.oJr..rniinnt, or revolutionary decisions on
question n;f I'i:.i:1l policy ar. scarcely be expected from the ballots
i' I lie viunie i."'

(I..! lI:.\i. i.1.MM \RY AND CONCLUSION

In .a g cnr il -ui y if ('Chicago voting, some significant facts
-tanid out Iporniim.-ntly. iii the first place, popular voting on
imen-a re! cn, n rt I.k- :;ii.l tm. have had great value before 1900.
TLhere dlid n-it *_:.iHt ti;: I.c.i s--.ry background of electoral interest
in Im.-.I-ur'.-- -ul.Aii.i t-d .1 I.1 the result was a perfunctory vote
thht a uIomiitic'illy *ni t i,:-nlt;, through devices used in the bal-
ll.ini. o.r tailic: I.t. g'et ie ult.-, because of the absence of such de-
vi.-:. \1 t littll.- i!nt(r:-il. there was, was dormant, and little
v.-.r, dinie t, .-nw.iken it. ~~'il-e 1900 conditions have been more
f;vcor.Ijl1t and year llr ;llr car of continuous education through
'I'-n-talt -l ul.nuls-i:ion. hl- re:ulted in the development of an

'' I i-..Al. i .. I..: r: .:i...l.r....l U at the statements here made refer only to
n ,r.:['.:. r..:.-. .:-r ii rnt,.r-sting account of the record of the women
iu I...z.1 ti,..r ...:.ul .lIm r II.... ..: tion see Abbott, Edith, "Are Women a
F.,r...- ..r I';.:..-J C','. -:rr1i,.- it.", N. c ional M municipal Review, July, 1915.


ochlt\ lecttrate cenl.'-cIl,.m.ldJ t... suvl\Iiu. its public clues.tii> s firi t
h.,indl. There: rcullniln~, of coiilrte, toln much g'Il iii'rr-l aplatly. l.ut
it 1:1I li..-n r:'lu-I'e-d t, ai point wlher,- it 's.-Iloni prevent- .a v.'te
fIt.in reiachin r pro*portion- th:lt airn: -.alil:'lact:ry. A.\lut 'n..:-
l-.turlh .ii tih:. actIe c-lter-l ,rt the c,:ity -till normally retrain friom
votin- nii pul'lit. qu|esti,_,n. althm_.h they ,,te fI'-,r candidJates.
But more than half o:1 r l thir: lu.lilfii i \ .lter ii. l it a po rt of:,
thl :ir ri:.-t lar dp- lii, al luty t.. v',te -,ll u iuei tinl- I'r.in y ;ear t, o
year. S ime iof this \uitiij renrmains pertuincltry and hau- little:
valuee in r.:ti.bt,:ri l.li i ,pimoii,: .iut it is ,:hl>:ved that thi.
i:l',nI:- it 1. n-It lar::e i.nilii;gh t ie co.,n ierei1 -erilildi'y.
\\ ilethler the i ,,si i\ 'liotl Tr. I1ha i-.. tiil: \ 1 t-,:r ,l li ... ii-regards
r.'l..ferti. di i LI *.1-_ -r: \'. I.: .li'h.v, nilu l -1 f v.lIii,. t i- itrillite
I, to l. I1:,all,,tini, Idl> eniJ IpII n hI. s ,:-i arac ter a;rn : cclpo: it ,vy. A
siti ly it n thi I .irl v. tih Iov- I thiol ;t is tol I: l-iL. iln iII all 's;, :lttii.
I:f Lh.: .it-Iy. Tlis I i i ht i- I lic ate, tl.hat the I.pin;.i' i all cl.ia- es ,,n
mn'r II.'-,u s ai,-, fairly v.'ill r'.:'re~,etii ll ini thle vilii -., anU] tlhat nl:,
ilitlernt 'ol'I Isii' KIn wo_>ullJ I..-e re:e.-i'h:l.I if all votersrs .pl.'tually par-
tii.'|lattd. Mor.ov.r, it ;app:earsl tli.ht the pieive Ioter is ti- I.c
I',iiJLii in I,,r L-r ,LImliers .11iii li.: the pi,,_,rer aridJ ui inti lliacii'Ilt
'r-ilii[, T h' pi r.,pr .rlI,.N i-. ii ,II ii tl-\ ilt r- ~ C ti.-i to i .,' tilll- t in tl ie
,-,.'all,.dl ('.erar :' scti,,- r,?|pr,:'-i tiii t ihe m .'.ez ief Illsill,'Ss ;id
-frt. L( 'iniil n :iin i L 'm .ill ,,r viI er.i e rieeL l.li l ;larJi l; irll.-; t 1i 1 tin
r el:,ir-st I .1111 i ,-.1 l il:,i-.,rillt -1. :, ti-ii. -. Ti ,e rii.-li .:'tils e. ?in te.
lurnitll ti,: a. \ l:'r.,l -Ipe:' ,ly f I, lI, i- '(elrt' It tie telli-I,.. Y thi.L
iili,'.i trld repr)S*t1 -..it n'LateCl. n- llitiii. s feir th:. i.ilv 1 a ,. v |hi le,
,Ill-' in'ee ,it lie e*.* rtLo tl iv i.iin.- eriedJ a.l t tHi,:' 1 '0 ll-vIt i'- If
"(' iiu.C t lh\,:l' l-.:'ete:ral .pLth.liy. pe'rhap- it c'ild nt lie fli-iuid
ill r dl!' ;il' l ile (lii;rti r .
T hi ,:- -.'I-rier,"e .of C hIii.' ),_,_ ha.- a"l,_ hI n thle v ,al ,,' p,.roper
lIallot l il.,m anid nI :thldIO in _-ul.,Ilittilll pFrp-,,iti mi T h.: ,p -. -
rat' k I, llit, hich har i tee e]J Iince 191.11.1, lI.r pr,.,oJ :-o nsati;-
lac ct:.r that ir. ar~limi..'nt iS i'eded for it ret>.e.niti',n. Pir' ,,I.e si-
tio._- hI liuld I.b.e p;la.i;ed Ijit.r. ll: \ee:ote'r ion their ,,v% n meriL.. Thel,
'hIiIold never I,, 1ilijjectel ti the "lhim Af' pIarty leadJer_ ac tl1 .y
"\erc prie.r te. 1.s9i.. Nor ;lhulld tbhy I..e hidd,-n frim the vter'-
eye on .o h a iig: a.n1,J i:uiLl.,ero(iuCie ,e:alilaite' haillit .is they v'wer
frinm 1,s9o ti 1901P. The tirnier meth.lJ imy -.o iecur a re',lJi'itI
vo* te, I.iit t ,i: I pr .".".'-".-" h.1_ o0 I.,.: I'iii 011 tinl- ulti .ite flt f 'lie l
44t th.. r'h:. ,:I uiliim th at I-If ,%.\p, ie:..il-.L p 'l li, i).i ,_,o1. T ile I:nt-

- 42-

t:-r rfi..,i reijilire il il livi.lu.al o*pimol l'l frt.nm '"i.II vcitr, Iutt tile
ia tlhod d i_ c.'ou I biI IFrom ,\jr,- i _' it. % ,ierea.,: lie i:cl_

But a sp,. ,ite ballot is iot lfi, ilenti. Illiti it _.,rrit s .a
rliie; tio: el.Il,,or. tely ,.,rl': in te h lIen.'.iil p. eis. v.lliih %ihvy

t itlill t IC:- ll ide. r tiu. I .,rid t tiit I i:,llpl:l I of ti.i i lllllllt i -.1 ; iill,

tiii :ll thli vutere l in, k l t iilv l till .ii .'it t : vi.i thli .."1 il r,:-trt ..l
it i li t.lI ltiit> ) t I I t ii l -.etii litie it I I i ;I ir:o i .l ,..ln aot i i r,: It:ii ,.
tiu ll tll?.. f nl'll i l. l ii rl.- vI .li t i tl it. l~ l l ; I..m t.>i I i ,tl> i l t.i i .
ltfo' r i. Ii l iti i i t l l ji.fi l air vlt I 'or i t t I "hii1. l or :t-',:,m l .

lnti-t rlt: viite. II.hlI tl l : iiiiy a.t-i itiI.-ll ,i tli iit arl; n i.j,3"- ,l \a:elte; rf
IilU iIt., 1 sid he a :111,V .1 IJcll Itsal l ..i v IVII.1 zt 0il % citfvf
,",,lri ,,;ic ll e'. I-i. re ---, .a i ,ll li' t 0: 1 l 1,p11 ilio t l :ri :, 1: Biut i .li:tL
,lIJ' ll ,tl. i.t]. th.. i lil V, ,pl :-; ire'd ill <-'hii ... a il. I,*' ; i hI:-ei
int 'llin(IItly I xC pre,'_"_, on tilth l,.lh_,t. .-iid hl d thl i.' t h evi.,. u \x-
[pri'-e, ,o d,.J h.i tiiIJ,.,thi l,:dl dr':v ii l',-,'lh i a i, :'h Iarn.L .r .ili.
iimr.,t <.->._I [l> ti; .'e ; i:',: 'rom th,_.- vl1 t _f .
.A Ith t-r ft,-: i:r o "f .re.v t ilipurtja.i n.ce l _- hl ,.l i tlal ,ll Ipill l';ity.
W ith I le ;;il lin.o, i_-i-.ii I'v.,r l ,: ,: Ili. lil,:-l, iI t of thle %ot,:'I dliC-
ing th!.: plr,. >id [.r':,',dir, le ele--tioin, hi.- ha; I ,en co_., pelldI t.,
r( O. l 10 to ,, l: Nit,:. _r ; \.iil.l% I oI :,_, r.'t i .'l iil'4i.iri ii leiol t ,i r, V I, re
It wh.[n l il hi il t'I ,d t,., I' i Iiaili ;ri. I hiini .Ilf witlhI th,:- nierit1 ol,
II,;t'".1 ,i : b lll',. t. :, .'I O ,m ilIT, s V., -re I- ,iaIll, \ uI I iitid :inJ a 11 h .l , i
,l iintIrt- .tlt .. t li- voter' >.,i_ _luIIi.-iii, % .r,:.- lik ;l..v lh. It: ,.li torted .
-h ,e T*.. it h,_, ld 1 n.!. i.li. th .o1 l, avv -plip 'pr' i.1 flrel' eg i tly'
-t:p ,:d int,.. I,, l,'..-e .r'h :indl perfl'orrnil .- ry \ i .il a ll <- ,rvi:..% .
i II t1 i 'orIlie'L- til \W IItIli l I .v It\( '*iI vlleilVf. 1. 1 itC' iI ll -
litity thI re;:ulL i' I n -arly a Il\ ,-Iv r:ll,:e-:-t,:.:l in 1 l:I ',2: poi A1l. l r v,,t- .
M. i:,i a ?. I not ,o lI o t.Illi, te ,inil',orn l re< .-i\: Io_-, Littl,. ti..II :at
tlI poll, The experience O.f" <'hi' .:> p,.,int; ,:l,...-rly to, th n title,]
I',.r ,. ,r I. ll',. i:-tiv,; II : t rt : fo1'r pI l .i- t Y .
I-'r 1,,- [,o,:,ie ., laii k'roljlld i A' f yi .' ol C,01ol-
l.tnt e ,xperi.-'i I- v.ib th e releri, him .Althl:iii, li limited 1y iu!a
asi to.) tIh,.. I:\ At't lI" thl jul-j,::t-. o %n li,-h it iii,.l I,,: J u td., th .%,
lI. e illn. lm ,:.:, t:o It vloke it ill on, e l',-rin or .aliot" t r o:,il lr, l-ti- ll.
v,.-r.v im pil-it.it l --l 1.,. M-t l a,,t 1 w.i- :i'rlitll. I l\iI ,ii ll ,if,. | i-
It -[ :rt 'i: ;,,J l lt: Izx ; ,, co lit ill no pro,:, ii,, al .r .-1 ,1pop0 l. ti, V,-,A .
tltie pul li -licy ;n t ik re ,orted t., in r.rJ.'r to oilti t i -.(e ,opinion
ol the voter-. II.ill--lind.led :I- tlvy l' r,:i.t tly .i la y ;t lck of

-- -4.." --

ad,:'-Iu;It,.- i rilIf:,rm tti:,I aI u \ l.:ulJ, :. and .S inmetiln(- ,I,.fr, tr. e
of vi%.i,.n ven nl-en enlihlitenin.rit vna fiji inid ied, their ji.idnmrint
bli i nlit al I\.ly. I'-een of tle i ,.-' t. (ie-u'roily pealin'. -,l i' m \i.
they e.rin, in iin'st ini-tin to Iia\eC ae-itlitted Lllremihe-lve well.
The rei-or.!r i pr,.ily y a r1ii tloi.t ,:f tli: '6 aiy oti-ler
imuil. r Ic;.!!ilii ni l.y in li .' ioinlry maiiyi ,l.-; t.
lIlt io e,.'e. r i..: ,r uniwi tlih :ir d :-.:i-i n;. tlhi: f'a,:t rt'e aii _-
that .ii.ii.iilar votin i ,ili lt. i l (l 'ti i.'n1 'onntitiiltv in jIl|a," ti :<
a \,-ry --,ntial f:.-atiurl o.f t' he ,,.M.-iii rit :Ind ,ill rinduiil.t,.-dly
ontinui- to iI, oi T I l il in : li:it, prl:l:ul".-i, i. t ll.;t f I:.r _ia Ljtl
the process more effective than it has been ii thlie ipat. To that
end are needed general provisions for dir:.tl I lie.-latiu.n. i.,n Lll
local matters to be dealt with by the city tilhiriti: -. In till?
first place, the city should be free to reoru.aniZe it' "o.n m :\-Cern-
iinnt, along models best suited to its local i.i:-..l nid Linal .aulth,'r-
ity in the matter should be left to the city v\.iterr' :- it i, in pFra:-
tically all "home rule" states. As alrea'ly, n,.teil I the rin.,iplei
of the referendum as applied to changes in thl. o:r-.rl,, I;i.. of
the city is not a new one. Chicago voters lI.1r-. i!'.rl thei l.:.irn-
ning, passed judgment on all such legislatii.nl. llini-e rule io' unll
merely add to the power to ratify the po-'.>r ti, i tilA-t:. WVitl
respect to local legislation by the City (C'.im,;I. tl..- |Ii.,-ti-e i
to subject such ordinances as are deemed iiii|.rttril t ,t Iiup.illiflr
vote through the public opinion law or tl.h| i>:.. (_I ptl :te-
powers of the initiative and referendum vs.iili .d. cirnplli, inl .1
direct way what is now attempted in a \ery .lnir.-stt _..y. iand
better results should be obtained by eliirn;iMin;g all irevrtal.uimty
as to the effect of the voting. The publii- >.ii.;,i!i I..\v h.a Ievn
of great value as an instrument of education i llirs::i. .i:\.Trnincit.
Results of its use in city affairs would indlic.,t tr1:t t]i, til,,i, i,
ripe for making popular voting not a mere ixl-r. '-i>n otf ,iii 'i.u.
but a judgment with binding force. FurthlIru.1:1r:. V.lln Iropo-
sitions are to be submitted to the voters. I-,r.vi-iii -iili,'l Ii -
made for official publicity pamphlets, I.nil-d dirtn.tly ti.. 'Uh
voters during the campaign, containing thb i,:.:-oii tro 1: vit.,!
on with arguments pro and con. Some in,,,,t.re sit tl!- '.irl
would seem essential as an aid in solving tli,. poIl..il-r! ii ;itnertia,
and lack of understanding on the part of tlllo vitr-. Thl, '.*nin
of such a plan is proved by the experience ri.r n:a, -tat..l n h ern:
it is used. Finally, when the propositions apjp'.:':r ori tlhe i.pjrate


hall:it. they shi.l'ii bIho .Ltedi in Riit.l-a.Inice in clear and concise
Engli.L 1: thlia t i.:' \:l.r i:ti:l.i: II ..: left in doubt about the con-
le-Ills : i' the ineiiSie on whiilih lie is voting.
/ In cOinilu.li,. %I: t h' I i .,.- li,:,n ~aid mi:y be briefly summarized
/ in I.the ', ll iing sii '--tI on-:
tJ- 1. Pr.'.vii':ii -l:uldi:l I.:- Iii:l .:, .by txinstitutional amendment,
afor 111:mirlh:te lionim rule for the city with power to make and amend
it- ,:-n -hhrlr subjectt to ratification by popular vote;
'.. I'Pro'.i-ln should be made, by constitutional amendment,
for the ....liiilte initiative and referendum on all matters of
lociil Il.-i nation, subject to the usual exceptions;
:1. Pubihlity pamphlets shouldbe provided for in all cases
vn.hre a loi-:irl proposition is submitted;
4. Thi : se- rate ballot should be retained and provision
male in all Ia.'es for printing thereon the substance of proposi-
tionr. r.flli r tlian a mere reference to the title of an act.



Table I.


1)1I l-'17

ri .-I,,:TioP r I (- T[tN


November, 1911
1 Amendment of Municipal C.:,jr I
Act................. No, N.. N.:. N.. N N... N...
2 Amendment of Municipal C...url
Act ................. N- N... N N... N... N.. N.: N..
3 Bridge bonds........... Y: V. .. Y : V. .: YY
4 Judgment bonds........ Y Y.. V Y Y y
April, 1912
1 Harbor bonds.......... YV. it- Y eV, YY N Y, X.. y
2 Bathing Beach bonds. .. Y N N. N..
3 Hospital bonds... ... .Ye . N N... ,
4 Police Department bonds : N.. I r,. N,,
5 Fire Department bonds. ';. Y: N. N
November, 1912
1 Widen 12th St. bonds... i .- Ye N. N.:. 1'.
2 Hospital bonds ......... Y ...
3 Court House bonds...-.. :No .L N... ,, N ,.
4 Poor House bonds...... '. Y YVX Y, Y N\ Y Y.-
5 Public Policy Taxation.. Y i: Y ,-- YN. Y N Y,
6 Public Policy Primary El.,: 1...i: Y -: .. Ye Y Y, .
7 Public Policy Short Ballot Y: Ye Ye- Y; Y-l N- Y.-
April, 1913
1 General city bonds .. .. Y,. .- Y Y .. .. N..
2 Annex Cicero..... ..... Y.- Y Y I Y-
April, 1914
1 Comprehensive Subway. '. : ':- N.- N,.. N..,
2 Home Rule for City.... Y- Y.- Y- Y. .. -... N..
3 Fire Department bonds.. No: ': ... N. :':.
4 Police Department bonds N N
5 Hospitalbonds ......... Y Y Y:N YN':a
6 Judgment bonds........ No: Ir.. ... N.:.
7 Bathing Beach bonds... Yi.: N. i. No Y
8 Hospital bonds......... N.. N. N .... No No ..
9 Municipal Court Amendr,... t N. N N N o No : : .
10 Ordinance to increase tenour. -.I
City Clerk, etc., to 4 yeXr: N.. Y, N. .. No o Nc. N:.
11 Annex Morgan Park.... Y, .: Y ; -Y \.. YN X( Y'.
12 Annex Cicero......... Ye Y Y .Ye- N.- Y. Yti


Table I-Conhnued

CITY AS. A \V .)LE-i(C....[;n.?e.1i
1911-1' l

'li- r .:.:IT .- ; r i i. E : I .

I'iiE l iD N

April. 1915
1 H-..-spil I h.-... .. .
2 Ju.. W ..rrlj, S. o ..'l.I bh.r..i;
3 F.rm C...I..L h...lr .
4 G jrb,.i... l!..dJ P.ldJ t. : :..r,,l
5 PEilthriu P..4.:h L....UJ-
eI Firi- DLprtml.nti tL.-J_-
7 P..l..: DPpjrtim..t ktL,.J: ..
tin.-, C l:jri.|, ..
'J .\r -n- Elm r ,.., .J
Iit I ..hl.. -rl t.in ': S tir Fir,.
DrIpi ril nr r
1I .\i*ire B.luc I:lnr,.1 .
12 .\u,.: C 'l"nil .
June, 1915
1 C J'u J..il l.I r..j .
2 C,..untI j 'r....r I(...u- h. .l; ..
3 Court Hou;. b... .;:
4 Anrn,. St;.:Ln,..
April, 1916
1I lMunr' p'l C..urt .L\:t
June. 1916
1 Bri.l:e bonl -
2 Stre-l TL.ghtng .
3 J.,.l b.--n.l
November. 1916
1 Ir.'iimrra|i,'. b:. '1-
2 PBinih P... .:l. b h..n,
3 C ....:rir .j..t.:. .. P rl . .
4 T .\rnt..n.d I P.b. P.,1,.',V
.\lXl(IiJlin,:il -inaklu. L' i..
April. 1917
1 BjthL n. D;... .:h.:: ,..i.,J_-
2 B..,e' S.1-h... b:ou :
3 \W st.-.- q,..i l -bndJ-
C.,rnl.' r rtr, .n bi. .
5 11.1-ipitd t-or. ..

I- - -

-.', ', Y: V ,-
Y,. N, N: .-
YN rl'- Y; e .
Ye N N. Y, t
Yi Y-. Vc YX
Ye-' Y .: N -. Y
Yea Yt I Yt 1.

Y., Y: Ye

N.. YX-; .-e YN.

Y c: X.- y

N,. Y.- ..
NV. x2 Yi i..

YN, Y: X- -
NY V. Y, Y

YN: Y 1 1

No Yr- Y NY ,

N., Y, Y,. N,,

No V.. '.\..':...

N .. Y. X- N..
i \.-.' XX- : ,-
, Y:i Y2

- 4 -

Y.- N.
V..: "...~
.. N
X '

\..: ?....
V-i. .
N\- .. :
Y'. No

N- I; ,

V N**

N.- \..
No No



N ..
X ...
V,. ::o
Y. N.

I', NL*

Y V..

YV Y..
i Yr

Y 4.
Y Y.:

Y.- i,

i N,
I '--- .-

X.. .'.

Y*, No

N- X

Table II


pil I -': i;'



November, 1911
1 Arrmndii. nt of M.liuipal Court
A .:t i.4 I' .0 l.' .' 1,
2 Anr:.ri.urmet of MIjn, inrip Cou'it
AI .2 44 .2 52 I 17 .7, *'1
3 Bribj- bh,.rd 7,0 1 *'l 71 ;Il 1 N.i
4 Juder,.ent hi.nd: 77 0 71 7 'i 7 I7 .
April, 1912
1 Harl:t..r b..i. :'2 -.. N" 7s "il 7I S SI; '2
2 Bathiine Lja.h ...i.t-h '. .' 7 'i 7 i. 7 N., 1:1
3 Ho:tiinl 2...u] i '1 75 75 77 1 79'
4 Poln... l1,partr:...- i t....7 11 7'3 7 7 77 N'2 7S
5 Fire DiL p rltrt. t bt..ids 5 7- 7 7- 77 Si, 7'
November. 1912
1 W idi.r 12thb S'. b'..uJs. .. A. .' 7' .' 1 74 *2
2 Ho'iprt' bp .ri, 7 i l 7i 4.* ..' .1 7-' .*
3 Co.irr l,.u b-.nds ii7 47 ;i *' 2 .'7 75 .'"'
4 Poi.r Il.l: b.t.id 4'1 5. '.*7 *.'- i 0.1 75 t'li
5 Pur:..: P'..,i.:' T i inor, 64 13 1 *; *1 ;. .. .5 ,' .
6 Putbh,: P ic.h,Pn' F' riin., E-leCrir, '.2 42, 4.1 7 ; .' .4 -2 .5
7 Public. F..l, Si hrrt B ,ll... '2 41 4N ., .4 r. :4 1.1 .1
April, 1913
1 Genr rl e r.lI y l:....nd .... . 7 7 7 5 5 '' 0 S O '
2 Antics Ci.r.... . ...... 1 r-2 7' 46 It. i6 ..7
April, 1914
1 Coruiprt-.'-t. 'Su'ii i,N, .1 I 71 71 S7 t.4 S' N i
2 Hoir.. I:ul.. k.r CoI , 7.3 3 1 1 74 1-'
3 Firt DL cpirtan t lbrdtLd_ . 7;:* **CC *7:1 NS iI 7.
4 Poj .:i D(ptn[.,r n tn b...iD... 77 i., 4 41 t 1 it 7I' 7;.
5 Hc.piti l L.I.rdl .. . .. 7. 7 .5 7 1,.1 7i 77
6 Judgmrrie t b:.odi j2 i1i. 7i 7-4 7
7 Bath;ig Bir:h 7. 5 ..5 1 7 1 77 7
8 Hc:pii-l b.:n 1 i 4-1 .2 71 .., 7 61
9 M tinr.:ipil C(r',.i Arneudnini 42' 25 3 ., j \'., 11 1 ":
10 Ordiarincet t. irncrfr- Irnnure i:.
Cn t, -'rk ei:.. i. I .cri 7r 3 53, t'.; S '. 71 75 74
11 Anne, Ml..rg.,n P-'rk .... . ; 54 ,3 t. 7 77 7-
12 Anne Cietr... 7 52 1 i;,3 NS.' -7 77 75


Table II-Continued

VI T.)ES oN P-RCOPOs ITIONS--IContinued)

1 1 -1 -1' 17


Q a a Q -

April. 1915
I l..spitil L....rd . 4.' 3 3 60 79 54 65 76 67
2 I... W,,thb ScLb.,..I bL...ls. . 11 4 57 76 52 64 73 65
Frrm C,.l,,P L....-nd i 1j 4 56 75 49 64 72 64
G4 irbiae r-ed. Bld; L.,.:.cJi .1 ?;' 55 74 49 62 64 63
Sri'hirh.c Bi.:h L,,:. d- 1.:1 1' 41 57 77 59 76 73 66
) Fire- Departnriet b...rd ..1 4- 57 72 50 62 71 63
7 P..I.i. r-p:rrn.-ni L,.:,r.d .. 3.I : i 47 55 70 48 60 69 62
SAr,. Clrg . .. 44 53 68 46 56 62 59
9 Anni- F.lnA.,.:d .. 4 51 64 44 55 64 58
10 D[ ,.,l.s I,--plat.....,r ,. tr- I ;r.
Dl. rtr.,ri,.: i 47 .3 69 76 52 73 74 73
11 AIirir\ Bin.. I-l.rid i' 1 4>, 54 68 46 56 67 61
12 .A~1Lc Cald. ..... ...... .... 11 19 63 44 52 63 56
June, 1915
I C...ury\ Jill .... l. Ti .. 70l 69 84 52 76 80 77
.2 C.,rnt:, r,.,:ir II.,u-s,. l,.rIJ-: 74 ).. 70 86 52 77 80 78
n C.,urt H.:.ui.- nds 71 ,.5 tj-i 66 82 50 73 78 75
4 Ann. Slm. Lr. .- 74 '54 o7 70 78 70 72 77 75
April, 1916
I Mur;.-;pil C.-.urt A.t .... 5. o7 5s 60 69 46 58 63 55
June, 1916
1 Br.d-, 1...n.l .. ". 74 4 S4 93 80 83 92 88
2 Srr.-,- I..ihrig 7 1, 4 84 92 82 82 93 88
.3 J., l.rs,:.,- 5i 7 6.; 59 79 57 65 75 69
November, 1916
1 lu.I Lrtrjt...n L..., .;4 .-' ,:: 59 74 49 61 71 66
2 Brhr_ E,...::h L..ds...... .. 7.. ,1 1.13 66 83 56 73 80 73
.: C...niru.:i...r, ....f Prks.. . . 5 1 :4 59 74 55 64 73 67
I T7, .\im.-rd' (Pu[. ,:,l:, 74 4 .1 7 42 46 46 53 53 44
I, A.\uend,,i,. r BainLin Lr Lp 52 .2 -3 25 36 29 33 39 31
April, 1917
1 B[thir; r'g -ili Lt..:r.d 7' ..5, 67 83 64 73 81 69
2 B.:. -,-,.'. l..i u j . ... 7-' '. 5 i 66 82 65 73 82 68
.3 \Was.. Di.p.,:. l-..nd. . .. 7ii 57 al 66 81 62 72 80 66
I C.:.mi,.rr ':ir...rs I-,:7.r .s ., 65 81 62 71 81 66
SH.,.sprll -,..l . 7 ,i1. 62 79 62 70 81 67


Table III

i l C',! !" ','1

ir .-ur,:; r...pIled fr,:.ru r,.,.,.rJd : *.'i it,. BH...rd ...I Elk..in.r. C'.nriii ,r. .rr= ':,:ept
t., rh r :.i h-r. r: *t -p- i".d ,

F r.,,i .: ii..'.

M1ijr10rial u,,'T,:r;h.p u ter
i r I=
PI .:i br l-, :on r .f 4''I.'.,).:,
1. tOre ri, t -..i l n1r-i u Ind i,'J
'n !! ;t. ,.l
2. :\1 i ...r : i r.',: . nt r t .I,..h ]L
2 i 4 :.ui'. I
1 ?i 1,. ht.,.. a prpr r t aiit..n

2 C'..nit jire-red .i:pijiti: irmn

3 I =,U ,-,I ::.ur, hr rdrd:
4 .\rpr' r..pi' itl,.r' r r. ,U ..,r,
I,, ri l id I.'.r w e i :,l r,:l,.-

1886. Nuv.i-
1. C ,.,,-,i ,r.teiJ ....:.'.,i.C lat.:.r
l:ij .. .* id.. I
2 .\J.pi.l'-t un...o-. olrd.t nit-.-:
1887. Nov. i-
1 .\Aer'.-h.rio i.'.ud,-
2 .\ ppiri .ri ,:' jur '.o.' -
18Gs i Nov. 4--
1 .\r., r.1d ii: h i, ri lri A.
I w t "re-, iile 1
2 C.:.it ar.trein1 Wiorld'- Fir
bt.:.i,-. i t : -.~'1.r Id
3 A.LI',..r' |. :.1 Fe rnI '.Ia:, l
4 .Ai ..-'. V ,I r,. ',ri li] chrt :
5 .\nu..\,, \VL t iJ,.:..:l.rar1

2 41-'

I 12 :,

I 1 .. '

3 4
T.... E.

1. E 1, .

.,,:.4 7 fin

1"- .,31

I.-' ~IL'


rt i *..: .

I 11 7 L' 77".'..

171 .77'i 4.21:

47 7 4 321.3

li 1,2r, .7 I "4 i2

I. i |1: ..1 X 1 I .'
Sl ; i .l 'i i ',, I '.: '
I ; r 4'. l:; ; l

- .-2 -

I.'.I.I- I I -

ii- T.1 IT

ti.-". I

I'.l l '.i. 2'

* .[ii h..J d at a a ..I...I .- i.rn V. h r.r p '-i. ,.i .. ii .,r.: (..* r .ty. .l.-rl; in 1','t..
iD ,: n.ri id n.luIJr t ..i o1 L'tl:- '' .1i-" ,..t: n ithr th 4 .,',Jirri nir

i-I ,1

.*4 _11 l' .2 I .,'.. 4I .

Table III-Cotlinued

TABLE .SHOWlIN;G \OTE. .\ND Il'-:( ENT.\' LS ON -I:I-'C IOii',;NS.
I 1.r:-rl] 1 .11

Fi F .;r, ,'.' ,pil...l fr'.ri r, '-r..l ,:.f .. P ,jrd l-. ,t.:r '.:,tn rin, :.ri.-r; e., rl
n' i r r ili 1 r. 1:, :..,,- di.,ij

1MI1., Nov. 3-
Rn ,l'jiid ,ij l, hi:.n, . .
1893, April 4-
1 \ A.r.'.ii ,.:iri ..f l:o.,-r P[ irl:
12 A\ n. ..In '.'i \\'-e i :i. J -
1893, November 7-
I .\rnn of N.:.ra:....id P'rl:
2. u.u i...;l for La ,..:In. i...,i
,r..] \W-Vri i.,Jr P.rlt.
189-1, April 3-
I A1 \ r, .. ...f E ;( t...n
2? ,rn.: ..I ?l..r,- n P r;.
1891. November 6-
1. C..i-L.. JM.ind 5j 1-. r IM:; .
i I a I: -I. i tj I . .
-'. C'runt I-d...J i;ue
1895. April 2-
,\,d :, |r ',,ri ,:,l' ,. ,'.. 1 -i rv;. I- 1.ir ....
1E95. rNoveber 5-
1 A.1.:.ptiri.r T.:.ri.. s land I I i ..

1 i. I.
1896, Noemiber .--

,',untv L.bindJ ;:.,.
1897, June 7-
A\J...ii.:r Ti.. .r.i lrind itl.
1898, November 3-
I. Artic., tr t.ail ,r.liI,. lir'.
Si _i-., ii, i
2. (Courlhr..ij-r.r,.l iIil
L r'il.ndin.Jrr -r.nI i. u-
4 .\rlo (.1C C'..:r..
1899. April .-
I E. t .. .f l. i d, .r, rt.. ,
Anr, -. of iwrt .4I C. :r..
'. Anri.. i.4 i.-art .. C ,.eri
1. AnD -., Of I. '."n ..('C i.:,:r .
1900, April 3-
.luj.deir.r.t I...ind i-u-





24-1 'II
11 '.

I' I "I

*;-14 ;i.i



.1''' 211

11.:1 ..1

1 ll

11 l.'

Ii.;,!' ,.. '.' l. ', '17 1

:I-" '" I 71

1' i 1 2i .,', I

77 l -' . *i' .
."1i "1 1 l-4

,'7 1 '" I "1

T',I IS.'

r ii

". ;227 tll

.' "1 ni ni,4T

, i.'. ? I.2 -
.1 .,.I ,I,| \ ,lc

r.. l.'.i.l .. lo i

2,, IT2
24 1. 1I

-2... 14 7

.27 1- I

., ; ,11: I t._ _1 .4 I ,
- 1. 1 A ill 0 ;-717 I'.4 I 1

] 0: l I i 1 l' .1 1 .. i' 7 1 I

li', i.l l': .7:.l'i7 .'i ". ri-' "' 'I -1.; I7
' 3 f'll C." 1.2* 27 23 7

1 2..' 27" 2i ..' i 1 -1 1 74 I'.'1 I

,t,- Ir r..r J..fnt I. I p' .'.ir, Board.J i.a

-- .3--


A., 'r.. :. :ld li:l -l-. .n p a r Tlh- I,:, I
A',, T:

Table Ill-Continued
i Is.'.I-l'i1g

I Fr ur ,- .c.mpilied fr..rr r.,-,.rd- of Ith r E..iard .f El. i*:.o n Cnor_,i icir.,r- r reptl
wl-rre 1th rn-;.,. r.n.,'ifid i


1900. November 6-
C.:unt) bo .iL d issue.....
1902, April-
I. ]\luni p.l ownership i.f
street railways (public pol-
icy) ..................
2. Municipal ownership gas :trid
electric lighting (public por:!-
icy) ..................
3. Adoption of direct primii.r
for city (public policy)..
1902, November 4-
1. County bond issue .....
2. Initiative and Refererdum
(state-wide public policy I
3. Local Initiative and R.frr-
endum (state-wide public pol-
icy) ..................
4. Direct election U. S. Sen.:a.r;
(state-wide public policy I
1903, April 7-
Judgment bond issue...
1903, June 1-
County bond issue.....
1904, April-
1. Adoption Mueller law by I3
2. Municipal ownership (publ,
3. Grant of franchises to pri .i -
companies (public policy i
4. Election of Board of Ed.u :-
tion by people (public pcll 1
1904, November 8-
1. Const. amend. Chicago (h.ir-
ter (state-wide)........ ..
2. Adoption Torrens extend ,...r.
3. Adoption voting machin'....
4. Bond issue............ .


Ii 1:111.1

11.1 *.1

1 li .'.7


2 1> ;.3'.'

2 ..b

i i 1 ,1.1 7


1 1 3.4 1 i w',. 215.', 7

171,!, 1 1 ,7741, 215';,.7

43:i 1.72.',2 "'l21l

17.3.. 1 ,1'.3; 2"il, 1 1

2,1IS 14"27 3i1211

li,-i. l .4.574 12'74J 4 3111 .

10 211 .1'* ., 14 r-1 7 '. .:i,71

1'i I i 2; 1:.4

Li,'ll ii,,

2 ... li.

2.,..1l l

l I l. 137'.5 371Z51.u, 4 41i l I -- (' .' I'

2- I;, .
l 5

2' i.. 3717 1.3 .
.",,,' 31 _77 !1 '1.3

Pip. rAi;;

...A :. r ...I,:

I*,.;, i l r t, r

....17 "




.'i,' 'I-'"

404121I .v, I .2 I.

4(14 I -, I

@ Presidential election year. T..t.Il ',i.: f..r 'Prn,,.-i. ..4I C...uibI', .,.i J Vt..i )1..,.37,.
@Presidential election year. T,ot:.l ~v- f..r Pri.-id..ut ...( Cu.iiir Cu.u1uu : c.n-f-, ~ x.,

I ~lill~l

'.O-. I l l 3.9.l-' l:..' 11.

4 2(1'00

.'. 7 74" 11744 10' .::.. 10

Table Ill-Continued


I Figures .'.r.,pil...J fr..n ri.:..r.J: c.f th.- Be..iard ...f Election Commissioners except
I h

i D ,r. t prirnar I .'l hi-.,. i.,:
pr,,bli, p.-b -'I,
d. L..al ....* trr..l * I -tul.l -wi J.- pubb.. p.:,.j. I
lIrcal ,..nltr.:.l ,.fI li\r ti.,n
I `tat.--; Alc: public p".h:l i.
1995. April 4-
1 C(..unlt .% urlh.,'.a [,.ri
i-. iu ..11 .'.i000. 'iiil
2. ,\.J.:.p,,...n I. ,[ ir.rn -p,:.rr.-
h':ri. ..rdirnar- i pubi';. p.'.lii ?
S AdJ -pti.-.n ,f n ini r.'rllt:, ...
prsntlr. frin.. hi I t. -Chr.a-.
't- : C 1 z piLu li.. I...l_.;s i.
4 Ad.:.pt.w.n I I;, urdjru311':-
cr.intinc Iral. .hi :. t., a pri-
\.,t ..I :.lii: |.jr ip i.Jl.l; p...li. vi I
1905. November 7-
I. A d.J...pt ..r [. ,p....; .J ..:, ic'i: r-

.- AJpt[in rurol ;pil ,:.,urt:

3. -a- and l rir, li btin :r.ili-

1 Cre-rur, fr. pr. -.rrr .1r
1906, April 3-
1 M lni. p'l ...l-.r.iti u *.:tr .;t
ra'l' 1 1i

Ord, r ., .n
.\.,..r-.i.'.n rni:r. ..rIl'.'.t,

3 [':rl]._-( p,.,- bl.: mrii ti.-ipjl
*.,fwtrI ..ri;p p .n.J .*p[.-rJlun
*trt,..t rjid'u i. public. p..,l-
i1 \3 I. .
1906, November 6-
'1 .. n al JnJ ., t.-v ij. I
1907, April 2-
1. A.J..pri...n 4tr.,. ra.i' ,:.rJi-
nan, .
2. AXnr< c .o 1.r-:.rar. P.rl:

F I:. ES

21 -
I 7 ', _



T ,A 41








I 0l, I'' I I :7(. 2 1::.48 330935

S13i.1 1:.0 .l. -1 .. 176 330935

r.ii-O 11. '1974 211994 330935

SI I .-15 1 .: 148 330935

12. '.ll
ll'l I,# Il

I i:-ll


1 !1'755
1.;7' -34




l121 ,. 1'10.2.I 2.3' .l39 264483

I 0"-'-"5 li"'., 17114 264483

*'i l l ,

17 I1 ..

1141'' T _''I142

I'l*."' ; :3' 5 ,

1342-1 I X1iSl,8
7'1 i."..; -".i.Ii 4l











of Vote
to Total
Vote at






of Vote
to Total






410009 64.0 51.7

410009 63.8 51.5




375251 87.8 61.8

375251 82.0 57.8





%'t.jl I .'..
I.:-.r a-r I.,I

--5r -

Table Ill-Continued

I 1 -.1 -1i 1 'j'r
i u F*,.'ir ''.r.;"'Ile- I' r r.'rn r.o.r.l :,' the E.,''L rJ d i E .lt.., "'..l.,',rr I l.,ilrr- .':". pt
S-h',re t.,-ther ;.. p,.cit.:h J11

F -., M, ',

1907. Septmnlber 17-
I ..,lor i,. -n <. h ri I .
2 '.dloprion a n.i -ridmn Dclr h '. rj'J-
iri' I c urt- ..1i
1338. An.il 7-
C,.irr, > hl-. i ;i-cu r[..r-hou:_
I. l I IN I il.
1938, Noveinl.er 3-
1. nt. n:dt.ri l i.-.r t.,r,.l

I B't.ih "?'I, .
2 A.,lr ,' r. I t |.:, l b k u law
l l _."..,J,. -. l .
.'r.i, ... f M'.:'rgaI. P[arkl
1209. April 6-
I E r-',.b lrjb'er, ul'o :a it;r -
r. \n." .
'. .1r.r.-', :. F.: . a'1 (,r,
; A i~r'-' I i"_,'.- .. .... .
1910. Anril 5-
1. .Xl.llX of d:< .:J Pa.rk
2 .\ij .. .:. Oauk ':rt
.' i, i ..i I iM :,r arn Pjrl,
1910. November 8-
I. C't h1 l L : o d i u.- l '

rlnd.--h pr.I- r,, i

v.-I .. p.Jb! ,i r,,,f1l;<-
.. rrl rt. ..I FJ i_'.n t l':.rF .

.. .\i ,. n ol rM,....Ir I' rl: .
1911. April 4-
I. Ju. il'nri L:' u'l '

2 bnidj .. ..:iJ :u.ii ,';..,i ".ii
n. m.i .f l.:'r;a 'r P rL .
4. A.nn, (iF ; Ci, -r.
.\.r, ., ,.% Of P..rka

'I 3


22'm' [7

4 .2 ..;12 1 .1'.,"2."l 41 i 14.:;l

2,' I 11-4' 4 .5 -2 I' 4 I';I
." .',, ".l 'r'. .W ", i. : ,14

Ill7 1. .12.'1,7 '. 5 141154.
.:;,247 '71 2 4. '7, -.,7I Il .
I' 2." ,2 0 7,: .I 'r 7 *-` Or.'"

I-"';. 7 2 01'- .7 21m .7 1 ,1' 7 ,

I ';" I -21 21-': 1 *l. '1 .1i.

I1 _4-i i 1"' 22' ._1:

II :.I]
IT.I ..;.,

1 477:,

li1'. ..
11 1:7

'1 1 1;.7

-'." 1 2 .1 2 .;.31 121,

I '.ll11
I |.'11''.

, I -. .. 1 7 i
V 11141- '7.i *.11
'I .'. .~I1

2 11111.1

.".' 1 2

,t. ,i2

.* ,'-"_, ;

I i r. .. .

1. 1,1 7Ii?

I. j

14 1

4,llI' 2 I

1.";: I'i 1

.'." I
S12. I

i4 5 ,

,'- briiri el it J -ra 'r .l .I..''h,,in
i. Pr'.-.idi.'n tiJI I,.. i n 1 V1 -:-.r I'r J.ti :.1 1t l .I '':.ui,y .'n lr z i-r..n h .:.I';i. ;I

513j -


Table Ill-Continued

SIl" 1l-Ia'l'h

(Fitcr-' 4.:.npri.p l Ir..im r.-..r.j ..f tHi B.-.ird .-.! El,- ti.,:. Commissioners except
Sb..re .- thra-w e r-... fti-di

1911. Notembcr 7-
I Ad--,rt;, -lu a.rr, n.c.-u, l, I n l-
r;ir. :il .:..jr ; a.t . .-
2. A.i.-.pt-r. .ri rn-[drul t I.. iimll-
iil .[-. .-..ijrl ; i I t
.. B ri ..l:. .:r j i :,j-
4. J'-jLn.-:rI b..ri I -ue
1912, April 2--
I H-; ru...r L..-rl i'::ll
2. B tiltti L ..,. b I:..-.r.i -u
.. H ,..:pi/It.l b..,iJ i' ,ze .
4 P ,...;, ,,-J.|..rtl ..trl I:.ilvl. rj_;
:,.,[, 1 ,J.
5 ri.- di. partli,...t I.,l1,1jiilr

1912, Noember 5-
1. Cit.' br-d.; I.:.r j i.ur, L 1'21
S I 7 ,11 11 ...
2 C ,' .-.nr,1: I..r ,1 t. ,r- i ,,..,:-

5. jI I Y !.,;;,,1: I .lr ,:,:url, ,,U .,

.13. C:.ril i-
] C ,:,j.l I,..:. I' .:r p,.: .rh ,,u -i

19 I'Jl.h ... ll. ,, .-
-air'.. .C
ft ruLlh.. p,,l, y <| ,. :l]..,r,- pre-I

nAir, M1 .. en:
7 Fr l.h p,.In !, ,],t.:lt..,,- :L,:.rn

1913. April i-
I B..nd i::u,. L' ,ral ] l;; 'ur-

Anr.'.,. ,:, C ,',-r.,
1911, April 7-
1. C .:.r .pr>.-_.,.: ,.,: A- ,-,ay i p,.,
i....h,.y i .. Men


Fr,- ,.,,


I l.1- 17

1 '-", '.'

I L1 -'1..

I .1 111, 1

17; 171


1 1 .I,7 .
I''2 -..,

I I 1' i

'. -';

1 I1.1k
Il l i-

1 1 1


2'-.5' i-.'

1 1.111 2'1l 47.


7.'277 .'. .

-121 12 15.. I -.'
12 1 .. -,, i l.',il 17 144'

Il l. i

1831(3 27,211
892S3 12020
-7 21.11 ."Hill

pF ,',.,:i i." .

I:.'Pr,.i. cd l .al .l .. ..l. .u. \..-lr I..r Pr.-' Idtil ,.,fI C., r -, C..unmissioners was 333,964.















of Vote
to Total
Vote at













TI .

, .T.



.111. .
2. s.

7 41 .

~ I4I .-U'.

1 169707
I 111.l.'.1 i

437346 87.3
437346 63.4


of Vote
to Total















Table Ill-Continued

i 1 '-1-1. '. II

i ii r,-- , i t4pI d f Ir., rr ,.,r,, ..r f d he Bc,. rd of' Eh elti.. c -',..rtuu;:s,.._r. 7 '.:p,
%. b, I't ,:,l'er ,-];,: -]r.i i, -J i

r. I[ ur, rul. in put.*I.." itill r
r,..ul a i..n Ipubl, l. p-"..l.'. i
. I ire I 1r- rl ui lt I.,..,'Q
*?.I i0 i .M en
I P..,I : ,l'-p:rtn.-nrt b,..,nd
S. ';,MUU., Men
', C ...r .-,,.,,u ,Jl-:,:- h. ,pit:ll
I-,:.nj i 'f4 l..11i.. M en
; .I.j,.-'; nur b,.,ud It'...I L1.'U1 ,
;* B..nrdl l'.r :i. 'gluiilt:.n ...r i-. th -
!!! I ...<~ .a it: i.' U ,I lall.ll,
g C ..,,... t .' I,..,:p l .-,l i... ].. ,
i 4,111i:1 ,0i 1 M Ien
1'. ':-"i,.i : rjn nirui .. l l *..url t .I,
1.i i,,jr ,- r tenure f,..r ,.it;.
..,.rL, ti. M en
I I .A nj.:. ,..I .l i1,rca n i-'ir-:

T ,. I I

'.,r I.'

126140 120827
56195 51508
1 1.J.. 17-2.....,.

97774 168227
34556 80428

80191 180679
28941 84703

150039 112315
69939 48289

68665 179244
22348 81007
')U1 l -2uI2.IJ "

I'.y)..'l "I


12i:. l l;.

1122' ..,


1 7.....-'::.


I ..;21 ,7


I" >'C..l

I,. _.
Ll.. u

246967 314863
107703 169707
.:;.'. ,i..,l. 4 1.'.7.)"

266001 314863
114984 169707
J'. 'I,' I ;-4;70

260870 314863
113644 169707
.:74 jilU4 4 .

118228 169707
...5(1/12 4 ['. 1

247909 314863
103355 169707
.2il2..- 4|14"4 7





i 1.... .17

11- :..7U

41.4-I 70




-5 -

T .1
r I.







u; _2',47


i. 7-1 7


.,r i..i .,[ \ .I,
I r I n

' r J1 R .,,--:.
E.. L .... , ....

78 4 54 2
634 4 9 5
..; 2 5.- 7

84 4 58 4
67.7 52 8
.' .. "i .1

62 8 57 3
66 9 52 2
.7 i.r i-

83 3 57 6
69 6 54.3
7S , i>..5

7' 7 54 4
60 9 47 5

81 8 56 5
67 5 52 7

69 6 48 1
58 5 45 6
7 47 .-t

46 8 32 4
31 b 24 6
I1I ."I '):

78 9 54 6
62 3 48 6
7..: I ,2 L.

81 2 56 1
65 3 50 9
75 6* 1I I

Table Ill-Continued

I I . 1- I',It,,

Figutr e..-.pid l',ri i 'rec, ',rd ,:,f Ib.d. '.,..rJ b -Ir Ei.. : :...u. in .r n- ..l ..rcr pt
i. hb'r. ,tii. rh 'he p,:'. i-tit.Ji

PaR, . Il. N

12 Arr. ..i. of C.' r. Men
1914, November 3-
I Brnd i-', i '.' nid-n Nl'rth
li, b,:' ri .A ... i .,'iiJ.ri Oil .
-' _rl.,r. l F si r. i.d ei-trjel .
S ..Iol. C-.'inlrn\ FRl .d b.lnd:
i l(ll:nlllrl. l . M en
1915. April 6-
1. Boid: l t-... ]..,ill e '-.rtl s-
.lJuu d i-il [ -,,.*;r'.' 'l
I "i ii'i'. M en

-' [.'.di 'in-i t -jrii" tjir [ I i In
\ '..rlb\ Si h t .. r-i... th '. H-..i t.
I.. C .'rre, tior, i 4 7 f1i` j.'.,
B-,n;d: i..nit i. rm (,.lr.y
L.iidlin ., -'.l H .i'.:r ..'1 C ..r-
ri..lti J .rnd b I.ll-r hu I'f- r
S-.-ri-,i -2.'.i.i.ii ) M en
4 Burnd, )ddiii...nl build.dns
fhr c4rbtugi. irdil tii plaintl
.i.7i,0,000,ii Men


Ij" ,, r

\, I.

ibh. ,.,

164380 883E8 252768! 1863
72483 37078 109561 160797
*ji', ., l 1 '. li.,. 3',2.;-: 1 .,5 0

-. I.." ..


S. 350611
1 .1 :i: l. 47 .771

41-;7 ll

20R889 111226 319115-134277
91459 40250 137709 2504041
2t*i4l '" 1.7471i 45:r,24 .4rSI

181650 131260 3129104341277
77527 53419 130946 250401
2-' Ii177 1, ,;'1' 4 1; .'l. I..I..-. 1

173038 13-1999 308037 134277
79604 51797 131401 250404
.2'2 .4.* 14r,7:. 4 3 l i1 .'' 1

185762 116256 302011E 34277
76897 48206 125103 250404
11.5': 1i4-1.4 -71- '1..l ,1.1

[F Lr,!LN*' IvEL

.1 'i.
I i'
LI. Iii,~

455283' 80 2
217614 64 5
,T.*R,1 74 -





4E6815 72 2
282291 52 2
i A]0 I

... \. r,

55 5
50 3
Vi ,,

71i 4

486815 71 0 63 3
282291 52 5 46 6
.I.i. i' i C4 i 7 1

486815 69 7 62 2
282291 50 0 44 4
;i.ilI. '-.2 ..- r,

- b59 -

I' ::

-2371`'1 1 .l, ', ltli' .L

7-s I1 .6 1.-

10.1'.i 31-'.'. i .' j.

Table I II-Continued
i li'3.l I'l' i
Fie, Jr.- rI.mnipriltd fr,.n r.-ier ..rd; .. th.- B,.irJ ,-I Eli.-ri. C..m(inu ssI...<.n,:r- e'\cept.
w ere .i l. -.t .'l-wi- -ernri,-,Ji

P.:*. ,F. -jj? I nm pr',r-'.,:ri',. rij L. hirling
Lti' :h'. *od p i J.i j:r, i j ,
n,.i,'htlbor h.,,ll ,orul
,,*':'( .. IM ein
t'. ;.:,rA dg fir,: djcp.irtn-cnl.
S ,. .. . M en
7 E.-.ndr p.-li .: dJ:..arrrin..i.t

SArnn,.,:. .. Clr.rfnm- Men
A\rin. ...f Elr T....d ri ark,
10 lD.:.u.I pl.til.'..n ei.-'. I..r
fir, dJ. Men
11. rnr.:-. ...I Blu.. I1 M en
12. Ar,. .. ol C iliJ.,.li' rIi :-r-
at.oa Men
1915, Jun, 7-
I Brid' C-:k Count jill J r,.J
I.Ir., r,. ...urll h jlljii,;
i .~,i I' 1. . M en



S u.I
l ',-l..i l

I 1110528
I 419916
211' I.'. 14

174793 129965
67076 58723
-'4 1 ,' .'*., '1 ,

154792 141595
01363 590&3

9-145.4 107133
60582 45969
.'4'-0.:., I'., l -,12

170873 169411
6"463 47703
.3.3..' "1541.4-4

130282 185481
53875 96278
I N I:-. I _. ] 7.'.17 .
69021 4;C67
' I.,1] 1. :.-'.5 1

15C415 115451
5652.4- 43335
'IY,.* I (, ,7",

I. ri,
i. i

!-I .1I
I:1 i'.

310749 3-277
135447 250404

3041758 34277
4 -.01,7 '41.; 1

120456 250401
4- 1 il'. t.s>-li:~ |
286607 4.31277
112551 250404
;'." ,l .. ,'3 i. 1

277814 434277
127'lvi C41 l


282752 3-1277
116988 250404

:74096 434277
105859 25030.4
.;"' ri',."J* 5 -'.. '; I

50441C 93219 144268 189700
2250 5293 7543 9372
I.-i. '. *' 1 I ?1. 1 1i l 11 -


140220 189700
7459 9372
I ,. I"' ,, .

- 1.;11 -

S1. r i[ A,
r .l. i .-r
i *. T ... 1 .-.r.1 l
'. r p ,..
E!-ii. u tr'lih.u

T. ,1
I.. L -


1.,. II.I

3 I I.







17 ., i,

71 5
54 2
'.-5 2

70 2
. ..-

68 0
48 2
1.0 -1
65 9
44 9

64 0
44 0

72 7
60 0

65 2
46 7
5' 4

63 2
42 3

76 2
80 4

73 9
79 7
7I 2

63 8
48 I
2). 0

62 7
44 6

60 8
42 8
54 -
58 9
39 9
5.1 r

57 1
38 0
..0 ;*

65 0
53 2
'1.0 i
58 2
41 4
;, t 'I

56 4
37 5
4*i 4

29 6
i' 7

28 8
2 6
it *'

Fl..ir, *

Table Ill-Continued

(Figure':. 'npIh.J fr.,.'~ r -.',.rJ ... thr B...jrd LI:crt'.,I C.'.n'.ni,,ri r e,.o.pi
': r: .i.th. rv.-i : o[,,: .J t1

Pi,,r,.. i ..

3. Bound, C....... C...uiJ C r'..rl-
ou ,. e...,iipl,.i,.' ') auid Il
tl,,.r: I1-'l.s l la 111 M en
4. Ar, .;. 1 ."ic-i :,' M en
1916. April 4-
A rnrd i, nirnicip.l irt
n't Men
1916. June 5-
1 P,.,i. .. h, -t. .r., ,. -
Qi 11 ,.1 1i M en
2. B.:.iidJ t.. lr, t i l- LJ a:c ndb i: -
te .-iri.. i3,7''l.1,I'11 M en
.. Ei r~i[_ .--.l ijrit bliJd- in.-
,.-1 1 if I ilii M en
1916, Noember 7-
I. .'.rd' ", rtb,, in' r:r tiu n
I .-, 1 .I11 I,I Ii M en
-. bl..l.- rliil, bc..,ch rI'h
I 2,4.-.iU,i1til . M en
.J. C l.._lohllid ;i ..r., I .. Fi rl\:s,



tblt, 13'


1 ',7(.

T.., ,1

1il 11



11riN 72

107458 109329 216737 226199
26832 26924 53306 140195
I :i ll-i 13 .7 -27,'i; 4, I.j i,


1-.2- .4-!

17" Ii.i

62998 146799 172769
2910 5904 6400
, .,r.5. 9 I (' 17' I I,'i

49483 66930 116413,172769
1937 2921 4658 6400
,142 1 I 9 l-t1 ; ',ll ..I2 i i





181682 12283373?65 437210
87657 101294 189551 289441-1
2,"'"; 2 '"14177 3..5, lt1 ; ....


203573 338664
107613 167314
AI 1I ,,',',: ',T$

?7,-CT,, 1

T. I .I

7t.' iit.

7 -'. 277



, I ...r.I

.1 .

70 9
75 7
7"1 2
74 2
77 0
74 2

66 4
38 4
. I' 0

85 0
90 8
. ". 3

85 0
92 4
, ', ',


1, 1
28 8
lI 2

45 6
20 4
-1, 7

30 9

30 9
2" i,

475187 67 5 24 5
264090 75.3 I 8
.7. ,'-77 .7 S I.. 4



A s il<.l'4

-C1 -



,ii '

Table Ill-Continued
l(1 .1-191'J
Sliure- .**rupIl d fr',m r'.r,:, or f ihe li -rd f El.': to Cr'ommi- :ur;s ',,ept
c. i' r. ', fij r' I.i i F Ihl.'ii

rI .:n,- .


4. C'or;t a nurld { i .all,.

I'- t i.-wild- I
1917. April 3-
1 Ploud, birhanl b,.,.h'-'
i' ).'1 fi'I ,i M en
2. B.od b,..,' i. h..-, I huJdiuc
i2.51i),[ )i I M en
.; B.ir,.f rait: di-p.. l :qu.p-
n rii I Sl ,i, i'i i M en
4 r.-.,i.J: ':,-i r.n.fort st o.i i
( l.-',1.1 ( I M en
5. l'..:,ri.J- .. .[ t i...u .,. a. ,:
Li-.' pi .il 17 1.'1, 11ii"' ,l M en
1917. November 6-
] PF-.ri; r..,d inprr,'''.:.rmo
(' I il. ii..nllii M en
'2 B .r.d: .:.Ur'l I,'.,pIt al
( .I II'lI'i'n M en


113794 1
147407 1

16.1 1'. I

116372 1
119111i 1

119653 1
S131.6 I 1

1%ssiI I

921 .'.'






T...I I
il -AQ "I'l 4
I I J`:.
[ ll,.. rr ]",.,L.

i 1i 911,

4'. .*1lHiji,74


1257 11


4.571 15




, ,:, .;.





-, 17SI 2


'.I ',. .I \ri

I..T..I J I. T- ,i d
-l,.i .r- Fr r ir ri

( ,ilV, .r r ri h .:itl. I.:. : i,r nt -r.id.: iur.i' i .Ii I 'ur:.. r-L t: tci m Arn .ri: .

1730) .Ki 11.

21013 234837
37829 71442
:.-'. .' 2 9.i. -':

3-1501 71377
l l t7 .4 i i'-:; .-'.

36208 68916
t .-,[ :, "J' It'- ( ',

11995 231648
37215 69223

88668 227613
29119 70993
I .: 7 i2'9i; l'lr'.

- G2 -

Table Ill-Continued

iFigure.i comrr.il-di from rer.,.rdu of1 the Board :,of Eleil.j C.unirrrnrnr..-,nrc r i'; F
ir\ t Jihrrt i rp r wprpti -d

3.B...n,- PaIlh.IuLk.I l ...rrch
I:Lbor.it:r'- .and [.r'cut.
i1 1,1i00,0001 . Men

4 BU:nil Dtil l.uuDln
r1 .

:; A-nne. pairt; n i.1

r; Annr.i p..riir.n ofl'
Prk .

7. A.n-nd miiin .iial

!le-rid mI!u-i d.. il

1918. April 2-
1. A\nn..: Erlmr....:.J

I ,Ar n : pirt i '

1918. November 5-
1. Chiaoc. ira.:r.,n .:


I.%.,r rt a..t
..jurt a t



.rdjin in ,

2 E,.,td .ld-ri '%Iji |i': i.n A .
i 0.j.i.i) iJ I M en

.:1 ... I




,.,70. 1I





- I*. .:.l

1*'' 1.1'

N.-. ~

LI-. I;

100227 137665 232276
4700 6913 11485
I) 19.27 14427' 2-4.17.1

91778 125556232276
4779 6581 11485
91'.%,.7 1.3'1..17 -'4.37Trl

71806 172439 23227G
3612 8321 11485
T 7 li I',.iu; : 4 .Ld

68562 167647 232276
3561 83381 11485
;21;1 17-.,'~3-'.-. 71...

52988 117163232276
2-18 5304 11485
.31 !'224,.7 21.:.761

51971 113925232276
2432 5128 11485
:-441,13. 3 242.3761

19031 158672276272
10996 38182 121283
1r.0077 Iir'," .4 7;.'

67114 202503 276272
20370 64538 121283
87484 2670411397555

174725 320551 35-369
68609 132465 148142
- .. 452rll. l:,i I'

93131 299117,354369
39549 1203971148142
1 I. 'it *4 1 ,1 -I ';,i4 Il

- f.3 -

-J rih I~....

S",, ,',- l \ ,.,'r"
I .i. '-.

496690 59 3
301138 60 2

496690 51 1
301138 57 4

496690 74 2
301138 72 5
79'J 2'- 71 1

496690 72 1
301138 72 6
72 3'2

496690 50 4
301138 46 3
7072, :.0 4

496690 49 0
301138 44 7
7'-7 2"' 4'.i l

492615 574
300026 31 4
7:;'. ,4 1 4:1 1

.92615 73 2
300026 53 3
792641 67 1

393796 90 4
192772 89 5

393796 84 3
192772 81 3
"- ,'._ $5+ s 4

r. T ..al

27 9
I1 I

25 3
2 2
Ii, I;

.3 7

33 5
22 0

23 6
i.:, -

22 9
1 7
II *1

32 2
12 7

41 0
21 5
33 6

81 6
69 0

76 0
62 6
7 1 .,

Table Ill-Continued
1 .f -) 191,' t
i Figure- ,:,,n.p-1lt., fr..-u, r.. -..,rda d .,i I-1- BR .-riJ *f El-..ti,:rjn C,'u iinhI orIL-rs except
w'hiere ,'.h-ll '-rr.i-,; -r.71fi,'. di

.. C"... l. I ilt l,..nal >... t-rti f 'n1 ..!
I t ...i. iJ i. I

L 'v i 1-t I.)-i--d. pl
5. B l .d. ,.r it.-. r....aI.
i, ,i I'i'II ,ICLI1" ii i I ,tj I,.'-r" .Ji. I
19.9, April I-
1. ,h-_ll C('hb'.,.l b,.., ..m ,*. j ll-
-3 1...n.r it-rr l..r\ IL,....jl bl h-
.: p..l.. M Men
2. P-.t.J I-'tb .i L idui
i iP2(0.I .IlA Mlen

3 H...rI.J.. ju.JI,-mn
.9..30 ."" . VMen
-. C:,urn\ },..r.id f.'.r n.-r 1..ii1.j-
I ;' l,'.ri iI' i M en

it-t' 1

24' 29

70165 276817
77014 129373
l4717'. l 9I. I '0

214257 143535
90950 CDI01
30 72,7 ..'I .I,

V.l : ,-2


145834 156937
83734 50760
-"'ioi,> -'fi7t,9

rI .... i'

I-I 1 (1 1 .....
I'' lr'9 .1

206387 258651
5.7- _33 .* L'.:. 'd.1.1

362842 440069
160551 258851

3267G0 4410069
47- 1).' -,' ',20

302771 440069
134494 25851
... .5,;. N'! :, "0

T., -.
Ir ,

PEF.i ''riT 1 i '

,:,r \l'o L',1% ot,-

i' Tr t l i T...i J
*UlIe I It L3 .-
LI, ,l.rir f a I *I.0

S.3 0

306920 79 8
1'0'.,. 79 1

50006-4 82 4
306920 61 9
, .:"i4' 4 7 ., (.

500064 74 7
306920 55 4
'i0,C -A1 V;7 I.,

500064 68 8
306920 52 0
I 0 .9 -1 i.-'. j



.n.-\\'W.m .l u...[t el ible hI: ,: :rl.-st -l. -v'i,, E. que ti.r Fl rsi r,.-'.: ii., n! l? t.',tr

F-,,..l. t'T-lu.,

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs