• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Place and function of the local...
 The characteristics of a satisfactory...
 Satisfactory administrative and...
 The size of a satisfactory local...
 Status of local school attendance...
 The reorganization of local school...
 The local school unit and school...
 Results of the reorganization of...
 Back Cover














Group Title: George Peabody college for teachers, Nashville. Division of surveys and field studies Field study
Title: Satisfactory local school units;
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098589/00001
 Material Information
Title: Satisfactory local school units; functions and principles of formation, organization, and administration
Physical Description: x, 180 p. : illus. (plans) fold. map, diagrs. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dawson, Howard Athalone, 1895-
Publisher: Division of surveys and field studies, George Peabody college for teachers
Place of Publication: Nashville
Publication Date: 1934
 Subjects
Subject: School management and organization   ( lcsh )
Public schools   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography at end of each chapter.
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
General Note: George Peabody college for teachers, Nashville. Division of surveys and field studies Field study
Statement of Responsibility: by Howard A. Dawson.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098589
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03130706
lccn - 35001018

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Foreword
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Acknowledgement
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    List of Tables
        Page ix
        Page x
    Place and function of the local school unit in public school administration
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    The characteristics of a satisfactory school
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
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        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Satisfactory administrative and supervisory organizations
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
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        Page 48
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    The size of a satisfactory local unit of school administration
        Page 62
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        Page 83
        Page 84
    Status of local school attendance and administrative units
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
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        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    The reorganization of local school units
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 126a
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    The local school unit and school finance
        Page 161
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        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
    Results of the reorganization of local school units
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
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        Page 181
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    Back Cover
        Page 183
        Page 184
Full Text



SATISFACTORY LOCAL SCHOOL UNITS


FUNCTIONS AND PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION,
ORGANIZATION, AND ADMINISTRATION





By
HOWARD A. DAWSON
Director of Information and Research
Arkansas State Department of Education


FIELD STUDY NO. 7


..379.153

-D2725


DIVISION OF SURVEYS AND FIELD STUDIES
GEORGE PEABODY COLLEGE FOR TEACHERS
NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE
1934














UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY




190s










SATISFACTORY LOCAL SCHOOL UNITS


FUNCTIONS AND PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION,
ORGANIZATION, AND ADMINISTRATION






By
HOWARD A. DAWSON
Director of Information and Research
Arkansas State Department of Education


FIELD STUDY NO. 7












DIVISION OF SURVEYS AND FIELD STUDIES
GEORGE PEABODY COLLEGE FOR TEACHERS
NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE
1934







S7Q, ~

.19 .2 '7$ .s


QPYRG IT '19 ,.BY
.. ':. 'w .A. AMS .* ..
S. '* -" LITTLE ROCK, ARK. .
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PRINTED IN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA















FOREWORD


The Division of Surveys and Field Studies of George Peabody
College for Teachers, established and supported by the General
Education Board, was founded upon two related ideas. The term
survey covers the general field service of the Division which deals
with problems common to many school systems. The major energies
of the Division are devoted to practical field service, but in its field
work problems arise which call for special study and research. It
is, therefore, a part of the Division's program to publish and dis-
tribute from time to time field studies of far-reaching applicability
and also more theoretical studies dealing with fundamental aspects
of education.
The seventh of these studies to be published is Satisfactory Local
School Units, by Howard A. Dawson. This study was planned under
the guidance of Dr. Frank P. Bachman, late Director of the Division,
and has been carried to completion as nearly as possible in conformity
with the original plans. The materials presented embody the results
of seven years' work in the planning and reorganization of school
districts and the consolidation of schools. The situations studied by
the author include practically all types of social and economic com-
munities. It is published with the hope that it may provide helpful
guidance for administrative reorganization and encourage funda-
mental rebuilding of our rural school system.
DOAK S. CAMPBELL.


7 qf/9

















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The author is indebted to many of his professional associates,
but most of all to the late Dr. Frank P. Bachman, who first suggested
that the study be made and who made possible its preparation and
its publication by the Division of Surveys and Field Studies, George
Peabody College for Teachers.
Acknowledgment is made to Dr. Doak S. Campbell and Dr.
Hollis L. Caswell for editing the manuscript before its submission
to the printer; to Mr. James W. Cammack, Jr., Director of Research,
Kentucky State Department of Education, for the many helpful
ideas and criticisms, especially in Chapter II; to Dr. Norman Frost,
Professor of Rural Education, George Peabody College for Teachers,
for the opportunity of participating in the educational surveys of
Cheatham County, Tennessee, and of Laurens County, South Caro-
lina. In connection with the latter of these surveys it is also appro-
priate that acknowledgment be made to Mr. John M. Foote, Director
of Information and Reference, Louisiana State Department of Edu-
cation, and to Mr. A. F. Harmon, State Superintendent of Public
Instruction, Alabama, for giving the benefit of their experiences in
the reorganization of rural schools in their respective states.
The author is grateful to the members of the Arkansas State
Department of Education for their active cooperation in the reor-
ganization of rural school systems in Arkansas. Special acknowl-
edgment is due the author's secretary, Miss Lillian Morrow.

H. A. D.












CONTENTS


CHAPTER PAGE
I. Place and Function of the Local School Unit in Public
School Administration .......................... 1
Summary .................................. 8
Bibliography ............................... 9

II. The Characteristics of a Satisfactory School .......... 10
The Purposes of Tax Supported Public Schools.. 11
Specific Functions of Public Schools ............. 12
Type of School Organization .................. 14
The Curriculum ............................ 16
Pupil-Teacher Ratio ......................... 21
The Size of a Satisfactory School .' .. .......... 22-
The Transportation of Pupils ................... 31
The School Building, Equipment and Apparatus. 34
Operation of the School Plant ................. 35
Textbooks, Instructional Supplies, and Library
Service ................................. 36
Teachers ................................. 37
Length of School Term ....................... 38
Summary .................................. 38
Bibliography .................... ......... 40

III. Satisfactory Administrative and Supervisory Organi-
zations ........................ ............. 44
Organization for Educational and Business Admin-
istration .................... ........... 44
Supervision of Instruction .................... 47
Health Supervision ........................... 49
Census and Attendance Supervision ............ 50
Administrative and Supervisory Organization .... 51
vii









Modifications of a Standard Organization for Ad-
ministration and Supervisory Service.......... 53
Summary ................................. 59
Bibliography ............................... 61

IV. The Size of a Satisfactory Local Unit of School Ad-
ministration ................................. 62
Cost of Administrative and Supervisory Organi-
zations ............ ................ ...... 62
The Probable Total Current Cost of a Satisfactory
Educational Program ....................... 67
The Size of Satisfactory Local Units of School
Administration ........................... 78
Summary ..................... ............ 81-
Bibliography ............................... 83

V. Status of Local School Attendance and Administrative
Units ...................................... 85
Attendance or School Units ................... 85
Administrative Units or School Districts......... 94
Devices for Overcoming the Limitations of Small
Administrative Units ...................... 105
Larger Local Units and Centralization of Authority 114
Summary ....................... ........ 115
Bibliography .................. ........... 117

VI. The Reorganization of Local School Units .......... 119
Reorganization of Attendance or School Units. .... 119
The Reorganization of Administrative Units...... 138
Objections to Be Overcome .................... 154
Summ ary ........................ ......... 158
Bibliography .............................. 160

VII. The Local School Unit and School Finance............ 161
The Influence of the Local Unit on Educational Cost 161
The Local School Unit and the Apportionment of
State Funds .............................. 162
The Responsibility of the State for the Support of
Public Education .......................... 165
viii


CHAPTER


PAGE








CHAPTER PAGE
Plans of School Support ...................... 166
Summary ................................. 167
Bibliography ............................... 169

VIII.Results of the Reorganization of Local School Units .... 170
Results of Reorganization of Attendance Units. . 170
Results to Be Expected from the Reorganization of
Local Administrative Units ................. 178
Bibliography .............................. 180





TABLES

TABLE PAGE
I. Trend in the Type of High School Organization in
the United States, 1920-26 .................... 14
II. The Evolution of Our Elementary School Curriculum,
and of Methods of Teaching .................... 17
III. Program of Studies for a Junior High School Based
on Practice in 139 Junior High Schools in 31 States 18
IV. Program of Studies for a Senior High School...... 20
V. Pupil-Teacher Ratio in Cities of 10,000 Population
and More, Based on Enrollment, 1922-1930 ........ 21
VI. Time Allotments Adopted as Standard for the State
of Florida ........................ .......... 26
VII. Cost Per Pupil in Elementary Schools in California
in Relation to Average Daily Attendance, 1923-24.. 27
VIII. Comparison of Attendance of Non-Transported and
of Transported Children Living Stated Distances
from School ...................... ......... 32
IX. Trained Librarian Service Essential in Schools ...... 37
X. Median Salaries Paid to Administrative and Supervi-
sory Employees in City School Systems .......... 63
ix









XI. Acceptable Minimum Cost of a Standard Central Or-
ganization for Administration and Supervision of a
Local School District .......................... 65
XII. Acceptable Minimum Cost of the Median Modification
of a Central Organization for Administration and
Supervision of a Local School District ............ 66
XIII. Acceptable Minimum Cost of the Maximum Modifica-
tion of a Central Organization for Administration
of a Local School District ..................... 66
XIV. Percentage Distribution of Current Expenditures.... 69
XV. Estimated Standard Cost Per Teaching Unit of a
Minimum Standard School System ............. 77
XVI. Comparison of Enrollment in Grades One to Six With
Enrollment in Grades Seven to Twelve, 1929-30.... 79
XVII. The Size of Rural Elementary Schools in the Various
States, 1930 ................................ 87
XVIII. Distribution by Size of Enrollment of High Schools of
the United States, 1930 ....................... 88
XIX. Proportion of High Schools in Each Size Group Lo-
cated in Rural and Urban Communities .......... 89
XX. Percentage of Schools Formed by Consolidation of Two
or More Schools in Various States, 1930 ......... 91
XXI. Distribution of 237 Consolidations by Enrollment and
Average Daily Attendance .................... 93
XXII. Number of School Administrative Units of all Types,
School Board Members, and Teaching Positions.... 95
XXIII. Average Number of Administrative Units, School
Board Members, and Teaching Positions Per State
Classified by Prevailing Type of Unit ............ 97
XXIV. Relative Ability of Arkansas School Districts to Pay
for Schools, 1927-28 ........................... 106


TABLE


PAGE












CHAPTER I


PLACE AND FUNCTION OF THE LOCAL SCHOOL UNIT
IN PUBLIC SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION

The establishment, control, and support of public schools in
the United States is a responsibility of the several states. The
states have delegated this responsibility in large measure to
local school units or districts. These local units may comprise
a county, a township, a city, or a village, or they may be a
designated area not coterminous with a governmental unit. In
this latter case the school district may comprise only two or
three square miles with a single one-teacher school. These
school districts may be administered by a school committee, a
board of 'education, or a school director, their powers being
delegated in specific terms by the state legislature. (5: 11-12
and 4: 22-25.)1
The financial support of public schools in general has been
imposed upon these local school districts. For example, state
governments provided in 1927-28 an average of 16.2 per cent
of the funds for the support of public schools and local dis-
tricts provided 72.9 per cent. The remainder, 10.9 per cent,
was provided by counties which may be classified as local dis-
tricts. (1: 473.) Likewise, the states have delegated in large
measure to local school units the responsibility for the conduct
and management of their respective public schools. The school
directors, school committees, or boards of education of each
district are empowered to establish and maintain schools, em-
ploy teachers, contract debts, and levy taxes. In short, only

1These figures and all others cited hereinafter in similar form refer to the
bibliographical references listed at the end of each chapter.
1








The Local School Unit


in certain broad general matters, such as, qualifications of teach-
ers, minimum essentials of courses of study, uniform reports,
length of school term, and certain protective and sanitary as-
pects of the school plant, has the state discharged its responsi-
bility for schools directly. (4: 22-25.)
The performance of many functions of public education by
local units of administration is thoroughly in keeping with
the system of government in the United States. Three levels
of governmental administration have been developed, national
or federal, state, and local. These levels correspond, roughly
at least, to the nature of the functions and to the character and
extent of the services to be performed. That is, functions
which are national in scope and interest tend to be discharged
by the national government, those that are state-wide in scope
by state governments, and those that are local in scope by local
governments. Furthermore, the exercise of considerable con-
trol over public education by local units has been a necessary
accompaniment of our policy of national expansion with its
emphasis on local initiative and local self-government. Ac-
cordingly, our school system has developed through local desire,
initiative, and financial support under the authority and fre-
quently through the encouragement and financial aid of state
legislation. In fact, it is more nearly folk-made than the edu-
cational system of any other nation. In many respects the
American school system may be said to be the product of more
than 145,000 school boards scattered throughout the forty-eight
states and acting for their respective communities.
These local units of school administration, that have become
so much a part of the American scheme of government, are
widely different in type. In all, there are seventeen rather
common types of school districts, and in addition school laws
make reference to approximately sixty other school subdivisions,
although most of these occur only two or three times, and con-
stitute but slight variations from the common types. (7: 52.)
These wide differences are to be found not only among the
different states, but also within the states. Some states have
designated a particular political subdivision, such as, the county,
the township, or the municipality, as the unit of local school








Place and Function in Public School Administration 3

administration. In such cases the control and management of
the schools may or may not be independent of the control and
management of other governmental activities carried on in such
political subdivisions. Frequently these local subdivisions
have no relationship to schools other than the fact that their
boundaries are coterminous with the boundaries of the school
districts. Some states, on the other hand, have local units of
school administration that are in no way related to other local
governmental units. Such school units are usually known as
common school districts. They vary greatly in size and often
are irregular in shape. Although organized for school pur-
poses only, there is no clear-cut indication of the nature of the
work such a unit should do.
Local units of school administration vary not only in
general organization but also in area and in size of scholastic
population. In scholastic population they vary from less
than a dozen children in many rural districts to a
million or more in some of our largest cities. In area they
vary from less than one square mile2 to nearly eight thousand
square miles.3 These variations, for which it is often difficult
to find any consistent reason, are to be found in nearly all states
that employ the common school district as the local unit of
school administration. For example,4 in one state there is a
county in which the total area exclusive of two cities forms one
school district with an area of 736 square miles and a density
of population of forty-eight persons per square mile. In an-
other county in the same state, with a density of population
of forty-one persons per square mile, there are. 137 school dis-
tricts, an average of only seven square miles per district. These
two counties are much alike in transportation facilities and
community centers. With respect to homogeneity of population,
the county having the small districts would appear more satis-
factory as a single unit of school administration than the county
having the large district. Similar examples of wide variations
in the size of local units of school administration are present

'District No. 3, Nevada County, Arkansas.
3San Juan County, Utah.
'Pulaski and Washington Counties, Arkansas.







The Local School Unit


in all states that adhere to the common district type of school
administration.
These wide variations in type and size of school districts
result in equally wide variations in the kind, extent, and fre-
quently in the quality of educational service offered to the chil-
dren affected. Variations in educational service are related
directly to the size of schools that districts maintain and to
the taxable wealth of these districts. Thousands of small dis-
tricts maintain only one-teacher and two-teacher elementary
schools with limited curricula. Other thousands can offer high
school advantages only through small schools with from one to
four or five teachers and with a narrow and restricted curricu-
lum. Even then the cost per student is often almost prohibi-
tive. Thousands of these districts are too limited in wealth to
pay for educational opportunities in keeping with modern social
needs. Other thousands that have the wealth to pay for accept-
able educational facilities do not have the number of children
requisite to the maintenance of efficient schools. A vast major-
ity of the districts, especially in rural areas, do not have school
plants and equipment that conform in any acceptable degree to
modern standards of safety, sanitation, and educational plan-
ning. Again these differences result largely from the finan-
cial inability of the districts to pay for buildings and equip-
ment. Thousands of these local districts are practically without
trained professional leadership and cannot afford to pay for
the services of such leadership. In contrast with the condi-
tions of these districts there are thousands of others that offer
both elementary and high school facilities in schools sufficiently
large to afford in an economical manner broad curriculum offer-
ings under the direction of well-trained teachers. These other
districts have the best of modern school plants and equipment,
well-trained and experienced administrative and supervisory
staffs, and sufficient taxable wealth to pay for these modern
educational services without undue burdens on the taxpayers.
In short, as is recognized by practically every authority on
school administration in America, the small local unit of school
administration is one of the chief obstacles to equality of edu-
cational opportunity and of tax burdens and to economy and
efficiency in school management. (8.)







Place and Function in Public School Administration 5

But in spite of these great variations in the type and size of
local school units with the resultant inequalities of educational
opportunities and of burdens of financial support, the preserva-
tion of the local unit of school administration appears to be
desirable for the following reasons: (1) Such a policy is con-
sistent with the firmly established American tradition and cus-
tom of local self-government; (2) it furnishes a means for
maintaining a balanced distribution of educational functions
among federal, state, and local interests; (3) it is best adapted
to a democratic nation of wide geographical expanse and varied
economic and social conditions; (4) it provides a safeguard
against the evils of bureaucratic control and the widespread use
of schools for propaganda in behalf of any economic, political,
or social cult; (5) it encourages experimentation and varia-
tions that make schools responsive to local needs and aspira-
tions. (10: 17-30.) Therefore, it is of vital importance to
determine definitely the characteristics of a satisfactory local
school unit. These characteristics can be determined only in
terms of the functions a local school unit has to perform. (2:
145-56.) It is, therefore, safe to assume that a functional an-
alysis of the work of the local school unit will furnish the data
from which may be drawn definite conclusions as to the char-
acteristics of a satisfactory local unit of school administration.
In this study the functions of a satisfactory and workable
local school unit are held to be as follows:
1. To provide schools that have the qualities and characteris-
tics necessary to make available to all persons of educational
age residing in that unit educational opportunities commen-
surate with their varying needs, aptitudes, capacities, and inter-
ests, and with the needs of society for the services and
cooperation of such persons.
2. To furnish either at local expense, or state expense, or
both, at a cost that bears a reasonable relationship to the total
current cost of the educational program, administrative and
supervisory services necessary to facilitate the operation of the
whole educational program.
3. To furnish, where the state does not guarantee the pay-
ment of the cost of the entire educational program, sufficient








The Local School Unit


financial resources to support a satisfactory educational pro-
gram.5
It will be noted from the statement of functions made above
that the first is concerned with the individual school attendance
unit and the second with the administrative and supervisory
unit. This differentiation of function requires that a clear dis-
tinction be made between the two kinds of units. In this study
the first of these will be referred to as an attendance or school
unit and the second as an administrative unit. An attendance
or school unit comprises the geographical and population area
served by a single school and does not necessarily constitute a
local taxing unit nor have an independent system of adminis-
tration. An administrative unit comprises all the area under
a single system of local administration and may be composed
of more than one attendance or school unit. It usually con-
stitutes a local taxing unit. This study will be concerned with
both kinds of local units, and since, in general, the smallest
acceptable administrative unit will be one that is an acceptable
attendance or school unit, the characteristics of a satisfactory
attendance unit will be dealt with first.
The distinction between attendance units and administrative
units indicates that there are two distinct problems of organi-
zation of territory into school units. The first problem pertains
to the organization of areas of territory into attendance units.
This problem, because it involves organizing the territory of an
administrative unit or district into school or attendance units,
is referred to as internal organization. The second problem
pertains to the organization of the territory of the state into
administrative units. This problem, because it involves the
organization of the external controls of the schools located
within the area affected, is referred to as the problem of external
organization.

'If it is accepted as a fundamental principle-as it is later developed in this
study-that the state should assure funds adequate to finance a satisfactory edu-
cational program, it necessarily follows that the taxable wealth of the area
affected is of decreasing importance as a criterion for determining what is a
satisfactory local unit of school administration. In states that assure the
financial support of a satisfactory minimum program, it is a. function of the
local unit to encourage local initiative and thus to exceed the educational
offering required and guaranteed by the state.








Place and Function in Public School Administration 7

In this study the problems concerning the local school unit,
both for attendance and for administration, will be discussed
under the following topics:
1. The characteristics of a satisfactory school. These char-
acteristics will furnish criteria for determining a satisfactory
attendance or school unit.
2. Satisfactory administrative and supervisory organiza-
tions. The administrative and supervisory services required for a
satisfactory unit of local school administration will be defined
and the number of persons required for a satisfactory organiza-
tion determined.
3. The size of a satisfactory local unit of school administra-
tion. It will be assumed that the size of the unit of adminis-
tration should be such that adequate administrative and
supervisory services can be offered at a cost that bears a rea-
sonable relationship to the total current cost of the educational
program offered by the local unit. It is necessary, therefore, to
determine the expected cost of satisfactory administrative and
supervisory organizations, and the total current cost of a satis-
factory educational program, and to determine a reasonable
relationship between these two items of cost. The way in
which these factors will indicate at least the minimum size of
a satisfactory local unit of school administration will be de-
veloped.
4. The status of local units of school administration.
An analysis of the present status of local school units will make
it possible to determine by application of the criteria previously
defined to what extent a reorganization of local school units is
needed. An analysis of the means now being used to overcome
the limitations of small and inadequate local units will be help-
ful in determining procedures for reorganizing local units.
5. The reorganization of local school units, both internal
and external. Procedure for reorganizing attendance or school
units, and satisfactory administrative units will be described.
The laws necessary to facilitate the reorganization of school
units will be discussed.
6. Financing the reorganized school system. The treatment
of this problem requires some inquiry into the nature of the











The Local School Unit


state's responsibility for adequate school finance, examination
of present methods of apportioning state funds, a study of
the relationship between the character of the local school unit
and the apportionment of state funds, and the selection of
equitable and effective methods of financing the reorganized
school system.
7. Results of reorganizing local school units. Results indi-
cating that educational opportunities are equalized at least up
to acceptable minimum standards, and that financial burdens
of school support tend to be equalized will be described.
SUMMARY
States have in large measure delegated their responsibility
for the control and support of public schools to local school
districts or units. These units will doubtless continue to hold an
important place in the administration of our public school system
since they are in harmony with the development of American
governmental organization on the three levels, viz., federal,
state, and local; they are consistent with American tradition,
and provide opportunity for the preservation of local initiative.
Wide variations in the type, size, and educational efficiency
of present local school units, and the resultant inequalities of
educational opportunities and of financial burdens of school
support require a clear definition of the characteristics of a
satisfactory local unit of school administration. These charac-
teristics must be determined on the basis of the functions a
local unit of school administration has to perform.
The functions indicate that there are two types of units,
which are designated in this study as attendance or school
units, and administrative units. The problem of organizing
attendance units is referred to as the problem of internal or-
ganization and the problem of organizing administrative units
is referred to as external organization.





















Place and Function in Public School Administration 9


BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Biennial Survey of Education, 1926-28, United States Ofice of Education
Bulletin No. 16, Washington, D. C., 1930.
2. Butterworth, Julian E. "Defining the Local Unit of School Administra-
tion in Terms of Its Objectives," Educational Administration and
Supervision, 9: 145-56, March, 1925.
3. Butterworth, Julian E. "Should the County be the Unit of School Ad-
ministration?" Proceedings of Tenth Annual Schoolmen's Week, April
12-14, 1923. University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 132-39.
4. Cubberley, Ellwood P. Public School Administration. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 1929.
5. Cubberley, Ellwood P. State School Administration. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 1927.
6. Engelhardt, Fred. "The Future School District," The American School
Board Journal, 81: 51, July, 1930.
7. Johnson, Lester O. "Corporate and Other Subdivisions of Schools,"
Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of Minnesota Library, 1930.
8. Judd, C. H., et al. Rural School Survey of New York State. Volume
on Administration and Supervision. Ithaca, New York, 1923.
9. McCracken, C. C. "Reorganizing the Local School Unit in Terms of
Social and Economic Relationships," Proceedings of National Educa-
tion Association, 65: 503-506, 1927.
10. National Advisory Committee on Education. "Federal Relations to Edu-
cation." Part I, Committee on Findings and Recommendations, Wash-
ington, D. C., 1931.












CHAPTER II


THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A SATISFACTORY SCHOOL1

As stated in the previous chapter, the primary function of
a local school unit is to provide adequate educational oppor-
tunities for the children living within its borders. If this
function cannot be adequately performed by a given unit the
unit should not be permitted to continue its, existence, provided,
of course, that a different type of local unit will give more
acceptable and equitable opportunities. This requirement is
equally applicable to attendance and administrative units.
Therefore, any state that sets up and perpetuates school units
that cannot provide adequate educational advantages for its
children is permitting taxpayers' money to be wasted and is
robbing children of their inalienable rights as American citi-
zens. It may be added that there is evidence that in a majority
of cases the states of the Union are failing to provide adequate
educational facilities, some to a greater extent than others.
In the statements above the words "adequate", "acceptable",
and "equitable" have been used as modifiers of "educational
opportunities" and of "school facilities". What are adequate,
acceptable, and equitable educational opportunities and school
facilities? The answer to this question is to be found in the
definition and description of the characteristics of a satisfac-
tory school. Accordingly, the problem of chief concern in
this chapter is the determination of the characteristics of a
satisfactory attendance or school unit.

1The preliminary work on the contents of this chapter was done in co-
operation with James W. Cammack, Jr., Director of Research, State Depart-
ment of Education, Frankfort, Kentucky.
10








The Characteristics of a Satisfactory School 11

THE PURPOSES OF TAX SUPPORTED PUBLIC SCHOOLS
The characteristics of an acceptable school will be deter-
mined in large measure by the accepted definition of the pur-
poses of public education. The broad purposes of American
public education may be designated as political, economic, social,
and individual. (49: 3.) The purpose of our education is
political since under a democratic form of government such as
ours it is necessary for the state to see that each individual
possesses the knowledge, attitudes, and will to serve the govern-
ment most effectively and exercise intelligently his privilege of
suffrage. Accordingly, the states early began to make con-
stitutional and legislative provisions for the establishment and
maintenance of public schools equally free to all children.
These public schools have, therefore, as a primary purpose the
training of citizens and are in that respect political in their
purpose. (58: 241-5.) The purpose of public schools is eco-
nomic since the productive capacity of a people can be increased
by increasing their knowledge, skill, and adaptability. Also,
the demand for services and material goods can be increased by
raising the standard of living of the people, an end which
training offered in the public schools achieves. (11: 234-62.)
The purpose of public schools is social because it is essential
under our form of society that people be able to cooperate suc-
cessfully in carrying on social enterprises. The more compli-
cated modern institutions become, the more necessary it is that
individuals understand their purposes and structure, and acquire
attitudes of social cooperation. The purpose of the public
schools is individual because it is inherent in the democratic
ideal that all individuals be trained in the common integrating
knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and in a vocation. (11:
50-1.) Accordingly the school must make provisions for
individual differences in intellectual capacities, aptitudes, and
interests in order to deal justly with the individuals concerned
and to provide for the needs of society,2 (39: 74-117; 62:
216-34.)

'For a good statement of the aims and purposes of public education, see
Report of Kentucky Educational Commission, Chapter I, State Department of
Education, Frankfort, Ky., October, 1933.







The Local School Unit


SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS
In order to accomplish the broad purposes of public educa-
tion, the public schools have certain specific functions to per-
form. In order to provide for the needs of individuals
according to their mental and physical development, these func-
tions are divided into those of the elementary and secondary
levels.

The functions of the elementary school are:
1. To bring together for educational purposes, regardless of
social status and native endowment, all the children of the
community, and to place them under the supervision of men and
women carefully trained for the work of inducting these imma-
ture members into the life of modern society.
2. To foster activities that will insure the acquisition by the
pupils of those basic skills, habits, attitudes, dispositions, ideals,
and powers required of all members of organized society. The
activities consist largely of the elementary mastery of the lan-
guage and number acts, and through them the reading, imagina-
tive study, and appreciation of those human experiences which
have found expression in history, geography, social science,
literature, art, music, and philosophy. The activities fostered
should be appropriate to the mental and physical development
of the children taught. It is now rather generally accepted
that the elementary school should provide for approximately six
years of training. (11: 402-35.)

The functions of the secondary school are:
1. To provide for an upward extension of the functions of
the elementary school giving more comprehensive instruction
in the fields begun on that level.
2. To provide the means by which the adjustment of the
pupils to their social environment can be facilitated with the
greatest amount of satisfaction to the pupils and to society.
3. To provide for the integration of social purposes and
activities through the development in the secondary school
population "of that amount of like-mindedness, of unity in







The Characteristics of a Satisfactory School


thought, habits, ideals, and standards, requisite for social cohe-
sion and social solidarity."
4. To provide for differentiation among the secondary school
population through recognition of and provision for individual
differences in abilities, capacities, and interests.
5. To provide preparatory training for the benefit of that
part of the school population which should continue education
in some higher institution.
6. To provide for selection among the secondary school popu-
lation in keeping with the differences in individual capacities
and with the varying needs of society. "In terms of school
practice it means that if a pupil lacks ability or interest in
one field of study but possesses ability and interest in another,
discrimination is justified, and, particularly in the public sec-
ondary school, that pupil has a right to receive education in
fields for which he possesses ability and interest. He cannot
be deprived of the opportunity for education because of in-
ability or lack of interest in some officially favored subject or
subjects." (39: 382.)
7. To provide for diagnosis of individual capacities and
interests and for the direction of the pupil into fields in which
he can work with most profit to himself and to society. "Hence
the school must provide materials to acquaint the pupil with
various activities of life, must give him some opportunity to
test out and explore his capacities and interests and must pro-
vide some direction and guidance therefore (39: 381.)
It is reasonable to assume that the schools that best perform
the functions required of them have certain characteristics in
common which experience and scientific data have indicated to
be fundamental. It follows that schools which do not have
these characteristics cannot adequately perform the required
functions. Analysis of an operating school program reveals
that a curriculum is offered, a type of organization-an eight-
year elementary school and a four-year high school or some
other-is employed, there are a certain number of teachers with
certain qualifications and with certain numbers of pupils, a
school plant with certain equipment is in use, apparatus and
instructional materials of certain kinds are available, there








The Local School Unit


is a certain length of school term, and frequently transporta-
tion facilities are provided for some of the pupils. These
characteristics, if maintained to sufficiently high standards, will
constitute a satisfactory school. Means of measuring each of
these characteristics will be discussed in the following pages.

TYPE OF SCHOOL ORGANIZATION
Until recent years the usual type of school organization,
known as the 8-4 plan, consisted of an elementary school with
eight years or grades of instruction and a high school with
four years of instruction. During recent years the trend of
organization has been decidedly toward the six-year elementary
school, the three-year junior high school, and the three-year
senior high school, the 6-3-3 plan; or the six-year elemen-
tary school and the six-year high school, the 6-6 plan. The
rapidity of change from the 8-4 plan of organization is re-
flected in the fact that although the first junior high schools
were organized in Berkeley, California, and in Columbus, Ohio,
as late as 1909, there were by 1926 in the United States about
1,100 separately organized junior high schools. (48: 8.) In
fact, by 1926, 74 per cent of the cities having a population of
100,000 and over, and 61 per cent of the cities having a popu-
lation from 30,000 to 100,000 were organized on the 6-3-3 plan.
The more complete data as to this trend in type of organization,
given in Table I, show that during the six-year period, 1920 to
TABLE I
TREND IN THE TYPE OF HIGH SCHOOL ORGANIZATION IN THE
UNITED STATES, 1920-26*

ENROLLMENT PER CENT
TYPE OF HIGH SCHOOL 1920 1926 INCREASE

All Public High Schools 1,999,106 3,741,073 87.14
Regular 1,667,480 2,201,675 32.04
Junior 37,331 628,809 1,584.42
Senior 17,791 290,454 1,532.59
Junior-Senior and Un-
divided 276,504 620,135 124.28

*48:8.








The Characteristics of a Satisfactory School


1926, the percentage of pupils enrolled in high schools with
junior and senior high schools in separate organizations in-
creased over 1500 per cent and the enrollment in high schools
organized with the six years of junior-senior high school in
one organization increased more than 124 per cent. These
increases are in striking contrast to an increase of only 32 per
cent in enrollment in high schools organized on the four-year
basis. These data, of course, reflect the change from the eight-
year elementary school to the six-year elementary school.
The reasons for this trend in type of organization are to be
found in the attempt to make the divisions of the school system
conform more nearly to the natural psychological, physiologi-
cal, and social development of the pupils to be taught. Studies
in psychology have shown that a rather distinct period of
development known as adolescence is reached by children by
the seventh year of school life, and that in approximately three
more years the full development into adolescence occurs. The
organization of the school system on the basis of six years in
the elementary school and two divisions of three years each
in the high school is an attempt to place under separate organi-
zations pupils in these more or less distinct periods of develop-
ment. (46: 250-2.)
Furthermore, the organization of the school system has
changed from the traditional 8-4 plan because it is a waste of
time to spend eight years on the traditional elementary school
curriculum. It has been demonstrated that the fundamental
elementary subjects can be learned sufficiently well in the first
six years, thus allowing the other two years for differentiated
courses. The new plan of organization offers more interesting
fields of study, opportunity for exploration in various fields
of activities, discovery of aptitudes, more adequate guidance;
and surrounds pupils with other individuals of similar inter-
ests and development. All of these advantages tend to reduce
elimination from school and failure in school subjects. It is
further claimed by competent authority that the new plan of
organization has bridged the gap between the elementary school
and the high school, and has largely eliminated the break which
comes at the close of the compulsory school age. (46: 250-2.)







The Local School Unit


THE CURRICULUM
The curriculum of the school consists of all the activities,
courses of study, subjects, and materials which are used as the
means of attaining the objectives and fulfilling the purposes of
the school. It is rather generally agreed that in order to achieve
these purposes the curriculum should be such that pupils will be
provided instruction and training in health knowledge and
health habits, in civic knowledge, in the fundamental tool sub-
jects, in worthy uses of leisure time, in avocational and voca-
tional pursuits, and that they will be provided guidance for
active participation in civic and social affairs, and in wholesome
home life. (47: 212, and 6: 11-16.) For convenience of dis-
cussion the chief facts concerning the scope of the curriculum
on the different levels will be presented under the heads of
the curriculum of the elementary school, of the junior high
school, and of the senior high school.
THE CURRICULUM OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL: As the
interrelationships of society have become more complicated,
many adjustments and expansions have been made in the ele-
mentary school curriculum. It now contains at least four times
as many studies and activities as it did in the early pioneer
days. In short, a new conception of the function of the school
is now held, and the modern school is expected "to offer oppor-
tunity to practice life, to develop skills and habits, to create
attitudes, and to train in reflective thinking and analysis."
Table II shows the expansion in the elementary school curricu-
lum from 1775 to 1900. Since 1900 new methods of teaching
have been emphasized in these subjects and the content of the
various subjects has been changed and expanded.
The curriculum now considered adequate to achieve the pur-
poses of education provides training in reading (including
phonics and literature appreciation), arithmetic, language
(both oral and written) and grammar, writing, spelling, geog-
raphy, history, citizenship and civics, nature study and
elementary science, art, music, health (including elementary
physiology and hygiene), and physical training. Besides
these subjects the schools are frequently required by law to
teach other subjects, such as, thrift, fire prevention, state his-









TABLE II
THE EVOLUTION OF OUR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM, AND OF METHODS OF TEACHING (17: 17)
1775 1825 1850 1875 1900
READING READING* READING (READING READING*
Spelling Declamation \DECLAMATION Literary (LITERATURE*
SSelections
Writing SPELLING* SPELLING SPELLING Spelling
SCatechism fWriting WRITING PENMANSHIP* Writing*
BIBLE (Good Behavior fManners Conduct
Manners and Morals Conduct
Arithmetic ARITHMETIC* MENTAL ARITH.* PRIMARY ARITH. ARITHMETIC
CIPHERINGG ADVANCED ARITH.
Bookkeeping Bookkeeping ,Oral Language* fORAL LANGUAGE
GRAMMAR (Elementary (GRAMMAR \Grammar
Language
GRAMMAR
Geography Geography IHome Geography* fHome Geography
,TEXT GEOGRAPHY TEXT GEOGRAPHY*
U. S. History U. S. HISTORY History Stories*
SConstitution TEXT HISTORY*
Object Lessons JObject Lessons* fNature Study*
(Elem. Science* \Elem. Science
Drawing* Drawing*
Music Music*
Physical Play
Exercise Physical Training*
Sewing and Sewing
Knitting Cooking
Manual Training


Capitals-Most important subjects.
Ordinary type-Subjects of medium importance.


Italics-Least important subjects.
*New methods of teaching now employed.








The Local School Unit


tory, elementary agriculture, U. S. Constitution, and safety.
These legal requirements usually can be met through instruc-
tion in the regular subjects, but frequently the schools are
required to devote a stipulated number of minutes per week to
such subjects.
THE CURRICULUM OF THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL: The
junior high school curriculum provides for the discharge of
two basic functions: (1) The continuation of integration
through the tool subjects and the social studies, and (2) the
provision of broad opportunity for exploration. As will be seen
from data to be presented later, the program of studies is not
arranged into curricula as in the senior high school, but rather
is divided into constants taken by all students and variables
through which opportunity for exploration is provided.
An analysis of 139 junior high school programs of study
from thirty-one states made by the Research Division of the
National Education Association shows the subjects offered and
the average number of periods per week devoted to each subject
for each of the three years of the junior high school. These data
which appear in Table III indicate the extent of the curriculum
TABLE III
PROGRAM OF STUDIES FOR A JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL BASED ON PRACTICE IN
139 JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS IN 31 STATES1

SEVENTH GRADE EIGHTH GRADE NINTH GRADE
Av. No. Av. No. Av. No.
Subject Periods Subject Periods Subject Periods
Per Wk. Per Wk. Per Wk.
English 72 English 62 English 5
Social Studies 72 Social Studies 62 Social Studies 5
Mathematics 5 Mathematics 5 Health 3
Health 3 Health 3 Mathematics 5
Music 2 Music 2 Foreign Lang.* 5
Industrial Arts 3 Industrial Arts 3 Industrial Arts* 6
Home Econom. 3 Home Econom. 3 Home Econom.* 6
Art 2 Art 2 Music* 4
Foreign Lang.* 5 Commercial*
Science 3 Studies 5
Science 5
Art 5
Total Periods 32 Total Periods 38 Total Periods 54
148:23.
2Each of these subject groups has more than five periods per week because it includes
two or more subjects.
*Variables.








The Characteristics of a Satisfactory School


offering considered necessary for a comprehensive junior high
school.
There is no complete agreement in practice, but expert opin-
ion agrees that English, social studies (history, geography, civ-
ics), general science, general (or composite) mathematics, and
health (including physical education) should be constants, and
that industrial arts, commercial subjects, home economics, art,
music, science, and foreign languages should be offered as
electives or variables, the number of variables depending upon
the size of the school.
THE CURRICULUM OF THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL: The cur-
riculum of the senior high school has the general function of
providing training for cultural and social living and of offering
training in specialized fields of vocational or avocational pur-
suits. The divisions of the curriculum should have their origin
in the occupational expectations of the groups in the school
population. Occupational expectations need not be interpreted
as meaning specific trades or semi-professional work, but should
comprehend the broad occupational fields.
Data are available which suggest the groups to be accommo-
dated in the modern high school, and thus provide a basis for
determining the minimum program that should be offered in
the senior high school. Coxe in a study of the occupational
expectations of 2,254 pupils of forty-four small high schools of
New York reported that 52 per cent expected to enter the pro-
fessional fields; 21 per cent, commercial; 7 per cent, indus-
trial; 6 per cent, agricultural; 10 per cent were undecided;
and the remaining pupils were scattered among domestic and
personal service and the army and navy. (16: 106.) Bass
has reported that of 5,639 graduates of 364 county high schools
of Tennessee in 1929, 45 per cent expected to enter higher in-
stitutions of learning; 7 per cent, teaching; 11 per cent, farm-
ing; 9 per cent, business; 7 per cent, trades, and' the other 21
per cent, other work, or unknown. (4: 72.) Data collected
by Counts from large city high schools, including 7,979 boys
graduating in Bridgeport, Connecticut; Mt. Vernon, New
York; St. Louis; and Seattle, show occupational expectations
very similar to those reported by Coxe and Bass for rural









The Local Scwool Unit


schools, with the single exception of agriculture. (14: 82 and
4: 49.)
The extent of the curriculum offering of modern senior high
schools which attempt to meet the vocational and avocational
needs of their pupils is illustrated by a composite statement of
the curricula of seventy-eight senior high schools in 1926 as
shown in Table IV.

TABLE IV
PROGRAM OF STUDIES FOR A SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL*

TENTH GRADE ELEVENTH GRADE TWELFTH GRADE
Average Average Average
Subject Periods Subject Periods Subject Periods
Per Wk. Per Wk. Per Ilk.
English 5 English 5 English 5
Foreign Lang.' 5 Foreign Lang.1 5 Foreign Lang.x 5
Industrial Arts' 5 Cor. Studies' 5 Com. Studies' 4
Com. Studies' 5 Industrial Arts' 5 Industrial Arts' 5
Home Econom. Science Science
(Cooking)' 5 (Physics)' 5 (Chemistry)' 5
Social Studies' 5 Home Econom.' 5 Social Studies' 2Y
Science (Biol.)' 5 Social Studies' 5 Home Econom.' 5
Mathematics' 5 Mathematics' 2% Mathematics' 2%
Music' 5 Art' 5 English' 5
Art' 5 Music' 5 Art' 5
English' 5 Music' 5
'variables.
*Based on 78 representative senior high schools (20: 212).
If the agricultural subjects are added to the above program of studies, the typical program
required by a comprehensive senior high school in rural areas will be obtained.

The typical senior high school found throughout the country
is of the comprehensive type, that is, all curricula are offered
under one organization. (24: 61.) This is the only practical
type for rural areas and small cities. Three general plans are
followed in grouping subjects: (28: 60.)
1. Parallel curricula with most subjects definitely prescribed
when a given curriculum has been elected.
2. Core subjects (constants are required of all) with numer-
ous variables (free electives).
3. Combination of (1) and (2) with definitely organized
curricula, including certain required subjects and numerous
electives.








The Characteristics of a Satisfactory School


PUPIL-TEACHER RATIO
A third characteristic of a satisfactory school is a de-
sirable numerical relationship between pupils and teachers.
There has been considerable discussion and some experimenta-
tion to determine this numerical relationship. Experiments
have been conducted showing that insofar as measurement of
instructional results by standard tests is concerned small
classes have no advantages over large classes. (57: 92-98.)
Questions such as the effect of large classes on the physical
and professional welfare of the teacher, and the effect on the
social training and health of the pupils have not been an-
swered. (9: 27-30.)
Practice in city school systems affords some guidance as
to the number of pupils per teacher to be assumed in planning
a modern school system. In cities there are sufficient pupils to
make possible as large a number per teacher as appears con-
sistent with desirable educational outcomes. Then, too, it is
generally conceded that good schools are found more uniformly
in cities than outside them. The following table taken from
statistics published by the United States Office of Education
shows the prevalent practice in cities of 10,000 population and
over.
TABLE V
PUPIL-TEACHER RATIO IN CITIES OF 10,000 POPULATION AND MORE, BASED
ON ENROLLMENT, 1922-1930*

TYPE OF SCHOOL 1922 1924 1926 1928 1930
Elementary 37.2 39.0 37.6 37.0 37.1
Junior High School 28.9 28.9 29.0 28.7 28.6
High School 25.7 26.5 25.6 25.9 26.7

*59:4.

There has been little change in the pupil-teacher ratio in
city school systems since 1922. In the elementary school it
has held close to 37; in the junior high school to 28; in the
senior high school to 26. Such statistics, of course, do not take
into consideration the size of classes in the various fields of








The Local Sclool Unit


instruction. They are important only in determining the total
number of teachers to be employed in a system.
Glass sets 33 as the maximum size class to be permitted in
the junior high school. (33: 62.) Englehardt presents data
showing that in a well-organized senior high school the number
of pupils per teacher is 26 to 30. (28: 292.) The North Cen-
tral Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools sets 25 as
the desirable number of pupils per teacher and will not permit
more than 30 in high schools belonging to that association.
(51: 66.)
Pittinger reports on the size of high school classes as fol-
lows:
Irrespective of the total enrollment, graduates of high
schools enrolling more than 20 and fewer than 31 pupils
per teacher earn better marks in college than the graduates
of schools enrolling 20 pupils or less, or more than 30
pupils per teacher. Within the limits of the study, there-
fore, the evidence favors the product of classes ranging
from 21 to 30 pupils. (52: 110.)

It appears from available evidence that school systems can
be safely planned to have the following pupil-teacher ratios
based on enrollments:
1. For the elementary grades, 40 pupils per teacher;
2. For the junior high school grades, 30 to 35 pupils per
teacher;
3. For the senior high school grades, 25 to 30 pupils per
teacher;
4. For a six-year high school, 30 pupils per teacher.
'' THE SIZE OF A SATISFACTORY SCHOOL
There is much evidence that size of the student body is a
determining factor in the efficiency of a school. The evidence,
however, as to the minimum size of a satisfactory school is much
more conclusive than the evidence as to the optimum size. For
the purpose of this study the chief concern is the determina-
tion of the minimum size of school consistent with efficiency.
Since schools are organized on the 6-3-3 or the 6-6 plan, the








The Characteristics of a Satisfactory School


size of elementary schools and of high schools will be considered
separately.
THE SIZE OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL: A majority of
studies concerning the size of elementary schools as related
to efficiency have more or less arbitrarily classified schools hav-
ing six or more teachers as large schools and all others as small
schools. These studies have made comparisons between large
and small schools as to age-grade and grade-progress status of
pupils, achievement as measured by standardized tests, the
training and experience of teachers, the length of school term,
the breadth of the curriculum offering, the time allotment to
various subjects, and the cost per pupil. The training and ex-
perience of teachers and the length of school term are prob-
ably closely related to age-grade status, grade-progress status,
and achievement of pupils, and, hence, are not necessarily char-
acteristic factors of small schools. /Such factors as the breadth
of the curriculum offering, time allotment to various subjects,
the cost per pupil, and probably age-grade and grade-progress
status and achievement of pupils are factors inseparable from
the size of the school. Studies are in agreement that in all
these factors the large school is superior. t-
As to age-grade and grade-progress status of pupils, "the
larger the school and the larger the population in the com-
munity are, the younger are the children enrolled in corres-
ponding grades." (41: 27.) The greatest differences occur in
the second to sixth grades, indicating that the large and small
schools are more nearly comparable as to age-grade and grade-
progress status of pupils in the seventh and eighth grades.
They are more nearly comparable only because the statistics
as to age-grade and grade-progress include only those pupils
who stay in school, and many more pupils are eliminated from
small schools than from large schools. The only reason that
greater over-ageness and slower progress does not appear in
the small schools is that the pupils who have become retarded in
the middle grades drop out of school before they reach the
upper grades. This conclusion is substantiated by the fact
that the smaller the school, the greater is the percentage of
enrollment in the lower grades. (41: 51-2.)








The Local School Unit


In the matter of school achievement the pupils in the large
schools have the advantage. 'Covert, in a study of educational
achievements in one-teacher and in larger rural schools, shows
that for eight states, viz., Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, New
York, Oklahoma, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia, the pu-
pils of the larger rural schools show superior achievement.
(15: 19-20.) For example, in 51 comparisons in reading, the
large schools excelled in 76.5 per cent of the instances; in 83
comparisons in arithmetic, the large schools excelled in 87.9
per cent of the instances; and in 31 comparisons in spelling,
the large schools excelled in 80.6 per cent of the cases. Compari-
sons of the achievements of pupils in rural schools with those
of pupils in city schools show similar results. Of course, it
does not necessarily follow that the pupils in all small schools
have a lower achievement rating than the pupils in the aver-
age large school. It may be added that the available data on
achievement do not indicate that the mere factor of smallness
of the school will prevent superior achievement when certain
other factors are controlled or rectified. They do indicate, how-
ever, that in general the chances are against superior achieve-
ment in the small school. Evidently, there are certain factors
operating against achievement which do not operate with equal
force in the large school. (7: 194; 34: 7-8.)
Studies of time allotment to pupils and to classes in schools
of various sizes show conclusively the advantage of elementary
schools having six or more teachers. For example, a survey
of the schools of Mercer County, West Virginia, showed that
in the one-room schools of that county the average number of
recitations per teacher per day was 27 with an average of 12
minutes per recitation; in two-room schools, 22 recitations with
15 minutes each; in three-room schools, 19 recitations with 17
minutes each; in four-room schools, 16 recitations with 20 min-
utes each; in six-room schools, 15 recitations with 22 minutes
each; and in schools with eight or more rooms, 13 recitations
with 25 minutes each. Thus the average teaching time per
recitation in schools having six or more teachers is nearly
twice as great as in schools having one or two teachers. (22:
32.)








The Characteristics of a Satisfactory School


Caswell has presented data showing the maximum time al-
lotment to various subjects in one-teacher, two-teacher, and three-
teacher elementary schools as compared with standard time
allotments. (5: 42-52.) He shows the time allotments pos-
sible in these schools when combinations of classes have been
made to reduce to a minimum the number of daily recitations
to be conducted by the teacher. For example, in reading in the
first grade the standard time allotment is 459 minutes per
week, but the allotment in a one-teacher school can be only 165
minutes; in a two-teacher school, only 281 minutes; in a three-
teacher school, only 360 minutes. After making what is thought
to be the best possible combinations of grades and classes, the
grand total instruction time that should be available in a one-
teacher school is 4,483 minutes per week; in a two-teacher school,
5,196 minutes; and in a three-teacher school, 6,041 minutes.
The maximum time that can be available with the best possi-
ble combinations of grades and subjects in a one-teacher school
is 1,800 minutes per week; in a two-teacher school, 3,000 min-
utes; in a three-teacher school, 4,800 minutes.
On the basis of a careful study of the time allotments of
fifteen states and forty large cities, and of the allotments recom-
mended by recognized subject-matter experts, a state com-
mittee in Florida has set up the standard time allotments given
in Table VI. If approximately 1,500 minutes per week consti-
tute the teaching time of one teacher, and if grade and subject
combinations are to be avoided, a minimum of six teachers, or
one teacher per grade, will be required in a school that main-
tains the standard time allotment for all grades and classes.
Small schools of necessity are limited in the extent of cur-
riculum offerings. This limitation results from the fact that
there is not enough teaching time available to offer training
in the fields of art, music, physical education, and many of the
content subjects outside the "three R's". It is held by specialists
in rural education that the curriculum offerings in rural ele-
mentary schools are usually formal and unrelated to the life
of the child and organized upon the basis of subject-matter-to-
be-learned. To what extent these conditions can be overcome
in small schools is not at all certain. All that is now known is








The Local School Unit


TABLE VI
TIME ALLOTMENTS ADOPTED AS STANDARD FOR THE STATE OF FLORIDA*

MINUTES PER WEEK ALLOTTED TO EACH SUBJECT
IN EACH GRADE


SUBJECT



Reading and Language
Arithmetic
Writing
Spelling
Social Studies
Elementary Science
Art
Music
Health and Physical
Education


Total
I II III IV V VI Minutes
in All
Grades
500 400 400 300 300 250 2,150
125 175 200 200 200 900
70 70 70 70 70 70 420
75 75 75 75 75 375
200 200 200 300 300 300 1,500
100 100 100 150 150 200 800
125 125 125 125 125 125 750
125 125 125 125 125 125 750
300 300 30000 00 300 300 1,800


Total 1,420 1,5201 1,5701 1,645 1,6451 1,6451 9,445
*5:28.

that they are much easier to overcome in large schools. (10:
256-61; 26: 97-123.)
"I The cost per pupil, a measure of the efficiency of a school,
is much greater in small schools than in large schools. This is
unavoidable if the qualifications and salaries of teachers in
small and large schools are equal and if a sufficient number of
teachers are employed in each school to give standard instruc-
tional time in each grade and subject. 'In other words, it is
obvious that if equal service is given to pupils in large and in
small schools, the cost per pupil in the small schools will be
the higher. However, the actual cost per pupil in small schools
does not always exceed the cost in large schools because the
available revenue per pupil for the support of small schools is
usually much less than the revenue per pupil for large schools.
In states that use considerable funds in equalizing teachers'
salaries or that guarantee or require minimum salaries, the cost
per pupil in small schools is usually much higher than in large
schools. (45: 83; 58: 39.)
The size of school at which the cost per pupil tends to reach
a minimum has not been definitely determined. Available data
indicate that the minimum cost per pupil for a given standard








The Characteristics of a Satisfactory Sc/ool 27

of service tends to be reached in schools with enrollments be-
yond 200 pupils. The data in Table VII illustrate the point.

TABLE VII
COST PER PUPIL IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN CALIFORNIA IN RELATION TO
AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE, 1923-24*

AVERAGE DAILY NUMBER OF TEACHERS' TOTAL OPERATING
ATTENDANCE SCHOOLS SALARIES EXPENSES
1- 10 730 $169 $205
11- 20 703 90 117
21- 30 293 62 83
61- 70 76 55 80
191- 210 20 53 74
751-1000 2 46 56
*35:270.

An examination of the statistics of enrollment by grades
in elementary schools in all states and in all types of communi-
ties reveals the fact that the enrollment and attendance in the
first grade and frequently in the second grade constitute more
than the proportionate percentage of pupils that would be in
these grades if all pupils made equal progress in school. (60:
30.) This excess enrollment in the first two grades makes it
difficult to assign one teacher to the grade, or the same number
of teachers to each grade in a school that has more than one
teacher. A six-grade school, therefore, would have an enroll-
ment which would require at least seven teachers to prevent over-
crowding in the lower grades. Accepting the pupil-teacher ratio
of about forty enrolled pupils per teacher, the elementary
school should, therefore, have a minimum of approximately
240 to 280 enrolled pupils.
THE SIZE OF A SATISFACTORY HIGH SCHOOL: Expert opinion
is almost unanimous in condemning the small high school be-
cause of its numerous shortcomings. Some of these limitations,
it is true, can be overcome by proper administration and capable
teachers, but many cannot be overcome at all within reasonable
limits of cost. The shortcomings and limitations that seem to
be inherent are those pertaining to the curriculum offering and
the cost per pupil. (56: 307.)








The Local School Unit


In considering the curriculum offering of the high school,
it should be kept in mind that the people of the United States
have embarked upon a program of universal secondary educa-
tion. Such a program implies that such opportunities should be
provided as are required by the varied life purposes of all
individuals of secondary school age and by the need of society
for varied training among its members. There is ample evi-
dence that small schools are not able to provide curricula to
serve these ends.
Combs presents significant evidence concerning the effect of
the size of the high school on the curriculum offering. He states
three propositions which are substantiated by the data he sub-
mits:
1. It is difficult to secure teachers qualified to offer in-
struction in a sufficient number of fields to carry out a
comprehensive program of studies in a three-teacher high
school.
2. In cases where properly qualified teachers can be se-
cured, even with alternations and combinations the teaching
load would exceed the maximum permitted by State and
National accrediting agencies.
3. When a sufficient number of teachers are employed
and proper equipment added to provide adequately for the
introduction of vocational courses such as agriculture,
home economics, commerce or industry, the per pupil cost
becomes prohibitive in the small high school. (13: 60.)

Ferriss has summarized the status of the small high school
as follows:
All data on the programs of studies offered and the re-
quirements for graduation from the rural high school indi-
cate, in general, that in practice at least, if not in theory,
it is still a selective institution rather than an institution
serving equally the educational needs of all the children of
high school age. The bulk of its curriculum offerings and
its requirements are based upon the needs of a special group
of pupils. In a large measure it is attempting to fit all pu-
pils to the same educational mold. (29: 50.)








The Characteristics of a Satisfactory School


In order to determine a desirable size of high school, an
acceptable curriculum offering must be defined. The extent of
the offerings and the subject-matter fields that should be in-
cluded in an acceptable junior or senior high school curriculum
have been presented in a foregoing discussion. The size of
the school required to present economically such a curriculum
can be deduced from an analysis of the curriculum in terms of
teaching positions. It is also desirable to have some standard
as to the number of subject-matter fields in which any one teach-
er can be expected to teach. Such a standard is reflected in
many of the more recent regulations concerning the adminis-
tration and classification of high schools by state departments
of education and by accrediting associations. These regula-
tions indicate that a high school teacher should not be expected
nor required to teach in more than two fields and that these
fields should be as closely related as possible. (4: 122.)
The curriculum necessary for a complete and comprehensive
high school has been analyzed in terms of teaching positions by
Bachman as follows: (4: 122).
1. English and Latin or German or French.
2. Social Studies and a second optional related field.
3. Mathematics and Science.
4. Home Economics.
5. Agriculture.
6. Commercial Education.
7. Trade Training.
8. Music.
9. Art.
10. Health and Physical Education.

It will be seen from this analysis that ten is the minimum
number of teachers required for an acceptable high school
whether it is a junior, a senior, or a six-year high school. Per-
haps the only modification that could be justified in this arrange-
ment would be the assigning of the fields of music, art, health,
and physical education to other members of the staff. Such an
arrangement would call for an absolute minimum of seven
teachers.







The Local School Unit


Studies of the relationship between the size of the high
school and the cost per pupil are unanimous in agreement that
the smaller the high school the higher the cost per pupil en-
rolled or in attendance. Of course, it is possible to find some
small high schools in which the cost is less than in some large
schools, but in all states where studies of high schools over large
areas have been made it has been found that the smaller the
school the higher the cost. Published studies from Virginia
(13: 55), Illinois (54: 110-11), California (19: 168-70; 31:
232-4), New York (38: 63), Arizona (3: 114), Massachusetts
(37: 63-8) and Minnesota (61) show this relationship.
There is some evidence as to just how large a high school
must be before the cost per pupil ceases to increase. In general,
the cost per pupil tends to increase rapidly in schools under
200 in enrollment and the change in cost after the 200 enroll-
ment is reached is not material. There is considerable evidence
that high schools having enrollments of 500 to 600 pupils offer
more courses, provide more activities and cost less per pupil
than smaller schools. These schools of 500 to 600 pupils, more-
over, offer about the same number of courses and provide about
the same activities and cost about the same amount per pupil as
do schools with larger enrollment. (43: 356-64.)
The evidence as to the size of high school required to offer
a sufficiently wide curriculum to meet economically the needs
of the school population indicates that the absolute minimum
size high school should have seven teaching positions and the
desirable minimum should have ten teaching positions. In
terms of the standard pupil-teacher ratios shown previously, a
six-year high school would have an absolute minimum of ap-
proximately 210 enrolled pupils and a desirable minimum of
approximately 300 enrolled pupils. In the same manner it is
to be concluded that a three-year junior high school should
have from 245 to 350 pupils, and a three-year senior high school
from 175 to 250 pupils. It should be observed that in any
case about 200 pupils is approximately the minimum number to
constitute a satisfactory high school. There is no conclusive
evidence as to the optimum size of high school, but there is
evidence that insofar as the curriculum offering and the cost
per pupil are concerned there is little if anything gained by








The Characteristics of a Satisfactory School


having a high school of more than 600 pupils and twenty
teachers.
THE TRANSPORTATION OF PUPILS
Transportation must be provided for children wherever the
establishment of schools of the minimum size requires a school
to serve an area of such size that the homes of some children
are not within walking distance of the school building. It is
obvious that children who live too far from school to walk con-
veniently are not on a basis of equality of educational opportun-
ity when compared to those children who live close enough to
walk. In order to overcome this inequality it is now widely
accepted that transportation should be furnished at public ex-
pense to those pupils who need it.
It is sometimes held that the parents should furnish trans-
portation. Many parents, however, are not financially able to
pay for the transportation of their children, and the principle
of equality of opportunity requires that a child's opportunity
to attend school should not be dependent upon the financial
status of his parents. Transportation of pupils at public ex-
pense is a legitimate part of the cost to the state and its sub-
divisions of providing educational opportunities commensurate
with the needs of the school population and of society. In
addition, since the state compels attendance at school it neces-
sarily follows that the conditions of attendance must be made
reasonable.
There is considerable scientific evidence that distance affects
school attendance and that the transportation of pupils at
public expense does overcome the disadvantages of distance
from school and increases school attendance. For example,
Reavis has shown that in areas where transportation is not
provided attendance drops off rapidly when children live more
than one and a half miles from school, and Cooper has shown
that in Delaware attendance drops off extensively after a mile
and considerably after the first half-mile. (12: 58.) On the
other hand, Gaumnitz and Cook (12: 52-67) have presented
data for five states, viz., Colorado, California, Wisconsin, Ken-
tucky, and Iowa, which show that the attendance of children liv-
ing stated distances from school and transported at public








The Local School Unit


expense is better than the attendance of children living equal
distances from school and not transported.

TABLE VIII
COMPARISON OF ATTENDANCE OF NON-TRANSPORTED AND OF TRANSPORTED
CHILDREN LIVING STATED DISTANCES FROM SCHOOL*
PERCENTAGE ATTENDING
DISTANCE MEDIAN DAYS
ATTENDED 70 days or fewer 151 days or more
NON-TRANSPORTED PUPILS
Less than 1 mile 157 12 61
1 to 2 miles 145 17 46
2 to 3 miles 143 19 45
3 to 4 miles 155 13 57
4 miles or more 164 6 72
TRANSPORTED PUPILS
Less than 2 miles 163 7 69
2 to 4 miles 160 10 65
4 to 6 miles 158 9 63
6 to 8 miles 155 11 57
8 to 10 miles 158 6 69
10 miles or more 157 16 69
*Derived from Tables III and IV of "Availability of Rural Schools" by Cook and Gaum-
nitz, 12:62-7.

An examination of the data which are presented in Table
VIII shows that the average days attended by the transported
group are greater than the average days attended by the non-
transported group; that in all cases except the greatest dis-
tances the percentage of pupils attending less than seventy days
is greater for the non-transported group than for the trans-
ported group; and that percentages of pupils attending more
than 150 days is greater in all cases except the greatest dis-
tances for the transported group than for the non-transported
group. The superior attendance of the pupils living the great-
est distances is probably accounted for by the fact that the
majority of the pupils coming from the greatest distances are
in the upper age groups. Cook summarizes these data as
follows: "Comparison of data in Table III with those
in Table IV shows that when children are transported at public
expense their attendance is better than when they walk or must
be transported at their own expense." (12: 70.)
Since children are to be transported to school, the question
naturally arises as to what distance they can be transported







The Characteristics of a Satisfactory School 33

Conveniently. Some idea of this distance can be obtained
from the available data as to the distances children actually are
transported. In North Carolina, the state that transports more
children than any other, there are 4,240 buses that travel an
average of approximately fourteen miles one way per day.
(50: Vol. VIII, No. 9.) Evans has shown that in California
4.2 per cent of the children transported to school are transported
more than ten miles; 35 per cent of the high school pupils
transported by contract buses are transported more than ten
miles, and 23.9 per cent of the high school pupils transported
by district-owned buses are transported more than ten miles.
(27: 9.) Abel, in a study of 260 consolidated schools, found
that 9 per cent of the pupils are transported more than eleven
miles, the maximum being nineteen miles, and the maximum
number of minutes on the road being 100 minutes. (2: 38.)
It seems probable that the best means of determining the
maximum distance children can be conveniently transported to
school is to be found in a consideration of the maximum time
children should be expected to spend on the road. Although no
study has been made to determine what the maximum time
should be, whenever standards have been set up, the most com-
monly agreed maximum time is one hour from home to school.
(42: 9.) This time limit, taking into consideration the speed
of the bus traveling at a safe rate and stopping to load and
unload pupils, would usually place the maximum distance at
approximately twenty miles. It should be observed here that
this time limit on the 'transportation of pupils will have, in
some cases, a limiting,effect on the size of the school and the
attendance unit. If, when attendance units are planned, it is
found that the size of the unit will require the pupils to be on
the road too long a time, it may be necessary to plan for units
of less than standard size.
If schools of the minimum standard size are to be estab-
lished and transportation provided, what is the maximum expec-
tation as to the percentage of pupils to be transported? The
exact answer to this question for any specific situation, of course,
would have to be determined by an analysis of the facts for the
particular situation. However, the data for states and areas
where transportation is required indicate the most probable per-







The Local School Unit


centage of pupils that will have to be transported. In North
Carolina, where all children living more than one and one-half
miles from school are transported at public expense, approxi-
mately 50 per cent of the rural white school children are trans-
ported at public expense. (50: Vol. VIII, No. 9.) From a
state-wide study of Arkansas, where plans were made for the
consolidation of schools in every area of the state, and for the
transportation of all pupils living more than two miles from
school, the data showed that approximately 46 per cent of all
pupils outside the seven largest cities would have to be trans-
ported to school. (23: 40-5.) In Pulaski County, Arkansas,
50.4 per cent of all pupils are transported. In this county the
rural schools for white children are almost completely con-
solidated into schools of standard size, the areas accommodated
by the consolidated schools have no towns or cities, and all
pupils living more than one and one-half miles from school
are transported at public expense. (21: 16 and 104.) Abel,
in a study of 212 consolidations in 1924, showed that 43 per
cent of all pupils were transported and that in open country
consolidated schools 66 per cent of the pupils were transported.
(2: 39.) In short, the available data indicate that the con-
solidation of rural schools in any typical area throughout the
country will require transportation for at least 50 per cent of
the pupils. (1: 8.)

THE SCHOOL BUILDING, EQUIPMENT AND APPARATUS
Another requirement of a satisfactory school is that it be
housed in an adequate plant. It is now generally agreed that
every child has a right to attend school in a building that repre-
sents the best in architectural design; that is located in a
healthful and pleasing environment; that is scientifically built
and equipped; that is planned and designed from the func-
tional point of view so as best to promote the physical, moral,
and social welfare of the pupils and teachers, and to facilitate
carrying out the program of the school; and that is kept sani-
tary.
The standards for the school plant, including heating, ven-
tilation, lighting, orientation, color schemes, convenience of
arrangement, economy of space, sanitary facilities, safety, and







The Characteristics of a Satisfactory School


construction, are very definite and are based upon scientific re-
search. The standards can be obtained from the American
Council on Schoolhouse Construction, Milwaukee, and from such
publications as Rural Schoolhouses, Sc/ool Grounds and Equip-
ment, by Dresslar and Pruett. (25.)
Standards that are most essential and that surveys of school
buildings have revealed to be most frequently neglected relate
to location, orientation, lighting, heating and ventilation, toilet
rooms, safety, room appointments, functional planning, expan-
sion and additions, grounds, and equipment and apparatus.

OPERATION OF THE SCHOOL PLANT
Not only is it necessary to have an adequate school plant and
equipment but it is equally essential that the plant and equip-
ment be properly cared for and operated.
The amount of janitorial service required for the proper
operation of the school plant can be determined from published
studies on the subject. Reeves and Gander report that in Cuya-
hoga County, Ohio, it was found that the average janitor takes
care of about nine classrooms, and that in the Rocky Mountain
region the janitor takes care of an average of eight rooms. The
floor area cared for by a single janitor ranged from 4,000 square
feet to 19,920 square feet, with a median of 10,000 square feet.
They further report that in seventy unselected schools distribut-
ed over the United States the average number of square feet per
janitor-engineer was 17,300, that in 170 unselected schools, the
average number of pupils per janitor-engineer was 313; and
that for 136 unselected schools the average number of rooms per
janitor-engineer was ten. (55: 28.) These statistics give some
idea as to the amount of floor space one janitor may be expected
to care for. Many factors, however, enter into a determination
of the service load in various situations. Such factors as the
efficiency of the administration of the building, the size, age,
state of repair, and location of the building, type of structure,
climatic conditions, age, social background, and number of
pupils, type of rooms and furniture, type and amount of win-
dow space, system of heating, kind of service equipment, and
amount and arrangement of outside space, all influence the
service load of the janitor-engineer. (55: 23-30.) As a gen-








The Local School Unit


eral rule, it may be concluded that one janitor-engineer will
be required for approximately each 10,000 square feet of floor
space, which is approximately the size of a minimum standard
school.
TEXTBOOKS, INSTRUCTIONAL SUPPLIES, AND LIBRARY SERVICE
In a satisfactory school the pupils will be provided with text-
books, adequate instructional supplies and apparatus, and with
library facilities. Judging from the literature on the subject,
it is difficult to describe these materials and facilities in definite
terms. It is generally agreed, however, that it is poor
economy to have trained teachers and then to neglect to
provide them with the materials and supplies that have been
proved useful to effective instruction. (28: 433.) It is also
agreed that since compulsory attendance laws compel children
to attend school, the state should not leave it to chance as to
whether these children will have necessary books and materials
for instruction. For this reason textbooks and instructional
materials should be furnished at public expense. (28: 434.)
Since the broadened curricula of the schools make increasing
demands upon printed and visual materials, the school library
has become an indispensable part of a satisfactory school or-
ganization. Not only should every school building be planned
in such a way as to provide adequate library space, but every
school system should either maintain a central school library
or should have direct affiliation with and a voice in the man-
agement of a public library.
There are no well-defined standards as to adequate library
facilities for elementary and high schools. Frost states that a
class of graduate students estimated that a single group of
forty children, progressing from the first grade through high
school, could use profitably some 8,000 to 10,000 different
books. (31: 312.) Johnson, in The Secondary School Library,
concludes: "In general, it may be said that the standards are
in agreement that no library, no matter how small the school,
should have fewer than 500 books and that schools with as
many as 200 pupils should have a minimum of 1,000 books."
(40: 15.)








The Characteristics of a Satisfactory School


As to provisions for the personnel to administer the library,
the official report of the committee on library organization and
equipment, National Education Association, 1920, has made
the recommendations indicated in Table IX. From this table it
is to be concluded that a minimum standard school as previously
described in this chapter should have the services of at least
one trained librarian.
TABLE IX
TRAINED LIBRARIAN SERVICE ESSENTIAL IN SCHOOLS*

ENROLLMENT NUMBER OF LIBRARIANS

Less than 250 Half-time
250 to 500 One
500 to 1000 One; or one'and one on half-time
1000 to 2000 Two
Over 2000 Two; or two and one on half-time
*28: 411.

It may be concluded that the minimum library facilities
available in any school should be the use of a central library
available to all schools of the administrative unit and an indi-
vidual library of its own under the care of a clerk who is
supervised by the trained librarian of the central library.

TEACHERS
Undoubtedly, the most fundamental characteristic of a satis-
factory school is that it provide instruction and guidance by
teachers and principals who are specifically trained to fulfill the
responsibilities of the positions they hold. (58: 500, 516-18.)
The minimum amount of such training generally required is
indicated by the standards set up by state departments of edu-
cation and by city school systems. Such standards require the
following:
1. All classroom teachers in elementary schools should have
at least two years of professional training beyond graduation
from a complete high school course.








The Local School Unit


2. All elementary school principals should have at least
three years of teaching experience in addition to the minimum
training for teachers.
3. All high school teachers should have at least four years of
college training, including specific training in the respective
fields in which they are to teach, the fields usually being limited
to a maximum of two for any teacher.
4. High school principals should have at least one year of
professional training on the graduate level and three years of
experience as a high school teacher. (4: 347-9; 57: 76-82.)

LENGTH OF SCHOOL TERM
A satisfactory school should offer instruction during a suffi-
cient number of weeks each year to accomplish the purposes of
the school. In cities of 2,500 and more, the minimum stand-
ard is thirty-six weeks per year, the average being 184 days
in 1930. In rural schools, taking the nation as a whole, the
length of school term has tended to exceed eight months or
thirty-two weeks per year. The average lengths of terms in
different kinds of rural schools in 1930 were: one-teacher
schools, 156 days; schools of three or more teachers in the
open country, 163 days; consolidated schools, 168 days;
schools of three or more teachers in villages and towns, 174
days. (32: 65.) In the light of practice in our best school
systems it can be set up as a minimum standard that schools
should be in session at least thirty-six weeks or nine months
per year.

SUMMARY

The first and chief function of a local school unit is to main-
tain such free school facilities as will best carry out the major
purposes of public education. These major purposes are the
improvement of the economic, political, social, and individual
welfare of the nation and its people. The characteristics of
public schools that will contribute to the most effective realiza-
tion of these major purposes have been determined by analysis
of existing conditions, research findings, and expert opinion.







The Characteristics of a Satisfactory School


Elementary schools should:
1. Offer six years of instruction;
2. Have a desirable minimum of seven teachers or an ab-
solute minimum of six teachers;
3. Have an average of approximately forty enrolled pupils
per teacher;
4. Have, therefore, approximately a minimum of 240 to 280
pupils per school.
High schools should:
1. Offer six years of instruction, or three years of junior
high school instruction and three years of senior high
school instruction under separate organizations;
2. Have a desirable minimum of ten teachers or an absolute
minimum of seven teachers;
3. Have an average of approximately thirty pupils per
teacher in a six-year high school, thirty-five pupils per
teacher in a junior high school, or twenty-five pupils per
teacher in a senior high school;
4. Have, therefore, approximately a minimum of 210 to 300
pupils in a six-year high school, 245 to 350 pupils in a
junior high school, and 175 to 350 pupils in a senior
high school.
All schools should be housed in plants that are consistent
with acceptable standards, that are properly and efficiently op-
erated, and are equipped with textbooks, instructional materials,
and library facilities. Schools should be in session for at least
thirty-six weeks per year.
In all cases where schools of the desirable size have been
located at too great a distance for the pupils to walk to school
conveniently from their homes, transportation facilities at pub-
lic expense should be provided for all children who live more
than one and one-half miles from the school.
These standards as to satisfactory schools have direct bearing
on the determination of local attendance or school units. The
minimum standard size of satisfactory attendance units are:
1. For elementary schools, an area in which reside at least
240 pupils enrolled in elementary school grades;








The Local School Unit


2. For a six-year high school, an area in which reside at
least 210 pupils enrolled in high school grades;
3. For a junior high school, an area in which reside at least
245 pupils enrolled in the junior high school grades;
4. For a senior high school, an area in which reside at least
175 pupils enrolled in the senior high school grades.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Abel, J. F. "Recent Data on Consolidation of Schools, and Transporta-
tion of Pupils," United States Office of Education Bulletin No. 22,
Washington, D. C., 1925.
2. Abel, J. F. "Study of 260 Consolidations," United States Office of Edu-
cation Bulletin No. 32, Washington, D. C., 1924.
3. Bachman, Frank P. Training and Certification of High School Teachers.
Field Study No. 2, Division of Surveys and Field Studies, George Pea-
body College for Teachers, Nashville, Tennessee, 1930.
4. Buckingham, R. B., et al. "Teacher Demand and Supply," Research Bul-
letig of the National Education Associacion No. 5, Washington, D. C.,
9: 307-407, 1931.
5. Caswell, Hollis L. Program Making in Small Elementary Schools. Field
Study No. 1, Division of Surveys and Field Studies, George Peabody
College for Teachers, Nashville, Tennessee, Revised, 1933.
6. Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education. "Cardinal
Principles of Secondary Education," United States Office of Education
Bulletin No. 35, Washington, D. C., 1918.
7. Carney, Mable. "The Preparation of Teachers for Rural Schools,"
Thirtieth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Educa-
tion, Public School Publishing Company, Bloomington, Illinois, 1931.
8. Carpenter, W. W. "The Rights and Privileges of School Children,"
Peabody Journal of Education, 6: 81-95, September, 1928.
.9. Carr, Wm. G. "New Angle of Attack Needed in Class Size Research,"
Nations Schools, 10: 27-30, November, 1932.
10. Carr, Wm. G. "The Outlook for Rural Education," Research Bulletin
of the National Education Association No. 4, Washington, D. C., 9:
231-302, September, 1931.
11. Chapman, J. Crosby, and Counts, Geo. S. Principles of Education.
Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1924.
12. Cook, Katherine M., and Gaumnitz, W. H. "Availability of Rural
Schools," Thirteenth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study
of Education, Public School Publishing Company, Bloomington, Il-
linois, Part I, 1931.
13. Combs, M. L. "Efficiency in Relation to Size of High Schools," Bduletin
State Board of Education, Vol. X, No. 3, Richmond, Virginia, 15928.









The Characteristics of a Satisfactory School


14. Counts, Geo. S. The Selective Character of American Secondary Edu-
cation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1922.
,15. Covert, Timon. "Educational Achievements of One-Teacher and of
Larger Rural Schools," United States Office of Education Bulletin No.
15, Washington, D. C., 1928.
16. Coxe, W. W. "Educational Needs of Pupils in Small High Schools
in New York State," Sixth Yearbook of the Department of Superin-
tendence, National Education Association, 1928.
17. Cubberley, Ellwood P. An Introduction to the Study of Education and
to Teaching. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1925.
18. Cubberley, Ellwood P. The Principal and His School. Houghton Mifflin
Company, Boston, 1923.
19. Cubberley, Ellwood P., and Sears, J. B. The Cost of Education in
7 / California, The Educational Finance Inquiry Commission, Vol. VII.
The Macmillan Company, New York, 1924.
20. Davis, Calvin O. Our Evolving High School Curriculum. World Book
Company, Yonkers, New York, 1927.
21. Dawson, Howard A. Educational Survey of Pulaski County, Arkansas/
Rural Schools. Pulaski County Special School District, Little Rock,
Arkansas, 1930.
22. Dawson, Howard A., Cavins, L. V., et al. An Administrative Survey
of the Public Schools of Mercer County, West Virginia. State Depart-
ment of Education, Charleston, West Virginia.
23. Dawson, Howard A., and Little, Harry A. Financial and Administra-
tive Needs of the Public Schools of Arkansas. Arkansas State De-
partment of Education, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1930.
24. Department of Superintendence, Sixth Yearbook, The Development of
the High School Curriculum. National Education Association, Wash-
ington, D. C., 1928.
25. Dresslar, Fletcher C., and Pruett, Haskell. "Rural Schoolhouses, School
Grounds, and Equipment," United States Office of Education Bulletin
No. 21, Washington, D. C., 1930.
26. Dunn, Fannie W. "The Rural Elementary Curriculum," Thirtieth Year-
book of the National Society for the Study of Education. Public
School Publishing Company, Bloomington, Illinois, 1931.
27. Evans, Frank O. "Factors Affecting the Cost of School Transportation
in California," United States Office of Education Bulletin No. 29,
Washington, D. C., 1930.
28. Engelhardt, Fred. Public School Organization and Administration. Ginn
and Company, New York, 1931.
29. Ferriss, Emery N. "The Rural High School, Its Organization and
Curriculum," United States Office of Education Bulletin No. 10,
Washington, D. C., 1925.
30. Ford, Willand S. "Necessity of Larger Units Revealed by Costs of
Small High Schools," The Tax Digest, Los Angeles, California, 6:
232-234, July, 1928.









The Local School Unit


31. Frost, Norman. "Local Units and Administrative Functions," The Pea-
body Reflector and Alumni News, 5: 311-312, August, 1932.
32. Gaumnitz, Walter H. "Status of Teachers and Principals Employed
in the Rural Schools of the United States," United States Ofice of
Education Bulletin No. 3, Washington, D. C., 1932.
33. Glass, James M. Manual for Junior High Schools. Pennsylvania De-
partment of Public Instruction, Bulletin 14. Revised, 1927.
34. Hadley, H. H. "Size of Administrative Unit and School Efficiency in
Colorado." Unpublished Master's Thesis, Library of Colorado State
Teachers College, 1927.
35. Hart, F. W., and Peterson, L. H. "The School District System in
California," The Tax Digest, Los Angeles, California, August, 1928.
36. Hirst, C. M. "A Place to Work and a Place to Play," Four Years with
the Public Schools of Arkansas, Arkansas State Department of Edu-
cation, Bulletin No. 8, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1927.
37. Hood, J. T. "Instruction Costs in Typical High Schools," Nations
Schools, 4: 63-68, September, 1929; 4: 38-42, November, 1929.
38. Hunt, Charles W. The Cost and Support of Secondary Education in the
State of New York. The Educational Finance Inquiry Commission,
Vol. III. The Macmillan Company, New York, 1925.
39. Inglis, Alexander. Principles of Secondary Education. Houghton Mifflin
Company, Boston, 1918.
40. Johnson, B. L. "The Secondary-School Library," National Survey of
Secondary Education, United States Office of Education Bulletin No.
17, Monograph No. 17, Washington, D. C., 1932.
41. Kyte, George C. "Pupil Status in the Rural Elementary School," Thir-
tieth Yearbook National Society for the Study of Education. Public
School Publishing Company, Bloomington, Illinois, 1931.
42. Little, Harry A. Public Transportation of School Pupils in Arkansas.I/
Arkansas State Department of Education, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1930.
43. Manninga, S. P. "Costs and Offerings of California High Schools in
Relation to Size," Journal of Educational Research, 20: 356-64, De-
cember, 1929.
44. Maryland State Department of Education. Sixty-third Annual Report
of the State Board of Education, Baltimore, Maryland, 1929.
45. Maryland State Department of Education. Sixty-fifth An4nal Report
of the State Board of Education, Baltimore, Maryland, 1931.
46. Mueller, A. D. Progressive Trends in Rural Education. The Century
Company, New York, 1926.
47. National Education Association. "The Advance of the American School
System," Research Bulletin No. 4, Vol. V, September, 1927.
48. National Education Association. "Creating a Curriculum for Adoles-
cent Youth," Research Bulletin No. 1, Vol. VI, January, 1926.
49. National Industrial Conference Board, Education and Adjustment of
Youth to Life, New York, 1929.

















The Characteristics of a Satisfactory School


50. North Carolina State School Facts, Vol. VII, No. 6, March, 1931; and
Vol. VIII, No. 9, June, 1932. State Department of Education,
Raleigh, North Carolina.
51. North Central Association Quarterly, Vol. VII, No. 1, Ann Arbor,
Michigan, June, 1932.
52. Pittinger, B. F. "Size of High School as Related to Efficiency in Cl-
lege," Sixteenth Yearbook National Society for the Study of Educa-
tion, Public School Publishing Company, Bloomington, Illinois, 1917.
, 53. Rankin, Paul T., Reavis, W. C., and Coxe, W. W. "School Organiza-
tion," Review of Educational Research, 1: 161-244, June, 1931.
54. Reeves, Floyd W. The Political Unit of Public School Finance in Illi-
nois. The Educational Finance Inquiry Commission, Vol. X. The
Macmillan Company, New York, 1925.
55. Reeves, C. E., and Gander, H. S. School Building Management. Bureau
of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York,
1928.
56. Roemer, Joseph. "Weakness of the Small High School," School Execu-
tives MAagazine, 48: 307-309, March, 1929.
A 57. Russell, L. C. B., Peterson, E. T., and Anderson, Earl W. "Teacher
Personnel," Review of Educational Research, 1: 161-244, 1931.
58. Smith, Walter R. Principles of Educational Sociology.- Houghton Mifflin
Company, Boston, 1928.
59. "Statistics of City School Systems," Biennial Survey of Education,
United States Office of Education Bulletin No. 20, Washington, D. C.,
1931.
60. "Statistics of State School Systems," Biennial Survey of Education,
United States Office of Education Bulletin No. 20, Washington, D. C.,
1931.
- 61. Study of Elementary and High School Costs. Minnesota State Depart-.-
ment of Education, St. Paul, Minnesota, June, 1930.
62. Thorndike, E. L., and Gates, A. I. Elementary Principles of Educa-
tion. The Macmillan Company, New York, 1929.
63. Viles, N. E. Schoolhouse Planning and Construction. Missouri State
Department of Education Bulletin No. 2, Jefferson City, Missouri, 1933.












CHAPTER III


SATISFACTORY ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPER-
VISORY ORGANIZATIONS

In addition to providing adequate attendance areas with
satisfactory schools, a local unit of school administration must
perform certain administrative and supervisory functions.
These administrative and supervisory functions can be de-
termined by a consideration of practices in good school systems
and by a study of expert opinion. It is generally recognized
that city school systems (especially those in cities having a
population of 10,000 or more) and some county school sys-
tems offer the most generally acceptable school advantages and
have the best developed supervisory and administrative organ-
izations. The administrative and supervisory functions per-
formed in such school systems are classified as: (11: 20)
1. Educational and business administration.
2. Supervision of instruction.
3. Health supervision.
4. Census and attendance supervision.

In order to perform these functions satisfactorily, adequate
personnel must be provided. The number of persons required,
and the services to be rendered are set forth in this chapter.

ORGANIZATION FOR EDUCATIONAL AND BUSINESS
ADMINISTRATION
THE SCHOOL BOARD: As pointed out previously, local school
units are administered by a school board that derives authority
from the state through laws enacted by the legislature. The
school board is, therefore, the agency created by the state to
44








Administrative and Supervisory Organizations


supervise the effort to attain the educational purposes and ob-
jectives of the state in the respective local school units of the
state. These boards are usually granted broad powers in the
management of educational and business affairs of local school
units. In all cases, however, they are subject to such controls
and limitations as are imposed by state law. (1: 8-10; 5:
Chapter II.)
In general, a school board consists of five, seven, or nine
members, elected by the people and serving overlapping terms.
The length of term usually depends upon the number of mem-
bers on the board. For example, on a board of five members
one member would be elected each year for a five-year term.
Various other arrangements may be used for boards of seven
or nine members. Whatever the plan, it should provide that less
than a majority of the board be elected each year or at each
election. (5: 57-68.)
It is generally agreed that the work of a board of educa-
tion should be legislative, and that the administrative work
should be delegated to an executive officer known as the super-
intendent. In his study, The City Superintendent and the Board
of Education, Theisen presents the following conclusions con-
cerning the work of the board of education: (16: 125-26)
1. That a board of education should endeavor to dis-
cover its own proper duties and those that should be dele-
gated to professional executive officers.
2. That its own function is first of all:
(a) To choose a professionally trained chief
executive, centralize authority and responsibility for
results in him and expect him to initiate all policies;
(b) To debate such proposed policies with him in
the light of definite objective evidence and to provide
the legislation necessary to secure efficient results.
3. That a board of education need wait for no precedent
to adopt a form of administrative organization in which the
professional superintendent is made the administrative
leader and chief executive of the system, and in which the
board itself serves in an advisory and legislative capacity
and acts only through its chief executive.







The Local School Unit


Olsen concludes that the work of boards of education is
three-fold : (1) to select a superintendent of schools; (2) to
determine the policies of the school system; and (3) to see that
these policies are carried out by the superintendent of schools
and his assistants. (14.)
With respect to their fiscal powers, school boards are classi-
fied as independent and dependent boards. The independent
board draws all its authority from state laws and is entirely in-
dependent of all local units of government. Such a board can
levy taxes, subject to the limitations of state laws, and can
spend its income in accordance with its own policies. The de-
pendent board draws its authority under state law from some
local unit of government such as the county, city, or township.
Thus, such a board is dependent for financial support of schools
upon officials of local units of government other than the school
district. There is some disagreement as to which of these
types is the better. Authorities on school administration are
almost unanimously in favor of the independent board, while
authorities on municipal government are largely in favor of
dependent boards. Available evidence as to which type of board
provides the better schools is almost wholly in favor of the in-
dependent board. (1: 35-42; 8-10.)
There are four general types of organization of boards of
education: (11: 19)
1. The Unit type, in which the superintendent of schools is
the sole executive officer of the board, and the board always acts
as a whole and not by committees.
2. The Multiple type, in which there are two or more execu-
tive officers directly responsible to the board of education.
3. The Board of Education-Municipal Department type, in
which the control of some part or parts of the educational pro-
gram is vested in a board or official not responsible to the board
of education.
4. The Board of Education Committee type, in which some
phases of the executive work are done by the board of education
through standing committees.
The Unit type is accepted by authorities in the field of
school administration as the most satisfactory because it em-








Administrative and Supervisory Organizations


bodies the advantages of sound business organization and makes
it more certain that the school system will be administered for
educational purposes. (1: 45-57; 11: 19.)
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS: As indicated above, the
superintendent of schools should be the chief executive officer of
the board of education and the general manager of the school
system. Most of his powers are delegated to him by the board of
education, but some of them may be delegated by state law. A
definition of these powers, as agreed upon by authorities in
the field of school administrations, is presented in the conclu-
sions of the study by Douglass on The Status of the Superin-
tendent: (3 cited in 11: 12)
(a) All the educational activities of the city should be
centered in the office of the superintendent of schools. (b)
The administrative work of the superintendent should be
based upon principles of business administration. Certain
authorities should be delegated to competent subordinates.
(c) The superintendent should have power to initiate and
execute the appointments of assistant superintendents, busi-
ness managers, principals, teachers, and all other employees
whose work is vital in the development of an educational
program. (d) The budget should be prepared under the
direction of the superintendent. (e) The superintendent
should have power to initiate new policies and to make rules
and regulations governing routine matters. (f) Supervi-
sion of instruction should be carried on through supervisors
and principals under the leadership of the superintendent.
.. (i) Authorities having to do with buildings and
grounds should center in the office of the superintendent
of schools, or in the office of an official who is responsible
to the superintendent.

SUPERVISION OF INSTRUCTION
It is a function of the local unit of school administration to
provide for the supervision of instruction. It has been shown
by careful experimentation and study that supervision improves
the services of teachers and helps in the achievement of de-
sirable educational outcomes. In addition, it is financially eco-
nomical and reduces *pupil failures. (15.) For these reasons







The Local Sc/ool Unit


the provision for supervision by local school units is recom-
mended by educational authorities and is found in a large ma-
jority of the best city and county school systems.
The number of persons required to provide adequate super-
vision of instruction depends upon the instructional program
offered in a given school system. Instructional programs of
city school systems and supervisory staffs required for such
programs provide one basis for determining the personnel re-
quired for supervision. McGinnis has analyzed the supervisory
work found in 185 cities of 20,000 to 50,000 population and con-
cludes that the minimum number of supervisors consistent with
desirable practice is ten. These ten supervisors are distributed
among the following positions: One general supervisor, a di-
rector of research, a supervisor of atypical classes, one super-
visor each for art, music, health, manual arts, household arts,
and two for physical education. (11: 65-66.)
An important auxiliary service to the instructional program
which is not provided by the foregoing list of supervisors is
that of library service and supervision. The school library has
become a necessary unit of a modern school system. Around it
rotates much of the work carried on in the schools. Each school
system should maintain its own central library under the super-
vision of a trained librarian who should also be the director of
libraries in the individual schools. Under this plan libraries
in individual schools can draw upon the central library for books.
In this way the widest possible use can be made of all library
facilities. Thus, it becomes desirable to include a librarian in
the central organization for supervision. (5: 403-10; 9:
Chapter II; 7: Chapters I and II.)
The number of supervisors provided in a school system will
of course be conditioned by the number of teachers in the sys-
tem. The smaller the number of teachers the smaller the num-
ber of supervisors that can be employed economically. In order
to reduce the number of supervisors in smaller systems the prac-
tice is to assign to one person two or more specialized super-
visory functions. Either this practice must be adopted or cer-
tain specialized supervisory services must be omitted.
A study of the actual number of teachers per supervisor
found in cities and in county school systems suggests a numeri-








Administrative and Supervisory Organizations


cal relationship between teachers and supervisors that may be
considered efficient and economical. McGinnis in his study
shows that in 185 cities there was an average of thirty-six
teachers per supervisor; in 163 cities, forty-six teachers; and
in twenty-two Massachusetts cities, twenty-seven teachers. (11:
Chapter X.) In Maryland, a state which is organized with
the county as the local unit of administration, the state stand-
ards require an average of one supervisor or helping teacher to
each forty-six elementary teachers. In 1930-31, in Maryland
counties an average of one supervisor to each sixty elementary
teaching positions was employed. (12: 89.) According to
data presented by the Research Division of the National
Education Association, an acceptable standard is one
supervisor to each fifty elementary teachers. (13: 295-300.)
The number of supervisors in high schools would cer-
tainly not be less in proportion to the number of teachers
than the number of supervisors in elementary schools. Due to,
the increased number of specialized fields for which provision
must be made, the number might be greater. From these data
it may be concluded that there should be at least one supervisor
for each forty to fifty teachers.
HEALTH SUPERVISION
Adequate provision for maintaining and improving the
health of pupils is placed first in most lists of objectives of
public education. The need for specialized services to attain
the objectives of good health for all pupils has been demon-
strated in many health surveys. Practically all the surveys
which have been made of the health of school children have
revealed that about 60 per cent of the children have defects in
eyes, ears, nose, throat, lungs, heart, teeth, or suffer from
faulty nutrition. Cubberley suggests the importance of health
work and instruction in the modern public school system as fol-
lows:
Such a department should be one of the principal de-
partments of a city school system . The work represents
a new technical field, requires expert direction, and the ex-
pertness of the department should be respected in its ad-
ministration. Only to the superintendent of schools, as the








The Local School Unit


coordinating head of the whole school organization, should
the department be subject and responsible. Under the di-
rector of this department should be the physicians, special-
ists, and nurses employed, and he should direct their work.
(2: Chapter XX.)

The work of health education usually is done through the
following divisions of service: (11: 23)
1. Administration of the educational health department.
2. Pupils' health examination.
3. Health instruction:
a. The learning process.
b. Physical education and games.
4. Supervision of health instruction.
5. Follow-up work.

The number of persons required to do the health work in a
school system may be estimated from standards developed by
authorities on the problem. The Division of Field Studies, In-
stitute of Educational Research, Teachers College, Columbia
University, has set up the standard of one health nurse for
from 1,200 to 1,500 pupils. McGinnis found that in 163 cities
there was an average of one nurse to 2,643 pupils, and that in
twenty-two Massachusetts cities there was an average of one
nurse to 2,331 pupils. He concludes that the number of pupils
per nurse in these cities is too high. (11: 66.) Judging from
available data on the number of health nurses and supervisors
that should be employed, it appears reasonable to conclude that
the minimum standard should be at least one nurse to each 2,000
children and at least one supervisor of health education for the
school system. (17: 179.)
CENSUS AND ATTENDANCE SUPERVISION
It is a function of the state to see that all children obtain the
educational advantages which are provided. Practically every
state, therefore, has a compulsory school attendance law, requir-
ing all children within certain age limits to attend school, for
stipulated lengths of time. The general tendency is to require
the attendance of all persons between the ages of six and








Administrative and Supervisory Organizations


eighteen years who have not completed a twelve-year course of
instruction, except those who are physically or mentally
incapacitated and those who have been granted permission
by a constituted legal authority to engage in some regular
employment or business. In order to carry out the pro-
visions of the compulsory laws and regulations it is an
accepted function of the local unit of school administration
to provide supervisors or officers of attendance. The work
ordinarily required of attendance supervisors involves keep-
ing a permanent and continuous census; enforcement of the
compulsory attendance law; investigation of non-attendance;
prescription of remedial measures in cases of non-attendance;
issuance of permits for minors to be employed in business or
industry; and such inspection of the conditions of minors' work
as will prevent injury to their health and morals. (11: 21.)
Several studies have been made which undertake to establish
standards as to the ratio between the number of attendance
supervisors or officers and the number of pupils to be served.
Emmons (4) recommends the Philadelphia plan of one attend-
ance supervisor for 2,500 to 4,000 census children of school age,
and the Engelhardt-Evenden standard of one attendance of-
ficer and one clerk to 6,000 children. (6.) McGinnis has shown
that in 185 cities of 20,000 to 50,000 population there is an
average of one attendance officer to 4,266 enrolled pupils.
(11: 50-67.) These standards and data seem to justify the
conclusion that one attendance supervisor or officer and one
clerk for not more than each 6,000 children constitute the
minimum acceptable standard for the number of attendance
employees in the central organization of a local administrative
school unit.

ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY ORGANIZATION
From the foregoing analysis of the educational and busi-
ness administration of a school system, the supervision of in-
struction, of health education, and of census and attendance, it
can be concluded that the minimum number of persons neces-
sary to perform most effectively the functions named would be as
follows:








The Local School Unit


1 superintendent
1 clerk for superintendent
1 business manager
1 bookkeeper and clerk for business manager
1 supervisor of buildings and grounds
2 attendance officers
2 clerks for attendance officers
6 nurses
2 clerks for nurses
1 librarian
1 general supervisor
1 director of research
1 supervisor of atypical classes
1 supervisor of music
1 supervisor of art and writing
1 supervisor of health
1 supervisor of manual arts and vocational subjects
1 supervisor of household arts
2 supervisors of physical education
3 clerks for supervisors
Total employees for central organization-31

This distribution of personnel was determined in the fol-
lowing manner. Since the provision of ten supervisors repre-
sents the minimum for desirable practice, and since there is ap-
proximately one supervisor to each thirty-five teachers, the mini-
mum desirable supervisory organization would provide for a
maximum of 7,000 elementary pupils and 5,250 high school
pupils or a total of approximately 12,000 pupils. This is assum-
ing that the schools are organized on the basis of the 6-6 or
6-3-3 plan. On the basis of acceptable standards for the num-
ber of pupils per attendance officer and per nurse, such an or-
ganization would call for two attendance officers and six nurses.
The number of clerks provided for the nurses and the attendance
officers is somewhat arbitrary, since no definite standards are
available. An administrative unit involving as many as 12,000
pupils should probably have a business manager who would
supervise the maintenance and operation of buildings, the pur-
chase, storage, and distribution of supplies, and the bookkeep-








Administrative and Supervisory Organizations


ing, cost accounting, and payrolls. There should also be one
supervisor of buildings and grounds or at least one head jan-
itor and repairman.
The type of organization under which these officials would
work is shown in Chart I.

MODIFICATIONS OF A STANDARD ORGANIZATION FOR ADMINIS-
TRATION AND SUPERVISORY SERVICE
The standard organization for administration and super-
vision set up in the preceding pages is designed to meet the
needs of approximately 10,000 or 12,000 pupils. A school
system of such size would be supported by a total population of
40,000 or 50,000. It is not likely that administrative
units of this size can be organized throughout the country.
Therefore, it is necessary to consider feasible modifications in
the size of the central organization. Two modifications appear
to be compatible with a reasonable standard of service. These
are not the only possible modifications, but they represent ap-
proximately the median and maximum modifications found in
acceptable practice and serve to point out the underlying con-
ditions which determine the size of a satisfactory local school
unit.
MEDIAN MODIFICATION: The median downward revision of
the standard organization includes the following positions and
personnel:
1 superintendent
1 clerk for superintendent
1 bookkeeper and business assistant to superintendent
1 attendance officer
1 clerk for attendance officer
1 clerk for nurses
1 head janitor and repairman
1 librarian
2 elementary school supervisors
1 secondary school supervisor
1 vocational education supervisor
2 clerks for supervisors
3 health nurses
Total of 17 persons in central organization













CHART I
THE ORGANIZATION OF A COMPLETE ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY STAFF OF THIRTY-ONE PERSONS FOR A LOCAL
ADMINISTRATIVE SCHOOL UNIT
1 PEOPLE I

80 BARD OF EDUCATION

SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS I

CLERK |



SUPERVISOR DIRECTOR GENERAL S PERVISORI LIBRARIAN BUSINESS MANAGER S ATTENDANCE
of of OFFICERS
HEALTH RESEARCH
ES CLERKS0
E-L- r. LEMENTARlI JUNIOR SENIOR OTHER I BOOKKEEPER & CLERKS
HIGH HIGH a CLERKS
CLERK SCHOOLS SCHOOLS SCHOOLS SCHOOLS
NURS PRINCIPALS
TEACHERS
2 CLE KS PUPILS







Administrative and Supervisory Organizations


A comparison of the number of positions and persons pro-
vided by this plan with the standard ratios will show that the
proposed organization will economically care for about 6,000
pupils. Such an organization provides for all of the functions
of (1) educational and business administration; (2) super-
vision of instruction; (3) health supervision; and (4) census
and attendance supervision. Supervision in the special subjects
such as music, art, and physical education are secured by utiliz-
ing the services of teachers and principals with special training
in these fields. Such services must be coordinated by the reg-
ular supervisory staff. (5: Chapter XII.) A similar procedure
can be followed in the academic and vocational subjects of the
high school, and for extra-curricular activities. A diagram of
this arrangement for administration is presented in Chart II.
MAXIMUM MODIFICATION: The maximum modification is
reached by assuming that the functions of business administra-
tion and of instructional supervision can be performed by the
superintendent and that attendance and health work can be
performed by one person.' Such central organization would be
about as follows:
1 superintendent
1 bookkeeper and clerk for superintendent
1 nurse-attendance officer
1 clerk for nurse-attendance officer

On the basis of one nurse to each 2,000 pupils and one attendance
officer and clerk to each 6,000 pupils it seems that such an or-
ganization should not be expected to care for more than 1,750
pupils or fifty teaching units. The superintendent will act as
the executive officer of the board, the business administrator
of the school system and the coordinator of the activities of
the persons employed in the school system. The supervision of
instruction will be performed by the principals who utilize the
services of teachers specially trained in the various fields.
Diagrams of possible plans of administration and supervision
are shown in Chart III and Chart IV.

1Such an arrangement is recommended by Dr. Fred Engelhardt in Public
School Organization and Administration, p. 366.











CHART II
MEDIAN MODIFICATION OF THE ORGANIZATION OF A COMPLETE ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY STAFF OF SEVENTEEN
PERSONS FOR A LOCAL ADMINISTRATIVE SCHOOL UNIT

PEOPLE
I
BOARD Or EDUCATION
SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS
ANl5TrRTIoN, COORDINATIONI LEADRSuHIP

&H RI


iANi~


PRINCIPALS
JuNIOR J.ENIOR
ELEMENTARY C s HIGH SCHOOLS
TEACHRS, SONE WITH SPECIAL TRAINIaMI
ARITHMETIC AGRICULIURE
ART ART
HEALTH AND COMMtRCIAL ENGLISH
PHmaCAL EzucArioA HOME TRAINING
n US/c LANGUAGES
NATURE STUDY MUSICC
AEADIN6 -LITERATURE NATURAL- SCIENCE
SOCIAL SCIEAce HEALTHAtH PHYSICAL
WRirTNG-SPELLING EDUCATION
SCIENCE
SOCIAL SCIENCE
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

PUPILS PUPILS
JANITORS JANITORS


SIuPEAVSoR ASS STANTM I OFFICER
AND \BOOW \ PER


CLERK n c
I I
! /
/
/
/


I
2 ELEMENTARY
tHOOL.SUPRvI.sOR3 S

CLE RK\


CLERH


/
/









Administrative and Supervisory Organizations


CHART III
MAXIMUM MODIFICATION OF THE ORGANIZATION OF A COMPLETE ADMINIS-
TRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY STAFF OF FOUR PERSONS FOR A LOCAL
ADMINISTRATIVE SCHOOL UNIT

PLAN 1

PEOPLE


BOARD 0 F EDUCATION


SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS,
D ONISTRA TION, COORDNA TIONLEADERIP

BOOKKEEPER AND
CLERK FOR JUP'T


ELEMENTARY SCHOOL.
P PRINCIPALS
DEPARTMENT HEAD J- TEACHERS











PU LP/L


JANITORS


JANITORS


HEALTH
- AND
TTEDANACE


CLERK


SECONDARY SCHOOLS
PRINCE IPALJ
DEPARTMENT HEADS- TEACHERS









PUP/L S
o h I
j~ l !i~J l.
^ Q? 0:K ^ ^j
^


I











CHART IV
MAXIMUM MODIFICATION OF THE ORGANIZATION OF A COMPLETE ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF OF FOUR PERSONS FOR A LOCAL
ADMINISTRATIVE SCHOOL UNIT
PLAN 2
PEOPLE I

BOARD OF EDUCATION

| SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS
ADMINISTRATION, COORDINATION. LEADERSHIP

BOOKKEEPER AND
CLERK FOR SUP'T


ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
GRADES I TO 6

PRINCIPAL
SUPERVISOR OF ALL
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
ASSISTANT PRINCIPALS
IN CHARGE OF BUILDINGS
TEACHERS
PUPILS
JANITORS}


SECONDARY SCHOOLS
GRADES 7 TO IS

PRINCIPAL
SUPERVISOR OF ALL
SECONDARY SCHOOLS
ASSISTANT PRINCIPALS
IN CHARGE OF BUILDINGS
TEACHERS
PUPILS
JANITORS


H'Al H *,E VICE
I YTENVAN ,


SOURCES OF ASSISTANCE AVAILABLE WHEN NEEDED
TEACHERS WITH SPECIAL TRAINING
ELEMENTARY SECONDARY
ARITHMETIC AGRICULTURE
ART ART
HEALTH AND PHYS COMMERCIAL
EDUCATION ENGLISH
MUSIC HOME TRAINING
NATURE STUDY INDUSTRIAL
READING- TRA ING
LITERATURE LANGUAGES
SOCIAL SCIENCE MUSIC
WRITING- NAT. SCIENCES
SPELLING PHYS. EDUCATION
SCIENCE
SOCIAL SCIENCE








Administrative and Supervisory Organizations


SUMMARY
In addition to providing adequate school and attendance
units, the local unit of school administration has the function
of providing (1) educational and business administration, (2)
supervision of instruction, (3) health supervision, and (4) cen-
sus and attendance supervision.
Educational and business administration is provided through
a school board of five to nine members elected by the people
for overlapping terms of five to nine years and by a superintend-
ent of schools who is elected by the school board and who acts
as the executive officer of the board. The school board should be
fiscally independent and organized according to the require-
ments of the Unit type. The board should formulate and enact
policies and the superintendent should execute them. The
superintendent should have power to initiate and execute the
appointment of all necessary assistants and teachers and should
act as the coordinating agency of all the educational and busi-
ness work of the school system.
In order to provide supervision of instruction in an adequate
school program there should be at least ten supervisors and one
trained librarian. A more limited supervising organization will
require that an individual supervisor render two or more spe-
cialized types of services. If the supervisory services are to
be provided in a financially economical manner the number
of supervisors must bear a reasonable relationship to the num-
ber of teachers. Available data indicate that there should be at
least one supervisor to each forty or fifty teaching positions.
The health service of the school system should consist of
adequate provision for administration of the educational health
department, pupil health examinations, health instruction, super-
vision of health instruction, and follow-up health work. Ac-
cepted standards of health work require at least one health
nurse to each 2,000 school children and at least one supervisor
of health education for the school system.
Adequate provision should be made to enforce the provi-
sions of compulsory attendance laws, to keep permanent and
continuous census records, to investigate non-attendance, to
issue permits for the employment of minors, and to inspect work-




















60 The Local School Unit

ing conditions of employed minors. Accepted standards as to
the number of persons required to do such work require at least
one attendance supervisor or officer for not more than 6,000
census children.
The number of employees necessary for a standard admin-
istrative and supervisory organization without requiring one
person to perform two or more specialized services is thirty-
one persons. Such an organization would accommodate ap-
proximately 12,000 pupils. Since it seldom is possible to or-
ganize local administrative units of 12,000 or more pupils, it
becomes necessary to modify the central administrative and
supervisory staff. Two possible modifications have been pre-
sented, the median modification calling for a staff of seventeen
persons, an organization that can accommodate approximately
6,000 pupils; and the maximum modification calling for four
persons, an organization that can accommodate 1,750 pupils.












Administrative and Supervisory Organizations


BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Almack, John C. The School Board Member. The Macmillan Company,
New York, 1927.
2. Cubberley, Ellwood P. Public School Administration. Houghton Mifflin
Company, Boston, 1916. (Also revised edition, 1922.)
3. Douglass, Bennett C. The Status of the Superintendent. Department of
Superintendence, National Education Association, Washington, D. C.,
1923.
4. Emmons, F. E. City School Attendance Service. Bureau of Publications,
Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, 1926.
5. Engelhardt, Fred. Public School Organization and Administration. Ginn
and Company, Boston, 1931.
6. Engelhardt, N. L., and Evenden, E. S. The Atlanta School Survey.
Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, New
York, 1927.
7. Fargo, Lucile F. The Library in the School. American Library As-
sociation, Chicago, 1930.
8. Frasier, G. W. The Control of City School Finance. The Bruce Pub-
lishing Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1927.
9. Johnson, B. L. "The Secondary School Library," National Survey of
Secondary Education, United States Ofice of Education Bulletin No.
17, Washington, D. C., 1932.
10. McGaughy, J. R. Fiscal Administration of City School Systems. The
Macmillan Company, New York, 1924.
11. McGinnis, William C. "The Administrative and Supervisory Organiza-
tions in City School Systems of 20,000 to 50,000 in Population,"
Contribution to Education No. 392, Bureau of Publications, Teachers
College, Columbia University, New York, 1929.
12. Maryland State Department of Education. Sixty-fifth Annual Report
of the State Board of Education. Baltimore, Maryland, 1931.
13. National Education Association. "The Outlook for Rural Education,"
Research Bulletin No. 5, Vol. IX, Washington, D. C., 1931.
14. Olsen, Hans C. The Work of Boards of Education. Bureau of Pub-
lications, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, 1926.
15. Pitman, M. S. The Value of Supervision. Warwick and York, Balti-
more, Maryland, 1921.
16. Theisen, W. W. The City Superintendent and Board of Education. Bu-
reau of Publications, Columbia University, New York, 1917.
17. White House Conference, Section III, Committee C. The School Child.
The Century Company, New York, 1930.












CHAPTER IV


THE SIZE OF A SATISFACTORY LOCAL UNIT OF
SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION

It is the purpose of this chapter to define the size of a satis-
factory local unit of school administration. It can be safely
assumed that the size of the local unit should be such that the
necessary administrative and supervisory services can be offered
at a cost that bears a reasonable relationship to the total current
cost of the educational program. It is necessary, therefore, to
determine (1) the probable cost of satisfactory administrative
and supervisory organizations, (2) the probable total current
cost of a satisfactory educational program, and (3) a reasonable
relationship between these two costs.

COST OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY ORGANIZATIONS
The amount which will be expended for salaries by the cen-
tral organization can be estimated on the basis of the statistics
of salaries paid in city school systems. (See Table X.) Data
on salaries in county school systems are also useful. The
median salary of county superintendents of schools in Maryland
and Louisiana' in 1930-31 was $3,600. (16: 38-39 and 18:
269.) These two states are selected because their schools are
organized with the county as the local unit of administration
and the superintendents are selected by boards of education
rather than by popular vote. Therefore, the salaries paid to
these superintendents may be considered indicative of the mini-
mum salaries necessary to obtain the services of trained persons.
The median annual salary of county elementary school super-
visors in the United States in 1930 was $2,412. (4: 298.)


'Parish superintendent in Louisiana.
62








Size of Satisfactory Unit of Administration


TABLE X
MEDIAN SALARIES PAID TO ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES
IN CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS'
CITIES 10,000 TO CITIES 5,000 TO
30,000 POPU- 10,000 POPU-
EMPLOYEES LATION LATION
1930-31 1932-33 1930-31 I932-33
Superintendent $5149 $4600 $4188 $3818
Business Manager 3200 2788 2500 -
Attendance Officer 1215 1273 -
Nurses 1716 1632 1639 1562
Superintendent of Bldgs. and Grounds 2175 2007 1900 1860
Supervisors of Intermediate and Gram-
mar Grades 2259 2450 2150 -
Supervisor of Primary Grades 2217 2213 1950 2033
Director of Research 2150 2075 2425 -
Supervisor of Art 1875 1797 1696 1562
Supervisor of Music 2043 1913 1772 1608
Supervisor of Writing 1888 1838 1586 1325
Supervisor of Health 1875 1650 1700 1075
Supervisor of Vocational Education 3025 2700 2600 2200
Supervisor of Manual Arts 2365 2246 2103 1881
Supervisor of Home Economics 1832 1750 1650 1494
Supervisor of Physical Education 2344 2234 2172 1905
Supervisor of Junior High School 3100* -
Secretary to Superintendent 1250 1297 1079
Clerks in Other Administrative and Su-
pervisory Offices 1113 1074 1057 953
'Derived from references 19 and 20.
*Cities 30,000 to 100,000, other data not available.

In Maryland the minimum annual salary as defined by state
law is $2,400. (18: 269.) In Louisiana the average annual
salary is approximately $2,000. (16: 40-1.)
In addition to the cost of salaries, the central administrative
and supervisory organization has certain other expenses, such







The Local School Unit


as, travel, office operation, printing, legal service, and the ex-
pense of the board of education. Detailed data on these items
are not available. The financial reports of Maryland county
school systems are sufficiently detailed, however, to provide
some information as to reasonable amounts for these purposes.
(18: 318.) Analysis of the data in these reports shows that
the cost of travel for superintendents is 10 per cent of the
amount of superintendents' salaries; expense of board members
is 10.1 per cent; office expense and printing is 44.1 per cent;
legal service is 7.5 per cent; and all other expense connected
with the administrative division is 19.2 per cent. The neces-
sary expenditures for traveling in connection with supervision
amount to about 15 per cent of the salaries of the supervisors.
THE COST OF A STANDARD CENTRAL ORGANIZATION: In the
previous chapter the number of persons and the positions they
are to occupy in a standard central organization for adminis-
tration and supervision of a school system have been indicated.
The work of these thirty-one persons falls into four general
classifications: (1) administration or general control, (2)
supervision of instruction, (3) operation of the school plant,
and (4) auxiliary agencies (health service and libraries). For
convenience in further discussions the estimated costs will be
presented according to these classifications. The estimated
minimum cost of a standard central organization of thirty-one
persons is shown in Table XI.
THE COST OF MEDIAN MODIFICATION OF A STANDARD CEN-
TRAL ORGANIZATION: It has been shown that an organization
of seventeen persons would constitute a median modification of
a complete standard central organization. The minimum cost
of such an organization is shown in Table XII.
THE COST OF MAXIMUM MODIFICATION OF A STANDARD CEN-
TRAL ORGANIZATION: The maximum modification of the stand-
ard central organization has been shown to require four persons.
The estimated cost of such an organization is shown in Table
XIII.
In making a distribution of the expense or cost as shown in
Table XIII among administration, supervision, and auxiliary
agencies, it is reasonable to assume that half the time of the
superintendent under this arrangement will be spent in super-









Size of Satisfactory Unit of Administration 65

vision of instruction, that three-fourths of the time of the
bookkeeper-clerk will be devoted to administration and one-
fourth of his time to the superintendent's supervisory activities,
and that two-thirds of the time of the nurse-attendance officer
and the clerk will be devoted to health work and one-third to
attendance work. This division of time gives a basis for dis-
tributing the expense of this plan as follows:
Administration .................. $4,833
Instruction (Supervision) ............ 2,700
Auxiliary Agencies ................ 1,867 $9,400

TABLE XI
ACCEPTABLE MINIMUM COST OF A STANDARD CENTRAL ORGANIZATION FOR
ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION OF A LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICT
I. Administration ...................................... .. $20,745
1. Salary of superintendent ................... $5,000
2. Travel of superintendent ................... 500
3. Office expense and printing .................. 2,220
4. Legal services ............................ 375
5. Expense of board ......................... 550
6. Other expense of administration .............. 950
7. Clerk for superintendent .................... 1,200
8. Two attendance officers ..................... 3,000
9. Two clerks for attendance officers ............ 2,000
10. Travel for attendance officers ................. 700
11. Business manager .......................... 2,700
12. Bookkeeper-clerk .......................... 1,200
13. Travel for business manager .................. 350
II. Instruction (Supervision) ............................... $24,800
14. General Supervisor ......................... $2,400
15. Director of Research ....................... 2,400
16. Supervisor of Atypical Classes ............... 1,600
17. Supervisor of M usic ........................ 1,600
18. Supervisor of Art and Writing ............... 1,600
19. Supervisor of Health ....................... 1,600
20. Supervisor of Manual Arts ................. 1,800
21. Supervisor of Household Arts ............... 1,600
22. Two supervisors of Physical Education ........ 3,600
23. Three clerks for supervisors ................. 3,600
24. Travel for supervisors ...................... 3,000
III. O operation ............................................ $ 2,350
25. Supervisor of Buildings and Grounds ........ .$2,000
26. Expenses of Supervisor of Buildings and Grounds 350
IV. Auxiliary A agencies ..................................... .$14,400
27. Six nurses' salaries ........................ $9,100
28. Expenses of nurses ........................ 1,350
29. Two clerks for nurses ...................... 2,000
30. Library supervisor ..... ................... 1,600
31. Expense of library supervisor ................ 350

Grand Total ....................................$62,295









66 The Local School Unit



TABLE XII

ACCEPTABLE MINIMUM COST OF THE MEDIAN MODIFICATION OF A CENTRAL
ORGANIZATION FOR ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION OF A LOCAL
SCHOOL DISTRICT
I. Administration ................................ ........$12,530
1. Salary of superintendent .................... $4,000
2. Travel of superintendent .................... 400
3. Office expense and printing .................. 1,600
4. Legal services .............................. 280
5. Expense of board ............................ 400
6. Other expense of administration .............. 600
7. Clerks for superintendent .................. 1,200
8. Salary of attendance officer ................ 1,500
9. Clerk for attendance officer ................. 1,000
10. Travel for attendance officer .................. 350
11. Bookkeeper ............................... 1,200
II. Instruction (Supervision) ................................$13,700
12. Salaries for two elementary supervisors .........$4,800
13. One secondary school supervisor .............. 2,750
14. One vocational education supervisor ............ 2,750
15. Two clerks for supervisors .................. 2,000
16. Travel and expense of supervisors ............. 1,400
III. Operation .................. ......................... $ 1,850
17. Head janitor and repairman ................ .$1,500
18. Travel and expense of head janitor ........... 350
IV. Auxiliary Agencies .....................................$ 8,000
19. Salaries for three nurses ................. .. $4,500
20. One clerk for nurses ........................ 1,000
21. Travel and expense of nurses ................ 600
22. Salary of library supervisors ................ 1,600
23. Expenses of library supervisors. ............... 300

Grand Total .................................... $36,080


TABLE XIII
ACCEPTABLE MINIMUM COST OF THE MAXIMUM MODIFICATION OF A CENTRAL
ORGANIZATION FOR ADMINISTRATION OF A LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICT
1. Salary of superintendent ................................. $3,600
2. Expenses of superintendent, his office and the board ............. 1,800
Travel of superintendent ....................... $300
Office expense and printing ..................... 900
Legal services ............................... 175
Expenses of board ............................ 200
Other expense ............................... 225
3. Salary of bookkeeper-clerk ................................. 1,200
4. Salary of nurse-attendance officer ........................... 1,800
5. Salary of clerk for nurse-attendance officer .................... 1,000

Total Expense ........................................$9,400








Size of Satisfactory Unit of Administration 67

THE PROBABLE TOTAL CURRENT COST OF A SATISFACTORY
EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM
For our immediate purpose, the cost of a school program may
be expressed in terms of expenditures. Data on current expen-
ditures which may be used in estimating the current expendi-
tures required for a satisfactory school program are reported
according to six general divisions as follows: (11: 472-3.)
1. GENERAL CONTROL which includes expenditures for sala-
ries and expenses of the superintendent, attendance officers,
business manager and their clerks and assistants, and for ex-
penses of the school board, school census, school elections, and
legal services, and for records, printing, telephone toll charges,
telegrams, and supplies used by the superintendent.
2. INSTRUCTION which includes salaries of teachers, princi-
pals, supervisors and school clerks, the expense of supervisors,
the cost of all textbooks supplied free to children and all in-
structional materials and supplies, and a charge for that part
of the superintendent's time which is devoted to the supervision
of instruction.
3. OPERATION which includes the expenditures for janitors'
salaries for keeping buildings and grounds in fit condition; for
services, salaries and wages of repairmen, and expenditures for
janitors' supplies, cleaning and sanitary materials, water, light,
fuel, power, and telephone.
4. MAINTENANCE which includes all expenditures for labor
and materials used for maintaining the plant, equipment and
grounds in good condition. Any expenditures which are neces-
sary to maintenance of the value of the capital investment are
usually classified as maintenance.
5. AUXILIARY AGENCIES which include expenditures for
transportation of pupils, medical examinations, nurses' salaries
and expenses, school library, general community welfare, school
entertainments, and conventions.
6. FIXED CHARGES which include expenditures for insurance,
improvement taxes, pensions, rents, and refunds.
In order to determine the percentage of the total current cost
of schools each of the above classifications constitutes, data








The Local School Unit


on the distribution of expenditures in city and county school
systems will be analyzed. The United States Office of Educa-
tion has published these data for city school systems. Data for
county school systems can be obtained from a study by Turner
and from published reports by the state departments of educa-
tion of Louisiana and Maryland. These data are shown in
Table XIV, in which only columns 4 and 7 require explanation.
Turner, in developing standard distributions of school expen-
ditures, used the data for selected county school systems in
Maryland, Tennessee, Louisiana, and North Carolina. (25.)
The percentages in column 4 show the limits above which 25
per cent of the schools went and below which 25 per cent fell.
For example, 25 per cent of the school systems allotted less than
4.1 per cent of total current expenditures to general control and
25 per cent allotted more than 6.2 per cent to that purpose.
Thus, the percentages shown in column 4 give reasonable limits
within which the percentage distributions should fall in county
school systems. The percentages shown in column 7 are based
on an empirical inspection of the preceding columns and give
a working standard for judging given distributions.
The total current expense of the school program can be esti-
mated for each of the six divisions. Since the most reliable
basis for estimating total current expense, or any major item of
expense, is the amount of teachers' salaries (9: 88 and 24: 43),
data concerning the salaries of teachers will be presented first.
INSTRUCTION: This item includes teachers' salaries, princi-
pals' salaries, supervisors' salaries and expenses, textbooks, and
instructional supplies.
Teachers' salaries: A consideration of salaries actually paid
to teachers is suggestive in determining the necessary salaries
for teachers having the minimum qualifications of two years of
college or normal training for elementary teaching and four
years of college training for high school teaching. The aver-
age salary of teachers in consolidated schools in 1928 was
$1,000. (4: 275.) In 1930 the median salary paid to teachers
in three-or-more-teacher schools in villages and towns. was
$1,157. (13: 54.) In Maryland and Louisiana, states which
represent effective types of rural school organization, the aver-













TABLE XIV
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF CURRENT EXPENDITURES*

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

CITIES CITIES MIDDLE 50
10,000 TO 10,000 TO TURNER'S PER CENT MARYLAND LOUISIANA SUGGESTED
ITEM 30,000 30,000 STANDARD TURNER'S COUNTIES PARISHES STANDARDS
1927-28 1929-30 SAMPLE

General Control 5.5 4.0 4.85 4.1-6.2 3.3 4.0 6.75

Instruction 73.1 75.1 79.0 71.8-82.6 75.4 71.0 74.4

Operation 12.2 11.3 6.65 3.8-8.1 7.0 6.0 11.75

Maintenance 3.5 3.9 3.15 2.1-4.0 3.4 4.5 3.7

Auxiliary Agencies 3.5 3.2 4.85 2.2-9.6 9.4 13.0 3.35

Fixed Charges 2.2 1.9 1.1 0.65-2.3 1.5 1.5 2.05
*Column 1 from 10 (a):9; column 2 from 10 (b):504; column 3 from 25: 34; column 4 from 25: 35; column 5 from 18: 232; column 6 from 16: 62-3.







The Local School Unit


age salaries of white elementary teachers in 1930 were $1,150
and $983 respectively, and for white high school teachers
$1,559 and $1,451 respectively. (17:75 and 16:99.) In
1933 the average salaries paid to teachers in 508 cities of
5,000 to 10,000 population were: elementary school,
$1,217, junior high school, $1,375, and senior and regular high
school, $1,575. (20: 46.) Irby has shown that in Arkansas
the minimum amount of money on which teachers can maintain
acceptable standards of living and make a reasonable amount
of professional progress is $1,200 annually. (14: 131-4.)
These data indicate that minimum annual salaries should be
approximately $1,200 for elementary teachers and $1,600 for
high school teachers. Practice appears to justify a differential
between the salaries of junior and senior high school teachers,
the statistics indicating approximately $1,400 and $1,600 re-
spectively. Since it appears likely that the minimum acceptable
size of school or attendance unit will best function with a six-
year junior-senior high school with teachers working in teach-
ing fields throughout the six-year level rather than strictly on
the junior or senior levels, it is doubtless more practicable to
consider $1,600 the minimum salary. Another reason for this
standard is that neither practice nor expert opinion would jus-
tify the setting up of differentials in the amounts of training
required of teachers on these two levels.
Principals' salaries: The data from which principals' sal-
aries can be estimated are: The average salary of rural school
principals in the United States in 1925 was for elementary
schools $1,965, and in 1930, $1,550; and for high schools in
1925, $2,438, and in 1930, $2,181. (13: 54.) In Maryland the
average salary of an elementary principal in 1929-30 was
$1,650 and of a high school principal $2,300. (18: 69, 143.) In
508 cities of 5,000 to 10,000 population the average annual
salaries were: supervising principal of elementary school,
$2,314; teaching principal of elementary school, $1,465; junior
high school principal, $1,956; senior and regular high school
principal, $2,603. (20: 48.)
From the above data it can be concluded that the minimum
salary of an elementary school principal should be about $1,600
and of a high school principal about $2,000. These salaries are







Size of Satisfactory Unit of Administration 71

approximately in keeping with the statistics quoted, except that
the salary of the high school principal is somewhat lower. That
salary, however, is approximately in keeping with the average
salary of rural high school principals and the average salary
of junior high school principals in cities of the population group
5,000 to 10,000.
To arrive at the salary per teaching unit it is assumed that
under minimum standard conditions the principal will be a
teaching principal and the difference of $400 between the salary
of the principal and the salary of a teacher will be distributed
equally among the teaching units of a minimum standard
school. In the elementary school the $400 will be divided
among seven units and in the high school among ten units,
giving $57 and $40 respectively.
Textbooks and supplies: Since the average salaries paid to
teachers in the State of Maryland are approximately the same
as the minimum salaries set up above and since free textbooks
are provided, the data for Maryland are useful in estimating
the probable expense of textbooks and supplies. For the same
reasons the data for school systems in cities of 10,000 to 30,000
population are useful. In Maryland counties the expenditures
for textbooks and supplies are approximately 7 per cent of teach-
ers' salaries. (18: 319.) In city school systems the expendi-
tures for textbooks and supplies are 6.45 per cent of teachers'
salaries in the elementary schools and 7.88 per cent of teachers'
salaries in the high schools, or an average of 7.07 per cent for
elementary and high schools considered together. If, there-
fore, 7 per cent of the amount of teachers' salaries is accepted
as a standard cost for textbooks and instructional supplies, the
amount will be approximately $85 per teacher (teaching unit)
in the elementary school, and $115 per teacher (or teaching
unit) in the high school.
Supervisors' salaries and expenses: The estimated cost of
the salaries and expenses of supervisors per teaching unit may
be based on the cost of supervision as already shown under the
estimated cost of the central organization for administration
and supervision. Using the the median modification of a stand-
ard organization as the basis of estimation, the cost of a super-
visory unit in the elementary school will be about $3,000 and







The Local School Unit


in the high school about $3,350. With an elementary super-
visor for each forty-five to fifty elementary teachers and a high
school supervisor for each forty to forty-five high school teach-
ers, the cost of supervision per teaching unit will be about $65
in the elementary school and $85 in the high school (6-6 or-
ganization).
On the basis of the amounts set up in the foregoing para-
graphs, the expected total current cost of instruction will be
$1,407 per teaching unit in the elementary school and $1,840
in the high school.
GENERAL CONTROL: An examination of Table XIV shows
that expenditures for general control comprise about 4.75 per
cent of the current expenditures for schools. Analysis of the
data of this table indicates that on the basis of averages for
the years 1928-29 and 1930-31 for cities 10,000 to 30,000
population, general control comprises about 5.47 per cent of
the expenditures for instruction. If this percentage is used
as a basis for estimating the expense of general control, it is
found that the expense will be about $75 per elementary teach-
ing unit and $100 per high school teaching unit.
OPERATION: From Table XIV it will be seen also that the
expense of operation of the school plant can be expected to be
about 11.75 per cent of the total current cost. In city systems
the cost of operation is about 15.03 per cent of the cost of in-
struction. Another check on the cost of operation is as follows:
In an elementary school with seven teaching units housed in a
standard school plant there will be about 10,000 square feet of
floor space, and about five acres of grounds. A school plant of
this size is about a normal work-load for one janitor. (22: 27-
31.) The data from Maryland financial reports (City of
Baltimore in particular) indicate the janitors' supplies cost
about 8 per cent of the janitors' salaries; fuel, about 40 per
cent; and other expenses of operation, about 20 per cent. (18:
319.) On the basis of $900 annual salary for the janitor (22:
22 and 20: 50), the total cost of operation would be $1,512
and for a seven-teacher school the cost would be $216 per teach-
ing unit. This amount for the elementary school is a little more
than 15 per cent of the instruction cost. For the high school
the cost for ten teaching units would still involve the salary of








Size of Satisfactory Unit of Administration 73

one janitor with possibly some extra help. At $1,200 for a
janitor's salary the total cost would be about $200 per teaching
unit. This amount is less than 15 per cent of instructional cost,
but it appears to be a reasonable minimum cost and therefore
will be used.
MAINTENANCE: In city school systems the expense of main-
tenance of the school plant is about 5 per cent of the expense of
instruction and about 3.5 per cent of the total current expense.
(Table XIV.)' On the basis of 5 per cent of the expense of
instruction, maintenance will cost about $70 per teaching unit
in the elementary school and $90 per teaching unit in the high
school.
A check on these amounts can be made as follows: The pur-
pose of expenditures for maintenance is to keep the capital in-
vestment up to par. If depreciation is estimated at an average
annual amount of about 2.5 to 3 per cent of the original invest-
ment, the annual amount necessary for maintenance can be
determined, provided, of course, the probable original invest-
ment in the school plant is known. The probable minimum cost
of a building and its equipment for a school of six or seven
teaching units is $2,250 per room, and of a building and equip-
ment for a school of eight to twelve teaching units, $3,500
per room. (6: 327; 7: Chapter IV.) Two and a half to 3
per cent of these amounts is approximately $70 per elementary
teaching unit and $90 per high school teaching unit.
AUXILIARY AGENCIES: The principal expense under this
item of cost is for health service and libraries. For schools in
rural areas the expense of transportation is of great impor-
tance. The estimated expense will be presented here under two
divisions: transportation, and other auxiliary agencies.
Transportation: The cost of transportation varies greatly
in different situations. Therefore, the best estimate of the
probable expense of transportation can be obtained from a con-
sideration of the costs in various states.
Among the states the annual expense per pupil trans-
ported ranges from $10.85 in North Carolina to $96.92
in the District of Columbia, with a national average of
$24.96. North Carolina transports daily 200,416 children,








The Local School Unit


a larger number than any other state. Indiana and Ohio
rank next in order with 155,203 children and 150,600 chil-
dren, respectively. The annual expense per child in these
states is $29.59 and $27.89, respectively. Arkansas ranks
ninth among the states in the number of children trans-
ported and second in low cost per pupil, transporting 50,-
332 children daily at an annual cost of $11.78 per pupil.
In Maryland and Louisiana, two states that operate schools
through the county as the local unit of administration and
have many consolidated rural schools, the annual expense
per pupil for transportation is $24.33 and $25.09, respec-
tively. (21: Vol. VIII, No. 9.)

The average expense per pupil annually for school transpor-
tation in the United States is $24.96. Among the thirteen
states that transport the largest number of pupils, the cost in
the median state is $25.00. (21: Vol. VIII, No. 9.) In
the light, however, of the low costs in such states as North
Carolina, Mississippi, and Arkansas, it seems very likely that
$25.00 per pupil is unnecessarily high. The average annual
cost per pupil in the five states transporting the largest number
of children is about $20.00. Since it is the average between
these two figures, $22.50 per pupil will be used in estimating
the cost of transportation in projecting a consolidated program
in typical rural areas of the nation.
Before the total expense of transportation can be estimated
it is necessary to know the expected percentage of chil-
dren to be transported. As is shown in Chapter II, the best
estimate is that the consolidation of schools in typical rural
areas will require transportation for about 50 per cent of the
pupils. In states where separate statistics of the cost of trans-
portation of elementary school pupils and of high school pupils
have been published, it has been found that a higher percentage
of high school pupils are transported than of elementary school
pupils. This is true because elementary schools are usually
located nearer the homes of the pupils than high schools. The
available data seem to indicate that the normal expectation is
that about 40 per cent of the elementary school pupils and




Size of Satisfactory Unit of Administration 75

about 60 per cent of the high school pupils will be transported.2
(8 and 18: 245.)
The average expense of transportation of a high school pupil
is usually greater than that of an elementary pupil. The dis-
tance and the number of pupils per bus are the factors that
largely account for the difference. In California, the expense
of transporting an elementary school pupil is about 75 per
cent of the average expense of transporting all pupils, and the
average expense for a high school pupil is about 116 per cent
of the average for all pupils. (12: 11.) In Maryland, the
corresponding percentages are 97 per cent and 108 per cent
respectively. (18: 75 and 149.)
On the basis of the foregoing conditions it appears that a
fair basis of estimating the cost of transportation in a typical
rural area of consolidated schools is to assume that 40 per cent
of all elementary school pupils will be transported at an average
annual cost of $20 per pupil, and that 60 per cent of all high
school pupils will be transported at an average annual cost of
$25 per pupil. Therefore, in a school of the minimum accept-
able size, the cost can be estimated at $320 per teaching unit
for the elementary school and $450 per teaching unit for the
high school.
Other auxiliary agencies: In city school systems where there
is no cost of transportation, the cost of auxiliary agencies is an
average of about 4.5 per cent of the cost of instruction. On
this basis the amount per teaching unit for auxiliary agencies
will be approximately $63 for the elementary school and $83
for the high school.
FIXED CHARGES: This item in the median city school sys-
tem is about 2.75 per cent of the cost of instruction. However,
the range is great. (10 (a).) Insurance and improvement
taxes constitute the bulk of such costs. Improvement taxes are
usually not so heavy on schools in rural areas as in the cities, but
insurance rates are frequently higher. Insurance charges, how-
ever, will be greatly reduced if the state will follow some such
plan as that used by South Carolina in the state insurance of
public property. (23: 102-6.) Accordingly, the estimated

"Unpublished data in State Department of Education, Arkansas.



I- V1( >44 ,







The Local School Unit


cost of fixed charges here presented is 2 per cent of instruction
costs, or $30 per elementary school unit and $37 per high school
unit.
The data presented above are summarized in Table XV. The
percentage distribution of the items of estimated cost are also
shown in the table and as a check on their reliability the stand-
ard percentage distribution is given.
Neither the absolute nor the relative amounts in Table XV
have any degree of finality about them. They represent the
probable unit cost and distribution among the items of cost of
a satisfactory minimum standard school for a typical system
of consolidated schools.
The estimated standard cost per teaching unit, using the
ratio of forty pupils per teacher in elementary school and thirty
in the high school, gives a cost of $54.50 per pupil in elementary
school and $93.40 in high school. (6-6 organization.) A com-
parison with certain statistics of 'cost per pupil indicates that
these amounts are not far from the minimum cost consistent
with economic justice to the persons employed in the school sys-
tem and with the type of service needed from the schools. In
school systems in cities of 10,000, the average annual cost per
pupil in average daily attendance in all schools is $85.75. The
cost of instruction per pupil in these systems is $54.17 for ele-
mentary schools; $75.66 for junior high schools; and $96.77
for the senior and regular high schools. (10 (a) : 6.) Thus
the total cost per pupil under the proposed standard is approxi-
mately equal to the cost per pupil for instruction alone in the
city systems. The statistics for fourteen states as to the cost
per pupil attending are: elementary school, $55.02; junior
high school, $95.63; separately organized senior high schools,
$137.09; and regular and vocational high schools, $135.99.
(3: 68.)
The data in Table XV indicate that the cost of general
control and supervision of instruction constitutes approximately
7.7 per cent of the total current cost, excluding the cost of
transportation. The cost of transportation is excluded because
it represents an addition to the necessary cost of maintaining
satisfactory schools in places where transportation is neces-
sary, and because the standards developed in this study are









TABLE XV
ESTIMATED STANDARD COST PER TEACHING UNIT OF A MINIMUM STANDARD SCHOOL SYSTEM

PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION
Elementary High School Standard /
STANDARD CLASSIFICATION ELEMENTARY HIGH SCHOOL With Without With Without Without "
Trans- Trans- Trans- Trans- Trans-
porta- porta- porta- porta- porta-
tion tion tion tion tion
General Control $ 75 $ 100 3.44 4.03 3.57 4.25 4.75
Instruction 1407 1840 64.54 75.65 65.67 78.23 74.40
(a) Teachers' Salaries $1200 $1600 55.05 164.52 57.10 68.03
(b) Principal's Salary 57 40 2.61 3.06 1.43 1.73
(c) Textbooks and Supplies 85 115 3.90 4.57 4.10 4.89
(d) Supervision 65 85 2.98 3.49 3.03 3.61
Operation 215 200 9.86 11.56 7.14 8.51 11.75
Maintenance 70 92 3.21 3.76 3.28 3.91 3.70
Auxiliary Agencies 383 533 17.57 3.39 19.02 3.53 3.35
(a) Transportation 320 450 f14.68 f16.06
(b) Other 63 83 2.89 2.96
Fixed Charges 30 37 1.38 1.61 1.32 1.57 2.05
Total Current Cost $2180 $2802 100. 100. 100. 100. 100.
Average Cost per Pupil with
Transportation $54.50 $93.40
Average Cost per Pupil without
Transportation $46.50 $78.40_








The Local School Unit


based largely on the statistics of school systems that do not
need transportation or where the cost of transportation has
been excluded from consideration.

THE SIZE OF SATISFACTORY LOCAL UNITS OF SCHOOL
ADMINISTRATION
If the cost of administration and supervision constitutes 7.7
per cent of the total current cost of the school program, if the
cost of the necessary administrative and supervisory services
and the cost of a teaching unit in a satisfactory school are
known, it follows that the number of teaching units (or the size
of a satisfactory unit for administration and supervision) neces-
sary to keep the proper relationship (7.7 per cent) between
the cost of administration and supervision and the total current
cost of the school program can be determined. The determina-
tion of the size of the local unit of school administration on the
basis of the data stated above can be shown by formula:
A = the cost of administration and supervision
T = the total current cost of the school program
U = the cost of a standard teaching unit
S = the total number of teaching units, or the size of
the local unit of school administration
Given the condition that A is a known amount and
must be 7.7 per cent of T, and. U is a known amount.
Required from the data given to find the value of T
and of S.
Therefore,
A
T
.077
T
S--
U

Since the data as to the expected cost per teaching unit are
separated for elementary schools and high schools, before ap-
plying the above formula it will be necessary to find out the
relative proportion of elementary school teaching units and high
school teaching units to be expected in a local unit of school
administration. Such information will be necessary in order








Size of Satisfactory Unit of Administration 79

to weight the cost per elementary teaching unit and the cost per
high school teaching unit in assigning a value to U.
It has been shown that the high school should have a mini-
mum of ten teaching units, or approximately 300 pupils. The
question arises as to how many elementary pupils will be needed
to expect an enrollment of 300 high school pupils. This ques-
tion can be answered for a consolidated school system where
high school advantages are made available to all pupils by an
examination of the statistics of certain areas. Data for five
states and for eighteen cities presented in Table XVI show
that for the school systems included, the enrollment in the
upper six grades runs as high as 72.5 per cent in the State of
Washington and for eighteen city systems is almost 74 per cent.

TABLE XVI
COMPARISON OF ENROLLMENT IN GRADES ONE TO Six WITH ENROLLMENT IN
GRADES SEVEN TO TWELVE, 1929-30*

ENROLLMENT PERCENTAGE
ENROLLMENT NA
GRADES 7 o10
SCHOOL SYSTEMS 12 Is oF
Grades I to 6 Grades 7 to 12 GRADES 1 TO 6

Washington 197,658 143,653 72.5
Utah 80,744 57,302 71.1
Oregon 119,248 83,347 70.0
Idaho 72,261 48,686 67.0
California 587,109 388,788 66.7
18 Cities 10,000 to 30,000 Popu-
lation 46,186 34,077 73.8
*Derived from 3: 40, Table 10, for states; and for 18 cities from a random sample, exclud-
ing southern cities, from 10(a), Table 7, Group III cities.

On this basis, it seems reasonable to assume that the high
school enrollment in the upper six grades or years should ap-
proximate 75 per cent of the elementary school enrollment.
Thus, a minimum standard high school of 300 pupils and ten
teachers will usually be connected with an elementary school of
about 400 pupils and ten teachers. Equal weighting, there-
fore, should be given to the cost of elementary school units.
It follows that since, exclusive of the cost of transportation, an







ThO Local School Unit


elementary teaching unit costs $1,860 and a high school unit
$2,352, the cost of an average teaching unit will be $2,106.
T
Therefore, in the formula S U can be assigned the
U'
value of $2,106.
From Tables XI, XII and XIII, it may be seen that the cost
of administration and supervision for the three types of or-
ganization for administration are:
1. A standard organization which can be designated as
A1........ $45,545.
2. The median modification of a standard organization
which can be designated as A2........ $26,230.
3. The maximum modification of a standard organization
which can be designated as As ........ $7,533.
Using the sub-numerals 1, 2 and 3 to designate the three
types of administrative organization, the data necessary for
A T
using the formula T and S are as follows:
.077 U
Ai = $45,545
A2= 26,230
A3= 7,533
$45,545
Ti .077 591,493

T2 = 0 340,650
.077
7,533
T3a= 97,831
.077
Ti 591,493
SI= 280'.9
U 2106
T2 340,650
S2= = 6= 161.8
U 2106

T3 97,831
U 2106








Size of Satisfactory Unit of Administration


We may conclude, therefore, that for a standard organiza-
tion the local administrative unit should have 280 teaching
units. Since the number of teaching units may be expected to be
equally divided between the six-year elementary school and the
six-year high school, there will be 140 elementary teaching
units and 140 high school teaching units. In terms of the
number of pupils, using the standards of forty pupils per ele-
mentary teaching unit and thirty pupils per high school teach-
ing unit, there will be a total of 9,800 pupils.
For the median modification of a standard organization for
administration and supervision there should be approximately
162 teaching units, of which eighty-one will be elementary
school units and eighty-one high school units, to accommodate
5,670 pupils. For the maximum modification of a standard
organization for administration and supervision there should
be approximately forty-six teaching units, of which twenty-
three will be elementary school units and twenty-three high
school units, to accommodate 1,610 pupils. In terms of
the number of pupils, these figures are in fair agreement with
the sizes previously determined on the basis of the number of
pupils each of the organizations for administration and super-
vision can serve effectively. In the preceding chapter it was
shown that the number of pupils for each organization is ap-
proximately 12,000, 6,000 and 2,000 respectively.
The conclusion to be drawn is that the absolute minimum size
of a local unit of school administration is a unit that has ap-
proximately 1,600 pupils and forty-six teaching units. How-
ever, if combination of functions and services in more than
one major field by any individual in the personnel of the ad-
ministrative and supervisory organization is to be avoided, a
local unit of school administration must include at least 9,800
pupils and 280 teaching units.
SUMMARY
It is assumed that the size of a local unit of school adminis-
tration should be such that necessary administrative and super-
visory services can be provided at a cost. that bears a reasonable
relationship to the total current cost of the educational pro-
gram.












Tha Local School Unit


It has been shown that:
1. The expected annual cost of necessary administrative and
supervisory services for each of the three acceptable sizes of
organization is:
a. For a standard organization, $45,545.
b. For the median modification of a standard organization,
$26,230.
c. For the maximum modification of a standard organiza-
tion, $7,533.
2. The expected annual total current cost, exclusive of the
cost of transportation of a satisfactory educational program per
teaching unit, is:
a. For a six-year elementary school, $1,860.
b. For a six-year high school, $2,353.
The expected number of teaching units in the six-year high
school is the same as the expected number in the six-year ele-
mentary school, and, therefore, the average expected cost per
teaching unit for all schools is $2,106 annually.
3. The cost of administration and supervision is, as a rule,
approximately 7.7 per cent of the total annual current cost of
the school program.
On the basis of the assumption stated above and of the data
presented, the minimum size of a satisfactory local unit of
school administration has been found to be approximately 1,600
pupils and forty-six teaching units. It has also been found
that in order to avoid the performance of two or more special-
ized services by one individual the size of the local unit of
school administration should be approximately 9,800 pupils and
280 teaching units.









Size of Satisfactory Unit of Administration 83

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Abel, J. F. "Recent Data on Consolidation of Schools, and Transporta-
tion of Pupils," United States Office of Education Bulletin No. 22,
Washington, D. C., 1925.
2. Abel, J. F. "Study of 260 Consolidations," United States Office of Edu-
cation Bulletin No. 32, Washington, D. C., 1924.
3. Blose, David T. "Statistics of State School Systems," Biennial Survey
of Education in the United States, 1928-30, United States Office of
Education Bulletin No. 20, Washington, D. C., 1931.
4. Carr, Wm. G. "The Outlook for Rural Education," Research Bulletin
of the National Education Association No. 4, Vol. IX, Washington,
D. C., September, 1931.
5. Dawson, Howard A. Educational Survey of Pulaski County, Arkansas,
Rural Schools. Pulaski County Special School District, Little Rock,
Arkansas, August, 1930.
6. Dawson, Howard A. "Financing a Comprehensive Program of Elemen-
tary Education," Peabody Journal of Education, George Peabody Col-
lege for Teachers, Nashville, Tennessee, 9: 323-338, May, 1932.
7. Dawson, Howard A., Cavins, L. V., et al. An Administrative Sur-
vey of the Public Schools of Mercer County, West Virginia. State
Department of Education, Charleston, West Virginia, 1932.
8. Dawson, Howard A., and Little, Harry A. Financial and Administrative
Needs of the Public Schools of Arkansas. State Department of Edu-
cation, Little Rock, Arkansas, November, 1930.
9. Dawson, Howard A. "Standards of Expenditures for the Principal Items
of City School Costs," Contribution to Education No. 31, George
Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tennessee, 1927.
10. (a) Deffenbaugh, W. S. "Statistics of City School Systems, 1929-30,"
Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, United States
Office of Education Bulletin No. 20, 1931; also (b) Bulletin No. 16,
Chapter XXI, Washington, D. C., 1930.
11. Engelhardt, Fred. Public School Organization and Administration. Ginn
& Company, Boston, 1931.
12. Evans, Frank O. "Factors Affecting the Cost of School Transportation
in California," United States Office of Education Bulletin No. 29,
Washington, D. C., 1930.
13. Gaumnitz, Walter H. "Status of Teachers and Principals Employed in
the Rural Schools of the United States," United States Office of Edu-
cation Bulletin No. 3, Washington, D. C., 1932.
14. Irby, Nolen M. "A Program for Equalization of Educational Oppor-
tunities in the State of Arkansas," Contribution to Education No. 83,
George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tennessee, 1930.
15. Little, Harry A. Public Transportation of School Pupils in Arkansas.
State Department of Education, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1930.
16. Louisiana State Department of Education. Eighty-first Annual Report,
1929-30. Baton Rouge, Louisiana.























The Local School Unit


17. Maryland State Department of Education. Sixty-third Annual Report
of the State Board of Education. Baltimore, Maryland, 1929.
18. Maryland State Department of Education. Sixty-fifth Annual Report
of the State Board of Education. Baltimore, Maryland, 1931.
19. National Education Association. "Salaries in City School Systems, 1930-
31," Research Bulletin No. 3, 9: 163-227, May, 1931.
20. National Education Association. "Salaries in City School Systems, 1932-
33," Research Bulletin No. 2, 11: 43-55, March, 1933.
21. North Carolina State Department of Education. State School Facts.
Vol. VII, No. 6, March, 1931; and Vol. VIII, No. 9, June, 1932.
Raleigh, North Carolina.
22. Reeves, C. E., and Ganders, H. C. School Building Management-The
Operation and Care of School Plants. Bureau of Publications, Teach-
ers College, Columbia University, New York, 1928.
23. Smith, Harvey A. "Economy in Public School Fire Insurance," Contri-
bution to Education No. 428, Bureau of Publications, Teachers Col-
lege, Columbia University, New York, 1930.
24. Strayer, G. D., and Haig, M. H. Financing Education in the State of
New York. Educational Finance Inquiry Commission, Vol. I. The
Macmillan Company, New York, 1924.
25. Turner, H. L. "Tentative Standards for the Distribution of Expenditures
in County School Systems in the South," Contribution to Education
No. 52, George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tennessee,
1929.












CHAPTER V


STATUS OF LOCAL SCHOOL ATTENDANCE AND
ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS

In the previous chapter standards for satisfactory attend-
ance or school units and for satisfactory local units of ad-
ministration have been developed. The purpose of this chapter
is to show the extent to which these standards are observed
throughout the country. The status of attendance units and
administrative units, and the interrelationships between these
two types of units are presented together with the status of
units in general. Emphasis is placed on the implications of
the facts presented as to equality of educational opportunity
for the children affected.

ATTENDANCE OR SCHOOL UNITS
In determining standards for satisfactory schools, data per-
taining to ten characteristics of satisfactory schools were pre-
sented. /However, the size of the school is by far the most im-
portant factor, since, as previously shown, the size of the school
has direct bearing on offering satisfactory curricula at an
economical cost per pupil, and on the organization of territory /
into satisfactory attendance units.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL OR ATTENDANCE UNITS: It has been
shown that a satisfactory attendance or school unit for an ele-
mentary school requires a minimum of 240 pupils and six
teachers for six years of work. In cities of 2,500 or more, this
standard has been largely attained. In 1930 the average school
in cities of 2,500 to 10,000 population had 240 pupils, seven
to eight teachers and thirty-two pupils per teacher. (3: Tables 4







The Local School Unit


and 5.) At the same time the average rural elementary school
in the nation had forty-three pupils, one or two teachers and an
average of twenty-eight pupils per teacher. Out of the 207,039
rural elementary schools in the United States in 1930 there were
148,712 one-teacher schools, largely of the eight-grade type.
The data presented in Table XVII show that only three states,
Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Utah, have rural elementary
schools approaching adequate size. In fact, available data
compel the conclusion that not more than 10 per cent of rural
elementary schools have as many as six teachers or 240 pupils.
A significant observation drawn from the data presented
in Table XVII is that the size of the school as measured by the
enrollment per school increases as the size of the administrative
unit increases. This indicates that there is some quality about
larger administrative units that facilitates the enlargement of
attendance or school units.
Practically every rural school survey made in recent years
has pointed out that the prevalence of the small rural elementary
school is not necessary or desirable. An example of reorganiza-
tion that may be effected to overcome this condition is indicated
in the state-wide plan for the consolidation of schools in Ar-
kansas. In this state plans for the consolidation of schools were
developed on the basis of a detailed study of each county.
Special care was taken to make plans for consolidated schools
that would be large enough to provide for the preservation of
community interests and the convenience of the children af-
fected. It was shown that the number of schools for white
children could be reduced from 4,198 to 2,658, the number of
one-teacher schools from 2,495 to 473, and the number of two-
teacher schools from 920 to 478. It was further shown that ap-
proximately 75 per cent of all children could be placed in schools
having four or more teachers. (9: 48.)
The inadequacy of the curriculum offering and of time
allotment to various subjects and school activities, the age-
grade status of pupils, and the achievement of pupils as com-
pared with that of pupils in larger schools have been pointed out
in Chapter II. The glaring deficiencies of the school buildings
and equipment in the majority of small rural schools is too well-
known td need any amplification here. In addition, the





TABLE XVII
THE SIZE OF RURAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN THE VARIOUS STATES, 1930*

STATES WITH COMMON SCHOOL DISTRICT ORGANIZATION STATES WITH TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATION
No. of Enroll- Enroll- No. of No. of Enroll- Enroll- No. of
STATES Teachers ment Per nent Per One-room STATES Teachers ment Per meln Per One-roomn
Per Sch. School Teacher Schools Per Sch. School Teacher Schools

Arizona 4.13 136 32.9 172 Connecticut 2.33 115 49.2 463
Arkansas 1.77 67 37.4 3,141 Indiana 2.94 98 33.3 2,054
California 1.93 51 26.6 1,519 Maine 1.46 30 20.6 1,781
Colorado 1.94 39 20.1 1,855 Massachusetts 4.80 80 16.6 498
Idaho 1.95 49 25.0 865 New Hampshire 1.75 35 19.9 559

Illinois' 1.73 38 21.7 10,072 New Jersey 7.41 226 30.5 407
Iowa2 1.32 26 19.5 9,358 Pennsylvania 2.13 71 33.4 7,089
Kansas 1.36 25 18.7 7,420 Rhode Island --- ---- --- 84
Michigan2 1.95 43 22.3 6,209 Vermont 1.22 25 20.1 1,075
Minnesota 1.53 33 21.7 6,995 West Virginia3 1.85 43 23.2 4,289

Mississippi 2.09 88 42.1 2,897 Median 2.13 71 23.2 1,170
Missouri 1.47 34 23.5 7,352
Montana 1.21 31 26.0 2,693 STATES WITH COUNTY ORGANIZATION_
Nebraska 1.37 26 18.9 6,047 No. of Enroll- Enroll- No. of
Nevada 1.95 40 20.3 185 STATES Teachers ment Per ment Per One-roomr
Per Sch. School Teacher Schools

New York 2.79 45 16.3 7,796 Alabama 2.13 84 39.2 2,896
North Dakota2 1.32 25 18.7 4,270 Florida 2.88 105 36.3 946
Ohio 2.52 73 29.1 4,258 Georgia 2.31 86 37.4 3,522
Oklahoma 2.20 81 36.8 2,600 Kentucky 1.26 54 42.7 6,089
Oregon 1.05 36 34.3 1,302 Louisiana 2.72 103 37.7 1,381

South Carolina 2.48 87 35.1 1,791 Maryland 2.39 74 30.8 1,024
South Dakota 1.31 22 16.9 4,744 New Mexico 2.64 77 29.2 618
Texas 1.74 69 39.9 3,525 North Carolina 2.84 112 39.3 2,096
Washington 2.23 66 29.6 960 Tennessee 2.32 83 36.0 3,091
Wisconsin 1.37 36 26.1 6,642 Utah 5.16 145 28.1 91


Wyoming


1,047


Virginia


2.06 73


2,765 -I


Median 1.85 39 25.3 3,525 Median 2.39 84 36.0 2,096
STATES WITH STATE ORGANIZATION
Delaware I 2.06 I 57 I 28.0 I 178


*Data derived from references 3: 24 and 25.
'Township system for high schools.


=Partly township system.
sMagisterial district.


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The Local School Unit


majority of poorly trained and inexperienced teachers are found
in the small rural schools. Furthermore, the small rural school
can hardly hope to secure the services of qualified teachers be-
cause good teachers do not want to work under the undesirable
conditions imposed upon them by the small school. The condi-
tions are undesirable because of too many grades per teacher,
poor living conditions, isolation, lack of professional prestige,
complexity of the task, and few social contacts.
HIGH SCHOOL ATTENDANCE UNITS: It has been shown that
a satisfactory attendance or school unit for high schools should
have ten teachers with an enrollment of not less than 250 to
300 pupils depending on the type of organization, or seven
teachers with not less than 175 to 210 pupils, depending on the
type of organization. The schools should be organized on the
basis of six years, grades seven to twelve, which may comprise
either a six-year organization or a three-year junior high school
and a three-year senior high school.
The extent to which high schools have attained at least these
minimum standards may be determined from the data pre-
sented in Table XVIII. At least three-fourths of all high
schools have fewer than 200 pupils and more than two-thirds

TABLE XVIII
DISTRIBUTION BY SIZE OF ENROLLMENT OF HIGH SCHOOLS IN THE
UNITED STATES, 1930*

ESTIMATED PERCENTAGE
NUMBER OF NUMBER OF OF ALL HIGH
ENROLLMENT TEACHERS PER SCHOOLS SCHOOLS
SCHOOL
Under 50 3 5,943 26.7
51 to 100 4- 6 6,064 27.3
101 to 200 7- 9 4,603 20.7
201 to 500 10-20 3,111 14.0
501 to 1,000 21-40 1,421 6.4
Over 1,000 41 and over 1,095 4.9
Total 22,237 100.0
Median 4-61
*2:37 and 24.




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