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Group Title: Educational records supplementary bulletin H
Title: Functions of the Educational records bureau in comparable measurement
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098588/00001
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Title: Functions of the Educational records bureau in comparable measurement
Physical Description: 2 p. 1., 31 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Traxler, Arthur E ( Arthur Edwin ), 1900-
Publisher: Educational records bureau
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1947
Subject: Educationl records bureau -- New York (State)   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: Reproduced from typewritten copy.
General Note: Educational Records Bureau ; supplementary bulletin H
Statement of Responsibility: by Arthur E. Traxler.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098588
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 01900205
lccn - e 44000065


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Full Text


Functions of the Educational Records Bureau

in Comparable Measurement

r 763 f

437 West 59th Street
New York 19, N. Y.
September, 1943






Arthur E. Traxler

437 West 59th Street
New York, N. Y.

September. 1943



Introduction. . . . . .

Early Objective Tests . . .

State-Wide Testing Programs .

National Testing Programs . .

Establishment of the Educational

How the Bureau Functions. . .

Bureau Testing Programs . .

Publications. . . . . .

Test Program Bulletins . .
Teacher Education in the Use

Research . . . . .
Committee Reports. . . .

Cumulative Records. . . .

Services to Public Schools. .

Services to Colleges. . . .

. . ....... . ..

. . . . . . . . .

Records Bureau ........

of Tests.

. .. .

Cooperation with Other Examining 'Agencies

Educational Conferences. . .
Test Construction. . . . .

Use of New Measurement Devices ,

'Advisory Services . . . . .

Services to Government 'Agencies .
U.S. Office of Indian Education.

U.S. Merchant Marine Academies .
Qualifying Test for the Army and
College Training Program . .

SConclusion. . . . . . .



. . . . . .

. . . . . .
. . . . . .

. . . .

. . . .



An understanding of the work of the Educational Records Bureau can be had

only by viewing it against the background of the wnole measurement movement

Like a number of similar organizations, it is the product of a philosophy and a

method of studying school children that are relatively new in America, that are

not founded on tradition, and that have no counterpart outside this country.

In the early history of examinations, attempts at the measurement of the

ability and achievement of students were sporadic and unorganized Up to the

second decade of the present century, measurement was almost entirely an in-

stitutional affair and it has remained just that for the great majority of schools

and colleges almost to the present time Examipations have traditionally been

made by classroom teachers who have had neither training for nor special interest

in this aspect of their work Except for such advanced thinkers as Horace Mann,

the idea that there could be a theory and technique of measurement apart from the

process of instruction itself seems not to have occurred to anyone until recent


Because examinations were for the most part made carelessly and without

reference to the experience of other persons, the typical early examination was

very inadequate Examinations were at first entirely oral and were not infre-

quently concocted on the spur of the moment to confound the unhappy candidate

The written essay examinations which began to be introduced in America early in

the nineteenth century were an improvement over the oral ones, but their lack of

reliability and validity was amazing--all the more so because their inferiority

was so seldom suspected by their complacent authors.

So great sas the faith of each individual school and college in its own

particular examination system at the turn of the last century that it required

- 2 -

much work and persuasion on the part of such outstanding leaders as President

Eliot of Harvard and Nicholas Murray Butler of Columbia to bring some order

out of the chaos. Finally, however, their efforts prevailed and the College

Entrance Examination Board was established. Later, the Secondary Education

Board was set up to perform for private secondary schools a function similar

to the work of the College Board at a higher level. The services of the College

Entrance Examination Board and the Secondary Education Board in improving essay

examinations and in bringing about uniformity in examining from one institution

to another are too well-known to require comment here.

Early Objective Tests

Probably brief-answer tests have occasionally been used by teachers for

generations, but apparently it was less than fifty years ago that anyone

realized that there was inherent in the brief-answer question a technique on

which a science of education might be built Once the idea was expressed,

however, it took hold very rapidly From 1897, when Rice made his now historic

speech, "The Futility of the Spelling Grind," to the Department of Superintend-

ence of the National Educational Association, up to the middle 1920's, there

was a great development of objective tests of all kinds without much conscious

attempt at organization. Shortly after 1900, the idea of objective measurement

first expressed by Rice caught the interest of Thorndike, Stone, Freeman,

Courtis, Kelley, and a host of other rising young educational leaders and they

in turn set numerous students to work, The result was a multiplicity of

objective tests in nearly every subject field

Many of these new tests were very inferior. For years, the concept of

measurement ran far ahead of technological development in the field, and the

sudden interest of commercial organizations in objective tests was not altogether

salutary The work of Thorndike and some of the other.earlier leaders in test

- 3 -

construction was monumental, but many other persons did not have the same genius

in test making. The result of all the influences at work was that many hastily

constructed and poorly validated measuring instruments were thrown on the market

to be seized upon by hundreds of administrators and teachers who were entirely

unprepared-to use test results intelligently but who had been told that these

new instruments would work wonders in their schools. Confusion, misuse, and

disillusionment followed in rapid succession in many places. It is true that

here and there schools under intelligent and trained leadership were able to

work out excellent guidance programs based on measuring instruments that had

been carefully selected from the mass of available tests, but these schools were

the exception rather than the rule.

The great need was for centralized leadership to organize and direct both

test construction and use. To meet this need, a variety of agencies has arisen

within the last twenty years.

State-Wide Testing Programs

One of the first and most influential of the efforts directed toward the

organization and unification of testing efforts is found in various state

testing programs. It appears that the first state-wide testing program was

begun in Minnesota shortly after the first World War, but other states quickly

followed this lead until testing has been undertaken on a state-wide basis

in at least sixteen states, including Alabama, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia,

Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, New Hampshire,

North Carolina, South Carolina, Washington, and Wisconsin. One of the oldest,

best organized, and best known of these is the Iowa State Testing Program,

under the direction of Dr. E. F. Lindquist. The tests constructed for use in

that state are also employed in several other programs.

- 4 -

Under the leadership of the state university or one of the other institu-

tions of higher learning, some of these state programs began with the testing

of the high-school seniors. Test scores secured in this way have served to

provide colleges with objective data for the admission and placement of students,

It soon became apparent, however, that the testing of high-school seniors,

valuable though this procedure proved to be, was not enough. It became in-

creasingly evident that what was needed was a program of annual comparable

measurements that would serve as a basis for guidance in the elementary and

secondary schools and would provide highly reliable information for selective

admission and placement in college. The long-time study of the Relations of

Secondary and Higher Education in Pennsylvania, conducted by the Carnegie

Foundation under the direction of Dr. William S. Learned and Dr. Ben D. Wood,

greatly added impetus to the movement for comparable measurements. We find,

therefore, that to an increasing degree the state testing programs have tended

to be placed on an annual basis and to cover a range of.grades.

The state testing leaders have not been satisfied to rest with the giving

of the tests. In many instances, they have provided scoring services and have

made up state-wide norms each year, and all of them have furnished expert

advice in testing and guidance, information on the use of the test results,

and various summary reports to the schools in their respective areas.

National Testing Programs

Although state-wide testing programs have been of inestimable help to

the guidance programs of schools in a number of states, a need has quite

naturally grown up for the services of organizations that would transcend state

boundaries and that would provide testing services on a nation-wide scope The

most ambitious venture in the production of tests to serve secondary schools

and colleges throughout the country has been the establishment of the Cooperative

- 5 -

Test Service, under the auspices of the American Council on Education, through

a subvention from the General Education Board. The broad purposes of this

service were to help coordinate testing and guidance in America and to co-

operate with institutions and individuals interested in adjusting educational

procedures to the needs of individual students. Under the direction of Dr. Ben

D. Wood, the Cooperative Test Service undertook, starting in 1932, to produce

annually an extensive series of comparable forms of tests covering all academic

fields for both the junior college and the secondary school. After having

issued six forms of a series of tests, most of which were ninety minutes in

length, the Cooperative Test Service began in 1938 to produce a new series of

forty-minute tests which are comparable in difficulty with the longer ones

For most high-school and junior-college subjects there are now several forms

of the shorter tests. These tests, which are made with the assistance of many

subject matter and testing specialists, are each year distributed very widely

throughout this country. National norms for various types of institutions are

now available so that it is possible for any secondary school or college to

evaluate achievement and.accumulate comparable measurements for individuals in

all subjects ordinarily included in the academic curriculum.

Establishment of the Educational Records Bureau

In addition to the need for a non-commercial test-making agency whose

activities would be nation wide, such as the Cooperative Test Service, a need

began to be felt several years ago for an organization that would not publish

tests but rather would assist schools in scoring, interpreting, and using tests

in individual guidance. Therefore, in 1927, about five years before the

Cooperative Test Service began to issue its tests, the Educational Records

Bureau was formed by a small group of independent, or private,schools to serve

- 6 -

as a research and service agency and to assist them in obtaining annual comparable

measurements on their pupils. The Bureau was chartered under the Board of Regents

of the University of the State of New York as a nonprofit-making service and

research agency to schools and colleges. It has grown steadily until now it in-

cludes about three hundred fifty institutions. Most of these are independent

elementary and secondary schools, although about twenty public schools and ap-

proximately the same number of colleges are included in the membership. The

Bureau is in no sense a closed corporation; rather, its services are available

to every school, and new schools are constantly being added to its list of members.

How the Bureau Functions

The policy of the Bureau and the broad features of its work are determined

by a Board of Trustees elected by the member institutions. Functioning under

the Board, there are four standing committees, known as the Independent Schools

Advisory Committee, the Committee on Tests and measurements, the Public Schools

Advisory Committee, and the Committee on School and College Relations. The

members of these committees are elected by the schools belonging to the Bureau

There is a permanent staff of twenty persons, which is augmented at certain

times of the year by a part-time staff of from fifty to two hundred individuals.

Although the work of the Educational Records Bureau has been aided materially

by a number of small grants from different organizations, the Bureau may properly

be regarded as a self-supporting organization. Its existence is dependent en-

tirely upon its member schools. The annual membership fee is fifteen dollars for

each institution, but by far the largest proportion of its income is derived from

its services in connection with scoring and reporting the results of tests for

the different schools belonging to the Bureau. Without the income from this

source, the Bureau could not exist. Its success, therefore, is-due to the loyal

1For a core complete history of the Bureau see: Eleanor Perr Wood, *The Bureau--Ten Years Old,* The
1937 Achievement testing Program of the Educational Records bureau. Educational Records Bulletin No. 20,
pages 1-12.

- 7 -

support of its member institutions and to the highly personalized service to

these schools that were developed from the beginning by Mrs. Eleanor Perry

Wood, who was for several years the Associate Director of the Bureau

Bureau Testing Programs

It was the conviction of the schools that originally banded together to

establish the Educational Records Bureau that comparable measurements based on

comprehensive objective tests are of great importance in a continuing study of

pupils These schools recognized such measurements as an indispensable sup-

plement to other types of information used in constructive educational guidance

and in administering transfers, promotions, and admissions to secondary schools

and to colleges. The members of the Bureau have consistently adhered to this

conviction. Consequently, the conducting of testing programs has from the

beginning been the most important activity in which the Bureau has engaged

Two testing programs are held annually by the Bureau's member schools

The fall program consists of academic aptitude and reading tests, supplemented

by some achievement tests for placement and diagnosis In the spring, a com-

prehensive achievement testing program is conducted in all academic subjects

at the elementary and secondary school levels The tests to be used are

selected by the Committee on Tests and Measurements in consultation with the

members of the Executive Staff Each school is free to decide the extent to

which it will participate in the testing programs The schools obtain the

tests and complete directions for giving them from the Bureau They administer

the tests themselves, usually within a specified period, although they may

utilize the services of the Bureau for testing at other times if they so desire.

Some schools score their tests locally, but the majority return them for

central scoring by the Bureau-s staff at a per-test-per-pupil cost.

The services of the Bureau in connection with the tests consist of much

more than merely scoring them Distributions of the scores are made and the

- 8 -

necessary statistical work, such as the computation of medians and quartiles,

is done. Class lists are prepared and sent to the schools showing part scores

and total scores and percentile ratings corresponding to the scores. The

tables from which the percentile ratings are derived are based on the results

of tests scored by the Bureau's staff. Locally scored test results are not

included in the norms A special technique for insuring accuracy in the

scoring is carefully followed in connection with all tests centrally scored.

When the test results are returned to a school, they're accompanied by

an extensive descriptive and interpretative report. It is customary for the

person preparing this report to take up the scores of each class on each of

the tests and to discuss for the school the indications in the results for

both groups and individuals. Sample distributions, a class list and an il-

lustrative letter explaining and interpreting the scores of a ninth-grade class

on the Cooperative English Test are shown on pages 9 to 14.

As already indicated, nearly all the schools participating in the annual

testing programs of the Educational Records Bureau are independent elementary

and secondary schools. It is therefore possible for the Bureau to develop

norms for independent schools, and this .is highly desirable, Since the in-

dependent schools are mainly college preparatory in nature, they enroll a

selected group of students whose median .intelligence quotient on a test such

as the Otis is about 115 The norms for public schools are, therefore, much

too low and norms for this selected college preparatory group.are essential

to effective guidance in these schools During the last fifteen years, the

Educational Records Bureau has developed by far the most comprehensive body

of normative data for college preparatory pupils available anywhere In fact,.

aside from Koo's study Private and Public Secondary Education,1 the data in

the Educational Records Bureau files provide almost the only comprehensive

objective appraisal of the academic aptitude and achievement of independent

school pupils

'Leonard V. Koos. Private and Public Secondary Education. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1931.

School Park Country Day

Grade 9

Date April 29, 1943

I 14
74 1
72 1 1
64 1 2 ....3...................... 1
62 _.... A. ................... ..!. 2
60 2 2 3 .... ..................... 2...................
58 ... "................... ---....-2 .-................ 2.. -.2 -
58. 1------------------------- --------------------------
56 ....3 ................... ,, 1 ... ........... .... .- 1
54 1 ........................ '.................-
52 :' -' -. .. 1 ...... .. .. 17:-,." .... 7 7.................
4 1 -- ...._1................. ,- 2 ... ..................

40 ................. i ________________-...............
38 --- --1- ----- -


Total 21 21 21 21
Q3 57 8 62 9 .59,8 60 8
Md 52,5 .59Z5 .55 5 55 3
01 48 8 50 3 .50 6 .50 8
Ran e 36-64 39-72 39-74 37-72

-- ----End-of-year public-school sean

.......... Independent-school median


School Park Country Day Grade 9 Date April :29, 1943

------ End-of-year public-school mean

.......... Independent-s hool median

School Park Country Day City New York State 1--
Date of Date
Grade 9 ____ Report April 28, 1943 Adm. April 7, 1943
S EXPRESSION PRESS V b. peed Level Tot
rr-s 1r1 r-rr~dL'"

1. Barton, Barbara A.
2. Bradley, John W.
3. Denton, Robert D.
4. Dickinson, Samuel J.
5. Duncan, George W.

6. Elkins, George H.
7. Fenton, Frederick B.
8. Frost, Virgil C.
9. Haynes, Julie A.
10. Hunt, Barbara A.

11. Kerr, Mary J.
12. Livingstone, Martin H.
13. McKean, Sarah A.
14. McNaughton, Jean
15. Prescott, Elsie

16. Royer, Laurence
17. Simpson, Martha F.
18. Smith, Marie A.
19. Swanson, John S.
20. Thompson, Carol E.

21. Warren, Gertrude W.

Class Median
E.RB. Madlan
Or.da No. of C.Hss






60 188 63


53.0153.8 50.0155.5

64 189

- 12 -

437 West 59th Street
New York City

April 29, 1943

Mr. Harold W. Stetson
Park Country Day School
New York, New York

Dear Mr. Stetson:

We are sending herewith the report of the results of the Cooperative
English Test, Form R, which was administered recently to the pupils in the
ninth grade of the Park Country Day School. The report consists of dis-
tributions and a class list showing the scores in mechanics of expression,
effectiveness of expression, vocabulary, speed of comprehension, level of
comprehension, total reading comprehension, and total English score. We
have entered independent-school percentiles on the class list, which we are
sending in duplicate.

The class list is probably the most interesting and useful part of the
report, since it shows the scores and percentile ratings of the individual
pupils. However, when one is interpreting the results for the class as a
whole, it is helpful to study the distributions, for they show how the
scores compare with the medians or norms for independent- or private-school

The general form of the distribution sheet may need a word of explana-
tion, although the distributions are quite easy to read when one understands
how they are arranged. The column closest to the left-hand margin of the
distribution sheet shows the score scale arranged in intervals of two. The
dotted lines across the distribution columns indicate the independent-school
medians for the various grades and the heavier broken lines show the public-
school medians. The medians and ranges of the scores of your ninth-grade
pupils are reported at the bottom of each distribution sheet. The median
is also shown graphically by the short horizontal.line adjacent to each
distribution, and the range.of the middle 50 per cent of the cases is in-
dicated by the vertical line parallel to the distribution.

The results of the Cooperative English,Test, and of most of the other
Cooperative tests, are expressed in terms 9f a kind of derived score, known
as the Scaled Score. The Scaled Score system is based on a mean of 50 and
a standard deviation of 10 for a defined group. A Scaled Score of 50 is
the score that the average pupil with an'I.Q.' of 100 would be expected to
make at the end of the course if he had had the usual kind and amount of
instruction. The Scaled Scores tend to range from 20 to 99, but the scores
of beginning students are sometimes below 20 on certain tests, and very
superior advanced students may sometimes make Scaled Scores slightly above
100 in certain aspects of the Cooperative tests. In English, or any other
subject which is studied throughout the secondary school, a Scaled Score of

- 13 -

Mr. Harold W. Stetson -- 2 April 29. 1943

50 is the score that the average pupil would be expected to make at the end
of his high-school course. For one-year subjects, such as plane geometry,
the end of one year of study is, of course, the reference point.

The independent schools, as you know, tend to enroll pupils who are
above average in academic aptitude. Because of this fact, the Scaled Score
of the average independent-school pupil near the end of the course tends to
be approximately 60.

Persons who are well acquainted with tests have found the use of Scaled
Scores very helpful, but teachers who are not accustomed to thinking in sta-
tistical terms may feel that they are unnecessarily technical. The Scaled
Scores are preferable to raw scores for purposes of comparing the results of
different tests and of the several parts of the same test. However, teachers
who are not interested in working out the implications in Scaled Scores may
employ them in the same way that they have always used raw scores. It should
be made clear to the teachers that these scores are not raw scores and do not
show directly how many questions each pupil has answered correctly. Teachers
who are just beginning to work with objective tests usually are able to grasp
the meaning of percentiles more readily than Scaled Scores.

You will note that there are two distribution sheets for the English
test. The first sheet shows the distributions of the Scaled Scores on Test A,
mechanics of expression; Test Bl, effectiveness of expression; Test Cl, reading
comprehension; and on these three tests combined. The second sheet contains
the distributions for vocabulary, speed of comprehension, level of comprehension,
and the total reading comprehension score. It is apparent, therefore, that
the distributions given in the right-hand column of the second sheet and in
the third column of the first sheet are identical

If you will refer to the last column of the first sheet, you will note
that the median total Scaled Score made on the English test by your ninth
grade, 55.3, is almost identical with the independent-school median for Grade X.
Fourteen of the twenty-one pupils have total Scaled Scores above the independent-
school median for the ninth grade.

The total scores of this class are distributed over a rather wide range.
The lowest total Scaled Score, 37, made by Frederick Fenton, is slightly below
the end-of-year public-school mean for Grade VIII, and corresponds to an in-
dependent-school ninth-grade percentile rating of 5. At the top of the class,
Samuel Dickinson stands out with a total-Scaled Score of 72, which is equivalent
to a percentile rating of 98. This pupil's score is approximately ten Scaled
Score units, or one standard deviation, ab6ve the independent-school median
for Grade XII. Three other pupils, Gertrude Warren, Martha Simpson, and John
Swanson, have total Scaled Scores which reach or surpass the independent-school
twelfth-grade median.

Perhaps a short statement concerning the interpretation of percentiles
would be helpful. As you no doubt know, a percentile shows the per cent of
the scores in a distribution which are exceeded by .a given score- Samuel
Dickinson's percentile, 98, means that his total English score is above those

- 14 -

Mr. Harold W. Stetson -- 3 April 29, 1943

of 98 per cent of the independent-school ninth-grade pupils, and is surpassed
by those of 2 per cent. The lowest total score percentile, 5, made by
Frederick Fenton, means that this pupil's total score exceeds those of only
5 per cent of the independent-school pupils in Grade IX, and is surpassed by
those of 95 per cent of the pupils. Percentiles range from 1 to 100, and a
percentile of 50 is, of course, the median or average.

Turning to the distributions for the three main parts of the test, one
sees that the median Scaled Score of your ninth grade in effectiveness of
expression, .'59.5, is slightly above the independent-school median for Grade XI.
The medians for mechanics of expression and reading comprehension fall between
the independent-school medians for Grades IX and X. The level of comprehension
median, as shown on the second distribution sheet, is almost identical with the
independent-school eleventh-grade median, while the vocabulary.and speed of
comprehension medians are close to the medians for independent-school pupils
in Grade IX.

In general, it appears that your ninth grade is, .as a group, considerably
advanced in effectiveness of expression and level of reading comprehension,
is slightly above average for independent-school ninth-grade classes in
mechanics of expression and total reading comprehension, and is almost exactly
average for the independent-school group in vocabulary and speed of reading
comprehension. It is .apparent that nearly all the pupils are .above average
in comparison with the public-school norms for ninth-grade English.

The Scaled Scores and percentiles on the parts of the English test are
useful in the diagnosis of strengths and weaknesses of individual pupils as
well as classes. For example, Julie Haynes is rather low in effectiveness of
expression, is not far below the independent-school ninth-grade median in
mechanics of expression, and is above the median in total reading comprehension
Martin Livingstone, on the other hand, is high in effectiveness of expression,
is close to the independent-school median in mechanics of expression, and is
considerably below the median in total reading comprehension. It seems probable
that these two pupils need different kinds of special help in English.

Please let us hear from you if there are questions concerning this report,
or if we can be of assistance to you or your teachers in the interpretation
and use of the scores on the test.

Sincerely yours,

- 15 -


In addition to the testing programs, the Educational Records Bureau carries

on a number of other activities, some of which have increased in importance

within the last few years.

Test program bulletins.-Following each testing program, the Bureau issues

a bulletin summarizing the results for the whole group of independent schools

whose tests were scored centrally. These bulletins customarily show the dis-

tribution of scores for each independent-school grade or class on all the tests

included in the program, together with medians and quartiles, and also public-

school medians for comparative purposes. The distributions are frequently

accompanied by descriptive and interpretative material. A typical distribution

page is reproduced on page 16.

The bulletins dealing with the achievement tests also contain comparative

charts in which the median scores made by every class in each of the schools

are shown by code numbers on a scale of percentiles arranged according to unit

of sigma on the normal probability curve. Through observing the position of

its code number on the scale, any school can trace out the median achievement

of all its classes. The chart for literary acquaintance and spelling in

Grades IX-XII, which appeared in a recent bulletin, is reproduced on page 17,

and the position of one school (239) is shown graphically by the solid line

across the chart. It will be seen that the medians for this school were up to

or above the independent-school medians except in the case of spelling at the

twelfth-grade level.

Teacher education in the use of tests.-From the beginning, a great deal of

the energy of the Bureau staff has been directed toward assisting teachers in

the interpretation and use of test results The Bureau has reinforced its em-

phasis on this important aspect of testing and guidance through the publication

'A price lhot of the Bure.au val.lsble publications a..y be obtained on request.

- 16 -



SCORE 7 8 9 10 11 12 7 8 9 10 11 12 SCORE

92+ .5 4
90 1 2 4 3
88 4 1 1 .5
86 2 1 6 10
84 1 3 8 9 19
82 2 2 4 8 20
80 3 12 11 16 18
78 2 5 5 28 24
76 3 11 11 26 32
74 1 4 15 17 21 38
72 10" 24 24 48 62
70 12 16 28 50 ,59
68 25 43 39 64 91
66 3 16 43 55 97 100
64 2 33 53 63 107 115
62 5 42 86 64 86 114
60 18 .47 86 111 153 157
58 4 44 77 116 179- 150
56 23 54 109 111_ 156 1221
54 31 70 114~ 164 164--121..
52 20 59- 91 151 138 101
50 20 90 91 107 '117 ... 80
48 38 82 94 ....79... 64 45
46 33 69 101 66 52 24
44 33 55 ......77.. 43 23 23
42 31 45 50 41 16 12
40 33 32 35 13 9 5
38 19 13 20 12 10 3
36 12 17 9 8 3 2
34 ..-....18..... 5 10 6 1 2
32 11 4 5 1
30 6 5 7
28 2
26 2 2 1
24 2 1
22- 3 3 1

Total 370 853 1298 1359 1661 1561 27 54 74 68 79 74 Total

Q3 .53,5 .59 5 61 9 61 8 65.4 67.9
MId 46.8 .521 55.0 55.9 .58.9 61.2
Q1 41.1 46.9 48.2 .51 3 .53.7 55,5

Range 20-75 17-90 19-91 33-88 34-93 34-97
Schools 30 .54 65 58 .59 54

47 2 .527 .55.7 .55.6 .58.7 61 6 Md

40,.5 45.0 43.0 46..5 48.0 45 0 Range
.57 0 67.0 66.0 68.0 69.0 73 0

led-of-year public-school aediss C used in Gredis 7, 8, 8; C in Grades 10 11, 12

C used In Grad3s 7, 8, 9; C2 in Grades 10 11, 12

............ End-of-year public-school median

2 72
1 70
1 3 4 68
2 1 1 6 10 66
2 1 5 8 64
1 6 1 6 10 62
2 7 6 11 9 60
1 12 13 13-ld 12 .58
1 4 9.-d 8d 17 9 .56
9 12 16 10 ......5 ...... 54
3 9--d 9 12 3 52
3 7 7 4 --4-" 1 50
4 9 .5 2..... 1 2 48
6 5 3 3 46
2 3 ...2.. 1 44
2 1 42
6 40
-. 34


FIGURE 2 1942
Cooperative Test-Form Q Form 2
GRADE 9 10 II 12 8 9 10 II 12
%ile %ile
+1.5Sa-95e -241S Se +
S-24 1S
-93.5 -24-935

-92 -234 -92
-90 -90
-90 -134A -924 -234
-87 -121 -134A -87
+ I o -84 -84 +Io
-3 -108 -34
-81 -226 34 -81
-77 132 -108 -35 234 77
-75 --------2134 i15E------- ---
-73 134A -121 24 21 -126 -73
-241 -41G ,-239
+ .5 --69 -230 -203 -42 -126.* '42 5 -69
-226 -239 35
-65 -203 -23A 20 -126 52 -65
-103 239 B 132 55
: .45*241S -2328 .* .-4116B- -1 -
:60 232 -50A -226Y -239 16A 60
S* -103* *.243 -115V i34B-46 5 35 -203 c 55
0 2 2328 123 239 213 23412 -58
-50 1 34B - - - -203-- -108 - 16A -- 50 0
1239 108 -109 215 -55 -5811 2026
w A tc 528o"115 -202 -33 202 -45
215 23 A 13 -115W 203 239
-40 IIg2 241G 58
-40 215 46 -204 -3C -204 40
-234 134 2l -33C :
-35 -222 L67 IIA 23B 33C -116A 35
-M1 5 -204 6 31 5-
1-.5- 1 -226R" -115B o_012 -1 16C 116c
-27 -115 -46 -27
-25 ------115M- iii --------- ------------------37-- -25
-23 23 3 -50B -204 -I16B -23

-i -213 203 134 -330 -19
\-228 115W
-i -16 23 11 -222 3G -37 -33G -16 -
-23B -213 -33G -42A -33G
-13 -37 -33G 37 -13
-10 -II S -23B -204S -0

8 -33G -8

- 1.5o- -6.5 -65 -1.50
-5 -33G -33G -37B -5
.... SCHOOL 239

- 18 -

of several bulletins and articles dealing specifically with the uses of tests and

test results Among these bulletins are No. 18, The Use of Test Results in

Diagnosis and Instruction in the Tool Subjects, No. 23, The Use of Tests and

Rating Devices in the Appraisal of Personality; No 25, The Use of Test Results

in Secondary Schools; and No. 34, The Nature and Use of Reading Tests. Bulletins

Nos 18 and 23 were recently revised and reprinted. The Bureau has also issued

in multigraph form, a "Primer" on measurement entitled, Introduction to Testing

and the Use of Test Results The member schools are supplied with all bulletins

published by the Bureau.

Because of the wide-spread interest in remedial reading, and also because

of the close relationship between reading ability and the whole guidance problem,

the Bureau has attempted to keep its member schools informed concerning research

in the reading field After issuing a series of mimeographed bibliographies on

reading over a period of years, the Bureau published in 1942, a bulletin entitled,

Ten Years of Research in Reading, which summarized reading studies during the

period 1930-40.

Research -The files of the Educational Records Bureau contain data for an

almost unlimited number of research studies, and a certain amount of research is

carried on by the members of the staff notwithstanding their heavy service load

A considerable number of studies involving the use of some of the newer tests

have been published in the bulletins summarizing the results of the fall and

spring testing programs.1 Members of the staff have also contributed articles

1Bulletin 19- "Comparable Tests and School Marks;," Bulletin 20: "The Interpretation and Use of Scaled
Scores," Bulletin 22: *A Study of the California Test of Mental Maturity:; Bulletin 24: 'The Relation
between Speed and Level of Literary Comprehension;- Bulletin 26 'The Reliability and Validity of the
American Council Psychological Examination,' "A Study of the Reaults of Reading Tests Administered a
Year Apart; "Soae Correlation Date on the California Test of Mental Maturity;' Bulletin 27:-"A Cor-
relation Study of the Cooperative Mathematics Test for Grades 7, 8, and 9;, -A Report on the Thurstone
Test for Primary Mental Abilities;' *A Study of the Junior Scholastic Aptitude Test," Bulletin 29
"The Reliability of the American Council on Education Psychological Examination, 1939 Edition;' "A
Study of the New Edition of the Iowa Silent Reading Test for Bigh Schools and Colleges: Bulletin 30
"The Cooperative English Test, Fore Q Correlations with School Marks and Intercorrelatlons, "-Group
Scales versus Occupational Scales for the Strong Vocational Interest Blank;" "The Academic Aptitude
of French and Latin Classes in Six Independent Schools, Bulletin 31: 'Correlation between IQ s an
the Nen Edition of the Kuhblann-Andereon Test and Binet IQ-s, "A Study of the Van Wagenen-Dvorek
Diagnostic Examination of Silent Reading Abilities;; Bulletin 33 "Some Data on the Difficulty and
Validity of the Cooperative Tests in Biology, Chealstry, and physics, Form ETB-R;* "The American

- 19 -

based on Bureau data to educational journals 2 Reprints of some of these have

been obtained for distribution to member schools.

Committee reports.-The Committee on School and College Relations, with

Dr. Eugene R Smith as chairman, has issued four reports surveying entrance

requirements of colleges These reports were published in 1932, 1933, 1935,

and 1943 The last report, entitled Fourth Report of the Committee on School

and College Relations of the Educational Records Bureau, contains a detailed

analysis and summary of the replies given by four hundred colleges to the

recommendations of the committee. It is believed that this 'is one of the most

important reports ever made available on the relations between secondary and

higher institutions.

Council Peychological Exsaination Intercorrelatlone of Scoree on the 1938, 1939, and 1940 College
Freshman Editions;' Bulletin 35. -Some Data on the Reliability and Validity of the Cooperative Teet
of Social Studies Abilities,. -Intelligence Quotients Derived from the Amarican Council Psychological
Examination, College Freehban Edition;* *A Study of the Revised Edition -* the Stanford Achievement
Teet.,* Bulletin 38: *Goma Data on the Results of the Cooperative Tests in French, Latin, and Secondary
School Mathematics, Form S;' Bulletin 37, ,The Speed of Rending of r.plls in Independent Secondary
Schoole' 'The Reliability and Validity of the Seavis-Brealich Arithmetic Teste,* Bulletin 38: 'A
Study of the Lincoln Diuenoutlc Spelling Test;''Soes Data on the Cooperative Amerlcan Bietory Test.

2*Correlation of Achievement Tests and School Marke,t School Review (December, 1937); *The Relationship
between the Length and the Reliability of a Test of Rate of Reading,* Journal Of Educational Research
(September, 1938); *A Comulatlve Record Form for the Elesentary School,' Elementary School Journal
(Septesber, 1939); 'An experimental Study of a New Mathea&tics Test for Grades 7, 8, and 9,' Mathematics
teacher (October, 193i); 'The Correlation between Achievement Scores and School Marks In an Independent
School for Boya, Journal of Applied Psychology (February, 1940); 'One Reading Test Serves the Purpose,.
The Clearing Rouse (asrch, 1840); 'What is a Satisfactory IQ for Admislaalon to College?y School and
Society (April, 1940), 'The Reliability and Vslidity of the American Council Psychological Exaslnetion,
1938 Edition,' Journal of Educational Research (October, 1040); 'Sooe Data on the Kuder Preference
Record, educational and Psychological Measurement (July, 1941); *Cumulative Teet Records: Their Nature
and Uses," Educational and Psychological Measurement (October, 1941); -The Reliability of the Bell
Inventories and Their Correlation with Teacher Judgment,. Journal of Applied Psychology (December, 1941),
"A Note on the Wrenn Study Habits Inventory,- Journal of Genetic Psychology (1842), -Effect of Type of
Desk on Resulte of Machine-Scored Teste,' School and Society (September, 1942), 'The Independent School
and Education Teeterdoy, Todey, and Tomorrow,* School and Society (November C2, 1942); 'Relationship
of Elementar -School AchieveMset Tests to Achievmen. t Tests Teken in the Secondary School, Journal of
Educational Research (November, 1842); *81Spllfled Method for Scoring the Strong Vocational Interest
Blank Applied to a Secondary-School Croup,' Journal of Educational Psychology (November, 1942); 'Selping
the Individual Pupil Adjust to the Probleme of War and Peace,* School Review (Noveaber, 1842); 'ProgressIve
Methods :e Related to Knowledge of Amerlcan 81ecory,. School and Society (1ay 29, 1943).

20 -

Cumulative Records

For years various leaders in schools and colleges have maintained that

the most fundamental instrument in a long-time guidance program is an in-

dividual cumulative record of objective measurement data and other information.

They have pointed out that a cumulative record makes it possible to study the

status and growth of each pupil and to adjust his program in accordance with

all available information about him, and that it should also contribute in an

important way to the transfer of the pupil to other schools and should serve

in college admission and placement The development, about 1930, of standard

cumulative record forms for secondary schools and colleges, by Dr. Ben D Wood

and a committee working under the auspices of the American Council on Education,

was one of the most important steps in spreading the practice of maintaining

cumulative records In 1933, a special adaptation of the American Council

cumulative record form was prepared for independent elementary and secondary

schools by Eleanor Perry Wood and Winston B. Stephens of the Educational Records

Bureau. A sample copy of the form is shown on pages 21 and 22. In this par-

ticular record, only the test portion of the form has been filled out

Many of the member schools of the Educational Records Bureau now keep

cumulative records of their test results Some schools maintain the cards

locally; others send them to the Bureau to have the test portion of the card,

including the graphic record, filled out, after which the records are returned

to the school. When the pupil applies for admission to another school or to

college, the Bureau, on request from the pupils present school, sends a copy

of the pupil's cumulative record to the institution to which he is going and

accompanies the record with an interpretative letter

In 1941, the original American Council cumulative record folder for secondary

schools was revised by a committee under the chairmanship of Eugene R. Smith.

The committee is now revising the college form and the one for elementary school


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23 -

The Bureau has been active in bringing the new revision of the American Council

forms1 to the attention of high schools throughout the country.

There are, of course, many types of cumulative record cards in addition to

those published by the American Council on Education and the Educational Records

Bureau, and there is an almost endless 'variety of other record and report forms.

Schools have, in recent years, become conscious of the fact that their educational

theory and practice have oftentimes run far ahead of their antiquated methods of

recording and many of them have recently been studying the problem of record

keeping and have produced new experimental record forms. Different organizations,

such as the National Education Association and the Progressive Education

Association, have been very active In making and trying out new records. Because

of the multiplicity of the records, it has appeared desirable to have a central

agency for the collection and subsequent distribution of those that seem most

promising. Some years ago, the Educational Records Bureau therefore began to

collect samples of record forms from various school systems. The Bureau was able

to make up several duplicate sets of carefully selected record and report forms,

which it has loaned to schools for a period of one month, at a nominal charge to

cover mailing costs. These sets are available to non-member as well as member

institutions. At least 200 school systems and colleges have taken advantage of

this loan service.

Services to Public Schools

Partly for financial reasons, testing programs have developed much more

slowly among public schools than among independent schools. Another reason for

the difference in'the rate of development of testing in the two types of in-

stitution is that the independent schools, by their very nature, have long been

concerned with the individual pupil, while many public schools, being much larger,

have necessarily directed their attention to groups and have not until recently

'Published by the Azerican Council on Education, 744 Jackson Place, Washington, D.C.

- 24 -

become concerned with the study and guidance of the individual student.

Because of the fact that the individual is so easily lost in the large

groups of pupils who pass through our urban public schools, the value of

cumulative records based on objective measurements is potentially even greater

in public schools than in private schools. There has been a need to call the

attention of public schools to the values of cumulative comparable measurement

and to demonstrate what public schools can do when they attack this problem

intelligently, The main contribution of the Educational Records Bureau to

this problem has been the Public School Demonstration Project, which was begun

in 1934 and was carried on for a period of five years under a special grant

from the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. The major features

of the project were comparable tests, cumulative records, a program of teacher

education, and a series of case studies of individual pupils.

A report on the entire project entitled Guidance in Public Secondary Schools

was published in 1939. Among the chapters in the report were, "Five Years of

Guidance in the Plainfield High School," "The Cumulative Record and Its Uses,"

"Developing a Cumulative Record Card for Local Use," "An Experiment in Marking

and Reporting," "In-Service Education of Teachers in Guidance," "How a Testing

Program Contributes to Guidance," "An Experiment with Anecdotal Records," and

"Contributions to Guidance Through Case Studies." It is believed that the work

of the seven demonstration centers, which cooperated in the project has in-

fluenced measurement and guidance in many other schools.

The Bureau provides a scoring service for public schools which is utilized

not only by the member public schools, but also by a considerable number of

public schools which are not members of the Bureau. Two types of machine-

scoring service have been developed for public schools One type, known as

Plan A, includes not only scoring but also distributions and class lists pre-

senting the results and a letter of explanation and interpretation. The other

25 -

type, called Plan B, includes scores and distributions of scores only and is

considerably less expensive than the first plan.

Services to Colleges

The Educational Records Bureau has no regular testing program for colleges,

but it does a large amount of scoring, particularly by machine, for certain

colleges in connection with the local testing programs of these institutions.

Much of this work is concerned with the scoring of tests which the colleges

administer to entering freshmen.

The Bureau also helps secondary schools plan and carry out entrance testing

programs and scholarship tests for candidates for admission. Extensive scoring

and interpretative services are provided in connection with some of these

entrance and scholarship tests.

Cooperation with other Examining Agencies

If the many difficult problems of measurement are to be met successfully,

it is imperative that there be close cooperation among all examining and

guidance agencies The Educational Records Bureau has been very fortunate in

that its relations with all other agencies engaged in similar work have, from

the beginning, been very cordial. The Bureau's relationship with the Cooperative

Test Service has been especially close. Since 1933, these two organizations have

been working under one director, Dr. Ben D. Wood, in such close harmony that even

persons well acquainted with the activities of both groups have frequently been

under the mistaken impression that they were one and the same organization, For

more than ten years, the tests produced by the Cooperative Test Service have

annually formed the basis for the measurement of achievement in the secondary

schools holding membership in the Bureau. There are several other ways in which

the Bureau has engaged in activities along with other organizations. These in-

clude educational conferences, test construction, and the use of new measuring


26 -

Educational Conferences.-For ten successive years, a series of educational

conferences was conducted each fall in New York City under the auspices of the

Committee on Personnel Methods and on Educational Testing of the American

Council on Education, the Commission on the Relation of School and College of

the Progressive Education Association, the Cooperative Test Service, and the

Educational Records Bureau. The high quality of the programs planned for these

conferences has attracted educational leaders from schools and colleges through-

out the country. The published proceedings of this series of conferences

represent some outstanding contributions to contemporary thought on educational

problems in the United States. The conditions created by the war, especially

those pertaining to travel, have necessitated the temporary abandonment of the

annual conference, but it is planned to resume this type of activity as soon as

conditions permit.

Test Construction.-Although the Educational Records Bureau is not a test-

making agency and while there is no intention of setting up an elaborate

organization for the production of tests, the Bureau is in an especially favor-

able position to contribute.to the evaluation and construction of tests through

cooperation with such test-making organizations as the Cooperative Test Service.

Leaders in the testing movement have pointed out that the ultimate hope in

achievement-test construction is to have the tests represent the combined

thinking and work of subject-matter specialists and test technicians. Member

schools of the Bureau can contribute significantly to the making of tests through

stating their objectives, indicating the areas in which the tests should be made,

and appraising tests after they are developed in an effort to meet the needs of

these schools. Three forms of tests in each of the following fields have been

constructed by committees of teachers appointed for this purpose: mathematics

for grades 7, 8, and 9, biology, chemistry, and physics. All of these tests have

been published by the Cooperative Test Service. A Bureau committee on social

27 -

studies tests has worked with members of the Cooperative Test Service staff in

the preparation of two forms of a general achievement test in the social studies

Another Bureau committee has participated in the preparation of a secondary

school mathematics test, which was published by the Cooperative Test Service

It is hoped that this kind of cooperative effort may eventually be extended to

all subject fields

Use of New Measurement Devwces.-The Bureau can render service to its own

members and to test-making bodies through helping to spread the use of new

measuring instruments that are especially promising. This type of service is

illustrated by cooperation between the Bureau and the Secondary Education Board

in the distribution and use of the Secondary Education Board Junior Scholastic

Aptitude Test. The various forms of the Junior Scholastic Aptitude Test are pre-

pared by the Bureau of Research of the Secondary Education Board and the

Educational Record Bureau serves as the sole distributing and scoring agency for

that test,.

A somewhat similar endeavor, which the Bureau has undertaken very recently,

is the distribution and scoring of the Yale Aptitude Tests, prepared by Dr A B

Crawford of the Department of Personnel Study of Yale University. The schools

should ultimately benefit from such cooperation through enlarged services and

improved measuring instruments.

Advisory Services

The Educational Records Bureau provides an advisory service in testing,

record keeping, and guidance mainly for the benefit of its member schools, but

representatives of schools not holding membership in the Bureau frequently call

on this organization for advice both by correspondence and in personal interviews

In consonance with its desire to be of the largest possible educational service,

the Bureau meets these requests for information and advice as far as its re-

sources will permit Consequently, hundreds of advisory letters are written to

28 -

non-members each year and many hours are spent in interviews with representatives

of schools outside the Bureau membership. Since these advisory services do not

directly benefit the member schools of the Bureau, they may be regarded as a

contribution made to education generally by the institutions to which the

Bureau owes its existence.

Services to Governmental Agencies

U.S. Office of:Indian Education.-For several years the Educational Records

Bureau has distributed, scored, and reported the results of tests administered

to Indian students who were applicants for government scholarship loans to

enable them to attend college. Percentile norms have been prepared for these

tests on the basis of the scores of the Indian students. At the request of the

Office of Indian Education, the Bureau recently made a study on the value of

test scores, school marks, and other criteria for the prediction of success of

Indian students in college.

U.S. Merchant Marine Academies.-In the spring of 1942, the Bureau helped

to Plan a testing program for entering cadets in three academies of the U.S.

Merchant Marine. For more than a year, the Bureau supplied, scored, and re-

ported the results of four tests employed in that program with each new cadet.

The aptitude and achievement of several thousand cadets were evaluated in this


Qualifying Test for the Army and Navy College Training Program.-The

Educational Records Bureau is serving as one of the regional offices for the

Qualifying Test for the Army and Navy College Training Program. Eleven civilian

agencies are cooperating in that program under instructions from the armed

services. Ten regional offices are working under the direction of the national

office, which is located at the College Entrance Examination Board. The region

served by the Educational Records Bureau is New York State and the Ne 'Ingland

States. Nearly two thousand schools in this region cooperated in the Qualifying

29 -

Test which was administrated on April 2, 1943, and about sixty-two thousand

boys in this area took the test. The tests were processed by the regional

office and the results reported to the Army and Navy in accordance with direc-


All organizations participating in the Qualifying Test for the Army and

Navy College Training Program are working on a strictly cost basis and not

one cent of profit is being derived by any of these agencies. The staff members

of the Educational Records Bureau, like those of the other participating organi-

zations, welcome especially this opportunity to make this small .contribution to

the war effort.


In summary, one may say that the service functions of the Educational

Records Bureau are well established and are at present the most important of

all its functions. Both because of financial limitations and of emphasis on the

service phase, the research aspect of the Bureau is not highly developed,

although much interest in research is present, as is shown by the production of

studies of limited scope whenever time has permitted. The remarkable expansion

of the activities of this organization, within a period of approximately fifteen

years, furnishes evidence of the effectiveness of the Bureau's work and the

loyalty of its member schools. Moreover, it is a testimonial to the soundness

of the fundamental idea on which the Bureau is founded the promotion of the

education and adjustment of individuals through a cooperative and continuous

program of comparable measurements, interpreted from the viewpoint of a broad

educational philosophy and in the light of a comprehensive cumulative record

for very pupil.

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