• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Forming opinions
 Expressing opinions
 Developing verbal power
 A better world
 Literature in today's world
 Books go to war
 Sources of additional material
 Back Cover






Title: English for victory
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098583/00001
 Material Information
Title: English for victory a manual of practical materials for the English classroom
Physical Description: x, 115 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: New York City Association of Teachers on English
Publisher: New York City Association of Teachers of English
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1943
 Subjects
Subject: English language -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
War and education   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 109-115).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098583
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 38735986

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Introduction
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    Forming opinions
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Expressing opinions
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Developing verbal power
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    A better world
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Literature in today's world
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Books go to war
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Sources of additional material
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Back Cover
        Page 117
        Page 118
Full Text











L qrqg: Y
37.
i.















UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES


EDUCATION LIBRARY





FLORIDA CURRICULUM LABORATORY
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION U. OF FLA. AND
STATE DEPT. OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION
P. K. YONGE SCHOOL GAINESVILLE, FLA.
49AJ 1 ',
-J ^. Pwoi0 M^ <^








English for Victory


A MNUANL.L OF


PR.\CIIC.-\L .MATERI.\l S


FOR THE ENGLISH CLASSROOM


THE NE\W YORK CITY


ASSOCIATION OF TEACHERS OF ENGLISH





L I IL:;

New York City Association of Teachers of English


Officers
CLARA A. MOLENDYK, President
Lafayette High School

JESSE GRUMETTE, Vice-President
Abraham Lincoln High School

RUDOLPH COOPER, Secretary
High School of Music and Art

ALICE FEUERSTEIN, Treasurer
Julia Richinan High School

Executive Committee
MARY CARRILLO
WVadleigh High School

ARTHUR GOLDWAY
Bronx Vocational High School for Boys

ELIZABETH SMITH
New Dorp High School

EDWARD STASHEFF*
Christopher Columbus High School

GEORGE SULLIVAN
Long Island City High School

SHIRER VAN STEENBERGH
James Madison High School

ALICE VIERHAUS
Junior High School No. 57, Bronx














ACKNO-)\\'L EDGl IENT


(GraIelul :i,,:.no ld.l ilenei t i in.de ti te following teachers and
committees:

The hundreds of resourceful and creative New York City teachers
of English whose contributions made this hook possible,

The members of the \\ar Sources Committee (Simon Certner.
Ernestine Fleischer, \illiam Frauenglass, Arthur Goldway, Henry
Goodman, Clara Molendyk, Charles Spiegler, and Edward Stasheff)
who solicited and organized these materials,

The members of the War and Peace Materials Workshop Con-
mittee (Simon Certner, Henry Goodman, Jesse Grumette, Blanche
Katz, Rose Nurnberg, and Charles Spiegler) who edited and supple-
mented the work of the \Var Sources Committee,

The members of the Summer 1943 \Vorkshop Committee (Emma
Colen, Esther Ducat. Stella Eliashow, Dorothy Kasdan, Hortense
Levisohn, Edith Leunig, Felix Sper, Charles Steingart, Lillian Stern,
Margaret Nolan, and Maxwell Nurnberg, co-chairmen) who compiled
Books Go to War,

Abraham H. Lass and Maxwell Nurnberg who helped prepare
the manuscript for publication,

Associate Superintendent Ernst and to Assistant Superintendent
Mloskowitz who gave their encouragement to the project.

Shirer Van Steenbergh
Chairman, \ar Sources Committee and
\Var and Peace Materials Workshop Committee

Cover by Ernest Costa of Abraham Lincoln High School.


In













CO NTENTS

IN R O D U C T IO N ..................................................................................................................... v -x


FORMING
A.
B.
C.


O P IN IO N S ................................ ............. . .....................................
T h e N ew sp ap er .................................................. ................ ............
T he R ad io .............................................................. .............................
M otio n P ictu res ................................................. ................. ............


EXPRESSING OPINIONS .................................................. ...............................
A. Public Discussion ................... .. ....................
B T a lks ........ . .... .................................................... .................. .
C. Conversation .......................................................... ........................

DEVELOPING VERBAL POW ER ................... ......... .................
A R e a d in g ................................................................... ................................
B V o cab u la ry ......................................................... ..................... ............
C W ritin g ......................................................................... ................ ............
D O ra l E n g lish ................................................... ...................... .............


A BETTER
A.
B.
C.
D.


W O R L D .............................................................. ..................................
F rank D discussions ....................................... .................................
T he H om e F ront ......................................... ..................................
Ideals W e F ight For ................................. ..............................
B brotherhood ........ .............................................. ..............................


LITERATURE IN TODAY'S W ORLD ..................................................... 67-84
A V alues in Standard T exts ......................... ..................... 67-71
B D detailed U n its ............................................ ........... ............... 7 1-77
C T he P oetry of F light ........................... ................................. 78-8
D. A Fistful of Fighting Quotations .......................................... 81-8,

BOOKS GO TO W AR ............................................................................... 85-18

SOURCES OF ADDITIONAL MATERIAL .................................... 109-113


1-14
1-7
7-13
13-14

15-23
16-19
19-21
21-23

25-48
25-28
28-34
34-44
44-48


49-06
49-53
53-54
55-56
56-66













Introduction


"No one of (this country's) millions of inhabitants has anythiinq
more important to do than take part in this war. No personal am-
hition, no desire for security for self and family, no desperate ivish to
escape the conflict can be allowed to count now. Tlis is the high
tour of decision-not for a national government in Washington, nor
for tihe military command, but for each one of us. Vhati we do is
what matters, and our future wvill be shaped by our present actions.
"For this war cannot be fought by others; iwe cannot leave it to
our neiglibors or our friends or to some abstract person who lives in
another town. It is our war, and we must fight it. Nothing can help
its if we shirk tfle task that has been trust upon us nolow.
Philip Van Doren Stern

English Today
The words quoted above strike the keynote of English teaching to-
day which aims to contribute to total victory and to a sound and
durable peace, a peace that will herald that better world that all men
of good will anticipate. This aim implies no essential change in per-
manent objectives: the intense urgency of the war has simply pointed
up our goals, thrown them into sharper relief.
Agreement is quite general that the role of English in education
today is that of a solidifying and synthesizing force. It is an instru-
mentality for intensifying in students a consciousness of the part they
have to play in the ultimate victory. Its outcomes should be a whole-
some quickening of the emotions and a strengthening of faith in
American ideals.
As teachers of the subject, it is ours to hold high the torch that
will illuminate the path to brotherhood and freedom. By precept and
example, by enthusiasm and activity, we must be positive forces for
good-allayers of fears, builders of morale, clarifiers of thoughts, in-
spirers of confidence. To the degree that we prove to be such, to that
extent shall we succeed in our high purpose.







vmil INTRO()F)lUCTION

These goal .Io nrol in anI\ \ ,\ implu a leaI:l -iln-clotiiu uloplaiii, nim.
or a trafficking in iEiraninleI ereneraitle n an d [atluoui ab1-tractilons,
they are not po-le :i on l li nai\e a Isumiiiljrto (l Il t -ociail *aiin comeI4
easily or quickly. On the contrary, we should like nothing better than
to see our students recognize facts for what they are, and taking into
account all facts, good and bad, hold firmly to their purpose, "to strive,
to seek, to find, and not to yield."
One implication of these aims is that English is peculiarly fitted
to act as a unifying factor in education today. Since it deals largely
in verbal skills and powers rather than in a static body of knowledge.
its content is variable and can include on equal terms the contem-
poraneity of today's newspaper and the universality of great truth.
English, therefore, of all subjects, is the most readily adaptable to the
immediacy of student needs, problems, experiences, interests, and as-
pirations. It is in this adaptability and flexibility that the subject
finds its distinctive usefulness.
In summary, the situation is simply this: These, our students, will
fight and die for us in this war; they will come to grips with the
problem of rehabilitating the embittered, impoverished, and brutalized
peoples of Europe; they will face the challenge of that inchoate "better
world" that is to come; they will have to adjust themselves to and
master this unpredictable world. Their challenge is our challenge:
their fight, our fight. We are the ones who must help them, as much
as in us lies, to become worthy of that challenge, to steel themselves
for that fight.
Can we do less?

The Nature of These Materials
This manual is a practical attempt to implement the teaching of
the war and its long range implications in the English classroom. Its
method is to present lessons, devices, approaches, procedures, and
suggestions that will help us to achieve the aims outlined above. Its
sources are completely cooperative consisting exclusively of voluntary
teacher contributions which are couched, for the most part, in the
original words of the contributors. Its contents are the creative actu-
alities of today's classroom struck off in the heat of the present con-
flict to meet genuine and urgent needs.
As a collection of approaches, this publication makes no claim to
exhaustiveness. It is not a text. but merely a set of practices which










ar.: ill.:l1, Ij L. 111 elpful I e',chers are invited to make all modifica-
liiiis .ii r,-iin ir-i.nl- Ille silerm necessary. The only question of real
S.*jri'.,u. e Ii i ti Ii ) D..- .*i liven suggestion contribute to our common
Le.ll-, ,i \idi,~ \ ,i n. l pe .-,,elul, ordered, and just world?
By ,,nd(J I rie ili corilent represents attempts to achieve aims
IIIruliI tileI Ir. dilii.,rnl :i\lnuI.- of approach in English: the procedures
should, for this very reason, prove permanently useful. The subject
matter of some of the lessons may be dated, but the lesson patterns
will serve as guides for the use of current material.
The editors have made a conscientious attempt to include, at
least in summary form, the greater portion of all the material received.
The sheer weight of contributions, however, precluded the complete
realization of this intention. Questions used to test whether a unit
should or should not be included were:
i. \Vill this unit help us
a. to strengthen our democracy within our gates
1. to establish friendly understanding of our allies
c. to comprehend the sinister foe whose attacks 'upon us
launched our participation in this war
d. to prepare the way for a just and lasting peace?
2. Does it have at least one distinctive feature?
3. Is it usable in its present form?
4. Is it likely to suggest other ideas to teachers?

Suggestions for the Use of iMaterials
Teaching is an intensely personal matter depending for its
felicitous outcome more on warmth of personality and the subtleties
of human relations than on mechanical devices no matter how in-
geniously constructed. It is a creative enterprise. Materials must be
synthesized by and through the teacher himself before they are ready
for use. Otherwise, even the best materials become mere lifeless
pages.
It is, therefore, highly desirable that a teacher do his own original
thinking and planning first and that he then consult sources like this
handbook to discover how, if at all, he can enrich or improve the unit
he had in mind. Ilaterials exist only to supplement and reinforce
the creative efforts of the teacher. It is the teachers' task to adapt,
grade, modify, and combine units here presented as his needs dictate.


h\7RCOLICTIii'?`ON







x INTROD. AUCTION

Fin ill), %,,. aiusl keep ii, mind the liui ni mn terializ \i,tlh which
we work, the pupils themselves. Lessons and procedures must either
come alive for them or lose their meaning entirely. Boys and girls
must feel real emotions, conduct real investigations, and have real
experiences-not their counterfeits in the form of verbalizations and
still more verbalizations. The mere mouthing of democratic beliefs
and high-sounding ideals becomes so deadening that it defeats its own
purpose. Revelation through guided experience, on the other hand, is
education.
The editors hope that these suggestions will help invigorate us in
our present task and give impetus to our "getting on with the job."













Forming Opinions


Tl.: Jiublii abl:lil\ to lorinr oiiun.I .ind intelligent opinions is the
rock upon which our democracy is founded. The development of that
ability, a principal objective of English teaching, assumes a uniquely
critical importance in the hours of decision that lie ahead. Basic to
the achievement of this goal, naturally, is the growth of skill and
power in the handling of the major opinion-molding agencies-the
newspaper, the radio, and the motion picture.
That we are all aware of the importance of these forces in foster-
ing an enlightened public opinion is evidenced by the fact that we
have, in the past, made units of study in these fields part of our courses
of study. In undertaking the teaching of lessons such as those that
follow, we are merely carrying on normal peacetime work in a war-
time setting.

The Newspaper
How to Read the News
This is the title of a pamphlet prepared by Ruth Strang of
Teachers College and published by the U. S. Office of Education. It
may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, \ashing--
ton, D. C., for fifteen cents.
This pamphlet contains an excellent chapter on Thinkigl Straight
in the Present Emergency. Some useful quotations from this chapter
follow:
"There is (overwhelming) evidence that instruction in news-
paper reading makes higli school students more critical of what they
read."
"The problems are: to encourage wider reading of the news; to
make that reading more efficient, discriminating, and impersonal: and
thus to render more intelligent and realistic our defense of democracy."
"Motivated by self-interest, tlie individual will probably read the
news tlat affects him personally. For this reason guided reading of







2 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

the news is part and parcel of the larger problem of developing social
sensitivity and a 'we-centered' rather than an 'I-centered' point of
view."
"The effective reader of the news is highly motivated. His in-
terest is keen. Newspaper reading should be tied to a purpose out-
side himself. Thus motivated by the need to understand current so-
cial problems, the student finds that newspaper reading is actually
easier than it would be without a high degree of interest."

The following reports of procedures in the use of the newspaper
are indications of the ways in which some teachers have made con-
crete applications of the foregoing suggestions.

Weekly Study
/My aims were to establish the habit of systematic newspaper
reading, to acquaint students with different sections of the newspaper,
and to show how, even in the same newspaper, points of view on news
events differed.
As a first step, I had The New York Times delivered to my
classes every Monday for ten weeks. The first part of each lesson was
given over to reading assigned parts of the paper on a given topic.
One group, for instance, read all the front page news on the Solomons
situation; another read the editorial on this piece of news; and still a
third read Hanson Baldwin's or Anne O'Hare McCormick's column.
Discussion centered around such topics as: \Vhat are the facts?
\Vhat conclusions may be drawn from the facts? \hat opinions are
found in the newspaper? -low do they differ from our conclusions?
The assignment called upon students to follow up the story of the
events in the Solomons during the wcek in their own newspapers.
Discussion at the close of the week was based upon two questions:
What is the significance of this campaign in World \ar II? What
do we learn about newspaper statements of fact and opinion?
This work stimulated reading outside of school (Guadalcanal
Diary, Headhunting in tlie Solomon Islands), tile bringing in of pic-
tures and maps to supplement arguments, and the reading of col-
umnists on other newspapers; e.g. Raymond Clapper, Samuel Grafton,
Dorothy Thompson, Walter Lippmann. The voluntary nature of the
activities evidenced, to some degree, the achievement of our original
aims.








FOR\i/;NG OPINIONS 3

l(tliabliit of Nlvs lri,>iorl...
l\1y tl'le>;nl u lih-,.l I.,.. 11n ia.l.,mn 1u. I 1 q u11"i l.n1 ... '.\r:In I n Ijt -
piliper ,L(ir,, pr,..p,, -rida i Dlon't Illi prnitl mn,-nv J l,-_ rcpiorl,-?' To
r, 'a-il I,. Illn, I r.0 .-r\ ir ,l,.: _ree> of :reden(:< Illl hI,.uld 1I.-,,. iIIn,, 6Idl
I,, I1n- 1I,_ ..1 I r l hir I Ihrll:m lh:riIc n th.: ine.nrl inie of Ih: Il.,f.linf. i
lrllln rtl-;il iii Ih, Ic,\% 4 -iur. ,_ (I|II uIIllll l| lIn,:. dispaill ru.mo,:r. i rn-
lirm J,:d. inllormi-t d ol:,-er ,:r- ul ln .|>,. ,-i.,Ile -l r.u :,c fT hl. clai II.<:1II
arranged these sources in their approximate order of authoritativeness.
The assignment was to bring in old news items and compare the fre-
quency of error in the article witl the positions of sources on the
scale.
Discussion questions that clarified the matter still further were:
i. \Vhy are enemy war communiques more reliable than enemy
news broadcasts?
2. List some of the recent enemy lies that you have seen in print
or heard over the air.
3. Mention some rumors that you have been tempted to believe
only to find out later that they were untrue.
4. Show how two newspapers reporting the same story can create
totally different impressions in the minds of readers.
The radio program, The Rumor Detective, (WOR, 6:30 p.m.
Sunday) provided excellent supplementary material.

Newspapers Compared
The violent disagreement of my students on matters of war policy
could be traced directly to the influence of different newspapers.
Responses to questioning revealed that the five most popular were:
The News, The Sun, The Mirror, Tile Jorrrnal-American, and PM.
\Ve decided to devote each Friday for a four week period to a class-
room study of the five newspapers in order to see what their policies
of news interpretation were. As illustrative of the procedure, let us
consider the treatment of the topic chosen for consideration in the
fourth week, Thle Raising of the Siege of Stalingrad.
First, the student chairman called to the front of the room stu-
dents who had been designated to cover the various newspapers.
These boys and girls were paired off according to the papers on
which they were reporting and were asked to stand at various points
in the room. Tlie remaining students divided themselves among the
five groups. For the first ten minutes of the period, there was an







4 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

intra-group discussion, the members of committees giving news items,
cartoons, editorials, and columns to their chairmen.
Chairmen's reports followed. As each report was given, it be-
came obvious to all that the news of the raising of the siege of Stalin-
grad was the same in all papers. The difference lay in the amount of
space that was given to the news item. The Sun and The World-
Telegram had almost identically worded press dispatches. PM had
several pages of feature articles on the background of the siege and
life within the city' of Stalingrad. The Mirror and The News sub-
ordinated it to other news.
Reports on comparative editorials followed. The class came to
realize that the editorial page aimed to influence public opinion. One
editorial, for example, suggested that since Russia was doing so well,
the United States might confine itself to providing food and ammuni-
tion for our Allies and refrain from sending men into combat, since,
it intimated, we were not really fighting our own war and we should
spare ourselves bloodshed.
At the end of this four-week comparison of five newspapers, most
of the students agreed on the following points:
i. That being pro-Russian was identical with being pro-United
Nations and bore no relation whatsoever to being pro-Commu-
nist.
2. That an editorial policy of appeasement was dangerous since
it played into the hands of the enemy.
3. That it was desirable to read newspapers with varying points
of view in order to weigh their arguments, analyze their
methods, and appraise them.
4. That newspapers can influence opinion in a variety of ques-
tionable ways; e.g. position and space given to a news item,
subtle coloring of the news, the tone of the headline, and
the use of "emotionalized" words.
3. That a newspaper's policy and point of view must be taken
into account by the reader.

Evaluating Editorials
The great majority of American newspapers are trustworthy and
responsible, particularly where matters pertaining to the nation's se-
curity are concerned. Although the appeaser newspapers are few in
number, they are widely circulated and their editorials do not truly








IOURAING COPi\(O.'S


refie i t he Iel iml.'r.:- of the nation. The following method can be
ii.e tod I I.t lIh. ;ocerI. of newspapers in their total allegiance to our
war and peace aims.

Me lthod
Before a questionable editorial is studied, a general theory is
built up from American ideals. When the editorial is finally studied,
the insidiousness of its intent is clearly exposed by contrast. Each ar-
ticle examined presents a specific problem with a specific set of values
and ideals involved.

Example
One editorial studied scoffed at the efforts of well-known stars to
sell war bonds to their public, sneered at them for becoming ex-
hausted at this work, belittled voluntary purchases of war bonds in
general, and suggested the newspaper's own formula of a national
lottery which it advocates in place of war bond sale by persuasion.

Step One: Building up the corstructive theorem by means of
questioning
1. \Vhat efforts have you seen, heard about, or read about of
members of the movie colony to stimulate the sale of war
bonds?
2. In what other ways that you know of has Hollywood proved
itself patriotic and eager to help win the war?
3. mention one specific instance of how a public figure, such as
an actor or actress, has filled you with an added conviction
of the great need to buy war bonds.

Step Two: Applying the theorem to the editorial
The teacher or a pupil reads the editorial aloud. The discussion
that ensues reveals the chief objectives of the editorial writer. Then
the judgment of the editorial is tested by the touchstone of the criteria
worked out by the class in the early part of the period. The gap be-
tween the idealism and honesty of the class and the trickery of the
editorial writer becomes clear and unambiguous.

Step Three: The writer's hidden purpose
1. In what way does this editorial hamper our war effort?
2. \Why was it written?








6 ENGLISH FOR VICTOR\

3. \hat would the average newspaper have written on the same
subject?

(Assignment:
a. Find one editorial or article in another newspaper that does
say what should be said:
b. Write the desirable editorial yourself.)

Evaluating "Letters to the Editor"
MIany of the letters admitted to the readers' forum columns of the
appeaser press are griping, destructively critical of our war effort,
and nasty in tone; few criticize the enemy. The editor alone is re-
sponsible for the appearance of these malicious letters. He need not
publish them; but such mail seems to be encouraged as a matter of
policy.
It may be stated by some naive student that some letters printed
in these columns criticize the newspaper itself, or support the govern-
ment's war effort or speak in favor of our allies. A cursory examina-
tion of these letters will show that they are few in number and that
many are so illiterate, so hot-headed, and so poorly worded that they
cast a shadow on the very cause they purport to espouse, even though
it be a just cause. The editor cold-bloodedly chooses to print letters
of this type for the purpose of embarrassing righteous causes under a
pretense of impartiality.

Example
The following letter is chosen for its brevity. It will illustrate
the tone of the others. The method of hamstringing their effects by
means of specific, constructive criteria will be made clear through the
questions.

The Editor
Dear Sir:
Is this Russia?
A half million Detroit workers have been frozen to their jobs by
official edict. The next order will probably be: Stay on the job or
face the firing squad.
What has happened to The American Way?
(signed) Friend of Labor








rOtRKllNGr OPINIONS 7

Se)p n011: Q(, ionuiiq dIIII ,iie'I to i:,r ,tulliri student ideas on the
lople
i. \\'V IiI ri l;lhor Ipirilllt i
2. \\'hli Jll. A\iunri:.in lili.r ,Llr:e llial ii is necessary to end
pir,,lin '
3. Tell of one way in which an American worker has shown him-
self desirous of contributing to victory even at the cost of con-
siderable sacrifice to himself.
4. Does our alliance with Russia commit us to anything beyond
military cooperation?

Step Two: Reading the letter or copying it on the board for all to see
Step Three: Questioning the class as to the hidden purposes behind
the letter
i. Is the writer of the letter a typical worker?
2. How do we know that he is not one of the Detroit workers
affected by the ruling?
j. \hat reasons can you give for the tone of the letter?

The Radio
My Favorite Commentator
In a lesson which aimed to raise the standards of students' radio
listening habits, the class discussed the following points:
i. \Vhat makes him (my favorite commentator) worth listening
to?
2. What is his distinctive contribution to news analysis?
5. What, if any, questionable devices does he use? (Building
up of straw men, parroting of newspapers, use of sensational-
ism, spurious emotion, meaningless generalities, padding, un-
warranted repetition).
4. In what respect, if any, does he represent a biased point of
view?
5. \Vhat is his rank among commentators?
Students listed the names of principal commentators on the board
and next to each, his outstanding virtues and deficiencies. Then the
class rated the commentators and discussed the question: Which ones
are making positive contributions to the building up of a sound public
opinion?








8 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

Some commentators whose broadcasts provide good material for
discussion are: Hanson W. Baldwin, H. R. Baukhage, Cecil Brown,
Raymond Clapper, Upton Close, George Hamilton Coombs, Samuel
Grafton, Arthur Hale, Edwin C. Hill, Quincy Howe, John Hughes,
Rupert Hughes, H. V. Kaltenborn, John Kennedy, Frank Kingdon,
Arthur Krock, Fulton Lewis, Jr., Sydney Mosely, Bryce Oliver, Drew
Pearson, Paul Schubert, Lisa Sergio, William Shirer, Robert St.
John, Johannes Steel, Estelle M. Sternberger, Paul Sullivan, Raymond
Gram Swing, Cal Tinney, John Vandercook, Westbrook Van Voorhis,
\Vythe Williams, Walter \Vinchell.

Town Hall of the Air
(The class may form a Town-Hall-of-the-Air Club.)
The class continues the discussion heard on any of the principal
radio forums in an attempt to reach tentative conclusions on the
problem. Before listening, each student lists his present ideas on the
subject.
In carrying out this unit, the class listens to a given program and
takes notes on the main arguments advanced by the speakers. In class
the next day, students summarize the ideas presented on the radio pro-
gram, and in an extension of the original discussion, present their own
opinions. At the conclusion of the lesson, the students, taking into
account the ideas presented over the air and in class, write their re-
vised opinions. They underline or otherwise mark off various modi-
fications in their original viewpoints and try to trace their origins.
Concluding questions:
1. Which students' opinions were modified: a. greatly? b.
slightly? c. not at all?
2. In each case, what were the most influential factors?
(Listener's fixity in point of view, persuasiveness of speakers,
new evidence, logical reasoning, emotion).
3. What are the main weaknesses and virtues of programs of
this type?
\Write your suggestions for improvement of the program. (If the
class agrees that the suggestions are significant enough, a committee
can be designated to draw up a letter and send it in the name of the
class.)
Students should be encouraged to follow the topic up from the
standpoint of its relation to the general welfare.









adlio .Speelche
Tih, ,,it ni;fnn n i-il i, t I,' 11,i itll 11i i'd ain ,l. i In A ll rici i ,ir:
,I%. i ,l-,je Ih ,il,1. niiil Miie'r'lh in printl ml, I [1. ir't hlini. l co iililllli 'u lll.lII.
Fra.k- in Rro,:.-eelt. \W mnt.,, Chur-chill. \W e,,d ll \\illk,.. H-,:r, r
\\', tunity presented English teachers was ever more golden.
Our function is to insure habits of intelligent, appreciative, and
critical listening to worthwhile public addresses. Outcomes should
comprise an enrichment of student opinion on important questions of
the day, a raising of students' own standards of speech, and motiva-
tion for studying other important speeches of the past and present.
Important aids to the teaching of speeches are the magazine,
Vital Speeches, newspaper reprints of speeches, the O\VI pamphlets
entitled Toward New Horizons, and texts such as Great American
Speeches published by Lippincott.
The following lessons are based on \Wendell Willkie's speech
of October 26, 1942 made upon the completion of his 31,ooo mile
globe-girdling trip as emissary of the President. (Important points in
the speech were: This nation's "reservoir of good will is leaking" be-
cause of failure to deliver expected aid and because of doubt about
Anglo-American war aims. "If I were to tell you how few bombers
China has received from us, you simply wouldn't believe me. 'Is there
to be no charter for the billion people of the East?' was a frequent
Asiatic question. Now is the time for the U. S. "to accept the most
challenging opportunity of all history-the chance to help create a new
society in which men and women the globe around can live and grow
invigorated by freedom.") This speech is reprinted in Toward Newi
Horizons, No. 3. (Proposals for a Free World).


Wendell Willkie's Speech
Aims:
1. To acquaint the students with the idea of a global war and a
global peace.
2. To present some of the most burning current issues.
3. To show the workings of full freedom of speech.
4. To learn to evaluate current ideas from reading and discussing
current speeches.


FUMNTIIING OPINIONS







10 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

Preparation:
1. The class discussed Mr. Willkie, the importance of his mission,
and what students recalled having read about his world
journey.
2. Students were asked to
a. listen to the speech;
b. jot down notes on the content of the speech as well as on
the speaker's delivery;
c. bring to class a newspaper in which the speech was re-
printed, and
d. read a front page account of the speech.
Suggested Lessons:
Out of the many possibilities, three alternative approaches are
herewith presented.
UNIT I.
Lesson I: The class discussed American freedom of speech as
exemplified by Willkie's adverse criticisms, permitted and encouraged
by Franklin D. Roosevelt, former political antagonist. It then con-
sidered the fairness of Mr. Willkie's criticisms on the following situa-
tions: delay in starting the second front, the withholding of military
news, the weakness of our diplomatic policies (first and second class
allies), the government's lukewarm attitude toward Indian affairs, the
non-extension to the Orient of the Atlantic Charter, the insufficiency
of materiel sent to China, the questioning of the Allied policy of global
peace.
Lesson II: (Referring to the text of the speech, but refraining
from reading editorials or editorial letters, members of the class had
written either an editorial or an editorial letter on one of the points
discussed.)
During the first part of the lesson, students read aloud editorials
and editorial letters appearing in The New York Times. Newspaper
reactions to the speech were then compared wilt the previously ex-
pressed opinions of the students. This comparison and the discussion
growing out of it appeared to contribute to students' maturity of out-
look.
UNIT II.
Pupils discussed the various points of the speech. This discussion
revealed that they could not always state clearly what the speaker had







FORI\IING OPINIONS 11

-.iid. Fr':-ilu:nl dlll'rence of opinion among members of the class as to
\hli, thll p'-,,iL:r actually -had said, necessitated recourse to the
printed ordc in tlle newspaper. There was also considerable differ-
ence of opinion as to what the most important points in the broad-
cast were. The teacher, with pupil assistance, then listed the various
points of the speech on the blackboard. The class selected what it
considered the most important parts of the speech.
The period's discussion thus yielded a summary of the main parts
of Mr. Willkie's broadcast, but the pupils revealed that their under-
standing of these points was only superficial. Thereupon, the teacher
suggested that since they were dealing with the thoughts of a man
whose opinion was highly respected the world over, students might
find it worthwhile to probe into his words somewhat more deeply and
thus arrive at a better understanding of his political philosophy. The
points of the speech that the class had selected as being most impor-
tant were: the heroic struggle of the Russians and their request for a
second front, British imperialism, our position in the Far East, and
the role of our State Department in shaping our foreign policy. Class
committees were formed for the purpose of studying these topics at
greater length and reporting to the group in some detail. The con-
clusion of each talk was to include a clear statement of Mr. WVillkie's
position and the respects in which the speakers agreed or disagreed
with it.
The class discussion which grew out of this procedure proved to
be much more provocative, pointed, and mature than was the original
discussion.

UNIT III.
This unit was a straightforward discussion of the basic ideas of
the speech and their implications. It grew out of the pivotal questions
which follow:
i. What are some of the conditions Mr. \illkie saw which en-
abled him to contend that our "reservoir of good will" was
"leaking dangerously"?
2. Why did the United States suffer when the question of India's
freedom arose? (What is meant by the colonial system? The
Commonwealth of Nations?)
3. What is beginning to happen because of our attitude toward
nations of lesser importance ("second-class")?







12 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

4. Why does Mr. Willkie consider rigid censorship a serious
handicap to the winning of the war? Why does he give
France and Egypt as examples?
5. What does he mean when he says, "We must win the
peace."? What does he mean when he says, "There can he
no peace for any part of the world unless the foundations of
peace are made secure throughout all parts of the world,"?
6. Why are the peoples of the world not willing to accept im-
perialism? What should peace bring to them? ("The big
house on the hill surrounded by mud huts has lost its awe-
some charm.")
7. Why should America play an active part in bringing the four
freedoms to the world?
8. What is the picture Mr. Willkie draws of the future, the
world of tomorrow?
Conclusion: If Mr. Willkie's ideas are realized, will the war
have been worth the cost?

Class Radio
Programs designed especially for the use of schools during school
Iours are not uncommon. The Board of Education's Station WNYE
arranges a series of programs each year to supplement the regular
class work in most subjects. It is advisable to secure the schedule for
such broadcasts from The Board of Education Studio, Brooklyn Tech-
nical High School, 29 Fort Greene Place, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Station WNYC and The Columbia Broadcasting System (The
American School of the Air) often prepare series of programs de-
signed for classroom listening. Alert departments will keep in touch
with the major broadcasting systems for the purposes of learning what
educational programs are planned and of acquiring whatever teaching
aids they make available for schools.
The awkwardness of this type of work, of course, is that the pro-
grams rarely coincide with the teaching periods desired. The obvious
solution is to tune in the program at some central point, such as the
auditorium or an otherwise unused room, and invite students who are
free or who can be excused, to listen with a view to reporting to the
class.
Another method is to use the radio as a teaching adjunct only







FORMING O)PINIC)NS 15

\\,il l I.. il.ia iii-: E ~I- .l li. period includes or coincides with the
time of the broadcast.

Radio Aids
Students should be encouraged to select programs that supple-
ment topics being taken up in class. Their choices can be facilitated
by a posted schedule of worthwhile programs, this schedule to be re-
vised from time to time. A class radio reporter will be glad to keep
this guide up to date.
Material and procedures that will improve the quality of student
listening are preliminary discussions, listening guides provided by
broadcasting companies, and questions that may be answered by the
program.
The National Broadcasting Company will send upon request a
schedule of its Public Service Programs conducted under the super-
vision of Dr. James Rowland Angell. These programs include, among
others, For This \Ve Figji, America's Town Meeting of itle Air, and
The Chicago Round able. The Columbia Broadcasting Company
offers a similar service.

Motion Pictures
Motion pictures wield a powerful influence on American attitudes
and opinions. We, as educators, would be well-advised to avail our-
selves of the tremendous "lift" that this educational force can give us
in our attempts to help improve the soundness of public opinion.
Nothing that we can think of as visual or auditory aids can even dis-
tantly approach in value the realism of the sound films. It is, there-
fore, in the student's best interest that we help him to become a better-
prepared movie goer, and to discover ways by which motion pictures
can contribute to his growth as an effective, democratic citizen in-
stead of merely forming the most convenient avenue of escape from
reality.
Good English lessons based 1upon, growing out of, or touching
upon motion pictures abound. A few approaches wherein the movies
can contribute to tihe creation of an intelligent public opinion follow.
Current Features
Of the crop of pictures that purport to give authentic accounts
of the contemporary world, the genuine ones must be distinguished
from tlhe counterfeit. In the past year, for example, excellent releases







14 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

were Hangmen Also Die, In Which We Serve, Mrs. Miniver, and
Action in the North Atlantic; China was typical of the films that
failed utterly of their purpose. Discussion often arises spontaneously
from the picture's central idea with special scenes used for illustrative
material. Knowledge which students have from other sources serves
to make the discussion more substantial. Conclusions should concern
appropriate attitudes and courses of action.
Government Shorts and Documentary Films
As supplementary material to class projects and discussions, these
short films are invaluable. Pictures like Desert Victory, The Murder
of Lidice, Blabbermouth, and Report from the Aleutians can do much
to develop in students an understanding of the war in all its aspects
and implications.
Dramatizations
The magazine, Scholastic, frequently prints the scripts of scenes
from significant motion pictures. Students enjoy dramatizing such
scenes and committees of students readily volunteer to arrange pro-
grams which will include presentation of the facts of the story up to
the point of the given scene, the dramatization, and a discussion on
the situation around which the picture is built.
Films Shown in the Auditorium
Hundreds of worthwhile films which aim to develop keener in-
sights into the issues confronting the world are available for school
use. An economical procedure for English classes follows:
1. Select a series of three or four films on a subject that English
classes plan to discuss; e.g. The United Nations.
2. On a given non-assembly day each week, show one of the
films during each period of the day.
3. Permit English classes to report to the auditorium instead of
to their regular rooms.
4. Base the next day's lesson on the film.
Of course, preliminary discussions will have insured student in-
terest and anticipation, and questions previously assigned will form
the basis of the lesson.
For a rather exhaustive list of films see Films for War Curricula
by S. J. Bernhard in High Points of February and June 1943. See
also the same writer's excellent article, A Unified Visual-Aid Ap-
proach in the January 1942 issue of High Points.













Expressing Opinions

Pure d,-:mj( ric: \. i(delllI rl.ir,,:ented by the early New Eng-
land lto,.n me:.lirie.s. AlllJh Ilh.: nation has grown to proportions
that preclude government by direct meetings of the citizenry, facilities
exist whereby all who have something to say may secure a hearing.
Our obligation, after students have acquired some insight into how
to form sound and reasonable opinions, is to acquaint them with ways
of communicating their ideas with a maximum of effectiveness. We
must so organize our teaching of oral and written expression that stu-
dents recognize and use the best medium for the particular purpose
they may have in mind. Suggestions follow.
1. Oral expression of opinion should be organized according to a
preconceived scheme; e.g. panel discussion. It should involve an aim
based upon the recognition of a problem and should induce full and
open discussion. The interchange of opinion should lead to sum-
maries, conclusions, statements of lines of cleavage, resolutions, rec-
ommendations for courses of action, and the taking of action where-
ever possible and advisable.
2. Discussions should take place only after careful, well-motivated
preparation. If student investigation does not precede a discussion,
the result may be a sorry pooling of ignorance, glib remarks, and
prejudices rather than a true meeting of the minds.
3. Students should be educated in the art of courteous contro-
versy so that it remains possible to retain the highest regard for a per-
son's integrity and at the same time differ completely with his point
of view. There should be a willingness to modify one's point of
view in the face of new and significant evidence.
4. Cooperative thinking, representing the attempt of the group
to contribute to the solution of a common problem, should take pre-
cedence over knock-down and drag-out debates. The point of view
should be established that we all want the same ultimate social goals
and we wish to hear the results of everyone's best thinking on speci-
fic problems. Differences of opinion are to be welcomed as oppor-


(15)







16 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

tunities to work toward best solutions, not as opportunities to gain the
hollow triumph of victory over opponents who happen to be less glib
or who refuse to resort to hysterics and histrionics in order to "prove"
that a wrong opinion is right.
Written expression should find outlets through realistic channels
rather than through artificial media. Letters that are actually mailed
represent one form of realistic writing. There are many occasions for
sending letters to the editor of a newspaper, to the school newspaper,
to legislators, to friends, to men in the armed forces. Sometimes the
best letters in the class can be mailed; sometimes a composite letter
containing the class' best ideas can be sent. The main requisite is
that the writing should be sincere and that an audience (the class)
should hear it. The dominant feeling of the writers should be one of
success in making their ideas felt, of being articulate.
The following suggestions and devices are presented in the hope
that they will contribute in some measure to our goal of producing an
active citizenry that not only has strong convictions pertaining to the
general welfare, but that has the expressional skill that will help to
translate those convictions into realities.

Public Discussion in Wartime
The mimeographed booklet of this title created by a workshop
group is an invaluable aid. Copies may be secured from Miss Evelyn
Konigsberg, Richmond Hill High School, Queens, N. Y.
Some important features of this work are:
1. The aims, objectives, and outcomes of group discussion.
2. The forms of group discussion distinguished as to purpose,
participants, and procedures. (These include: group discussion, round
table, panel, forum, and symposium.)
5. Detailed outlines on methods and procedures for each type
of discussion.
4. Sources of materials for discussions on The Civilian and
the War.

The United Nations-Discussion Guide
This pamphlet published by The U. S. Office of Education con-
tains invaluable information and questions for discussion related to the
United Nations. The sections on What Are These Nations Fighting
For? and Can These Nations Stay United in Peace? are in no sense








EXPRE-SSI,\G OPINIONS


dated. The plentilul questions for discussion and the reading sug-
gestions are extremely helpful.
This and other useful current material may he secured from the
U. S. Office of Education, \Vashington, D. C.

Suggested Topics for Discussion
Note: The type of discussion best adapted to the topic and the
audience should be employed.
Successful discussions on topics such as the following should
awaken students to the urgencies of the immediate future, help them
to form sound opinions, take intelligent action, and adjust themselves
to the changing world.

\inning the War
1. Are boarders, patrons of the Black Mlarket, and price ceiling
violators essentially pro-Hitler?
2. What possibilities for a stalemate are still open to the Axis?
3. The psychological dangers of victories and defeats in wartime.
4. How can inflation be slaved off?

The Peace
1. What outcomes of the peace conference will constitute our
winning the peace?
2. \Vhat will constitute reasonable claims for China? Russia?
3. \hat were tlie mistakes of the Treaty of Versailles? How
can we avoid them in the coming peace?

Global Affairs after the War
1. Should the United States assume the role of leader in form-
ing a post-war federation of nations?
2. Since England and the United States of America have shown
themselves to be predominantly peace-loving and humanitarian,
would it be advisable to run the world under an Anglo-
American hegemony?
3. \Vhat are the arguments for and against an international
police force? \Vlat can prevent such a force from abusing
its power?
4. How will the common man. the world over, come into his own
during the coming century?








18 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

5. How can the re-education of Nazi-indoctrinated youth be
achieved?
6. What steps can be taken to prevent the rebirth of Fascism
in any form?
7. Since the Atlantic Charter guarantees every nation the right
to choose its form of government, what is to prevent a country's
choosing a form of Fascism?
8. \hat steps should be taken to reduce economic imperialism?
Can anything he said in its favor?
g. How can a new League of Nations be assured of success?
10. How can we reduce such causes of war as economic rivalries,
racial arrogance, international jealousy, greed, suspicion, fear,
prejudice, ignorance, inhumanity, and exploitation?

Political
1. Should eighteen year olds be given the vote?
2. How can the average citizen make his influence felt in govern-
mental matters?
3. How can political abuses of power be reduced?
4. Under what circumstances, if any, would it be desirable for
Franklin D. Roosevelt to run for a fourth term?
5. How can the people as a whole counteract the work of pressure
groups which effect the passage of legislation for their own
private interests?

Social
1. What post-war social reforms in this country are most urgent?
2. What ways are open to alert, public-spirited citizens to bring
about needed civic improvements and social reforms?
3. How can the returning men in our armed forces be assured
of a job-the right job?
4. What changes in our manner of living does science forecast
for us?

Economic
1. Under what conditions, if any, is a fairly stable peace be-
tween labor and management possible?
2. How can the economic problems posed by our tremendous war
expenditures be solved?
3. What vocations will require the most workers after the war?








EXPRESSING 0I'INIIONS ,oI

.1 \\'i t ,, Ie of lli :l,.,rj:Ierit.c, .1l tlle iii.Il-licent co.n-
-urnm.'-r/
5 \\'hat role h:io Ih-- : pr..tI-du -r .:oo|e>r.-lii ,- i rd., l., l an 1 i.i
coiunlrv at Il.: pr.:,'"rl limJn -,
6. \\'lV t functions do conrurnhl r tooperalic sberve ic t tlic prcient
time?

Edlucafionol
i. \Vihat curricular changes would you, as the educatee, suggest
for secondary education?
2. What changes would you suggest in the teaching of various
subjects?
3. How can schools do more to help students vocationally?
4. What are the arguments for and against an education that is
largely concerned with cultural background?
5. How can schools help solve the major problems that con-
front youth?

"A Peace Conference"
After careful preparation, members of the class presented a round
table discussion of the coming peace conference following an Allied
victory over the Axis: "representatives" of all nations considered peace
aims and peace plans. The projection of themselves into the situation
helped students to understand the points of view of the various
countries.

Map Talks
The use of maps helped to buttress current events reports and to
clarify geographic concept in global war.

The Experts Talk
Members of the class joined one of several committees which
were formed to investigate and report on various aspects of the war.
Each member of a given committee became an "authority" on one
phase of the topic. The reports; (e.g. The Commandos, The Flying
Tigers, American Heroes) proved fascinating to the audience while the
knowledge that the rest of the class depended on them for facts in-
spired speakers to make their reports thorough, accurate, and in-
teresting.








20 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

Headlines Contest
Pupils submitted headlines that told of important events, and that,
at the same time, included war vocabulary studied another day. The
headlines were put into a hat, drawn, explained. Students' acquain-
tance with the facts of the war was made sharper as a result of play-
ing this little game.

The Melting Pot
The class conducted a symposium in which speakers presented
the contributions of different racial groups to the enrichment of our
country. Classes were grouped into committees under a chairman,
each group being responsible for the presentation of material connected
with one national or racial strain. The work contributed toward the
breaking down of prejudices.

Evaluating News
I found that the subjects chosen by students for current events
talks were often of a trivial nature and that they were not using the
newspapers to advantage. We decided to choose a topic that they
thought important to the world in its fight for improved conditions.
Each student brought his particular choice to class and gave us its
most important points. \e then condensed it to headline propor-
tions and placed it on the board. When about two-thirds of the
period was over, we evaluated these items in terms of their being
beneficial or harmful to our cause.
I was enabled to see the students' growth in understanding world
affairs for, as the weeks passed, they evidenced greater awareness of
the significant as distinct from the trivial, and they seemed to see the
implications of events more clearly.

Timely Talks
Students prepared themselves to speak on one of the following
topics:
1. A movie which told me something about one of our Allies
that I did not know before.
2. A movie that has shown me how the conquered peoples are
resisting the Nazis.
3. A movie short or a documentary film that has shown me what








EXPRESSING OPINIONS 21

ihe .inie.l Si,.r- is doing to win either at the front or at

4. A radio program that has helped me understand what we are
fighting against or what we are fighting for.

The most popular subjects were films such as Mrs. Miniver, The
Pied Piper, The Mortal Storm, and Moscow Strikes Back. After each
report, members of the class joined informally in a discussion, adding
their own opinions and questioning some of the ideas expressed. These
discussions brought out a surprising wealth of student experience and
opinion which, in turn, prompted a series of organized discussions.

Common Talk
Treating misguided remarks made in conversation according to
the method indicated in the following table should prove useful in
combating Axis propaganda and the disruptive activities of fifth
columnists.





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Developing Verbal Power


The unique contribution of English is its conscious, directed en-
deavor to develop mature, well-spoken personalities. It is the only
subject that aims primarily to develop the power to communicate ideas
effectively and to apprehend accurately the communication of others.
Any significant improvement in these abilities is a contribution to our
war potential as well as to the establishment of the better world that
is to follow.

Reading
A reading program should aim principally to develop accuracy
of comprehension. As much as possible, it should be based on satis-
fying student needs and should gather momentum as students sense
the power they are acquiring and realize the value of this power.
English departments might measure their present effectiveness
against the Check List for Reviewing a Reading Curriculrn prepared
by the Division of Curriculum Research of the Board of Education
in July, 1942.
Reading Comprehension
The English Department of our High School maintains for each
grade of work a file of precis selections typed on cards and arranged
in class sets of forty. Among them is much material pertinent to the
war effort and provocative of greater awareness of democratic respon-
sibility.
Two selections, allocated to the Fiftl and sixth terms, follow:
East and west today are one. \Var has swept the peoples of the
world together and whether we arc ready for this union or not, we
have been forced to it by necessity. The union will continue, whether
we want it or not, after the war is over. Not the western peoples
alone will make this war, nor will western peoples alone make the
peace after the war. For the first time in human history, the whole
human race must shape the world.







26 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

It is more essential today than ever, therefore, that the peoples of
the East and West understand each other in all possible ways. We
must know each other. Our faces, our ways of living, our feelings
and thoughts must be familiar and comprehensible to each other. But
such understanding can only be based upon knowledge and we have
not that knowledge. Our allies, the Chinese, are still strange to us,
and we are strange to them. Our present enemies, the Japanese, are
still less known, and still more strange to us, and we to them. We
do not know our own Oriental people, the Filipinos, nor the peoples
of India or of Thailand, nor of the Netherlands East Indies, nor do
they know us. We do not even know very well New Zealand or
Australia, those great western islands in the eastern seas, nor even
Russia, a continent whose people is more eastern than western. Nor
do these know us any better. Outward circumstances have compelled
us now to closeness, but inwardly we are still separate because of our
ignorance of each other's peoples.
Memorandum by Pearl S. Buck 279 words

"This is the toughest war of all time," the President told the
nation. And only a great people, under great leadership, can survive
it and win it. Are we a great enough people? No one will question
the quality of our fighting men, of the sort symbolized by Lieut. John
James Powers, whom the President cited for his single-minded heroism
in the Coral Sea Battle. But thus far the people on the home front
have not shown greatness. America is a huge slumbering giant that
has not risen to the full height of massive strength and moral resolve.
Because of the war, our income is higher than ever in history. Despite
the war, our living standards are higher than ever in history. The
meaning of suffering has not come home to us. It is still an echo
from distant climes and alien shores. Suffering is something the
Russians are having to bear before Stalingrad; it is spelled out in
their blood-soaked earth, their ruined cities, their ditches choked with
civilians mowed down by Nazi firing squads.
It has been the constant companion of the Chinese for six years.
It is a familiar of the ghettoes of the European Jews, and among the
silent and sullen men from the mountains of Yugoslavia to the Nor-
wegian fjords. Even these "master" races, the Germans and Japanese,
have not by their mastery been able to shut suffering out, as witness
their gaunt faces, their bleak dwellings, their ersatz clothing, their








DEVELOPING VERBAL POWER 27

shoddy culture. Shall the Americans pass suffering by with a hasty
nod, in this toughest war of all time?
from The New Republic 279 words
Vital Speeches
A committee of teachers volunteered to prepare several of the
most significant speeches of the day as a series of reading compre-
hension units. The questions were graded so that students of different
levels of reading ability might make use of the paragraphs. One set
of questions called for factual information contained in the paragraph;
another called upon the student to select the best title or otherwise
show that lie grasped the central idea; the third required the ability
to draw conclusions from or find implications in the paragraph.
These speeches with questions after each unit were then mimeo-
graphed and sets were made available to teachers. The following is
an example of a unit taken from \Vallace's Century of the Common
Alan Speech.
"I say that thle century on which we are entering-the century
which will come out of this war-will he and must be the century
of the common man. Perhaps it will be America's opportunity to
suggest the freedoms and duties by which the common man must live.
Everywhere the common man must learn to increase his productivity
so that lie and his children can eventually pay to the world com-
munity all that they have received. Everywhere the common man
must learn to build his own industries with his own hands in a prac-
tical fashion. No nation will have the God-given right to exploit
other nations. Older nations will have the privilege to help younger
nations get started on the path to industrialization, but there must be
neither military nor economic imperialism. The methods of the nine-
teenth century will not work in the people's century which is nowv
about to begin."
1. Peace must give
a. an American standard of living to the United Nations:
1). a lower standard of living to the people of Japan, Italy.
and Germany:
c. a higher standard of living to men everywhere.
2. The common man
a. must increase productivity;
b. can take life easy;
c. will be free from the drudgery of manual labor.







ENGLISH FOR VICTORY


3. With regard to other nations
a. it will still be the white man's duty to rule;
b. the industrialization of small nations must stop;
c. large countries must be broken up;
d. no nation has a right to exploit.
4. Which of the following would you select as the titles for
the above selection?
a. America's Opportunity
b. The People's Century
c. The Rights of Small Nations
d. Industrialization and Imperialism
s. Since "there must be neither military nor economic imperial-
ism," how will poorer nations manage to develop their own
resources?

Vocabulary
"An extensive knowledge of the exact meanings of English words
accompanies outstanding success in this country more than any other
single characteristic."-Johnson O'Connor.

Words at War
"Words are weapons"-PearI Buck.
Because of the increasing emphasis on vocabulary in placement
tests for the armed forces, Civil Service examinations, and similar
competitive examinations for various kinds of positions, it would seem
as if the teacher of English has a very natural motivation today for
concerted attack on vocabulary extension.
The following list suggests an approach based on words of im-
portance in interpreting the news and in understanding war situations.
This same approach, of course, could just as easily be applied to any
list of words culled from a particular area of interest, like technical
terms in mathematics of science. The list shows how a real under-
standing of words frequently used in the newspapers or on the radio
with- respect to the war situation can be capitalized for vocabulary
growth of a general nature.
The concomitants of this approach are a guide to better spelling
when the students learn the "bricks" by which words are built and
an ability to analyze new combinations in the light of familiar com-
ponents. It goes without saying, of course, that as much of this ma-









DEVELOPING \'ERB3.L POWER 29

trial as possible should be drawn from the student's own back-
ground of words. Students' vocabularies are frequently larger than
we suspect, but they tend to separate words into vacuums and not
realize how one word can throw light on another, largely because of
their paucity of background in foreign language.
These words will not really be assimilated properly unless the
student is given plenty of contextual material and urged to use the
words whenever they are suitable.


War Words That Widen Vistas
Word Root Meaning


\Vords Related by Derivation


ACCESS accedere approach process, recess, recessional, processional

AGGRESSOR aggressor attack aggressive, aggression, congress, digres-
sion, process, egress, regressive

ALTIMETER altus high mete, barometer, diameter, symmetrical,
metron measure thermometer, audiometer, metric, centi-
meter, kilometer, metronome

ATTRITION tritus worndown trite, contrite, detriment, detritus
by grinding

CAPITULATE caput head recapitulate, decapitate, per capital, cap-
tivate, capital, captain, chapter, cattle.
chattel. chief. achieve

CASUALTY cadere. fall accident, incidence, incident, coincidence,
casum cadence, casual, decadent, chance, mis-
chance

CIRCUMVENT circum around adventitious, adventure, peradventure.
venire come convene, supervene, inventor, event,
eventuate, convention, venture, vent,
advent

CONFERENCE ferre bear, carry deference, reference, inference, dif-
ference, differential, deferment, efferent

CONSCIENTIOUS scio know science, scientific, conscience, omniscient.
(OBJECTOR) prescience, sciolist

CONSCRIPTION scriho write description, describe, prescription, pre-
scribe, inscription, inscribe, subscribe.
subscription, proscribe, postscript

CONSPIRACY spiro breathe spirit, spiritual, aspirant, aspire, inspire.
conspire, transpire, inspiration, aspirate









30 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

Word Root Meaning Words Related by Derivation

CREDENTIALS credo believe creed, credit, credible, incredible,
credence, credulity, credulous

CRYPTOGRAM crypto, hidden cryptograph, cryptic, telegram, radio-
gram. write gram, graphite, photography, phono-
graph graph, apocryphal

DEMOCRACY demos people demagogue, autocracy, plutocrat, en-
kratein rule demic. epidemic, pandemic

DICTATOR dicere, say diction, dictionary, benediction, contra-
dictum diction, edict, verdict, predict, dictate

INTERCEPTOR inter between reception, receive, inception, precept,
capio seize accept, deceive

NAVAL navis ship navigator, navigable, circummnavigate.
nauticus seaman nautical, aeronautics, nausea, nautilus

PACIFIST pax, peace pacific, pacify, peace, appease, pay, pax
pacis vobiscum

POLICY polis city polity, police, political, metropolis, met-
ropolitan. cosmopolitan

PROJECTILE jacere, throw eject, reject, inject, dejected, interjection,
jactum abject, objection, subject, project, ad-
jective

RECONNAISSANCE re again reconnoiter, recognize, recognition, rec-
cognoscere know agnizance, cognizance, cognizant, cogni-
ance process of tion, incognito

SUBMARINE sub under marine, mariner, maritime, ultramarine,
mare sea aquamarine

SUBVERSIVE sub under version, avert, divert, revert, verse, ver-
vertere turn satile, invert, anniversary, version, trans-
verse, convertible

TERRITORIAL terra earth terra Firma, terra cotta, terrestrial, terrain,
inter. Mediterranean

VICTORY vinco, conquer victor, victorious, evict, convince, invin-
victus cible, victim

Other possibilities include the following: aggrandizement, agri-
culture, alien, annihilation, armistice, aviator, ballistic, censorship,
charter, citation, civilian, combatant, communism, concentrate, contra-
band, contingent, convoy, coordinate, corporal, correspondent, coup,







DE\'ELOPING \'ERB.AL POWER 31

iuIle\I dtiiate dir liv-e, economic, evacuation, fascism, fatigue,
liii\. for:-.ul .irihe-. u .roscope, hostility, humane, ideology, impedi-
menta, imperialism, incendiary, justice, liberty, lieutenant, logistics,
minority, majority, market, martial, material, missile, morale, natural,
neutral, nutrition, Pan-Americanism, plenipotentiary, propaganda, pro-
lect, pursuit, radiophoto, ration, refugee, regiment, reprisal, resources,
salient, salvage, sedition, sentinel, social, survey, synthetic, technician,
totalitarian, tourniquet, transport, treachery, treaty, ultimatum, vitamin.

War Words in Sentences
The underlined words and expressions used daily in the press and
on the radio. How many of them do your boys and girls know and
ise correctly?
i. The scorched earth policy angered the invaders. 2. A late
communique reported the sinking. 3. The local quislings were rounded
up). 4. All the commandos returned safely. 5. Guards were posted to
prevent sabolage. 6. Yugo-slav guerillas are reported active. 7. Hen-
derson described the inflation danger. 8. The Norwegian bishops de-
fied reprisals. 9. Steel is high on the list of priorities. 10. A camp for
conscienlious objectors. i. A two-hour reconnaissance flight. 12. The
atrocities in Czecho-Slovakia have been confirmed. 13. The people
were warned against complacency. 14. An auxiliary vessel was also
lost. 15. The ground troops were strafed by the planes. 16. The de-
fenders repulsed a frontal attack. 17. More Dutch hostages were
executed. 18. The second A.E.F. landed in Africa. 19. The R.A.F.
pounded the Ruhr. 20. The Navy awarded an "E" pennant. 21. \Ve
encountered heavy ack ack fire. 22. Nelson, chairman of the W.P.B.,
announced a priority change. 23. The O.P.A. warned against patroniz-
ing the Black Mlarket. 24. Again the U.S.S.R. took the offensive. 25.
Congress debated the proposed cut for the O.V.I. 26. The B.B.C.
denied the story. 27. \\omen were evacuated first. 28. The spirit of
Pan-American solidarity grew stronger. 29. Hitler used anti-Semitism
as a weapon. 30. Liberals protested against the Jim Crow laws. 51.
Even non-combatants were not spared. 32. Every soldier is equipped
with sulfanimides. 33. The convoy arrived safely. 34. Appeasement of
the Nazis failed time and time again. 35. The forces of aggression
must be defeated. 36. Subversive activity endangers us all. 37. The
American soldier has high morale. 38. The Axis threatened a spring
offensive. 39. The freezing of prices helped prevent inflation. 40. No







32 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

military objectives were hit. 41. The U-Boat was long overdue. 42.
The large number of German casualties helped shorten the war. 43.
The field was carefully camouflaged. 44. Incendiary bombs rained
down. 45. Willkie urged the end of isolation. 48. Rationing is the
fairest solution. 49. Grand Grand strategy was discussed. 5o. The
cabinet considered the proposals.

Vocabulary Devices
Many interesting lessons and fruitful discussions, numerous oppor-
tunities for research and report, new fields for observation and inquiry,
will spring naturally from a study of vocabulary. Some of the follow-
ing suggestions may prove useful:
i. Each expression should be presented in the context of the
day's news wherever possible.
2. Students should be encouraged to watch the daily newspapers
for items containing new war phrases to be clipped and
mounted in a section of the notebook.
3. Oral English days devoted to current events and debates on
live issues offer abundant opportunities for presentation and
explanation of current terms.
4. Let students find the hidden pictures in current phrases: the
Land of the Rising Sun, Trojan horse tactics, a ring of steel,
fifth column.
5. Have students find the wartime meaning for ordinary words
or the special signification acquired through military use; e.g.
shock troops.
6. Give students a group of seven or eight related words and ask
that these be incorporated into an intelligent paragraph.
7. Ask students to think about a particular problem, such as
Our Victory Production Program, and study those words
which they would have to know in order to discuss the sub-
ject intelligently. Other problems might be Changes in Our
Way of Living Brought about by the War, Morale in War-
time, or A News Report from the Front.
8. A vocabulary and phrase list might be kept in notebooks,
each word or phrase to be illustrated by a picture or news-
paper clipping.








DEVELOPING \ER3BAL POWER 33

WVar Word Origins
Some interesting origins appear below. Students should be en-
couraged to find others.
The soldier who throws a hand grenade into the midst of enemy
forces would be surprised to learn that his missile was named after a
fruit. The first grenades resembled the pomegranate and were called
granada, which was the Spanish name for that fruit.
The word sabotage has come to us from the French word for
wooden shoe. In order to damage industrial plants, striking workers
would throw their wooden shoes (sabots) into the machinery.
The torpedo got its name from the torpedo fish which it seemed to
resemble. Curiously, the name of that fish had come from the Latin
description of it as lifeless, or torpid.
The Greeks had a word, bombs, which meant "hollow sound."
The Latin word bombus meant "noise." It is not hard to see that the
bomb was appropriately named.
The shrapnel shell consisting of enclosed bullets and fragments
which shower when the shell explodes, is named for its inventor. The
British officer who first made this type of shell, Henry Shrapnel (1761-
1842), became Inspector of Artillery.
Because the open parachute offered great resistance to air and
slowed the descent of a falling body, the French took the name for the
contrivance from two words which meant "to shield from a fall." The
first successful parachute descent from a balloon was made in 1797
by a Frenchman, Jacques Garnerin, who dropped 3000 feet.
Although we frequently speak of the fifth column, not all of us
know that the expression is a relatively new one. During the recent
Spanish Civil \Var, General Franco's four columns were at the gates
of Madrid when one of his chiefs, General de Llano, announced that
there was a "fifth column" already in the city waiting to aid the
attack. It was from this incident that the term came to be applied in
general to spies or agents who work within an enemy country.
Teaching Helps
1. Parry, Louise G.-The War Dictionary.
2. Scott-Foreslnan and Co.-Building the Dictionary Habit (This
is intended for use with the Thorndike-Century Junior Dic-
tionary.)
3. G. and C. Merriam Company-(Chart) How to Use Your
Dictionary, Picturesque Word Origins, How Accurate Is Your








34 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

Vocabulary? (Test), Better Dictionary Work Habits, Quirks
and Quizzes, (Six Tests of Your Vocabulary), Word Study,
(Pamphlet of interesting information appearing periodically).
4. Bellafiore, Joseph-Words at Worck.

Writing
Slogans
Slogans are rallying cries. Wartime slogans may also be battle
cries. Since our nation's war struggle is premised upon the dignity
of the individual and upon the continuation of civilization, it is to be
expected that our war cries and slogans will contain both emotion and
truth. The first of the slogan lessons leans heavily upon the intellectual
inheritance of our culture: the second leans more heavily upon the
emotions. Used together, both types of lesson plans will intensify our
efforts in the classroom to enlist our pupils' civilized feelings in the
battle for democracy.


Contrasting Slogans
DEMOCRACY


Government
"Government of the people, by "The state? That is II"-Louis
the people, for the people."- XIV
Lincoln


DICTATORSHIP


Truth
"The truth will set you free."-
Bible
VWar and
"War is hell."-Shermani



"All treaties made shall be the
supreme law of the land."-
Constitution


"The bigger the lie, the better."
-Hitler
Peace
"War ennobles the soul and
brings out the highest virtues.
-Mussolini
"W\hy shouldn't I sign a treaty
one day and break it the next,
if it will help Germany?"-
Hitler


Equality
"All men are created equal."- "The German folk is the master
Declaration of Independence race."-Nazi Creed








DEVELOPING VERBAL POWER 35

Freedom


"Freedom of expression, freedom
of worship, freedom from want,
freedom from fear."-Roosevelt
Edllcati
"Enlighten the people generally.
and tyranny and oppression will
vanish."-Jefferson
Chlrit
"\Vitl malice toward none, with
charity for all."-Lincoln


"The people do not want to rule
but to be ruled. Men are tired
of liberty." -'\ ussolini
oil
"I will have no intellectual train-
ing. Knowledge is ruin."-Hiiller



Leave them only tlieir eyes-to
weep w\ith."-Bismarck


Experiments in WVriting \VNrlime Slogans
Aim:
1. To develop power in original, purposeful writing.
2. To encourage pupil participation in the war effort through the
writing of slogans for posters.

Preparation and Mlotivation:
To reiterate the need for change from our former pattern of luxury
and sophistication to one of sacrifice while conserving our institutions
and preparing for a democratic tomorrow.

Procedure:
Define slogaln-Ancient war cry of Highland clan: now watch-
word of party. Catch phrase or motto for advertising purposes.
List various types of slogans, as developed or remembered by class.
i. Look Vlho's Listening-Caution Slogans:
Loose lips sink ships. Button your lips. Keep mum. If you
must tell it, tell it to the Marines.
2. F:iht and Sacrifice
Give till it hurts. Buy a share in America. Share ;a ride.
\Vork, fight, give. Make democracy live.
3. Production Slogans:
Clear tie lines for war. All out for production. As many as
possible of next year's planes this year. From the high C of
production, to the seven seas of the wartorn world. Today's
cargoes can't wait for tomorrow's planes.
4. Slogans Against Hoarding








ENGLISH FOR VICTORY


Hoarding helps Hitler. Too much on your shelf means too
little for our boys.
5. Service Appeals
Any bonds today? Buy a share in America. There's fighting
metal in your old keys. Physical fitness aids Uncle Sam.
6. Twisting Time-Worn Sayings
Right is Might. Say it with guns and planes and fighting
men.
7. Short Rhymed Slogans
Right of way
for U.S.A.
Higher taxes
Beat the Axis
Save tin;
Help us win
Salvage scrap
And lick the Jap

Application:
1. Vary old slogans or write new ones of each type; choose
simple, direct words.
2. Read the slogans aloud. See that all unnecessary words are
eliminated.
3. Choose the best slogans for class posters, to be illustrated by
volunteers.

Summary:
The pattern of democratic life has altered to a need for sacrifice,
conservation, and caution.
Writing slogans to emphasize this pattern invariably: a. affords
fun, b. improves the ability to write crisp, effective sentences, and c.
provides an opportunity to take part in the war effort.

Assignment:
Mount in note book slogans cut from newspapers and magazines.

Letters to Service Men-A Class Project
Aim:
To combine letter-writing with a practical and realistic purpose.








DEVELOPING VERBAL POWER


Proparatior n.
E: cli sludeni was given the name and address of an alumnus now
er.inv \%jilli Ilei armed forces of the United States. Students were
isk,.l o Iroj,:. I themselves into this situation and discuss their own
rer'-ncn up.ii. receiving unexpected mail. The responses indicated
tlit de'siril)lil of writing to service men even though they were
sIrannger to tli present generation of students. The class agreed that
a common i bondI existed between them.


The prrol:-lmn was to formulate a guide which would aid them in
tile proper technical or mechanical procedure as well as set an ethical
standard which would decide questions of content. Students were
requested to bring in a list of rules, hints, and suggestions which
might help to solve these problems.
Lesson:
The discussion the next day hinged upon the appropriateness of
each suggestion and clearly demonstrated that judgment and under-
standing had been exercised. Incidentally, many debates on procedure
involved questions of ethical conduct and etiquette. The dividing line,
for example, between friendliness and forwardness was finely drawn.
When the discussion ended, the secretary read the list of suggestions
which had received class approval. The assignment was to incorporate
these in an actual letter to be written over the weekend to someone
in the armed services. Their efforts were to be judged by the friendly
tone of the replies and perhaps by the expressed desire of the recipient
to "hear from you again."
As the letters came in, they were read to the class and analyzed.
The attempts to judge the character and personality of the sender
proved to be interesting experiments in psychology.

Letters to Service Men-Stimulus of Sensory Appeals
The friendly letter of today imparts information and at the same
time increases the morale on the home front and among our boys in
the service. The writing of such letters is frequently motivated by
means of sensory appeals.
Pictorial:
Display pictures from the newspapers and magazines showing
soldiers, sailors, marines receiving their mail on the fighting fronts








ENGLISH FOR VICTORY


and in camps. Emphasize the obvious pleasure shown by the boys
who get letters from home in contrast to the disappointment of the
boy who has not had a letter from home as indicated by the mail
clerk's shake of the head.
Mention and explain the OWI film, Letter from Bataan. Ex-
plain the importance of home contacts for maintaining the morale
and the spirit of fighting men.

Auditory:
Read the following clipping by \orld-Telegram staff writer,
Jay Nelson Tuck:
"Mitzi Mayfair, the dancer, had just given a performance with
three other stars for some American soldiers in England when Abe
Lastfogel, President of the USO camp shows, handed her some letters
he had brought down from London.
"Miss Mayfair was engrossed in one when she looked up and
saw a soldier staring hungrily at her.
"Is that a very personal letter?" he asked hesitantly.
She said it was not.
'Would you mind very much if I read it?' he asked. 'I haven't
had a letter of my own in so long.'
"That is the sort of nostalgia for home that American performers
meet when they work for soldiers. Even the smallest things make a
difference."
Refer to the March of Time radio broadcast in which parts of
letters To the Brave Defenders of Stalingrad were read-short wave
radio broadcasts by the Russian Propaganda Ministry to the soldiers
in the field from their loved ones at home. Other excellent examples
are Letters to Joe in PM and the letter of the captain to his wife
in The Last Days of Sevastopol.
Fred Waring of the Chesterfield Hour asks for letters to be
written to the boys in the service every night.
In preparing to write letters, pupils are asked to obtain the name
and address of someone in the service-a member of the family or a
friend preferably. Otherwise, such addresses can be obtained from
the Stage Door Canteen, Civilian Defense Headquarters, Local Draft
Boards, churches, alumni of your own school, etc. Pupils are directed
to think of some message they can send this service man which will
help keep up his morale.








DEVELOPING VERBAL POWER 39

B.-fore the actual writing, it may be well to read specimen letters
to the class. Letters from the service men to pupils in class may be
reacd t.:' indicate what the boys in the armed forces want to hear about.

Lctlltr to Editors
Letters that students actually mail carry with them a far greater
c:.n\i.:tion than do mere practice letters. \hen student interest in
rallk.r. of current importance seems to be very keen, it is advisable
I, rmncourage expression of thought and feeling in a realistic fashion.
Letters might well be written to editors of newspapers, to representa-
tives in the state or national government, to the school newspaper, or
to an organization that might be interested in the matter. The class
might vote on which letters are sufficiently meritorious to be mailed.
A variation is to designate a committee which will draft a letter
embodying the best ideas of the class, submit it to the class for
approval, make suggested changes, and mail it.
It is not recommended, of course, that mediocre, trivial, flippant,
insincere, or unnecessary letters ever be mailed.

Occasions for Formal Letters in Wartime
Letters to war agencies may be considered an integral part of the
teaching of business letters. Possibilities follow:
1. To the O.P.A. for consumers' pledges; filling in the pledge
and posting it.
2. To Volunteer Land Corps for information regarding oppor-
tunities to help in the farm program.
3. To the various services regarding qualifications for specialized
training; e.g. radio communication, aviation, signal corps.
4. To organizations and agencies for material relating to class
projects and investigations.

Wartime Topics
The following topics have, when introduced appropriately, stim-
ulated students to their best writing efforts. New topics of a similar
nature are constantly presenting themselves.

Miscellaneous:
Lisbon-Spy Center of the World, Panama Canal. A Refugee's
View of New York Harbor, The Maginot Line, Global Travel of the







40 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

Future, The Jeep, Pan-American Hook-up, How Miami Has Changed!
The French National Committee of Liberation, An Internment Camp,
Take-off for Britain, England before the Blitz, Oil in Iraq. Central
American Aerial Mules, The Inquiring Foreman, Don't Shoot a
Hawaiian More Than Twice, A Foreign Correspondent in Rome, A
Slip of the Lip, The Stab in the Back, I've Just Begun to Fight.

Youth and the War:
How to Become a.................................... (spot welder, aviator, etc.), I
W ant to Join the.................................... (army, navy, etc.), How to Earn a
Commission in the.................................... (army, navy, marines). Youth in Avia-
tion, Special Schools for Special Jobs, Army Classification Tests, I
Help to \Vin the War, Attending Pre-Induction Classes, \Vhy I
Should (or Should Not) Leave School, What I Am Doing for the
Boys in Service, My Wartime "Keep Fit" Program.

The Home Front:
The Effect of the War on My Family, The Values of a First Aid
Course, Salvaging for Victory, Medical Care in Time of War, 'My
Family's Interest in the War, My Block's Service Flag, How the War
Has Changed My Buying Habits, Planning Meals to Help Win the
War, Saving \ater (or Gas, Electricity, Gasoline, etc.), The Black
Market, The OPA on Trial, People Want the Truth on the Radio,
My Life Minus the Automobile, The First Hundred Years Are the
Hardest, Wartime Clothing, Waste-The Enemy at Home, Industry
and the Army Fight for vlanpower, Inflation-Its Dangers and Avoid-
ance, Doing Without, How I Fight the War in My Neighborhood,
The Inflationary Gap.

Ideals for Which We Fight: The World after the War:
The Four Freedoms, The American Heritage, Taking Freedom
for Granted, Keeping Alive the American Faith in Democracy,
Things for whichh Every American Should Be Thankful, A Modern
Macbeth, This Is Worth Fighting for, For a Safer World, The
Atlantic Charter, To Keep Our People Free, How the War Is Affect-
ing My Ideas about Other Nations, What Machinery for International
Collaboration Would Work? Problems of the Post-War Period, Free-
dom from Want-Is It Possible? Keeping up Morale in Changing
from War to Peace, The Civilian's Role in Reconstruction, Ways to
Further My Education after the War, When Peace Comes, What








DEVELOPING VERBAL PO\VER


\\ill Tomorrow's World Be Like? The Kind of worldd \e \Vant
to l.i,. iir.
S.-ion, e and thie \Var:
T..t Pilot, \ar in the Air, \VW at Makes a Radio \ork, \Wlat
Mlake: ani Airplane \Vork. Aircraft Maintenance, How to Read Blue-
pri1ni. Plastics for Industrial Use. Radar, The American Anti-tank
Gun, American Firing Power, American Air Superiority, Plasma
Saves Lives. Sulfa Drugs in Battle. Mass Production, Atabrine and
Malaria, \ar Planes of 1943 and 1944, Types of Airplanes, Model
Airplanes.
Fighting the \War:
Slogans for Victory. Great Leaders in the Fight for Freedom,
Feeding Our Allies, U. S. Service Symbols, Ferrying Bombers, Air
Power: The Key to Victory, A Terrible Two Hours over Germany.
The Commandos, The Flying Tigers, The Navy Blimp Patrol, Last
Days of Warsaw, Our Base \Vas Shangri-La. One Failed to Return,
The German and the Guerilla. Victory Story of the \eek, Our Allies
in the War. How Can I Keep Up with the \ar, \\hat's Going on
in.................................... (Italy, Russia, the Pacific), O ur A llies in the East,
War Songs, The Latest in Air Attack and Defense, Our Parachute
Troops, Our Air Bases at Home and Abroad, An Outstanding Amer-
ican Aviator, \Var as Fought by Radio, Biggest War News of the
Week, An Outstanding Motion Picture about the \Var, An Out-
standing Hero of the \ar, An Outstanding Book about the War.

Topics Based on Emotions and Feelings
The titles listed below appeal to the emotions: joy, surprise, re-
gret, embarrassment, triumph, pity, love of fellowmen.
Before the lesson begins, the teacher places several topics on the
board. By the time the class is seated, the power of the titles will
have begun to take effect. The more rapid students readily make
associations with the suggestions on the board. Each will make some-
thing different of the title. The preliminary oral discussion should
be full and recounted in detail. In itself, this oral period of prepara-
tion should be profitable as an exploration of ideas. More and more
ideas will be forthcoming from the class. Sometimes the ideas are
amazingly varied, covering a most unexpected range of experience.
Tlie utmost ramification should be permitted. Variation from the








42 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

suggestions contained in the nuclear topic should be encouraged, for
it is imagination that is at work. Once the class catches the mood
of the war topics their ideas fow freely. Conviction unifies all one's
experiences into emotional cohesion. These topics will help to bring
out the conscious and subconscious impulses innate in the democratic
mind.
When most of the students have obtained ideas, the writing be-
gins. The colloquial quality of the key sentences should help prime
the flow of the pupils' own thoughts. The teacher goes about the
room, helping the slower ones who cannot get their own ideas nor
make use of ideas suggested by their classmates.
The motivating effect of the method is cumulative, for familiarity
with it helps to quicken associative powers in the students.

Personal:
Never again! That's his bad luck. I know just what I want. If
I had my way . They didn't believe we could do it. I keep von-
dering. He will never hear the end of it. Do you wonder I changed
my mind? Away from it all! Thank Heavens, that's over. Every
time I think of it, my blood boils. That's the kind of life I'd like to
lead. I just had to tell someone or burst. I can remember it as if
it were yesterday. The moment I saw my friend's face, I knew some-
thing had happened. I could hardly wait to tell everyone. I have
to laugh every time I think of it. They should have known better
than to do such a thing. Do you wonder that I'm angry all through?
Nothing is too good for our boys. That's my idea of a real hero.
What more can a person wish for? They'll be home. There's some-
thing I just can't stand. I think it's better this way. That's one thing
life has taught me. Life must go on just the same. Perhaps someone
here can help me out. Some things you have to learn by yourself.
As I look around me . What else could they do?

Family, Friends, and Neighbors:
How changed our family life is! How she scrimps and saves!
Welcome home again! MTy friends seem to be so completely different!
Nothing pleases people more. I told him to change his ways! He
seemed the kind of person I'd like to know better. Some day we'll
meet again, I hope. Some people have the most peculiar ideas. It's
the same the whole world over. It's possible for life to be really
beautiful.







DE\'ELOPING \'ERBAL POWER 45

fI..- S,',riis Siti.
\\'h.; i, tie v.orld coming to? It has to be done. Who is really
I. bldaine \\' li.t %\ill people say? But there must be something that
(ai' 1 I.n 1 ?1. i' It retty hard to make up your mind about a thing
i.3 11ii;t 1il iii iiI ii made ip now. Funny, how things turn out!
I i. niut ,I-,,i \ c\iected at all! \Vhat some people won't do for
u L,,.:,I L', i.ot make the same mistake. And that's only the be-
-in,,iiin it o'.u,' I :e long now! It all began when . So much
to I: I..c -o:. and ni o t. imne to do it! Life is whliat you make it. There's
iio liHnr Ill. e tihe pr.:.ent. Sometliiig must have gone wrong. They
Icl ll.u ine. ()r,:. thing leads to another. Things are happening
fast now. And that isn't all. Figure it out for yourself. \hat's done
is done. It's worth trying. Of course I care!

Emotion and Excilenent:
Today is the day! The moment draws nearer and nearer. Now
I know just how he feels. IMy turn will come! I can't tell you how
glad I am. They asked for it. \VWhy, it's the best thing that ever
happened to him. Count me out! I'll never try that again.

Indignation and Anger:
That's no way to do it. Look what we're up against. Hands off!
If only I could do it over again! There's simply no pleasing some
people. \VW at a mean trick! That's gratitude for you! All that work
for nothing. \Ve'll let such things happen again. He certainly has
it coming to him. Well, it's about time. It's no laughing matter.

Change:
All is now well again. How times have changed! Everything
comes to him who waits. \Vhat a world of good it does him. Now
he knovs better. \ lien I first tried it, it looked hard. There'll be
some changes made. \Vell, what next?

Work and Action:
\hat's all the rush about? That's what 1 call a busy day.
\ork! WorkI Work! There's not a moment to be lost. So much
to be done! Everything happened just as planned. Everything was
quiet, until . Think fast! Keep up the good work! They certainly
know how.







44 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

Optimism and Happiness:
Thanks for everything. What more can anyone ask? It's not
too late even now. That's my idea of a real man. Everything's going
to be all right. Somewhere, sometime ..

Composition Project: Wartime Careers
The aim of this project was to get students to take the long view
about jobs in wartime; to tie in present opportunities with a future
career.
Each student in the class accepted responsibility for the vocation
he was most interested in. The information each student was to se-
cure could be subsumed under the following headings: Nature of the
Job, Working Conditions, Preparation Necessary, Hours, Pay, Pros-
pects (Advantages and Disadvantages), Books to Aid Advancement
in the Field.
Material for the reports emanated from all available sources; e.g.
first hand experience, observation, interviews with people in the field,
correspondence with organizations, radio, motion pictures, books, maga-
zines, trade journals, newspapers, lectures.
Some of the careers that students chose to report on were aeronau-
tical engineering, naval aviation, industrial chemistry, the navy air
corps, drafting, mechanical engineering, army air corps, aviation
mechanics, research chemistry, the signal corps, chemical engineering,
and pattern making.
\Vhen these reports were presented to the class, those who were
interested in the field being reported on, took notes. After each pre-
sentation, members of the class discussed the pros and cons of the
occupation as a career.

Oral English
Democracy vs. Dictatorship
Each of the comparisons listed below categorizes irreconcilable
antitheses between our way of life and those of dictatorships. After
the formulated antitheses have been explained, the pupil is encouraged
to cite examples from what he has seen and read which bears out the
contrasts. The analysis should end on a positive note; that is, on the
intrinsic merits of our institutions as shown in action. We are fight-
ing our enemies not in order to understand the wickedness of their








DEVELOPING \ERBA\L POWER 45

\\ai. I Iul in orderr to maIinitain tie goodness of ours. Thus tile final
accent should be optimistic.


DEMOCRACY


DICTATORSHIP


The Individual
Stresses the value of each in- Only tie state counts: the in-
dividual; apotheosizes the in- dividual is of no consequence
dividual. in himself.

The Family


Encourages family ties and loy-
alties.


Encourages one member to spy
upon another.


The Home


Considers every individual's
home an inviolate castle.


No privacy recognized. Subject
to search and invasion at all
times.


Knowledge
Urges dissemination of all avail- Carefully sifts, perverts, sup-
able knowledge. presses.


Intelligence


Glorifies and seeks to stimulate
it in all.


Degrades by substituting "obey"
for think.


Progress


Encourages by peaceful methods.


Suppresses by terrorism.


Religion


Guarantees religious freedom to
all.


The state is the only religion.


Science


Encourages full range of re-
search.


Regulates, controls, directs.


Allows free choice.


Vocation
Regiments each person totally.








46 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY


DEMOCRACY

Inculcates respect for all grou


DICTATORSHIP


Tolerance
ps. Exploits lo west prejudices
against race, creed, nationality.


Government
Seeks maximum participation by Restricts privileges to the few.
all citizens.


Educ
Aims to develop maximally all
the potentialities for good of the
child.

Labor and
Permits both to organize and
encourages them to negotiate
peacefully with each other; col-
lective bargaining.
Tr
Protects rights of accused to
public trial, jury, lawyer: inno-
cent until proved guilty.


Aims to establish unquestioning,
uncritical obedience. (Education
for Death).

Management
Forces both to accept complete
regimentation at the hands of
the state.


trials
Secret hearings: no rights for
accused.


Property
Guarantees protection against May confiscate at any time.
illegal seizure.


The
Encourages originality and com-
plete freedom of expression.


Arts
Prohibits and burns publicly
books, paintings, music, and all
art of which the dictator dis-
approves.


WVomen


Extends wide opportunity for
education, occupational choice,
and civic activities.


Considers them inferior to men
and restricts them to a few oc-
cupations.


Considers peace a blessing
strives to maintain it wi
neighbors.


War and Peace
g and Glorifies force, enslaves neigh-
th all boring, nations by terror, propa-
ganda, and military aggression.








DEVELOPING VERBAL POWER 17

Personality
E.lI.il- i,\l I opportunities for Demands uniformity of thought
:dluc;ti:on o,:ccupations and citi- and action.
,rii-lip \I.,m,( differences and


l)ru;nilizalti n--
Divide and Conquer
The following lesson is presented as an observer in the class
saw it.
Dear ----,
Your class met as an imaginary session of the Nazi Propaganda
Ministry planning the methods by which it would "poison the Ameri-
can mind" with divisive propaganda. In this way, your students in-
ductively derived the categories of treasonable themes listed as such
in the government publication Divide and Conquer.
The device was admirably calculated to give your students a clear
understanding of tile role of ideas subversive to sound democratic
morale. Thereby they would be enabled to recognize sucli propaganda
and guard against it. even when it assumed devious and subtle forms.
The categories developed were to serve as a touchstone for testing
rumors, criticism of national policy, public utterances, and press
comment.
The device was eminently dramatic. It stimulated universal,
eager, and imaginative participation. It served to sharpen sensitivity
and perspicacity both as to motive and implication. It deepened stu-
dent appreciation of the evil character of Nazism.
Obviously, the lesson formed part of a larger unit which will
provide further expressional experiences as well as wide reading of
current news and documentary works on current history and our war
for freedom.
The lesson was of such exceptional excellence, so ingeniously
contrived, and so well calculated to produce wortlhwhile outcomes that
1 sliall be happy to adopt your devices in nmy classes and to recommend
them to other teachers.

Scripts
i. The writers \Var Board of 122 East .12 Street, New York
City. lhas issued many short radio scripts hlat help lo emotionalize








48 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

current situations. Many of these can readily be adapted for class-
room use. A few of them are:
Tomorrow Will Be Ours by Howard Fast
Reminder to the Free by Michael Greenwood
American Family by Pearl S. Buck
The Boy Who Had No Hero by Ruth Wilson
A Gift for Healing by Margaret E. Langster
2. Students and teachers of many of our high schools have
written remarkable scripts suitable for classroom use. Two excellent
student-created scripts are entitled: Thicker than Water and Victory
Corps. Adults listening to Thicker than Water will donate their
blood if they possibly can.
3. The Script Sub-Committee of The War Sources Committee
has about 75 scripts in its possession; these are available for classroom
or assembly use. They may be borrowed by sending a request to Mr.
Edward Stasheff, Christopher Columbus High School, Bronx, N. Y.
4. The U. S. Office of Education has some good scripts avail-
able: e.g. Let Freedom Ring.
5. Scholastic Magazine reprints many short plays which are ex-
cellent for classroom dramatization. An example of a lesson based
on one such play follows.
They Burned the Books (Two Lessons)
Aim:
To contrast schools and their aims under fascism with those
under democracy.
Procedure:
A preliminary discussion considered such questions as: Why
would a fascist regime want to ban Einstein, Schiller, Heine, and
others? and Why are books valuable to a democracy?
The play was presented by students who had carefully rehearsed
their parts.
Reports were made by students who had previously volunteered
to read School for Barbarians, Education for Death, and other books
dealing with the same theme.
The closing discussion clinched the idea that books were dan-
gerous to dictators but indispensable to democracies. Historical ex-
amples of book burnings were brought in to illustrate the same point.
Students listed books that they considered unusually valuable to the
world and to the future of democracy.













A Better World


The burden of shaping that better world for which we are now
fighting will rest upon the boys and girls whom we are teaching today.
This world will be characterized, we hope, by peace, enlightenment,
brotherhood, freedom, and the opportunity for all people to live their
lives in dignity and security. These positive forces, by their very exu-
berance, should negate the evils of discrimination, exploitation, bigotry,
racism, prejudice, superstition, parasitism, and anti-social ambition.
Since much of our work, obviously, should aim to prepare students
for these tasks that lie ahead, it is only proper that a section of this
booklet be devoted to ways by which English can achieve that end.
Some of the procedures that can help build student morale and give
impetus to war-winning activities are indicated in the following lesson
units.

Frank Discussions
Certain questions tend to produce disunity in our country. One
day, members of the class suggested three of these questions for dis-
cussion. They were: Is the attitude of labor harming the war effort?
Is England really our friend? Can Russia be trusted?
The class was divided into three sections so that each student be-
came interested in one of the questions. Various sources of informa-
tion were mentioned. Four days later, we held a round table dis-
cussion. The class agreed, even though difference of opinion, in some
instances, still persisted, that it was better to air these questions and
discuss them than to ignore them as if they did not exist or to forbid
any expression of opinion.
Students' doubts need to be removed; their fears, resolved. Noth-
ing could be more wholesome than to encourage a frank facing of all
questions raised by students and to base answers on ascertainable
facts. Other questions that may well be discussed in a similarly
candid fashion follow.


(49)








50 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

Our Allies
1. In what ways is South America helping in the war effort?
2. \Vill Russia turn her government into a political democracy?
3. Some say the Russians will go against us after the Allied
victory. What is the probable truth about this?
4. Should China sit at the peace table on equal terms with the
major Allied powers?

Our Enemies
1. How can we persuade tie people of Germany to forget or
forswear their belief in Nazism?
2. In what ways do you think the German people should be
punished? Should revenge be asked by those whom they
have invaded and crushed? Japanese? Italian?
3. To what extent should we help the German people after the
victory is won? Japanese? Italian?
4. What measures would you advocate to break the hold of Nazi
thought on the youth of Germany?

Our Fighters
1. What will happen to the families of soldiers who do not re-
turn? WiII the United States government take care of them?
2. What should be our attitude if it is necessary to retain our
boys in the armed forces after the war in order to help police
the world?
3. How will men in the service be provided for after the war?
Will there be enough jobs for everyone?

Our Neighbors
1. What will be the position of the Negro after the war?
2. How can we check the spread of rumors that tend to make
us distrust people of other color, race, or creed?
3. How can we stop discrimination against races after the war?
4. Will there ever be real equality between the colored and the
white races in our country? All over the world?

Ourselves
1. How can people be persuaded to do more to help win the
war?








.1\ LETTER \\'ORLDE 51

2. Are newspaper editors reliable in interpreting the war news?
3. \Vlat effect will the war have on the next generation?
4. Should boys and girls of eighteen be permitted to vote?
5. \Vhat provision is made for the vocational future of eighteen
and nineteen year old boys who enter the armed forces?
6. Why is patronizing the Black MIarket a pro-Hitler activity?
7. To what extent should we sacrifice our democratic rights dur-
ing wartime?

The Future
i. Should we attempt to form a United States of the World?
2. How can we insure peace after the war?
3. In what ways will the world become a better place in which
to live after the war?

Using the Public Address System
(Note: It is a simple matter to present programs like the follow-
ing in the classroom under simulated radio conditions.)
Every Thursday, five minutes after the beginning of each period,
all English classes are invited, through the public address system, to
listen to a fifteen minute broadcast of a transcribed program. The
rest of the period is used for guided discussion. \VWhere teachers find
the occasion opportune, assignments are based on what the students
have heard.
\hat is involved in such a weekly program? The chief bases
for selecting programs are Radio Transcriptrios for Victory, the de-
scriptive catalogue of the Federal Radio Education Committee, and
the report of the \Var and the Curriculum \Vorkshop on Radio Broad-
casting, developed under the direction of Dr. Bristow, and published
in July, 1942. A copy of the first may be obtained from the Office
of Education in Washington, and a copy of the \Vorkshop report has
been sent to each chairman of English in the high schools.
After a careful study of these listings, \e decided that the follow-
ing transcriptions would suit our purposes best: Tie Anti-Clirist, ThE
Living Dead, scenes from /TIe Mloon Is Down. Heads They Win-
Tails We Lose, \Vork or Die. The decision was influenced by the
consideration that no broadcast should be heard in the classroom un-
less it could be followed by student discussion. Hence, only fifteen-
minute programs were selected. Numbers i, 2, ., and 5 are episodes








ENGLISH FOR VICTORY


rn the series based on the book by Douglas Miller, You Can't Do
Business with Hitler. All these transcriptions were obtained without
charge from the Office of Education in Washington, D. C.
Before the transcriptions could be broadcast to the classes, it was
deemed advisable to allow teachers to hear the program for purposes
of lesson-planning. This was done on Wednesdays. Since our time
schedule has the students dismissed by 2:30 p.m., the pre-audition
took place every Wednesday at 2:30. Each of the English classrooms
was tuned in, and the transcription was played through the public-
address system.
In addition, the teacher-in-charge of Radio-in-School work pre-
pared an introductory statement which was intended to direct the
listening, to bridge gaps in the series of episodes, and by means of
questions to help initiate class discussions. An example of such an
introductory statement follows.

SCRIPT FOR "HEADS THEY WIN-TAILS WE LOSE"
Calling all English classes!
This is Mr. .............................. speaking. Today we are returning to the
series based on the book, You Can't Do Business with Hitler.
You remember how Mr. Miller, the author, proved that Hitler
and his gang are trying to destroy all religions-Catholic, Protestant,
and Jewish. You recall what Mr. Miller revealed about Nazi methods
in conquered countries-that none of the conquered people can be
more than slaves to their beastly and vicious conquerors. Today, Mr.
Miller is calling upon his experience as commercial attache to tell us
about the blackmail and the other gangster methods that the Nazis
used when they did business with Americans and others.
Notice how once they make a bargain, they begin to impose con-
ditions that have never been mentioned. You will learn how the Nazis
wanted to control our moving picture business and how they inter-
fered with the business affairs of people in other countries.
As you listen, keep these questions in mind:
1. What conditions were imposed upon the American, For-
rester, before he could actually get the goods he bought?
2. Why did the American motion picture industry lose about
80% of its trade with Germany?
3. What examples are given to show how the Nazis interfere
in the government and business affairs of other countries?








..\ BETTER worldL D 53

Ill r.pi,:.lI. Ilrpeal questions.)
The program will go on in a moment.
Remember: No '\lan is Free if All Are Not Free.

The Home Front
Over-confidence has no place in our thinking during war-time.
"Plenty and in time" should be our answer to "Too little and too
late." It is much better to be overprepared than underprepared.
"For we all know security
Is mortal's chiefcst enemy"
is particularly appropriate now. Even after the victory, it is possible
to strike many snags in our efforts to achieve a better world. The
war will color our thinking and shape our destiny for years to come.
The home front must be organized for effective action and it must
act. Through discussions, reports, and direct cooperation with The
Victory Corps, the English class can do much to clarify thinking and
to stimulate useful activities. The entire Schools at War program,
sponsored by the Treasury Department, and the U. S. Office of Edu-
cation might well be considered iin the English class. Some topics
to be broached and discussed or otherwise considered are listed below.
Emphasis should always he on what needs to be done, how to get
it done, and doing it.
Some topics related to war on the home front are:
The Role of Blood Plasma in Victory, llow Can \e Increase
Wnar Stamp Sales? The Extent to WVhich Accidents Slow Up
Victory, What Pre-Service Training Is Available Now?. Mlap Ilaking
and Reading, Radio and Telegraphic Communication. Activities of
the OCD, Airplane Models for the Army \VWnring Service, Making
Clothes, Sweaters. Surgical Dressings, leaking Posters for School War
Campaigns, Publicity for School War \ork. Forming Child Care
Centers, Supporting the Junior Red Cross, 1low to Help the USO,
The Duties of Air Raid MJessengers, Salvage Campaigns. Conserva-
tion, Victory Garden Work. Con'serving Paper, Paper Clips and Thumb
Tacks, Conserving Fuel Oil, Coal. Electricity, Gas, and afterr Nutri-
tion, First Aid, Keeping Physically Fit, Preparing for Service, The
Value of Special \Var Courses. Pre-flight Training, lomre Nursing,
Rationing, The Expert Consumer, Preventing Inflation, The Land
Corps and Farmi Aid. Prevetiing Disease, The Victory Corps, The
Local Branch of the CDVO, The Formation of Clubs to Aid Victory.







ENGLISH FOR VICTORY


Projects
Scrapbooks
1. IHeroic Deeds (Let it cover all fronts and all our Allies.)
2. The United Nations.
5. Women at War.
Contributions of Different Nationalities and Races to the
U.S.A.
5. Our South American Neighbors
6. History of War Aviation
7. Industry Goes to War
8. Literature and the War Effort
9. Action (Commandos, Chetniks. Fighting French, etc.)
to. Human Interest Stories (Poland, France, Norway)
11. Anthology of Prominent Figures (Heroes and Villains):
Chiang Kai Shek, Churchill, Eve Curie, MacArthur, Eisen-
hower, Timoshenko vs. Hitler, Mussolini, Tojo, Quislings.
12. American Heroes of the Past and Their Modern Counterparts.

Booklets
1. Biographies of Famous People Who Have Fled to Freedom
(Einstein, The Manns, Ernst Toller, Max Reinhardt, Lion
Feuchtwanger, Bruno Walter, Franz \Verfel, Johannes Steel,
The University in Exile, America as the Repository of the
Culture of Western Civilization.)
2. What the High School Student Can Do Now.

Bulletin Board
1. Theme changed weekly or hi-weekIy (cartoons, pictures, war
maps, book jackets, stills from motion picture.) The
class should be allowed time to look at the bulletin boards
when they are ready.
2. A wall newspaper stirred students to find unusually attractive
illustrative material. This display was located in the corridor
so visitors to the school could see it. Students can be en-
couraged to create appropriate posters or to send away to the
OWl and to other sources for professional posters.








.\ BETTER \\ORLD 55

The Ideals We Fight For
Central questions for the discussion follow:
I. In what respects are our present reasons for fighting identical
with those in the first \Vorld War? In what respects different?
2. Is it desirable to extend the Four Freedoms to the enemy after
the victory? \ ill it be possible to do so?
3. How have the Four Freedoms been operative entirely or in
part in any other association of people anywhere in the history
of the world?
4. What plans exist among democracies for extending the Four
Freedoms?
5. Why has the federation idea of the United States of America
kept alive for 150 years? Why is it expanding to other na-
tions? \Vhat other countries have maintained a uniform sys-
tem of government for the last 150 years? What does this
fact indicate?
6. \Vhat problems similar to those of the present day faced the
makers of the United States' Constitution in 1787?
7. Is it desirable to reduce the world to one form of government.
the democratic form?
8. How much of its sovereignty would each nation have to sur-
render in order to make a workable world federation possible?
9. \Vould a strong central police force directly under the con-
trol of a new League of Nations and stronger than any single
national military force of member nations be a solution to the
problem of maintaining world peace? \Vould it be possible
for such a force to get out of hand and, of itself, establish a
dictatorship over the world?
io. \Vhat indications are there that the peoples of the world are
or are not ahead of their governments in their readiness for
world unity?

OWl Pamphlets

Toward New Hlorizons, a series of three pamphlets issued by the
O\VI contains addresses which "throw light on thinking about the
world that lies beyond war."
Pamphlet No. i. The World beyond lhe \\'ar. presents some of
the ideas of Henry \Wallace, Sumner Welles, John \Vinant. and







56 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

Milo Perkins. These ideas concern the century of the common man,
the fatal mistakes which followed World War I, freedom from want
for all men, and a blueprint for plenty in the world of the future.
In Pamphlet No. 2, Proposals for a Free World, Queen Wil-
helmina, Chiang Kai-Shek, T. V. Soong, Jan Smuts, President Roose-
velt, Henry Wallace, and Sumner Welles "foresee a post-war recon-
struction of the Netherlands," "urge immediate organization of a
world-wide international order," "propose an Executive Council of the
United Nations." "suggest the Atlantic Charter as a real Magna
Charta of the nations," "suggest a pattern of global civilization,"
"mention two requisites of a lasting peace," and "ask that agreements
based on the principles of The Atlantic Charter be reached by the
United Nations before an armistice is signed."
No. 3, Proposals for a Free World, includes speeches by Madame
Chiang Kai-Shek, Wendell Willkie, Raymond Gram Swing, Walter
Nash, Harold Stassen, Eric Johnston, and George Norris. These
speeches make concrete suggestions in the direction of "a better so-
ciety for all mankind, with special privileges for none," "turning
Atlantic Charter principles into realities," "a United Nations govern-
ment," "brotherhood," "the responsibility of the United States," and
"the interdependence of the world."
All these speeches are as modern as tomorrow and would make
excellent reading matter for a class in place of the speeches of another
day.
"And Crown Thy Good with Brotherhood"
The fight against bigotry is part of the teacher's daily struggle.
\Ve are learning that our war against Hitler must be fought hard at
home as well as abroad. On this home front, the teacher is the
soldier, for prejudice and narrow selfishness are bitter enemies of
democracy and only strong counter attacks can demolish them.
The weapons for the annihilation of ignorance and prejudice are
intelligence, insight, love of human beings even in their frailty, and
an unquenchable thirst for democracy, equality, brotherhood.
Analysis of Prejudice
Problem: What is prejudice?
That was the question we were going to discuss. I placed on
the blackboard the statement: "Prejudice is being down on what you're
not up on.








A BETTER \\ORLD 57

\\'e Ied :I, (.online '.,ur discussion to these two points:
I Prrludick a;- a relt of ignorance.
In giiii g t\,iiim|ll.-, the pupils were able to see for them-
selves that in almost all instances, their prejudices were based
on isolated instances, insufficient knowledge, gossip, and glib
statements made in their hearing by adults.
II. Prejudice as a weapon of demagogues to split our population
into factions and thus to prevent unity. Here the teacher
quoted Joseph E. McWilliams, notorious pro-Nazi anti-
Semite, "The only way you can lead people is to give them
something to fear and something to hate."
In this part of the discussion, students were frank in giving ex-
amples, and they suggested remedies. So far as the war was con-
cerned, they realized that discrimination hindered the war effort. They
suggested improvement in the treatment of various groups that would
affect our attitude toward these groups. One student mentioned
Pearl Buck's speech in which she said that people in the Far East
were losing faith in us. \e discussed the responsibility of each in-
dividual to rid himself of misconceptions, and to arm himself against
propagandists of McWVilliams' type. \Ve all realized that this re-
quired constant vigilance.
Procedure:
Since this is a subject that cannot lie clarified in one lesson only.
it was suggested that newspaper clippings which gave evidence of
prejudice in the U.S.A., or of interesting comments on that subject,
be brought in whenever students found them. A few minutes spent
frequently on such discussions during the term were more persuasive
and reached more students than any concentration of attack.
Is There Any Basis in Science?
Problem: Are Negroes inferior?
The death of Franz Boas brought up this subject from tile point
of view of the anthropologist, and the New York Times editorial on
George Washington Carver was the basis for a discussion of Carver
as a great American as well as a great Negro. (Current events may
at any time provide motivation for such discussion.)
Our class musician told us about great Negro instrumentalists,
and the class sports fans (of whom there are legion) knew about great








58 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

Negro baseball players. Everyone thought there would be an end
to discrimination against them.
Procedure:
It was decided that all fields of achievement, from sports to
science, from poetry to entertainment, be investigated by pupils with
particular interest in each field, so that we might learn more about the
remarkable accomplishments of Negroes in spite of the painful prob-
lems of racial discrimination. These would silence any doubts about
the question of equality.

The Stupidity of Generalizations
Problem: Have you any prejudices?
The class listened to the recording of Carl Sandbury's The
People, Yes-the part called Prejudices. The class laughed as they
heard the long string of accusations levelled at each other by various
groups. Some of them recognized their own prejudices. It was healthy
laughter, indicating a realization of the stupidity of generalizations
about whole groups of people.
We closed with a quotation from Franz Boas: "If we were to
select the most intelligent, imaginative, energetic, and emotionally
stable third of mankind, all races would be represented."

The Poet Sings for Brotherhood
Problem: What is brotherhood? Why should we work for it?
Before reading a number of poems on the subject, the meaning
of brotherhood was discussed as well as the great need for it.
Ideas elicited from the class were as follows:
1. Wars are usually fought because of lack of brotherhood.
2. The idea of a superior race is an erroneous one.
3. Isolationism-the result of the last war-helped to bring about
this present war. \Vorld unity is necessary for peace.
4. \Ve must consider the welfare of other people in order to
secure our own.
5. Situations in which brotherhood is needed to overcome diffi-
culties are poverty, physical and mental suffering, injustice, oppression,
support of country.









A LETTER \WORLD 50

Illustrative Poems

To AMLIUCA
I low would you have us. as we are?
Or sinking neathh the load ve bear?
Our eyes fixed forward on a star?
Or gazing empty at despair?

Rising or falling? Men or things?
\Vitl dragging pace or footsteps Ileet?
Strong, willing sinews in your wings?
Or lightening chains about your feet?
J]imes \Weldon ]Jon111on

STANZAS ON FRECLDOM (ExcrIPT)
"If there breathe on earth a slave.
Are )e truly free and brave?

They are slaves who fear to speak
For the fallen and the weak;

They are slaves who dare not be
In the right with two or three.
James Russell Lowell

In The Alati wtilth the floe, the following lines were given special
emphasis:
"O masters. lords and rulers in all lands,
Is this the handiwork you give to God.
This monstrous thing distorted and soul quenched?
How will you ever straighten up this shape:
Touch it again with immortality:
Give back the upward looking and the light:
Rebuild in it the music and the dream:
Make right the immemorial infamies.
Perfidous wrongs, immedicable woes?"

The last poem read was America the Beautiflt by Katherine Lee
Bates. Tli lines whiicli received special attention were:
"Americal Americal
God shed Ilis Grace on thee
And crown thy good ithl brotherhood
From sea to shining sea!

From these four poems the students were led to see how.effectively
poets have sung of brotherhood.









60 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

Procedure:
The class was asked to bring in other poems dealing with the
same subject. The teacher found quotations for them from \alt
Whitman, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Carl Sandburg, Stephen Vincent
Benet. Finally, it was suggested that students adopt a line or two
on this subject, chosen from any of the poets that they had discussed,
as a motto to be written down and remembered.

Solving The Problem

Problem:
With current news items involving manifestations of race friction
everywhere, the question is: W/hat can we do about it?
The class read Incident by Countee Cullen which follows:
"Once riding in old Baltimore.
Heart-filled, head-filled with glee.
I saw a Baltimorean
Keep looking straight at me.

Now I was eight and very small,
And he was no whit bigger.
And so 1 smiled, but he poked out
His tongue, and called me. "Nigger."

I saw the whole of Baltimore
From Mlay until December:
Of all the things that happened there
That's all that I remember.

A brief examination of the poet's meaning led to the conclusion
that a protest was being registered against the persisting inadequacy
of the Negro emancipation.
Examples supporting this contention were drawn from the text
of Up From Slavery, Booker T. Washington's experiences and declara-
tions; several students added pertinent items from their studies in his-
tory connected with the Civil War; all were able to contribute items
from current events.
The class now read: "I, too, Sing America by Langston Hughes.
The conclusion elicited at this point in the lesson was that the
Negro had been only partially freed by the Emancipation Proclama-
tion, and that for most practical purposes, socially, economically, cul-








A BETTER \\'ORLD 6Ii

lurafll l ii.I perliapi een I)or,:- iinliorl.alnt. f l:h.)lopi, illv Ite ,,
lsill prilly much in hborn.da e.
TI.,J discL-, ion II .-it iollo,,ed .orlcerne:d Ili elf \ lli, II, \:arioui
-ec .. :.i'r\ t,? li hil ii -t l I 1., I.-n1 lIipfrn\ id educ .lional opporliti
nllil and 1lim1 (l.ar.'i lle \': -r U -UL'L'~i_-h- i II'i i, iiiir litll: IOll\,: pos-
.i tl" \ \< r. coUlniered I.alt OtIi.r slowly and naturally, perhaps as a result of the education ol white
Americans everywhere, and increased self-respect through education
and decent living conditions for the Negro.

Procedure:
It was suggested that a new third stanza be added to Elias Lieber-
man s poem, I Am an American, in which the Negro speaks for him-
self. A class competition would he held for the best contribution.

How Have We Been At Fault?
Problem:
Where have we as Americans been at fault in creating an anti-
social attitude in the Negro? A discussion of this question andt the
others below were used as an introduction to the study of "Up frorn
Slavery."
I. A. Approximately what percentage of our Negro population
is anti-social?
B. \hat percentage is law-abiding, self-respecting, hard-
working?
II. A. Enumerate factors that go toward making people anti-
social.
B. Cite cases where other groups of people have been anti-
social.
C. What explanation can you give for this anti-social
attitude?
III. A. \Vhere have we as Americans been at fault in creating
this anti-social attitude in the Negro?
B. \hat do you suggest as steps for us to take in order to
make atonement?
IV. A. What do you as an individual do from day to day that
tends to make the Neuro anti-social?
B. \Vhat resolution are you willing to make now within








62 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

yourself that will help toward making your Negro neigh-
bor feel that he is an American citizen with the same
rights and privileges as any other American citizen?
V. A. What characteristics must be inherent in the large per-
centage of our Negro population who, in spite of handi-
caps, have remained loyal, law-abiding citizens? Let your
imagination picture what they must endure.
B. Compare their strength of character with the weakness of
the few who have fallen.
C. Give your reactions to these people.
D. Name characters you have met in your reading who
showed strength of character. Name some who were of
weak character.
Procedure:
Let us turn now to the study of the life of a Negro born into
the world with every handicap that man hath wrought to man and
let us see what he accomplished. Let us see how much better the
world is because he lived.

Ballad for Americans
LESSON I.
The purpose of the assignment was the gathering of material to
furnish background for an appreciation of Ballad for Americans.
Assignment:
1. Who were the following and what were their contributions
to American life and culture: Tom Paine, Haym Solomon, Crispus
Attucks, Edward Bok, Michael Pupin, Samuel Gompers?
2. List the waves of immigration by their time and by
nationality.
3. List, as many as you can, the different religious groups in
America.
4. Give the names of three great immigrants (other than those
mentioned above) and give their contributions to American life and
culture.

In Class:
After discussion and board work, play the Ballad for Americans.
Then follow with the assignment for the next day.








.1\ 3ETTI7h \VORLD 6-

LESSON 11.
Assignment:
Write an article of about 200 words on one of the following
topics:
i. Forces in America that foster harmony among races.
2. Forces in America that foster disharmony among races.
3. Contributions to American culture by immigrant groups.
4. American leaders of civil liberties.
5. Contribution of one national immigrant group to American
culture.
6. 'elting pot vs. one racial strain idea.
7. Is it advisable for immigrant groups to retain their culture?

In class discuss the ideas in articles written pro and con.
Summarize.

Dorie, The Messboy
by Henry Goodman

(The following poem was performed as a number in a student
aid play as a solo and choral recitation, with a Negro boy dramatiz-
ing the lines in pantomime. Spotlights, sound effects, and scenery
suggesting the deck of a ship made tiis vivid and stirring.)

Solo
Dorie with his mess-tray
Shuflin' from the galley-
Walkin' slow and dreamy
Like in lis Texas valley.

ChorIus
I ley, Dorie
Ain't you got no heart?
Hungry are the sailors
Waiting at the table-
Hot food for the fighting-men
\Vhite and fit and able








64 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY


Solo
Overhead a murmur-
Giant bees a'humming;
Lookout pipes his whistle-
Japanese are coming
Dorie drops his mess-tray-
Japs! The Japs are coming!
Solo
Captain walks his quarter-
Sees that all is ready;
Gunners at their stations
Pumping cool and steady,
Loading up heir weapons,
Aiming cool and deadly.

Down the Nippon traitors
Dive with guns a'firing;
Dorie stands bewildered
In angry wonder glaring;
Startles when the Captain
Wounded falls, unfearing.

Up the bridge goes Dorie-
Saves his Captain, wounded.
Turns to man a cannon
By fallen men surrounded-
Never fired a bullet
Though guns were all around him.
Chorus
Hey, Dorie
Ain't you got no fear?
Dorie
Courage got no color
Chorus
Then join these fighting sailors-
Join them at the table;
Hot food for our fighting men
United, fit and able.








A BETTER WORLD 65

The Fight For Brotherhood*
Yes, you'd know him for a heathen
If you judged him by the hide,
But bless you, he's my brother,
For he's just like me inside.-Robert Freeman, The Hecathen
A mystic bond of brotherhood makes all men one.-Goethe, \Vorks
(1832)
In all people I see myself, none more and not one a barleycorn less,
And the good or bad I say of myself I say of them.-\Valt \Vhitman,
Song of MIyself
Something there is that doesn't love a wall,
That wants it down.-Robert Frost. Mending \Vall
"Men work together," I told him from the heart,
"Whether they work together or apart."-Robert Frost, Thle Tuif of
Flowers
During my recent tour for the purpose of exciting the minds of
the people by a series of discourses on the subject of slavery, every
place that I visited gave fresh evidence of the fact that a greater
revolution in public sentiment w'as to be effected in the free States
and particularly in New England-than in the South. I found con-
tempt more bitter, opposition more active, detraction more relentless,
prejudice more stubborn, and apathy more frozen than among slave
owners themselves. Of course, there were individual exceptions to the
contrary. This state of things afflicted, but did not dishearten me.
William Lloyd Garrison, Commuenccement of the Liberator
Quoting John Brown:
(In referring to his activities): It is, in my opinion, the greatest
service a man can render to God.
"I pity the poor in bondage that have none to help them; that
is why I am here; not to gralify any personal animosity, revenge, or
vindictive spirit. It is my sympathy with the oppressed and tile
wronged, that are as good as you, and as precious in the sight of
God."
You don't know your testament when you see it.
Henry David Thoreau, A Plea for Capt. John B3rowrn
*(Quotations From the writings s of men \who have fought for hrotherllood.)








66 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

The mass of those to whom slavery was a dim recollection of
childhood found the world a puzzling thing; it asked little of them,
and they answered with little, and yet it ridiculed their offering. Such
a paradox they could not understand, and therefore sank into listless
indifference, or shiftlessness, or reckless bravado.
W. E. Burghardt Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk

I, Too, SING AMERICA
I, too, sing America.
I am the darker brother.
They send me to eat in the kitchen
When company comes,
But I laugh,
And eat well,
And grow strong.
Tomorrow,
I'll sit at the table
When company comes,
Nobody'll dare
Say to me,
"Eat in the kitchen,"
Then.
Besides,
They'll see how beautiful I am
And be ashamed,-
I, too, am America.
Langston Hughes













Literature In Today's World

"It is the opinion of the committee that the war has accelerated
tihe movement of specialization in education to such a degree and has
raised the expert to such an eminence that the values of humanistic
education seem, in some quarters, insignificant arl paltry. It is essen-
tial, therefore, particularly at this time, to reaffirm the value of a rich
course of study in the hitumanities witth the end that the virtue of
spiritual breadth in education he not subordinated to the new virtue
of efficiency.
In recommending adaptations of the literature curriculum to the
war effort, the committee has interpreted the present crisis to be one
that includes and transcends the exigencies of wartime. It is obliga-
tory that educators see the lives of their pupils as continuing after the
battles have been fought: otherwise, the children's years of schooling
will be, apart from the vocational efficiency acquired, a spent rather
than a permanently dynamic force. It must be borne in mind that, as
John Stuart Mill has said, "Withl small men, no great thing can really
be accomplished."
(From The English Curriculum workshopp Report, 1942)
\Vilh these words in mind, the editors recommend the emphases
that follow. Teachers can find similar values for other texts and other
values for the texts mentioned.
Abe Lincoln-Carl Sandburg
Abraham Lincoln,-John Drinkwater
\Vhat are we doing to complete the work that Lincoln began?
An Enemy of the People-Henrik Ibsen
\hat is the responsibility of the individual for the improvement
of society?
Arrowstnith-Sinclair Lewis
Free scientific inquiry-a cornerstone of democracy.
\Vhat use does Nazism make of science?
It is necessary to develop the individual in order to reach the
highest achievements of mankind.








68 ENGLISH FO(R V\'(TORY

What is the scientific point of view; metllh.l of Ithinl.il,,
What aspects of our society stand gre-ill in n.,id iii nI)Ipr,\v-
ment?
What types of people are assets to soc'lll\ L.ah iiitli -
Conciliation with America-Edmund Burke
The long struggle for representative gosernmrilet .Iii.nIl i.,-pin
us to preserve and extend freedom.
Autobiography of Lincoln Sleffens
An American tells what he believes in.
Shall we, in this period of national eonrlj.en \. .onlini. I., ri-
ticize the weak spots in America? In our .lih-;'
Call of the Wild, The-Jack London
Destroy the old, the infirm; only the stroiie i,'e a richt ri lie
Nazism incarnate.
Aes Triplex-Robert Louis Stevenson
We need courage today.
American and Briton-John Galsworthy
\Vhat ties other than language bind the. IUnid Natli-n *
Fifty-first Dragon, The-Heywood Broun
We need courage today.
\Vhat ideals are our men fighting for?
Do we today need "magic words" and .ilil iilI,,Iurn. e, ;
Compare Self-Reliance by Ralph Waldo Einmer-,o
Ingo-Christopher Morley
Compare Ingo with a product of the Nazi s,:ho)ol1
Message to Gargia, A-Elbert Hubbard
Discuss Major General Clark's service.
How can each of us today "carry a me.:,l.,e to (Garc;a"'
New Freedom, The-Woodrow Wilson
Compare \allace's Century of the Cornirll "il Al"
What is the story of Wilson's Fourteen Poiinl-s
Nobodies, The-Henry M. Tomlinson
Compare the role of the common man in \\'irld \\ar I anod
World War II.
Giants in the Earth-Ole Edvart Rolvaag
Contrast pioneering with conquest.
What debt does America owe the rest of the nirllhP








LITER.\TURi IN TODAY'S WORLD 69

Hanilc:-W\ili,m Shakespeare
\W',:,t Lnd of thinking leads to the most effective action?
W\i,, i. Ilie role of the intellectual in progress?
Idyll of I' ,ir; King-Alfred Lord Tennyson
Why I~ an ethical basis necessary for any just society?
I IlM does our society measure up to an ethical standard?
Icnnlei.-Sir \alter Scott
Cr-mp.iror, feudalism with Nazism.
JI I;u, Cao.'aor-\Villiam Shakespeare
Nn, the picture of dictatorship.
How can we recognize and protect ourselves from demagogy?
\hat are worthy ambitions?
What limitations on ambition do you recognize?
Compare with Mlacbeth.
Macbeth
Compare Macbeth with twentieth century dictators.
Compare Macbeth's with Hitler's and Tojo's barbarism.
How can we prevent the growth in individuals of a Hitlerian
lust for power?
Find parallels to the Gestapo.
Modern Biography-Marietta A. Hyde
Lincoln Steffens, Abe Lincoln, Mark Twain, Carlton Parker-
for this we fight; that they shall not have lived in vain.
\Vhat contributions to society did each make?
\Vhat obstacles did each have to overcome?
How can their lives benefit you?
MIodern Pioneers-Scarlet and Cohen
Steinmetz, Mlme. Curie-Contrast the scientific approach with the
Nazi mythology.
Consider the scientist as a citizen of the world.
Consider the activities of Eve Curie today.
Odyssey, The-Homer
Compare the heroes of modern war with Odysseus.
Consider the Phaeacian form of government: the place of women,
their attitude toward beggars, their customs.
\Vhat in Odysseus is eternal? Find modern parallels to events
in The Odyssey.








70 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

Old Wives' Tale, The-Arnold Bennett
To Sophia, current history was only a noise in the distance. Are
there ostriches among us today?
Compare practices during the Siege of Paris (inflation, hoard-
ing) with similar practices today.
Are our lives more effectual than those of Constance and Sophia?
Beggar and the King (Atlantic Plays)
Show how the play fits the theme of freedom from want.
Boor, The (Goldstone's One Act Plays)
Could the Russians have turned back the Nazi machine with
an army of Popovs?
Thrice Promised Bride, The (Goldstone's One Act Plays)
How well do we understand the Chinese?
Galsworthy's Plays (Strife, Loyalties, Silver Box, The)
Labor struggles, anti-Semitism, class justice: three problems for
today.
Return of the Native, The-Thomas Hardy
Clym struggles to bring enlightenment to his people. Can educa-
tion succeed where the economic standard is one of mere sub-
sistence?
Review Clym's ideals for their practicality; compare them in that
light with our present-day ideals, the ones for which we are
fighting.
Selfishness and pride lead to destruction in nations as well as
in individuals.
Roads to Travel-Finch and Parker
What contributions have other nations made to American
culture?
What is the present condition of these lands?
Frill, The-PearI S. Buck
What has made it possible for China to hold out?
Kiskis (Williams' New Narratives)
Consider in connection with freedom from prejudice.
Meadow Lark-Edna Ferber
What constitutes the lure of the air? Consider air power in this
war.
Silas Marner-George Eliot
Life is more enjoyable when we learn to live and cooperate and
share with others.








LITEI,:.\ATURE IN TODAY'S WORLD 71

"No man is an island entire of itself." Compare with nations.
The role of ignorance and fear as causes of intolerance is great.
Son of the Middle Border, A-Hanlin Garland
The American spirit expresses itself in pioneering.
Story Biographies
The section on Paderewski presents a crystallization of the P1olish
character, the basis of a free Poland.
Story of My Life, T'he-Helen Keller
Casualty lists! \\hat is our responsibility to those who are
maimed by war?
Tale of Two Cities, A-Charles Dickens
Consider poverty and injustice as causes of revolution.
Our present ideals of freedom from want and freedom from fear
would remove the grounds for revolution.
Compare the Jacquerie with modern underground movements.
\hat caused the fall of France in 1941?
Typhoon-Joseph Conrad
How great are the natural dangers faced by the men who deliver
the goods!
Up From Slavery-Booker T. \Vashington
What is the Negro's place in American society?
What is the Negro's stake in tle present war?
\Vill the Negro's lot be any better in this country after the war?

Detailed Units
Macbetll
The study of MIacbeth, proposed below, will, in no way. distort
the essential spirit of the play. The committee is in complete agree-
ment that no violence should ever be clone to any work of art to make
it a tract for the times. Those teachers wlo may wish to emphasize
the medieval nature of the play with its witchcraft, or to stress the
moral truths expressed in the corruption of Macheth's spirit, may still
do so. The approach suggested herein is rather social and political,
but must include as well, the three aspects of the play mentioned
above.
The play, Mlacbethl, is ai example of man's struggle against
tyranny. Shakespeare gives us the conflict as experienced by the
tyrant himself. but enough is given of the opposing forces to fill out
the picture.








ENGLISH FOR VICTORY


A study of the play from this view may be divided into the fol-
lowing topics:
A. The Development of Tyrants-a glance at the careers of
Hitler, Napoleon, Alexander tie Great, Ghengis Khan, and any others
the students may know; trace the rise and fall of several of these,
pointing to the insatiable nature of their desires.
1. Why did these men develop such insatiable desires?
2. What part did frustration play in developing these megalo.
maniacs?
3. What circumstances enabled them to rise to power?
4. How does Macbeth's career fit into this pattern?
B. The Solution of the Play-a discussion of the bloody course
of Macbeth's role. The opposition develops and decides to fight.
1. Why did Macbeth kill so many people?
2. Why did Malcolm oppose him?
3. Why did Macduff oppose him?
4. What kind of man was Macduff?
5. Would you have been in favor of a peace treaty to prevent
the war that followed?
6. Why was war the only possible solution?
C. The World to Come-the only solution we now have in our
fight against tyranny is an expensive and a tragic one. We must
organize a world where such people cannot exist.
1. What suggestions have you to prevent the rise of tyrants in
the future?
2. How would you prevent frustration of individuals and nations?
3. What kind of normal outlets would you provide for the
aggressive tendencies of war?
4. How would you prevent the development of conditions lead-
ing to the rise of dictatorships?
5. What are the essentials of a good life that would satisfy
most people?

The Tale of Two Cities
"There were two "Reigns of Terror," if we would but remember
it and consider it; the one wrought murder in hot passion, the other
in heartless cold blood; the one lasted mere months, the other hatl
lasted a thousand years; the one inflicted death upon ten thousand








LITER.AT\ RE IN TODAY'S \VORLD 73

p..rsos. IIh, ntlic.r up.ion a hundred millions; bit our shudders are all
for the 'Ihirrirs onf ll. minor Terror, the momentary Terror, so to
,.'rk: a'rl.r.a.',. ~~,i dt is the horror of swift death by the ax compared
i'llh lif/lon i. d ieii h ron hui nger, cold, insult, cruelty, and heartbreak?
\\ 'lt i, swill .ad, i- l, lightning compared with death by slow fire
at the tlke .\ ,citv c.inetery could contain the coffins filled by that
brief terror which we have all been so diligently taught to shiver at
and mourn over; but all France could hardly contain the coffins filled
by that older and real Terror-that unspeakably bitter and awful
Terror which none of us has been taught to see in its vastness or pity
as it deserves."
From A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court-Mark
Twain.
The following discussion outline is intended for use after the
reading of the text has been completed.
Preliminary Questions:
i. Tell the story of Marie Antoinette. Does an aristocracy so
devoid of sympathy for human beings deserve the fate meted
out to it?
2. \Vhy are reforms in our country more likely to be effected
without violence? Tell of one reform that was brought about
only after bloodshed. Tell of some reforms that follow a more
typical American pattern of legislation and balloting.
3. Is there danger in too much mercy toward defeated tyrants?
4. What similar grapes of wrath are ripening against tyrants
today? Already have ripened? What forms of reprisal will
liberated peoples take against quislings and foreign invaders?
Should the United States make any attempt to restrain such
expressions of revenge?
Topic I. Customs and ceremonials of freedom in free France.
A. Meaning of Bastille Day, July 14.
B. Ceremonials: Dancing in the streets, free admission to state
theatres, the display of the tri-color. Trace origins to the
memorable days of the early revolution in France, 1789:
Bastille. LaCarmagnole, chateau-burning.
C. Questions:
i. \Vhat influence did French thought have upon the Amer-
ican Revolution in 1775? (Rousseau, Diderot. \oltaire.








74 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

MIontesquieu). For what reasons is it important today to
recollect these influences?
2. What influence did the American example have upon the
French Revolution of 1789? (Washington, Tom Paine,
Franklin, anti-royalism, representative government, rights
of man.)

Topic 11-The Struggle for Self-Government
A. The wine-shop scene. What grievances are demonstrated in
this incident? Would you blame the peasant himself for his
brutalized conduct? How could the revolutionary movement
have prepared the peasants for self-government?
B. The life of the noble. What harmful qualities did the noble-
men as a class possess? What good qualities? Should their
good qualities have been sufficient to redeem them from death?
C. Rights of the individual. The story of Dr. Manette. What
violations of Dr. Manette's personal rights would Americans
never tolerate?
D. Man's right to govern himself. How was the French govern-
ment after 1789 superior to that of the aristocracy? Are there
"natural" rulers? How shall we determine who shall rule?
E. France today. Why do the French people connect Petain's
name with that of Hitler's? How does our government's rec-
ognition of the French Committee of National Liberation help
to continue and strengthen true democratic ties between France
and the United States?
F. Concluding questions:
1. Does Dickens favor the aristocrats or the revolutionaries?
2. How can a democratic society utilize the best qualities of
the aristocracy without permitting it to control that society?
3. Why did the French civilization of pre-1789 fail? Why
did France fall in 1940? What meaning did the motto,
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" have after the French Rev-
olution? What meaning does it have today?

Topic III-Class Activities
A. Parallelisms: Noteworthy quotations may be collected in
parallel columns, embodying the beliefs in democratic prin-








LITERATURE IN TODAY'S WORLD 75

ciples uttered by famous Frenchmen and by famous Ameri-
cans of the Eighteenth Century.
B. The Statue of Liberty: A report of the donation by the
French of tle Statue of Liberty should be orally given before
the class on the basis of findings in the encyclopedias.
C. The Key to the Bastille: A report of the presentation of the
key to Washington.
D. Patriotic Songs: The origins of French and American patriotic
songs should be examined emphasizing their role in aiding
the democratic way of life. Alarseillaise, La Carmragnole, Ca
Ira, other national songs.
E. Liberty days in many countries:
I. July 4 in the United States. Independence Day.
2. Bolivar in South America.
3. Bastille Day.
4. November 7 in Russia.
5. Any others.


The Frill
Motivation:
1. What false impressions of the Chinese do people often have?
2. \Vhat are some facts that disprove these false impressions?
3. Can you figure out how the myth of Chinese inferiority
slyness came into being? Do you believe that some peoples
are not suited by nature to rule themselves, but need outside
help?
4. What false notions have we about other groups of distant
peoples? Tell of one fase notion you had about any group
and how you rid yourself of this idea.

Content:
1. \Vhat wonderful ideals does the story show the Chinese to
possess?
2. What vicious ideas do the foreign women have concerning
the Chinese?
3. In what ways does the Chinese tailor show himself superior
to both of the foreign women?








ENGLISH FOR VICTORY


4. What undesirable ideas about subject races does Mrs. Lowe
hold? Mention a few ways in which the Chinese is insulted
by her.
5. What is Mrs. Lowe's notion of how to treat subject races?
What part did such notions held by foreigners play in the
fall of Shanghai and Burma?

Summary and Thought Questions:
1. What agonized meaning lies in the title?
2. What is the probable future of the Chinese? Would the
Japanese domination be better or worse than that of such for-
eigners as Mrs. Lowe?
3. In what ways is the U. S. helping China in its fight? In
what ways are the Chinese helping us in our fight? Mention
one instance showing how the virtues of the Chinese people
as shown in this story will eventually bring victory.
4. What scientific, educational, religious, economic aid should we
give to China after the victory? Why do Americans want
and need a strong and unified China?
5. What is the right way for Americans to behave in foreign
lands? Are our boys in the scattered nations observing these
suggestions?

(From Short Stories-Schweikert)


The Golden Treasury

One of the great values in the teaching of poetry is the under-
standing students gain of the ideals and emotions that have moved
other men. Such understanding may be broadened by the study of
related poems to include those aspirations that have affected nations
as a whole.
One of our aims is the development of the understanding of such
aspirations as have inspired the United Nations in the past and pres-
ent. The essential spirit of each of these may be found in its poetry
and song. Since our bookrooms abound in English and American
poetry, it should be possible to base many substantial lessons on good
poetry.








LITER\TI IRE IN TODAY'S WORLD 77

Tih, f,.llh\\ir_' uri;. based on the Golden Treasury, should give
our Iliidi.nl. suh an appreciation of our gallant allies, the English.


i. Million



2. Lovelace



3. Thomson


4. Collins


5. Scolt




6. Campbell


7. Worsdworth
8. Byron

9. Wordsworth
io. Southey


,On d,.' Late Alassacre in
Pieflinont


To Lucasta, on Going to Ithe
\Vars


Rule, Brilannia


Ode Written in 1746


Gathering Song of Donald
the Black



Ye Mariners of England
Battle of the Baltic
Ode to Duly
On the Castle of Chillon
On Milton

After Blenheim


A classic outcry
against religious per-
secution

The young in a n
chooses honor before
love

"Britons never shall
be slaves."

"How sleep the brave
who sink to rest?"
Stirring picture of
Scottish clans rising
to defend their coun-
try


"Pro Patria Mori"


Is the present war
like the pirate wars
of princes of old?


One Hnndred Narrative Poems

Some of the titles ini One Hundred Norrative Poems that lend
themselves readily to contemporary needs are: God's Judgment on
Hatto, The Battle of Blenheim, Incident in a French Camp, Arnold
Von \Vinrkelried, Charge of the Light Brigade, lierva Riel, Prisoner
of Chillon, Ballad of East and \West, Marco Bozzaris, The Revenge,
The Defense of Lucrknow, Opportunity, Vigil Strange I Kept on thi
Field One Night, Defense of thie Alamo.








78 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

The Poetry of Flight
Youth's love of aviation opens the way for a love of the poetry
of flight. The glamor that surrounds the person of the aviator can be
recaptured in a poem about the aviator. What appeals most is the
sense of ever-impending danger, of youth engaged nobly in a noble
cause. By means of such poetry, a more intense understanding of all
poetry can be aroused, while at the same time the pupil can be swept
up into passionate accord with the ideals for which American flyers
take flight into foreign skies. The following poems provide an emo-
tional interest for every pupil today.

HIGH FLIGHT*
Oh! I have slipped the surly bonds of earth
And danced the skies on laughter-silvered wings;
Sunward I've climbed the joined, the tumbling mirth
Of sun-split clouds-and done a hundred things
You have not dreamed of-and wheeled and soared and swung
High in the sunlit silence. Hovering there,
I've chased the shouting wind along and fung
My eager craft through footloose holes of air.
Up, up the long, the delirious burning blue
I've topped the wind-swept heights with easy grace,
Where never lark or even eagle flew.
And while with silent lifting mind'I've trod
The high untrespassed sanctity of space,
Put out my hand and touched the face of God.
John Magee


LOCKSLEY HALL EXCERPT)]
For I dipped into the future, far as human eye could see,
Saw the vision of the world and all the wonder that would be:
Saw the heavens fill with commerce, argosies of magic sails;
Pilots of the purple twilight, dropping down with costly bales,

*(The poet who wrote this was an aviator in the Canadian Air Force. He was killed in
action on December 11, 1941 at the age of nineteen.)
t (This poem was written in 1842. How many of the prophecies have come Irue?)








LITER.\TURE IN TODAY'S WORLD 79

I Ic.,ri I.e l.- i\ eis [ll M ,ili shouting, and there rained a ghastly dew
Fr,.,i lIhe nations' air\ na\ies, grappling in the central blue:
Far al,,iini llI. v.orld-l'..idi whisper of the south wind rushing warm
\ilth tIIc liiind.,rd of Il.< peoples plunging through the thunderstorm;
'-Ill lie %%ar druniu dtiiol-b:l no longer, and the battle flags were furled.
In the Parliament of Man, the Federation of the \Vorld.
Alfred Lord Tennyson
*

COCKPIT IN THE CLOUDS
Two thousand feet beneath our wheels
The city spreads across the land
Like heaps of children's blocks outflung
In tantrums by a giant hand.
To east a silver spire soars
And seeks to pierce our lower spire
Above its grasp we drift along,
A tiny, droning, shining thing.
The noon crowds pack the narrow streets,
The 'el' train moves so slow, so slow,
Amidst the traffic, chaos, life,
The city's busy millions go.
Up here, aloof, we watch them crawl,
In crystal air we seem to poise
Behind our motor's throaty roar-
Down there, we're just another noise.
Dick Dorrance
:*:

PEGASUS LOST
The door stood wide, I went into the air:
The day was blue and filled with rushing wiid,
A day to ride high in the heavens and taste
The glory of the gods who tread the stars.
Up in the nighty purity I saw
A flashing shape that gladly sprang aloft-
My little Pegasus, like a far white bird
Seeking the sun regions never to return.
Elinor \Vylie








8o ENGLISH FOR VICTORY

ICARUS
Icarus is fallen here, the wondrous boy
Who challenged heaven with his wings; the wave
Received his body, feathers could destroy,
But left with envy in their hearts the brave
Heavenly accomplishment, glory without end,
To pluck such honor with such dearth of tears!
Happy misfortune, that could thus extend
Victory to the conquered down the years!
Will (for a path so perilous) he did not lack,
Power eluded him, not bravery;
Stars in their flaming orbits watched his track
And marked for high adventure this winged doom.
The sky was his desire, his sepulchre the sea:
Is there a lovelier pattern, a richer tomb?
Philippe Desportes
*

INDIFFERENCE
Over my garden
An airplane few,
But nothing there
Either cared or knew.
Cabbage butterflies
Chased each other,
A young wren cried
Seeking his mother.
Gay zinnias
With heavy heads,
Flaunted yellows
And mauves and reds.
A humming bird
Of the late larkspur
Never knew
What went over her.
Crickets chirped and
A blinking toad
Watched for flies
On the gravel road.








LITERI. \ATURE IN TODAY'S WORLD s1

They don't care
How smart men are
To go to heaven
In a flying car.
To a yellow bee
Or a marigold
The adventure seems
A trifle old.
Louise Driscoll

A Fistful of Fighting Quotations
"Proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants
thereof; it shall be a jubilee unto; and ye shall return every man unto
his family."-Leviticus, 23:10

"Is life so sweet as to be purchased at the price of chains and
slavery? Forbit it. Almighty God. I know not what course others
may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me death."-Patrick
Henry
*

"\Ve hold these truths to.be self-evident; that all men are created
equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with inherent and in-
alienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of
happiness; that to secure these rights governments are instituted among
men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that
whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends,
it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it. and to institute
new government, laying its foundations on such principles and or-
ganizing its powers in such form as to them shall seem most likely to
effect their happiness."-Thoinas Jefferson
5 5i:
"These are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier
and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of
his country: but he that stands it now, deserves the love and the
thanks of man and xvoman."-Thomas Paine-The Crisis
*
"Those who expect to reap the blessings of freedom must, like
men, undergo the fatigue of supporting it."-Thomas Painr








ENGLISH FOR VICTORY


"Liberty will not descend to a people, a people must raise them-
selves to liberty; it is a blessing that must be earned before it can be
enjoyed."-Charles Caleb Colton

"O Freedom! thou art not, as poets dream
A fair young girl, with light and delicate limbs,
And wavy tresses gushing from the cap
With which the Roman master crowned his slave
When he took off the gyves. A bearded man,
Armed to the teeth, art thou; one mailed hand
Grasps the broad shield, and one the sword: thy brow,
Glorious in beauty though it be, is scarred
With token of old wars: thy massive limbs
Are strong with struggling."
William Culen Bryant, The Antiquity of Freedom

"I intend no modification of my oft-expressed wish that all men
everywhere could be free."-Abraham Lincoln
*1
"The cause of civil liberty must not be surrendered at the end
of one or one hundred defeats."-Abraham Lincoln

"What constitutes the bulwark of our own liberty and inde-
pendence? It is not our frowning battlements, our bristling sea coasts,
our army and our navy. These are not our reliance against tyranny.
All of those may be turned against us without making us weaker for
the struggle. Our reliance is in the love of liberty which God has
planted in us. Our defense is in the spirit which prized liberty as the
heritage of all men, in all lands everywhere. Destroy this spirit and
you have planted the seeds of despotism at your own doors. Familiarize
yourselves with the chains of bondage and you prepare your own
limbs to wear them. Accustomed to trample on the rights of others,
.you have lost the genius of your independence and become the fit sub-
jects of the first cunning tyrant who rises among you!"-Abraham
Lincoln (From a Speech at Edwardsville, Illinois, 1858

"Neither let us be slandered from our duty by false accusations
against us, nor frightened from it by menaces of destruction to the
government, nor of dungeons to ourselves. Let us have faith that








LITERATURE IN TODAY'S WORLD 85

right makes might, and in that faith let us to the end dare to do our
duty as we understand it."-Abraham Lincoln
*
"A man is a man, at bottom. \Vhole ages of abuse and oppres-
sion cannot crush the manhood clear out of him. howeverr thinks it
a mistake is himself mistaken. Yes, there is plenty good enough ma-
terial for a republic in the most degraded people that ever existed ...
if one could but force it out of its timid and suspicious privacy, to
overflow and trample in the mud any throne that ever was set up and
any nobility that ever supported it."- Mark Twain in Connecticut
Yankee in King Arthur's Court

"Not a grave of the murder'd for freedom but grows seed for freedom,
in its turn to bear seed,
\Vhich the winds carry afar and re-sow, and the rains and the
snows nourish.
Not a disembodied spirit can the weapons of tyrants let loose,
But it stalks invisibly over the earth, whispering, counseling.
cautioning.
Liberty, let others despair of you-I never despair of you.
Is the house shut? Is the master away?
Nevertheless, be ready, be not weary of watching.
He will soon return, his messengers come anon.
\Valt Whitman-Europe

The real wisdom of human life is compounded out of the experi-
ences of ordinary men. The utility, the vitality, the fruitage of life
does not come from the top to the bottom; it comes, like the natural
growth of a great tree, from the soil, up through the trunk into the
branches to the foliage and the fruit. The great struggling unknown
masses of the men who are at tile base of everything are the dynamic
force that is lifting the levels of society. A nation is as great, and
only as great, as her rank and file."-\Voodrow \Vilson-The New
Freedom
S .*
"In the future days. which we seek to make secure, we look for-
ward to a world founded upon four essential freedoms.
The first is freedom of speech and expression-everywhere in the








84 ENGLISH FOR VICTOR )

The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own
way-everywhere in the world.
The third is freedom from want, which translated into world terms,
means economic understanding which will secure to every nation a
healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants-everywhere in the world.
The fourth is freedom from fear, which translated into world
terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point
and in such thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to
commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor-anywhere
in the world."-F. D. Roosevelt-Message to Congress, January 6, 1941

"It is my belief that every freedom, every right, every privilege
has its own price, its corresponding duty without which it cannot be
enjoyed. The four duties of the people's revolution as I see them to-
day are:
I. The duty to produce to the limit.
2. The duty to transport as rapidly as possible to the field of
battle.
3. The duty to fight with all that's in us.
4. The duty to build a peace-just, charitable, and enduring.
The fourth duty is that which inspires the other three."-Henry
A. Wallace from The Price of Free World Victory, 1942

"Let each of us Americans say, I maintain the tradition of my
country. It does not matter to me what color a person's skin is, black
or white or yellow; it does not matter whether a person is Jew or
Gentile, Catholic or Protestant, man or woman. If he believes in
freedom and in human equality, he is a good American, and I will
trust him."-Pearl Buck in American Unity and Asia














Books Go To War

We, as English teachers, are concerned with books and young
minds. Our contribution, therefore, must be the mobilization of
thought and action of our boys and girls in school-the harnessing of
the untapped resources of impulse and idealism which an awakened
youth can bring to the total war effort.
Hlow shall we achieve these joint goals?
By making available to our pupils knowledge to strengthen them
in this crisis, understanding to shape their will toward the difficult
undertakings that lie ahead.
Books alone will not win the war-but the Fascist enemy himself
has shown that he fears the book for the mighty weapon it is. It is no
accident that the Bible and other basic books are defended to the
death by the civilized peoples of the world. It is no accident that our
enemy sees in books only an invitation to use the torch.
This is a specific list for a specific purpose at a specific time. The
themes of many of the books are timeless, as the struggle for ideals is
timeless. But the central value of these books is that they explain
our crisis, describe the various fronts of the war which has engulfed
the world, reveal the heroism of the unnamed fighter for freedom, and
impart to us the awareness which we must have if we are to survive
in a better world.
These books reveal the momentous slakes for \which the allied
nations are fighting. In the exile's tale of flight and readjustment,
the reporter's account of "underground" perils and deeds, in the sim-
ple recital of some child s sufferings or a workman's resistance, the
faith in freedom is renewed and loyalty to ideals made more meaning-
ful. The young reader who was held, yesterday, by the melodrama of
a contrived romance will see in today's books t[ie drama of sacrifice
and struggle for national and social liberation, for the material and

*See, Books Go To \\'or in IIl.II PI'OINS for Sep[telcm er 1912 dhiich serves as the Itasi
for thi revised( anJl expan;clril compilation.








86 ENGLISH FOR VICTORY Y

spiritual treasures of ciilization, lor tie continued and deepened re-
liance on the democratic procedure.
From these personal narratives, documented reports, novels and
other fictional treatments of the war, the boys and girls of our schools
will come away with that knowledge which the potential participant
in the war must possess. It will be a knowledge that goes beyond the
mere accumulation of facts about the enemy and our allies, about our
respective military and civilian power. It will serve to overcome in-
difference or cynicism which is, in effect, a denial of all values. It
will stimulate readiness to sacrifice, courage to act, and ability to trans-
late ideals into deeds. It will fortify faith in our cause and confidence
in the ultimate triumph of the common man.

How It Began
A Cartoon History of Our Times David Low
In penetrating and grimly amusing cartoons, the best political
cartoonist of our times tells how it all began. The text by Quincy
Howe fills in the necessary historical background. Simon and Schuster

Ambassador Dodd's Diary (M)* William E. Dodd
What does the calm American observer think of Nazi ideas and
leaders in action? The diary of our late ambassador to Germany gives
you an honest, detailed picture of the diplomatic scene in Berlin. Be-
hind it all you see how Germany became Enemy Number One of all
democracies. Harcourt, Brace

Blood and Banquets Bella Fromm
What made Hitler and the Nazi tyranny possible? A vivid,
dramatic answer is given in "Blood and Banquets," which is based on
a day-to-day diary of people and events in Germany from the time
preceding Hitler's rise to power to the beginning of the war. This
Winchellesque, gossipy book is not only easy and pleasant reading
but highly informative as well. Harper

Berlin Diary William L. Shirer
Digging up news and getting it out of a country bristling with
unfriendly censors is a challenge worthy of any live-wire reporter. The
*The (Ml) after titles indicates books intended for mature pupils.




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