• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Preface
 Foreword
 Part I: The principal and...
 Part II: Supervision in the elementary...
 Part III: Making and interpreting...
 Appendix
 Back Cover






Group Title: work book for principals and supervisors
Title: A Work book for principals and supervisors
CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098582/00001
 Material Information
Title: A Work book for principals and supervisors
Physical Description: viii, 263 p. : illus. (plans) ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lane, Robert Hill
Publisher: The Macmillan Company
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1930
 Subjects
Subject: School management and organization -- Outlines, syllabi, etc   ( lcsh )
School superintendents   ( lcsh )
School principals   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographies.
General Note: "Basis for the courses ... given by the author at ... the University of Southern California." - Foreword.
Statement of Responsibility: by Robert Hill Lane ...
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098582
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03682811
lccn - 30011734

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Preface
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Part I: The principal and his school
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
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        Page 22
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        Page 24
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        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Part II: Supervision in the elementary school
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
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        Page 96
    Part III: Making and interpreting the course of study
        Page 97
        Page 98
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        Page 100
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    Appendix
        Page 215
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    Back Cover
        Page 265
        Page 266
Full Text











UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY








II


A WORK BOOK

FOR

PRINCIPALS AND SUPERVISORS
































*T.


THE r.A.;1 'ILL 'J :,;. N\


M A l'lF i '. I ,~~ iE

1i IF 1.di llLL.N ** 1F'AN\'


4






A WORK BOOK





PRINCIPALS AND SUPERVISORS










BY


HOiHErT 111L LANE
A-l [.l,. l i. ITTil LE i LN I N :,F -,I,:.:'L_
L*I- .N L Li i. I IF ,RNl



















THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
NEW YORK
1113. i












L c 6 u-












C.:.irri-.nr lI''30.
By THE MACMILLANr CONIP.NY.

All ihti- r-er..J n.o pi, E c l t:i
t ..-. ,nl t.. irt'r *lu'. 1 i .j'. I..rln
t*ih'.ul [ ,.I fl; ., '.1 ur. ,G ift "-
ie r uhi.: cr

Sei Up adrJ c tln.ru.)i d.J. PubI L'.'Jd \pril. -ji.























*PTINTID 1N TBE UNITED STATEs OP UTUfICCA.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIOA


I 3 1262 08645 473 2I I
3 1262 08645 473 2















EDUCATION is the reorganization of experience
so as to (1) make it meaningful and (2) make new
and richer experiences grow out of old experiences.
(.Adapted from John Dewvey)




THE PURPOSE of EDUCATION is to effect
changes in conduct on the part of the person edu-
cated. Only that child has been truly educated
during a term, a year, or any other period of time,
whose conduct, h.as been materially changed at the
end of that period, as measured by his conduct. nt
tle beginning.


48t776












FOREWORD


Thi- Work B.,-ook is the lj-is for the L ol :ur-es
E.lun:tion 117 -" The Prine'ip-Il :tnrl His School,"
Eduliie-tioin 1 IS-" O(il'Ziz:itin :nd Supervisio n iif Ele-
inent tiy Ed lr;-Itiorn,"
:1 in.i
Ehnue:..tion 12.5- Tlhe Eli.nr;it-,y Sre-hool Currinhuiiin,."
give I.,y the :-iutoir at Sum.l -ir a.i' l-. ,iif the University of
Snutth,,rn C-:litf,'rrni a 1925-192l iililu-ivme.
A.ttentio:ii i-s alledl t tile '...r,'tr1izati'ni of min teri:l unltIer
thi re .t l :
I. The Princ-il.,.l :;n..l Hi- Sehoii:,l
II. Super i-_ion. in tlhe Elinaint-try Si'hlol
III. jLkid.z .nc.1 I IterpretiIIt. the Cour-, e olf SrlIly
In its ievi.':d furn thle Work B...k ik inteinle- to: help the
follm 11in,_ pei on- :
1. Thlie fen:.ler in the elIemeitairy .ho:i:,'l l:,'kinig ltuwritr tO
ani eh Mi ertj y ...el,:,,:,l p., ilni.) l-.hiii.,) -1 .1pet vi,_,-ri l-'lip.
2. The inexprenil'':'.d principal ,"r ijpielervikir jlvt lei1ning.
adlin iiii-tr.-,tilx -)i q-,pi,-ryi l \v,.rk.
3. The experieee-id i.lincipll o'r -rpetvior \Ih,:' wi.'he.i to
cliePk up on the ehrieni eny of ,Fir .'ork.
4. The studen.l t of ..h.:.,tio.n wio l, to ;itta:-k -_pe,:ifi
problem- of .-dmi.iitr:ition, or p,.i iii.._ t'r.,m tlhe t.ndr.lpoilt
o'f pt[. rti':l exlpt.-riieti.-I, an..I t wlihom tihe Work B,.-_,k ma.y
suggest a ui-alble techiiniqiue.
The :atlhor ,ind the pu!bliheir ot thi book recognize the
fact that e.lie-itioiilly va'.iii:li-le r-pl'rt m::le hy praiti.al
cl:tsr.-roi n tia herli'( adili'-*t ifnv-irial'ly hVi:\'e their literary -ioi t-
e''iriing.. Il le-Av\'e c~-rnething to he desired in the in:Itter ',f
1.,0






Nii FORE\\'ORD

form, consiistelrcy, bibliographicAil accuracy, and the like. It
has seeine'.l \\ise to both nutholr nnd publishers in the present
book to make a minimum of editorial modilification in quoted
reports.
R. H. L.























PART ONE

THE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOL















PART ONE


THE PRINCIPAL ANI) HIS SCHOOL
r LF ltIL.NC 'ES

1. Tit Pt;,r.' ii n Ill, s .'l ,,,,, C'ul.,el ley. Ho.ughlitoin,
M ilttin, 1 ..2.3.
S2. First Ye:ilbc:ok. D)e(-i-rtmnenrt *f Eleimeitay v Principjals.
Ti'. T7' i,. m .i.: .,j S ,,s.,mi s, '' i ,qin. El,.. ,t,. r'.m l .SI ,lm I
Pr.,'m i'1,.ul. ( N :r Cio;i2l I luiE:l ti-ln A s..\ u-i tion,1* I1, )
:1. Se-o'r rl Ye:-Ii I iook, Th.: l"',1 l!i, , l/i,,: E!, 4i:ll im:11y ,'. l,,; l
IPr,,11 t pal i',i lt:. L.,', l .f l', T, i n.; M 'I,. i., l. i ii2
4. Thidlt Year.lrl),- k, ThI, Sl1.i,. ,,,,! i' . . .I dii .l. im;i, '.5
I t ,. E"l,.., i ,. ,'y P I ,',...:/i i 192-1 I
5. Fuurtlh Yeairluook, Tih, El t r.i'. :.'.m!/ S.. 1. i ,,'! Pi u, l .hi ,' -
.A .l ,Mil1,, t* f l I i atui ,ii i, mm i. l.t,,: .shi s.

G. Fifth Ye: l :.i o k, Si'hl -, : .,',m Ith El. ,: um i.ir'm/ .t hi.,,s I I', mpiil-
.'ip.,'i. l:'20i
7. Sixth Ye:u l.:i'.:k, P i,,',; in S1.~( ,r*i ',.*.'.sm 1. i l'-27)
S. Seventh Ye I .iook. TIm. E!,A ,m,,_,lm,'j Sm lm',.'l PrF,,, m ,'ilhl.,I'.
1 lt '."S I
0. Eighth Yeairl.'b::ik, A.4...'/, W P. ,',>,pA. l'Ci
" 10. Elh.m :ui n .'rit /i St. f. S p''w r' .. -h Gi- t. i S,'ril e, 1 l21.i
11. A /'eih/' .". I El. F mmwi/urt l..'..! I', ',, "'.It fi it i., in,-
pe nc,. 11,, ii Im u hli',,.- Dyr. ,Tea,,hes Coll ,ze.,
Colmlmi:nl U.ii iveir.ity, 11)127
12. T i, .. mlit, ii, Otfio,, ,m a' El. im-il .i- m ,-.' .i-; .
(Sc:ribner. 1'.2S,






4 THE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOL

Problem One
WHAT DO I KNOW ABOUT THE PRINCIPALSHIP?
1. Read Chapters I-IV of the Seventh Yearbook, Depart-
ment of Elementary Principals.
2. Note "Principal's Duties," pp. 197-201. (A copy will
be found in the Appendix to this Work Book.)
3. Cite several items under each of the major divisions
which seem to yi.ou to be of great importance.
4. Are there duties in the list which in your opinion should
not be included?
5. Read Chapter V-"Distribution of the Principal's
Time." If you were a principal, how would you arrange a
daily program to include the duties of greatest importance?
On the next page you are asked to present a rough draft of
such a program.





TIE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOL 5

WVORK PAGE ON PROBLEM ONE

A THEORETICAL DAILY PROGRAM
Indicate below how you divide your time as Elementary
Principal throughout one school day. You will with to, revise
this later on to meet your own needs.






THE I'Ni{'CII'.\L AND HIS SCHOOL


Problem Two

AM I PROPER AI.\TI'EIAL FOR THE
PRINCIPALSHIP.?

Couil yoi u .-qulify for tihe Prii:'pilip inier the requiire-
melit.s -.iL'e eted below ':'

I Phys.i:il leqi"iremeniits
a. Inmltltiitvy ronl, tei po:r.' Ilr llie-se- \\lhi:h ie..ult III

I:). 1Phy_'I nl i-'or II.-t e u(?iI l iian c: that susi ai:..:tin mfiaxlmi nm
eficiency liuring the vwoik of each dInl tlirInIlhotit
I he yeair
c. Provisi,:n for leihi.e :-n,.I rnxlx:-ition, ne ndriiin iml of
1iiit? h til per d.:t)
d. Provision for plhy-i,:.l nativityy am. exercise., ta mIini-
Iuinti of t'xo hliir- per %eck cniisiitently folloveI.

2. DL,?-iral le Personi il Tr- its
i. E thical :rli::r,'iter
M ,:'.r l t;nd:l.di :>
Hollii.ty
Coi' 1.11 -
Fr:i n kI;
I:h. Exectitive Ability
Le-(dership

Initi-ti ve
ii.lginent
c. Ridit Prolei-ion.il Attitide
Corpelatioii
Ev'i..?itce? ol co-i fli'tl iou )ol':c'-.io l:i groi'ttli

i.l r h iit-_ .i-i S r

.\klip.to:.l Ir.i .m u C. C i iiiim r P, ..-.rt l1), Deanc I..l,_.r B. Rog.r-.





TIE PRINCIPAL AND 1118 .CltOuuL


d. Personality
Appel dance
2'O tesy
Sym1 path
T:-et
Sen ie o:if hlumorlll
Poise


a. Fou. ve:li High School
Two ye-ii'r- Univerlity
T\o, ye:,r- T chers Colle,.e or Nornr.l Sc-,,l
le. u,:lr to ,.i d.h-gree in Eil ,-.:ttion ,or
b. FouL ye:,, Hihi Scho.ol
Four year Unliversity xith a nimnajor it! Edli:.:,ition
lc.,.lir,. ti:,o i de,-ree

4. Profet.'ioirlI Experience'
Ten.ahinig c.xp-ierieiice tliiloiiul tihr::e to five Y'eatr :,i
Te'l'chier ini lenmen t.;ty Sel: chol
Te':Ai:her in, Hiih Sihiool
TeI'cher i1, Spec;'il Deipiitnments

5. E,:li,:.irion"Il Pritr, iple.. I,.lels, :ndi A ttitii,.le.
j. A ele':,r iuniier-'ltiiil'. of tie biolo.ic:i:l :l:,n;kground
ol e.liuc.tion, le.-lin;ri to the belief thit e.luci:tion is
the |i iiier'i;i:l ;-.eincy :lo, tle improvement of the rnice,
t,:,.ethelr % ith !- Ze4ne of ,Perl oi,:iAl re1-poiiil.hility for
In- -hi,ire in the pro,:,e? "
b.. A *le ,llitte under't' jj., ir,. of childi nitu e :InI.Id the
fuiii:iniment:il plire:see iin :lillferoleit types of le-arnitnr
c. An n ri.letfi dineli ot thlie e: ii:,-l f t-I'to, t Ih t b.e:, I I:'n
thle e:,la : niz:ti -,oii :-i..I le:nlili ;i,. I clt itiei of the el :-
mIent:Yry ,-r1,ol
1i. A coliie'p-tion of e :.l I.ic., ti:ii ,t tl e- :th.l:iptihi-I an 11
j ,I : tin If Ich 1oo w :'ork, i:o the p-i rt: 'i.il: -r ne i:.l :,j .l
S.\.:i i.. I. frl' I T .1 IT .. C 6' -niin.ir I .l.|...ri I. y D .::n. L,:. -tr I;...p.r-






THE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHIOIL

Ca p.-:itics of the pupils in relation to the six fun-
tl.inental life needs*:


( l He:ilthl
(2) Faniily Life
13) Economic Adjustment


(4) Civic Life
(5) Rerention
(G6 Ethic:l Charecter


':1' lii) F', jilt ipit ''F L'd,~. QIj.jlj.





THE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOL 9

W~ORK PAGE ON PROBLEm Two

Li-t ,-.me of thlie courses in Edlucation i which y:ou think
de-irable for the prospective princip:-l. You will iin:l inter-
esting siigge. tion.s ui current annoui uncemlen ts of Teacher, Col-
lege, Columbhi: Uniiverlity, ianl: the School of Education.
University of Chicago.

1.





0.


4.





6.

7.


S.


9.


10.


11.






THE PRllNC'IPA.. AND ll.S SCHOOL.


Problem Three

WHAT PREPA.\TION SII.\LL I MAKE FOR THE
FIRST DAY OF Sc'IHOOL:'

1. Look over ,,y dlintriet, as-':irtain it liouiilaries, :ndl make
: rI-A.' sl:' :.tl- I 111i:1]ip ti IIII tl eII.':c i po:itils of .pler'rifi:. i terelt,
?eltis ; tZ# p 3ti'P c f of i : is t il ;: ;'I ': pt t, liti.i I'ill. I r:i rii':i Cit clitnnll
iiplittin l'_ rnei.h'. I hl' l i,.,-,:! i, e icie .ll:uc I Is 'll.utl c r-s, lihriiries,
(.1O 1n unl ity I,,eli'.i ,?t,.,. .ini .1 el ,:i fii iei ,l":,rt,,:,:,-I "0 g, el 'ie-l .
sUL'tl :1 p,:,,'l halll :lance': halll et,:'.
2. HaI:.' .1 lI: :k talk vlith nm' iipeiJtitetn lent covr:-ring
itu(li point s. Ili tl':ry o.f I I -rhli,-,l, ~o ;l jiliIhIi-.t atij'e policies,
ntlituile oh f f ni:er incipi l, attitile of pri-l difficult
lo:.;il pro'l.'l(ein te'irher' j-s-.i lel fori I e:- c m ig school year,
poh,>l,:el of the si-ecrintendent for that particiulait .litrict, etc.
3. Make :. I.i l"f survey -''f IuiMiikni :inl gr''uil, irecotn.rd,
.-uppl.l"-, ,','lUipmeniit, bookk. etc. far a o :- 1.'m lii.t.ribuite
upp:,lie-.. c.., iln :iv:tn,:e.
4. IColler wli the jFlc iiito:r n: t-, lii- ie and inlentally
le':rn all I c: n fro.im Ihimn to I'I" cl-,d -'-nitiOin's.
." HIolil : pr.jliiilmi y t:acic]'.- ir meetling the Satuitrl;'y
before c.'hoo:,l .Iein e: ov rin'o! i i.i, imc r t ._ as.
,A \vori. of ,*'retillE.
I' Inlrott.liion -,of teach,:r- new' to thie (li:o.
c: Re.-.ling of Spelrinteni'l ent'_ notte for the opening of

d i. Brif 'lirc-.tionts f.r til? firit il:ay of s -hool.
e. A I *lief 't:ili'IIent oi the li iiwV priieparl' genet.ril policy
indlic:,tinlg tl:tl ihe pla;-t to '..iturl_ tl!-- trI-.litioni al
orgW,' and-tio1 i dn. -I.lI i i- t't tilloni ,ro f Ilvl- :-ehl I l no
little a-. [.,:i"ibl., :ndl that n':ce;s:-ry chi:n e : ill i.c
im lcd *wly 1!11i ri, aly ftI'ir lhil:rou.Ih .lic.' siioll of
i'(?v. pl. ri w ith i lii te-.:i'h(l?lr .
F. Blrielf COile'?Irence- \itlh I:lew t>:,,cll'i ;
p. Blii':-t f :,'oif t(:rnce \'. ith t o ,i ll 11',r -'tint te:i'h-ler
.ho :- fi niiliair with thie :' ri:i ti:/. tl of t'i he -chooll





THIE I'PiIN''IP'AL AND IIIS SCHi i'L 11

through ye:-rs .itf s-.?:vIe. These persons; lihoull he
given :- large pa r :.f the r pleel.ii. ibility uf the first
i l:iy of school. Tli p)rincip:i l s -o. li.l not li e :ili:SIn,? 11
to a-k for legitiii-Ite i.'-.iti:tie :rua'.l hloule.l =how by
111! 11i1.111ner thl t ~mli ;,:L -i ':nIe a i.:oir1tre.\ to0 tlhe
lieW ]:priin.'ipal t" ler rl,.tn an olltitj lij.n.






12 TIE PRINCIPAL AND IIIS SCHOOL

WoRK PA.: ON PUBLEM THREE
Dr:.v below a nmap of your school district and place upon
it :-is much useful inil'.frnmition as you can secure.





THE PRINCIPAL .\ND HIS SCHOOL


Problem Four

WHAT CAN I DO TO MAKE THE FIRST
DAY OF SCHOOL A SUCCESS?

1. Arrive as early is possible and make a rapid tour of
inspection. See that each classr:.oom h'i- la canrd on the outside
.,of the door with grade and te:Acher's name in large letters.
2. See that a roster of teachers is posted in plain -ight just
inside each main entrance antd in the principal's office.
3. Divert to a -.eniori teacher a-lnd a few pupil a--i tants t-
much -.f the routine -.if entrian ie of pupil-, re'"eptioni of parent,i
etc.. i-s po,'.,sible.
4. Reserve my -:iwn time until the first ru-h has abated for
decision on unel:,sitfied pupil-s hrief interviews with parents,
and attention to emergency calls.
5. Gather data as to enrollment by ten o'clc,.k iand rnake
a preliminary cl:ssificntion report. Study this and work
out necessary readljitmeIn t- for discussion at the afternoon
teachers' meeting.
6. Viiit eaclh cla-ts hefoite noon and say a word of greeting
t', pupil. ald teachers, rioting especially condition of rooms
under teacher- niew to the ,chooil.
7. Note passing of lines at noon to discover possible weak-
ness in discipline.
S. Make a brief to.,ur of tlie yard btetvween 12 :30 arid :00
o'clock to note effectivene.- o.f yard duty.
0. Ho..ld brief teachers' meeting after school for dilicu.,ion
of following point-,:
a. Correction in earlier class-ificatiorn.
b. Adjustments to relieve overero.,wded class-es.
c. Settlement of problems incident ton the first day of
scliool.
d. Preliminary check on pupils who belong to the schliool
but failed to appear.
(Note: Departmental and plat-,oon schools will need to
devise a different routine f.or the opening day in th:it hoirne-








room teachers will have Iu look after new entrants. By hav-
Illn ca cl, l.;ss report o its luome-iooni te.-cher for the lti.t
period for nece. : reI- jMi tnzent-n tLhe progralmi :-'in be iC-
StulmI e. :1 t Illie 1. ii,,il peliCi 'l withloit tfll lher inteilruptilln.)


Problem Five

HOW CAN I BE.'T CON i'ROL PIlPIL TRAFFIC
IN MY IUIILDINOS.'

1. Have pupil m:richl in It l in, v.i-I ,ne t l":i.v ; allow theli
to w:ill; ill l. tlie lOel.i r,,ili e ,-1f tlt.I iO 1:y.
2. Oraniie a Sl'ety Cr'tincil." llembers f ibI is, ':Iimi-
zation in l..e i ..1,'i: ve ;, ihelplnl in a sitin,. g in I tall,: prrol.,iniFs.
A sugge:te,.l il-in '.',f 'ra.nii,:.ition tru y 1., pro l iiiredI from Ilie
Autuoin'ol.bile Clul. of S-uilriCern C:alil'rii:i, Los Anele.
3. H.tivc rpi'csses- lfor 1:ir.lergrii ten, li II aind -.e.coirl gr.ltde
it 11I1:1111 :iid 11: )00 1 o'..1 :I receL for .i other i ra. les. at 10 :30.
4. Sy -tenm:-tize liie ri;ll..- s. that they el:'eonie ..s rn'?irly
.u.itotm:ti .ias po ';iblie. Note 1the foll:wiin poii-: :
a. Preparation. Instruitlnioir '.i's to e lroutine ,,t lire
drills, noting exits. r-'utes, etc., limust be' postc'. il'
erich d.l i siis ol :.nt.I pupIils inlist xhe' f.Il ililarie.l witli
the routine ihv the t:''liher.
h. Exits. Fire drills shioiuil e con :i('tc oi' '-c.,sionially
,1o thie :r iSil.ui)tioii th.lt o i c-l1i:ll the exits. iic
a.iv ila.I le.
i. Frequency. Fire diills slioul.l be lied .- lt,.' ,1"
riee:'ss:tiry until i oi utine is .lablish.e'.l, there.fteler :it
le:.ist t\vie i, eat-h 1 s-,h-,.- .'1 month.
I. Variety. Drills ,ho:'i.l Ie 'riven under varing cir-
r.: t inteR .-i, .iit V i -ii' i'. iouris..
e. Doors. DI z.-,I' -i all exits inius.t be uniiceled and.l
ea-ily opetnI:.d Irrim the inside at .ill tieni- during;
s.hiool Iour-s.


THE Pitl'.i'lP.\L ANI) III S'HOI001.





THE PRIN.'IPAL .-ND 111S SCHO,.L.


f. Signals. Two bells or two rings with perceptible:
p:-mse indicate immediate fre di ill, pul..ils to go tio-
.tipet ini clha.lge of tacelier- without delay for books,
\ frip-, or oilir i' -;i i1e."
g. Location of signals. Every te:ilipr :nd j.iitor
shoull.I know the loc-6,tini of siiril ];p:ir:ituti :-d l.e
able to soun.l thle hre drill sim2iial 'fr-om :my ll\ oo 01 t
."i. -ceinilt.
h. Emergency signa!s. The pt i iipj.l iuisit device
el-t'eti\'e Zlil.i- tllie-. l ite -.c Iiii A"c ou1.it Of Uit ild
ai!il s-Iould ;e tl,.-it s.I l, .sllbstitlltes are in. erstcod
by te:cheides *,,i- pl|pilk.
i. Testing. Appj,1':tus hli.ul be ti:st:.ld e:tl morninii
l:el-fore selic'o'l op:.ri.'-
j. Signal to fire department. Priii:il, teaclids, anl
j'ri itor loul,.l ,,know tlhe l,:,, tiJ, of tlp, tieole.t tire
:,l-fnil: box. I ln I.I?,:e li~ill i :I i:.ll .tl.le : lc' ir llfiie Il' r
liitif:yin,, the -ir: dp.l:,-rtmern t by tIele-lphon,- shoul-11 : le
est: l:Alilhe .l.
k. Fire-extinguishing apparatus. Pirinipal, ten:clerl,
aJI in initKor- hl io.Id know tlie lo:.:tioin of nte-extiii-
gif-iirhin a1pZ:irittiu's a-id Io?',e eok l in hoi, to mime
tlieill.
I. Control. E:-;ii tp.:h'lier is reI l-pon il)I fri' the (c ntrol
of her fl:|ls il.[u vi ig iip drill.
il. Speed. C'l.i-,Z s ls 1.11oulid Itii('e !it a rIap)idl: w:llk ; r.n1i-
nilL, Ie:-d-I to coiil'i li i d -ll. i.ient I -ii_ of tilie.
n. All out. Thi. pIinripil andi oni o more le-ignated
a.-iistants lmui.1i t inlpe ct the I:.iilding to see that all
per's-uon have left.
,. Special classes. Special provi-i.in iust ie imade
for children n plycsic:illy linrdlie:-irred.
p. Location of classes on yard cr street. Pupil- houi.ild
n:iihl to p ,int. iln tile y.-i il oI -teet 1' .ir ii'' l, ai%;ty
to iii-ur .:e safety ad Fo prP1\eiit iiinterfereiice \iithi fire
deptu Itliinet.






THE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOL


q. Cooperation. Fire drills should not become per-
funct,.u ; teachers should seize the opportunity to
teach self-control, good posture, and school spirit as
c(omponenrt parts of a superior fire drill.
r. Inflammables. Accmnulations of combustible ma-
terial must not be allowed in any part of the building.
s. Assemblies. A routine for auditorium purpose
should be worked out and made automatic by
repetition.
t. Report. The principal should make and keep a
report on (.:ch fire drill both for his own protection
ard:l to provide ninterial for further study of his
routine.
5. Whenever possible organize upper grades into a depart-
mental unit: the passing of pupils on the departmental pro-
gram from one room to another affords ample opportunity for
self-control on the part of the pupils.
6. A yard assembly or auditorium assembly should be held
at least once a week. Passage of pupils to and from assembly
and conduct during the assemblyy period will reflect my ability
as an organizer.

Problem Six

HOW CAN I BEST SECURE ADEQUATE SUPERVI-
SION OF MY PLAYGCIOUND 'TO(GEITHER WITH
MAXIMUM RESULTS FOR MY PUPILS?
1. Assign yard duty to my teacher, so that playground is
supervised at all times when pupils are prese nt. Teacher
assignments must he in proportion to the load, i.:., fewer
teaches will be required between 12:00 and 12:30 P.iM.
than between 12: 30 and 1 :00 P.,. A plan of the school yard
showing yard assignments will prove helpful.
2. The yard duty schedule should be posted in a promi-
nent place in the principal's office. Periodiceil inspeet ion should
be made to see that yard duty assignments are faithfully
performed.










in
























ELI
.-' r .' 'I j -' I I'ra 'n













1-























nL
lJi'.i'* -r -, ,-o .-- r.-..i.'n l 3 I.- */ |


AN.- I L .)-UT F- .













O .1uar i- Of Ce er pupl.
IT ,i,.'-r l--



JIJ ._ .A --
... ,-






S, ...








IriO ',uare I'.-t ,"' i.pflat per pupil.






THI' tl.'I:C'l.\l. A's \ 1i11 SC H.OOL.


3. E-S tirnatte the inuml.er r-if "surte Ieet per pupil of pday-

4. If insp'ectioni -,,l \'j:v tih't le- t.li1n 20!) ',(... ft. playg ltoin.lI
lp:ice pei pupil i;- : :'ii il:,le. iuiim -.il .I : :11. ? inli I!. exercise,.l to
mani:ke full iise o the :,:iil tbl. h:e(-.
5. Pll.y.uio, l .l .p:ie iiill Ie .-lii. I iC l ni.l S i v\I ri')nliI pjli -I-
i;:1 : tiiI'.-tiie oin : r" ll i leliin ite ]'l-in. A.-o -,-**,,i I(r i.t xill le
fo:ii.l.111. ll p.i'-e 17."
G. Whenever pos.il.le a departmreni.:il 'oi.-:nizE'tion fhsli ild
le maide in upper ,ir:tide- tto pli nlit of i full-i line J .lihysic: ed.tc:-
tion te l to coiner i ict I.i p :I(.li\i ltii e- tll .iI-.I;iuo t tie? .-ch:ool.
This rencher shioul.l meetl her i+ : ,-'li on thle pl:ivgr;-uiinld Ilily
fI'r in '.'i:00 .\..[. t. i it? o '.e :if -s.cii.'. C... i 'pt iln iniiu tleli
vne;.it i r.
7. Si.ipei '.'iii oif t--ilei :-ind thisein ntl liiill I, e re "irdleil
.i-.a lieg i.i :iIte p:-Ir "f f :ipi l r ipii vi \i n I l: y tr :c!'?r. : i.neil
to tlIt diil.. T'le S.llelt '. C i'iii itee ca.in :si;t :1 n.
S. Wh\Vlenever po-)...-.il.' fle :i :n of -li.dent .elf-L.overn-
ilellt dlir illi Ile oli 'g ) illize'l. (C'oln fll lll tt ii pi.ll ils i l:may lhel I.ic
;si- re'.l |Jet i!ie :liuztie ,n y',.:iu'l ni ind l pliy- oiind.
',). .\de li' i:1it pio'.'-. h li -_lio1u l Ie 1n .p.le for d.lipos.> ition nf
plipil. '"it r l lter'nm i io i '..i li ,inl l:_ ri,.l!Cni't.'i : .tli cr 1 i .,y :,.-N.1il,1_1i g
t leii'i ti, C1:1.iS l o -)ll :)il.lifl:r 1.illl1 ,.,r I I,:-eiee l lI .
10l. C'iiOfllnl pri '.'il-in l hl,,iilld le in:ilde flilr tle? Xeltint of
pul[il, ,.liI iii.I tlie l6ii :l I liir, eitlier 1'y the esta:i liliish ent o f :
scho::l :il'eiertei: or I ine n:1l : utneiit with tin iiine'? eco-
iii iitii lep:-iatmient ,)ir 1' coper:iti ve plani wAorlkeCid oit with
tlhe P:1-reiit-Te:-cher .\s-.:citin of the i cClool.
I'r .i r. .I l.y C L 1",.l-.1, 4,.-. t..r 1 i ,. 1 E :.iti ,11. I .P I.,r,..I-
i~-' y S .'h,...I-, ., i Il1 \\ i.;.,._.1i1, .\-- li t ,S.il,r.i' ...I o l .\!,l ] ltitr] L o,
.\i._;, I.. <.',iy ... hIool .





TIIHE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOL


Problem Seven

WHAT PRINCIPLES SHALL I BEAR IN MIND
IN MAKING PROGRAMS FOR MY SCHOOL?

1. The time aIll.ltmerni t to xvtiiii tns t .lt .1ou inL.ute
c<\reft.l ot(:l..id1lenition .f the seven inir ,l-e:tives of eln':ation
- Hcalill, Coniinian'l of tihe Ftiiu-c inienrit-: Pr: Icei:e- WVort hy
Home lm.-in.ei-zlhip, Citizenshlip, \i o.-ti,-ln, Wtthy ULe of
L -iSiire, l'tlii',:il C(ihar:iter.
2. The timine cIe.lduiile sh!io-uld rr'u, the ZO. .-ral sil.,ijel:ts
ltithler tli.n treat tich m iindiviil'ully. F r et:-,m [tle, :- .u-'
gestoe I iei.iidule for Graide- 4, m5, InIl reads .i-t ftcllowv :
G( ;oui;p I R(.:;nl :- \, 1 ritin ,
Spelling,- L;aI I'. | .:-e, :i,.l
Ariillim.,it '7511 niin. per w-eek
(-r.i j'tp II S"ia l ;:iIiei:.e,
iG o,,'-gr ilphy, Hi.try, -n,
Civi-i's, N.ature Stud,.-, M.ar-
Als :idl M. nter-. A\ ri-il-
ture, Tr:-iin ring fi-, H -, tlit'h iI
Living., Phyz-i':Il Edilia tiPo
:Inrd Hyv.ione 415 inin. per week
(-Golup III Mui<,. Arts., mn.l
Pi j.ti.11,l Art 21.) minii. per e,-ek
Girup IV ULTJi.-i.'iel '2. n11111. jper wcek
Re:e e~- ml in i' per w eek
Tt.al I 1i.0 nin. per *week
3. E-to:h te .ihrli litho ld _r"'hlp her .~ilhje.tQ ti.p provide'
fl:-xil.ility i\ithii, l,.,finite lin it .' For ex:,nple, a .O u.__,ge.te,
jiloti:lr:i i 11 t ione .l.V I 11 thle f 1ii "rth p'r:i e r :d ;I t f ll,'t
0:01)-10:'00 Sl<.':-'in i l'tidlie- t,-,gethei with -eI h ;kill
Ie ,l" incll, .-t. Jl:ly Iy e nei'ees, ry --in.-i:-oli-

10 :00-10 :30 Phiy-ni"l E..iuc:ti,-n and elc-esp.
'- r.' .,i-,n -' ,,lr: I, ,' .l,.,ly P..ill. I1 .,,- .\n* I.:* N .:. ..t, itU t..l:i. r I's,
i'2-IS,






THE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOL


10:30-11: 00 Nature Study
11 : 00-12: 00 English Expression (Language, Spell-
ing, Writing).
1: 00- 1:15 Literature.
1:15- 1:45 Art.
2:00- 2: 10 Music.
2:10- 2:40 Arithmetic.
2: 40- 3 : 00 Supervised Study.
*1. Social Studies should be given a long period at the
beginning of the day, as longer lesson units are necessary and
much reading of the skill and informational type must be done.
5. Nature Study! should be placed as early in the week as
possible iii order that clhilden may contribute to the lesson
any material gathered over thle week-end.
6. English Expiess.ion sho-uld be placed last in the morn-
ing so that the content of the Social Studies nma:y be embodied
in the composition work.
7. The literature or libr:iry period immediately after the
noon intermission can be nade so delightful that tardiness and
after-linnch apathy will disappear.
S. Arithlmetict is s:o specific as to :allow of easy concen-
tration. For this reason it e:n well be placed at the end of
the day.
9. Teachers should ,post their lprogr4ams on their class-
room door's and should! follow them within the generous limits
which the group program :allows.
10. Delpartmental organiza-tion should he made of ilfthi and
sixth grades in sik-year elementary schools, and of sixth,
seventh, :and eighth grades in eight-year elementary schools.
The advantages far outweigh the disadvantages.
11. Departmental programs should be made by all depart-
mental teachers in conference with the principal and not by
the principle l alone.





THE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOL


W'OUK PAGE ON PROBLEM SEVEN
Draw up a Daily Departmental Piogranlm for the following
Departmental Unit, which involves six classes and six tea:hlers.


SUBJECTSE 1Il Arithmetic
(3) English
<5) Social Studies


2 1'i e.iding and Literature
141\ MLusic and Art
(6) Physical Ediuc-ti,:>n


CLASES i1) AiG 12) A6 131 141 B( 151 A5 (6) B5
Hint:- The day h',uld b. divided int, 'exvenr perill' 1 a t., all ijwi a
"horne r:,n p'crid l ':for ii.:.rvi-ed -tiidy, i :'ijfreii(e will ti e teacher,
e:,'m'llettirig :'tticendant.e ret-cord -t,".






TllE PI'INC:IPAL AND HIS SCIIOUL


Problem Eight

HOW CAN I ORGANIZE THE BUSINESS END
OF MY 1JOB MOST EFFECTIVELY?

1. Examine my otMcee eq:luipimenit, discard articles which are
useless :iild relquisition for ti' los- e \hic a e necessary.
2. Exa:niioe my suipplieI to see thll aln rimle amount is oil
h:a1l;d it :ill imo.Snd ntitill I hv.'Cvl :iill)le yet ceffect'.i\'e wiay of
rieio-ilnitinilg for lthoin. TOei-lei 's ir h I.i' tr:linei.1 to ac'Coullt
fir ill si.pplies iwe'eived.
3'. ExA:iine text'o'.iks alnd .Iuppilleiieital .oolk --chaiired Io
riy schooll. See tlit they are ef'c-tively,' used nii.l kept in good.
,inii:i Aii.. All s', lei ;aind isit. .l.h ,I look'l shliulId Ibe d'estioyetl
or i :l heil ise Illip 'l--e.l :if.
4. Exa.iniiei my official le' -ii)ls. Keep a(ccu :itely 'aidi
:lrrJiet systenmt ti.:ally I'or coiii.vciient rtier(nce thloie record
xilich :wie in conist;iit use. No lecoids shoul.t I. kept which
do noii function in tiie d.laily lif:' of lihe cool. The five essen-
tial records a:re:
a. Cl'Is.ii:.. litll Ri e -err I -lh wiiig enroll meant Iy l.h- es).
I.. St tsi.ii':il reportt on Attend:ince.
c. P-iyroil.
d. Pupils' RIi"_"il.:tion C'airds.
e. He:ilt Ca:rds.
5. 1rn\'ide t IA.,ull01oiii, l.1i:iii. ii Or lle 1r 11'y fitlee f i tilhe
l:1in tiliL of s lch ledu llc l .l notice.
G. Proviide list -If leic'hei s, pivini' iki.OC1, g:idles, iinl rtooin
iiiUlll'er; fnr the ('io enll ieiili e of ai.nij:ei vi'ors:, .id other visitors.
T"J'l, ,ul I be lI ii ii eog r:pl.lied .il'.I :,n ;-iliple niupply kept on
Ii. ii '.

7. Provide iniall I.Oxes iIn or near Ily office for ilie u e of
Illy 10:10 I**;.
S. If I 1li:ive :i clerk, ,see that che hlia delniti.e duties :ais.ignied
tu, ltiil -Ir l dli clhirge Ih li ei lir 1,mptly aill effe,.ltively.





THE P1I-'NCI'API.L AND HIS S-'ili t L 2.,

). .Arriimge :- daiily pIOg'ni g :i ml x y use which will provi ei
for a pr'.peI di-lriblutim on t imy time over tle five miiijor 1ielids
of my \vork :
C,0)nl1 u'.ti\e td.ininsl i'j1 ioij.
Routine :neti.itvietS.
Le-iri'nin .' tivities.
Einersgei.y .: ii.tiit le.
Prol'essii. i. ;l :id ..-,i:,l i-0tivities.


Problem Nine

HOW -HALL I GET .ND KEEPi MY BUILDING
AND GROUNDS CLEAN AND ATTRACTIVcL?

1. Ex:iniie tihe .ijniiil r's sC..-lidile .)I Wi\vnk t.. S-ee thi:it lie
is pl iniit-Z is time etfie,:tively.
2. Exinine thie :iiiit.i 's. 'v.:i k ,. ily I- see thit tlhi sio.li.uile
is effectively :-i riied ..ut.
:. E'N;:ini le iit,.i \v :ik pl.:et I i Pl tli t ',:. f '. i'tl iliii2 .1ii1l

1:1" i j i lt' ,i r.
4. ''ee th:,l re.pi.,cii bil ity l'.t thie let, te *:nl .attt : c(tive-
(ipS f the ,i:hA:il plit i .liv;.ided I .iperly .ImngiiL' pliiipal,
teaeliers, pupils, t .iJul Iitor.
5. M1 ike lull uI-e 1--f eI, iinittee_- .,f lea herl t., pupil ,:r'.. ii u-
tious, ,n d p re'int-te.a lier ,il..ili-',ti,:,i il pre -erviig- th ie sch,.,.,I
:il-.nt. T hle Ihe t e(ult.*1 ... nel :' frl, 1:, pel:ti.:ll i-tler tl.ni
fr.-rn 11111nilil.11-ry diciplirne.
6. Re l.unst tlHIe ...oeratin ,,f the d ti.-t f.l o 'rem n, I-u'iness
ireti:l gel*. :ai .l I supl iItPi lhr-it in ji .l,1' l 'iirespiit :11ir1l t. iture
needs. DI)o i'.'t. hel tit Ile t- tl:rke g,:',. .1t. viice.





24 THE PRINCIPAL AND IIS SCHOOL

WORK PAGE ,N PROBLEM NINE
STANDARDS FOR EVALUATING TllE JANITOR'S WORK *

Direction: PI:tce n ciloss opposite each item in the appropriate
column, :-s your evalu:ati.on otf yoVu' .j;riitoi:', ability.

L' L.'L- A l [L 1 .
LU.'T T ,.

I. Personality
1. I- the janitoir otf goo.id I:moral character?
2. 1, lie courteou., ?
3. I lie ca;lreful of liis i.er-.-ua: l aippeairtice ?
4. D.e. lie li.ave his work well organ uized ?
5. Does lIe h:lve the proper tools to work
with
G. Doe. lie take the proplerca re of Ilil tools''
7. Does he take -IIggetiious kiudly '
S. Does lie cni,-iperarte with princip :Il and
te'.chers ?
II. Sweeping
1. Do ,Il floors and sidewa-lks slow e-i-
(leice of a. through daiily sweeping?
2. Does the janitor use a dry l.rush ?
3. Doeis tle janitor uze ia weeping com-
pu nd ?
4. Doe, the Ijnitor sweep witli the win-
dows open ?
5. Does the janitor wait until classrooms
ire vaen t ?
III. Dusting
1. Are ill furniture, woodwork, a, nd equip-
ment thoroughly dlusted d.iily?
2. Doe& the jaiinltor ii-e feather duwter?
3. Does the j:.nitor use dustl-ie dust
cloths?

Pri. red l \ I, C I ( i.'.r itt:-.,, Mrs Mlartli NIh cClure, Clihiritu.t, Univer-
sity oi S.ml hli. -'r Crlil'f.rrlii, SUtinninl r .. .si.uri, ~ 1'2 .





THE PIHNCIPAL AND IIS SCHOOL


IV. Scrubbing and Oiling
1. Are all pine or ha rd w,..id floor- s.erul.,.bed
aind oiled at least three times :ta ear?
2. Are lvax:it ury fHloor, domestic science
I'Oll ;t l d tfe teri: lfl:3 iuO- c.ru.Lbed :at le-as t once
a. week ?
3. D,:,c the jaiiit.t 'i u e lio. 0.i on iii: Irh)le
a-inid tile lio rs?
4. Doe thle jainilor kiino how\' to reniot e
stain
5. Dues thle j:mitoIr II se :t 1 ,l l.I I 'isli L .n
eenient f11o01?
6. Are ti'iolets t lor11-uglily sII ru I. l..ed I: ] i
disitnfec'ted r c:ily?
V. Cleaning Blackboards and Windows
1. Are the l:il'b kl:,:iare .l i.eaieI weekly*?
2. Are the l.,lackh'oard era, e' ,:j.i'i.ed
d-laily? "
3. Are the windovr.-i :hed Zat lea[t threp I'
times :I ye i ? ." .
VI. 1. Doe. .lie janitore leb-e ; the i, ijl:-. i
att lea t oim-e :i in.-',lith ?
2. Doue lie tLake caire of the ink
supply weekly?
3. Does he take t-'are of the ink sup-
ply before or after s,.hiool holi, ?
VII. Im the janitor obl-erv.an of dirt ,rnd
trash ion sidew-ilks aind pavei-enrit. in attic', cel-
lors, Ftoreh(ou'e, .ianl ik he prmnipt in removing
* same?
VIII. Is he quick in detec-tin- I.'a'd orl o. and
C 'iet'u l (i ct'o e-reet or lab:'li.Sllh ei:Iuse of Su hli
t roul.le ?






THE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOL


E.,-FL- AN'n- p1
LENT I 'V)L

IX. Does lie make prompt and proper dils-
posal of all refuse?
X. 1. Are garbage cans emptied daily?
2. Are garbage cans kept covered ?
XI. Does the janitor s;udy the heating
problems of his plant?
XII. Does he know when to call for assist-
ance?
XIII. Does he go into rooms often enough
to regulate heat accurately?
XIV. Does the janitor allow people in the
building outside of school hours?
XV. Does the janitor have police power or
responsibility ?
XVI. Is janitor responsible for minor repairs
of plumbing and electrical.ecuip.ren t ?
XVII,'Do.e the janitor keep ;-op cr..'rtainers,
paper'and towel cabinets properly filied.l ?
XV'ii. Does the ja:ito.i:r t'fil proper care ol
the school flag?
XIX. Does the janitor keep the lawn well
watered and cut?
XX. Does the janitor spend much of his
time in visiting with teachers, workmen, and
other employees of the Board of Education ?





TIHE PRINCIPAL AND IIIS S-CHUOL


Problem Ten
HOW SHALL I BEST TAKE CARE OF THE
PHYSICAL NEEDS OF MY PUPILS?
1. Ma:ike a physical survey of all pupils. This should bIe a
coo;perativye affair involving the principal, sichlool phyl-ic.ian.
school nurse, physical education tea-: ieer, regular r teachers, a nd
parents.
2. Follow up the survey by rem-,1valI of certain defects
Sto.nsil, ad-lenoid.., etc.) an:ml correction ,of others I posture, mal-
nutrition, etc.i.
3. Make a general Ielth Survey of all pupils, checking
and relieving uiisti-fa:tiory coi:n itionll in
a. S:init:ation.
b. Lighting, g, ea.ti g ndg ventil: tion.
c. Pl:iy :activities.
d.. School Ilnches.
e. Home work.
f. Person:.l Iypeiene habits of children.
g. Effectivenesst of health-halit teaching.
4. In\vstigate, physical condition of all pupil-. -, to weight,
height, and posture, and relieve un.-a i.-.ifa: story condition .w where-
ever po.ssil ale.
5. MIake ue of extracurricula r acttivities such as Boy
Sco(.uts, Girl Scouts, Campl Fire Girls, etc.


Problem Eleven

HOW SHALL I OET MY PUPILS INTO SCHOOL AND,
HAVING THEM THERE, KEEP THEM?
1. Ma-ke a -chool cernsu-i of the district, listing all children
of school age. This can he done .siiccessfulllly onIly by coApera-
tion of pupils, teacher-,, an.I parents.
2. See that all children fa-lling under the Comnpul-.ory
EdIucration Laws attend some public or private school unle-.
legally excused.






THE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOL


3. See thi:-t children of sIlchool :'ge tb:r o young to fall under
the Co' riiplul.ory E cess or I'ilure \ill lcJpelnd ion my ability to secure the coropera-
tion l -f tlie Ji:-iieiils.
4. Correct the O'elni i. i r' f -it freq.uern iiiterv.-il.s ;0 ns to
m:i ke tlie celrtii c'Oitinli lithlier thiii peiiodrliial."
5. refer to the at tenl:iar ice ofii:ervs ill i:"Ies' of noni-atterld-
:11(e or iI egi.ilar fit teiidl:ifice illvoill, g other clhiookl t halln inile.
G. letter lo tlie :itleCli. :lncCe offtl-erl only sucli cn.es from my
-hIncil ;I I -: il u1r-.1 ui.- .:e?- fu.l'.i] inl I l-,ir lling I ysi elf.
7. Inriit Ihlit :ill teichliers keep re.uiL;er-. neatly, necLurately,
andl up-to-il:ite.
S. Inistall omie simple Ic'port I' llr wMlereon eah.']l el'isr'-riom
tecilher report l:iily t to the plinieil) al l ,:'i.e- of nab-.ernc e.
'9I. Investigrtion :l l I l. abent pupl)- e:in le Ima-iide most sue-
c,.;efully by t? lhe iooperdtite effort l' of ill mneimers of the school.
10. The i\ itiing "' or home leanclier ';can b of i'reait
a i.i tj-ii>-e in :,.lc ol, w : !here dilIlie llt s'o iiil :ondtlitioins prevail in
tlhe ieilihborl)hooid.
11. Devices inid rewavtlrd? for the enro.u rgement of 'oocd
attendl:,r'e ,.i\e only : limited value. The be;t incentive for
perfect :tittenld:e i )ipilk' iffrt'etioii :Ainl reIpiec't for the school.
12. Siuspenision and ,corporiral punishment should Ibe u.ed
only ii extiemne iac"es. Other meth-lol s will uau.ally prove
1010e t'ffective.
Problem Twelve
WHAT KIND OF CONDUCT DO I WANT IN MY
SCHOOL AND HOW SHALL I OBTAIN IT?
1. The following type of iliceipline may le neces airy in
my -.lihool :
,. Compulsion. Pupils ire tol \vi:t to do Iand are
mnule to do Irwhait they are tol.d.
b. Delegation. Teachliei accept responsibility for dis-
,'lpline but delegate certain corlduct problems to the
lIp1il ;.






TIHE P'IINCIPAL AND IIRS SC'HO)OL


c. Cooperation. Teachers a-In pupil divide the re-
-.po' iililty for gocd order l.Iy 1i1.itualt areement.
d. Autonomy. Pupils :r'e solely re-ponsible fo-r con-
duct exeept iln such energerc ies a. l denl;mndl the mili-
tiry type of discipline.
2. Pupils will a"rlvince Iront :i loa er to higher type of
discipline Cwhenever they develo-p tuhficient .elt-co-ntro-l.
3. My sehool will :i'fford nli-y -opp,)otiunities in citizenship
f:o it-s pupils- throul.hl i c:iiliiittCee -.,.fety p tliS'i., -studelit l.Ji.ly
orl aTIniz:ttioIIs, cliil:i.-, siocietie-, etc. A ':.ihool liit:ip zine or newl' s-
p pWl.i %ill Ibe fauiid hiellftI l. Somle Iou'gL.-.ti.iii. for a .-i.liool
p.iaper will ble foulind ill the Appendix to this Worlk Hool:.
4. 11yin,, .te.-lin lie.itilnit, t-ru:-i "Ny, tindl their r i-,ile-
lne-illnirP %%ill he cotsidlered .t. otffen -.e, ii-t merely tm idil tlhe
;uithioritVy 1l tie sh -iool ihut r:ither i s en:tees tt e ti :ety,
hI)apiness. :anld 2ood ii.;ie .of its .citizen-.
5. llP i-lii eut- will lie eee -.:irv o:';'.-.io :illy in 'liy ,:' I ol
Ibut in so .-ir ;'s Ipr.ssille the -ldv'iie ,nld o :iperation ol the stii-
dlent Idly will be olilcted to t he eniid that tihe offendler will feel
the f'oie of p-ublic o) pinioni :i_: ini-st liii.
6. The iep-ort card used in ily buildiniig -vill -tre.-- achliieve-
ienent iin good citizenship :a of equaIl v.lue with i;cliev\erient in
school 'subjects.


Problem Thirteen

HOW SHALL I MAKE MY SCHOOL A COAM-
MIUNITY ASSET?

1. By bI.uildin p ill. sc'l).ih l spirit.
a. A c :li, i .-iiirit is tihe :_gimiw\th of
ill Affeetion fur tlie .-c hol.
121 C'onfideince in it- principal :nd teacher-.
.31 Belief in it-s :iiins.
14) Re-pect for its- atutho ity.
i(5i Co, per:tion in its :It f:irs.






THE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOL


b. Cubberley lists the following items as steps in the
building of school spirit :
(1) Make the instruction good.
(t2 M.ke pupils responsible for some :of the routine
t:ask- of thle school.
(3) Organize pinygro:und activities o :-a to, develop
leadership among the pupils.
(4i Organize worth while group activities -uch as a
school orchestra, a singing club, a guanl ening
club, a dramatic club, a safety council, etc.
1(5) Make use of extracurricular ,cti\itie e such is
Boy Scouts. Cirl Sieou ts, and Camp Fire Girls.
(6) Have :t few s':lool entertainments each term
which will include :-.s many pupils as possible
and lead toward some commnion good, i.e.. the
purchase of a phon ograph or moving picture
projector.
(71 MIike t.i-e of the school assembly or auditoriumm
period for pa rtic:ipItion in the community life of
the school.
(S'i Use some simple form of pupil-control which %will
afford traininvr in (:itizeiilhip and whi.:-l will dele-
gate re-pon:nsibility to: the pupils in direct pro-
portion to their ability to exercise thii control
wi.zely.

2. By establishing friendly relations with the parents of
my district through conference.
a. Meet them frequently and willingly. The principal
c.-.nnot influence parents I:y means of absent
t great ent."
b. Distinguish between those who hIave :- real grievance
:;-nd thl'ose who m re chronic faultfinders.
c. Seize on the conference with the parent to inform
him as to the work of the school lndl, if possible, lay
the f'ound.ttion for a friendly interest on his part.

T Princ.:ipal anrl I/'" S.,/,:,,.I, Clapi. r VI.






THE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOlL 31

3. By establlishing friendly relations with the parents of
my district through school gatherings.
a. Have Open Hou.e one afternoon and one evening
in each school year.
b. Have a Father's Night one evening in each
school year.
c. Invite parents to special programs on such occasions
as Memorial Day, Flag Day, etc.
d. Organize or, if organized, use a PRrent-Te:cher Asso-
ciation to contribute to the welfare of the school.

4. By establishing friendly relations with worth-while civic
O rgar izat ion!s.
Local connections can often he profitably made with edu-
cationallI committees of
a. The Chamber of Ciommerce.
b. Womrnen'e Clubs.
c. M1en's- Welfare Organizati:ons, i.e., sections of the
Rotary Club, Kiwanis. etc.
d. The Red Cross.
e. Automobile Club ISafety Section).
f. Banker's Associati:on IThrift Section).

5. By extending the influence of the school into the homes
of my pupils.
a. Through the work of the school garden.
b. Through the work of the school orchestra.
c. Thro:ughl a good school paper.
d. Throui.ih the teaching of the right use of leisure.
e. Through the teaching of good citizenship.
f. Through the development of ethical character.






THE Pr:INCIPr.L AND HIS SCHOOL


WORK P.A cE ON PROBLEM THIRTEEN

PRINCIPAL ~ CHECK LIST 1-FOh ME.\SUINING SOCIAL
CONTENT OF A COMMUNITY *
Directions: (Ch-ec the data given below as a igurl- Io t he
better un.derstnndiring of your colrnuniity.






1. Social conditions:
a. Racial groups
( 1 Ameri n ... .... ... .
(21 Foreign .

b. Am.'.ORnel'ts :
(1 TlTheaters
i2) Prize Fight Pa\riionrs.
(3i P:arks.........
(4) Ball Parks . .
15 Pul.lie D:mnce H.ills
16) Plygrouil.s (S'upervisedl
.7) Playgrou rids i Ur nsI-er-
vised I .
IS) P..(ul H :-alls. . .

c. Buys' .r i iind ll s' Organ :riizntio .
t1.1 Boy S~outII Troops . .
k21 Girl Scout Troop's
.:31 Camp Fire CGirl (GLoups.
1.,1 P:ioleer Y Group'ls .
(5) Girl Reserve-
C1o ) .... .
(7 1 .

Pr,.p-re.l I:,y C.,inirltt.', Mr. Emmetr t R' B'.erry, tCiairnman, Univer-
.113 t .: o 1thrn (-", illf.,iiri., Su nin, .:r $,::i')i, 1'.12 .





THE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHuOL


.. .2

4 1. *Z -
:1. Adult Social Gruips:
Il W\\ i,,men'i .'lubs . . .
121 Lou-Ite? .
)3 Sei icve Clulis .
141 F.trnm Bureiaus. .
,51 K. KI. K.'s .. .
I I) AwXiericuii Legion .
(7) Americjr Leion .uxiliry..



e. SociMal Instil uti :,Is:
(1 Churches.... .......
I2) Coninnuiity Ha:!ls
13 1 ('ivic A ,.I t r un s ... .. . . ..
1 4) Le i: IIn Halls .
1.5.1 Imt proveiiene t C.'lil. H -ll-_ .


'21 Libraries .
i3) M useuni ..
41 Art G( lh-ri...
5i Munical .

i7
2. Economic ccn'iions:
a. Nei' hl:,orhlor,,,
(1) Goo, homen .
(2) Poor i- home-
(3) Hilomes i:owne
141 H-lomes rented
1 . . . . .






34 THE PIiNCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOL






b Types :of Workmen :
(1) Unskilled .
12, Skilled.. .
1,3) Professional. .....
14) Agricultural
151 Retired


c. Industries IaTfecting social
life) :
111 Packing Houses
12) Canineries
1:3 F cetories
14 Oil Fields..... . .. ........
(5) Whiolesale Producers.. .. ..
(ii Retail Producers ...
(7t) ............

3. Health and Sanitary conditions:
a. Sanitary Conditioo.s:
( 1 Sewer System
(2) Water Systeni .
(3) CGarbage Disposal. .
i4) City or County Inspection
15)
b. Health Control -
1) Clinics .Public ...
1.2) Hospitals. ....
(,3) Red Cross
(4 ) ... .





THE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHuOL 35

Problem Fourteen

HOW SHALL I MEASURE IMY EFFICIENCY
AS A PRINCIPAL?

1. By surveying my Ib.iildinu, gro,.ind, and org;arIizition
:it regular inter vals.










2. By visiting other schl- tools .aid ev.lluating their in com-
pa"rison with my school.


3. By applyiu ng i Sell'-Ratit Scale."






TIHE PINCII'PAL AND HIS SCHOOL


WORK PA.\CE .JN PROBLEM F,'OURTEEN
No. 1
Directions: Che'.:k your Sc-hol Pl:-t (o the following items.*
Checks. in I he N- colimnii will tell you nihicre to imlpiove
your s-chool. A- thisi list i merely -nigIZesti'e you will
iSli t, .1.id item-l i yVoul viSit otlic-r principals.



1. IMy -v.h l y:t'i contain t leat leat 0 s.. ft. per
pui il
2. My .c:liool ga.iide i el c, placed :'i not to interfere
uitli tile pnly a: tivities. of tle school
:3. J el--i r-',-oinl ,lie iot le.-. tlr.ii 23' I' .'t w i'le
ly 36 ee ig. .. . .
4. My inin ,hall\ways r, t letat HJ feet wi. i.c
5. My mai tii wav.y :ir:t lea-t 5 Ieet wide
0. Cu'tp oip:i .l in i1 ri lrialy lo n.-. ll i "We c j ''lI .o i:( '-
to, yo,-ung childlien .
7. \W il(.lo\v, it k-iij.lei;,i iteij iu-,i pliii.-i l Iy I Oill
:il', l t OVl'V CI iiic-lie floli tie oor . . .
S. i\y s.cli'.lrooi'ii- *ire ait t ,i i vt-e
',. M\ le nill.l .iiiI .. IIi y: l v i l \v. t l iy.\ ]ies it :iiil

10. M y pl ru lly I l i00111i J e[ul.iippei l vitli t.;'l le .inl
c.I irs iII pll: -.ee of lixed 11. Eicli l rooi' po'es-e.- I)iot.ing or
lil.i.irry tr.ile
12. Ea:ii el.2I:, room,,i po-.i esses atn :iniple inld ,li'cr-
siie'l supply of uppllemeintl and reference

13. M y I liiiiliiin. h:' .an :I ttractiv\' to :-ic e-i.' le..

14. A bulletin l.oird ini or near miy oit. :,c rio e.-iil-
rent lnticeI o1 into est to tc:i:lic- ."

S \\i.,rl: 1' 2.- I '2, .i l . ii I"rl '-,ini 1.-urt'.-.,'n jr,.- ; .l: ite t I'r i .
sti ly i,' i, ,. Vl i ,,1 .I:l.' n: i ry j.'':,ho,,i |rmn :il..i4l in th :. Lr, A. r _aei.:i
C'll, Sc .;.,Io I.I lI. I M r. iM 'I\ z ihli vl n li.iii h l .ii. ,






THE I'RIN'M'i.1AL AND LIlS .'11,"I i,1_1L 37


Vi N.'

15. Each techlier ihas a mail I',x in or npe:ir nmy ,\ ioet
li. A\ dlflinite yr:-ir. i..l ty sclhediile is prIo-ted on my
bulletin I..wardl .
17. I have a se.t ti ie for the dilist ribution-i c -,lupplies
.r11.I b.ook- to 'ksnav' l n Jedle-.s -l.,i--i.''on inter-
rUit 'ii ....... .
IS. Thle lin'v md gra.d .i of eaich teacher is un O-r
ne-ar liei :lt.-!': l r ..
I.). A list ,--I' all my ltei-chei iLna ,e-:, m.ga nl.. am.l
rou('ni Il'iiber-s is pis-tedl iii I1y 1: 'fle 'for th l
e-lnvenipleni e n f \-iitc-rI






THE PRINCIPAL AND HIIS SCHOOL


WorhK PAGE ON PROBLEM. FOURTEEN
No. 2
Directions: Check your Office Equipmenrt Ily the following
list. Add other items whicli re nec:'e.ry.
I Y .L- _,: | i r'.:,


Aninuncia Itor
IAdding machine
Americ:n flHig
Bookcase
Book-ends
Bulletin bo:trdl
Card tray
Chairs (principal's
and con irnorn
Clock
Couch
Curtains
Desk (prirn:ipa:il'si
Desk (clerk'-
Desk basket
Desk pads arinl blot-
ters
Dictionary
Pad and pillow
Paper cutters (o:iin
for eacl Hfloor in
each bu ilding I
Pencil sha rpenei
Pictures
Pyrene fire extin-
guisher
Relay fire al-arni
system
Rocker
Rugs
Screen (burla p)


Stick file
Electric lights I'desk
lights for princi-
I pal -nd clerk)
Filing cabinets
fG*.ng .hand type
for emeigencv)
Inkwell
IKel rack and mail
box w combi ned )
(c:abl.inet style as
;at Rowan)
Medicine case
Mireogr:i pli tor
Neo-,tylc e)
Mirror
lMotion picture pio-
jector
Oclice sign
PhF.i.nogr: p, and
record,.
Stereopt'ticon
Table iill:r;ry)v)
Teleplioe st tnd and
extensiioii aim
Tlier momneter
Tr-8nomn pole
Typewriter' (4"cair-
iiei and table
Wasteba-sket
Wo ik organizer





THE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOL


WORK PAGE ON PROBLEM FOURTEEN

No. 3

FOR CLASSES FROM FIRST THROUGH SIXTH GRADES

Directions: Check your Classroom Equipmeint by the follow-
inr list. Ad:l other items which are rneiessl y.


American Hitlg islk'
Bell (ie-e.k
Boo:,kcase
Book-eniids
Brackets
Browsing table
C'alenriar (ildek)
Chairs (visitors')
Chair (teacher's)
Clock
Cupboard (supply)
Desks (adjustable
for pupils)
Desk (teacher's)
Dictionary
Display board for
mounting bulle-
tins, children's
work, pictures, etc.
Drawing tables
Dust brush
Dust pan
Inkwell
Locker (teacher's)
Mirror
Pencil sharpener


Pictu res
Punch
Rubb,ler stamps -ind
pad'
Sanu. table
Scissors
(grades 1-,;, 40 to
each room, grades
4-6, 20 to each
room)
Shades for windows
Standard for flag
Table for supple-
mentary books
Thermometer
Transom pole
Wastebasket
Whisk broom
Window pole
Yardstick
* Doll (unbreakable)
* Hectograph
* Rods for weaving
materials
* Sign maker


*lu I.n' r .ary, rooms.


N-






THIE IP'INCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOL' I


VWORK PAGE ON PROBLEM FOURTEEN
No. 4
A CHECK LIST FOR THE VISITING PRINCIPAL
Directions: \'Viit sonie good L c-hool and check the following
iten-. Try to find strong points rather than weak ones
an.Id -see Xwhat new" ide.-a yolu '-an carry backk to youl school.
Oi y ouir retulin check your own sc-hool in the nime way
for the e :- ke .'-f comprraris-nII.



1. Pln dro i
a. Is it a.lcqulj te in ie? .
b. Is it piroi rly equipped e.l?. .......
c. Is it %.ell sIu.lpervisel ....
d. Are th e pupil pl'lol'italy employ.-dl?. .......
e. Do they play fair \\ith tleir a-oclela-tes .
f. Is tlih.rt: elffectiv'e iclii li ?
g. Ar- the 'rounids tily?.

2. Buildiiig :,ntl Grouinll-
a. Are the :,uldiing-. :llerluIte? ... .. ....
b. Are the-y well pli: d' . .
c. Is there pT :oviion for lshaid?. I
d. If hlie pupil- eat outitle, is there a pl:ce suit-
able for: suclh
e. Are there tree-, htil:l ery, i n I iwln ?
f. Are the groulnds \\iwll kept '
g. Is there evidence of good jinitor service' .
h. Are the basement in goo:, condition l ...
i. If in a foreign district, are there provision fi:,o
bailing, showers?
j. Is there a suitable pln,'ce priovi led \\here Iuh-
dern:,o.ric-hed and nervous chili:lretin c.(' rest '

*Prepar..l I.y M.i-- .\Aii B. C:.rnn.:ri Unciersity oif 'u lthl.crn Cali-
fornia, Sumu r'. r S.:- i:on, 1'I.27.





TIIL PIilIN.'IPAL AND HIS SCIIOOL


:3. Cllassi-.l m
i. Aie they iell equipped?
Chl ir-, l l.,iir-w-ing tal.Ile nork tal:blec,
siiitalle picitureQ, c;ind tal:ile-, \\ink lbenche-,
e:- el_, etc. .. ..
b. Aie they well lighter?
c. Aie they well v-entilitetdl? .
d. Aie thlei well ie:.te: l ? ....
e. Are they :.ittrattivcv? ..
f. I- tIhe furniture w.ell l,:e'.l '"
g. Are there aiiple mnliteril;il- t.-, i nrk: \itl ?

4. Pupils
a. Are they "i,,tive?
I:.. Are they intere-tel iin their n'rk '
c. D. they cirry 'in their w-,,rk \hen the te;icler
i; nl'it directing then? .
d. Are they acqriuii ing c:- e. Are they wvirkinrg n pril.leum unitedd[ to their
age hleel ? .. .
f. Are they nc',lnirplil:hin .-:imetliing n-rthli
w while: ..
g. Are they putting f,:,rth their ibe-t elffil.rt .
h. I- the \':irlk: c':'t ielaitediI a iun.. ind ne I Lige unit?
i. A re (lie re-iilt-. ,_l.,t, ine,.I s-,ti tfact,:,ry ? ....

5. Tericler iIfor eich t(a-iclr \vi-itled
2. Per'oi, l a ,'.id , i.1 I i 'he p r-.-nally lil::-,Ile? .. .
2 l I1,- e c'arefu'l in '.li ss?
:3 H-.:i she el-c'ntr -:o
'41 II:.- The c'nirion sence?
i H-t -he ai plea-ing v":'ie? .
(I- Ha- -he ;i:pplarently g.id i health? .






THE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOL


1EL No

b. Teaching ability:
(1) Does she have effective yet democratic
control .
(2) Does she select subject matter a ldapted to
the needs of her chil dren ....
(3) Does she securre class participation andi
cooperation .
(4-1 Doe.- she have clear aimns? .
(5) Does she plan well to reach her teaching
aims,? .
(011 Is she skillful in motiva:tirig work?
(7) Doe: she atrofuse in children a desire to
wo rk? .
(Sk D)oes she make use of illustrativ e in-
terial ? ... ..
(0) Is she skillful in drill work'? .
(10) Does she attend to individu:il dlifferences"
1ll> Does she obt.,in go:io re-.ultis?
(12) Is she a good.l manager?

6. Principal
a. Has she a pleasing personality"
b. Is she energetic? .. .
c. Is she resourceful'?
d. Is she sympathletie with the teachers anrd
pupils? ....
e. Is she a good manager '.
f. Does she spend the nmajo:r part of the day in
helping her teachers?
g. Is t here good or der throughout th le school?.
h. Is there .- quiet, ple:s:- nt atmo -pi erethrough-
out the building?
i. Is there evidence everywhe e that she is on
the job "? ....






THE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOL


W'oRK PAGE ON PROBLEM FOURTEEN
No. 5
Directions: Note that there are three degrees of each quality
in the following Self-Rating Scale.' Check either .11 or
(2i or 13) as representative of yourself. Be honest and
work for impr..vem-ent where you have a mark of 1i2'1 or 1.31.
I. Peisonal Qualities
a. Appearance
I 1 Neal, \well groomied, appropriately dressed.
,21 Careless of appearance.
,31 Slovenly and untidy.
b. Outl..ok i.,n life
1l ) Has broad ou:tloo.k on life in all its a.pects.
(2) Outlook restricted to educati,.,n.
13) Outlook limited to details of adninirlii ration.
e. Loyalty
Il) Devoted tl.. the be-t ideal of the race, and to him
duty.
12; Dutiful f'ronm a narrow point of view.
1.3., Altogether lacking in loyalty.
d. Couiirtesy
( 1 Alway.s gracious and courteous.
121 Make- an eff,:urt to be courteous, sometimes fails.
(3) Blunt and tactle.ss, or sarcastic.
e. Honesty
I 1.I Intellectually lionest ; always fair and impartial.
(2i Usually fair, but sonietlimes bia sed.
.3) Always shows partiality; disrega rds truth.
f. Ent Iuliasmn
il) Full of contagio.ius enthusiasm.
12.i Mildly enthusiastic.
13) Bored by his job.

SPrepared by a C':.mmittee. Mr. Arthur E. Petr -ron, chairman, Uni-
versity of Southern Calif.:,rnia. Summer S,: r:.Ir, 19'S.






TIHE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOL


g. Juidgnment
i 1) S:ne andi well balanced.
t2) Somethine lacking in bnkn,:e.
(i; Devo.tes effort to incons.eqienlti:I intues.

h. Courage
( 1) C'oir.age never fails in st:in.liig for the right.
121 Sometimes icifuenc-:l .l l.y i'.le-1 of policy.
(3)i Altays s:yeil bly sniall politics.

i. Emotional ori tr'ol
I 1 1 A\l:ys well poisc-id.
I2i O(<:iiion,:illy lo- s sOelf-iontrol.
1:31 I\I.kes nro effort at self'-c..ntrol.

j. Re-i on:al: ]ene;Ii,
i I i Encouraiges expression of other points of view.
121 U-ua'liy :amtnenlable to reno11n.
131 Priudijueidice' l ir intolerant.

k. Sympntthy
(l Si 1 S. :-t s:-.ne sVynimp:itliy, gil\' cornstrlucti\e help.
12) Feels sympathy, but siometinies I:-ks ability to
inipi ove mft terms.
(:: Unfeelirig.

e. eClii' i-,f hullior
( 1) Scli e of ili.mor well l:t:,ili:iedIl.
12i H:i-. sii.ll sense( of hiiumor..
131 LIatk ;iny, or lhus ain undiblis.il.,linied sense of
I 1lll _l ',

m. Variety of interests
i.l IntereUts rondil, but lo not. interfere with si-lc-ol
woi-rk.
t(2 Interested in 1ll the functions of scliool, but in
nothing outside.
c3) Interest is coniifilne to details oIf :nrliniiristration or
holbiACis that interfere with school work.






THE I'PINCIPAL AND 11S SCHOOL 45

2. Piofessioriial Quailities
a. Knowledge and training
1 1; (a) Has. a wealth of :-icademie training :aIli, :l.'IlitNy to
apply it.
(b, Has general ac.deiiiic training but unable to
apply it.
(c.i H:i, neither general training nor abilityy to meet
scho''l problems.
i2) ti.a Has .aility to :lenmoniitr:te a -ul.iject effectively.
I'1 H.I Is know ledge as to lio a given ls)iibect .hould
be taught I.,ut qa-n't put it over."
,iI H:i.-. no ktLiowledge as to how ai sul.ject sIhouill
l.,e liandled.
b. Progresiveiess
i1) la) Keeps in tO'uch Iiith the rapid pi.ogres mniade in
hi i pir,,fe'-ion.
1:,) Seldom acquaints himself with the progress
mid:le by others.
((:) Does not know what other principals are doing.

(2) t1.1 Ta kes active part in school organizations.
i b) Belongs to those that are absolutely necessary
in order to get by."
ii: Takes no part in school organizations.

Sc. Edi i~u t tionial philosophy
111 (,i Is .-, living example of what he professes to l:e-
lieve.
(1:,) Is a p)a;~sive example.
ic) Doesri't practice what he preaches; is a poor
example.
121 (.aL Hls a sound guiding philosophy and tries to
execute it.
Ibi HIa. so11unI p)lhiloSopliy but not the ability to
apply it.
(c.i H.I a worrn-:ut philos:pliy, or lives by a rule
of tlihumb.






THE PRINCIPAL AND I1IS SCHOOL


3. Administrative Qualities
a. Distribution of time
(1) Woik sy'stemaitized to give each phase of his work
the attention it demands.
(2i Divides time between nadILinItr nation -and super-
vision, Pbut iiunystematially.
(3) (: l Mistakes i stii- section ror sulpir vision.
(b) Spends too nmuc time in .ildmiistrration or eleri-
cal work
(c) Is ;in arm-chair principal.

b. Di.-pen.ing of book; a.und supplies
I11 Efficient and. organized definite procedure.
(I'2 Regular, but not organized.
(3,) CareleIs; lack of system; chronic insuficiency of
materials.

c. Discipline of school
(1) Effetiive, purposeful, meets the school situation;
provides for student participation.
(2) Effective, but principal-and teacher controlled
not flexible.
(3) Weak, neglected, uncontrolled.

d. Faculty meetings and conferences
(1) Properly organized, instructive, regularly scheduled
and held: teacher participation invited; profes-
sional attitude.
(2) Regular, but not always organized to be instructive
and helpful.
(.3) Lack of system: lecture type, discussion only of
routine ; too long.

e. Extracurricular activities-
(1l Actively interested and cooperative.
(2) Passively interested.
(3) Not interested.





TIE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOL


I. Relations with parents and public
I1) Community clhnmpion of child protection and wel-
fale; coura-ge'ous ; an asset to the school and com-
munity ; approalchablee ; secures respect and cooper-
ation of community .
(2) Interested, but p:si-ively; public takes a passive
interest in school.
(3) Timid, confused, lack of participation in community
life.
g. Provision of proper physical condlition-i
(1) Definite plans for equipment, fire drills, health work,
play periods, busses, pupils passing out and in, hot
lunches, efficient janitorial inspection, etc.
(2) Has no definite plans or policies, but provides means
of meeting situations only as they arise; partially
neglectful.
(3) Neglectful; lacks foresight.
h. Assemblies and public exercises
(1) Actively engaged; delegates authority; definite
progressive policy.
(2) Passive interest; arranges them irregularly.
(3) Neglectful; uninterested.
i. Cooperation
(1) Looks for opportunities of being of service to stu-
dents, teachers, parents, public; fertile in practical
suggestions; has fine working relationship with
teachers and supervisors.
(2) Interested, but does not seek cooperation.
(3) Unapproachable; uninterested; poor working re-
lationship.
4. Supervision
a. General
(1) Definite standards and goal
(a) Definite program for conferences, meetings,
visitation, and demonstration teaching.






THE PRINCIPAL AND IlI.s SCHOOL


(1-, Eincour'ge-? teachecr growth.
1. Summer i scu.ili
2. Ex teiuon. o'.ur-se-.
3. Re:d.lin__, :attendiinllC lectur'c.
(e) Seculmes all materi.als an'. perfect suitable Ibuiiil-
iig ;arra.in:cnmert for el-iciemi'-y of te:uiching.
(:'.l Delegates wor k to other teacherss, making them
re.-ponq-ible for their issilgned.l tasks.
(21 Phlan mr;ade but n.,t Jidhicrc-.I to
(;) C.II- nmeetingi without rspeciic :inm.
Il:) Gives helpful iiggestions bIjut does not follow
up.
(..) Willing to experiment with test-; atld rmezsure-
ments but does not check re-idlt.
(3) Indifferent as to ways and means
in) Acts only as pressure demands.
(l:) Leaves teachers in suspense a- to theiI work.
e:) Impatient with beginning telhe.r-.
I,. Classroom
ili \\'ise management of teachers aiii puipils
1:a) Gains and holds their respect.
i i) Inspires and creates interest.
.e) Regulated stated time for vijitinr-. le.:-ler.
(.d) Special instruction by derino.istir:ticliii hele
needed.
Se) Criticizes essentials only.
If) Has confidence in teacher's .l.ility :nd islh,
sincerity to pupils by his action;.
(2) Visitation spasmodic
(a) Criticizes non-essentials.
(b) Lucks power to demonstrate.
(c) Makes known his presence t,:o pupils : y skin
pupils personal questions.
(d) Interrupts class recitation to tell humorous
story.





TIlE PRINCIPAL AND II-S' .;'I:HOuOL


(e) Criticizes pupils hiut in reality imc-in- criticism
f,, teawlhel.
(.3l Supervisi-n inl name onlly
:1) No., classroomI vi-it:ftiion ti, olbeeive teaching.
ilit C'ritic'-iin of work nude to 'itler te:iheis.
(c) DesFtr,..-s teaelecr's confidence in herself.
SIL) )Domineeriiin.
(.e) Ae esi.ilble I.iut. iimipprcli: able.
'if D:oe. not try tI, remove ihandlicups i, unde whic
teacher w":rl-ks.

c. Graling ani.d prom tiiig pupii.uil
11 L Definite St:niinda td.
i-, St-:ndlirI:ldizedi: te-ts.
I1-I App':'int- ce:,mmit tee o:f tiecher'- to judge pupil-'

IC.1 Com l:la tiltions at i):- i'i .

,ill T:'liIul:ntes resiilts.
tei Presc-rile- remediin-l mie:iasires.
I (t' i 'l:-ssiies pupils in :Ilility gi',iips.
I.gi M kes survey to finiz.h .Ibjective evidence.
121 C'lmin iienl the iise of tezt-.
(;i Pl:,iee mIore onfihdeiice iII the iei.'iine,.atii.,n
Of teaclher s ,to pleemeiit ;n .l piom<:ti<:,n o
p5ipil.
(lii F:, il to .:laipt le:te-hing to the need-l of the dil-
I'erent types of 1pupilk.
Iel D-)oe not rc-ognize individual differencee.
i: Promites all pupils. it they aire repeateis in L
grade.
:3l No Iixed'I tanii'ld Il-l
i:i Dielegate .ill re.zpon.i-iiliitie- a"is to ela.s-sifit:-ti,>n,
gIfiig, Ind(.l prol :,iltilons to te-i'hers.
i1ii No- faith ii new ii.lez-' iil edluc'ationr l iriethodi-.
it.l Dyed-in- he-v,:'1l type.






THE PRINCIPAL AND IllS SCHOOL


(. Working with the supervisor
(,1) Cobperative
:a) Secures all devices, books, materials, maps
wvl:hi she needs.
ui.i Requires teacher to take extension work under
supervisor of her department.
.)i Posts all bulletins in conspicuous place.
J.li) Attends as many meetings as possible in person.
ie) Discusses with teacher the possibility of apply-
ing supervisor's methods and procedure without
losing her own individuality.
(f) Helps supervisor to fullest extent to carry out
her v.ell-organized program.

(2I lMediocre
i() workss with supervisor only while in the buill-
ing.
,bl Piesents bulletins in a do-as-you-pleace manner.
.c) Accnmpanies the supervisor on ill \isits
throughout the I:uilding.
(d' Talks to supervisor during classroom visitation.
(e) Directs supervisor's attention to certain phases
of work well done, implying the fact that it was
at her suggestion.

(3) Indifferent
an) Feels supervisor's visit a bore.
(bI Files bulletins in desk.
ic) Makes super\sor realize that she is not in an
administrative office.
(id) That all improvement is up to the supervisor.
ie) That the supervisor is not the principal's tech-
nical adviser.

e. System of supervision
11i Ways :-nd means
(ia) Holds faculty conferences to discuss problems of
instruction.





THE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOL


(il Builds up informail -ystein of supervision.
ie Hias definite sche rdule for eCich r1,oom for deimon-
stratioc- te:aichiing.
,idI Has noted expert. in e':luction instruct teachers
at meetings.
(e) Assigns book reviews or the securing of data on
certain problems to several teachers to present
at a conference.
(f) Holds get-together social evenings to develop
loyalty and real fellowship spirit.
(g) Encourages teachers to study best literature
available in education.

2'd Ways and means
(a) No definite scheduled program or plans for
faculty conferences.
(b) Calls teachers' meeting after school, whenever he
sees fit.
(c) Discusses instructional problems with individual
teacher only.
(d) Partial to views of teachers that have found
favor in his sight.
(e) No teacher participation on programs.

(3) Ways and means
(a) Teachers' meeting only when necessity demands.
(b) Calls conferences ten or fifteen minutes before
opening of school.
(c) Egotistical as to methods of instruction.
(d) Transfers teachers who do not meet with his
ideals rather than give helpful suggestions or
demonstration teaching.





















PART TWO

SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMENT.\RY SCHOOL















PART TWO


SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

INTRODUCTION
Before u.ring thi- -ection of the Work Book the lender needs
to kno'w very definitely three things:
First, VlERE TO OBTAIN MATERIAL. Tie following books
will serve ais a \ivoking library for thie -iU[pervi-or.
1. TIt Si'ie;'..ii a'i I.nstriti.cli' Banrr and Bu ton. I Ap-
pleton, 19.253
2. 1i.itli, ; lir. To.cwit .r l at i..,r Ander .on, B-rr, and
Bu-,h. (Appletlon, 1926)
3. Elthianry Sc'.c/.'< l Supi:/,','i.,',,n Gist. i Serilner, 1926)
4. D'tiretc.l Ob.seiiati,'n and Suip/r'viM.d T:achitg Black-
iburst. (Ginn. 1925)
5. G(.t ra'i: Mtholid:l.s .if Tuac/l ing i1 Ehin'.l'lr Sc/hi', -
Parker. (Ginn. 1922, Revised Edition')
G. Typ,.s .'i" EPht n.'i/ry Tet'taig n.aitl Lt,.rn',ig Parker.
(Giin, 1925)
7. Psyi 1927)
S. The (Ihddi'.: Min.ld ,in.l IIte C1.',itii.'n Bin.nclth La Rue.
I \:iernillan, 1927.
9. Sm'iit Primary Lt/i''d.7s Sloman". I M':millin, 1927)
10. Tlh Gr',wth ,f Tc achcr.: in Sencia Whitney. (Century,
1927)
11. Thb P.sycif..'t.iJ f A/t Uand.jus/t/ S'cli:/ol Child \lor-
gnu. I Marniill:in, 1924)
.5.5






56 SUPERVISION IN THE EI.EMENTARY SCIICOUL

12. Maei rials .t'i ,a.tlO.ds in ltit M Ii'.lld Gra&s Henderson.
(G inn, 0l281
13. Uniji-d AICdt1lcri't-n 'ita. Fi'.l .1_tth,.l: T Atl'oia Palkei
and Temple. iGinn, .192...,
14. Ti/, O .ai:altn ,': Sipcri.sii, Ayer :irnd Barr. (Ap-
pletoni, 192S).
15. Currt:,, Pri,:!,/ .s .,' it,./ Sup.elrr.iin f I t ;irucliti Nullt.
I'Jo liihs.' 192Si
Second, WHATr EDUCATIONAL u.ACKGROLUND THE ST.iI'PERV[I\
NEEDS IF HE 1S TO IIAVE A 1ir.0.AD AND INTELLIGENT VIEW
orF HIS WORK. \Vh:t are s-:me of the iim :. o:'f public edu in the United St:'tes? The N:-ti.il Eduention Ass.'ciation
ihas- se(l Iup seven speeifie ol.jec. ti\ es:
1. Vital or He:,ltth Eftieinev
2. C n-mmuand of the Findaimenntl Pitcesses
3. C('ivie Ete;ieiiey
4. V'oc:tinnl Et'iiency
5. W,rtliy Home Mlembership
mi. Worthy Use, of Leisure
7. Ethical ChA:r:,ettr
(Coiitr:.i.l \ithl the abovee Jones' Four E-sential.- of Edu-
c:tion
1. Health and"n Srtittion
2. Apprei:-tti,,n :iiln U'.e aof ihe Euv'iro,nment
3. The H.-'useh-,ld a0.1 H:nome
4. Recreation
Also Chlpinr-t-ii :l Cad nmuts' Pttiipic.s '.1 Ehiuvti''o,, -ix g e:it
life needs: iI 1Iealtrl, i 21 Fnamily Life, 1.3) Ecoinmic Adiust-
me.nt, 141 Ci\ii: Life, i(5 Ileereationu i i; Rehlgi,,n.
Third, WHAT 1S'EPr.VsION iS AND \\H.Tr TE SUI'EI l[iSOi
DOEr.. Denr, W\. S;. Ciny gives :t good workingng lefiition of
supervision ;,s foll:owv:
Thle fUini'lii of supeiviii.on is the improv.e-
iiient -f instuitioii, tli'' cie''.,rigemneit l of go,- .(
W\ork :iaml tile eO.iilst active linmiinitioii of irief'ee-
live eff,"rt :aid ini-:-ipplli.ed enierpy."





SUPERVISION IN TIIE ELEMENTArY,- Si'HOOL 57

W. H. Burton su.ge.t. tile following classification of the
-upervisor'.s duties. This classification will he used through
the Work Book. (Chapter references are to Barr and Burton,
Ti .S\up'r .s'si n .;qf Instruclion.)
1. Improvement of tlie Teaching Act. (Ch. V, VI)
2. Selection and Orga.nization of Subject Matter.* (lCh.
VIL VIII)
3. Research and Experinental Study of the Prob.lenms of
Education. i Ch. IX, X)
4. inprluvement of Teachlers in Service. Cli. XI, XII)
5. The Progre.sive Improvenmeit o"f Supeivi.ion:. I(-'h. I,
II, III, IV, XIII. XIV, XV)

I. IMPROVEMENT OF THE TEACHING ACT
Problem One
WHAT ARE THE PRELIMINARY STEPS IN VISITING
THE TEACHER?
Step 1. Observe thlie teaching situati n.
i. Does the teacher care for the phy.i ical ine--. of her
pupils? .Lighting, he:iting, ventilation, et-.)
.. Is the tealer a gooil m;i:i.er? Note care of
im:terial.-, equipment, ,rcdeily ar raigement of
1o,)111, etc... }
c. Vi l:t tN-pe of discipline i- e\videleit'' I(-'om l)ulsion,.
(ocoperationi, pupil-conutrol, etc.)
l. Does life i .side cli:olrooin reflect arid c:nnect with
clilil's life ut-.ide ,uf school "?
e. Is there ain air of industry in the room?
f. Have any attempts Ibeen made toward .beautifyin'
the ro-om?
g. Do '.conditions piLvidc fotr :-Al.'undaint life ind gro',wth
I'many interesting thing- to do and to do with?
I itiny people think a philosophy of ediic.tion is
merely theoretical. On the contrary it is eminently
plactical. If a teacher believes in formal dis-
Di.-iu.ed in Part Three.






5S SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

cipline she should have fixed seats anl keep her
pupils in them. If she believes in education as
direction and growth 'she will provide the
proper c:uondition:s for growth.)
Step 2. Observe the pupils.
a. Are the children physically cornfrtable? (Are
they neat arnd clean and are physical neels enred
for teeth, eyes, etc. ?)
b. Are they happy?
c. Are they alert and interested or apathetic?
d. Are they in earnest or casual?
e. Do they exercise initiative and self-reliance?
f. .A-e they respons-ive?
g. Doi they show evidence of good hl:abits in conduct
anid work ?
h. Do they show evidence of mastery of their work and
pride in their accomplishmentn?
i. Have they been trained to evaluate their ,wn %\ork?
j. Are they controlled through military discipline or is
there a socializedl ,atmosphere in the roomnr,
k. Are they kind and helpful to each other and to their
teacher, and courteous to visitors?

Step 3. Observe the teacher.'
a. Has the teacher a pleasing personality? Is she
neatly and attractiv.ely dressed'' Has .lie a clear
modulated voice? Is she bright and rring? Is
she courteous to visitors?
b. Is she friendly or co:ndeceending to her pupils?
e. Has the teacher poise? Does she give evidence of
good health? Has she a sense of humor?
d. Does the teacher appear to have complete control
of the situation? Is she kind but firm?
e. Does she capitalize small successes?
f. Does the teacher appear to be m:i.ter of her sub-
ject'? Does she use go:l Engli.-li?
V' iriing tht Teacher at ll'rkt p II ct seq.






SUITPERV-ION IN THE ELIMEi''NT.AliY S'l'IO1L


Problem Two
HOW SHALL WE OBSERVE TIE RECITATION?
SNote: The fo-llowing outline is adapted from Anderson.
Barr, Bu-sh, and Blackhurst. See references.)
Step 1. EvLaluaite the less son :as a whole.
a. What is thel teacher's ultimate purpose? IRemote
ainm.)
bI. Whit is t(he te:-aih-r's ini nedia te purpose? (lin-
mediate aim.')
e. How does the subject matter of the lesson fit iuto)
jot l ?
J. Is the sulb:,ject matter in lha.irmony nith the C:onrIIe of
Stiudyi .'
e. Doris, the suliject in:itter meet pupils' present ; ald
pro:lba: le life needs ?
f. Does the lesson foster right methods of study by
pupils?
g. Do piupiils know wh-at wavs expected ':if them?
h. Do teacher and pupils reach the goal set for this
paI ticu lar lesson with sati-tai:ttion?
Step 2. EvLaluate the d- it: fi riji-led to thrie pupils.
:t. Are the pupil dependent upc-n :; single textbook?
b. Are maap., gloles, exhibits. 1pictLures, blac-kbhoardl,
etc., utilized by the pupils?
c. Are reference books -iand cupplernent ary texts used
a:"s, source' of mnitetial ,by the pupils?
d. Were compariscons made and illlstrati':rns drawn
fri:in the pupils' experience; ?
Step 3. E\valu te the general pr oeedi:ire forll :nwed.
n. What is tlie general tjype to., whlih lihe les-on
Ib:eloa,aged.l ?
tb. Is the lesson suited to the aim and to the imalteria:ls?
r. Are tlhe Ichildren working consciously toward al
known goal?
d. Should the teacher have moIdified her plian during
the lesson instead of holding to it?





GO SUPERVISION IN TIlE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

e. Who is doing the purposing, the planning, the
organization, and the judging of values?
f. Will these children be able to do tornorrow's work
more intelligently?
Step 4. Evaluate the method.
IrTnTRucroTnY NOTE In every classroom there are two
constants the teacher and the pupils. There are two kinds
of activity going on, teaching and learning. It must be remem-
beled that learning is the more important of the two and that
teacher and teaching are merely means to an end. Learning
is of two klnd- the direct learning whiiih comes from contact
with the tenche-r, and incidental learning which takes place by
reason :'f the contactt of the pupil with other pupils, with the
life of his school outs-ide his classroom, with home and school
activities and other enterprises in whichl he engages. The
teacher's prime duty is to control or' direct the child's learning
and this co ntrol or direction is called Method. A teacher may
develop a good Metlhod by observing the common seuse rule.s
which we call tle Laws of Leaning.
In general, a teacher can develop a good method of control
over the learning process by (I) leading the children to learn by
doing, (2) appealing to childish interests, (3) getting her pupils
in a favorable mind for learning, (4) bearing in mind in-
dividual abilities and needs, (5,1 using well-chosen drills.
(6,i building new experiences on the firm foundation of old
experiences.






SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMlENTARY SCHOOL


WORK PAGE ON PROBLEM. Two

No. 1
Directions: Evaluate the Method iisel- by the teacher in a
lesson you have observed, according to the following check
list. (Adapted from Parker's Gci,:iral Mcalh.re If Ta aching
i, E7le en/ory _, S"locls. i


LoL ,., L Li -.,.m'l I[- J L'. r

1. Self-Activity






2. Apperceptiion




3. Preparation



4. Interest


5. Drill



6. Iin:ividuall
Differeiices


U-. ;, i T..rlN

The teacher encouraged the
pupil' to take an active p;.lrt
in the conduct of the recita-
tion. They were not merely
passive spectatolr-.

The teacher skillfully con-
nectedl niew ideas involved in
the lesson with previou- ecx-
perience- of the pupil..

The teacher skillfully prepared
the y f the pupils zo that
they were eager to learn.

The teacher appealed to the
interests of the pupils.

The teacher fixed. uew habit-
andl skills by carefully devi-ed
drill-s.

The teacher realized that cer-
tain pupils learn more quickly
and others more slowly than
the average pupil. She pro-
vidled skillfully for these dif-
ferences.


N,:






02 SUPEiRVISION IN TIHE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

WOVIK PAGE ON PROBLEM Two

No. 2
Directions: Re:n. carefully all you can find oult about Method
in
1. Parker, S. C.: Goiecral Mlithds of Teachimt'i in /it Ele-
.i.intary Scl:,ls.
2. Kill):-itri1k, W. IH. FnF mdlal;i'os -,f Mt /Od.
3. Buckingh:nin, B. R.: RT,.,archi Ifr Tt.achi/'.
Devis-e a check list of your own by which to evaluate the
te':cher'. Method.l. Apply it to ;a specific piece of teaching.

L w .-.r Lr .: 1. Li c Ti-N N






SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL


Problem Three
HOW SHALL WE EVALUATE THE OUTCOMES OF
TEACHING?
(Note: The Supervisor may use this list pr.oitably .l1) Iby
discussing the items with his teachers as gals to be reached-, and
(2i by Iusing it toward the end of the term as a check list for
accomplish men t. I
1. The pupils aIre the aggre-sor-r in pu poseful activity*:
a. They I:elieve in what they are doing.
b. They coiltinue their work voliiti:trily when i.ippor-
tunity offers.
c. They do im.nre Illran i. required of them.
d. They l.,ring iii ou:tt-ide materials unsolicited.
e. They volunteer inf,.irmition.
f. They ask question- :- a ntiittill.l way rln: tio/i.
g. They move i:l :ilut unatur:ally at their work demands.

2. The pupils are learniing that which is w:r th while:
a. They are using subject matter to -olve worth while
prol:llems.
b. They gather data b:ectuse they have a present i.1s,1
for it.
c. They a:re improving oral alnd written laiiguage
through natural use of English as a tool in thinking.
d. They are learning to coo.oper:ate by cooperating.
e. They are learning to be courteious arid thought ul of
others.
f. They are learning their civic rcspiis..ibilities by
engaging in civic activities.
g. They are learning to enjoy ,and1 undlerstaind good
lnmusic, art, a:nd litel-ature.
h. They can, distinguish between fliu alndl ullnwa-rranted:
distur bances.

*The Ken,..lh3a (Wi-.) SeIll'-R tirng S-.ale qi.u.ted in VI l.; il. Iri. Teac'er
at T'ork, pp. 33-35.






61 SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

i. They are building strong bodies.
J. They are gaining in their desire to learn that which i.
worthy.

3. The pupil- are acquiring right habits of study
a. They read intelligent tly or are consciously trying to
improve their skill.
b. They raise questions of their own.
c. They are learning how to gather data, using pictures,
exhibits, museums, references, indexes, caid catalogs,
takin' notes, and verifying data.
d. They are learning i how to select that subject matter
which i: of most worth to them.
e. Tilhey are learning to wu-pend judgments.
f. They are leanining to respect auLthoirity of ideas.
g. They are learning economical way: of memorization.
I,. They are learning to think in termn- of their own
experiences as well as of the experiences of others.
i. They are tolerant of the views of others.
j. They finish what they begin.

4. The pupils are interested in their own progress and feel
responsible for their own success.
a. They voluntarily try to mainta-in their efficiency in
the tool -iiIject,.
b. They aie given opportunity to \ork up to: full
eficeiercy in the tool subjects.
c. They estimate their, own progress, utilizing standard
tests, graphs, etc.

5. The pupils aic- vital part of the school as a x hole:
a. They meet people naturally and politely.
I). They are lespon-ible for their conduct on grounds, in
hallways, to a nd from choiol, and. in their classrooms.
c. They play fiir with their r'r-:ciates and teachers.
d. They .ire ready ti cop;ierate in school activities.
e. They are loyal to their school.






.SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMENTARY SaC'HOOL 135

WORK PAGE ON PROBLEM THREE
Devi-e a check list of your own by which to evaluate Out-
come-ie of a specific piece of teaching Beginning Re:aling,
'ocinl Studies in the nMidille tgradles, etc. You will tindl some
helpful suggestion- in the Appendix to this Wojrk Book.

N11j..hi E i ,: i Ppc.:i-. ri'-.:r P Ti.:.'. T r. N ,1






ijJ SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMENTARY SC-HOOL

Problem Four

HOW SHALL WE CONDUCT THE CONFERENCE
WITH THE TEACHERS? *
1. Be sure of your fa'ts.
The supervisorr must not trust to his memory or to vague
general impressions of his visits.' The following cheek list will
he found suggestive as providing the raw material for con-
ference. Later, this can be worked up into a more formal
record as suggested in Barr and Burton, pages 157-13S.

nii .' C-, .K I.I T Fr i I-rit0 r 'Til'T N '- YF NJ

n. Were the physical need., of the children
enred for?
b. W\as the tea-chler :t good manger?
o. Was discipline fornrial or socialized?
d. Were the children industrious, happy, and
in earnest ?
e. Did the situation provide for life and
growtli?
f. Did the le.r-lon l.e a cl early defined aim?
g. Did the subject matter fit tle aim?
h. Did pupils kinow what w.a expected :of tllinm ?
i. W\as the le.s.onl type suited to the aim and
niateri.-i-?
j. Did Ipupils natist in planning, 'organizing,
and judging values?
k. Did the teacher observe t he lanw s of learninig ?
I. Did pupils and teacher reach the goal set
with satisfaction?


2. Select a time a ind place appropriate for your purpose.
3. Obtain teacelr's reaction on herself. Barr.-and Burton,
page 132.
4. Obtain teacher's reaction on pupils. Barr and Burton,
pages 129)-130.






SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMENTARY -'CHIOOL


5. Secure the teacher's cooperation 't the bIeginning of the
conference bIy making it plain Ihat your chief function is helpful
rather than critical.
6. Have the teacher :ivnly/ze Ier lesson before you offer
criticisms. Try and get. her point: of view even though her pl:int
of view is a mistaken ,one.
7. Begin your own an alysI- of the recitation by eornmenild-
ing the go)od points.
S. 1Make your criticisms ile:ir ~i'.l deliiliti e: iin-ke the
te:icher see tih.t you are not illdirrn l.ault 'lit jillging the
recitation in the liliht of accepted -t.i nda.lirds.
9. See that tihe c.onl'erence gets 9o:mewheie. The teacher
must not le left confu-eil 1 but einc uraiged to do better work in
the future.
10. Decide with the teacher upon a specific ]plan of work to
be carrie'.l out before yoiu next 'viit. See T,:icli.,e iq 'f ('/'-
ci.smi, by Bairr and. Burton. I
11. nWlirever possible, follow up the conference 1,y" demon-
stration teaching, hearing in mind thIe followii._ plinti
n. Demonstration l -s.,-oi sloild fill a real an'd not
a fhcttioui neiled, i.., either to ai- it. in I rtr:in int
teachers .:or to carry on e:lxp.erirm.ntation.
b. They should be foi group-.. of te:iclhers in preference
to individual t teacher .
c. They should be regular not special lessons,
i. ., be the next lets-.i on the te:aher's li.t. A il
st units "
I. If possil.le, notify teacher, in advance ;i to t le plan
of your l[e,--cn so that tht ey mi.Ny have tie purpose
clearly in mind.
e. Teachers should take notes and discl.iu.-s them at a
conference after the lesson.
12. Encourage the teacher at your conference with her to
visit teachers who exemplify .good teaching technliique. If
possible arrange such visits for her, make it very clear wli-jt lhe







OS SUPERVISION IN TIE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

is to look for, help her to evaluate what ilhe sees and show her
how to utilize in her own schoolroom what shle has learned from
her visits.

Problem Five

HO\\ CAN I IMPROVE A GIVEN SUBJECT
THROUGHOUT MY SCHOOL?

The following report prepared by Mrs. Lucy Nelson, Mrs.
Jessie ligrahIn in, and Miss Ainn t Upton, University of Southern
Ca li fornia, Sum mer Session 1920.i, i rn lea tes thlie pred u re under
this heading.

A rPfloOfAM FIE THE IMPROVEMENT OF SILENT rIEADIrNG
IN .A SIX-Y.\ R ELEMENTARY -.CHOOL
1. St.itement of the problem.
How c-in the -.ilent reading in a six-year elementary
scliool be impniovedl throughout the entire building?

2. Conditions..
.. The sehli:o-l1 has never been surveyed by a school
counselor.
I). The study oF lending conditions his been requested
by tlh principal and teacher-.
c. \Ve assuirie that the school -, one of average type -
presurn ab1ly ahbut rmeldiiu I. Q. Thi.- assumption
is b.ised on tlie fact that tile average I. Q. for Lo,
Angeles City lhas been estimated at 102.4.

3. Preparation f1 t[lie cap.l ign.
:. Meeting of, prinrcipl.d :-ind ciunsehlr with all tile
teachers of the building.
(1) Statement of purposes in making the survey.
(2) Discussion of a few of the general reading prob-
lems.
(31 Disci ssioi i -f rluestions raised by the teachers.
(4) Suggestions for teachers' reading relative to the
problem of improving rending.






SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMENTARY -SCHOOL


4. Test material to be used in survey.
a. Mental tests.
I1) For First ;Gade- Pinter-Cunningham IKinder-
Karten.
First Grade Test o-r Detro;it First ralde Exam-
il 1 1 it in.
21 Se.,ondl Grade aind B-3 Haugetty Delta.
1:31 A-3 and up National Intellige ice.
b. Reading tests.
Ili For First Grade B-1 Detroit Word Re cog-
rn ition.
A-1 Add Lo- Angeles Prima-ry Reading. if
available.
So far there is n:o satisfactory fitst grade reading
test on the general irarket.
(2) For Second Grade and B-3 .here available,
Los An,.eles: Primary Reading Test; otltervise
Haggserty Primary Reading Examination c.Signia
II.
131 For A-3- H-aggerty, Sigma I, if very weak,
otherwise Thorndike-M\eCall.
I4) For Fourth Grade and.l up Tlorndike-MIcCall.

5. Teacher par tic1pat ion.
a. Rating. byl each teacher of her pupils ,on the basis of
Superior. Average Poor.
b. Listing by each teacher of points on which she wilses
specific help.
c. Opt ionl reading from selected lists.
d. Scoring g !by the teacher of the p:iper' for her own
pupils. (The papers will Ie .l ec:ked Iby the co:un-
seloi.)

6. The specific problem.
a. The application 1of the test results to: each teacher's
problems.
b. Application of remedial measures, under the sulper-
vision of the principal.







70 LSUP'EVISION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

(1) Graphic presentation of test results to teachers.
i2) Careful interpretation of test results by coun-
selor.
(.3) Indiv'idual te:-cher conferences.
(a) Comparison of test re-sults, both reading and
intelligence, with teacher's judgment.
(b) Analysis of causes of failure.
Physical.
Personal equation between teacher aid
pupil.
Poor educational background.
Homne nlid social Lconditions.
M e'ntlIl st:atu s.
Behal\irjr.
Interests.
c. Selection .of cases for further observation -vb teacher
aind counselor, anil i illidvlnual testing, if necessary.
1) Gi;oup teacher conferences with subject super-
visor, principal, and counselor.
(a;) St'ttement ,of problems peculiar to each
group.
(.1) Demnnst ration lessons by supervisor.
(,i Appoinrtment vb principal of committee
chairrn:in for formulating a.-nd collecting
rplns for remedial work that have worked or
that bid fair to work.
('d) Subsequent group meetings for discussion, of
maiterinl gathered I:y committees.

7. Cl:lssroonm application of remedial me:isures under super-
vision of the principal.

S. ReIiurvey of entire buildingg with alternatte forms f the
satlle l ep ilinL tests.
.1. C'ompiparison with frinrier survey. Gencrl meeting
for ev:iluatioin aind interpretation of test results.
I:. Formul.ition of pl-iins to le followed the following
term.


_I






SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMENT.\Y St.'HuL


Problem Six

HOW CAN I IMPROVE THE INSTRUCTION IN A
GIVEN GRADE IN MY SCHOOL?
The following report prepared by Miss Lorraine Mitchell,
Miss Alice Al. Gari ity', and Miss Florence Al. Kelley, University
of Southern Californi:, Suinmier Session. 1926, indicates the
pfleeilure undier this head.

A PLAN FOi THE IlMPhX EME'N I' OF WORK IN A FOURTH
Gii:ADC
1. Initi:il Steps.
What the Principal ninui t do:
.i. Get aicquaiinteld -ithl the teacher ind secure hler
iliere:.-t airind c-n pel :itiori.
(l I IIher professional la-c-kgrounlrd adlequate for the
task in hinndl
(2i Wlinat are her stiro.ng pol:ints'? Her wek points?
Which supei visor canr help her most ?
(3. Is she supplied v ith needed equipment ? Does
she know how It. u-ise this eqtii.nient ? iSind
t-l*le, I*ro\sing t:al.le, etci. I
4111 Is she famnilili m nith the so-,urccs of., help ff'ered
Iy the school system? iThe school lil.'r.iry, the
supri visors ,of sul.bjecits, the help which ilie school
clerk cnii give her in furirri-king miinieo.graplihed
:uil typewiitteri material, etc.

b. Se- ure the services of a school counselor a:nd have her
test the children.
(1) Test to be used:
(ai Nation.l, Intelligence.
(h) Ayres Spelling.
(e) Thorndike-McCall Reading.
(d I Ayres Handwriting.
(e) Wo.T ldy-MCall Arithinetic-.
(f) Diagnostic Tests in Arithmetic.






72 SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

e. Get .criquiainted with the children.
(1i Learn their social needs. .Conversation and
ol.servation.)
(2) Learn their physical needs. (With the help of
the school d.ocor ;.id nurse.)
(3l Leirn their educational need and individual
differences. (With the help of standardized
tests and the advice o.f the school counselor.)
d. Classify the children according to mental ability.
.1) If pos-si,le placing children with marked in-
dividual differences- in nlooms where they can
receive special help.
(a) Subhnorrm-il ci ildren ini Deveklpn-mnt Room-'.
(b) Suipeiror childreii ii, Adjustment R.ooms.
e. Provide fo.r the correction of the physical defects if
they :n bie Co. rrected.
(1) Glasses for defective eyes.
(2) Nutritio:n classes for under-wveilght children, etc.
The principal, counselor, an nd teacher lhiou.ld meet to discuss
the problems so that each may see the Fourth Grade situation
irom the other'. point of view.
2. .'teps to Be Taken by the Teacher.
a. The Teacher mudt know :
(1i The individual needs of her pupils.
12) The purpose of the s-and table, the browsing
table, etc.
13) H.,ow to use textbooks. (Example: Taken
from the Third and Fourth Grade Course of
Study, Lo. Aigele? City School District: Use
of text bo1.k: as a source of help -nd information.
The progreive teacher does not wish the text in
the hands of the pupils except for selected lessons.
The English text give- standards of judging
written and oral co.nmposition, ways to make a
story interesting, paragraph form, etc.")
i-l) The Course of Study.






SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 73

(5) How to secure help -
i a') from the principal.
i(1: from the supervisor. 1y visiting them at
the office and inviting r'etuin visits.
kc) from the school library.
(Ili) Iim school clerk.
(.6) Her own aims.
(7) How to check a project lesso,,n with the C'olulse
of Study to be sure thit the ground htas, been
co\veredl.
b. Group the children ic:-ordling to: a ability Idetermined
by the te-t results, keeping in mind indlivi.ldu:il
.liffeencies. In a Fouttli Gira'le these groups can be
easily h.ntiled.
c. Study Iihe textbooks to d.[etciiirne the type of zup-
plemental nmatei ii needed.
d. Organize the subject nmtter in :cicco-dialince with the
Cour-.e of StulIy, with definite gP:il's in mind l of each
cliild aind each subject.
(1 The following exaiinples have been tnken fi'lr
the Third and Fourth GrC;ade ('oulise of Situdy,
Los Angeles City School Distri-t. Example:
English -" Oral exprc-sion to: correct errors in
speed, Idrill upon forms that the children u-e is
they speak or write of the interest of home, play-
ground and schooll" Arithmetic -" Arith-
metic expression to secure clear meaning.
Arithmetic usae to secure b:asic control. Arith-
metic checks, and tests to determine maste'y."
Reading-" At the close of echli lesson the
children should increase in their desire to read
further andr to perfect themselves in tlie me-
chanics which will enable them to do this."
e. Make a study ot devices which will serve as teaching
helps.
Examples:
1. Games and drills to improve skills.






74 SUPEI:VISION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

(2) Formation of a room club; good citizenship, a
requisite for holding office.
(3; Keeping program sheets in penmanship.
(4) Keeping graphs in reading, arithmetic, and
spelling.
(5) Keeping word lists in spelling.
(6) Matching labels (words, phrases, sentences) to
objects in reading.
(7 Matching difficult \wrds to pictures.
(S) Keeping a wall reading chart.
(0) Individluil children prepare stories to tell in
prilimary rooms.

f. Plani il aily pro.gramn, grouping related subjects.
A suggested type of program:
9: 00- 9: 10 Opening (Informal ce -nversa tion be-
tween ter!aher and pupil.)
9: 10-10: 10 English. Oral and written expres-
sion. Penmanship, spelling, as
needed.
10: 10-10 .30 Physical Education.
10: 45-12:00 Reading. Groups I, II, and III.
1: 00- 2: 00 Soci:il Studies, Geogr.phy, Histcory,
Civics, Nature Study, Music, Indus-
trial Arts.
2: 10- 3:00 Aritlhmetic. Special subjects once a
week-k Manual Education,, Se-wing,
a.id Gardening.
Teach iiformu:lly, work for more pupil activity, measuring
the succcess of her methio.Is by Ihe pupils' growth in initiative,
self-appraOisal, self-cointrol and cooperation amonng the group.
IThird and Fourth Grade Course of Study, Los Angeles City
School Ditrict.)

3. Final Steps.
a. The grade tested by the school counselor.
b:. Results are- compared with the results of former tests.
Improvement is noted. (Clas.s and individual.)





SUPEII\ VlSIN IN THE ELEMENTARY r.'HI"I:. 75

c. Adjustments are made for individuals.
d. The teacher, counselor, and principal meet again to
discuss plans for further improvement.

II. RESEARCH AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE
PROBLEMS OF EDUCATION

Problem Seven
VHA.T ARE THE AIMS IN, AND \IHAT _H-OULD BE
THE RESULTS OF, HOMOGENEOUS GROUPING?
1. Aimi to) pl,,..e together pupils who are as nearly alike
in intellectual capacity and working po\\we as ps-ible, because
a. Meimers of a non-selective group approachh equality
neither in ablility nor in :rchiveenie t.
b. They vary from one another by differences which
rim y be sIall b:etlecen anyi two pupils hut wlicli will
be great between extreme cascs.
c. Demand for increased attention to varied ,.apacities,
interests, and future activities of pupils have neces-
sitaLted a revision of our edu,-,tiornal procedure.
d. Increased differentiation in the needs o.f society has
called for changes in schoo::l methods.

2. Results if groupirng is effectively done:
a. lassie i ioom instruction is maide easier and more
elfe:.t ive.
I.. Each pupil is stimulated to make the maximum, use
of his abilities.
c. The ideal of individual iii-truction is more nearly
approached.
d. Discouragemenrt because of comparative incapacity
is avoided.
e. Pupil's interest and achievement are increased.
f. Conditions tending to mental indolence aie removed.
g. Pupils make better progress whenr working with

SFrom a report by Mrs. Emmrn Rayl-nrl A-i-tinrt Siipr- x-i:-r, Los
Angel- City S.ch-L.o






70 SUPERVISION IN TIlE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

others of their own capacity and enjoy school work
muoe.
h. Untimtely permanent withdrawals are decreased.
i. Unusual ability is discovered and developed.
j. All pupils are stimulated to work to capacity and
thus failures are reduced.
k. The injustice of establishing as a criterion of
achievement average class progress for individuals
:of widely differing capacities is avoided.
I. Reduction of retardation lowers school costs.
m. Discipline is made easier.

Problem Eight

WHAT STEPS ARE SUGGESTED IN HOMOGENEOUS
GROUPING ?
(Note: This method has proved helpful in many cases but
other methods are permissible.)
1. Obtain each child's rating on a Group Spelling Test.
The following test is recommended :
A3-AS Morrison-McCall Spellinjg Scale.
Translate the resulting score into a spelling grade-
placemetnt Sp. G. P.).
2. Obtain e.ach child's rating on a Group Arithmetic Test.
The following test is recommended
B3-AS Woo\dy-McCall.
Tran..late tle resulting score into an arithmetic grade-
plicenment (Ar. G. P.).
3. Obtain each child's rating on a Group Reading Test.
The following tests are recommended:
A1-B2-A3 Gates Primary.
B2-A2-B3 Haggerty Sigma I.
A3-AS, inclusive, Thorndike-McCall or Gates Silent
Reading.
Translate the resulting score into a reading grade-
placement (Re. G. P.).






SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL


4. Obtain each child's rating on a Group Intelligence Test.
The following tests are recommended:
B1 Detroit First Gralde Test.
Al Pinter-Cunninghani Prinmry Mental Test.
B2-A2-B3 Haggerty Delta I.
A.J-AS, inclusive, National Intelligence Test.
Translate the resulting score into
a. Mental Age M1. A.I
b. Intelligence Quotient I. Q.
c. Intelligence (Gr:lde-Plaiemeniit I Iit. ('. P.)

5. Obtain each cliiill's chronological age expressed in
months and translate this into' chronological grade-placement
(Ch. G. P.).

6. Arrange all the above data for each (lart in tabular
form.

7. Discuss with the teacher each case of apparently im-
proper grouping, considering five items:
a. Mental ila ility
b. Educatioirl, progres.i ;
c. Capacity for effort
d. Physiael conditionn
e. Social background

S. Regroup classes as far as possible in order
a. To place together pupils of equal educational status.
b. To place together pupil, who will progress at the
-a me speed.
9. As far as possible all over-age adole's;ierit boys and girls
in a .ix-year elementary school should be t tran:lserredt to non-
c:urricular groups in junior high school. In an eight-year
element ary school the same edul Itionally retarded a nd
physically -tccelerated groups should be transferred to similar
group- in the senior high school.







7S SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMENT.\IY SCHOOL

WVOrK PA.\c ON PROBLEM EIGHT
No. 1
The records of a certain A4 cl.ss display the following datt :


State specifically hli, you \.'i ulhi meet the inlldividulal needs
of the-e pupils- without removing tliem frim their present class-


1. M:irjorie






2. Marie






.3. Vincente


4. Crnae






SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL


WORK PAGE ON PROBLEM EIGHT
No. 2
After working on the previou.-: zisi igiinent you av e probably
found that the interpretation of your cli.--ilicaition ri es'ult- is
more difficult thanii the :actual grouping. Secure :i.- inl.iy of the
following book a you can, look tIhen over to ga;in l-oIin idea of
the content of eachl, and chlecek two titles which you ill wish to
read intensively as a help to your regroupingi pro grainm.
1. McC-all Hoae '. Mao ire' iln Ed.cali io. ,--i n-mill--in,
19221
2. McC';ill Hoiw ti EI.rprlmunl in Edtca/liiii. I M.t[inilIi-in,
19231
:3. Dick-.on mental T.ss andl thl i Class R.fi'., T~ t htlr.
fWorld Boo:,k, 19231
4. Hines A. Glinlt to Ei d.i.lliil Mi!'i.sri'. moni. i Houghton,
Mifflin, 1923)
5. Terman -- Tie MtlctThslrt Joi Iii te llijitcel, 19li6i :tnnld ter
revisions. iHi.ioughtl..n, Mifli, I
6. Valn WaVigenen EdLcal.,inal Ditn.i.,i.s. I M;laniill;iln,
192i;
7. Smith a1ind Wright Tests oand Aloasiroement6,. iSilver,
Burdett, 192S8
S. Gregory Fotndanm nalas .,1 E ihial/,.',. Mfa.sirmct nt.
.App)letf..n, 19221
9. Pressey Il/r,:i/'c/i',n to tMe Us( ,f Standa/rd T7.)ts.
(World Book, 1'.1221
10. Ru-,ell Cla(', H1-,n T.sts. iGinn, 192(0
11. Monroe I/i-r,0hli,:, to tn. T ,o.,rtt q!f E,'l ,cat',,at ,al.s-
urmttrniil. iHoughton, Mliflhin, 1'123,
12. Corning Afler T, :.li,', Whol / I Scott, Fore'fi.nlll,
1 (26)l i
13. Buc;kingha:in ResParch Imr Teaochrs. ISilver, Burdlett,
192o)






SO SUPEIVlSION IN TilE ELECMENTA'rY SCHOOL

Problem Nine

HOW( CAN REGROUPING( BE EFFECTIVELY
FOLLOWED UP?
There is a great temptation to regard the machinery -o a
testing piogrramn -.iving and zioring the tests and tabulating
the re.sulls an an end in it.elf. Tests enn I.'e misused as well
;is used, a.nd the administrator will do' well to remember
1. Tlnt leaning is going on a11 the time ill the cla-.utroom.
2. That method is the te.-cler' control of tlhe learning
process arnd that there 'an .e bcth h-.rmful le-arning and im-
proper i-etl hod.
3. Tli.t tlhe -ole excu'Ie for tests and ability grouping lies
ill -
a. determining the speed. at \ which learning is effected
most easily,
l.,. dii;oveeing the ca.usoe of interruptions in learning,
and
e. selectinie activities most suitable to thie particular
ty pe'~ f learners with whoml thle teacher nmuqt deal.
In answering our Problem nas stated above tle following
meanns will suggest themselves:
1. By dis.cove: iing the causes of individual di ltfiully.
The pin.ib:le c:-,uses are limay ; olllng tlheie 1re
a. Limited mentality.
b. Interrupted schliOtlinrg or mnedliocre teaching.
c. Poor health.
d. Somie specific phiyzic:il weakness.
e. A lha-ngui.ge hlaridicap.
f. Limited social ba:ckgrmunid.
g. Unlh:-ppy Ihomie life.
I. IM.lnutrition.
The, teacher will do well to canvass all these possi-
bilities and others if necessary before concluding that
a child's failure to learn is due merely to limited
mental ability ',r original sin.






SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCllOL


2. By adapting the techniiique of teaching to the specific
need-l of pupils.
The technique of teaching retarded or accelerated groups
is a highly specialized one. In most ca-.ie. it will
differ radiically from that .employed in teaching vt er-
age groups.
a. For example, -a co:mn-mon characteri-tic of -uperior
children is lack of consent ration. Things- cnmie S-'
eas'ily to them that the capacity for effl:ort is appa r-
ently limited throcughl lack of exercise. Teacher- of
such groiup-i will need to d.levi-e material which \will
call forth the maximum effloits of the pupil- ard by
a system of checking tliey muct see thit ie-;ilts arc
demanded and obtainede.
b. Another example the teacher of a slow or Z "
group must linid out why her pupils are Z pupil-.
It is easy to concluded that low mentality is the piin-
cipal faEctor, lmut this is not always true. Many
s--called "Z" pupil. are normal children with in-
feriority complexes or other forms of emotional
disturl..ance. The teacher's objectives in such cases
will be to secure first, the confidence of the pupils in
her, and second, confidence in themselves. The
proper approach may be in physical activity, in the
tlevelopment. of motor skills, or in the industrial arts
rather than through conventional academic subject
matter.
3. By adapting the curriculum.
The cour-e of study for slow groups should not be a
.lilution of the standard course of study for average
pupils, nor should the course of study for superior
gro,,ups be a highly consent ated form of the standard
cou:rise. Each group needs a course of study
-specifically adapted to, its particular needs.
An interesting example of curricular adaption of a
Social Stulie- unit to a slow group and to a rapid
group will be found in the Appendix.






82 SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHltOOL

4. By the segregation of extreme cases of maladjustment
into special classes or group-,.'
a. The following types of exceptional children should be
segregated :
(1) Children of nor-mal mentality who are tempo-
rarily ,out of .step with their fellow pupils.
(2) Distinctly isubinormnl children (I. Q.'s iof 70 or
below).
(3) Dull nrn'mial border-line and eldu:intionnlly re-
tarded pupils.
(4) Superior children (I. Q.'s of 130 or over).
(5'1 Ernotionnlly disturbed children.
(.6) Behavior-pro:blem children.
(7) Extreme eases of malnutrition.
(SI Pre-tuubercular children.
b. Children of normal mentality but having a lanc.iage
difficulty o:in account of foreign prenltage should
receive special help until they possess a voca-liulnrv
iuficient to p permit them to carry the work of a
regular grade.
c. As indicated above, the teaching telchniqiue used and
curriculum .ldaptedl for these special cl:-.ses- mu.,t be
specifically adn:pted to the needs of the pupil-
5. By means of a Continuo:,us I inventory of the progress
of pupils.
An y systemm of homogeneous grouping must be flexible to
be effective. Transfers from one group to another
should be made at any time during the school year when
circumstances justify at reassignment to a new group.

SThe rea..lcr %ill firin Fitting the Schnl to the Child, by Irwin and Marks
(Macrmll- n'i partkularlv helpful at thi_ point.






SUPEIIVISION IN THIlE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL


WORK PAGE ON PROBLEM NINE
From your rapid skininmiing of the book- suggested to you on
a preceding pige you have prolialhly concluded thnt the average
author on Edu'ia tiional Measurement is inore skillful in devising
a testing progi ,iim than lie is in following it up effectively.
Examine the following bioks careft'lly :
Paulu DiqguI.i.l 't. T7lsh( oaI Rmietalii T:.t.hiJng. (Heath,
1924)
Buc'kingham Rc .,,itch. f,,i Ticar cs. i silver, Burdett, 1112iO)
Br,-',iks. Imlf rt'in' t i -,, .ols by S/alnd 'ia ir,:di T,. si s. i Hi um,'i h-
ton, Mifflin, 1!22)
Irwin ind Mark Filling the- S.'I ,, tihe Chl ii. tM.-e-
tnillan, 1!r-24)
Gates Tihe Imnprt',mn.il .,f R.a tdi.'eng. I M.a-nill.n, 1927)
Corning Aftlr Teli'ig Wlhaitl (Scott, Fi.I-res-mni, 1920)
Froin your rea diung ianie five v w-. in which the testing
program emuld be ninde to ifunetion I:,y effective foIllow-u p work.
1.








3.



-1.






S4 SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

III. IMPROVEMENT OF TEACHERS IN SERVICE

Problem Ten
HOW SHALL I SECURE CONTINUED IMPROVE-
MENT IN SERVICE ON THE PART OF MY
.TEACHERS?
1. By recognizing tlie need for improvement.
Education is a continuous, progressive, and organic
process la) because it deals with human organuismns which
are constantly gr:ow-ingr and (.1 because the s social needs
tof the child are cri(.. .tantly changing.
Hence the teacher cannot stand still she must either
prog res or retrograde.
2. By studying tlho:e me.'ia-res comnilrily employed in
se icuiing continuous pr,.,fe.-.-ional growth of teacher-s in service.
Obl)iouily, the section on Improvemeniit of the Teach-
ing Act will suggest certain solutions to the problem
of Teacher Irnprov:'ement. An interesting account of
current nlith:ods used in the professional advancement
:of teachers will be found in Whiitney's Tihe Growth oif
T,. ach r.t ini S." 'ic<.
3. By making the eating of tenclheers a constructive force in
i.up)ervision.
The literature upon Teacher Rating is extensive, but
\Vnrtney rmoiled -abolvel s-umm:arize.- the matter help-
fully. Teacher Rating as an admini. trative device has
been tremenrdou-slly overemphasized nd the progressive
educator rea lizes that the true value ..f teacher rating lies,
in the interest the teacher herself takes iMl her piofe.sional
adv'.lincemnent.
The following steps in a col5perative study may ble somne-
wihat as follows:
Step 1. Help teacher: to dli-over thie value of a self-
rating scale.
Step 2. Examine and liscuss several good self-rating
scales.






SUI'ER'VIS-ION IN rHE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL


Step 3. Work out cooperatively with the teachers self-
ri.ting scale which they are willing tn use.
Step 4. Have teachers volunteer to rate themselves and
discuss the result with the supervisor.
Step 5. Let supervisor and teacher work together on
weaknesses which self-ratinig discloses. The
results on self-rating Iy a teacher should never
be used as evidence against lier.
Togrether with this cooperative ituldy' tlie supler\'is-or
houldl formulate a clear idea of the ability ,of each
teacher with whom lie works based uipon
a. )Defiite and aiJecepted standards.
b. (Changes of conduct set up in her pupils.
c. Definite records of obler:vationiis made upon the
teacher through classroom visits, conference.-, hb-
set ovation of liher conduct in the daily life o-f the chofol
outside her cla-.-sroom, tet results and ,:conferences
with parents, supervi.or:s, and others who come in
coint:ict with her.
4. By improving and varying teachers' meetings.
These vary in personnel according to eircuml stances from
the :assembly of teachers of a -inigle grade to those of all
grades. The following simple rules for the organization
and I adini~1.t rati, of teachers meetirigs have been
ad.lapted from Burt.:11.
a. The topic should be a live one with which the group
involved is vitally concerned.
b. A mimeoagr.plhed brief slhoid be mliail:ed out in
:advance to tlhosle who will Ie present.
c. Provision should be made fi, the expression, of
opinion froin tile audience.
d. The meeting should be in charge of a iuperviso r or
outside speaker whoi is not only expert in the subject
under discussion but who hai also the gift of popular
exposition.
e. The meeting must be thoroughly planned and
administered.






So SiUPERVISION IN TIHE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

f. Meetings should not be used for routine purposes
that. can be disposed of otherwise.
g. Teachers' meetings should not be held when time is
short or when everyone is tired.

5. By organizing the teachers in each school into commit-
tees, each of which is working on a specific problem.
The basis for organization may either be by grades or by
subjects. Many schools have organized their kinder-
garten, first and second grade teachers into one group
for the discussion of common: problems, third and fourth
grade teachers into another group. and fifth and sixthl
grade teachers into a third group. The cha-irman of
each group should be most carefully selected. She
should be alert, interested, and resourcefu.l and should
be able to win and keep the confidence of her fellow
teac-hers. Teachers should be led into forming these
committees on tlieii ow, volition rather than be conm-
Imlnded to organize thlern. Principal and Supervisor
will be asked to work with these committees at stated
intervals: at other timeies teachers nma wish to meet
themselves in order that free discussion may be possible.
The revision and re-formiiation of the curriculum affords
imalny opportunitie:- for cooperative effort.

1. By a bIetter organized and better administered Visit-
ing Day."
:. Once a year most schools are closed for a day to per-
mit teacher; to visit in other buildings.
(1) Superior teachers should be allowed to visit
where they will. They are usually profession-
ally-riinded to the degree that they will seek to
get as much out of visiting day as possible.
(2) Strong and Average teachers should be
asked to submit their plans for visiting day to the
principal ,: supervisor for approval. Very often
teachers select, in perfect good faith, teachers to
visit who \will not prove of particular help.






SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL


(3.) Beginning teachers, teachers new to the system,
and d-oubtful teachers should be given a definite
assignment by the principal or supervisor and be
held respion:-ible for a report upon the visit made.
A suggestive form will be found in Cu'Ihlberley's
T7 Principal '.iun. His School, page 472.
i.4) A gener-al teachers' meeting of a-ll tea-chers in the
school should be held soon after visiting day for
the pu pose of di-scu-.ing the work of the teachers
observed.
7. By lending my in fluence to the establishment of a better
organized :ani more helpful Teaichlers' Institute.
A Teachers' Institute to be of maximum service must Ibe
orgmlnized upon a definite plan. In the main the follow-
ing major :n-tivities will be given places on the program.
a. Nationoil iand internatio-inal movements and tendern-
cies in education presented by per-on-c whvlo know
the flets; ind ican get them -\ei to theit audiences.
b. State, county, and lo:il: sIchool problems nlffecting the
welfare iandl i)rofessionai l :advancement of teachers.
c. Series of lectures to groups of teachers interested in
t more or less highly speci(.lized Field of education,
i.e., Soci:il Sciene, Oral Expression, Science.., etc.
d. National andl international movements in fields notler
th:n eduention reported by leaders in their respee-
tive fields. Such reports will be informational and
interpretative rather than inspir:tional.
e. ocial ac-tivities designed to I)tiinge teachrlers together
in a friendly and professional unit.






SS SUPERVISION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

WoIK PAGE ON PROBLEM TEN
No. 1
Directions: The following Teacher Rating Scale has been
developed bIy the Glerndale iCalifornia'i School System.
Rate one of your teachers by this scale and decide how
accurately it measures Teacher Ability.
'1"L- No

1. Personal idl Social Qualities.
I. Does his coudlition of health or vitality inter-
fere with the ci.onlduct of school duties".
I-. Is his voice cle:,r aniid ple iriiig? .
e. Does he inminta.iii self-control anld poiise? ..
di. Is his personal appearaiice s.ich sli ; to iiake a
favorable impression oni patroiln .'inil pupils?
e. Is he optimistic ni.l enitlhu.iastie about his
work ? ............
f. Is lie tactful arii fair in his dealings with
pupilS, p.i-tions, anid colleagues? ......

2. Malnagerial Abilities.
a. Is he prompt and.l accura lte iln his execution of
reports and duties? ......
Ii. Is lie e-'conomical of time anlid initerial s?
t. Does lihe mairilnaiin an orderly arrangeinent of
his roo-m ('or playgrl oulnll and equilpment ?
d. Docs lie give proper attention to lighting,
ventil.ltion, land the general comforts of his
pupil ? .
e. Does lie display initiative and self-relia.nce ii
the conduct ,of his duties?. ..
f. Doe liee niiage his affairss so as to corlmiland
the respect and control of pupils? ........

:3. Qualities of Co',perationl.
a. Does he give -dequate attention to extra-
class duties Land na tivities? .... ......





SUPERIISION IN THE ELEMENT.kPIY SCHOOL


',i_ NJ

b. Does lie evidence loyalty to the school
administration, supervisory statf, and cl-
leagues? ... ....
c. Does he display willingness to participate
and share in cooperative plan-s for school
improvement ? .......
d. Does he maintain a sympathetic and :o-
operative attitude toward pupils?.
4. Professional Qualities.
a. Does he const actively contribute to faculty
meetings and educational plans for the
school ?. .. ....
b. Does he display professional growth and up-
to-date qualities?.
c. Haz he had a stffieient professional prepara-
tion, foi his work?.........
d. Does he have the proper professional attitude
toward teaching? ..... .... ......... .

5. Teaching A ilities.
a. Does lie possess and exert skill in aro'-using
pupil interest ? .. ...... .........
b. Does he make adequate preparation of lessoni
materials? .......................... .
c. Is he skillful in his choice and use of subject
matter, methods, and materials? ...
d. Does he achieve satisfactory teaching
results? ........................
e. Does he inspire and develop desirable
citizenship qualities in his pupils? .... ..





'O SUPERVISION IN TIE ELEMENTAJIY SCHOOL

\onr P.\oE oN PRiOBLEM TEN
No. 2
Directions: The preceding Teacher Rating Scale was largely
subjective; the following i non attempt Io make an 4ob-
jective Rating Scale. Rate the .aine teacher rated
previously upon this ne\v scale andl compare results.
You will lind the ei..mplete scale tromn which this is adapted
in the Eltn~ im a Schioo Journal for N.,-vember, 1927
(Baberger A Survey of Ob-ervarble Improvable
Factois Which Evidence Skill in Teaching ").

\'ir No

1. Changes Wroughti in Children.
a. She la quickened children's interest
b. She iha] developed gio,. th of ichracter
c. She las !ecurei.l improvement in chiildren's
ability tc, thiik ............ .......
d. She hlt- secuieil improvement in (hildren't
ability to become socially minded
e. She has secured progies-sive achievement of
children
2. C'haInge- No ted in the Teacher.
n. She has increased in skill in handllind g ii,-
di\iduJd: l needs of pupils..............
1. She has increased ii power to handle class-
room -ituations through a richer personal
life outside the school .................
c. She has consciously improved herself by a
continuous ploces in self-educa.ti'..n and has
made this funct i.,n in the classroom. ......
d. She has gri'.'.'n in atl.ility to meet her pro-
fessional o ligations ..
3. Changes Visiblle in the ClassiZom.
a. She has excicised grenatei care in the seating
arrange ent of tlie class.. ........... .




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