• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of tables and figures
 Half Title
 The problem
 Experimental procedure
 Factors involved in growth
 Principles of growth
 Summary and conclusions
 Bibliography
 Back Matter
 Back Cover






Group Title: Half-title: Duke university research studies in education
Title: Growth in understanding of geographic terms in grades iv to vii
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 Material Information
Title: Growth in understanding of geographic terms in grades iv to vii
Series Title: Half-title: Duke university research studies in education
Physical Description: x, 67 1 p. : incl. tables, diagrs. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Eskridge, Thomas Joseph, 1898-
Publisher: Duke University Press
Place of Publication: Durham, North Carolina
Publication Date: 1939
 Subjects
Subject: Geography -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
Children -- Language   ( lcsh )
Vocabulary   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Select bibliography: p. 68.
General Note: Issued also as thesis (Ph. D.) Duke university.
Statement of Responsibility: by T.J. Eskridge, jr.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098576
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01878726
lccn - 39020189

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Foreword
        Page v
    Acknowledgement
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    List of tables and figures
        Page ix
        Page x
    Half Title
        Page 1
        Page 2
    The problem
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Experimental procedure
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Factors involved in growth
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Principles of growth
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Bibliography
        Page 68
    Back Matter
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Back Cover
        Page 71
        Page 72
Full Text

DUKE UNIVERSITY RESEARCH STUDIES IN EDUCATION NUMBER 4


GROWTH IN UNDERSTANDING

OF GEOGRAPHIC TERMS
IN GRADES IV TO VII


B V
T. J. ESKRIDGE, JR.


D6 7z,


DUKE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Durham, N. C.
1939


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UNIVERSITY

OF FLORIDA

LIBRARY


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DUKE UNIVERSITY RESEARCH STUDIES IN EDUCATION


GROWTH IN UNDERSTANDING
OF GEOGRAPHIC TERMS
IN GRADES IV TO VII










GROWTH IN UNDERSTANDING
OF GEOGRAPHIC TERMS
IN GRADES IV TO VII



BY
T. J. ESKRIDGE, JR.


DUKE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Durham, N. C.
1939









r <. 4






COPYRIGHT, 1939, BY THE
DUKE UNIVERSITY PRESS


PRINTED IN TIE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BY
THE SEEMAN I'RINTERY, .INC., DURHAM, N. C.


"











FOREWORD
P- rlhaips no more serious danger confronts the teacher of the social
.tudkid. than that of accepting purely verbal statements as evidence of
.sund learning. The danger lies in the fact that such statements may
reprec:'it no more than the mastery of words and phrases which have
been identified by the learner as the appropriate responses to make in
given situations. However accurate these verbalizations may seem to
be, they may be almost wholly devoid of real meaning and significance
so far as the child is concerned. The product of this kind of learning
need not be imagined, for it is directly observable in the "knowledge"
which school children acquire in their "study" of geography, history,
and civics.
These facts and this danger have been known for years. Never-
theless, exceedingly little research has been done with a view to de-
termining the extent and nature of this empty verbal learning, or,
stated in positive terms, with a view to determining how children may
be led to develop rich meanings for the terms and concepts which they
encounter in the social studies. It is precisely this problem which Dr.
Eskridge undertook to investigate. In the research reported in this
monograph Dr. Eskridge attempted to trace the growth of meaning
for certain important geographic terms through four school grades
and to isolate the factors which condition such growth and the prin-
ciples according to which the growth takes place.
The study as here reported is substantially that made by Dr.
Eskridge in order to fulfill in part the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy. Minor changes have been made in the or-
ganization of Chapter III; new data have been included in Chapter
IV; and the extensive statistical data in the appendix of the thesis
have been omitted.
WILLIAM A. BROWNELL.








[v]


6lJ93.t


















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


In presenting this thesis the writer wishes to acknowledge his in-
debtedness to all of those who have contributed to it in any way. He
is especially obligated to Dr. W. A. Brownell for suggesting the prob-
lem, for helpful advice, and for general supervision of the work; to
Dr. Howard Easley for reading the manuscript and for many helpful
suggestions; to Mr. W. E. Black, Superintendent, and to Mr. R. E.
Seymour, Mr. J. R. Hooten, Miss Ruth Cooner, and Miss Nannie
Major, Principals, of the Greenwood, S. C., Public Schools for per-
mission to give the tests; to the teachers in whose classes the tests
were given, for their co-operation throughout the study; to the pupils
who took the tests; to the students in the Department of Education
of Lander College who assisted in giving and scoring the tests; and
finally to his wife, Irene Holland Eskridge, through whose encourage-
ment and personal sacrifice it was possible to complete this study.
T. J. ESKRIDGE, JR.


















[ vi i








TABLE OF CONTENTS
C CHAPTER PAGE
I. THE PROBLEM .............. ... ..................... 3
Approach ...................................... 3
What Children's Written Work Reveals ............ 3
What Conversations with Children Reveal.......... 4
Problem Stated ................................ 5
Previous Investigations in the Field of Geography...... 5
Studies Reviewed ............................... 6
Related Investigations Outside the Field of Geography... 8
Brownell ..................................... 8
Burton ......................................... 9
M eltzer ............... ...................... 10
Buswell-John .................................. 11
Restatement of Problem ............................ 14
II. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE ............................... 15
Selection of Terms ............................... 15
Comparison with Other Vocabulary Tests.......... 19
The M ain Tests ................................... 19
1. E ssay T est .................................. 19
2. M multiple Choice Test ......................... 21
3. Identification Test ........................... 22
4. Intelligence Test ............................. 22
5. Concrete Material Test ....................... 23
The Testing ..................................... 23
Dates ........................................ 23
Exam iners .................................... 23
Conditions of Testing ........................... 24
Scoring the Tests .................................. 24
Sampling of Errors ............................. 25
Tabulation of Data ................................ 25
Selection of Subjects ............................... 26
Gross Data ...................................... 28
Median Scores of Samples ....................... 28
Supplementary Test ............................... 28
[vii ]







Contents


CHAPTER PAGE
III. FACTORS INVOLVED IN GROWTH ......................... 31
General Course of Development ...................... 31
Factors Conditioning Growth ....................... 32
Conditioning Factors 1 and 2. Amount and
Kind of Experience ............................. 33
Conditioning Factor 3. Level of Geographic Attainment. 37
Conditioning Factor 4. Ways in Which Meanings
A re V erbalized ................................. 38
Conditioning Factor 5. Mental Age .................. 40
Conditioning Factor 6. Sex ......................... 41
Summary ...................................... 42
IV. PRINCIPLES OF GROWTH .............................. 44
Principle 1. Growth Proceeds through an Increase in
the Number of Different Kinds of Meanings ........ 44
Principle 2. Growth Proceeds through an Increase of
General Information ............................ 46
Principle 3. Growth Proceeds through a Substitution
of Basic for Associated Meanings ................. 49
Principle 4. Growth Proceeds through a Development
of Comprehensive Meanings ................. .... 55
Principle 5. Growth Proceeds through a Reduction
of Errors ......................... .. ....... 59
V. SUMMI ARY AND CONCLUSIONS .......... ................ 63
R6sum ........................................ 63
Limitations of Study ............................... 64
Significance of Study ............................... 65
SELECT BIBLIOGRAPI Y ................ .................. .. 68










TABLES AND FIGURES


T.ALLE PAGE
I i'rrji- Used in This Investigation and Their Occurrence in Other
Vocabulary Studies .................................. 16-17-18
2. Numbers of the 135 Terms in Present List Which Occur Also in
the Vocabularies Indicated in Table 1 ......................... 19
3. Number of Scoring Errors in Sample Tests Selected at Random
from National Intelligence, Multiple Choice, and Identification
Tests .................................... ................ 25
4. Numbers of Children from Whom Multiple Choice, Identification.
National Intelligence, and Concrete Material Test Scores Were
Secured, by Schools, Grades, and Sections.................... 27
5. Fourth-Grade Medians for National Intelligence, Multiple Choice,
and Identification Test Scores, and for Supplementary Items, by
Schools and Sections ......... ............................ 28
6. Fifth-Grade Medians for National Intelligence, Multiple Choice,
and Identification Test Scores, and for Supplementary Items, by
Schools and Sections ........................................ 29
7. Sixth-Grade Medians for National Intelligence, Multiple Choice,
and Identification Test Scores, and for Supplementary Items, by
Schools and Sections ................. .................... 29
8. Seventh-Grade Medians for National Intelligence, Multiple
Choice, and Identification Test Scores, and for Supplementary
Items, by Schools and Sections .............................. 29
9. Medians Derived from Total Scores Made on Multiple Choice.
Identification, and Concrete Material Tests................... 31
10. Medians Derived from Total Scores Made on Multiple Choice,
Identification, and Concrete Material Tests Expressed as Per
Cents of Maximum Possible Scores ......................... 32
11. Number of Tests-Multiple Choice, Identification, and Concrete
Material-on Which Five Fourth-Grade Children Responded
Correctly .................. ............... .......... 33
12. Average Per Cents of Children Who Responded Correctly to Five
Terms Common to Multiple Choice, Identification, and Concrete
Material Tests ............... ............................ 35
13. Number of Children in Each of the Three Attainment Groups into
Which Grades Were Divided, and Range of Scores Made on Mul-
tiple Choice Test (135 Terms) .............................. 37
14. Per Cents of Children Who Responded Correctly on Multiple
Choice Test to Four Terms Which Were Common to Material
Studied by All Grades, by Grades and Groups .................. 38
15. Mean Mental Ages and Mean Multiple Choice (135 Terms) and
Identification Test Scores, by Grades and Groups............... 41
[ix]







Tables and Figures


TABLE PAGE
16. Mean Mental Ages and Mean Multiple Choice Test Scores of
Boys and Girls, by Grades and Groups ..................... 42
17. Per Cents of Children, by Grades, Who Consistently Responded
Correctly to Seventeen Terms Which Were Common (Part A) to
Multiple Choice and Identification Tests: (Part B) to Multiple
Choice, Identification and Concrete Material Tests.............. 45
18. Median Number of Meanings Which Ten Children in Each of
Grades IV, V, VI, and VII Expressed in Essays on Eight Geo-
graphic Terms ................. .. ....................... 46
19. Frequencies with Which Meanings of Continent Were Expressed
in Essays by Ten Children in Each of Grades IV, V, VI, and VII 47
20. Frequencies with Which Meanings of Rainfall Were Expressed in
Essays by Ten Children in Each of Grades IV, V, VI, and VII... 48
21. Frequencies with Which Meanings of Pole Were Expressed in
Essays by Ten Children in Each of Grades IV, V, VI, and VII... 48
22. Per Cents of Children Who Responded to Alternatives Offered
with IVest Coast, by Grades.... ............................. 52
23. Per Cents of Children Who Responded to Alternatives Offered
with Capital, by Grades ................................... 52
24. Per Cents of Children Who Responded to Alternatives Offered
with East W ind, by Grades .................................. 53
25. Per Cents of Children Who Responded to Alternatives Offered
with Horizon, by Grades.................................. 54
26. Per Cents of Children Who Responded to Alternatives Offered
with Prevailing IVinds, by Grades............................ 54
27. Per Cents of Children Who Responded to Alternatives Offered
with Trade, by Grades................. .................... 55
28. Per Cents of Children Who Responded to Alternatives Offered-
with Rainfall, by Grades................ ................. 56
29. Per Cents of Children Who Responded to Alternatives Offered
with Altitude, by Grades................ ................. 57
30. Per Cents of Children Who Responded to Alternatives Offered
with Deposit, by Grades................................... 58
31. Per Cents of Children Who Responded to Alternatives Offered
with Conmmlnication, by Grades............................. 58
32. Per Cents of Children Who Identified Antarctic Circle, Arctic
Circle, Meridian, Tropic of Cancer, and Tropic of Capricorn as
Parallel, by Grades ...................................... 60
FIGURE
1. Growth Curves (All Terms) Based on Medians Derived from
Total Scores Made on Multiple Choice, Identification, and Con-
crete Material Tests ..................................... 32
2. Growth Curves (Based on Averages) for Five Terms: Coast,
Equator, Lake, River and Strait ............................ 36
3. Growth Curves for Three Attainment Groups. Terms: Inland,
Island, Lake, and River................................... 39



















GROWTH IN UNDERSTANDING
OF GEOGRAPHIC TERMS
IN GRADES IV TO VII













CHAPTER I


THE PROBLEM

APPROACH
WHAT CHILDREN'S WRITTEN WORK REVEALS
"A volcano is something that looks like a tater bank and when it
gits hot it busts." So wrote a seventh-grade boy in response to the
question, "What is a volcano?"I
And not just one, but several seventh-grade pupils defined pre-
vailing winds as "kinds which come from the west. They are very
strong winds," or wrote similar statements when asked the meaning
of the term.
Of the fifty children in grades four, five, six, and seven who were
asked, "What is meant by the mouth of a river ?," thirteen, or almost
30 per cent, wrote, "The mouth of a river is the place where the river
starts."2
How shall answers such as these be treated? Shall they be dis-
missed lightly with a shrug of the shoulders and the observation that
some children are just naturally dull? Or, is it possible that these
answers have a significance which is not immediately apparent but
which if studied will result in a better understanding of the mental
processes of children?
In the case of the youngster who said that a volcano was some-
thing that looked like a potato bank, shall one say that he probably
knew as well as anyone else what a volcano was but that he was just
unable to express himself clearly? Or, does it seem reasonable to
suppose that perhaps the pictures which he had seen of volcanoes had
somehow given him the idea that volcanoes were piles of dirt, of the
same general size and shape of potato banks, which, for reasons which
he did not understand, sometimes got hot and exploded? Perhaps,
after all, this youngster did express himself very accurately even
though ungrammatically. Who knows?
And what shall be said of the pupils who wrote that prevailing
winds mean winds which blow from the west? Shall one say that
they must not have prepared their lessons carefully and thus dismiss
1 Reported to the writer by the teacher in whose classroom the incident oc-
curred. The language is reproduced as accurately as possible.
2 The example quoted is from the fourth grade. The other twelve answers
were expressed in various ways.







4 Understanding of Geographic Terrms in Grades II' to I'll

the whole matter? The fact that such a large Iapcrc.c cc i:f the cliil-
dren had got the idea that prevailing winds ,ere in. ,lo which blohi
from the north, east, south, or west, or from ..mr e uther direction
would seem to indicate that these meanings of rpc'-ailing winds: cere
not the product of chance factors or of careless study. but t~ucre rather
the product of some special factor or set of fact-ors. l r-ral.s clil...lren
infer meanings in ways of which most adults are unav.are There ir
reason for thinking that such is the case.
And what shall be said of those children v.hli-, \ rcte. "The mouth
of a river is the place where the river starts"? '-.ine oL\ _iiiu- explana-
tion is that they were confusing the mouth of a ri'.er lth its suitr,'.
In some cases this explanation may be the correct' lne, hut in otler
it is not. There are children who know perfect. .*.ell that lthe svri, '
of a river is the place where the river has its :.riin. that tiie imowut
is the place where the river empties into another lbody :,to iater. an. d
yet who persist in saying that the mouth of the river ik the place t hel e
the river starts. In the case of these children auntllh anid o'itrr'e atre
not confused. For them starts expresses a relati:.h'llip itice fui.rcign
to the one expressed in the clause has its origit.

WHAT CONVERSATIONS WITI CHILDREN REVEAL
To one who has talked with children in a simple and infii-rmal \\a'
about the things which they have learned, it is e ident that many ha e
incorrect and oftentimes distorted ideas which seem tc: Ie ukil-:ni:'.n t,-
their teachers. It is evident also that adults u'_ften real io : tlihe
answers of children meanings which do not cxi:t I'.-r the children at
all. A few examples will make these points clear.
A sixth-grade pupil was asked if he knew v hat ,a meant Iby ahi.-
tude. "Yes," he said, "altitude means how hi-h up in til air a thing
is." This answer, while not a perfect one, v.a u 1 :ubt :utijfiiently
accurate to serve the ordinary purposes of the clas-r:o:n1i. The first
question was, however, followed by a second 'one. "Does Green .9,,vod
[the local city] have altitude?," and the answer Nas. "No:! Grien-
wood is not up in the air."
When asked to identify the north pole 1:n a standJard 12-inch
globe most children located it with what seemed at irst ito he a iigh
degree of accuracy. Questioning, however, brO.iught ':ut very planlly
the fact that a large proportion of the children v. ere nirt thinking of
the north pole as the point where the meridians meet For comic tie
north pole meant merely the general area around ithll point. F,_ir







The Problem 5

,:hIlirV' [hlr nr'th pole meant the portion of the earth which was
riinirl:,d L,' tht eightieth parallel.
large proportion of the children also, perhaps influenced by
maps presented in conjunction with magazine and newspaper accounts
of Admiral Byrd and his south polar expedition, pointed to Antarctica
when asked to identify the south pole.
Many other examples of a similar kind could be given to show
that children often have queer and inexact ideas of the things about
which they have studied. But more examples are not needed since
enough have been given already to suggest that the meanings which
children have for geographic terms is a fertile area for investigation.

PROBLEM STATED
The field of meanings is one which has many different aspects. In
order to investigate this field, it is necessary to subdivide it into
smaller ones, e. g., nature of meanings, development of meanings,
complexity of meanings, etc., and to isolate particular problems which
are connected with each of these smaller fields. This investigation re-
lates to the growth of meanings. The particular problem which is
investigated may be stated as follows: "How does growth in under-
standing of geographic terms proceed among the children of the
elementary school, in grades four to seven?"

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS IN THE FIELD OF GEOGRAPHY
So far as the writer is aware, there have been no investigations
which have dealt with growth in understanding of terms in the field
of geography. The Thirty-Second Yearbook of the National Society
for the Study of Education, on the "Teaching of Geography," lists
eighty-two studies which had been made up to and including 1932.
Of these eighty-two studies, five relate specifically to problems of
vocabulary. These five studies are those of Cunningham (6),* Kuene-
man (9), Pease (12), Ridgley (13), and Shaffer (14). They will be
reviewed briefly in the next section.
Among the studies reports of which are included in the Yearbook
are six so-called minor contributions dealing with abilities, disabilities,
and difficulties in geography. Two of these, those by Aitchison (1)
and by Hart (8), pertain primarily to problems of vocabulary.
Two other investigations which relate specifically to problems of
geographic vocabulary have been made by graduate students at the
Numbers such as (6), (9), (12), etc., refer to the -bibliography on p. 68.







6 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV t.o I'l

University of Pittsburgh. These investigations were irli:,rted I.
French (7) and by Notz (11).
The Education Index, as of March 1, 1937, lists, so fir a: can
be judged from the titles, only one investigation in the f-k.lI :.1 ce..-
graphic vocabulary which has appeared since 1932. This stud nmajd
by Cole (5), is reviewed briefly in the following section, to-citlcr r. th
the vocabulary studies previously mentioned.

STUDIES REVIEWED
The studies of Aitchison, Cole, Cunningham, French, Hart. li:-
neman, Notz, Pease, Ridgley, and Shaffer have nothing i'l c.:imm.in,.
with the present investigation so far as their major purpo-., aire c..in-
cerned. They are presented here merely to indicate the nature of most
of the work which has been done on the vocabulary of geography.
Aitchison. Aitchison (1) made a study of the misconceptions
which 1,100 pupils, mainly in the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades,
had of the frigid, temperate, and torrid zones. The pupils represented
rural, small-town, and city schools of Iowa, Missouri, Montana, Cal-
ifornia, and Illinois. A multiple choice test consisting of five state-
ments concerning each of the three zones was used to obtain reactions
from the subjects. The data showed that the pupils had numerous
misconceptions relating to the zones. Many of these misconceptions
were attributed to the influence of the zone names.
Cole. Cole (5) derived a list of 1,008 geographic terms from an
examination of six elementary geographies, the titles of which she
does not report. From the original list of 1,008 terms, three classes
of terms were deleted. The deleted words were "those occurring in
the most frequent thousand of the Thorndike List, . those that did
not occur five times in a book and in at least five of the six books,"
and those that were rated as "accessory or nonessential" by a major-
ity of seventy-one elementary school teachers. The 228 terms which
remained, Cole reports in her study. Many of these terms are names
of products.
Cunningham. Cunningham (6) compared the vocabularies used in
five representative geographies,3 in the content material which dealt
with the United States.
"The texts were:
a. Harlan H. Barrows and Edith Putnam, Geography: United States and
Canada (New York: Silver, Burdett and Co., 1925).
b. Albert Perry Brigham and Charles T. McFarlane, Essentials of Ge-
ography, First Book (New York: American Book Co., 1925).
c. James Fairgrieve and Ernest Young, The United States, Human Ge-
ography by Grades, Book Four. (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1925).







The Problem


French. French (7) studied the "effect of practice exercises in
reading on pupil achievement in geography." The specific training
was in (1) vocabulary, (2) the reading of maps, graphs, and tables,
and (3) the organization of subject matter. As a result of the in-
vestigation, it was found, with respect to each of the three functions
studied, that specific training resulted in increased geographic attain-
ment to a degree which was statistically reliable.
Hart. Hart (8) derived a list of fifty-five common errors in ge-
ography. The list included errors noticed in her own experience as
well as errors reported to her in the course of the investigation. The
errors were classified into five groups according to their nature and
were submitted for examination to fifty-two persons experienced in
supervising geography classes and in teaching geography teachers.
Each of the fifty-two persons indicated the errors whose occurrence
they had observed. The body of the study consisted of the classified
list of errors with notations indicating the number of persons who had
reported the occurrence of the errors.
Kuenneman. Kueneman (9) studied the effect which a change
in vocabulary has upon the ability of fourth-grade children to under-
stand material selected from a geography textbook. She found that
"the vocabulary changes do not affect the reading comprehension to a
degree of difference which has statistical significance."
Nots. Notz (11) made a study of the vocabulary of fifth-grade
geography. The aim of her investigation was "to analyze several ge-
ography texts and to derive a vocabulary of words and phrases neces-
sary to develop the major understanding of each section or 'human
use' region of the United States that will form a geographic under-
standing of United States as a whole, as a climax."
Such a vocabulary, consisting of 1,753 terms, was derived from
an examination of four fifth-grade geography texts.4 The list of
terms is presented as three vocabularies, designated as "common

d. Frank Morton McMurry and Almon Ernest Parkins, Elementary
Geography (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1925).
e. Joseph Russell Smith, Human Geography, Book One (Philadelphia: John
C. Winston Co., 1925).
'The texts were:
a. Wallace Walter Atwood and 'Helen Goss Thomas, The Americas: The
Earth and Its People, Book Two (Boston: Ginn and Co., 1929).
b. Harlan H. Barrows and Edith Putnam Parker, Geography: United States
and Canada (New York: Silver, Burdett and Co., 1931).
c. Frederick Kenneth Branom and Helen Marie Ganey, Geography of North
America and South America (New York: William H. Sadlier, Inc., 1931).
d. Richard Elwood Dodge and Earl Emmett Lackey, Elementary Geography,
Book One (Chicago: Rand, McNally and Co., 1930).







8 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to 1'll

words," "proper names," and "groups of words." A more extcnIIive
vocabulary of 4,546 words was also derived from the ame t[xt,.
Both lists of terms were analyzed and Compared with othlr \ocaLb-
ulary lists.
Pease. Pease (12) derived a list of 679 geographic terms which
occurred in a "representative newspaper,"5 and in "news periodicals,"6
by sampling issues over a period of twelve years. The term geographic
was interpreted very broadly; consequently, the list contains many
words which are of a general rather than of a specific geographic
nature. The first five words of the list are abroad, acre, aeroplane,
afternoon, and agriculture.
Ridgley. Ridgley (13) derived a list of 1,200 selected place names
from an examination of the second book of five series of geographies.
Shaffer. Shaffer (14) determined the frequencies with which
words occurred in three world geographies7 by sampling every fifth
line.

RELATED INVESTIGATIONS OUTSIDE THE FIELD OF GEOGRAPHY
There have been several investigations outside the field of geog-
raphy which resemble the present one. For the most part the resem-
blance is in the type of testing-instrument used. Among the investiga-
tions referred to are those by Brownell (2), Burton (3), Meltzer
(10), and Buswell and John (4).

BROWNELL
One of the most important investigations in the field of growth of
meanings is that by Brownell (2). This investigation is a study of
the development of children's number ideas in the primary grades.
The procedure consisted in a careful analysis of the mental processes
exhibited by individual pupils when they were dealing with various
types of number material in actual classroom situations. The chief
significance of Brownell's investigation, so far as the present study
is concerned, is that it demonstrated to the writer how fruitful the
genetic method of approach may be in arriving at an understanding
6 The New York Times.
T The Literary Digest, The IVorld's Work, and The American Magazine.
SThe texts were:
a. Albert Perry Brigham and Charles T. McFarlane, Essentials of Ge-
ography, First Book (Rev. Ed., New York: American Book Co., 1928).
b. Frank Morton McMurry and Almon Ernest Parkins, Elementary Ge-
ography, First Book (Rev. ed., New York: The Macmillan Co., 1928).
c. Joseph Russell Smith, Human Geography, Book One (Philadelphia: John
C. Winston Co., 1925).







The Problem


of the mental processes of children, and suggested the general nature
of the attack to be made on the problem of this thesis.

BURTONS
Burton (3) made a study of children's civic information. In a
series of seven studies extended over a period of eleven years, approx-
imately 7,500 subjects were tested. Most of the subjects were sixth-
grade children from schools located in California, Illinois, North
Dakota, Ohio, and Oregon. The chief testing instrument was a multi-
ple choice test of ninety-six items which had been constructed on the
basis of results obtained from two preliminary tests. The ninety-six
terms were distributed equally among three groups classified as polit-
ical, economic, and sociological. The subjects were told not to guess
and were instructed to indicate their choice of alternatives by placing
X in front of the one selected. Pre-tests were given to familiarize the
subjects with the nature of the task expected of them. The following
is a sample item taken from the test:
If a policeman finds a dead body, to whom does he turn it over?
The chief of police.
The coroner.
The health officer.

Burton's findings, presented here in an abbreviated form, were as
follows:
1. At the sixth-grade level the best informed groups knew about 45
per cent of the information represented by the test; the least informed,
about 25 per cent.
2. Pupil interest and maturity are such as to permit and demand the
earlier introduction of direct civic instruction.
3. There was practically no variation in the nature of the civic infor-
mation possessed by the several regional, economic, racial, or national
groups examined.
4. There was considerable variation in the amount of civic informa-
tion possessed by the several groups mentioned.
5. The acquisition of civic information at any given level and the
growth in civic information taking place from grade to grade were not
the result of any systematically organized instruction but largely the result
of accidental contact, both in and out of school.
6. The boys were regularly and consistently superior to the girls
throughout, for information studied.
7. There was no increase or marked change of any kind in the nature
and amount of pupils' information over the ten-year period 1924-34.
Citations by courtesy of the author and the publisher.







10 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII

8. The economic status of the home through its effect on cuhur-:i
contacts and experiences was the factor most closely correlated iili ilth
amount of information possessed by groups of pupils.
9. The out-of-school contacts supplied a larger proportion of ini:.i rl:l-
tion than did the school.
10. The influence of the school increased steadily through the I ,:.l.
11. The chief factors necessary to acquisition of citizenship informa-
tion would seem to be (a) a decent economic status which insures adequate
and varied cultural contacts, and (b) systematic instruction in school.
The school should in fact be so organized as to compensate for the under-
privileged status of many pupils (3, pp. 304 and 305).
MELTZER9
The purpose of Meltzer's (10) investigation was, according to the
author, "to trace the development in the minds of children of some
concepts whose understanding make some important situations of
contemporary life more intelligible to us." A list of 297 social, eco-
nomic, and political concepts was determined from an examination of
four books and of 112 issues of critical magazines spread over a
period of five years. These terms were then weighted by means of a
formula devised for the purpose in order to determine their relative
importance. From this list of 297 concepts a list of thirty-one of the
most important ones was selected for study.
Three hundred and thirty-three pupils from the fourth grade
through the twelfth, in schools located in Bayonne, Passaic, and Jer-
sey City, New Jersey, and in New York City were tested for an
understanding of these terms by the personal interview method. The
responses of these pupils were analyzed, and the frequencies with
which basic or "core" ideas occurred were determined. Points were
then assigned to each core idea, the number of points assigned de-
pending on whether the ideas expressed had been adjudged superior,
reasonably correct, etc. A total score for each pupil was obtained by
adding the points assigned to the core ideas. The sum of the points
earned constituted the total score.
The chief findings of Meltzer which are relevant to the present
study are:
1. Children have a large number of core ideas or meanings for
terms, the number varying from 101 in the case of Personal Rights
to 34 in the case of Foreign Trade.
2. The core ideas have a wide range of worth. They vary from
those at one extreme which are superior, through those of lesser
merit, to those of the other extreme which are erroneous.
Citations by courtesy of the publisher.







The Problem


3. Some terms are much better understood than others.
4. In general, there is a "steady development in the children's
conceptions from grade to grade."
5. A positive correlation exists between "grasp of the concepts"
and mental age.
BUSWELL-JOHNl"
A fourth investigation which, from the viewpoint of procedure, is
most related to the present one is that of Buswell and John (4). So
far as specific aim and technique are concerned, this investigation,
more nearly than those of Brownell, Burton, or Meltzer, resembles
the present one. Because of the marked similarities and differences be-
tween the Buswell-John study and the present one, both in technique
and in treatment of results, a rather full abstract of the plan of the
Buswell-John study is given. This investigation had for its purpose
the "study of the nature and the development of concepts of technical
and semi-technical terms in the arithmetic of the first six grades."
A list of five hundred terms commonly used in arithmetic was col-
lected through an examination of "all the vocabulary studies in arith-
metic which could be found." From this list of five hundred terms a
second list of one hundred terms was chosen for testing purposes.
This list of one hundred terms was named the selected list.
Group tests covering the terms of the selected list were given to
1,500 pupils in Grades IV, V, and VI, and individual tests covering
twenty-five terms (common to the selected list) and eight phrases
were given to 240 pupils in Grades I to VI.
Four different group tests were used in the investigation. Test I
was a multiple choice test which covered the one hundred terms of
the selected list. The type of question included is illustrated by the
following item from the test:
A rectangle is:
( ) 1. A figure that is round like a ball.
( ) 2. The answer to a division problem.
( ) 3. A four-sided figure with square corners.
( ) 4. A three-sided figure.
The pupils were required to indicate the correct meaning by
placing a cross (X) within the parentheses preceding it.
Test I was divided into two equal parts, Form A and Form B,
which were given on successive days to avoid fatigue on the part of
the pupils.
Citations by courtesy of the authors and the publisher.







12 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII

"Tests II, III, and IV were shorter tests, each including only the
first twenty-five terms of the one hundred terms in Test I. The pur-
pose of using several tests instead of one was to determine whether
or not a pupil who responded correctly in one test will do so in other
tests."
Test II was a direction test. In this test the words were used in
questions or in directions, and the responses of the pupils were in-
terpreted as evidence of understanding or lack of understanding of
the words. The following is a sample:*



Which of these squares is smaller ?
Draw a ring around it.
Test III was a combination of the multiple choice and completion
types. In this test the pupil was instructed to "choose the word that
will make the sentence true and draw a line under it." The following
is a sample item taken from the test:
To find how many books there are on a table we...............
the books.
sell count weigh buy
Test IV was a definition test. After each term there was a space
in which the definition of the term was to be written. The following
is a sample:
After each of these words write what the word means:
count.............................................
Both forms of Test I were given to 1,500 children, 500 from the
second half of each of grades four, five, and six. Tests II, III, and
IV were given to 300 of the same pupils, 100 from each grade.
The individual test consisted of questions about each of 25 terms
and 8 phrases. This test was given to each of 240 children, 40 from
each of the first six grades, who had previously taken a group intel-
ligence test. The plan was as follows:
After each child had been taken to a place where there were no
distractions and had been made to feel at ease, the examiner placed
before him a typewritten list of the thirty-three terms and phrases
which were to be used in this part of the study.
The size of the squares shown in the sample item, and the position of the
squares in relation to the printed matter differ from the corresponding items
as found in the Buswell-John monograph.







The Problem


"First, the entire list of terms was read to the child, and any terms
which he had never heard before were crossed off the list. The re-
maining terms were then presented one at a time, the specific direc-
tions given to the child being 'Can you tell me what this word means
in arithmetic?' The examiner made a verbatim record of what the
child said. If the pupil hesitated too long or made irrelevant state-
ments about a term, certain follow-up questions were used. These
questions were formulated carefully before the testing began, and all
the examiners used the same questions" (4, p. 44).
The results of the group tests were presented in the form of dis-
tributions of scores, of relative difficulty of the terms, of misconcep-
tions indicated by selections of incorrect responses, of variations
among school systems and of percentage of pupils who responded
consistently on all four tests.
The results of the individual tests were presented as, "first, the
responses made by the pupils to each of the twenty-five words in the
list; second, the responses made to certain of the phrases used; and,
third, the types of responses to selected terms made by the pupils at
the three levels of intelligence."
Buswell and John summarize the results of the group tests as
follows:
1. The pupils in a given grade differ widely in the size of their arith-
metical vocabularies. The number of terms known increases from grade
to grade, but the distribution of scores in the three grades show a large
amount of overlapping.
2. The difficulty of the terms studied as indicated by the percentages
of pupils responding correctly shows great variation.
3. The difficulty of the classes of terms into which the list is divided
indicates that, in general, the technical terms are the most difficult and
that the terms relating to time, space, or quantity are the least difficult, the
terms relating to special figures, the terms of measurement, and the com-
mercial terms lying between the extremes. The fact that there are more
terms included in some classes than in others and that the terms in a given
class are not of uniform difficulty reduces the significance of the differences
between the results for the five classes.
4. The growth in the understanding of terms as indicated by the in-
crease in the percentage of correct responses from Grade IV to Grade VI
shows great variation for different terms, the smallest difference in per-
centages being 1.4 and the largest 60.2.
5. Comparison of the results for the twelve school systems represented
by the pupils tested shows that for a given term the percentages of correct
responses and the percentages of omissions vary widely, indicating that
the course of study and the teaching procedure are probably important fac-
tors in determining the terms known by the pupils in each school system.







14 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII

6. Analysis of the incorrect responses indicates that incorrect mean-
ings are frequently associated with terms. In some cases the number of
pupils who had misconceptions regarding the term was greater than the
number of pupils who understood it, and the amount of misunderstanding
did not decrease materially from Grade IV to Grade VI. Such a situaticil
presents a definite problem for teachers of arithmetic.
7. The lack of agreement between the results of Tests I, II, III, and
IV suggests that ability to respond to a word correctly in one situation
does not necessarily indicate that understanding is complete. Further
experience with the word may be needed for complete understanding (4,
pp. 41 and 42).
RESTATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Most of the investigations which have been referred to consist
primarily either in a listing of geographic terms or in a statement of
the final results of learning such terms. Little or no effort has been
made to get beneath the surface and to study the learning process in
operation. The one outstanding exception is the study by Brownell on
the development of the children's number ideas. It is the purpose of
the present investigation to isolate some of the factors and principles
which condition learning and consequently growth in understanding
of geographic terms.










CHAPTER II


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

SELECTION OF TERMS
A list of 135 geographic terms was derived from an examination
of geography texts' in use in the public schools of Greenwood, South
Carolina. The terms included in the list were those which, in the
opinion of the writer, were best adapted to the purposes of this in-
vestigation. The one criterion other than personal opinion used in
the selection of terms was "frequency of occurrence." On this basis
a term was selected (1) if it occurred as many as three times in the
textbook material studied, or (2) if it was closely identified with the
use of maps. The criterion of "frequency" was used because it was
felt that there should be some measure of the probable opportunity
which children had had for learning the meanings of the terms. Such
a measure is needed to evaluate responses.
The list of terms was divided into three parts which will be re-
ferred to hereinafter as Part I, Part II, and Part III.
Part I consisted of 60 terms. Of these, 49 terms occurred as many
as three times in the textbook material which had been studied by each
of Grades IV, V, VI, and VII. The following eleven terms occur-
ring less than three times-antarctic circle, arctic circle, hemisphere,
latitude, longitude, meridian, north pole, parallel, south pole, tropic of
Cancer, and tropic of Capricorn-were also included in Part I because
it was felt that children would probably have meanings for them by
reason of use in connection with maps.
Part II consisted of 20 terms, each of which occurred as many as
three times in the textbook material studied by each of Grades V,
VI, and VII, but which did not occur as many as three times in the
material studied by Grade IV.
Part III consisted of 55 terms, each of which occurred as many
as three times in the textbook material studied by Grade VII but
'The texts were:
a. Wallace Walter Atwood and Helen Goss Thomas, The Earth and Its
People, Elementary Book (Boston: Ginn and Co., 1934).
b. Wallace Walter Atwood and Helen Goss Thomas, The Earth and Its
People, Advanced Book (Boston: Ginn and Co., 1934).
c. Joseph Russell Smith, Human Geography, Book One (Philadelphia: John
C. Winston Co., 1925).
d. Wallace Walter Atwood, New Geography, Book II (Boston: Ginn and
Co., 1929).









16 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII


TABLE 1
TERMS USED IN THIS INVESTIGATION AND THEIR OCCURRENCE IN OTHER
VOCABULARY STUDIES*






2 A nnualrainfall ............. Ill ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... -o -o
3 A ntarctic circle ............. I ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... 0


4 A rctic circle .............. .. I ...... .... .. ...... ...... .. .... .. .... ..... .
z .




5 Area....................... l 3a x x x x x x 6
6 Basintud..................... II 3b ...... ... ........ x ..... x x 4
2 Annual rainfal.............. 1. ...... ........b x x x x ...... x.. 5
3 Antarctic circle................ II 2b ... x ... x x ......... 5
4 A rctic circle .................. II 3b x x x........................ ..... x x 5
10 Canal....................... I 3a x x x x x x 6
1 Canyon...................... II ..... x x x x ...... x 5
7 Bay....................... I a a ...... 1 5





12 Capital (of a country)....... II 2b x x x x x x 6
13 Center..................... I Ib x x x x ...... ...... 4
14 Central.................... I 2b x x x x ...... ...... 4
15 Climate.................... 11 3a x x x x x 6
16 Coal field................... II ...... ..... ...... ...... ...... ...... x I
17 Coast...................... 1 Ib x x x x ...... x 5
18 Coastline.................. I11 ................. ........... .. ....... x 1
19 Commerce.............. .... Ill 2b ...... x ...... x x x 4
20 Communication............. III 4o x ...... .................... x 2
21 Continent .................. I 3a x x x ...... x x 5
22 Country.................... I a3 x x x ...... x 5
23 D egree (angle).............. Ill 2a x ...... x ...... ...... ...... 2
24 (symbol for degree)......... III ...... .................. ....... ...... ...... 0
25 D elta...................... II ...... x x x x x ...... 5
26 Dense population. .......... II ........... ...... ..... .... .... .. ...... . 0
27 Deposits (noun)............. III 3b x x x x x ...... 5
28 D esert ..................... I 2a x ...... x x x x 5
29 D ike....................... I ...... x ..... .. .. ... .. ..... ..... 1
30 Distance ........ .......... III Ih x x x x ...... x 5
31 Distribution............... III a x ...... x x ................ 3
32 Domesticated............... Ill 3a ...................................... 0
33 Downstream................ III ...... x ...... x ................. ..... 2
34 Dune....................... III ...... x ...... ...... x ...... ...... 2
35 E earthquake ................ III 4b ...... ....... x ...... ....... x 2
36 East wind .................. IIl ...... ...... ...... ........ . ...... .. .. . 0
37 E astward................... I .... .. x ............ x ...... x 3
38 Elevation.................. III ...... x x ...... x x x 5
39 Equator..................... I ..... .......... .. .. x x 4
40 Estuary.................... III ....... .. .......... x ...... ............. I
41 Export (verb)............... I 5b ...... x x x x x 5
42 Fuel ....................... I 3b x x x x x x 6
43 Glacial deposit.............. III .................. ...... ..................... 0
44 G lacier..................... Ill ...... x x x x x x 6
45 G orge....................... I l ...... ...... x x ...... x 4

*For a statement of these studies see Chapter I. The text of J. Russell Smith is not listed in Table
I for the reason that it was one of the texts from which tile terms were derived. A comparison with the
vocabulary list of Notz was not made because that list was derived from fifth-grade geography texts
only.
includes population is dense. By mistake this phrase appeared in the multiple choice test as popula-
tion. The term population appears in Part III.









Experimental Procedure 17

TABLE 1 (Continued)



. .. 31 b ^. ....
Tem Terms u .



46 Gulf....................... I 3b ...... .. x.. ..... x ...... 2
47 Harbor..................... I 2b x x x x x x 6
48 H eadw aters................. III ...... .. . ..... . ..... .. .... ..... 0
49 Heavy rainfall.............. III ...... ..... ... .. ...... ...... .. .... ...... 0
50 Hemisphere ........... I ...... I ..................... ... ..... x x 2
SI Highlands.................. II ...... x x x x x ...... 5
52 H ill........................ I la4 x x x a ...... x 5
53 Horizon.................... III 4b x ...... ...... ...... x x 3
54 Import (verb)............... II 3b ...... x ...... x x x 4
55 Industry ................... II 2b x ...... x x x x 5
56 Inhabitants................. III 5a x x x x x 6
57 Inland ..................... I 5a x x x ...... .... x 4
58 Interior .................... II 3b x x x x ...... ...... 4
59 Internationalized (river)...... III ...................... .... ............... 0
60 Irrigation .................. II .. .. .... x x ...... 4
61 Island ..................... I lb x x ...... x 5
62 Junction................... III ...... x x x .. .... ... ..... 3
63 Kingdom ................... I 2a ...... x ...... x ..... ..... 2
64 Lake....................... I Ib x x x a ..... 5
65 Latitude ................... I ...... ...... x ...... .... x x 3
66 Longitude................... I ...... ...... ...... ...... ..... x x 2
67 Lowlands .................. I Sb x x x x x x 6
68 Mainland .................. III ............ x ..... x x x 4
69 Manufacturing ............. I 22b-5b x x x x x x 6
70 M eridian................... I ...... ... ... x .... x ...... ...... 2
71 M ineral wealth.............. I I ...... .... ..... ... ... . .... x 1
72 M mountain .................. I la5 x x x x ...... x 5
73 Mouth (river).............. I lb x x x x x x 6
74 Native (noun).............. I 2a x x x x x 6
75 Natural region.............. III ........ .... ...... ...... ...... ........ .... 0
76 Natural resources........... III ...... ........ .. .... .. ....... ........ x I
77 N avigable.................. III ...... ...... ...... ......... a .... 2
78 Navigation ................ III...... ...... ...... a x x x x 4
79 North...................... I Ia4 x x x x ...... x 5
80 North pole................. I ...... ...... ..... ... ........ xa 2
81 Oasis...................... III x ...... ..... ...... ..... 2
82 Occupation................. III 3b ...... ...... ...... x x ...... 2
83 Ocean..................... I Ib x x x x x x 6
84 Ore........................ II 5b x x x x x 6
85 P arallel .................... I 4b ...... ...... x x ...... ...... 2
86 Peak...................... III 4b x x ...... x x x 5
87 Peninsula .................. I Sa x x x x x x 6
88 Physical features............ III ...... ... . .... .. ...... ... .... ..... 0
89 Plain...................... I la5 1 x x ...... ...... x 4
90 Plateau.................... II 5a x x x x x x 6
91 Population.................. III 3a x x x x x x 6
92 Possessons (of a country).... II 2b ...... x ...... x ...... x 3
93 Power..................... I la4 x x x ....... ....... x 4
94 Prevailing winds............ Ill ............ ..... ...... .. ... ...... 0

Included in 1927 edition of The Teacher's Word Book.









18 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII


TABLE 1 (Continued)




Z Terms o E.0 :
0[ C t. ..A .


95 Rainfall.................... 11 5b x x x x x x 6
96 Rainfall. inches of........... I ........... ...... ............... ... ...... 0
97 R apids..................... III b x ...... x x ..... 4
98 Raw material............... I .................. ...... ........ x x 2
99 Republic................... Ill 3b ...... x ...... x x x 4
100 River ...................... la3 x x x x ...... x 5
101 Route..................... I 3a x x x x x x 6
102 Sea........................ I a3 x x x x ...... x 5
103 Sea level................... I ...... ..... ...... ............ x x 2
104 Seaport .................... ...... x x ...... x x x 5
105 Season..................... I lb x x x x x x 6
106 Slopes (noun)............... I 2b x ...... x x x x 5
107 Snow (noun)................ I Ib x x x x ..... x 5
108 South pole.................. I ...... .... .. ... .... ...... ...... x 1
109 Southern ................... I 2b x x x x ...... x 5
110 Strait...................... I 3b x ...... ... .. ..... x x 3
Ill Sum mit.................... III 5a x x x x x ...... 5
112 Surface .................... I 2b x x x x x x 6
113 System .................... 1 2a x ...... x x ..... ..... 3
114 Temperate zone............. II .. ..... ...... ....... ..... .......... 0
115 Temperature................ III 3b x x x x x x 6
116 Trade (noun)............... I lb x x x x ...... 5
117 Trade winds................ Il ........ ...... ...... .............. x 1
118 Transportation......... ..... .. 4b x ...... x x x x 5
119 Tributaries................. I 4a x x x x x ...... 5
120 Tropic of Cancer ........... ..... .......... .............. ...... ...... 0
121 Tropic of Capricorn ......... I ...... ...... ...... ..... .... .... ...... 0
122 Tropical................... I ..... x x ...... x x x 5
123 Tundra.................... Ill .... .. ....... ........ .. ............ 0
124 U ncivilized tt............... II ...... x ..... x x ..... ....... 3
125 U plands.................... I I ...... x x x ...... x ...... 4
126 Upstream ................... I ...... x ...... x ..... ...... ...... 2
127 Valley..................... I Ib x x x ...... ... ... x 4
128 Vegetation.................. Il ...... x ...... x x x x 5
129 Volcano.................... 11 ...... x x x x x x 6
130 W aterfall................... Ill 5a x ...... x ...... ...... ..... 2
131 W aterway .................. III ..... ..... x x x x x 5
132 W weather ................... I lb x x x x ...... x 5
133 West coast................ ............... .................. ...... 0
134 W orld ..................... I la2 x x x x ...... x 5
135 Year ....................... I lal x x x x ...... x 5

ttlncludes civilized.
*Estimated.


which did not occur as many as three times in the material studied by
each of the three preceding grades.

The list of terms with notations as to their occurrence in other
vocabulary lists is found in Table 1 (last eight columns).







Experimental Procedure


COMPARISON WITH OTHER VOCABULARY LISTS
In evaluating the list of geographic terms used in this investiga-
tion, one should bear in mind the purpose for which the list was de-
rived, namely, to study growth of meanings. While no effort was
made to make up a list of geographic terms for any purpose other
than the one stated, it is interesting to compare the list with other lists
prepared for different purposes.
Table 2 reports the number of the 135 terms in the present list
which occur also in the vocabularies indicated in Table 1. On the
whole it would seem that important geographic terms had been
selected for study.
TABLE 2
NUMBERS OF THE 135 TERMS IN PRESENT LIST WHICH OCCUR ALSO IN THE
VOCABULARIES INDICATED IN TABLE 1

Text or List Frequency
Thorndike (first five thousand) ................. 76
Barrows and Parker............................ 85
Brigham and McFarlane.................. ..... 75
Fairgrieve and Young........................... 81
McMurry and Parkins ......................... 81
C ole.......................................... 63
P ease......................................... 85
As m any as four lists ........................... 78


THE MAIN TESTS
Five types of test were used in the main part of this investigation.
They were: (1) an essay test; (2) a multiple choice test; (3) an
identification test; (4) an intelligence test; and (5) a concrete mate-
rial test. Test 5 was an individual test; the others were group tests.

1. Essay Test.
The essay test was administered to approximately five hundred
children in the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh grades. The form
consisted of ruled mimeographed sheets on which spaces were pro-
vided for name, address, grade, section, etc. At the top of each sheet
and immediately following the spaces provided for personal data
there was printed "Word. . ." The mimeographed sheets were
stapled together in pads of ten pages each. On each sheet of a pad
and in the space immediately following "Word" was written one of
the 135 terms used in the study. After desks had been cleared and
pencils sharpened, the pads were distributed. The children were then
instructed to write, in the spaces provided for the purpose, what they







20 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII

thought the words meant. Two plans were followed in giving the
instructions.
The instructions according to plan one follow in part:
The pad which you have been given has ten pages in it. Fill in the
blanks at the top of the first page. [After the blanks had been filled in the
examiner continued.] At the top of each sheet a word has been written.
The first word is rainfall. Your geography has often spoken of rainfall in
telling about the countries which you have studied. I want to know what
you think rainfall means. Write anything you want to that will show me
that you know what rainfall means in geography. Just a sentence or two
will do. Write on the first page of your pad.

When all had finished the examiner continued:
Turn to the next sheet. The word at the top of the page is east wind.
In your geography you have read about winds of many kinds. I want to
know what you think an east wind is. Take your pencil and write what
you think an east wind is.

Similar instructions were given with respect to the remaining
eight terms.
After the essay testing according to the first plan of instructions
had been completed, each child was given a number which identified
him in his grade. This number was later written on each sheet of each
pad which the child had accepted. A record was kept of the name,
number, school, and teacher of each child who was tested. In all,
4,711 essays were secured according to plan one. The number of
essays is not a multiple of ten because in some few cases only nine
sheets were included in a pad. The majority of essays were one and
two sentences in length.
The instructions given for plan two differed from those for plan
one only in that the children were encouraged to write as much as they
could about a term. Approximately two thousand essays were secured
according to plan two. Many of these essays were only one or two
sentences in length, a few pages were blank, and a few answers were
almost a page in length. The terms about which the essays were
written were not identical in every case with those listed in Table 1.
In order to make it easier to deal with all the essays about each
of the terms, the pads were taken apart, one grade at a time, and the
sheets reassembled so that all the essays from a grade about a given
term were together. The essays collected according to the two plans
of instructions were reassembled separately.







Experimental Procedure


The essays will be referred to in the next section of this chapter in
connection with the construction of the multiple choice test and again
i Chapters III and IV.

2. Multiple Choice Test.
The multiple choice test which was used in this investigation was
of the familiar type. There were, however, two variations, one of
which proved very significant.
As in other multiple choice tests, each test item was presented
with four possible meanings. Besides these four alternatives, two
others were added. One was an "I don't know" alternative, and the
other an "I think it means . alternative. The following item
taken from the test illustrates the kind of alternatives which were
used:
The central part of the country means:
( ) 1. The part of the country which has the hottest weather.
( ) 2. The part of the country which is surrounded by mountains.
( ) 3. The middle of the country.
( ) 4. The edge of the country.
( ) 5. I don't know.
( ) 6. I think it means ....
In the instructions which accompanied the test, the subjects were
told that if they thought one of the four answers was a good one
they were to put a cross (X) in the space in front of that answer;
that if they did not know the meaning of a term, not to guess at it but
to put a cross (X) in the space in front of "I don't know"; and fi-
nally, that if they knew the meaning of a term and did not think that
one of the four answers given was a good one, to write what they
thought the word meant in the space after "I think it means . "
In order to secure to the fullest extent the advantages offered by
the "I think it means . ." alternative, it seemed desirable to prevent
the subjects from acting on the assumption that one of the first four
alternatives was always correct. Consequently, terms were included
in the test for which none of the alternatives were correct. There were
21 such items out of 135. The subjects were warned that items of
this kind had been included in the test, and one of the sample items
in the pretest was deliberately made of this type.
The meanings which were written as number-six alternatives (that
is, the answers which were written after "I think it means . .")
will be referred to in reporting this investigation as the "number-six
answers."







22 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII

Selection of alternatives. The alternatives of a test should prob-
ably not be selected purely on a subjective basis, although there is no
generally recognized principle of test construction to this effect.
Nevertheless, in the very idea that the alternatives constitute a "test,"
there is an implicit recognition of the fact that each alternative might
be selected by at least some of the subjects. In this particular multiple
choice test, the alternatives used were chosen wherever possible from
the ideas expressed by the children in their essays. It is felt that, in
spite of whatever limitations the test may have, it is a far more
effective instrument for determining meanings and growth of under-
standing than it would have been, had not the alternatives been
determined in large measure from the ideas expressed in the essays.

3. Identification Test.
The identification test consisted of four maps and seventeen terms
related to the maps and selected from Part I of the multiple choice
test. Four maps rather than one were used in the test in order to
avoid a mass of confused detail. Two of the maps were of a hypothet-
ical country and showed such physical and geographic features as
rivers, mountains, peninsulas, islands, etc. The other two maps
showed parallels, meridians, etc.
Most of the seventeen items were represented twice or more
times, sometimes on one map, sometimes on two maps. Each item
was marked on the maps with its identifying letter several times in
order to minimize doubt as to which of the items each letter stood
for. In order to decrease the probability of a child's identifying cor-
rectly items with which he was unfamiliar, by eliminating items
already identified, a few features were marked on the maps, although
there were no corresponding terms in the test. The subjects were
warned in the directions that such features had been marked and
they were cautioned to be careful in their identifications.

4. Intelligence Test.
The intelligence test which was used in this investigation was the
National Intelligence Test, Scale A, Form I. This is a battery test
consisting of five parts, each of which is preceded by a practice exer-
cise. The five tests, named in the order of their occurrence, are:
arithmetical reasoning, sentence completion, logical selection, same-
opposites, and symbol-digit (substitution). The National Intelligence
Test is so well known that a further description is unnecessary.







Experimental Procedure 23

p. Concrete Material Test.
The materials of this test were: (a) an ordinary 12-inch globe
i-l'wing political divisions, (b) two large specially made map-models
showing the physical features of a hypothetical country, and (c) two
smaller models which were similar to the large ones. The models
were made from newspaper pulp to which paste had been added, and
were mounted on wooden bases. The bases of the two larger models
were 2 feet by 3 feet; those of the smaller ones, approximately 10
inches by 14 inches.
The subjects were taken one by one to a quiet room and shown
the globe and the models of the test. After they had become adjusted
to their surroundings, the examiner proceeded as follows:
Here are some maps. They are not really maps of a part of the world
but just some maps which were made to show rivers, mountains, islands,
and a lot of other things which you have studied about in geography.
Look at them. Here is the ocean, and there is the land. On this other map
the ocean, or rather just one part of it, is here. We used real water in
order to make the ocean look like a real one. This is the land up here.
Look at the maps now and see if you can find a bay.
If the subject merely nodded his head or appeared uncertain what
to do, the examiner continued, "Show me a bay. Put your finger on
a bay." In this manner the subjects were tested on the seventeen
terms which had been included in the identification test.

THE TESTING
Dates.
The essays which were written under the first plan of instruction
were secured during the fall and winter of 1935-36. Those written
under the second plan were collected during the spring and fall of
1935. The multiple choice, identification, and intelligence tests were
,iven between March 24 and April 27, 1936; and the concrete mate-
rial test, during May of the same year.
Examiners.
A large part of the testing was done by the writer personally. The
necessity of completing the testing within a comparatively short
period of time made it necessary for him to have assistance. This
assistance was given by selected students who were taking work in
Education as members of the writer's classes. In every case the
studentss who assisted in the testing were given careful instruc-
tions and training in what they should do. In some few other cases







24 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII

multiple choice and identification tests were given by the classrr:rnl
teachers.

Conditions of Testing.
Each test was given to the different sections of the grade' urid:er
conditions which were as nearly identical as possible. The National
Intelligence Test was administered with a rigid adherence to the con-
ditions laid down in the manual of instructions.
The multiple choice test required two days to administer, Parts I
and II, and Part III being given on alternate days. The tests were
so arranged that in each school one section of each grade took Parts
I and II on the first day, and the other section Part III. On the
second day the test was completed. The purpose of administering the
test in this manner was to equalize such advantages as might be gained
by taking either half of the test first.
Each child was allowed all the time he needed to complete the
four vocabulary tests.
SCORING THE TESTS
The tests were scored under the direction of the writer by stu-
dents in the Department of Education at Lander College. An excep-
tion to this statement is made with respect to the number-six answers
of the multiple choice test, all of which were scored by the writer
personally.
In the case of the multiple choice test the numbers of the correct
alternatives were read from a key to a group of students who marked
the incorrect items on the tests which they were scoring. Later the
number-six answers were read carefully by the writer and scored as
either acceptable or unacceptable on the basis of his personal judg-
ment. The sum of the correct items in the three parts of the test
constituted the total score.
The identification tests were scored by comparing the answers
given with the key, a copy of which was written on the blackboard.
The score was the number of items which had been identified correctly.
Special instructions were given in the scoring of the National In-
telligence Tests, and each of these tests was scored twice by inde-
pendent scorers. In all cases when two independent scorers differed
in their judgment as to the way an item should be marked, the writer
was consulted for a final opinion.
The score on the concrete material test was the number of correct
responses which had been made.







Experimental Procedure 2

Saninling of Errors.
In order to determine the accuracy with which the scoring had
l'rcn done, four samples each of the multiple choice, identification,
and National Intelligence Tests were selected at random from each
section and were scored by the writer personally. Since the number
of pupils in a section who were tested varied from 13 to 20 (see Table
4, p. 27), it follows that the proportion of the tests which were
rescored varied from 31 to 20 per cent of the total number.
Table 3 reports a summary of the number of scoring errors which
were found in the rescored tests. The table shows that with respect
TABLE 3
NUMBER OF SCORING ERRORS IN SAMPLE TESTS SELECTED AT RANDOM FROM
NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE, MULTIPLE CHOICE, AND IDENTIFICATION TESTS

TESTS

N. I. T. M. C, Iden.
Maximum number of scoring errors in single paper.... 2 2 1
Total number of sample tests rescored............... 96 96 96
Total number of scoring errors ..................... 16 23 6
Total number of items in sample tests............... 9,600* 12,960 1,632
Per cents errors are of items ....................... .17 .18 .37

*Estimated.
,o each of the three tests the total number of scoring errors was less
than four tenths of one per cent. It is evident from the small number
.:f errors found in the sample tests that the original scoring had been
done with a very high degree of accuracy.

TABULATION OF DATA
To tabulate the data from the multiple choice test, the numbers
of the chosen alternatives were dictated to an assistant who recorded
ihe frequencies on forms prepared for the purpose. Provision was
made on the forms for entering the frequencies of ambiguous answers,
*-,missions, and number-six answers which were correct. The total
number of correct responses for each term was later determined, by
grades, by adding the frequency of the correct number-six answers to
the frequency of the correct alternative. In the case of those terms for
which none of the alternatives were correct, the total number of cor-
rect responses was the number of correct number-six answers. When
Ihe tabulation of data had been completed all frequencies were ex-
pressed as per cents of the number of children in the groups2 and the
grades.
For a statement of the significance of "groups" sec Conditioning Factor 3.
Level of Geographic Attainment (chap. iii, p. 37).







26 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII

The data from the identification test were tabulated for the dif-
ferent grades by recording the frequency with which each letter Ihad
been used in identifying each of the seventeen terms of the test. The
frequencies were later expressed as per cents of children in the
grades.
The data from the concrete material test were tabulated by grades,
by recording the frequency with which each term had been responded
to correctly. These frequencies were later expressed as per cents of
children in the grades.

SELECTION OF SUBJECTS3
The subjects used in this investigation were drawn from the
fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh grades of the white public schools of
Greenwood, South Carolina. There are in this city three principal
elementary schools, and all of them contributed equally to the sample
of pupils which was selected. The public schools of Greenwood are
organized on the 7-4 plan; formal study of geography is begun in the
fourth grade and is continued through the seventh; and the enroll-
ment is confined almost exclusively to children of native-born Ameri-
can parents.
In two of the schools there were two sections per grade. In the
third, there were three sections of the fourth grade and two sections
of each of the other two grades. The sections in the schools are di-
vided, not according to ability, but according to the alphabet or some
similar scheme, and are designated by the letters A, B, and C. These
letters have no significance whatever in terms of semiannual promo-
tion or degree of mental maturity. The letters are used merely to
distinguish sections. From two sections of each grade in each school
an approximately equal number of children was chosen for testing.
The selection of subjects was made on the basis of teacher-judg-
ment. The plan was as follows: Several days before the tests were
to be given, the teachers were told of the tests, and their co-operation
was secured. Each teacher was asked to choose from her geography
class seventeen or eighteen children to take the tests. It vwa clearly
understood that the chosen children were to represent a fair -amnrlilI..
of the class as a whole; that is, they were to include a few .. Ii, \were
among the very best in geography, a few who were poor, and a maj-.r-
ity who were average. The teachers were asked, however, n:t t,. i n-
a The reference here is to the children who took the multiple choic.- I.:iinfi-
cation, National Intelligence, and concrete material tests. The .:el.i ii ...
subjects who took the essay test has been treated under 1. Essay T,: I p. ]I








Experimental Procedure 27

,lukl ami..ng their selections any child who was so badly handicapped
h-, e :ew i-\ emotional reactions, language difficulties, or low mental-
it[ :a to:, ILr 'i unfit subject for testing. Furthermore, no child was
[.. 1.. f,,re:l, to take the tests. When a child who had been selected
objected to taking the tests, he was promptly excused and another
selected to take his place. The samples of subjects obtained in this
way are believed to be representative of the sections.
In all, 405 children were tested. Usable multiple choice and iden-
tification test scores were obtained from 391 of these children, and
usable National Intelligence Test scores from all but 14 of the 391
children from whom multiple choice and identification test scores had
been obtained. Concrete material test scores were obtained from 61
of those children who had taken both the multiple choice and the
identification tests.
In Table 4 is shown the number of children from whom test
scores were secured, by schools, grades, and sections. The method of
reading the table is as follows: In section A of the fourth grade of
Blake School there were 17 children from whom both multiple
cili. i:e ani.: identification test scores were secured, 15 children from

TABLE 4
N 'i' -oi OF CHILDREN FROM WHOM MULTIPLE CHOICE, IDENTIFICATION,
N.ti FINALL INTELLIGENCE, AND CONCRETE MATERIAL TEST SCORES
WERE SECURED, BY SCHOOLS, GRADES, AND SECTIONS

GRADE IV GRADE V GRADE VI GRADE VII








......... 20 17 0 18 18 0 18 17 0 17 17 0

:.., ......... 17 16 4 17 17 5 14 14 6 17 16 4
C C 0 C C a





........ 13 13 4 16 15 5 17 17 5 16 16 9
......... 0 14 14 3 16 16 2 14 13 3u

cr, ., ......... 17 15 0 16 17 1 16 16 4 17 16 6
a i.-.. t' ... 20 17 0 18 18 0 18 17 0 17 17 0

......... 17 16 4 17 17 5 14 14 6 17 16 4
c.:n ii ......... 13 13 4 16 15 5 17 17 5 16 16 9

1........ 15 0 14 14 3 16 16 2 14 13 3
i'; i.i. E ........ 16 15 0 16 16 1 16 16 4 16 16 6

T ......... 98 91 8 99 97 14 97 96 17 97 93 22

T i r;.,i- ..I children from whom both multiple choice and identification test scores were
e..e .d I......................................................................... 391
T:.il ru.T-r :I children from whom multiple choice, identification, and National Intelligence
Te.t ..c. t ere secured ............................................................. 377
T.. .I L.r, ,- :.1 children from whom multiple choice, identification, and concrete material test
:ce*. '. ..cured...................................... ........ .................. 61








28 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII

whom multiple choice, identification, and National Intelligence T,' t
scores were secured, and 0 children from whom multiple choice,
identification, and concrete material test scores were secured. The
rest of the row and table is read in a similar manner.

GROSS DATA

MEDIAN SCORES OF SAMPLES
Tables 5, 6, 7, and 8 contain the medians for test scores and for
supplementary items by schools, grades, and sections.4 Table 5 is
read as follows: In section A of the fourth grade of Blake School 8
boys and 9 girls, a total of 17 children, were tested. The median Na-
tional Intelligence Test score, mental age, chronological age, intelli-
gence quotient, multiple choice, and identification test scores were
77.0, 127.0, 125.0, 99.0, 42.0, and 9.0, respectively.
Tables 6, 7, and 8, for Grades V, VI, VII, and VIII, respectively,
were constructed as was Table 5 and are to be interpreted in the same
way as Table 5.
SUPPLEMENTARY TEST

In addition to the tests used in the main part of this investigation,
there was also given a supplementary multiple choice test comprised
of fifteen terms5 common to the main multiple choice test and con-
structed for the purpose of obtaining special data. The principles fol-
lowed in the construction, administration, and scoring of the test were
TABLE 5
FOURTH-GRADE MEDIANS FOR NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE, MULTIPLE CHOICE, AND
IDENTIFICATION TEST SCORES, AND FOR SUPPLEMENTARY ITEMS, BY
SCHOOLS AND SECTIONS

SEX MEDIANS
School and
Section Natl.
Boys Girls Total Int. Test M. A. C. A. I. Q. M. C. Iden.
Blake........A 8 9 17 77.0 127.0 125.0 99.0 42.0 9.0
Blake........B 10 10 20 81.0 130.0 118.0 107.0 56.0 7.5
Leslie........A 8 9 17 82.5 130.5 124.0 109.0 41.0 6.0
Leslie........B 7 6 13 95.0 139.0 118.0 118.0 67.0 10.0
Magnolia.....A 9 6 IS 87.0 134.0 123.0 109.0 55.0 9.0
Magnolia.....C 5 11 16 86.0 133.0 120.0 112.0 53.0 7.0
All sections..... 47 51 98 84.0 132.0 121.0 109.0 52.4 8.0

Medians for concrete material test are not reported for the reason that the
number of cases per section was limited in most cases to only a few subjects.
I The terms were: altitude, coast, communications, deposit, desert, dune, fuel,
industry, latitude, occupation, ore, power, strait, transportation, and '.vri..,n
Each of these terms occurred in the vocabulary list reported in Table 1.









Experimental Procedure 29

TABLE 6
FifrH-GRADE MEDIANS FOR NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE, MULTIPLE CHOICE, AND
IDENTIFICATION TEST SCORES, AND FOR SUPPLEMENTARY ITEMS, BY
SCHOOLS AND SECTIONS

SEX NIEDIANS
School and
Section Natl.
Boys Girls Total Int. Test M. A. C. A. 1. Q. M. C. Iden.

Blake........A 5 13 18 94.0 138.0 134.0 102.0 55.0 6.0
Blake........B 10 8 18 100.5 143.5 136.0 102.0 60.0 8.5
Leslie........A 9 8 17 104.0 146.0 133.0 109.0 64.0 10.0
Leslie........B 8 8 16 110.0 151.0 136.0 112.0 60.5 8.0
Magnolia.....A 9 5 14 107.0 148.0 134.5 112.5 65.5 11.5
Magnolia..... B 9 7 16 106.0 147.0 135.0 108.0 65.5 12.5

All sections..... 50 49 99 103.0 145.0 135.0 108.0 61.2 9.9


TABLE 7
SIXTH-GRADE MEDIANS FOR NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE, MULTIPLE CHOICE, AND
IDENTIFICATION TEST SCORES, AND FOR SUPPLEMENTARY ITEMS, BY
SCHOOLS AND SECTIONS

SEX MEDIANS
School and
Section Natl.
Boys Girls Total Int. Test M. A. C. A. 1. Q. M. C. Iden.

Blake........A 3 13 16 111.5 151.5 146.5 106.0 69.5 8.5
Blake........B 5 13 18 105.0 146.0 152.0 96.0 59.5 7.5
Leslie........A 9 5 14 120.0 159.0 145.0 109.0 75.0 12.0
Leslie........B 10 7 17 110.0 151.0 143.0 102.0 77.0 12.0
Magnolia.....A 15 1 16 119.5 158.5 145.0 109.5 90.5 16.0
Magnolia.....B 7 9 16 117.0 155.0 144.5 105.5 77.0 13.0

All sections..... 49 48 97 116.5 155.0 146.0 105.0 75.1 12.4



TABLE 8
SEVENTH-GRADE MEDIANS FOR NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE, MULTIPLE CHOICE, AND
IDENTIFICATION TEST SCORES, AND FOR SUPPLEMENTARY ITEMS, BY
SCHOOLS AND SECTIONS

SEX MEDIANS
School and
Section Natl.
Boys Girls Total Int. Test M. A. C. A. I. Q. M. C. Iden.

PIIke........A 4 13 17 120.0 159.0 160.0 99.0 79.0 14.0
Blike........B 6 11 17 116.0 156.0 156.0 100.0 82.0 14.0
Leilie........A 7 10 17 119.5 158.5 160.0 100.5 73.0 10.0
Le;lie........ B 9 7 16 117.0 156.0 160.0 96.5 83.5 12.0
'.1 gnolia.....A 6 8 14 130.0 169.0 157.0 106.0 96.5 17.0
..l1gnolia.....B 8 8 16 131.5 170.5 158.0 106.5 89.0 13.0

A.l sections..... 40 57 97 122.0 165.0 159.0 101.0 83.5 13.3







30 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to I'll

essentially the same as those employed with reference to the multiple:
choice test previously described. The supplementary multiplt.l chi: ici:
test was administered during the first two weeks of DecemLbir. 19.7.
to 400 children, 100 in each of Grades IV, V, VI, VII Tht.-
children were pupils in Blake, Connie Maxwell, and Leslie icho:ils.
units in the public school system of Greenwood, South Carolina Thie
children are accepted as representing a fair sample of their :rl-.e]ctlv
grades.
Data from the supplementary multiple choice test are relp.rtrdl in
the section of this study beginning on page 55.











CHAPTER III


FACTORS INVOLVED IN GROWTH

The preceding chapters have been devoted to a statement of the
problem to be investigated and to a description of the conditions under
which data were collected. In the present chapter the data will be
presented for the purpose of pointing out some of the factors which
condition growth in understanding of geographic terms.
Growth in understanding may be thought of as resulting from an
increase either in the number of terms whose meanings are known
or in the number of meanings known for'individual terms. Both
types of growth are studied, but for the purpose of this investigation
growth through increase in the number of individual terms whose
meanings are known is considered the more significant; consequently,
a major portion of the findings relates to growth in this sense.

GENERAL COURSE OF DEVELOPMENT

Medians derived from total scores made on the multiple choice,
identification, and concrete material tests indicate the general course
of growth in understanding of geographic terms. These medians are
presented in Table 9. There are two sets of medians for the multiple

TABLE 9
MEDIANS DERIVED FROM TOTAL SCORES MADE ON MULTIPLE CHOICE,
IDENTIFICATION, AND CONCRETE MATERIAL TESTS

MEDIANS BY GRADES*
Type of Test Maximum
score
possible IV V VI VII
Multiple choice (135 terms).... 135 52.4 61.2 75.1 83.5
Multiple choice (17 terms)...... 17 8.2 8.2 9.9 11.4
Identification................. 17 8.0 9.9 12.4 13.3
Concrete material.............. 17 12.3 11.0 10.5 13.0

*The medians for all tests except the concrete material test are based upon 97-99 scores per grade;
the medians for the concrete material test, upon 8 scores in Grade IV, 14 in Grade V, 17 in Grade VI, and
22 in Grade VII.

choice test-one set for the scores made on the whole 135 terms of
the test, and the other for the scores made on the 17 terms common
to the multiple choice, identification, and concrete material tests. In
order to make comparisons possible, all medians are transmuted into
per cents of total possible scores and are presented in Table 10.








32 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to I li

TABLE 10
MEDIANS DERIVED FROM TOTAL SCORES MADE ON MULTIPLE CHOICE, IEN:TIFICA-
TION, AND CONCRETE MATERIAL TESTS EXPRESSED AS PER CENT- OF
MAXIMUM POSSIBLE SCORES

MEDIANS BY GRADES
Type of Test Maximum
score
possible IV V VI II
Multiple choice (135 terms)..... 135 31.3 45.3 55.6 cl
Multiple choice (17 terms)...... 17 48.2 48.2 58.2 ct I
Identification ................. 17 47.1 58.2 72.9 2
Concrete material .............. 17 72.4 64.7 61.8 "r


Growth curves based on the medians are shown in Figure 1.

100

90


M.C.


IV V VI VII

Grades
FIG. 1. Growth curves (all terms) based on medians derived from total scores
made on multiple choice, identification, and concrete material tests.

FACTORS CONDITIONING GROWTH

One of the obvious facts apparent in Figure 1 is that the four
growth curves do not coincide. The curves show that the subjects
had greater success in responding to the seventeen terms of the con-
crete material test than they did to the same terms on the identifica-
tion and multiple choice tests, and greater success on the identification
test than on the seventeen-item multiple choice test. The fact that the







Factors Involved in Growth


c:Iures do not coincide requires an explanation. Ordinarily, in in-
vestigations similar to this one, growth is represented by a single
curve. But here there are four curves, each purporting to represent
gr,-th. Which of the curves, if any, is the correct one ? Is it possible
that growth cannot be represented adequately by a single curve? May
it not be possible that all four curves are equally valid pictures of
Lr:, wth, but of growth conditioned in various ways?
The data of this investigation show that growth of understanding
i ailYected by at least five factors. These factors will be discussed in
succeeding sections.

C9 ,NDITIONING FACTORS 1 AND 2. AMOUNT AND KIND OF EXPERIENCE
It will be recalled that the seventeen terms common to the multiple
cholice, identification, and concrete material tests had occurred in the
material studied in all of the grades. The data of Table 11 indicate
the success with which five children met the requirements of the
ditierent tests. The children in Table 11 were fourth-grade pupils
TABLE 11
NUMBER OF TESTS-MULTIPLE CHOICE, IDENTIFICATION, AND CONCRETE
MATERIAL-ON WHICH FIVE FOURTH-GRADE CHILDREN
RESPONDED CORRECTLY

TERMS


0.ject t 4, ; 10 a u s

N: I ........ 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 1 2 2
.. ....... 2 1 .... 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 1 3 3
N:. ........ 1 3 1 2 3 2 3 2 3 .... 1 3 2 2 1 3 2
N ........ 1 2 2 2 3 3 2 .... 2 3 .... 3 2 2 1 3 3
N.. ......... 2 1 2 2 3 3 3 1 3 2 2 2 3 3 ........ 1

';:ho made the highest scores on the concrete material test. The table
is read as follows: Subject No. 1 responded correctly to antarctic
circle on all 3 tests, to arctic circle on 2 tests, to bay on 2 tests, and to
coast on 2 tests, and so on. An examination of Table 11 shows that
Subject No. 1 responded correctly to eight terms on all three tests, to
ciliht terms on two tests, and to one term (strait) on one of the tests.
Corresponding data appear in the table for the other four subjects.
We have two facts then: (1) three different curves of growth
batcd on the seventeen terms common to the three tests (Figure 1)
and (2) evidence that a child may know a term when presented in one







34 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII

test but not when presented in another. How are these two facts to
be brought together?
We may think of growth of understanding, as applied to these
terms, as a single function. Then, in this sense, a child understands a
term or he does not. If this view of understanding is held, the dis-
crepancies in the three growth curves are to be thought of as merely
reflecting inadequacies in the measuring instruments. If the tests had
actually measured understanding, it would be argued that the three
resulting curves should have coincided.
The writer takes a different view of the matter. It is his opinion
that understanding is a relative term. Specifically, the understanding
of coast, for example, may be much or little, depending on the num-
ber of ways in which the term is known. According to this view the
three different methods of testing employed really measured three
different ways of knowing each term. The multiple choice test
measured the ability to recognize the meaning of a term among the
verbal alternatives given; this is one aspect of understanding, or one
kind of understanding, or one part of understanding. The identifica-
tion test measured another aspect of understanding, namely, the abil-
ity to recognize a graphical representation of the thing for which the
term stood. The concrete material test measured still another aspect
of understanding, namely, the ability to recognize a thing for which
the term stands when that thing is presented in tri-dimensional form,
that is, by means of a model and a globe.
If this latter view is the correct one, then (1) the curves in Figure
1 are all correct and valid; and (2) understanding must be thought
of as developing over a number of different avenues, rather than over
a single course.
Up to this point the present section has dealt with the fact that
children respond with unlike success to the same terms when pre-
sented in different types of test. The discussion is now directed to a
consideration of the success with which children respond at successive
grade levels to individual terms.
The two multiple choice tests represented by the curves of Figure
1 measure the same aspect of growth; that is, they both measure the
ability to recognize given meanings of terms when verbally stated.
The curves do not, however, coincide. There is a marked difference
in the levels of the two multiple choice test curves at the fourth-grade
ordinate,' as compared with the smaller differences at the fifth-,
The difference in level at the fourth-grade ordinate is emphasized, and not
the smaller differences at the other ordinates, because these smaller differences







Factors Involved in Growth


;ixth-, and seventh-grade ordinates. How is this difference in level
to beL explained ?
The most obvious difference apparent in the two multiple choice
test- is in the number of terms. It is possible that the additional terms
in lic longer test are more difficult terms than the ones which are
ormrinion to the two tests. If such is the case, then the differences in
theI relative difficulty of the terms of the two tests can account for the
diticrences in the two curves.
In order to study the relationship between growth in understand-
Ini and differences in the relative difficulty of terms, it is necessary
t': hWive some index of difficulty. A convenient index is the per cent
:of children who respond correctly to a term. Since per cents of the
children who responded correctly to a term were different on the
.* riolus tests, an index based on the composite results of the three
te;ts seemed to offer a more reliable measure of relative difficulty.
.\:cc'rdingly, the per cents of children who responded correctly to
each cf the seventeen terms common to the multiple choice, identifica-
tion, and concrete material tests were averaged. Table 12 reports by
grades the average per cents of children who responded correctly to
TABLE 12
AVLtAGE PER CENTS OF CHILDREN WHO RESPONDED CORRECTLY TO FIVE TERMS
COMMON TO MULTIPLE CHOICE, IDENTIFICATION, AND
CONCRETE MATERIAL TESTS

TERMS
G.-ade N
Coast Equator Lake River Strait
i\ ........ 8 42 92 75 67 27
S ........ 14 60 68 95 95 54
I ........ 17 67 84 78 98 58
I ........ 22 61 91 91 96 67


i.Ce .f the terms, namely, coast, equator, lake, river, and strait. Thus,
S children in Grade IV were tested on all three tests: the multiple
chl:.ic, identification, and concrete material tests. On the average,
the per cents of these children who responded correctly to coast,
ieqluadr, lake, river, and strait were 42, 92, 75, 67, and 27, respec-
tit~l. 2 Figure 2 shows the growth curves for each of the terms.

m:;. le accounted for in the following manner. The two tests contained a
diFtlring proportion of terms for which correct definitions did not occur among
th: alternatives. In the case of the 135-item test there were 21 such terms. In
the- c:.e of the 17-item test there were only two terms of this kind.
The differences in the per cents reported in Table 11 cannot be attributed
i., unreliability occasioned by the limited number of cases involved (the number







36 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VIl

100- River
Equator

80.
Lake


60-



40-

Strout
20




IV V VI VII

Grades
FIG. 2. Growth curves (based on averages) for five terms:
coast, equator, lake, river, and strait.
All of the terms in Table 12 occurred in the textbook material
studied in all four grades. The fact that they did occur means that
all of the children had had some opportunity to learn their meanings.
The important fact about Table 12 and Figure 2 is that the growth
patterns of the different terms vary markedly. The significance of
these differences is that they represent varying degrees of learning at
the successive grade levels.
In this section, data have been presented which show (1) that
children respond with unlike success to the same terms when pre-
sented in different types of test and (2) that at successive grade levels
children respond with unlike success to terms which in all grades they
have had some opportunity to learn.
Since learning is basically experience, the differences referred to
in the preceding paragraph represent varying or unlike experiences
with the several terms. To what extent these unequal and unlike
of cases in Grades IV, V, VI, and VII were 8, 14, 17, and 22 respectively).
Attention is called to the fact that similar means based on the results of only
two of the tests, the multiple choice and identification, showed the same kind
of differences as those reported in Table 12. Since these two tests were adminis-
tered to approximately 100 pupils in each grade the data must surely be reliable.






Factors Involved in Growth


experiences are due (1) to differences in incidental opportunities to
learn, in emphasis in instruction, or in both, and to what extent they
are due (2) to differences in mental maturity requisite to certain
kinds of experience, cannot be determined from the data at hand.
Perhaps the differences in degrees of learning are due to both types
of experience variables referred to; at least so the data of Tables 11
and 12 are here interpreted. The amount and kind of experience
which children have had with terms are taken as the first and second
factors which condition growth in understanding.

CONDITIONING FACTOR 3. LEVEL OF GEOGRAPHIC ATTAINMENT
The data derived from the multiple choice, identification, and
concrete material tests showed that for each of the tests there were
relatively large differences in the size of the total scores. For ex-
ample, the scores in Grade IV varied from 18 to 86 on the multiple
choice test (135 terms), from 0 to 16 on the identification test, and
from 5 to 16 on the concrete material test. Similar variations existed
in Grades V, VI, and VII. These facts suggested the hypothesis
that different growth curves might be expected for different kinds of
pupils-those that knew the terms well, those that knew them some-
what less well, and those that knew them very imperfectly.
In order to test this hypothesis, the pupils of each grade were
divided on the basis of total multiple choice test (135 terms) scores
into three "attainment groups" approximately equal in size. The
groups making the highest, intermediate, and lowest scores are here
designated as group 3, group 2, and group 1, respectively. Table 13
shows the number of children in each group and the range of scores
made on the multiple choice test.

TABE 13
NUMBER OF CHILDREN IN EACH OF THE THREE ATTAINMENT GROUPS INTO
WHICH GRADES WERE DIVIDED, AND RANGE OF SCORES MADE ON
MULTIPLE CHOICE TEST (135 TERMS)

GRADE IV GRADE V GRADE VI GRADE VII

No. No. No. No.
Cases Range Cases Range Cases Range Cases Range
Group 3................ 31 60-86 31 70-108 32 84-110 31 94-118
Group 2................ 36 46-59 35 55-69 33 68-83 34 76-93
Group 1................ 31 18-45 33 28-54 32 39-65 32 44-75
Total.............. 98 18-86 99 28-108 97 39-110 97 44-118







38 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VI1

Table 14 contains a sample of four terms (all of them comm.-.n ti'
the material studied by all four grades) and the per cents of children
in each attainment group who responded correctly on the imltuip.le

TABLE 14
PER CENTS OF CHILDREN WHO RESPONDED CORRECTLY ON MULTIPLE CH11"ICE
TEST TO FOUR TERMS WHICH WERE COMMON TO MATERIAL STUDIO, BU'
ALL GRADES, BY GRADES AND GROUPS

GRADES
Terms
IV V VI VII
Inland
Group 3*.............. 41.9 77.4 93.7 96.8
Group 2............... 25.0 54.3 57.6 73.5
Group I............... 0.0 18.2 46.9 43.8
Island
Group 3............... 90.3 93.5 100.0 90.3
Group2............... 72.2 80.0 84.8 97.1
Group 1............... 48.4 69.7 59.4 81.3
Lake
Group3............... 77.4 100.0 93.7 100.0
Group 2............... 72.2 88.6 66.7 94.1
Group 1............... 51.6 48.5 65.6 75.0
Ritr
Group 3............... 87.1 100.0 100.0 96.8
Group 2............... 97.2 91.4 100.0 100.0
Group 1............... 77.4 81.8 96.9 100.0

*The numbers of children in the three groups for Grade IV were 31, 36, and 31; for Grade V, 31, 35,
and 33; for Grade VI, 32, 33, and 32; for Grade VII, 31, 34, and 32.
choice test. It will be seen, for example, that the per cents of fourth-
grade children in group 3, group 2, and group 1 who responded cor-
rectly to inland were 41.9, 25.0, and 0.0, respectively.
Growth curves for each of the terms of Table 14 are shown in
Figure 3. These curves, together with the data of Table 14, reveal
strikingly the relationships between level of geographic attainment
and growth in understanding-(1) growth in understanding of a
specific term is not the same for the three levels of attainment, and
(2) the differences in growth at the several levels are not uniform in
amount for all terms. Level of attainment is, then, a third factor
conditioning growth in understanding.

CONDITIONING FACTOR 4. WAYS IN WHICII MEANINGS
ARE VERBALIZED

As was stated in the discussion of the construction of the multiple
choice test, six alternatives were offered with each term of the test,
the sixth alternative being "I think it means. .. ." The purpose of
the sixth alternative was to give children who thought that they knew







Factors Involved in Growth


the imeaning of a term, but who did not recognize its meaning in the
c\ivn. definitions, an opportunity to define the term. For 21 of the
135 t.rms correct definitions were not included among the alter-
nativ':.. There were thus 114 terms for which number-six answers
were inot required, correct definitions already having been supplied.


Term: Inland


2/



IV V VI VII
Grades



Term Lake.



10
2 4 4-)

I U
LE
re


100I

80


IV V VI VII

GroiLes5


100.

eo -


Fi';. 3. Growth curves for three attainment groups (see Table 14).
Terms: Inland, Island, Lake, and River.

An examination of the responses made to these 114 terms showed
that many children had responded needlessly with number-six
answers. That is, they had written in definitions when satisfactory
di.Fnirimns were at hand among the first four alternatives. What is


Term: Island.













IV V VI VII

Grades



Ter rm: T\iver













IV V VI VII

Grrcdes


I 00

PIC-







40 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII

the significance of this fact? Why did the children respond to terms
by stating definitions of their own when they were already provided
with good definitions? The fact that a meaning may be verbally ex-
pressed in different ways is a cue to one plausible answer. The chil-
dren gave original definitions because they had not verbalized the
meanings of the terms in the manner of the definitions offered among
the alternatives.
A comprehensive understanding of the meanings of a term de-
pends partially upon verbalization of its meanings in many different
ways. Growth in understanding is. then, conditioned by the number
of ways in which the meanings of a term are verbalized (Factor 4).

CONDITIONING FACTOR 5. MENTAL AGE
As was suggested in the discussion of "Conditioning Factors 1
and 2. Amount and Kind of Experience" (p. 33), the capacity for
having certain kinds of experience is dependent in part upon mental
maturity. For example, it may be that the experiences necessary for
the development of acceptable meanings for river can be had by a
child who has the mental maturity of a normal six-year old, but that
the experiences necessary for the development of acceptable mean-
ings for longitude cannot be had by a child who has a mental ma-
turity less than that of a normal twelve-year old.
In order to determine if a relationship does exist between mental
maturity and the development of meanings, a comparison was made
by grades and groups3 of the mean mental ages and the mean multi-
ple choice and identification test scores. (A comparison was not made
between mental ages and concrete material test scores for the reason
that in most instances the number of subjects per group was quite
limited.) Mean mental ages and mean test scores are listed in
Table 15.
An examination of Table 15 reveals, without a single exception.
that within a grade an increase in mental age is accompanied by an
increase in the total scores made on the tests. For example, in Grade
IV, as the mean mental age (in months) increases steadily from 124.2
in group 1 to 140.4 in group 3, the mean multiple choice test score
increases steadily from 35.7 to 69.5. At the same time the mean
identification test score increases steadily from 6.3 to 10.3.
Plainly mental age is a factor which conditions growth in under-
standing (Factor 5).
3 The groups were the same as those reported in the discussion of Condition-
ing Factor 3. Level of Geographic Attainmrent (p. 37).








Factors Involved in Growth


TABLE 15
MEAN MENTAL AGES AND MEAN MULTIPLE CHOICE (135 TERMS) AND
IDENTIFICATION TEST SCORES, BY GRADES AND GROUPS

Grades and Groups N* M. A. in Months M. C. Iden.
GRADE IV
Group 3............... 30 140.4 69.5 10.3
Group 2............... 34 131.6 52.4 8.5
Group 1............... 27 124.2 35.7 6.3
GRADE V
Group 3............... 30 153.6 81.3 11.5
Group 2............... 35 146.1 62.2 9.7
Group 1............... 32 136.9 42.1 5.5
GHADE VI
Group 3................ 32 168.4 94.5 14.3
Group 2............... 33 156.1 74.8 11.6
Group 1............... 31 144.9 55.0 7.1
GRADE VII
Group 3............... 29 173.9 103.3 15.5
Group 2............... 33 164.5 85.1 12.5
Group 1............... 31 153.9 65.5 10.5

*The frequencies are not identical with those reported elsewhere in the study for the reason that in-
telligence test scores for a few of the subjects were lacking.

CONDITIONING FACTOR 6. SEX

Boys and girls have different interests and engage in different
activities. More specifically, for example, they read different types
of literature and go to different places. As a consequence of these un-
like interests and activities, boys and girls have unlike experiences. It
is a reasonable hypothesis that these unlike experiences may be re-
flected in the scholastic achievements of the two sexes.
Table 16 reports by grades and groupst the mean mental ages
and the mean total multiple choice test scores of boys and girls.
Table 16 is read as follows: There were 19 boys in group 3 of
Grade IV. Their mean mental age was 140.7 months and their mean
multiple choice test score 70.4. There were 11 girls in group 3 of
Grade IV, with a mean mental age of 139.8 months and a mean
multiple choice test score of 67.9 The data in Table 16 seem to sug-
gest that there is a sex factor in favor of the boys. Thus, in group 3
of Grade V, for example, the mean mental age of the boys is two
months less than that of the girls but their mean multiple choice test
score is 5.3 points higher. In group 1 of Grade VI the mean mental
age of the boys is only five-tenths of a month higher than that of the
girls, but their mean multiple choice test score is 6.2 points higher.
In group 1 of Grade VII the mean mental age of the boys is 7.7
The groups were the same as those reported in the discussion of Condition-
ing Factor 3. Level of Geographic Attainment (p. 37).








42 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII

TABLE 16
MEAN MENTAL AGES AND MEAN MULTIPLE CHOICE TEST SCORES OF B:,11 ,;J[,
GIRLS, BY GRADES AND GROUPS

SEX

Boys GIRLS
Grades and Groups M -------
N* M. A. M. C. N M. A. \I C
in Months in Months
GRADE IV
Group 3 ......... 19 140.7 70.4 11 139.8 67.9
Group 1 ......... 9 117.3 37.4 18 127.6 35.9
Groups 3 and 1......... 28 133.2 59.8 29 132.2 48.1
GRADE V
Group 3 ......... 23 153.1 82.6 7 155.1 77.3
Group 1 ......... 10 131.1 40.9 22 139.6 42.6
Groups 3 and 1......... 33 146.4 69.7 29 143.3 60.0
GRADE VI
Group 3 ......... 20 164.0 95.4 12 172.4 93.1
Group 1 ......... 10 145.2 59.2 21 144.7 53.0
Groups 3 and 1......... 30 157.8 83.3 33 154.5 67.6
GRADE VII
Group 3 ......... 21 169.0 102.5 8 185.5 105.5
Group 1 ......... 7 148.6 67.6 24 156.3 64.9
Groups 3 and 1......... 28 165.0 93.8 32 163.6 75.1

*The frequencies are not identical with those reported elsewhere in the study for the reason that in-
telligence test scores for a few of the subjects were lacking.
months less than that of the girls, but their mean multiple choice test
score is 2.7 points higher. In at least ten of the twelve groups, com-
parisons of mental ages and test scores show that there is a sex factor
in favor of the boys. The two groups in which the factor is possibly
not present are group 3 of Grade IV and groups 3 and 1 of Grade V.
Sex is thus a sixth factor which conditions growth in understanding.

SU MMARY
In this chapter growth curves based on data derived from several
tests were presented. Each of these curves pictures a different aspect
of growth, and each is offered as a valid representation of the growth
function measured by the corresponding test. The fact that the sev-
eral curves are very dissimilar indicates that growth in understanding
cannot be represented adequately by a single curve. The interpreta-
tion of the total scores is that, in general, from Grade IV to Grade
VII there is growth in understanding of geographic vocabulary.
The data which have been treated in this chapter have been found
to reveal at least six factors which condition growth in understand-
ing. They are:
1 and 2. Amount and kind of experience.
3. Level of geographic attainment.







Factors Involved in Growth 43

4. \ays in which meanings of terms are verbalized.
5. Mental age.
6. Sex.
Tilise six factors are rather closely related. The level of geo-
graphic attainment (Factor 3) which has been reached and the man-
inr in which meanings of terms have been verbalized (Factor 4) are
Ibth probably dependent upon amount and kind of experience (Fac-
r .r. 1 and 2) ; on the other hand, the amount and kind of experience
Shich one has is conditioned by both mental age (Factor 5) and sex
(Factor 6).
In this chapter some of the facts which relate to growth in under-
standing have been discussed. These facts are important, but they do
not furnish much insight into the nature of the learning responsible
for growth in understanding. In order to gain information on this
point, a further analysis of the data must be made. This analysis is
made in Chapter IV, where some of the principles involved in growth
in understanding are developed.











CHAPTER IV


PRINCIPLES OF GROWTH

The data of this investigation show that the growth of meaeiings
proceeds in accordance with several rather clearly defined principles.
five of which are developed in the succeeding sections of this chiplv:r.

PRINCIPLE 1. GROWTH PROCEEDS THROUGH AN INCREASE IN THE
NUMBER OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF MEANINGS
In connection with "Conditioning Factors 1 and 2. Amount and
Kind of Experience" (p. 33) it was pointed out that a child may
know a term when presented in one type of test but not when presented
in another. More specifically it was suggested that each of the tests-
multiple choice, identification, and concrete material-measures a
different way of knowing a term and that children may know some
terms in several ways and other terms in just one way. How are
these facts related to growth in understanding?
In Table 17 the per cents of children who consistently responded
correctly on two or more different tests are tabulated by grades. The
table is divided into two parts, A and B. It will be observed (first
line, Part A) that 98 children in Grade IV were given both the
multiple choice and the identification tests. The per cent of these 98
children who responded correctly on both tests to antarctic circle was
5, to arctic circle was 33, to bay was 7, and to coast was 4. The rest
of the column and table (Part A) are read in a similar manner.
For the purposes of this discussion the data for Grades IV and
VII are the most important. A comparison of the data in columns 1
and 4 of Table 17, Part A, shows that a larger per cent of seventh-
grade children than fourth-grade children responded correctly to each
of the seventeen terms. Thus the per cents for antarctic circle are 21
and 5, for arctic circle 51 and 33, for bay 20 and 7, and for coast 32
and 4. Furthermore, for eight of the seventeen terms there is a
steady increase from Grade IV to Grade VII in the per cent of chil-
dren who responded correctly on both the multiple choice and identifi-
cation tests. The terms are bay, coast, island, north pole, parallel,
river, south pole, and strait.








Principles of Growth 45

TABLE 17
PER CENTS OF CHILDREN, BY GRADES, WHO CONSISTENTLY RESPONDED CORRECTLY
TO SEVENTEEN TERMS WHICH WERE COMMON (PART A) TO MULTIPLE CHOICE
AND IDENTIFICATION TESTS; (PART B) TO MULTIPLE CHOICE, IDENTIFICATION
AND CONCRETE MATERIAL TESTS

PART A PART B
M. C. AND IDEN. NI. C., IDEN, AND CON. MAT.

Grade....... IV V VI VII IV V VI Vll
N.......... 98 99 97 97 8 14 17 22
Antarctic circle*......... 5 4 7 21 13 8 12 15
Arctic circle............. 33 25 38 51 25 17 41 20
Bay*................... 7 9 16 20 0 0 12 15
Coast.................. 4 14 23 32 0 7 29 14
Equator................. 67 43 66 76 75 33 65 71
Island.................. 64 75 78 89 63 69 73 86
Lake................... 40 63 61 74 38 86 59 76
Meridian ............... 13 5 32 34 0 8 27 36
Mouth (river)........... 15 21 20 33 50 43 13 36
North pole.............. 31 39 44 73 43 31 29 67
Parallel................. 5 10 19 24 0 25 24 24
Peninsula................ 25 56 52 59 38 57 38 55
River .................. 28 53 79 80 25 85 94 87
South pole.............. 48 55 60 80 38 38 64 71
Strait .................. 12 22 40 46 0 38 31 45
Tropic of Cancer........ 42 16 43 53 38 8 25 24
Tropic of Capricorn...... 44 15 45 53 25 0 40 25

*One of the terms for which a correct definition was not included among the alternatives of the mul-
tiple choice test.

The data for Part B of Table 17 support the principle of growth
revealed in connection with Part A.1 When the per cents of successes
for Grade IV and Grade VII children are compared, it is seen that
there are twelve terms for which the per cents of children who re-
sponded correctly on all three tests-multiple choice, identification,
and concrete material-are greater in Grade VII than in Grade IV.
The five terms for which this condition does not hold are arctic circle,
equator, mouth, tropic of Cancer, and tropic of Capricorn. The data
for most of the terms in Part B agree with those in Part A: from
Grade IV to Grade VII there is an increase in the per cents of chil-
dren who know the meanings of these terms in more than one way.
The data of Table 17 are accordingly interpreted to mean that
growth in understanding proceeds through an increase in the number
of different kinds of meanings (Principle 1).
In Table 17 there are only two terms, island and meridian, for which there
is a steady increase from grade to grade in the per cent of children who re-
sponded correctly on each of the three tests, multiple choice, identification, and
concrete material. There are seven other terms, however, for which, except at
one grade, there is a steady increase in the per cent of children responding cor-
rectly. The fact that there are not more terms for which there is a steady in-
crease is attributed to the limited number of children tested.








46 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII

PRINCIPLE 2. GROWTH PROCEEDS THROUGH AN INCREASE OF
GENERAL INFORMATION

In Chapter II it was stated that two sets of directions were used
in obtaining essays. According to one set of directions (plan one)
the subjects were told to write only one or two sentences about the
meaning of a term. According to the other set of directions (plan
two) the subjects were told to write all they knew about the meaning
of a term.
In order to determine the number and nature of the meanings
which the children had, the essays written according to plan two for
eight of the terms, selected at random, were analyzed. A record was
made of all the relevant or correct ideas (meanings) which were con-
tained in each of the essays. The terms were continent, equator,
island, ore, plateau, pole, rainfall, and raw material. In Table 18 are
given the median number of meanings which the children had for

TABLE 18
MEDIAN NUMBER OF MEANINGS WHICH TEN CHILDREN IN EACH OF GRADES
IV, V, VI, AND VII EXPRESSED IN ESSAYS ON Eight GEOGRAPHIC TERMS

GRADES
Terms
IV V VI VII
Continent..................... 1.0 3.0 1.0 5.0*
Equator....................... 0.0 3.0* 2.5 2.5
Island ........................ 3.0 2.0 3.5 3.5
O re........................... 1.0 2.0 2.0 3.0*
Plateau....................... 1.0 2.0 2.0 4.0
Pole.......................... 3.0 4.5 4.5 5.0*
Rainfall ....................... 1.5 2.5 2.5 3.5
Raw material .................. 1.0 1.0 1.5 2.0

*Sample included nine cases.

these terms. For example, the median number of meanings which
ten children of Grades IV, V, VI, and VII expressed in their essays
about continent was 1, 3, 1, and 5, respectively.
Table 19 begins a series of three tables, each devoted to the fre-
quencies with which various ideas (meanings) were expressed in the
essays written about as many different terms. Table 19 is for the
term continent. Of the ten children in Grade IV who wrote essays
on the meanings of continent, 2 expressed no meanings (that is, their
papers were blank), 6 gave one or more examples of continent, 2 ex-
pressed the idea of "body of land," 1 the idea of "bigness," 1 the
idea that a continent is an "island," and 1 the idea that continents are







Principles of Growth 47

TABLE 19
FREQUENCIES WITH WHICH MEANINGS OF Continent WERE EXPRESSED IN
ESSAYS BY TEN CHILDREN IN EACH OF GRADES IV, V, VI, AND VII
MEANINGS OF Continent


VI........... 3 7 2 2 .... 1 .... 1 .... ... .... 2 1 .... .... 16 7
VI* 1 . 6 3 4 3 2 3
Grades 2 r only.






"composed of countries"--a total of eleven ideas, representing five
Certain interesting facts should be noted from Table 19. For ex-
ample, of the eight fourth-grade children who expressed ideas about
occurred in the essays from each of the grades. Special attention is


V d wh 5). 3 1 110
VI...........3 7 2 2 ... 1.... 1.... .. .. .... 2 1 ... .. ..... 16 7
VII ............ 7 6 2.... 1 .... 6 3 4 3 4 2 3 5 46 16

Nine cases only.
Thncludes one case each of "identification with hemispheres," "North America discovered by Colum-
bus," "Possess different climates," "separated by waler," and "North and South America separated by
Panama Canal."

"composed of countries"-a total of eleven ideas, representing five
different ideas for fourth-grade children whose essays were studied.
Certain interesting facts should be noted from Table 19. For ex-
ample, of the eight fourth-grade children who expressed ideas about
continent, six cited one or more examples of continents. Only four
other different ideas were expressed, and only one of these, "body of
land," was expressed by as many as two children. Of all the ideas
mentioned, only three, "examples," "body of land," and "bigness,"
occurred in the essays from each of the grades. Special attention is
directed to the fact that the nine seventh-grade children expressed
over four times as many ideas as the ten fourth-grade children (46
compared with 11) and over three times as many different ideas (16
compared with 5).
The frequencies with which various ideas (meanings) were ex-
pressed in the essays written about rainfall are given in Table 20.
The children of all grades expressed the ideas of "rain," "light or
heavy rain," and "differences in rainfall" in their essays on rainfall.
\\ith the exception of "rain," only one idea, "amount of rain" (for
example, 60 inches), was expressed by as many as five (Grade VII)
of the children. Seventh-grade children expressed over twice as
many ideas as did fourth-grade children (36 compared with 13), and
over three times as many different ideas (13 compared with 4).








48 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII

TABLE 20
FREQUENCIES WITH WHICH MEANINGS OF Rainfall WERE EXPRESSED IN ESSAYS
BY TEN CHILDREN IN EACH OF GRADES IV, V, VI, AND VII


In the case of pole the frequencies with which various ideas
(meanings) were expressed in the essays are given in Table 21. Five
ideas of pole were common to the essays from all grades. The ideas
were "two poles," "north pole," "south pole," "poles are opposite,"
and "coldness." The first three of the ideas were expressed by over
half of the children in each grade. Seventh-grade children expressed
over twice as many ideas as fourth-grade children (52 compared with
24) and almost four times as many different ideas (19 compared
with 5).
Tables 19, 20, and 21 show that from Grade IV to Grade VII
there is an increase not only in the total number of ideas expressed
in essays on continent, rainfall, and pole but an increase also in the

TABLE 21
FREQUENCIES WITH WHICH MEANINGS OF Pole WERE EXPRESSED IN ESSAYS BY
TEN CHILDREN IN EACH OF GRADES IV, V, VI, AND VII

MEANINGS OF Pole






1V. 2 7 6 6 3 ....
S 7 2 I o 1 9
C" 0 a M

o S o 1 o* 0 0t o5 -0 a 0 S0 0 H o <

IV 2 7 6 6 2 3 .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 24 5
V. 1 9 8 7 2 5 1 1 2 .... 1 2 2 1 1 .... .... 42 13
VI. .... 8 10 7 3 .... .... 2 1 .... ..... 2 .... .... I . .. 39 9
VII .... 8 7 7 7 7 3 1 . 1 .. . .... .... 10 52 19

Nine cases only.
includes one case each of "uninhabited," "no vegetation," "slightly flattened," "ends of axis,"
"length of seasons," "opposite seasons," "people have died in attempts to reach poles." "Arctic Ocean
surrounds north pole," "Antarctic Ocean surrounds south pole," and "magnetic pole."







Principles of Growth


number .-.f different ideas expressed. Most of these ideas are perhaps
-eential to a well-rounded understanding of the meanings of the
t general inifonnation. The data which have been presented in Tables
19. 20. 21 are therefore interpreted to mean that growth in under-
tanijdin. proceeds through an increase of general information (Prin-
.;il.. 2 i .

PF:i;nii LE 3. GROWTH PROCEEDS THROUGH A SUBSTITUTION OF
BASIC FOR ASSOCIATED MEANINGS
It las been suggested that many of the meanings which children
ha, e f.'-r geographic terms represent general, but not crucial, in-
f.,rmation. Such meanings may be thought of as associated mean-
inr~. In contradistinction, there are other meanings which are cru-
cial i..r \inl to the formulation of correct definitions. Meanings of
this type are here designated as basic meanings.
.As:iocJated meanings are sometimes learned as basic meanings.
A :good illustration of such a case is found in the meanings which
some children were found to have for natives.
.llcan:ings for natives. Ten essays about natives (collected accord-
inl t.. phin one) were selected from those written by fourth-grade
clulrer, The ten complete essays, corrected for spelling and gram-
niar, arc reproduced below.
a. The\ are people who were born in a place and still live there.
1. Ar.- dark skinned people who live in the Belgian Congo in the conti-
nent A.,. Africa.
c Natl.es are people who are called the black race. They live in the
f,.rerst of A.frica.
d. Natives are people who live in Africa and other places.
e In Africa are some natives.
f. N.ti.es are a black race of people who live in Africa.
g. I h,: Congo natives live in the Belgian Congo where it is hot. They
. '.ear \ r. thin (clothes).*
h .\ Ll.ick race of people that live in Africa.
i A native is a person who lives in a foreign country like Africa.
j A t.-ick race of people that live in Africa.
O1nl\ ..ne of the ten essays, the first, expresses the basic meaning of
nati;tj's. namely, the idea of "people who were born in certain places."
Th l ren_-ining nine essays contain only associated meanings. For ex-
:nll.lc. the second essay, b, states that natives are "dark skinned
r.t.-plc and that they "live in the Belgian Congo in the continent of
Pariniheses and content supplied by the writer.







50 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII

Africa." Many natives are of course dark skinned and many of them
do live in Africa, but these facts are not basic to the essential mean-
ing of natives.
Twenty essays written on natives by seventh-grade children ac-
cording to plan one are available for comparison with the fourth-grade
essays. Nine of the meanings given, corrected for spelling and punc-
tuation, are reproduced below.
Basic meanings.
a. Natives are people who live in the country where they were born.
b. Natives means persons who were born here. Natives means wild
men from Africa.
Doubtful.
a. Natives means the people of their country.
b. Natives means the people who live in the city where you were born.
c. There are natives in this town where we live.
Associated meanings. (samples)
a. A group of people who are something like negroes.
b. Natives are uncivilized people who worship gods.
c. Natives are black people who are wild and uncivilized.
d. Natives are people who are not in a city.

Of the twenty seventh-grade children who wrote essays about
natives, two stated basic meanings, three meanings which might be
considered basic ones, and fifteen associated meanings only.
Natives is not the only term for which associated rather than basic
meanings had been learned. For example, the essays on west coast,
which are next considered, show the same phenomenon.
Meanings for west coast. Ten essays were written (plan one) by
fourth-grade children about west coast. Three of the essays were
blank. The other seven complete essays are reproduced below:
a. It is a fishing port near the coast of Norway.
b. A coast is where ships load and unload.
c. The west coast of Norway.
d. The west coast of Norway is rocky and hilly.
e. A coast is like the coast of Norway where ships load and unload.
f. A coast is a place ships land and you can go swimming on the coast.
g. A west coast is the shore of a river where it is frozen.

None of the essays contain the basic meanings of west coast.
Whether the meanings actually represented are properly to be desig-
nated as associated meanings may well be questioned. It might be
noted, however, that in three of the essays, b, e, and f, the children







Principles of Growth 51

did as-ociate coast with ships; yet certainly the basic meaning of coast
is ,iuitc unrelated to ships or to anything which pertains to them.
The fact that "Norway" is mentioned in four of the seven essays
pro:labll' reflects merely the effect of a recent study of that country.
The frequency with which "Norway" is mentioned is therefore not
o.'n.i']ere.l significant for present purposes.
Twenty essays (plan one) were written by seventh-grade children
about west coast. One essay was blank. The remaining nineteen
essays showed that the children had a wide variety of meanings for
the term. Samples of the complete essays follow:
a. The word west coast (means the coast)* which is in the western
part of the country. The west coast of the United States is the coast of
the Pacific Ocean.
b. West coast means a coast which the Pacific Ocean runs up on.
c. West coast means the direction of a coast.
d. West coast is the west side to the ocean in any country.
e. The west coast is the coast in the west.
f. The west coast is the western part of a country where land and sea
meet.
g. A coast is the bank on the edge of an ocean or sea. A west coast is
the coast on the west side of an ocean.
h. The coast is a place where shipping is carried on. The coast is at
the edge of the ocean.
i. The west coast of the United States is on the Pacific Ocean.
j. The west coast is the coast of the Pacific Ocean.

In two of the seventh-grade essays (b and j) west coast is identi-
fied with the Pacific Ocean. Apparently the children who wrote these
essays thought that any coast which touched the Pacific Ocean was a
west coast. It can of course be maintained that the children who wrote
essays b and j were thinking specifically of North and South America.
The responses which were made on the multiple choice test, however,
do not bear out this contention. Table 22 reports the per cents of
children who responded to each of the alternatives which were offered
with west coast; from 16 to 21 per cent of the children in each grade
selected the first alternative, "The coast which is next to the Pacific
Ocean," in spite of the fact that the item read, "The west coast of
any country means"; and in spite of the further fact that one of the
alternatives, the second, was "The coast which is on the west side of
the country." None of the other definitions, except the correct one,
were selected by more than 3.1 per cent of the children.
Parentheses and content supplied by the writer.








52 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII

TABLE 22
PER CENTS OF CHILDREN WHO RESPONDED TO ALTERNATIVES OFFERED WITH
West Coast, BY GRADES

GRADES
Alternatives
IV V VI VII
(N = 98) (N = 99) (N = 97) (N = 97)
The west coast of any country means:
1. The coast which is next to the Pacific Ocean..... 21.4 16.2 16.5 16.5
2. The coast which is on the west side of the country. 54.1 72.7 73.2 80.4
3. The warmest side of the country ................ 1.0 1.0 2.1 0.0
4. The side of the country where most of the
people live................................ 3.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
5. 1 don't know................................. 18.4 6.1 4.1 1.0
6. I think it means ............... ...... 1.0 3.0 3.1 0.0
7. O m itted..................................... 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0
8. A m biguous................................... 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0


The data from the essays and from the multiple choice test re-
ported in the foregoing treatment have been presented and discussed
at some length in order to establish the fact that the learning of asso-
ciated meanings in place of basic meanings is a very real occurrence.
Additional data from the multiple choice test are now presented in
order to show how the learning of associated for basic meanings is
related to growth in understanding.
Data from multiple choice test. The per cents of children who
responded to the alternatives offered with capital are found in Table
23. (The frequencies by grades for this table, as well as for Tables
24-28, are the same as those in Table 22.) Several facts should be
noted in Table 23. The first is that alternative 1 expresses an asso-
ciated meaning of capital. Frequently, perhaps in a majority of cases,

TABLE 23
PER CENTS OF CHILDREN WLo RESPONDED TO ALTERNATIVES OFFERED WITH
Capital, BY GRADES

GRADES
Alternatives
1V V VI Vll
The capital of a country means:
1. The largest city of the country ......................... 27.6 12.1 16.5 7.2
2. The city where most of the government work is done...... 41.8 63.6 61.9 85.6
3. The city which is nearest the middle of the country....... 7.1 12.1 13.4 4.1
4. The chief seaport of the country ........................ 2.0 1.0 0.0 2.1
5. Don't know........................................ 11.2 4.0 0.0 1.0
6. I think it means ......................... ... .. 6.1 7.1 8.2 0.0
7. O m itted ............................................. 4.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
8. Ambiguous.......................................... 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0







Principles of Growth 53

thle capital ':f a country is "the largest city of the country," but this
rceaniirig .4f caital is plainly not the basic one. A second fact to be
no:,td. is that over 25 per cent of the fourth-grade children selected
alItrnati c\ I a- the meaning of capital. A third fact, and the most
import,-iit :iie. is that as the per cents of children who responded cor-
rectly I alternative 2) increased from Grade IV to Grade VII (41.8
t.: S5.6 th rh per cents of children who responded to the associated
nime inil I aIltcrnative 1) decreased correspondingly (27.6 to 7.2).
A similar analysis of the answers for east wind is given in Table
24. The first alternative, "a warm wind," is one of the associated

TABLE 24
PER CENTS OF CHILDREN WHO RESPONDED TO ALTERNATIVES OFFERED WITH
East Wind, BY GRADES

GRADES
Alternatives
IV V VI VIl
An east wind means:
1. A warm wind ........................................ 14.3 5.1 6.2 0.0
2. A strong wind ........................................ 5.1 3.0 1.0 1.0
3. A wind which blows from the east ...................... 65.3 85.9 89.7 89.7
4. A wind which blows toward the east .................... 7.1 4.0 1.0 3.1
5. 1 don't know ......................................... 6.1 2.0 0.0 5.2
6. 1 think it means ......................... .... 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0
7. O m itted............................................. 2.0 0.0 1.0 0.0
8. A mbiguous........................................... 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0


leanings of an cast wind. In the fourth grade the per cent of children
t hI: responded to this definition was 14.3. In the fifth, sixth, and
e' ciith grades the per cents were 5.1, 6.2, and 0.0, respectively. As
tie per cents of children who responded to alternative 1 decreased the
p'r .:,:nts of children who responded correctly (alternative 3) in-
-cr'.,.s,, from 65.3 in Grade IV to 89.7 in Grade VII. Table 24 shows,
justr a Table 23 did, that an increase in the per cent of children who
resi-',nded to the basic meaning is accompanied by a decrease in the
per cent of children who responded to an associated meaning.
In the case of horizon (Table 25) approximately 25 per cent of
the children in all grades selected alternative 1, "The colors in the
skLy which can be seen just after the sun sets." In only one instance
., s; either of the two remaining incorrect alternatives responded to
h\ an many as 3.1 per cent of the children.
Here we have a case in which there is an increase in the per cent
c:ft d:lldren responding correctly (alternative 2) without an accom-
plan lig decrease in the per cent of children responding to an asso-








54 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to '1"1

TABLE 25
PER CENTS OF CHILDREN WHO RESPONDED TO ALTERNATIVES OFFER". \\| ITH
Horizon, BY GRADES

GRADES
Alternatives
IV V V7 \II
The horizon means:
1. The colors in the sky which can be seen just after the
sun sets......................................... 21.4 27.3 24." .4
2. The line where the ground and the sky seem to meet...... 16.3 43.4 50.s r'
3. Thesame thing as the ground .......................... 1.0 1.0 0.6' I1
4. The same thing as the sky............................. 3.1 0.0 0..i I 1)
5. Idon't know ........................................ 56.1 24.2 20 2
6. I think it means ......................... .... 1.0 2.0 2.1 I
7. Omitted............................................. 1.0 2.0 2.1 2 I
8. Ambiguous........................................... 0.0 0.0 O.11 0 1

ciated meaning. The retention of the associated meaning (alternative
1) does, however, limit the number of children who might otherwise
have responded correctly.
Table 26 presents the per cents of children who responded to the
alternatives offered with prevailing winds. Prevailing winds is a term
which did not occur in the textbook material studied in Grades IV,
V, and VI. For this reason the responses of the seventh-grade chil-
dren only will be considered. Fewer children in Grade VII (11.3 per
cent) responded to the correct definition (alternative 2) than to any
of the incorrect definitions. The three incorrect alternatives describe
characteristics which prevailing winds may have, and for this reason
they are considered associated meanings. The possession of these
associated meanings seems to be largely responsible for the small per
cent of seventh-grade children who responded correctly to prevailing
winds.
TABLE 26
PER CENTS OF CHILDREN WHO RESPONDED TO ALTERNATIVES OFFERED WITH
Prevailing Winds, BY GRADES

GRADES
Alternatives
IV V VI VII
The prevailing winds of a country means:
1. The winds which blow from the ocean to the land......... 16.3 18.2 28.9 34.0
2. The winds which a country usually has .................. 14.4 4.0 8.2 11.3
3. W inds which are strong ................................ 14.3 19.2 12.2 13.4
4. Winds which come from the west ....................... 4.1 1.0 1.0 15.5
5. I don't know.......................................... 50.0 55.6 45.4 23.7
6. I think they mean ....................... .... 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0
7. O m itted ............................................. 0.0 1.0 4.1 1.0
8. Ambiguous ........................................... 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0







Principles of Growth 55

The data presented in this section show: (1) that children tend to
learn associated instead of basic meanings; and (2) that the per cent
of children who respond correctly to a term is limited in part by the
per cent who retain associated meanings. The conclusion then is
that growth in understanding proceeds through a substitution of basic
for associated meanings (Principle 3).

PRINCIPLE 4. GROWTH PROCEEDS THROUGH A DEVELOPMENT OF
COMPREHENSIVE MEANINGS
According to the responses on the multiple choice test many mean-
ings which children have for geographic terms are actually wrong,
while others are incomplete. In one sense, of course, all meanings
are incomplete since one can never know all there is to be known
about anything. This is not the sense, however, in which the term
"incomplete" is used here. By an "incomplete" meaning is meant a
basic meaning which lacks the desired degree of comprehensiveness.
The discussion which follows shows how incomplete meanings are
related to growth in understanding.
Table 27 summarizes in per cents the responses of children to the
alternatives offered with trade. The per cent of children who chose

TABLE 27
PER CENTS OF CHILDREN WHIO RESPONDED TO ALTERNATIVES OFFERED WITH
Trade, BY GRADES

GRADES
Alternatives
1V V VI VII
Trade means:
1. R raising crops ......................................... 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
2. Buying and selling goods ............ ............... 78.6 85.9 80.4 89.7
3. Catching fish ......................................... 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
4. Building houses ....................................... 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
5. 1 don't know.......................................... 6.1 2.0 2.1 1.0
6. 1 think it means .......................... ... 15.3 12.1 17.5 8.2
7. O m itted ............................................. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
8. Ambiguous........................................... 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0


the correct alternative (alternative 2) for trade increased from 78.6
in Grade IV to 89.7 in Grade VII. It is evident from the other data
of Table 27 that part of the increase in the per cents of children re-
sponding correctly was due to the decrease in the per cent responding
with number-six answers.
An examination of the number-six answers for trade, not here re-
produced, showed that most of the children had identified trade with








56 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII

"barter." Trade does mean "barter," but it means much more than
that. It is evident that the children who knew that trade meant "buy-
ing and selling goods" (alternative 2) had a much more comprehen-
sive meaning of trade than did those who responded by defining
trade as "barter." The increase in the per cent of children responding
correctly to trade was plainly due to the fact that more comprehensive
meanings of the term had been learned.
The per cents of children who responded to the alternatives
offered with rainfall are found in Table 28. The data here are un-
TABLE 28
PER CENTS OF CHILDREN WHO RESPONDED TO ALTERNATIVES OFFERED WITH
Rainfall, BY GRADES

GRADES
Alternatives
IV V VI VII
Rainfall means:
1. The amount of rain which is necessary to raise crops...... 21.4 22.2 13.4 13.4
2 The amount of rain which soaks into the ground.......... 14.3 9.1 7.2 13.4
3. The amount of sleet, snow, or rain which falls in a given
length of time.................................... 8.2 4.0 7.2 5.2
4. The amount of rain which falls in a given length of time... 32.7 39.4 50.5 51.5
5. I don't know......................................... 18.4 12.1 5.2 1.0
6. I think it means ........................ ..... 4.1 12.1 15.5 12.4
7. O m itted............................................. 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0
8. A m biguous........................................... 1.0 0.0 1.0 2.1

usual in that, in all grades, the correct definition was the one most
infrequently chosen. The correct definition of rainfall is "the amount
of sleet, snow or rain which falls in a given length of time (alter-
native 3)." The per cents of children in Grades IV, V, VI, and VII
who responded correctly were 8.2, 4.0, 7.2, and 5.2, respectively. The
per cents of children who responded by choosing the alternative "the
amount of rain which falls in a given length of time" were 32.7, 39.4,
50.5, and 51.5, respectively. The latter meaning of rainfall is not
incorrect, but it is incomplete. In the case of rainfall, growth in
understanding (as measured by alternative 3) did not occur for the
reason that a comprehensive meaning of the term had not been de-
veloped.
Table 29 reports the per cents of children who responded to the
alternatives offered with altitude. Altitude has two basic meanings-
"height above the ground" and "height above the sea." In these two
meanings of altitude, offered as alternatives 1 and 2, the per cents of
children who chose each did not vary markedly from grade to grade.
The per cent of children who responded to the comprehensive mean-








Principles of Growth 57

TABLE 29*
PER CENTS OF CHILDREN WIo RESPONDED TO ALTERNATIVES OFFERED WITH
Altitude, BY GRADES

GRADES
Alternatives
IV V VI VII
(N = 100) (N = 100) (N = 100) (N = 100)
Alitiudr means:
1. Height above the ground...................... 14 4 14 16
2. Height above the sea.......................... 6 6 13 9
3. Sometimes height above the ground and some-
times height above the sea................. 15 31 48 47
4. Height of a building ........................... 12 3 2 1
5. I don't know ................................. 50 49 16 18
6. I think it means __ .............. 1 7 5 9
7. O m itted..................................... 2 0 0 0
8. Ambiguous................................ 0 0 2 0

*Data derived from supplementary multiple choice test.

ing of altitude (alternative 3) increased from 15 in Grade IV to 47 in
Grade VII. The increase in the per cent of children who responded
correctly was accompanied by a corresponding decrease in the per
cent of children who admitted that they did not know the meaning of
altitude (alternative 5).
These two facts might be interpreted to mean that most children,
when they learn the meaning of altitude, learn both of its meanings.
One might just as reasonably, however, interpret the facts to mean
that the decrease in the per cent of children who responded with "I
don't know" (alternative 5) was due to the fact that the children had
learned one of the two basic meanings of altitude and that the increase
in the per cent of children who responded correctly (alternative 3)
was due to the development of a comprehensive meaning on the part
of some of the children who had formerly known only one of the
two basic meanings. Perhaps both interpretations are needed to ac-
count for the facts.
The per cents of children who responded to the alternatives offered
with deposit are given in Table 30. Of the three incorrect meanings
for deposit (alternatives 1, 3, and 4) "coal" was the only one to
which in any grade more than four per cent of the children responded.
"Coal" may legitimately be thought of as an incomplete meaning of
deposit. The per cent of children who chose this alternative, an in-
complete meaning, for deposit decreased from 43 in Grade IV to 9 in
Grade VII.
Since, with respect to the per cents for items 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8,
the sums of the decrements at successive grade levels were small in









58 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII

TABLE 30*
PER CENTS OF CHILDREN W\HO RESPONDED TO ALTERNATIVES OFFERED WITH
Deposit, BY GRADES

GRADES
Alternatives
IV V VI VII
A deposit means an underground supply of:
1. Coal................................................ 43 26 21 9
2. A ny m material ......................................... 22 40 41 65
3. Iron ................................................. 4 3 2 1
4. Copper .............................................. 3 0 3 0
5. 1 don't know ......................................... 23 20 17 17
6. I think it means ............................. 2 9 14 6
7. Omitted.............................................. 2 2 1 1
8. A m biguous ........................................... I 0 1 1

*Data derived from supplementary multiple choice test. As in the case of Table 29 and of Table 31
to follow, 100 test papers per grade were used in this analysis.

comparison with the corresponding increments for alternative 2, one
may safely infer that the increase in the per cent of children who
responded correctly to deposit by selecting the comprehensive mean-
ing "Any material" was due in large measure to the decrease in the
per cent of children who chose the incomplete meaning "Coal."
The data with regard to communication are given in Table 31.
In all grades the incorrect alternative most frequently chosen was,
"They talk with each other" (alternative 1). The per cent of children
who had this meaning for communication decreased from 38 in Grade
IV to 17 in Grade VII. In no grade did more than 8 per cent of the
children choose either of the other two incorrect alternatives. From
Grade IV to Grade VII the per cent of children who responded cor-
rectly (alternative 4, "They have some way of exchanging informa-

TABLE 31*
PER CENTS OF CHILDREN WHO RESPONDED TO ALTERNATIVES OFFERED WITH
Cor ilnunicatiol, BY GRADES

GRADES
Alternatives
IV V VI VII

If people have communication with each other, that means:
1. They talk with each other.............................. 38 29 31 17
2. They write letters to each other ........................ 6 4 3 1
3. They telephone each other ............................. 8 4 6 3
4. They have some way of exchanging information .......... 13 17 46 70
5. I don't know......................................... 33 42 6 8
6. 1 think it means ............................. 1 3 5 1
7. O m itted ........................ ...................... 1 1 2 0
8. A m biguous........................................... 0 0 1 0

'Data derived from supplementary multiple choice test.







Principles of Growth 59

tion" i increased from 13 to 70, a difference of 57 points. At the
.aun,. time the decrease in the per cent of children who admitted that
thliy did not know the meaning of communication (alternative 1)
am.-iunted to only 25 points (33-8). It is apparent from these facts
rlat the increasing per cent of children who responded correctly to
, .'ImuI1nication was caused not only by a decrease in the per cent of
c:liblr'n who did not have a meaning for the term hut also by an in-
cr,.a-c in the per cent of children who abandoned an incomplete mean-
mii I alternative 1) in favor of a more comprehensive one (alter-
native 4).
The data which have been presented in Tables 27, 28, 29, 30, and
31 .art interpreted to mean that growth in understanding proceeds
h[lir'l .zh the development of comprehensive meanings (Principle 4).

PRINCIPLE 5. GROWTH PROCEEDS THROUGH A
REDUCTION OF ERRORS
The answers in the various test blanks revealed a great many
i-.rlih incorrect responses than those already discussed. In spite of
tL: iact that the subjects had been told not to guess, it is probable
lthit many of the mistakes do represent random choices rather than
wiii.i',nceptions. Some of the incorrect responses, however, were
m:'d: by such relatively high per cents of the children that guessing
carinlot be considered the determining factor. An analysis of these in-
c.-rrect responses discloses several types of error in addition to those
c:.mprehended under the five principles of growth already treated.
F-'.ur types of error will be discussed, namely: (1) errors due to a
I:,onfiltion of terms having similar sounds, (2) errors due to a con-
fuii-.n of positions, (3) errors due to an application of old meanings,
and 1 ) errors due to "other causes."
1 Ei, ors Due to a Confusion of Terms Having Similar Sounds.
The responses made on the multiple choice test seem to indicate
that navigation was confused with cultivation. One of the definitions
I-. ua:.igation was "raising crops." The per cents of children in
'Gradkt IV, V, VI, and VII who selected this definition were 12.2,
33.3, 29.9, and 17.5. In only one case did as many as 4.1 per cent of
thie children in any grade select either of the two remaining incorrect
idc.i Iit ions.
E-.xport and import were confused. From 19.4 to 17.5 per cent of
thie children in all grades responded to import by selecting the defini-
nI:n1 for export. With respect to the children in Grade IV, and per-








60 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII

haps those in Grade V, the selection of the definition for export may
have been largely a matter of chance. In the case of the children in
Grades VI and VII, on the other hand, the selection could not have
been so determined. In the first of these grades the per cent of chil-
dren who responded correctly to import was 82.5 and the per cent
who responded by selecting the definition of export was 15.5. In
Grade VII the corresponding per cents were 78.4 and 17.5. The data
on export reveal that some children in all grades confuse export with
import, but the per cents of children who do so are not as great as
the per cents who confuse import with export.
Latitude and longitude are confused. From 14 to 34 per cent of
the children in all grades responded on the multiple choice test to
latitude by selecting the definition of longitude. From 20 to 30 per
cent of the children in all grades responded to longitude by selecting
the definition of latitude. That these per cents are not to be accounted
for in terms of chance was shown by the per cents of children who
selected for both words definitions other than the ones mentioned.

2. Errors Due to Confusion of Positions.
On the identification test, antarctic circle, arctic circle, meridian,
tropic of Cancer, and tropic of Capricorn were frequently identified
with parallel. Table 32 contains the per cents of children who identi-
fied as parallel each of the terms mentioned. The per cents for parallel
TABLE 32
PER CENTS OF CHILDREN WHO IDENTIFIED Antarctic Circle, Arctic Circle,
Meridian, Tropic of Cancer, AND Tropic of Capricorn AS Parallel, BY GRADES
GRADES

Terms IV V VI VII
(N=98) (N=99) (N=97) (N = 97)
Antarctic circle...................................... 30 16 21 13
A rctic circle ....................................... 32 19 19 12
M eridian.......................................... 1 7 5 10
Tropic of Cancer ................................... 19 12 13 6
Tropic of Capricorn................................. 14 12 2 9
Parallel ........................................... 17 19 36 42


are included in the table for purposes of comparison. While the terms
listed in Table 32 were frequently identified as parallel, only infre-
quently was parallel in turn identified with any of the terms referred
to except meridian. The per cents of children in Grades IV, V, VI,
and VII who identified parallel as meridian were 14, 28, 28, and 29,
respectively.







Principles of Growth 61

North pole was frequently identified with arctic circle and south
p'.'le with antarctic circle, the per cents in each case ranging from
ll'pr.:.ximately 29 in Grade IV to 10 in Grade VII. Arctic circle and
nawarctic circle were only infrequently identified respectively as north
pi'., and south pole.
In considering the magnitudes of the per cents cited in the fore-
p,..in. section, one should bear in mind the fact that twenty letters, in
addition to the three used in the protests, occurred on the maps. On
Lhie basis of pure chance one should expect a term to be identified
c.,rr,.ctly only 5 per cent of the time.

-, Errors Due to An Application of Old Meanings.
Many of the incorrect meanings which children have for geo-
grapliic terms result from applying old meanings to new situations.
Frr a country to have a heavy rainfall means to many children that
the country has hard rains. In ordinary parlance a hard rain is fre-
lqu ently described as a heavy rain, and this fact doubtless accounts, in
p:rt at least, for the belief that heavy rainfall and hard rains are
Y-n,-.nymous expressions.
To many children a coal field does not mean "a large section of
the country where coal is found." To them coal field means an ordi-
nary field that has coal on it or in it. The per cents of children in
Grades IV, V, VI, and VII who chose the alternative "a place several
c,:re.s big where coal is found" were 11.2, 24.4, 22.7, and 23.7, re-
spec:tively. The evidence that many children make this error is not,
hi- o: ever, limited to the data of the multiple choice test; similar
e, idence was derived from personal interviews.
Approximately 50 per cent of both sixth- and seventh-grade chil-
dlren know that mainland means "The large body of land, not the
islands," but some of them seemed to arrive at the meaning by in-
ierence from the meaning of main. Consequently, the meaning of
iiiarland was sometimes distorted. According to one child, a penin-
sula could not be the mainland because "it was not the main part."
Many children showed uncertainty on the concrete material test
~ hen asked to locate a basin. Even when the basin was pointed out
corr,:ctly there was frequently a hesitation in the movement of the
hand. The remarks of the subjects showed that the basin on the
1i'-. lel did not fit their concepts very well. "A basin is like a basin of
waterr seemed to be the idea of many of the subjects. On the multiple
ch'.ice test, over 20 per cent of the children in each of Grades IV, V,
and VI and 15 per cent in Grade VII selected the alternative "a pond







62 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII

of water" as the meaning of basin. In only one case did more than 7
per cent of the children select either of the other two incorrect defini-
tions.
As shown by data from multiple choice tests, approximately half
of the children in all grades thought that if a city is a center it is be-
cause the city is in the middle of a district. The term center was
introduced as, "If a city is a center that means," and the correct
definition was, "The city is famous for some important work." The
per cents of children in Grades IV, V, VI, and VII who selected this
meaning were 11.2, 27.3, 38.1, and 38.1, respectively. The correspond-
ing per cents who responded to the alternative, "The city is in the
middle of a district," were 57.1, 50.5, 52.6, and 46.4.
4. Errors Due to "Other Causes."
Under this heading are included several errors of a miscellaneous
kind. Twenty-three per cent of the seventh-grade children indicated
on the multiple choice test that they thought iron deposits meant
"things which are made of iron." Apparently deposits was confused
with products. Thirty-eight per cent of the seventh-grade children
failed to respond correctly to area. Over half of these indicated that
they thought that the area of a country was the distance around it.
Many children confuse the mouth of a river with its source, but some
children who say that "the mouth of a river is the place where the
river starts" mean, for example, that as one approaches a river from
the ocean, the river is first encountered at its mouth.3
To summarize, the data presented in this section indicate that
growth in understanding proceeds through a reduction of errors, of
which important types are those due to: (1) confusion of terms
having similar sounds, (2) confusion of positions, (3) application
of old meanings to new situations, and (4) "other causes" (Prin-
ciple 5).
In the foregoing section, errors involving twenty-one terms used in the
investigation have been reported. Of the twenty-one terms referred to, fourteen
occur in Part I of the multiple choice test, two in Part II, and five in Part III.
The reader is reminded of the fact that the part of the multiple choice test in
which a term appeared was determined on the basis of "frequency of occur-
rence" in textbook material studied (see Chapter II, Section of Terms, p. 20).
The significance of an error depends on the opportunity which a pupil has had
to learn the meaning of the term involved. This fact has been kept in mind
throughout the discussion of the errors, and due care has been exercised in the
presentation of the data.










CHAPTER V


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

RtsuMif
The problem of this study was chosen in the hope of arriving at a
iltrer understanding of the mental processes of children in acquiring
ge graphic meanings. Stated briefly, the problem is, "How does
gri.uirh in understanding of geographic terms proceed among the
children of the elementary school, in grades four to seven?" Five
typ.r% of test were used in the course of the investigation: (1) essay,
i21 multiple choice (two tests), (3) identification, (4) intelligence,
and i 5) concrete materials. These tests were administered to ap-
pro:ximately eight hundred children in the public schools of Green-
,..,-I:.1. South Carolina.
The collected data indicate that it is impossible to represent
dgro..th in understanding adequately by means of single curves and
z.raphls. Growth is a complex function, or set of functions, and its
o'.-lrs; is determined by a number of factors. The data of this investi-
'-arlln permitted treatment of six such factors, namely: (1 and 2)
a iin..unt and kind of experience, (3) level of geographic attainment,
1 4 I manner of verbalization, (5) mental age, and (6) sex.
V\hile the nature of the changes which take place when growth in
understanding occurs cannot be adequately represented by means of
cur' es and graphs, they can be at least partly described in terms of
' in -iples. Five principles of growth have been derived and treated.
Thi-te principles may be stated as follows:
I Growth in understanding proceeds through an increase in the
iluninor of different kinds of meanings.
2 Growth in understanding proceeds through an increase of gen-
.:ral information.
Growth in understanding proceeds through a substitution of
I-'ai.: for associated meanings.
4. Growth in understanding proceeds through a development of
o-nimprehcnsive meanings.
5 Growth in understanding proceeds through a reduction of
err,,rs; important types are those due to: (a) confusion of terms
lha unt similar sounds, (b) confusion of positions, (c) application of
old meanings to new situations, and (d) "other causes."







64 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII

LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
The most serious apparent limitation of this investigation is tl-.
fact that the data were restricted to a single school system. T 'e
reader may feel that if the tests had been given in several school sy -
tems the results obtained would have been more reliable. To have
given the tests in several school systems would have resulted in the
testing of a greater number of children, it is true, and, consequently,
in a greater "reliability" of the data. The writer, however, considers
that his data are reliable. Approximately 100 children in each of
Grades IV, V, VI, and VII were tested on the group tests and, had
the writer felt that a greater number of cases were needed for pur-
poses of "reliability," a larger sample would have been taken. The
word apparent has been emphasized because the writer feels that the
limitation which has been discussed is not a real one. If the tests had
been given in several school systems, the data could have been thrown
together and treated en masse only if the systems were closely similar.
Averages and other statistical measures based on data secured
from a wide variety of sources are more desirable for some purposes
than for others. For the purposes of this investigation they were not
essential: such gross data do just what they are intended to do,
namely, iron out characteristic differences. In this study, it was these
characteristic differences which were wanted because such differences
show trends. If the data used in this investigation had been secured
from dissimilar school systems, it is possible that many of the trends
would have been obscured.
A second limitation, somewhat related to the first one and likewise
apparent rather than real, relates to the "universality" of the results
obtained. The fact that children in different sections of the country
have different experiences with terms may lead the reader to question
whether the factors and principles which have been derived are uni-
versally valid. The answer to such a question is that the validity of
the factors and principles is independent of the vagaries of responses
to particular terms. If investigations similar to this one were con-
ducted in different sections of the country the writer believes that the
same kinds of data would be obtained, although the children's re-
sponses to some of the terms probably would be very different. If
this assumption is valid, then the factors and principles derived from
data obtained elsewhere would be the same as those derived in the
present investigation.







Summary and Conclusion 65

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
Effective reading, more than any other academic factor, condi-
tions a child's ability to do his school work successfully. To read
effectively requires understanding. Words are but symbols to which
meanings must be attached if there is to be understanding. Meanings
are more than sounds. It is possible for a child to "read" perfectly,
in the sense that he can make all necessary movements of the mouth
and vocal cords either implicitly or overtly, even if he does not under-
stand in the least the meaning of the passage which he reads. Mean-
ings are adjustments which are dependent upon experience. It fol-
lows, then, that if children are to understand geography they must
have experiences with the vocabulary of geography. One of the re-
sponsibilities of the geography teacher is to see to it that the expe-
riences of her pupils are adequate for the development of meanings.
The factors and principles which have been summarized in this in-
vestigation are of significance to teachers who plan for the expe-
riences of their pupils. Several ways in which they are significant
will be pointed out briefly.
Varied experiences. An adequate understanding of a term means
that it is known in a number of different ways and that it is asso-
ciated with many ideas. Terms cannot be known in a number of
different ways, however, unless they are experienced in a variety of
situations. It follows then that if adequate meanings are to develop,
pupils must have the advantages of a rich and varied set of expe-
riences.
These experiences cannot be provided for merely through an
elaboration of textbook procedures. Words about things are not
sufficient, because words do not initiate the necessary first-hand ex-
periences. In order to provide for these experiences, much more of
the concrete must be introduced into instruction. By means of field
trips, manual activities, and demonstrations many terms can be made
to take on meaningful significance which they otherwise would not
have.
Right experiences. As was pointed out in the discussion of "Prin-
ciple 2. Growth Proceeds through a Substitution of Basic for Asso-
ciated Meanings" (p. 46) an associated meaning of a term is often
learned as basic. Such a condition seems to be the result either of
the child's reacting to an irrelevant part of the situation or of his
peculiar way of interpreting the meaning of a sentence. Examples
will serve to clarify this statement. Suppose a child who does not







66 Understanding of Geographic Terms in Grades IV to VII
know the meaning of horizon hears someone who is admiring a beau-
tiful sunset remark, "Just look at the horizon! Isn't it beautiful?"
The question to the child is, "What is the horizon ?" Under the cir-
cumstances he can hardly give but the one answer, namely, "the
colors." And so the child learns that the horizon means "the colors
which are seen in the sky when the sun sets." The colors are the one
aspect of the situation to which the child reacts. The colors are, how-
ever, an irrelevant part of the situation so far as the true meaning of
horizon is concerned. The revelant part is "the line where the sky
seems to meet the earth."
Prevailing winds is an example of a term for which the associated
meanings seem to be the result of a peculiar way of interpreting the
meaning of a sentence. Suppose the textbook says, "Here the pre-
vailing winds blow from the ocean." Some children apparently
identify the subject of the sentence with the predicate and thus pre-
vailing winds comes to mean "winds which blow from the ocean."
The fact that associated meanings may be learned in place of
basic meanings is important for theories of teaching. When a child
experiences he learns, but the point is that children do not always
have the experiences which their teachers think that they have. The
consequence is that children often develop erroneous meanings of
which their teachers are quite unaware. If children are to develop
correct meanings, care must be exercised and precautions taken to
see to it that they have the right experiences.
Negative transfer. One of the cardinal principles of instruction
is that the old should be made use of in teaching the new. It is ex-
pected that' such instruction will result in positive transfer and thus
facilitate learning. Unfortunately negative transfer as well as positive
transfer may occur, and learning, instead of being facilitated, may be
impeded. Such terms as belt, center, deposits, coal field, headwaters,
highland, lowlands, mainland, raw material, and possessions may be
easily misunderstood. Each of these terms, either in whole or in part,
has nongeographic meanings probably formed before the study of
geography. Special care is required to see that negative transfer does
not occur.
Planned instruction. The facts which have been brought out in this
investigation emphasize the need for more carefully planned instruc-
tion in geographic vocabulary. Incidental instruction is not sufficient.
Well-planned instruction should be based on two considerations:
(1) effective presentation of material and (2) amount and kind of
material.







Summary and Conclusion 67

With respect to (1) effective presentation, the point should be
emphasized that "the best method of presentation" of geographic terms
cannot be determined from a set of rules and formulae. The method
of presentation which is superior in one situation may be distinctly
inferior in another. The effectiveness of teaching procedures is in
turn conditioned (a) by aims, both immediate and remote; (b) by
the nature of the learner, that is, his interests, past experiences, and
mental capacity; and (c) by individual differences in teachers.
With respect to (2) amount and kind of material, two questions
are involved: (a) Does the child have the mental maturity requisite
to learn the meanings of the terms? (b) Is it desirable that he learn
the meanings of the terms? It does not follow that because terms
can be taught at a given stage of a child's development they should
be taught at that time.











SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY


1. Aitchison, Alison E. "Torrid, Temperate, and Frigid Zones,"-
Sources of Error in Children's Thinking. In the Thirty-Second
Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education,
"The Teaching of Geography," 1933.
2. Brownell, W. A. The Development of Children's Number Ideas in
the Primary Grades. Supplementary Educational Monographs No.
35. University of Chicago, 1928.
3. Burton, William Henry. -Children's Civic Information, 1924-35.
Education Monographs No. 7. University of Southern California,
1925.
4. Buswell, G. T. and Lenore, John. The Vocabulary of Arithmetic.
Supplementary Educational Monographs No. 38. University of
Chicago, 1931.
5. Cole (Pressey), Luella Winifred. "Fundamental Vocabulary in
Elementary School Geography," Journal of Geography, XXXII
(1933) 78-81.
6. Cunningham, Flora Mae. A Study of Word-Content of Five Elemen-
tary Geographies. Master's Thesis, George Peabody College,
1930.
7. French, Lloyd C. The Effect of Specific Training in Vocabulary,
Reading Maps, Graphs, and Tablets, and Organization on Achieve-
ment in Geography. Doctor's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh,
1932.
8. Hart, Isabelle K. "A Classification of Common Errors in Geography
Made by Teachers and Pupils," in the Thirty-Second Yearbook of
the National Society for the Study of Education, "The Teaching
of Geography," 1933.
9. Kueneman, Huberteen. The Effect of Vocabulary in Reading Geog-
raphy Textbooks. Master's Thesis, University of Iowa, 1931.
10. Meltzer, Hyman. Children's Social Concepts; A Study of Their Na-
ture and Development. Teacher's College Contributions to Educa-
tion No. 192, 1925.
11. Notz, Hulda M. The Vocabulary of Fifth Grade Geography. Mas-
ter's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh, 1934.
12. Pease, Marion Ochsner. One Measure of the Relative Value of
Geographic Terms. Master's Thesis, State University of Iowa,
1929.
13. Ridgley, D. C. "Twelve Hundred Selected Place Names," Journal of
Geography, XXV (1926), 201-221.
14. Shaffer, Lewis Gaius. The Derivation and Analysis of a Vocabulary
in World Geography. Master's Thesis, University of Pittsburgh,
1930.










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DUKE UNIVERSITY RESEARCH STUDIES
IN EDUCATION

.Ah',ladly phlished:
No. 1 TrIF. FFFEC:T'S rF UNF.\AMIL.AR SvrCT'IN; ON PPOELEM-
SOL\.IN': lIy \. A. Br\ownell and Loreria B. Stretch.
No. 2 \'API.\PLIT'. INm RECSLi.TS FLOM NEr'-T'PE ACHIEVE-
ME::r TE-Ti byL Earl V. Pulli;-.
No. 3 LE.\AR:NIN REOFc.GN IZA.'.ON: AN EXPEF.IMFNT.L
STLTI[- IN Tnriip-GtADE A.\RiMETI,. by \\. A. Brow-
nell vith thle as-i:-tance o:f Kenneth G. Kudhner and
\\'illhani C. Rein.
No.. 4 Gn~Orio'Tl IN U NDF 7.rkrAN1DIN OF Gr.OGR.\r-uI TERMS
IN GRADES iV 10 VI1 by T. .1. E-kridtg., Jr.

In the press:
No. 5 TIE EFFE,:TS OF VARIED D AMOUNTS OF PHONETIC
TR.\INING ON FFRIMA.R READING I' Do.nald C. Agneii'.




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