Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Report of the state plant board...
 Report of the plant commission...
 Plant inspection department
 Apiary inspection department
 Entomology department
 Plant pathology department
 Nematology department
 Staff publications

Group Title: Report for the period ... of the State Plant Board of Florida
Title: Report for the period ...
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098574/00020
 Material Information
Title: Report for the period ...
Alternate Title: Biennial report
Physical Description: 19 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: State Plant Board of Florida
Publisher: State Plant Board of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1958/60
Frequency: biennial
Subject: Plants, Protection of -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Statement of Responsibility: State Plant Board of Florida.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 4th (1920/22)- 23rd (1958/60).
Numbering Peculiarities: Vols. for 1950/52-1958/60 also called: Bulletin.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098574
Volume ID: VID00020
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10989019
lccn - sn 86033752
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the biennial period ending ... and supplemental reports to ...
Succeeded by: Biennial report

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Report of the state plant board of Florida
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Report of the plant commissioner
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Plant inspection department
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Apiary inspection department
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Entomology department
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Plant pathology department
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Nematology department
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Staff publications
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
Full Text

Volume II, Bulletin 14

December 30, 1960

W. G. Cowperthwaite, Plant Commissioner

Twenty -Third Biennial Report

July I, 1958 June 30, 1960

Volume II, Bulletin 14

W. G. Cowperthwaite, Plant Commissioner

Twenty-Third Biennial Report


July I, 1958-June 30, 1960

Cover: Honeybee on flower of horse-mint (Monarda)
(State Plant Board photo, R. A. Martin)

Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
John F. Seagle Building
Gainesville, Florida

December 30, 1960


RALPH L. MILLER, Chairman, Orlando
JAMES D. CAMP, SR., Ft. Lauderdale
J. J. DANIEL, Jacksonville
JOE K. HAYS, Winter Haven
J. B. CULPEPPER, Secretary, Tallahassee


W. G. COWPERTHWAITE, Plant Commissioner
H. L. JONES, Assistant Plant Commissioner
J. W. KNIGHT, Administrative Assistant
P. E. FRIERSON, Chief Plant Inspector
H. A. DENMARK, Chief Entomologist
R. A. MARTIN, Chief Apiary Inspector
D. B. CREAGER, Chief Pathologist

REPORT OF THE STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA ........................................ 4

REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER .......................... ......................... 6

PLANT INSPECTION DEPARTMENT ................... ........................................ 13

Spreading Decline ... .... .......... .................. ................... 17

Citrus Budwood Registration Program ..................... ..................... 26

The Fruit Fly Detection Program --........-- ......-------..................... 30

Imported Fire Ant and White-Fringed Beetle ................................. 36

Grades and Standards .......-- ........... ....................... .............. 39

Turfgrass Certification Program .................................................... 41

Training School .................................... .................... 44

Fruit and Vegetable Certification ......................... ...--- -.... .............. 45

Port Inspection and Enforcement of Foreign Plant Quarantines.... 47

APIARY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT ..... ....................... .........-..... 49

ENTOMOLOGY DEPARTMENT ...... . ........... ......-............. ........... 53

PLANT PATHOLOGY DEPARTMENT ...................................... 77

NEMATOLOGY DEPARTMENT .....--- ----------- -.......................... ...... .. 95

Section I. Gainesville Laboratory ...............- ....... .......- ....... 95

Section II. Winter Haven Laboratory .............. ..-..... ...... .......... 104

STAFF PUBLICATIONS ....... ................... ............. 112

Report of the State Plant Board of Florida


Gainesville, Florida
November 15, 1960
To His Excellency
LeRoy Collins
Governor of Florida
SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the State Plant
Board for the biennium ending June 30, 1960. Please submit
this report to the Legislature.
By: RALPH L. MILLER, Chairman


The biennial report of the State Plant Board is submitted here-
with for the information of the executive and legislative branches
of the State, as well as for the citizens of Florida.
Only one change was made in the membership of the State
Plant Board during the biennium. Hon. William C. Gaither of
Miami resigned and the vacancy was filled by Governor Collins
with the appointment of Hon. Frank M. Buchanan of Miami.
Reappointed by Governor Collins for full terms of four years each
were Dr. Ralph L. Miller of Orlando, Hon. James D. Camp, Sr.,
of Fort Lauderdale, Hon. S. Kendrick Guernsey of Jacksonville,
and Hon. James J. Love of Quincy. Continuing to serve appoint-
ments made in the previous biennium were Hon. J. J. Daniel of
Jacksonville and Hon. Joe K. Hays of Winter Haven. Mr. Hays
served as chairman during the first year of the present biennium.
Dr. J. Broward Culpepper of Tallahassee continued in the ca-
pacity of Secretary of the State Plant Board.
Undoubtedly, the most important action during the period
was that of the 1959 Legislature in reorganizing the Florida De-
partment of Agriculture. finder this reorganization plan, which
is scheduled to become effective in January 1961, the Depart-
ment of Agriculture will absorb the duties and staff personnel

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

of the State Plant Board, which is to be designated thereafter
as the Division of Plant Industry.1
This move will relieve the State Board of Control of the added
responsibility as governing body of the State Plant Board, and
will delegate such authority to a Technical Committee composed
of representatives of various agricultural industries. Five of
the six members of this committee also will serve on the advisory
council to the Commissioner of Agriculture.
Another noteworthy item during the biennium was the de-
cision of the State Plant Board to test a chemical treating method
recommended by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
for the in-place treatment of citrus trees infested with spread-
ing decline. Continued research will be needed to determine effi-
ciency and capabilities of this method. The previous program
of pushing out diseased trees and treating the soil with a fumi-
gant was used only on a limited basis.
A rare Cuban May beetle, Phyllophaga bruneri Chapin, ap-
peared in the United States for the first time in the Miami area
as another of the highlights of the biennial period. Hoja blanca,
the white-leaf virus of rice plants, was declared a public nuisance
and subjected to quarantine, while the State Plant Board intensi-
fied a hunt for any evidence in Florida of the Khapra beetle, a
serious pest of stored grain.
California authorities removed the requirement that all citrus
fruit shipped into that state from Florida must be fumigated.
The title of the Citrus Budwood Certification Program was
changed officially to the Citrus Budwood Registration Program
and a foundation planting of approximately 20 acres was estab-
lished, containing trees produced from the best bud strains of
a number of citrus varieties.
The Chairman and other members of the State Plant Board
are grateful for advice and aid from the Governor and members
of his Cabinet; the Director of the Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station and his associates; the Director of the Florida
Agricultural Extension Service and his associates; the Chief
and Associate Chiefs of the Plant Quarantine Division and the
Plant Pest Control Division, United States Department of Agri-
culture; the Chairman and members of the Florida Agricultural
Council; and the Collector and Assistant Collector of Customs of
the Florida District. Respectfully submitted,

By: RALPH L. MILLER, Chairman

Report of the Plant Commissioner

For Biennium Ending June 30, 1960

Gainesville, Florida
November 15, 1960
Honorable Ralph L. Miller, Chairman
State Plant Board of Florida
SIR: I have the honor to present herewith my report as Plant
Commissioner for the biennium ending June 30, 1960.
Plant Commissioner

This is the final biennial report to be submitted concerning ac-
tivities of the State Plant Board. On January 15, 1961, the State
Plant Board will become the Division of Plant Industry of the
Florida Department of Agriculture. As a consequence, reports
thereafter will be submitted to the office of the Commissioner of
The past biennium has been another of change, both in activi-
ties and in personnel.
During the two-year period, the State Plant Board withdrew
from participation in a cooperative program with the United
States Department of Agriculture for the eradication of the im-
ported fire ant and the white-fringed beetle, and temporarily
suspended the push-and-treat method of containing spreading
decline disease in citrus.
At the same time, plans were completed for a return to a sur-
vey program for determining the commercial citrus tree popu-
lation of the state.
The decision to drop the fire ant campaign followed realization
that not enough funds were available to effect complete eradica-
tion of the pest in Florida. Lack of funds created similar prob-
lems in the other southeastern states where the ant is consid-
ered a threat to agriculture.

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

The push-and-treat method of eliminating the burrowing nema-
tode responsible for spreading decline was suspended and the
State Plant Board began tests to determine the merit of a chem-
ical treatment devised by the University of Florida Citrus Ex-
periment Station at Lake Alfred. The idea of treating trees in-
place and without serious damage assuredly offers more appeal
than does a method whereby infested trees are destroyed and
the soil fumigated before replanting is permitted. Push-and-
treat was recommended by the Citrus Experiment Station as the
only known method of controlling the burrowing nematode in
citrus and has served effectively in containing the disease pend-
ing the discovery of a more efficient and less drastic method.
The State Plant Board intends to continue push-and-treat on a
limited scale as protection for commercial citrus areas threatened
by spreading decline.
The citrus industry urged the State Plant Board to resume the
survey of commercially planted trees in an effort to keep cur-
rent the results of an earlier census. The first survey was com-
pleted in 1957, but the totals were altered in many instances by
the killing freeze of 1957-58. The new census, which will re-
quire five years for completion, is scheduled to begin in the next
The fruit fly trapping program, which was born during the
1956 invasion of Florida by the Mediterranean fruit fly, was
streamlined during the biennium into an efficient operation of
approximately 8,000 traps. Baits in use are considered attrac-
tive to at least six major fruit flies that could be dangerous
to Florida agriculture. The federal-state trap line is rated second
only to the federal quarantine service as a line of defense against
invasion by a serious insect pest.
Size and scope of the branch unit at Winter Haven was in-
creased with the addition of a screenhouse for use in the Citrus
Budwood Registration Program. A security fence was erected
around all buildings and equipment areas.
Further expansion of the Winter Haven facility is planned,
including a building to house offices and personnel of the Citrus
Budwood Registration Program. Present quarters for this pro-
gram must be vacated by 1962. Plans also are being discussed
for construction of a building in Gainesville to contain State
Plant Board headquarters offices and personnel. The Gainesville
staff presently occupies two floors in the University of Florida's
off-campus Seagle Building.
Vacancies in the State Plant Board's field forces, caused by

State Plant Board of Florida

resignations of personnel, were filled by graduates of the Board's
training school at Winter Haven. Most of the men who have
completed the training course are college graduates with degrees
in agriculture.

A statement in regard to the funds available for the Board's
use during 1958-59 and 1959-60, as appropriated by the Legis-
lature and released by the Budget Commission, is as follows:

Table 1. Resources
Balance Total
Forward 1958-59 1959-60 Biennium

General Revenue
General Activities
Salaries ............................ $..
Expense ..-----.........----..--..
Refunds ...................-
Operating Capital Outlay..
Security Fence ................


Purchase of Jeeps ......... 000
Apiarian Indemnities ........ 13,486
Total ---- ---............................$ 20,708
Mediterranean Fruit Fly
Salaries ..................................$ 000
Expense ................................ 000
Total ..............................----$ 000
Spreading Decline
(Lump Sum) ......................$1,092,143
Imported Fire Ant and
White-Fringed Beetle
(Lump Sum) .....................---- 487,897

Spreading Decline: Research
and Study (Lump Sum)..$ 95,749
Total General Revenue
(Operating) ......................$1,696,497
Agency Fund
Nursery Inspection Fees
Receipts ..................-- .... $ 97,085
Trust Fund
Infestation Fund ............$ 26,294
Grand Total-All Funds ......$1,819,876

$ 635,120
$ 832,894

$ 68,287
$ 184,888

$ 704,392

$ 000

$ 000

$ 1,345,791
$ 1,887,979

$ 68,287
$ 184,888

$ 000 $1,050,877 $ 2,143,020

$ 000 $ 300,000 $ 787,897

$ 000


$ 38,148


$ 133,897

$ 5,137,681

$ 56,358 $ 71,008 $ 224,451

$ 189

$ 000

$ 26,483
$ 5,388,615

Twenty-Third Biennial Report


Expenditures of the Board for each year of the biennium are
shown in the following table:

Table 2. Expenditures

1958-59 Capital
Salaries Expense Outlay Total

General Revenue
General Activities
1. Plant Commissioner's
Office .......... ...............
2. General Expense .........
3. Plant Inspection
Department .........-- .....
4. Quarantine Inspection
Department .........-.....
5. Entomology
Department .........--....
6. Plant Pathology
Department .................
7. Nematology
Department ...................
8. Apiary Inspection
Department ...........
General Activities...

$ 45,984






53,582 9,257

47,864 8,018

18,228 1,098

38,235 21,270

.$ 579,463 $ 140,860

$ 499 $ 52,981
000 19,645

4,422 419,298

000 35,498

3,198 66,307

3,080 58,962

000 19,326

000 59,505

$ 11,199 $ 731,522

Spreading Decline
Eradication ..........
Mediterranean Fruit Fly
Survey ........................

.$ 34,395

.$ 37,121

Imported Fire Ant and
White-Fringed Beetle ....$ 104,146
Spreading Decline:
Research and Study .... $ 23,948
Indemnities for
Destruction of Bees ......$ 000
Total General Revenue
(Operating) ..................$ 779,073
Agency Fund
Nursery Inspection Fees ......$ 28,409
Trust Fund
Emergency Infestation Fund-$ 000

Total All Funds
(Operating) ........

$ 57,977

$ 32,463

$ 321,565

$ 22,815

$ 7,016

$ 582,696

$ 000

$ 000

$ 2,005

$ 10,838

$ 000

$ 24,042

$ 92,372

$ 69,584

$ 427,716

$ 57,601

$ 7,016

$ 1,385,811

$ 63,150 $ 3,336 $ 94,895

$ 189

$ 807,482 $ 646,035

$ 000

$ 27,378

$ 189

$ 1,480,895


State Plant Board of Florida

Table 2. Expenditures-(Cont.)

1959-60 Capital
Salaries Expense Outlay Total

General Revenue
General Activities
1. Plant Commissioner's
Office .......................-........$ 45,344
2. General Expense ----...... 000
3. Plant Inspection
(a) Grove and Nursery 363,324
(b) Citrus Budwood
Registration ............ 27,329
(c) Mediterranean
Fruit Fly Survey.... 34,527
4. Entomology
Department ................ 56,573
5. Plant Pathology
Department .................. 52,888
6. Nematology
Department ................... 16,416
7. Apiary Inspection
Department -----......-.-- 41,748

$ 6,526








General Activities ..$ 638,149 $ 184,755
Spreading Decline
Eradication ......................$ 27,196 $ 161,937
Security Fence ...-....................$ 000 $ 000
Spreading Decline:
Research and Study ......$ 825 $ 3,818
Imported Fire Ant and
White-Fringed Beetle ....$ 79,568 $ 60,671
Apiarian Indemnities ............$ 000 $ 7,496
Total General Revenue
(Operating) ..............$ 745,738 $ 418,677
Agency Fund
Nursery Inspection Fees ......$ 28,108 $ 25,817
Total All Funds
(Operating) -................$ 773,846 $ 444,494

939 $ 52,809
000 29,787







2,466 69,374

2,798 65,887



$ 24,663

$ 2,339
$ 1,770

$ 5,684

$ 2,225

$ 000

$ 36,681



$ 847,567

$ 191,472

$ 1,770

$ 10,327

$ 142,464

$ 7,496

$ 1,201,096

$ 2,409 $ 56,334

$ 39,090 $ 1,257,430

Total All Expenditures 1958-59 ............................. .......................$ 1,480,895
Total All Expenditures 1959-60 ........................--- .............-........ 1,257,430

Grand Total (Biennium) .............................. ........................$ 2,738,325

Twenty-Third Biennial Report


The Plant Commissioner presents herewith the estimates he
believes to be necessary to carry out the Board's activities in a
satisfactory manner during the two years of biennium 1961-63.

Table 3. Estimates
1961-62 Capital
Salaries Expense Outlay Total

Operating Funds by
Division Director's Office
General Expense .............
Plant Inspection Section:
Nursery Inspection ......
Mediterranean Fruit
Fly Survey ............. ..
Citrus Budwood
Registration ..............
Grove Inspection ...........
Entomology Section ........
Plant Pathology Section ...
Nematology Section ..........
Apiary Inspection Section.

$ 67,740 $ 11,500
000 39,700

S387,450 88,250

40,560 17,300

39,012 21,850
37,920 10,450
63,520 13,000
57,120 15,400
28,448 3,150
57,948 6,400

Total General Activities.$ 779,718
Speading Decline
Eradication ............-.........$ 46,922

Total General Revenue..$ 826,640

Agency Fund
Nursery Inspection Fees:
Grades and Standards ......$ 18,180
Turf Grass Certification.... 11,460

Total Agency Fund ........$ 29,640

Total ..............................$.. 856,280

$ 227,000

$ 240,195

$ 467,195

$ 35,200

$ 40,200

$ 507,395

Salaries Expense

Operating Funds by
Division Director's Office ......$ 70,532
General Expense .................... 000
Plant Inspection Section:
Nursery Inspection ......... 411,945


11,950 $ 2,515
37,500 500

88,750 4,765

$ 663




$ 76,000

$ 15,000

$ 91,000

$ 2,500

$ 2,500

$ 93,500


$ 79,903




$ 1,082,718

$ 302,117

$ 1,384,835

$ 55,880

$ 72,340

$ 1,457,175




State Plant Board of Florida

Table 3. Estimates-(Cont.)

1962-63 Capital
Salaries Expense Outlay Total

Mediterranean Fruit
Fly Survey ......................
Citrus Budwood
Registration ...... ........
Grove Inspection .........-....
Entomology Section .............
Plant Pathology Section ........
Nematology Section ........
Apiary Inspection Section ....



Total General Activities..$ 822,338
Spreading Decline
Eradication ......................$ 48,451

Total General Revenue..$ 870,789
Agency Fund
Nursery Inspection Fees:
Grades and Standards ......$ 18,900
Turf Grass Certification.... 12,100
Total Agency Fund --... ..$ 31,020

Total ..............................-...$ 901,809

Grand Total (Biennium)

18,000 11,600


$ 227,000

$ 240,197

$ 467,197

$ 31,200

$ 36,200
$ 503,397


$ 46,100

$ 30,000

$ 76,100

$ 3,500

$ 3,500

$ 79,600



$ 1,095,438

$ 318,648

$ 1,414,086

$ 53,600

$ 70,720
$ 1,484,806

....$1,758,089 $1,010,792 $ 173,100 $ 2,941,981


Summary of Proposed Building and Improvements for the 1961-63 Biennium


Estimated Cost

1. Headquarters Building, Gainesville ..........................
2. Addition to Laboratory and Office Building,
W inter H aven ......................--- ..-.......-..-...... ...........
3. Addition to Archer Road Laboratory, Gainesville ......

Total --.. ...------------.....- ..... ......




Plant Inspection Department

PAUL E. FRIERSON, Chief Plant Inspector

In the 1956-1958 Biennial Report it was predicted that the
nursery industry would make a rapid recovery from the near
disastrous freeze of 1957-1958. This period's biennial report
certainly confirms these observations, with every category, ex-
cepting citrus stock, showing increases over the previous bi-
The amount of nursery stock under inspection at the time of
inventory increased from 387,973,604 to 439,471,618 during this
period. The total number of nurseries also showed an increase,
4,778 to 5,417. Most significant was the fact that the average
number of inspections made per nursery increased from 1.90 in
1957-1958 to 2.90 in 1959-1960. This is the highest average
attained since the department was reorganized in 1952-1953,
but is not considered to be adequate for every section of the
The increase in the number of inspections is attributed to an
increase in the plant inspection field force. Twelve new em-
ployees completed the Plant Board's training school and were
assigned to inspection duty.
However, this factor was offset by the 639 additional nurs-
eries, and by an increase in duties which include citrus bud-
wood registration, nursery site approval with regard to spread-
ing decline, fruit and vegetable certification, grades and stand-
ards, etc.
The nursery inspection activities during the biennium can
best be summarized in the following tables and charts.

1957-1958 1958-1959 1959-1960

Number of Plant Inspection
Districts ................. ..................... 31 32 41
Number of Nurseries in State .... 4,778 5,126 5,417
Average Number of Inspections
per Nursery ......................-- ......... 1.9 2.17 2.90
Total Number of Inspections
of Nursery Stock .................. 10,856 13,727 20,536
Total Acreage of Nurseries
in the State ................................ 8,546 9,221 9,745
Total Amount of Nursery Stock
in the State ................................. 387,973,604 434,392,103 439,471,618

State Plant Board of Florida

Number of Nurseries Under Inspection by Type

Type 1958-1959 1959-1960

Citrus ....................... ...... ..................... 1,316 1,393
Ornam mental ............................................................. 2,553 2,625
General .....................--....-.... ..... ..................... 56 29
Citrus and Ornamental ......- ------.-------------........ 286 333
Citrus and General ................ .............. 17 18
Ornamental and General ...........................--............. 376 454
Citrus, Ornamental and General ..........--- ................... 522 565

TOTA L ........................................... ....... 5,126 5,417

Approximate Acreage and Amount of Nursery Stock
As Compared With the Two Previous Years

Kind of 1957-1958 1958-1959 1959-1960
Acres Plants Acres | Plants I Acres | Plants

Orange .......---.... 1,554.16 8,382,894 1,772.81 7,846,943 2,174.85 9,692,488
Grapefruit .......... 92.83 261,955 110.59 378,440 159.31 634,513
Tangerine .......... 43.30 194,587 74.52 297,913 92.92 416,604
Tangelo .............. 27.23 104,029 19.49 70,320 32.90 118,570
Satsuma .......--.. 25.38 79,072 25.55 40,472 28.08 83,174
Lemon ....... 16.21 115,064 16.80 125,774 18.75 192,731
Lime .. ............. 8.83 84,465 13.10 99,836 9.90 90,086
Citrus ............ 34.42 144,343 31.84 318,390 52.72 305,446
Seedlings ...... 1,193.22 25,374,650 1,397.84 20,054,875 876.96 17,528,410

Total Citrus ...... 2,995.58 34,741,059 3,462.54 29,232,963 3,446.39 29,062,022

Ornamental ...... 5,087.731351,146,767 5,343.02 402,927,776 6,061.25 409,423,090
General -..-........ 463.04 2,085,778 415.44 2,231,364 238.29 986,506

Non-citrus ........ 5,550.77 353,232,545 5,758.46 405,159,140 6,299.54 410,409,596

Grand Total ...... 8,546.35 387,973,60419,221.00 434,392,103 9,745.93 439,471,618
I I_ I I

Twenty-Third Biennial Report 15

Citrus Stock Movement
As Compared With Two Previous Years


Orange ..........-........
Grapefruit ..................... ---.
Tangerine ...........---...
Tangelo ...........-- ....
Satsuma .........-.......... -----
Lemon ......................-- ---
Lim e ......... -.... ...... ...
M miscellaneous .......-........-
Seedlings .....-.. .......


1957-1958 1958-1959 1959-1960

S 942,938 2,356,432 2,092,313
........... 37,927 105,773 136,381
41,605 116,011 231,117
31,115 55,789 69,137
8,586 7,934 17,831
33,822 115,455 56,907
............ 7,108 45,553 14,860
-- 8,752 25,576 30,635
..... 2,399,236 2,750,122 7,466,889

3,511,089 5,578,645 10,116,070

Miscellaneous Bulbs and Plants Inspected
(Not Included as Nursery Stock)

1958-1959 1959-1960
Variety No. | Acre- No.Plants[ No. IAcre- INo. Plants
Farms* age or Bulbs Farms*, age or Bulbs

Amaryllis ...... 78 49.64' 1,029,477 11 56.88 1,235,296
Caladium ....... 137 617.80 25,342,743 83 604.23 27,090,585
Chrysanthemum. 33 295.76 31,965,355 25 292.22 20,393,935
Easter Lily ....... 14 24.11 487,055 13 44.50 1,250,000
Ferns ..............397 664.57 63,039,799 66 588.01 45,698,608
Gladiolus ............. 36 5,232.12 162,960,750 26 5,120.21 218,535,335
Hemerocallis ...... 82 18.91 682,800 12 15.88 252,277
Narcissus ............ 1 10.00 6,430,000 1 6.00 2,300,000
Bulbs and I I
Plants .............. 508 148.98 60,092,079 21 125.34 15,781,979
Cabbage ............... 10 51.10 24,008,568 3 122.24 16,093,000
Tobacco ................ 26 546.00 264,400,000 32 424.00 210,894,000
Tomato ................ 86 1,582.59 210,824,285 27 821.48 86,332,445
Corn ..................... 13 7,580.00 16 15,473.00
Sod ....................... 6 271.01 7 764.82

Total ................

.... 1,427* 17,092.59 851,262,911

343* 24,458.81 645,857,460

Prior to the 1959-1960 period, regular nurseries were generally included in the total
farm count if they were handling any volume of miscellaneous stock. Beginning with the
1959-1960 period only bona fide growers of the type of stock listed above are included in
the total farm count. This explains the wide difference between the two periods in the total
number of farms.

State Plant Board of Florida

1950-51 to 1959-60

1950-51 to 1959-60

1950-51 1951-52

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

Million 1950-51 to 1959-60 lionn
500 500
Lo5 0 --450
500 -- -- 400
350- 350
30 -~- 300

250 -- 250
200 -- 200
150 -- 150
100-- -- 100
50 - 50
0 |10
1950-51 1951-52 1952-53 1953-54 1954-55 1955-56 1956-57 1957-58 1953-59 1959-60


JAMES M. MCNAMEE, Special Inspector

Spreading decline remains the most serious disease which the
citrus industry has faced. It is caused by a tiny parasitic worm,
the burrowing nematode (Radopholus similis (Cobb) Thorne),
which attacks the feeder roots of citrus trees and causes a de-
cline in fruit production. As the name implies, the spread of this
pest from tree to tree is the principal concern of the industry
and the major problem of control.
The push-and-treat program was designed to limit the spread of
the burrowing nematode until a less drastic treatment had been
developed through research work. This program consists of de-
limiting the infested area by collecting and examining root sam-
ples and visual inspection of the trees; pushing the trees found
infected; and fumigating the soil. A period of clean cultivation
of six months is recommended, with a total waiting period of
two years before the area may be replanted. Periodic examina-
tions of the margin areas are made to determine the continued
presence of the pest.
Since the beginning of the program, 5,280 acres have been
pushed and treated. It is estimated that approximately 5,000
acres remain to be treated.
The 1958-1960 biennium began with the State Plant Board
administered push-and-treat program at a complete standstill,

State Plant Board of Florida

pending the results of court action. However, the period ended
on an optimistic note with the promise of the long awaited in-
place treatment of trees by means of a chemical destructive to
the burrowing nematode, and yet safe to citrus trees.
In the spring of 1958, W. A. Smith of Winter Haven had tested
the legislative limit that could be paid on compensation.
On July 11, 1958, Circuit Judge Gunter Stephenson ruled that
the $1,000 per acre limitation on compensation in the 1957 Act
was unconstitutional. However, the right to destroy trees in
the public interest was upheld, where agreement to just com-
pensation for all trees destroyed was reached.
During the summer of 1958, push-and-treat activities were re-
stricted almost entirely to the treatment of small marginal areas
on a volunteer basis. Further compensation was not made, as
most growers were unwilling to accept payments based on "loss
of profits," and no provisions had been made in the original ap-
propriation to pay for diseased trees. Due to the limited activity
and lack of interest by commercial bulldozer contractors, the
State Plant Board did most of this work with its own burrowing
nematode program personnel and equipment.
Once again, the maturing of the citrus crop in the fall brought
push-and-treat work to a stop.
The spring of 1959 was marked by the usual heavy increase
in volunteer participation in the push-and-treat program.
Volunteer donations made by interested growers were used to
secure additional legal assistance for the Attorney General's
office in filing an appeal of the Stephenson decision to the Su-
preme Court. On March 25, 1959, the Florida Supreme Court
upheld the lower court.
The 1959 Legislature rewrote the Burrowing Nematode Act
to agree with the most recent Supreme Court ruling, and this
Act was allowed to become law without the governor's signature.
A total of $1,013,000 remaining of the original 1957 appropri-
ation was made available for continuing the spreading decline
In view of the ruling by the Supreme Court in regard to com-
pensation and the expected high payments for both healthy and
diseased trees, a re-evaluation of the program proved necessary.
It was proposed that volunteer push-and-treat work be combined
with mandatory buffer zones, with area eradication or contain-
ment as the ultimate end.

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

An intensified program of contacting growers was initiated,
in hopes of arriving at fair prices for compensation. Attempts
were made to contract for at least enough trees to furnish pro-
tection, through placement of barriers, for those negative or
cleaned up properties most seriously threatened by the spread of
the nematode. In nearly every case, unrealistically high prices
were asked for even the most heavily infected trees. Most of
these were based, no doubt, upon the very favorable fruit prices
in recent years. Payment of these demands would have quickly
exhausted all available funds.
On July 17, 1959, the United States Department of Agricul-
ture suspended all survey work in regard to push-and-treat activ-
ities. The reason given for this action was the failure of the
Board to continue on an area clean-up basis. Actually, the action
was precipitated when the Board restricted a certain type of vol-
unteer participation, where the decline was confined solely to
one property, and not an immediate threat to adjoining property.
Funds were limited at that time, and in view of the heavy de-
mands for compensation, it seemed desirable to restrict most of
the work to areas critically in need of barrier protection to pre-
vent reinfestation or initial infection.
Temporary withdrawal of Federal participation followed. This
drastic curtailment of survey activities came at a time of year
when most of the push-and-treat work is accomplished without
conflicting with fruit maturity. Inspections of nurseries re-
quired for out-of-state shipments were continued, and provisions
were made to process samples taken by State Plant Board per-
sonnel. Margin inspection of areas ready for replanting and
other critical inspections, such as inspection of nurseries and
approval of proposed nursery sites, were made by Plant Board
men. What little push-and-treat activity continued was done
with the aid of maps in preparation at the time the United States
Department of Agriculture withdrew from the program.
After a number of meetings of industry leaders and Depart-
ment of Agriculture and State Plant Board officials, it was agreed
to continue the proposed combination volunteer and buffer zone
program. A public hearing was scheduled for November 10,
1959, fulfilling the law in regard to promulgating rules and reg-
ulations, and the program was accepted with only minor changes.
On October 13, 1959, the Department of Agriculture re-entered
the program and since has struggled under an extremely heavy
work load of delimiting requests and margin examinations.


Burrowing Nematode Inspections (New)


Citrus I Ornamental Citrus and Orn.

I Total Pos.

Alachua ........ ............ 2
Baker ....... ...... .......... -
Brevard .................... 22 -
Broward ..................... 2 -
Citrus .......-................ 3 -
Collier ....................... 1-
Dade .......................... 3 -
DeSoto .........-............. 17 3
Duval ......................... 1 -
Glades ................ ...... -
Hardee ................... 62 6
Hendry ........-........-. 3 1
Hernando ...... ........ 13 -
Highlands ............. 7 -
Hillsborough ........-. 107 5
Indian River ......... 15
Jefferson ................. 4
Lake ......................- 237 16
Lee .............. ........... -

Total Pos. Total

1 -
5 -

11 3 2

17 2 6
5 -
5 -

22 -
11 2
1 1 -

7 4
-- -

Pos. Insp. |


1 1

- -

- i
-- 1
- 20

1 100












-- Cl
- 0o
1 "



2 R



TABLE I-(Continued)

County Citrus
Total ]

Levy ....-..... ......
Manatee ...................... 11
M arion .......................... 66
M artin .......... .. ......... 1
Okeechobee .................. -
Okaloosa .................... -
Orange ............. ....... 95
Osceola ....................... 22
Palm Beach ................ -
Pasco ............................ 84
Pinellas ........................ 2
Polk ............................. 223
Putnam ....................... 19
St. Lucie .................... 21
Sarasota ................... 1
Seminole ...................... 21
Sumter ........................ 8
Union ..........----.........------
Volusia ....................... 28

TOTALS .................... I 1101


Ornamental Citrus and
Total Pos. Total

5 1 1
2 -
4 -- --

58 13 5

2 1











- I
- I









Pos. Insp. Pos. Insp.

3 7
3 18
1- -

3 20 1 93
3 14
2 4
-7 1 27
1 3 1
619 172 121
2 1 3
3 8

1 30
1 _35

8 862 197 761




-- .




State Plant Board of Florida

Program Notes
On January 29, 1960, the Citrus Experiment Station issued a
preliminary report on a promising new in-place treatment of
citrus trees affected with spreading decline. The treatment in-
volves a short term intensive application of a nematocide that is
relatively non-phytotoxic. An emulsifiable liquid of 1,2-dibromo-
3-chloropropane (DBCP) is applied three times, at four-week in-
tervals, with standard irrigation equipment. Each application
during the spring of 1959 was at the rate of four gallons technical
material. The Citrus Station reports a readily observable im-
provement in the appearance of 7-year-old infected trees by mid-
summer. The burrowing nematode population in these trees
was reduced materially; however, the nematodes were not erad-
icated. The Station report cautions against drawing unwar-
ranted conclusions from this report, as much additional data
must be collected and analyzed before the treatment can be fully
The State Plant Board, in close cooperation with the Citrus
Station and interested growers, has established 17 test blocks
totaling approximately 30 acres, using this new treatment. It
is believed these blocks supplementing additional treatments by
the Station will furnish the necessary data for thoroughly ex-
ploring this new means of nematode control.
In addition, 27 properties totaling 154 acres are under treat-
ment by growers. The State Plant Board is furnishing spe-
cial application equipment and supervision of the field opera-
tion. These growers are furnishing water, labor to move the
pipe, and material. Such large-scale trials will furnish additional
information of benefit to the entire industry. At this time, it
is impossible to report results of this work, as follow-up sampling
has not been initiated. At least a year will be required before
results are available.
Continued survey of properties has been made, principally in
areas subject to exposure by known positive properties or in-
fested nursery stock. Inspections made on requests by growers
owning suspicious areas have revealed the presence of the pest.
The stepped-up search for potential nursery sites has revealed
the nematode in areas once believed free. The current situation,
as of June 30, 1960, is shown in Table I.

Twenty-Third Biennial Report 23

Constant study of survey procedures has been continued and a
new improved auger for collection of root samples is now in gen-
eral service. This auger permits samples to be taken from a
depth of 5 feet, whereas formerly 3-4 feet was the maximum
depth. Refinements to fumigation equipment have been adapted
as developed, including a sweep-type packing device to level and
pack the soil behind the fumigation.
Research on herbicides in connection with clean cultivation of
treated properties is continuing. However, high cost of treat-
ment remains the principal limiting factor.
An intensive survey of pushed-and-treated properties revealed
an almost complete disregard, on the part of owners, of the rec-
ommendation to maintain clean cultivation of the area. Refumi-
gation of occasional lemon sprouts was accomplished at this time.
A detailed survey of treated soil was also made by collecting soil
samples and planting corn in the soil as a bioassay. Discovery
of occasional pockets of burrowing nematode on wild hosts
among the volunteer cover crop pointed out the need for rigid
adherence to clean cultivation. These finds were also refumi-
gated as discovered.
A total of 561 acres was fumigated during this biennium. This
represents 84 new properties and 102 additional areas in connec-
tion with recurrences or reinfection of previously treated prop-
erties. Total treatment to date is 5,280 acres, as shown in the
following table:
Total Number of Properties Treated Since July 1, 1955
County Properties Acres
Charlotte .................- ......... 1 40
D eSoto ................ ... ............. 1 7
Highlands ............................ 110 1,178
Hillsborough ........................ 5 116
Lake ................. ..................... 47 262
Orange ......................- ........ .. 23 135
Pasco .......................... ......... 3 20
Pinellas .......... ........................ 2 10
Polk ........................... ............ 462 3,512
Total .................. .. ............... 654 5,280

Margin inspections have been continued and recurrences con-
tinue to appear in approximately one-third of the properties. The
actual number of infested trees found was slightly over 3 per
cent of the total trees inspected. This points out the need for
improved survey techniques, particularly where low populations
of the burrowing nematode are present. A total of 2,307 acres

State Plant Board of Florida

may be considered as released for replanting. These properties
have been pushed-and-treated for at least two years and have had
the equivalent of at least two negative margin inspections.
Replanted trees in pushed-and-treated areas were sampled.
Twenty-five properties representing 132 acres were found nega-
tive. Approximately 40 per cent of all trees were sampled.
Eighteen properties totaling 261 acres were found to contain
from 1 to as many as 69 positive trees. An average of 52 per
cent of all trees was sampled.
Eight DD barriers, totaling 8,675 lineal feet, were installed to
prevent the spread of the burrowing nematode from an infested
property to a neighboring property. Most of these barriers were
placed on the property of the party desiring protection and com-
pensation was not required. An approximate width of 100 feet
has been maintained. These barriers will be refumigated an-
nually and further techniques developed to improve their effi-
ciency. DBCP was used to establish buffer zones similar to the
barriers mentioned above without removing trees. Three buff-
ers, totaling 3,160 lineal feet, have been treated. These were
also 100 feet wide and placed on the offending positive prop-
erty. In all but one case, permission has been granted freely
to use the DBCP buffer.
As directed by the Legislature, compensation has been paid
to those growers whose trees were pushed without their permis-
sion during 1956. In all but two cases, speedy amicable settle-
ment was reached through personal contact and mutual agree-
ment. Twenty-nine properties, totaling 213 acres, were compen-
sated for at an average of $372 per acre.
A total of 2,756,726 citrus and ornamental plants were hot
water-treated as a service to the grower. In addition, 233,775
specialty items, principally caladium bulbs, were hot water-treat-
ed in the State Plant Board machine, at the grower's expense.
The growers report outstanding improvement in response where
root-knot nematode damage was reduced by hot water treatment.
A state-wide total of 1,264 citrus nursery sites has been ap-
proved since the inception of this procedure. A number of site
approvals were revoked when not planted within a reasonable
time. It is felt that periodic reviews of all approved sites must
be made, so as to insure having the latest information available,
and to detect any threat to the integrity of the location.
A total of 113 quarantined citrus nurseries were cleaned up
during the biennium and no longer represent a threat to the citrus

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

At present, the United States Department of Agriculture is in
the process of erecting a combination laboratory and shop build-
ing on the Board's Winter Haven property. This will contribute
much needed space and serve to centralize State and Federal
spreading decline program activities, with a resultant improve-
ment in efficiency.
Real estate and allied inspections still comprise a large portion
of the State Plant Board's work load. Fees for this service total
$20,550. During this biennium 411 inspections were made, cov-
ering 12,486 acres in 16 counties.

Nursery Site Approvals


Alachua ...........-...-- ..
Baker ...................
Brevard .............. .
Charlotte .............
Citrus ----------------------..
Collier ..............
DeSoto ....................
Glades ...-............
Hardee .................
Hendry ... ......
Hernando ...........
Highlands ............
Hillsborough ...-
Indian River .........
Jefferson ..............
L ake .........................
L ee ..........................
Manatee ....................
Marion .....-...............
Martin ..................
Okeechobee .............
Orange ...- .................
Osceola ..................
Pasco ...................
Pinellas ....................
Polk ....... ...........
Putnam ....................
St. Lucie ...........
Seminole ............
Sumter ........... ... -
Volusia .....................

TOTALS ......


No. of





No. of





No. of I




-60 Biennium

No. of No. of No. of
Sites Owners Sites

1* 1 1
2** 2 2
14 27 31
3 4 4
3 9 10
1 1 1
14 26 30
1 2 2
44 71 90
6 8 9
11 22 31
10 23 24
83 157 187
16 24 29
2 3 5
78 157 185
5 6 6
20 28 32
21 38 50
2 2
-- 1 1
38 65 78
11 23 29
42 65 75
2 3 3
80 173 209
5 7 7
21 35 40
18 24 38
4 7 7
24 38 46

580 1,052 1,264

* This site approved for growing pine seedlings.
** One of these sites approved for growing peach nursery stock.


State Plant Board of Florida


G. G. NORMAN, Supervising Inspector

EXPANSION-Participants: Starting with 18 participants
in 1953, the Budwood Program became the world's largest within
two years. Each year since, growth has continued.
Extraordinary as it seemed at the time, the growth of the pro-
gram during its first five years now seems slight in view of the
explosive type of expansion that has occurred during the past
During the five-year period 1953-1958, 88 participants volun-
tarily entered the program. However, from July 1, 1958 to June
30, 1960, 181 participants entered. This is an increase of over
EXPANSION-Tristeza Virus in Registered Parent Trees:
Virus testing in the Budwood Program is based on the assump-
tion that transmissibility of psorosis, xyloporosis, and exocortis
viruses is effected only by "means of living tissue"; i.e., almost
entirely by contaminated budwood.
Unlike these viruses, tristeza, while bud-transmitted, is also
known to be spread by insects. Therefore, control of budwood
cannot prevent tristeza infection in trees. For this reason no
certification for freedom from this disease has ever been at-
tempted in the Budwood Program. However, it has been the
program's policy to test all parent candidate trees for tristeza
at the time they are first entered in the program, and to immedi-
ately discontinue the candidacy of any infected tree.
Some registered parent trees entered in the program in 1953,
tested and found to be negative for tristeza in 1955, are located
in areas of the State where this disease is known to be spreading
by natural means. Beginning in June of 1959, certain parent
trees in these areas were re-tested to see if they had become
infected since the original tests. To date, 19 of 80 parent trees
so re-indexed have been found to be carrying a very mild form of
tristeza virus. (It should be emphasized here that these trees
were selected for re-indexing because they had long been used
as prime sources of budwood and were in an area where insect
infection might be expected to occur. Therefore, a ratio of almost
25% tristeza positive infection is not necessarily representative
of the spread of this virus over the State's citrus plantings, and
should not be so construed.)

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

Examination of uninoculated Orlando tangelo seedlings in the Plant
Board's budwood test plot indicates the possibility that xyloporosis virus
may in some cases be transmitted through seed. To prove that this apparent
transmission was not a result of natural root grafts underground, dirt was
removed from the roots of several suspect seedlings in the manner illus-

State Plant Board of Florida

Once infection had been proven in these trees it became nec-
essary to establish the time of infection, since it would logically
follow that all trees propagated prior to infection of the parents
would be free of this virus, and all trees propagated subsequent
to infection would be infected with this virus. Memoranda is-
sued by the Plant Board to the Citrus Nurserymen's Association
and to all the participants in the Budwood Program immediately
suspended registration of all known infected trees and halted
propagation from both parent and scion trees from these sources
and the sale of all nursery stock from parents or scions suspected
of having been propagated after infection. This suspension was
to remain in force until the exact time of infection of each par-
ent tree was determined. This necessitated the testing of hun-
dreds of scion and nursery trees. However, because of the
program's records system, the location, quantity, date of pro-
pagation, and source of every suspect group was known. Bud-
wood was collected on a sample basis of 5 to 20 per cent of each
group and the prodigious work of testing began. The Florida
Citrus Nurserymen's Association approved, by resolution, the
action taken and wholeheartedly endorsed the policies proposed
and subsequently followed. The nurserymen of the State have
given their complete cooperation to this extensive testing of
large groups of trees scattered all over the State. To date, the
approximate time of infection of each tristeza-infected parent
tree has been established and disposition of each group has been
worked out with the nurserymen concerned to minimize individual
As a consequence of this experience, the Plant Board now
realizes the necessity for continual re-indexing of registered
parent trees in certain areas. Additional greenhouse space has
been provided, greatly increased quantities of test plants have
been secured, and continual re-indexing of all trees used as
sources of budwood will soon be on a yearly basis.
EXPANSION-Foundation Planting: For years, Florida
citrus leaders have recognized the need for a State-maintained
grove to be used as a source of superior bud strains of commercial
citrus varieties. Data accumulated in the first five years of the
program's operation reveal a high general incidence of virus dis-
eases in the State's citrus plantings, further demonstrating the
need for such a bank or repository for budwood.
In March 1958, the Florida State Horticultural Society's Com-
mittee for Budwood Registration appointed a subcommittee to

Twenty-Third Biennial Report


i r l

^ir W

Because of its many desirable qualities, including cold, water, and
foot rot resistance, tolerance to tristeza, and high quality and retention
of the fruit, trifoliata has long been considered to have values as a com-
mercial rootstock in Florida. This tree, a sweet seedling on trifoliata,
is believed to be approximately 100 years old. It is free of symptoms of
exocortis virus, believed to be the principal delimiting factor in the com-
mercial use of this species as a rootstock.


State Plant Board of Florida

consider a foundation stock program for the maintenance and
distribution of virus-free budwood and to report to the general
committee its findings and recommendations for the proposed
planting. The subcommittee's report recommended that a foun-
dation grove be established. It also provided a comprehensive
and detailed proposal for the methods to be used in the selection
and development of the clones, the rootstocks on which they
would be grown, and the methods by which budwood would be
distributed. The recommendations incorporated in this report
were approved, legal authorization was obtained for the Plant
Board to enter this project, and the search for suitable land
In October 1959 the Board of Control made available for Plant
Board use approximately 50 acres of citrus land located eight
miles north of Haines City on U. S. Highway No. 27 at the junc-
tion of Interstate Highway No. 4. Within one month from the
date of the transfer of this property to the Plant Board, 40 acres
had been cleared, plowed, and disked, and 20 acres planted to se-
lected rootstock.
To date, 60 clones of either old line, young line or nucellar seed-
ling line have been propagated on the five different rootstocks
specified. The stocks used are Sour Orange, Cleopatra Mandarin,
Rough Lemon, Trifoliate Orange, and Sweet Lime. Also included
in the planting are 268 four- to five-year-old nucellar seedlings
of standard commercial varieties. Current additional selections
will complete the first unit of 20 acres by the fall of 1960.
This uniform planting will make possible additional selection
and re-selection of each line and critical evaluation and compari-
son of different strains of the same variety from the viewpoint
of vigor, yield, fruit quality, and all other criteria that can be
applied to lead to ultimate superiority of Florida bud strains.

CHARLES POUCHER, Assistant Chief Plant Inspector
The Mediterranean fruit fly is as close to Florida as the next
incoming ship or plane. The flies arrive as larvae in fruits in-
cluded in ships' stores and passengers' baggage, particularly in
sprays of coffee branches containing berries, which appear to
be a favorite host. On a few occasions adults found flying about
inside planes and ships have been killed. On January 29, 1960,
an adult fly was discovered aboard a ship docked at Tampa's
Seddon Island. The State has suffered two destructive invasions

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

of this pest, but it is not known whether they were the result of
the entry of adult flies or of immature stages in fruit. Costs of
eradication work, in each case, amounted to millions of dollars.
During the past biennium, 21 interceptions of the Mediterranean
fruit fly were made at the ports of Florida, as reported by in-
spectors of the United States Department of Agriculture.
Although this particular fruit fly exists in not-so-far-away
Costa Rica and Bermuda, interceptions at United States ports
of entry almost always involve host fruits and vegetables from
far more distant shores.
The ship in the Tampa incident was an Italian motor vessel
that had docked in Sicily, Algeria, and Casablanca, West Mo-
rocco, before its first state-side stop at New York. Aboard in
the ship's commissary were oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and
apples from Italy and oranges from South Africa. The fruit was
sealed in refrigerators, following a routine check by a Depart-
ment of Agriculture inspector, and later hauled out for another
examination when the fly was found. A customs inspector mak-
ing a tour of the ship's salon trapped the adult fly against a
The number of fruit fly traps on Seddon Island was increased
Fruit flies of various genera and species are being detected at
ports of entry by the United States Department of Agriculture
Quarantine Division almost daily. An interception of coffee
berries in a cellophane bag at Miami was of special interest, due
to the number of fruit fly larvae and pupae found. The berries
were from the branch of a coffee tree that an arriving passenger
had broken off while visiting Sao Paulo, Brazil. A detailed exam-
ination of the 222 coffee berries in the bag disclosed 84 larvae
of the Mediterranean fruit fly. One pupa was found attached to
the outside of a berry; the fly inside was fully developed and
ready to emerge. Ten pupae and nine larvae were on the cello-
phane material itself.
Due partly to these finds, there has been a determined effort
by the State Plant Board and Department of Agriculture officials
to maintain as strong a detection trapping program as possible.
Additional traps have been placed around ports of entry, and are
checked each week instead of once every three weeks as formerly.
With 8,039 traps in operation, any reintroduction of a fruit
fly should result in the necessity of quarantine for only a small
area of the State. The ever increasing flow of traffic into south

State Plant Board of Florida

Florida from foreign points of origin places Florida atop a virtual
volcano that can erupt at any time into another wholesale fruit
fly infestation. Around-the-clock arrivals of ships and planes
make it only a matter of time before a new outbreak will occur,
regardless of the efficiency of quarantine and detection pro-
Arrangements have been made with the State Agricultural
Experiment Stations at Lake Alfred, Homestead, and Bradenton
for studies on commodity treatment, in an effort to determine
types of treatment and materials best suited to Florida climatic
conditions. It is hoped that, in the event of another outbreak,
information will be available which will permit the unrestricted
movement of regulated fruit and vegetable crops through rec-
ommended treatment. This type of information was sorely
needed during both invasions of Florida by the Mediterranean
fruit fly.
Isolated Pacific islands are being used by the United States
Department of Agriculture as test plots for new insect control
techniques involving male-fly sterilization and male-fly annihila-
tion which could eradicate both the melon and oriental fruit flies.
The male-fly sterilization plan, involving the release of large
numbers of male flies made sterile by radiation, was used suc-
cessfully in eradicating the cattle screwworm from the island of
Curacao and from the southeastern United States.
Male-fly annihilation involves luring male flies to poisoned
bait with a special attractant. The isolated islands selected are
Rota in the Mariana group, 30 miles from Guam, and the Bonin
Islands, 450 miles south of Japan. Both eradication methods
have been under investigation at Agricultural Research Service
Fruit Fly Laboratories in Hawaii and Mexico. Scientists of the
Service estimate that about 3,000,000 fruit flies will have to be
produced and sterilized each week for distribution by airplanes
on Rota, in order to provide a real test of this control theory. It
may be necessary to continue the distribution of sterile flies for
a year or more to achieve complete eradication of the pests. The
rugged Bonin Islands, with a total land area of about 27 square
miles, are ideally suited for testing the possibilities of control-
ling the oriental fruit fly by the male annihilation technique.
These islands have a natural infestation of this important fruit

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

Research on the strong methyl-eugenol male attractant, which
is eaten avidly by the flies, has progressed sufficiently to indicate
much promise for this approach as a means of eradicating the
oriental fruit fly.
If the Rota and Bonin Islands tests are successful, methods
for eliminating the oriental fruit fly and melon fly from other
insular and continental areas where newly established infesta-
tions occur will have been aptly demonstrated.
Research workers are continuing to develop and improve lures.
When the old synthetic lures were first utilized, they were far
superior to anything else then available, and progress since has
been even greater. Research has now developed an attractant
for melon fly called cue-lure, listed as five to twenty times more
effective than Anisylacetone, which presently is in use. Tri-med-
lure is 35% more effective than ENT 21492, presently used in
combination traps to check for Mediterranean fruit fly and Natal
fly. Both of these lures have been ordered for the trapping
The survey program has consisted almost entirely of an effec-
tive trapping operation involving the use of the Steiner wick-
type plastic trap, maintained on a three-week schedule, except
around ports of entry, where the traps are checked every week.
McPhail glass traps are used for detecting Mexican fruit flies.
In connection with this trapping program, the lures used are
considered attractive to at least six species of fruit flies: Ana-
strepha ludens (Loew) (Mexican fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata
(Wied.) (Mediterranean fruit fly), Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Natal
fruit fly), Dacus cucurbitae Coq. (melon fly), Dacus dorsalis
Hend. (oriental fruit fly), and Strumeta tryoni Froggatt (Queens-
land fruit fly).
The laboratory at Lake Alfred received 316 suspicious-looking
specimens for identification, but none proved to be of the six
species of fruit flies sought in the trapping program. Many of
the specimens were of the family Tephritidae, considered some-
thing of a native to South Florida.

State Plant Board of Florida

PERIOD JULY 1, 1958-JUNE 30, 1960

Anastrepha interrupta Stone
Dade County

Martin County

St. Lucie County
Myoleja limata (Coq.)
Indian River County
Palm Beach County
Paracantha culta (Wied.)
Baker County

Paroxyna sororcula (Wied.)
Broward County
Duval County

Polk County
Tomoplagia obliqua (Say)
Broward County
Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerst.
Dade County

Lee County
Martin County
Palm Beach County

Trupanea mevarna (Wlk.)
Palm Beach County
T. subpura (Johnson)
Dade County

Hendry County
Xanthaciura insect (Loew)
Alachua County
Broward County
Dade County

Duval County
Hendry County
Monroe County

Orange County







Recd. 3-21-60




Opa Locka
Port Sewell
Port Sewell
Port Sewell
Ft. Pierce

Vero Beach
West Palm Beach

Glen St. Mary
Glen St. Mary


Ft. Lauderdale

Key Biscayne
Pine Island
Port Sewell
West Palm Beach
West Palm Beach

West Palm Beach

Indian Reservation

Key Largo
Plantation Key

Twenty-Third Biennial Report 35

Palm Beach County 12-7-59 West Palm Beach
12-7-59 West Palm Beach
10-30-59 West Palm Beach
12-7-59 Riviera Beach
1-4-60 West Palm Beach

Number of Traps Tended at Conclusion of the Biennium

County Combination Traps Mexican Fruit Fly Total
I in Field Traps in Field

Alachua -....................- 46 46
Bay ..................... ...... 10 8 18
Brevard .................. i 130 8 138
Broward ...................... 294 28 322
Charlotte ................. 42 3 45
Citrus .............. ....... 38 38
Clay ............................. 63 63
Collier .......................... 45 7 52
Dade ....................... i 828 98 926
DeSoto ................... I 140 5 145
Duval .......................... 349 25 374
Escambia ................. 16 6 22
Flagler ....................... 10 10
Franklin ..................... 10 10
Glades ................ i 39 39
Gulf ............................ 3 3
Hardee ....................... 192 7 199
Hendry ....................... 30 2 32
Hernando ................... 62 62
Highlands ................. 203 10 213
Hillsborough .............. 650 31 681
Indian River .............. 126 5 131
Lake ........... .......... 393 10 403
Lee ............--- .. -........ ... 151 16 167
Levy .......................... 9 9
Manatee ..................... 439 24 463
Marion .................... 157 157
M artin ....................... 50 5 55
Monroe ............. ....- 37 10 47
Nassau ........................ 44 44
Okaloosa .................... 19 5 24
Okeechobee ................ 23 23
Orange ....-..... ........... 464 18 482
Osceola ....................... 81 6 87
Palm Beach ............- i 289 31 320
Pasco ......... ............... 280 6 286
Pinellas ........ .......... ... 329 21 350
Polk .............................. 610 25 635
Putnam ........................ 57 57
St. Johns .................... 107 107
St. Lucie .................. | 100 5 105
Sarasota ........... 326 15 341
Seminole ................. 145 5 150
Sumter ........................ 44 44
Volusia .................. 107 6 113
W alton ...................... 1 1

46 Counties .............. I 7,588 451 8,039

State Plant Board of Florida


C. E. SHEPARD, Assistant Chief Plant Inspector

It was initially estimated that approximately 700,000 acres
were in what was known as the generally infested area as far
as the imported fire ant was concerned, and 45,000 acres known
to be infested with the white-fringed beetle within fire ant-in-
fested areas. It also was estimated that, by excluding rivers,
lakes, ponds, densely wooded areas, etc., only a portion of the
generally infested area would require treatment.
With $500,000 appropriated by the 1957 Legislature a pro-
gram was designed to treat all outlying areas in their entirety,
to concentrate on fringe areas in an effort to contain the ants,
and to conduct eradication measures at focal points where heavy
infestation existed within an infested county.
Intensified survey revealed that as of June 30, 1959 an esti-
mated cumulative total of 1,259,076 acres had been found in-
fested with the imported fire ant. Of this total 95,228 acres also
were infested with the white-fringed beetle.
In 1959, a bill for $500,000 was introduced into the session of
the State Legislature for the eradication of the imported fire ant
and the white-fringed beetle. The bill which finally passed and
was sent to the Governor, however, was only for the sum of
In January 1960 the eradication program encountered its great-
est setback when notification was received that the Federal Food
and Drug Administration had set a zero tolerance for heptachlor
residue on all food crops, as well as residues that might be found
in meat and milk.
In this same month of January, survey crews revealed new in-
festation totaling 374,776 acres, which was more acreage than
was treated since the program began.
Due to the zero tolerance for heptachlor use and the lack of
adequate funds for an all-out eradication program, it was decided
by the executive committee of the State Plant Board, at its
March 25, 1960 meeting, to convert the imported fire ant and
white-fringed beetle eradication program into one for the treat-
ment of nurseries and environs and for carrying out limited
suppression and control measures on incipient fire ant infesta-
Since the imported fire ant and white-fringed beetle eradica-
tion program was inaugurated in April 1958, infestations have

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

been found and still exist in a total of 19 counties, namely: Bay,
Calhoun, Duval, Escambia, Gadsden, Gulf, Hillsborough, Holmes,
Jackson, Lake, Liberty, Manatee, Okaloosa, Orange, Pasco, Santa
Rosa, Seminole, Walton, and Washington. Eradication measures
apparently have succeeded in the following counties: Baker,
Clay, Dade, Leon, Marion, Nassau, and Polk. One infestation in
St. Johns County was eradicated prior to April 1958.
An estimated cumulative total of 1,716,110 acres has been
found infested with the imported fire ant, including 138,998
acres also infested with the white-fringed beetle. A total of
268,660 acres has been treated with heptachlor or dieldrin for
imported fire ants, with 50,474 acres of this figure also treated
for the white-fringed beetle. Aircraft treated 119,425 acres,
and 149,235 acres were treated with ground equipment. In all
areas where insecticides were applied, 100% kill of imported fire

Imported Fire Ant Infestation and Treatment Program


1 St. Johns ..............
2 Polk .......... ..........
3 Baker ......... ......
4 Dade ..................
5 Nassau ..................
6 Clay ....................
7 Marion ...............
8 Leon ...................
9 Orange ...............
10 Gulf ....................
11 Manatee ...........
12 Lake ......................
13 Washington ........
14 Seminole ............
15 Pasco ...............--...
16 Liberty ............
17 Duval .........---... .
18 Hillsborough ......
19 Gadsden ................
20 Holmes .........- .
21 Bay ....................
22 Walton .........-.....
23 Jackson .............
24 Okaloosa ..--..........
25 Calhoun .......-
26 Escambia ..............
27 Santa Rosa ..........

Cumulative Total
Acres of


Total Acres


Acres Remaining
to be Treated


1,716,110 268,660



State Plant Board of Florida

ants and white-fringed beetles was obtained. The loss to fish
and wildlife in all treated areas can be considered negligible.
After the decision of the State Plant Board to convert to lim-
ited control, the United States Department of Agriculture with-
drew from the program all financial assistance, personnel, and
Table I and this map summarize the activities of the pro-
program during the biennium:

Areas where the imported fire
ant has been found, including
townships in which eradica-
tion is complete.

Twenty-Third Biennial Report


C. S. BUSH, Special Inspector

A most complete book of specifications concerning grades and
standards for nursery plants was published by the State Plant
Board in April 1959. This book, printed on washable latex paper,
is loose-leaf in form and plastic spiral bound to permit the in-
sertion of later supplements. Containing over 100 pages and
300 photographs, the publication offers an index of approxi-
mately 400 plants generally sold by Florida nurseries, including
the scientific name, synonymy and accepted common name, ar-
ranged by type as classified according to its habit of growth as
A list of liners, with the number of breaks and other specifica-
tions for each grade, is also included. The book covers woody
plants, trees, palms, and balled and container citrus. It is mailed
to all registered nurserymen and stock dealers in the State with-
out charge and is available to others for $2.50 a copy. Supple-
ments, to be published on additional standards, will be mailed
without charge to all who have a copy of the book.
Material on Philodendron Selloum (including other self-head-
ing philodendrons known in the trade as Selloum types) has been
compiled and is ready for publication. Self-heading philoden-
drons are used extensively in landscaping over the State and
more than a million plants are sold yearly, with several hundred
thousand shipped out of the State.
Four years of research on various understocks by the Univer-
sity of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station have definitely
established that rose culture in Florida is a possibility and has a
promising future. Therefore, rose standards have been written
and will be published at a later date. With a higher standard
for roses, it is hoped that the approximately two million roses
shipped into Florida from other states each year will be of higher
Grade standards for azaleas and camellias are being developed.
Most of the approximately four million azaleas propagated yearly
in Florida are shipped to the North and West for greenhouse
A training school in grades and standards covering three to
four days has been held in each region for Plant Board inspectors.
The purpose of this training is to familiarize these inspectors
with plant grading; to provide assistance to nurserymen in grad-

State Plant Board of Florida

ing and producing plants of higher quality; and to make clear
to nurserymen the advantages of producing and selling graded
To acquaint nurserymen themselves with plant grading, talks
have been given at meetings of nurserymen in Pensacola, Panama
City, Tallahassee, Macclenny, Jacksonville, Ocala, Daytona Beach,
Orlando, Cocoa, Leesburg, Ft. Pierce, West Palm Beach, Ft.
Lauderdale, Miami, Tampa, Largo, Sarasota, Ft. Myers, Sebring,
and Winter Haven. Further talks were made at the University
of Florida Nurserymen's Short Course, the University of Florida
Garden Club Short Course, and the University of Florida Orna-
mental Class, all in Gainesville; Landscape Design Schools of the
Florica Federation of Garden Clubs in Jacksonville and Tampa;
the Texas A. & M. College and Texas Association of Nurserymen
Short Course, College Station, Texas; Mississippi Florists' and
Nurserymen's Association in Biloxi, Mississippi; and the Grades
and Standards Committee of the American Association of Nur-
serymen in Cincinnati, Ohio.
In order to further publicize the program, three 16-mm movies
were made with the assistance of the General Extension Division
of the University of Florida. Two of these movies were in sound
and color, and the other in black and white with sound. One film
of 17 minutes features a young couple who landscape their home
with plants of poor quality. Dissatisfaction develops, and a nurs-
eryman then landscapes with Florida Fancy grade material, re-
sulting in complete harmony. The second part, running 11l/
minutes, is technical in nature and designed for education of
nurserymen and training on how to grade. A 41/-minute black
and white is a condensation of the other movies, designed for tele-
vision use only. These movies would not have been possible with-
out the capable assistance of Mrs. Alice Smart and the Florida
Nursery and Landscape Company of Leesburg.
With the assistance of the Florida Nurserymen and Growers
Association, the Plant Board has displayed grades and standards
exhibits in Sarasota, Ft. Lauderdale, and Miami and has partici-
pated in garden clinics in Jacksonville and Ft. Lauderdale.
A three-page folder, "Why Grades and Standards for Nursery
Plants," has been widely distributed and has contributed in pro-
moting the program. Garden editors throughout Florida have
devoted space to grades and standards.
Most nurserymen throughout the State apparently are familiar
with grades and standards for ornamental plants. Because of

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

the program, many nurseries have been cognizant of plant qual-
ity and are making efforts to produce stock of a higher grade.
Landscape architects are beginning to specify that plant ma-
terial be of a specific grade as recommended by the State Plant
Board. This should result in more equitable bidding practices,
less confusion, a better job for the client, and help promote the
grades and standards program.
Many other States, recognizing the importance of this pro-
gram, are watching Florida's pioneering.


J. K. CONDO, Special Inspector

There is little resemblance today between the Florida Turf-
grass Certification Program, inaugurated in March of 1957 with
only six growers, and the present Turfgrass Certification Pro-
gram. Most significant change is the fact that participation has
increased to 22 active growers. However, other changes have
occurred during this biennial period which have stabilized an
otherwise shaky start. A summary of the past two years' ac-
tivity can be found in the following text.

On July 15, 1959, a new turf release, Floratine St. Augustine,
was made available to participants in the Florida Turfgrass Certi-
fication Program by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion. This release was directly responsible for the sudden surge
in membership in the program and has opened the door to future
expansion. Another new variety, Tifway Bermuda, was intro-
duced during this period, making a total of six different varieties
now grown under the certification program. The other varieties
are: Emerald Zoysia, Meyer Z-52 Zoysia, Tifgreen Bermuda,
and Tiflawn Bermuda.
Two new sources of foundation stock were made available to
certified growers during this biennium. The Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station entered the picture with the advent of the
Floratine release and can be counted on for continued participa-
tion. The other source, Foundation Seeds, Inc., Athens, Georgia,
inherited the responsibility of distribution for the Tifton Experi-
ment Station, Tifton, Georgia. This change-over should increase
grower allotments and reduce cost as a result of expanded facili-

State Plant Board of Florida

A new herbicide, Simazine, was recommended by certified
growers for use on St. Augustine grass. This was significant in
that no previously known chemical could be used with any degree
of safety on this grass. The recommendation was released only
after months of extensive tests by Experiment Station specialists
who were assisted by Plant Board personnel.
The State Plant Board turf manual was completely revised
during this period and issued to all persons connected with the
certification program. A pamphlet, "Turf Problems and Their
Control", was also mimeographed and is available upon request.
The new manual contains two revisions of regulations which
should directly affect the quality and quantity of sod being grown
under the program. Tolerances for noxious and objectionable
weeds were restricted considerably, while the limitations on ex-
pansions were revised in order to allow growers additional acre-
In concluding the highlights for this biennium, the Florida
Turf Association recently informed the Plant Board that plans
were being made by that organization to edit a 15-minute film
publicizing the Turfgrass Certification Program. This film should
prove invaluable in educating the public on the merits of certi-
fied grass.
Facts and Figures
Table I shows a substantial increase in the average number
of inspections per active grower during the second half of the
biennium. In 1958-59, the average was 1.6 inspections, while in
1959-60 the figure was 6.3. This increase resulted from the heavy
inspection schedule required following the Floratine release.

Summary of the Program's Inspection Work

1958-59 1959-60

Number of active growers ................................... .... .... 27 22
Number of inspections made for active growers ...-....-... 43 139
Average number of inspections per active grower ...... 1.6 6.3
Number of new growers --...........-... ...................---...... 21 1
Number of growers marked out-of-business ................... 6
Number of inspections made for growers going
out of business ............................................................ 21
Average number of inspections made for growers
going out of business .................................................... 3.5
Total number of growers under inspection during year 27 28
Total number of inspections for all growers .......- 43 160

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

The amount of stock being grown under certification (Table
II) increased from 1,263,304 square feet in 1958-59 to 1,292,397
square feet in 1959-60, an increase of 29,093 square feet. This
increase can be attributed to the Floratine release and is sur-
prising since over 190,000 square feet of Meyer Zoysia were lost
permanently to the program because of severe weed contamina-
Amount and Kind of Stock Grown Under Certification Program

1958-59 1959-60
Variety (sq. ft.) (sq. ft.)

Emerald Zoysia ................................. 979,757 982,974
Meyer Zoysia ................... ..........- ...... 202,500 8,100
Tifgreen Bermuda .... ...................... 8,390 42,733
Tiflawn Bermuda .............. .............. 72,657 94,594
Tifway Bermuda ................................ .... -3,290
Floratine St. Augustine .........................-- 160,706

Total ...................... ....... 1,263,304 1,292,397

Over 190,000 square feet of Meyer Zoysia destroyed because of weed contamination.

In Table III it will be noted that only 82,074 square feet of sod
moved under blue tag certification during the second half of the
biennium in comparison to 738,257 square feet moved in the first
half. This tremendous decrease resulted from severe infestations
of billbugs which plagued the state's largest grower of Zoysia
grass. Although the infestations were quickly brought under
control and no quarantines were imposed in this particular case,
most of the grass had to be moved as noncertified since the qual-
ity was greatly impaired.
Amount of Stock Sold Under Blue Tag Certification

1958-59 1959-60
Variety (sq. ft.) (sq. ft.)

Emerald Zoysia ................................ 682,212 54,595
Meyer Zoysia ...... ............ ...... ... 34,772
Tifgreen Bermuda ................................. 4,873 10,260
Tiflawn Bermuda .......................... 16,400 16,652
Floratine St. Augustine ..........................I 567

Total ...... ---...-.. ....--.. .................. 738,257 82,074

Severe infestations of billbugs impaired quality to the extent that most Emerald Zoysia
had to be sold as noncertified.

State Plant Board of Florida

Weed and nematode problems forced the imposition of three
separate quarantines during the second half of the biennium, im-
plicating some 275,000 square feet of sod. As mentioned previ-
ously, over 190,000 square feet of this total was Meyer Zoysia,
lost because of severe weed contamination.

In the fall of 1958, the Plant Board initiated an idea which is
unique among state regulatory agencies-a system of formal
schooling for new employees to insure thoroughly trained and
competent personnel.
The school, with headquarters in Winter Haven, offers a com-
plete curriculum in the various functions of the State Plant
Board, with classroom and field work about equally divided.
Originally scheduled and operated on a six-month term, the
school later was reduced to approximately five months when it
was learned the material could be covered adequately in that
time. Although the primary function of the school is the train-
ing of new employees, several regular inspectors have attended
classes with satisfying results.
The first week of schooling is devoted to orientation and fa-
miliarization with the Plant Act and Plant Board policies. The
trainee then proceeds through phases of grove inspection, nurs-
ery inspection, and citrus budwood certification; and spreading
decline, fruit fly trapping, turfgrass certification, imported fire
ant, and grades and standards programs. In addition, students
are taken on a tour of the Plant Board's pathology and entomol-
ogy laboratories for instruction in proper methods of collecting
and mailing insect and disease specimens taken in the field. The
school is concluded with advance instruction in nursery inspec-
tion, following on-the-job training procedures.
After graduation, trainees generally are assigned to areas hav-
ing the heaviest work loads as either district or assistant district
plant inspectors. This assignment of new personnel to positions
of responsibility would not have been possible without a quality
training program. Results of the training have been so success-
ful that the Plant Board faces the possibility of losing an even
greater number of personnel to industry. In the short time the
school has been in operation, three graduates have resigned to
accept employment generally offered only to more experienced

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

During the biennium 20 employees completed the entire train-
ing program. Of this total, 12 were new employees, while the
remaining eight had previous Plant Board experience. In addi-
tion, five regular inspectors completed selected phases of training.

Citrus fruit certified for shipment to California showed an in-
crease during the second half of the biennium. Shipments to-
taled 182,893 boxes, as compared with 112,986 boxes in 1958-
1959. Export shipments to foreign countries, inspected and cer-
tified by the State Department of Agriculture for the State Plant
Board, decreased from 282,227 boxes in 1958-1959 to 190,568
boxes in 1959-1960. Arizona shipments also showed a reduction
during the latter part of the biennium, with 3,944 boxes in 1958-
1959 as compared with 3,277 boxes in 1959-1960.
Vegetable shipments to California during the 1959-1960 period
were the lowest since California promulgated a quarantine
against Florida-grown cucurbits in 1955. In all, 76,989 boxes of
cucumbers and squash were certified in 1959-1960 as compared
with 100,686 boxes in 1958-1959.
Collections for fruit and vegetable fumigation and certification
during the biennium totaled $8,140. Of this amount $5,585 was
paid to the State Department of Agriculture for certification
services performed.
The following tables summarize activities of the program dur-
ing the biennium:


S California Arizona
1958-59 1959-60 1958-59 1959-60

Oranges .................................. 2,122 9,978 425
Tangelos ............................... 15,807 17,373 20 113
Tangerines ............................ 4,974 2,360 1,910 200
Grapefruit ............. ......... 72,021 141,135 1,143 2,497
Persian limes .................. 18,062 12,046 446 467
Lem ons ................. ............. 1
Totals ................. ................. 112,986 182,893 3,944 3,277

State Plant Board of Florida

California Arizona
Shipments byI
1958-59 1959-60 1958-59 1959-60

Trucks .............. ................... 289 439 7 6

Cars .......................................6 5 -

Totals ... .... ............ .. .... 295 444 7 6


Variety 1958-59 1959-60

Oranges ........................................................................ 24,442 68,213
Tangerines ........................................ ...... ................. 72 21

Grapefruit ....................................... ................. 257,713 122,334

Totals .................... -----------....-.... ................... 282,227 190,568


1958-59 1959-60

Cucumbers ........ ----- ...-.......... .............. 95,194 51,279

Squash .................................. ...... ............... 5,492 25,710

Totals .... .....---- ........................................... 100,686 76,989

Twenty-Third Biennial Report


1958-59 1959-60


Citrus to California
and Arizona
For Certification
and Fumigation ........... $ 675.00 $ 587.50
For Certification ..-.. ....... $ 632.50 $ 905.00
Citrus for Export
For Certification .............. 2,545.00 1,777.50
Vegetables to California ....... 602.50 415.00

Totals ....-- .. ...... ....... .... $3,220.00 $1,235.00 $2,365.00 $1,320.00

All foreign plant quarantine work in Florida was assumed by
the United States Department of Agriculture on July 1, 1958. A
resume of this work for the biennium ending June 30, 1960 is
given below:

Planes and Vessels from Foreign Countries,
Puerto Rico, and the American Virgin Islands:
1958-59 1959-60
Total planes arriving ........~........ 37,093 37,365
Total vessels arriving ................. 8,262 9,104

The number of passengers arriving on these planes and ves-
sels during 1958-59 was 906,233, carrying 2,500,404 pieces of
baggage; during 1959-60 passengers totalled 848,897, carrying
2,304,293 pieces of baggage.
Interceptions of plant material during 1958-59 were 18,940;
during 1959-60, the number was 22,199.
Plant material entering under permit (bulbs, plants, cuttings,
scions, etc.) during 1958-59 amounted to 1,971,538; seeds, 7,611
pounds. During 1959-60 the plant material total was 5,789,872;
seeds, in excess of 230 pounds. The increase in the number of
plants imported during the second year of the biennium is largely
accounted for by the entry of aquatic plants from Cuba.

State Plant Board of Florida

Complete figures on importations of fruits and vegetables are
not available. However, imports of grapefruit, oranges, and
limes totaled 469,222 crates for 1958-59; in 1959-60 the total
dipped to 38,704 crates.
Pests of Economic Importance Intercepted:
Fruit flies of various kinds were intercepted 64 times from 18
foreign countries in 22 kinds of fruit. This included four inter-
ceptions of the Mediterranean fruit fly.
The pink bollworm was intercepted in cottonseed from Puerto
The bean pod borer, a serious pest, was intercepted in beans
from Trinidad.
Sweet orange scab was intercepted 34 times on various citrus
fruits from South American countries and once from Aruba,
Dutch West Indies.
The golden nematode, a very serious pest, was intercepted
nine times in soil from European countries.
Fruit flies of various kinds were intercepted 98 times from 22
foreign countries in 27 kinds of fruit. This included 17 inter-
ceptions of the Mediterranean fruit fly.
The khapra beetle, a serious pest of stored products, was inter-
cepted four times from four countries in various materials.
Sweet orange scab was intercepted 292 times on various citrus
fruits from South American countries.
The golden nematode was intercepted six times in soil from
European countries.
Cancrosis B (a type of citrus canker) was intercepted on limes
from Uruguay.

Apiary Inspection Department

RUSSELL A. MARTIN, Chief Apiary Inspector
Dr. Leonard Haseman, Professor Emeritus, Department of
Entomology, University of Missouri, in a recent article in the
American Bee Journal stated: "During the century prior to the
first use of modern medicine in the protection of the honeybee
from diseases, the bee industry in this country suffered a multi-
million dollar loss. Today, fifteen years since sulfathiazole was
first used to control American foulbrood, practically every large
modern commercial beekeeper in the United States and Canada
is practicing chemotherapy as his first line of defense against
loss from disease."
The term "chemotherapy" is used rather broadly by Dr. Hase-
man to include the use of drugs and antibiotics as a preventive
measure as well as a cure. In the same article Dr. Haseman
stated that during the fifty years before the sulfa treatment
came into use the beekeeping industry in this country paid a toll
of at least $50,000,000 to this one important disease.
These two statements point out that American foulbrood has
been very costly to the bee industry, but by the proper use of
chemotherapy losses now need not be high. In fact, if preventive
chemotherapy is practiced properly, losses from any of the bee
diseases will be negligible. The program will require close su-
pervision by both the beekeeper and the inspector to insure that
details of recommendations are carried out. Improved apiary
inspection will be necessary for a long time to come.
During the past few years several commercial honey producers
in Florida have incorporated into their beekeeping practices the
use of sulfathiazole or terramycin, or both, in a disease preven-
tion program. In the over-all picture of beekeeping in Florida,
the use of preventive chemotherapy has been a definite help.
Some apiaries which previously had been evidencing more or less
American foulbrood at each inspection now have been free of
disease for over two years.
The more progressive beekeepers in the State have proved
to themselves that loss from diseases is a thing of the past.
Serious consideration is now being given by the Apiary Inspection
Department to a better program of teaching beekeepers the value
of preventive chemotherapy. The presently suggested drugs,
sulfathiazole and terramycin, do their work well if used as rec-

State Plant Board of Florida

On July 1, 1957, an Act of the Florida State Legislature became
effective providing compensation for bees and equipment de-
stroyed by the State Plant Board because of American foulbrood.
From July 1, 1958, to February 1960, this indemnity has cost the
State $14,512.75. No claims have been paid since the latter date.
In most cases the Apiary Inspection Department encourages the
use of preventive chemotherapy in an attempt to keep the pay-
ment of compensation at a minimum. Approximately one per-
cent of the colonies inspected in Florida during this period were
found to be infected with American foulbrood. These colonies
were destroyed by burning. After a colony of bees has become
infected with American foulbrood, chemotherapy is considered
to be an unsound practice.
The next ten years may be years of significant change in the
beekeeping industry in Florida. It is doubtful that the rapid
rate of increase in colonies during the past decade will continue.
Citrus locations are still plentiful, but the problem of manage-
ment after citrus flows are over is most pressing. With the
problem of serious brood diseases eliminated by modern methods,
there still remains the problem of selling honey at a price that
will give the beekeeper a fair return on his investment. The
price of honey from all methods of sale declined about two cents
per pound during this period. If the price of honey could be
stabilized at a more realistic figure, Florida beekeepers could
move their bees north after the citrus honey flows are over,
since there has been an increase in clover acreages in many
northern States. In the near future more Florida beekeepers
should learn the advantage of migratory beekeeping. Those who
fail to do so and who continue as before will find it unprofitable
to operate-at least in some areas.
There are some changes which need to be made in the Apiary
Inspection Department in order to keep abreast of changing
times. Increased use of visual aids will be necessary in teaching
proper methods of practice to both inspector and beekeeper. Old
methods should be evaluated and discarded if found to be lacking
in effectiveness.
There were several minor infractions of The Bee Disease Law
of Florida during this period. In no case would prosecution have
served a useful purpose. All other difficulties were resolved with-
out recourse to law and no lawsuits are pending.

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

The following changes were made in personnel: The appoint-
ments of G. E. Tanner, Bristol, and W. G. Baumgardner, Miami,
were terminated. L. C. Waldrep, Vero Beach, and Charlie Griffin,
Bartow, resigned. Leroy Putnal, New Smyrna Beach; Henry W.
Russell, Homestead; C. L. Dickinson, Blountstown; and Edward
T. Willis, Jr., Lake Alfred, were appointed. Mark M. Bryant,
S. D. Harvey, J. C. Herndon, and T. R. Yeomans continued in
their respective territories.
During this biennium there were 302,904 colony inspections
made in 10,179 apiaries; 2,751 colonies of American foulbrood
were found and destroyed in 892 apiaries; permits for 52,588
out-of-state bees to move into Florida and 134 special moving
permits for moving from point to point within the State were
issued; and 1,281 moving permits were issued to Florida bee-
keepers. The total expense of the Apiary Inspection Depart-
ment was $140,923.62, or approximately 461/2 per colony in-
spection. This increase in per-colony cost can be attributed
principally to the purchase of eight new pick-up trucks for in-
spection work. The use of these trucks should reflect a consider-
able savings in travel expenses in the future.


1958-1959 1959-1960

Number colonies inspected ................................. 153,677 149,227
Number apiaries inspected ................................... 5,123 5,056
Number counties in which inspections
were m ade ........ .................... ..... ........... 58 60
Number apiaries infected with
American foulbrood ............. ....................... 454 438
Number colonies infected with
American foulbrood ............... ..- ................ 1,329 1,422
Number infected colonies burned .................... 1,329 1,422
Number apiaries with new infections
of American foulbrood --.. ..... ..... ............ 282 269

State Plant Board of Florida


| | Apiaries | Colonies
i Infected Infected
Year Ending Apiaries Colonies with with
Inspected Inspected American American
SFoulbrood Foulbrood


1929 ...........
1934 ...........




Entomology Department

H. A. DENMARK, Chief Entomologist

The duties of the Entomology Department are (1) to provide
an arthropod identification service for the Plant Inspection De-
partment, for the United States Department of Agriculture in
regard to the insect pest survey, foreign pest detection, and all
other surveys excluding joint control or eradication programs
(imported fire ant, leafhoppers and planthoppers in connection
with the hoja blanca disease of rice, pink bollworm, sweetpotato
weevil and white-fringed beetle) being conducted in the State;
(2) to conduct limited investigations of certain economic prob-
lems not being pursued by the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Stations; (3) to assist in instruction of plant inspectors in the
detection of agricultural pests; and (4) to build a general col-
lection of insects and related groups. The identification services
have been extended through the various surveys to include all
arthropods except aquatic crustacea.
The continued growth and expanding responsibilities of the
department have been due to an increase in plant inspectors, the
insect pest survey, a continuous fruit fly trapping program using
the Steiner and McPhail traps and special surveys for Japanese
beetle (Popillia japonica Newman), Khapra beetle (Trogoderma
granarium Everts), Cuban May beetle (Phyllophaga bruneri
Chapin), an erinose mite (Aceria litchii (Keifer)) of lychee,
the citrus bud mite (Aceria sheldoni (Ewing)), a bud mite
(Aceria mangiferae Sayed) on mango, and Asiatic red scale
(Aonidiella taxus Leon) on Podocarpus spp.
Identifications of the various arthropod groups are handled by
five full-time entomologists. The entomologists and the groups
for which they are responsible are listed below:
H. A. Denmark: Aphids, ants, adult Lepidoptera, mites, thrips and
R. E. Woodruff: Adult Coleoptera and Orthoptera. He is temporarily
handling Hemiptera, Homoptera (excluding aphids, scales, mealy.
bugs and whiteflies) and Culicidae.
G. W. Dekle: Scales, mealybugs and all immature stages.
H. V. Weems, Jr.: Adult Diptera, whiteflies, Hymenoptera, Arachnids
and miscellaneous smaller arthropod groups.
Alvah Peterson: Life history studies of leaf-feeding insects and a
special study of insect eggs while with the department from Sep-
tember 1958 through May 1960.

State Plant Board of Florida

In addition to the five full-time entomologists, S. V. Fuller
curates the adult Lepidoptera half-time and L. J. Bottimer joined
the department in June for a three-month period to make a
special study and publish on the Bruchidae of Florida. F. W.
Mead left the department in September 1958 to continue grad-
uate work at North Carolina State University for a two-year
One Zeiss phase-contrast microscope, three 48-drawer insect
cabinets, two cabinets for storing alcohol specimens, one 3 x 5-
inch file cabinet with 136 drawers for housing specimens in plas-
tic envelopes, six 4-drawer file cabinets and two bookcases for
the library were purchased for the department during this bi-
ennium. A 24-drawer cabinet with U. S. National Museum type
drawers and 56 Schmitt boxes were donated to the department
by Dr. K. W. Cooper, Dartmouth College of Medicine; a similar
number of boxes were donated to the Florida State Museum.
The collection now consists of approximately 220,000 pinned
and labeled specimens (including 15,000 Syrphidae and Conopi-
dae in Dr. Weems' personal collection and 40,000 Scarabaeidae
and Trogidae in Mr. Woodruff's personal collection), housed in
950 insect boxes and 369 cabinet drawers; 12,000 slide mounts;
2,000 vials containing several thousand immature and adult ar-
thropods, housed in three cabinets; several thousand specimens
stored in plastic envelopes; and an undetermined quantity of
surplus specimens stored in pill boxes. This report does not in-
clude the arthropods of the University of Florida Collections.
During the fall of 1959 an agreement was entered into by the
Florida State Museum, a branch of the University of Florida, and
the State Plant Board whereby the arthropod collection of the
University of Florida Collections was placed on extended loan to
the State Plant Board. At the same time, the chief entomologist
was placed in charge of this collection, and Dr. Weems agreed to
serve as curator. Collaborating on the further development of
the arthropod collections of the University of Florida and the
State Plant Board are the staff members of the Entomology De-
partment of the Plant Board; Dr. Thomas J. Walker of the De-
partment of Entomology of the University of Florida (Orthoptera
and Dermaptera); Dr. Lewis Berner (Ephemeroptera), Dr. M. J.
Westfall, Jr. (Odonata), Dr. R. F. Hussey (Hemiptera), and Dr.
H. K. Wallace (Aranaeida) of the Department of Biology of the
University of Florida.

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

H. V. WEEMS, JR., Entomologist

Steady and substantial progress has been made in the develop-
ment of an effective arthropod collection consisting primarily of
those species which occur in Florida, other Southeastern States,
the West Indies and the coastal land areas around the Gulf of
Mexico, with emphasis on the economic insects. A special effort
is being made to obtain representatives of the principal insect
pests occurring in other parts of the world which constitute a
potential threat to Florida agriculture. Collections in the groups
on which members of the department are conducting broad tax-
onomic studies are being developed on a world-wide basis.
In addition to several thousand specimens collected in the
biennium by staff members and by State and Federal inspectors,
the following contributions were received:
Mrs. E. C. Beck (Florida State Board of Health)
Pinned specimens, plus slide mounts of genitalia, of 6 species of rare
Florida mosquitoes, including one paratype. (Collection has representa-
tives of all species of mosquitoes known to occur in Florida.)
Mrs. E. M. Becton (Vero Beach, Florida)
Collection of her late husband, consisting of 2,134 pinned specimens and
about 500 unmounted, papered specimens. This collection, including
material from foreign countries, consists mainly of Scarabaeidae.
Dr. R. M. Bohart (University of California)
Two species of Chrysididae new to collection
Dr. D. J. Borror (Ohio State University)
Six specimens of an introduced species of mantid
L. J. Bottimer (Kerrville, Texas)
290 Scarabaeidae, including 40 pinned specimens of Phyllophaga repre-
senting 30 species including several which are rare. 10 pinned speci-
mens, including 1 paratype, representing 7 species of Trogidae
Dr. F. M. Carpenter (Harvard University)
5 species of Mecoptera new to collection
Dr. N. B. Causey (University of Arkansas)
11 species of millipedes new to collection
Dr. K. W. Cooper (Dartmouth College)
17 mutillid wasps, representing 9 species new to collection; 18 Diptera
from Costa Rica, Panama and the United States, including a specimen
of a diopsid or stalk-eyed fly; 50 Coleoptera, including some rare Carabi-
dae new to collection
Mr. and Mrs. Paul W. Dempsey (Jacksonville, Florida)
Small collection of Florida Lepidoptera consisting of 54 specimens, mostly
swallowtail butterflies
Dr. J. C. Dickinson (University of Florida)
Small collection of arthropods collected on New Providence Island, Ba-
hamas, B. W. I.

State Plant Board of Florida

E. B. Dixon and Robert Gerrish (United States Department of Agriculture
Screwworm Data Center, Sebring, Florida)
Sizeable samples of eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of the screwworm fly
R. R. Dreisbach (Midland, Michigan)
237 pinned specimens of Diptera, representing 132 species in several
Dr. A. E. Emerson (University of Chicago)
19 species of North American termites new to collection
Dr. G. R. Ferguson (Geigy Chemical Corporation, New York, N. Y.)
169 identified Sphecidae, representing more than 100 species, mostly
new to collection
S. V. Fuller (State Plant Board of Florida)
200 Catocala moths (from private collection)
Dr. W. J. Gertsch (American Museum of Natural History)
1 species of scorpion new to collection
Dr. A. B. Gurney (United States National Museum)
2 specimens of the rare Zorotypus snyderi Caudell (Collection includes
representatives of the two species of Zoraptera known to occur in North
America north of Mexico.)
Dr. F. C. Harmston (Greeley, Colorado)
112 dolichopodid flies, representing 56 species
J. R. Helfer (Mendocino, California)
240 pinned Scarabaeidae, representing 40 species
Dr. L. A. Hetrick (University of Florida)
4 adult moths of Nepytia semiclusaria Wlk., reared from Pinus clausa
Dr. Harry Hoogstraal (Cairo, Egypt)
3 species of ticks new to collection
Dr. H. F. Howden (Science Service, Ottawa, Canada )
159 pinned Scarabaeidae, representing 93 species, mostly rare, and in-
cluding paratypes of 5 species (Collection now includes representatives
of nearly 90% of the 1,800 North American species of Scarabaeidae.)
Dr. T. H. Hubbell and Dr. I. J. Cantrall (University of Michigan)
195 pinned specimens of Orthoptera, representing more than 100 species
almost all new to collection; 13 pinned specimens of Dermaptera, repre-
senting several species new to collection
Dr. R. F. Hussey (University of Florida)
1 specimen of a rare species of Cimicidae new to collection
C. P. Kimball (Sarasota, Florida and West Barnstable, Massachusetts)
292 identified, pinned specimens of Lepidoptera, representing 290 species
Prof. J. N. Knull (Ohio State University)
13 specimens of Cerambycidae and Elateridae, representing 6 species
G. M. Kohls (Rocky Mountain Laboratory)
11 species of ticks, 9 of which were new to collection
J. W. McReynolds (Nevada, Missouri)
Small collection of Diptera, Orthoptera and Coleoptera collected on
African expedition; 650 Scarabaeidae, mostly Phyllophaga spp.; 197
pinned specimens, consisting of 186 Diptera and 13 Hymenoptera
R. A. Martin (State Plant Board of Florida)
15 queen honeybees and a few drones and workers
F. W. Mead (North Carolina State University)
309 North Carolina specimens, pinned and unpinned, plus 39 pill boxes
of unmounted specimens; 286 North Carolina specimens preserved in

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

E. P. Merkel (Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Lake City, Flor-
80 pinned specimens and 12 vials of forest insects, including 4 specimens
of a recently described species of pine cone moth, Laspeyresia ana-
ranjada Miller
Michigan, University of
88 pinned specimens of Scarabaeidae, mostly exotics, representing 60
Dr. R. A. Morse (Cornell University)
428 pinned specimens, consisting of 172 Coleoptera, 115 Homoptera, 141
Diptera, all undetermined
Dr. M. H. Muma (University of Florida)
10 specimens of a rarely collected coniopterygid, plus several vials of
micro-arthropods collected by Berlese funnel method
Dr. G. H. Nelson (Loma Linda, California)
80 pinned Diptera and a few additional Diptera in envelopes
Frank Parker (University of California)
2 specimens, male and female, of a western sphecid wasp new to col-
Dr. Alvah Peterson (State Plant Board of Florida)
144 identified larvae of Lepidoptera of economic insects that occur in
the eastern half of the United States
Dr. C. B. Philip (Rocky Mountain Laboratory)
94 pinned specimens of Diptera, including 19 species of Tabanidae new
to collection
W. W. Platt, III (Gainesville, Florida)
124 vials of alcohol-preserved arthropods, mostly centipedes and milli-
Prof. H. J. Reinhard (Texas A. & M. College)
53 identified, pinned specimens of Tachinidae
Norman Platts (Ft. Pierce, Florida)
8 Riker mounts of approximately 200 exotic moths and 50 domestic
moths, butterflies, and miscellaneous insects
Dr. E. S. Ross (California Academy of Science)
5 species of Embioptera new to collection (Collection now includes rep-
resentatives of all 9 species known to occur in North America north of
Joe Schuh (Klamath Falls, Oregon)
483 pinned Diptera, mostly identified; 18 pinned Mecoptera, undeter-
mined; 83 pinned Scarabaeidae, mostly rare western species, represent-
ing 35 species
Dr. H. A. Scullen (Oregon State College)
3 specimens of a rare southwestern scarabaeid beetle
Smithsonian Institution
6 specimens, representing males and females of 3 species of rarely col-
lected Cimicidae new to collection
Dr. T. E. Snyder (United States National Museum)
11 species of North American termites new to collection (Collection
now includes soldier representatives of 38 of the 40 species known to
occur in North America north of Mexico.)
Dr. W. H. Thames, Jr. (Texas A. & M. College)
56 North Carolina specimens, unpinned
Dr. H. K. Townes (University of Michigan)
3 specimens, representing 2 species of rare Mecoptera

State Plant Board of Florida

Dr. T. J. Walker (University of Florida)
27 pinned specimens, representing 19 species of Gryllidae and Tetti-
W. W. Warner (Key West, Florida)
Small collection of arthropods collected in the Florida Keys of Monroe
Dr. H. V. Weems, Jr. (State Plant Board of Florida)
1,764 pinned specimens; 1,460 alcohol-preserved specimens (from pri-
vate collection)
R. L. Wenzel (Chicago Natural History Museum)
2 specimens of a rare species of Scarabaeidae
Prof. F. E. Wood (University of Missouri)
65 unmounted Trogidae
H. E. Woodcock (Jacksonville, Florida)
4,000+ pinned and papered Lepidoptera

In addition to specimen donations received during this period,
a collection of exotic Lepidoptera consisting of 151 pinned speci-
mens and approximately 50 papered specimens, together with 30
homemade, glass-topped cabinet drawers (part of the old Streck-
er Collection), was purchased from Mr. George L. Makinson of
Orlando, Florida.
In an effort to obtain authoritative identifications which are
as complete as possible, thousands of arthropod specimens an-
nually are being submitted to collaborating specialists in the
United States, and occasionally to those in other countries.
Arthropod groups, other than those on which staff members are
specialists, eventually are submitted to specialists for verification
before being added to the reference collection. The following
specialists have served as collaborators during the biennium
covered in this report:

Dr. Harry Hoogstraal (Cairo, Egypt); G. M. Kohls (Rocky Mt. Lab.,
Hamilton, Mont.); Dr. George Anastos (Univ. of Md.); Dr. R. E. Beer
(Univ. of Kans.); Dr. Roger Mitchell (Univ. of Fla.); Dr. M. H. Muma
(Citrus Exp. Sta., Lake Alfred, Fla.); Dr. E. W. Baker (U. S. National
Museum); Dr. R. W. Strandtmann (Tex. Tech. Coll.); Dr. Max Sellnick
(Hoisdorf, Germany); Dr. T. A. Woolley (Colo. St. Univ.); Dr. D. A.
Chant (Ent. Res. Inst. for Biol. Control, Belleville, Ont.); Dr. C. E.
Yunker (Lab. of Trop. Virology, N.I.H., Bethesda, Md.); Dr. Francois
Granjean (Mus. Natl. d'Hist. Nat., Paris, France)
Dr. T. E. Bowman, Dr. F. A. Chace (U. S. National Museum)
Dr. W. J. Gertsch (Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.); Dr. H. K. Wallace (Univ.
of Fla.); Dr. M. H. Muma
Dr. P. T. Johnson (Canal Zone)

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

Dr. R. E. Crabill, Jr. (U. S. National Museum)

Dr. C. A. Triplehorn (Ohio Agr. Expt. Sta.); Dr. E. L. Sleeper (Long
Beach St. Coll.); Dr. H. F. Howden (Science Service, Ottawa, Can.);
L. J. Bottimer (Kerrville, Tex.-now on staff of State Plant Board of
Florida); Dr. S. L. Wood (Can. Dept. Agr., Ottawa); Prof. F. E. Wood
(Univ. of Mo.); Prof. W. R. Enns (Univ. of Mo.); J. N. Knull (Ohio St.
Univ.); Dr. J. A. Wilcox (N. Y. St. Mus.); Dr. T. J. Spilman, Miss R. E.
Warner, P. J. Spangler, Dr. G. B. Vogt, Dr. 0. L. Cartwright, Dr. W. H.
Anderson (U. S. National Museum); Dr. R. L. Wenzel (Chicago Nat.
Hist. Mus.); Dr. M. W. Sanderson (Ill. Nat. Hist. Survey); Dr. J. W.
Green (Calif. Acad. Sci.); Dr. F. N. Young (Indiana Univ.); Dr. R. W.
Dawson (Mesa, Ariz.); J. M. Kingsolver (Univ. of Ill.); J. R. Helfer
(Mendocino, Calif.); C. A. Frost (Framingham, Mass.); Dr. J. C. Pallis-
ter, Miss Patricia Vaurie (Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.)

Dr. D. L. Wray (N. C. Dept. Agr.)

Dr. A. B. Gurney (U. S. National Museum); Dr. T. H. Hubbell (Univ.
of Mich.)

Dr. N. B. Causey (Univ. of Ark.); Dr. R. E. Crabill, Jr., Dr. R. L. Hoff-
man (U. S. National Museum); H. F. Loomis (U. S. Plant Introduction
Gardens, Miami, Fla.)

Dr. Alan Stone, Dr. W. W. Wirth, Dr. C. W. Sabrosky, Dr. R. H. Foote
(U. S. National Museum); P. H. Arnaud (Calif. Acad. Sci.); W. L.
Downes, Jr. (Univ. of Ill.); Dr. C. H. Martin (Ore. St. Coll.); Dr. Sid-
ney Camras (Chicago, Ill.); Prof. H. J. Reinhard (Texas A. & M. Coll.);
Dr. F. C. Harmston (Greeley, Colo.); Dr. H. R. Dodge (U. S. For. Insect
Lab., Missoula, Mont.); Dr. C. B. Philip (Rocky Mt. Lab., Hamilton,
Mont.); Dr. R. L. Wenzel; Dr. R. E. Bellamy (U. S. Public Health Serv-
ice, Bakersfield, Calif.); G. C. Steyskal (Grosse Ile, Mich.); S. E. Neff
(Cornell Univ.); B. A. Foote (Univ. of Idaho); Dr. J. E. Sublette (North-
western St. Coll., La.); Dr. R. H. Painter (Kansas St. Coll.); Dr. M. T.
James (Wash. St. Univ.); W. J. Hanson (Univ. of Kansas)

Dr. E. S. Ross (Calif. Acad. Sci.)

Dr. Lewis Berner (Univ. of Fla.)

Dr. R. F. Hussey (Univ. of Fla.); J. D. Lattin (Ore. St. Coll.); P. D.
Ashlock (U. S. National Museum); J. C. Schaffner (Iowa St. Coll.);
Dr. Herbert Ruckes (Ariz. St. Coll.)

Dr. D. A. Young (N. C. St. Coll.); Dr. J. P. Kramer (U. S. National
Museum); J. S. Caldwell (Circleville, Ohio); Miss L. M. Russell (U. S.
National Museum); Dr. Harold Morrison (U. S. National Museum); Dr.
R. D. Alexander (Univ. of Mich.); Dr. D. M. DeLong (Ohio St. Univ.);
Dr. A. N. Tissot (Univ. of Fla.); Dr. C. F. Smith (N. C. St. Coll.);
H. L. McKenzie (Calif. St. Dept. Agr.); Dr. L. W. Hepner (Miss. St.

State Plant Board of Florida

Dr. H. K. Townes (Univ. of Mich.); Dr. T. B. Mitchell (N. C. St. Coll.);
R. R. Dreisbach (Midland, Mich.); P. M. Marsh (Univ. of Calif., Davis);
Dr. M. R. Smith, K. V. Krombein, Miss Luella Walkley, C. F. W. Muese-
beck, Dr. B. D. Burks (U. S. National Museum); F. A. Fraembs (Univ.
of Ill.); Dr. H. A. Scullen (Ore. St. Coll.); Dr. G. R. Ferguson (Geigy
Chem. Corp., N.Y., N.Y.); Dr. G. E. Bohart (USDA Agr. Res. Serv.,
Beltsville, Md.); Dr. R. M. Bohart (Univ. of Calif., Davis); Dr. W. M. L.
Brown, Jr. (Harvard Mus. Comp. Zool.); Dr. E. 0. Wilson (Harvard
Univ.); Dr. H. E. Evans (Cornell Univ.); Dr. K. W. Cooper (Dartmouth
Coll.); Dr. P. H. Timberlake (Calif. Citrus Expt. Sta., Riverside); Dr.
W. E. LaBerge (Iowa St. Coll.)
P. C. Drummond (Univ. of Fla.)
Dr. T. E. Snyder (U. S. National Museum); Dr. A. E. Emerson (Univ.
of Chicago); Dr. L. A. Hetrick (Univ. of Fla.)
C. P. Kimball (West Barnstable, Mass. and Sarasota, Fla.); Dr. J. F.
G. Clarke, W. D. Field, Dr. E. L. Todd, Hahn Capps (U. S. National
Museum); Dr. C. L. Remington (Yale Univ.); Dr. R. R. McElvare (South-
ern Pines, N. C.); Dr. J. G. Franclemont (Cornell Univ.); Dr. F. H.
Rindge (Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.); Dr. W. T. M. Forbes (Harvard Mus.
Comp. Zool.); C. F. dos Passos (Carnegie Mus.); Dr. E. G. Munroe
(Ent. Res. Inst., Ottawa, Can.)
Dr. K. C. Emerson (Arlington, Va.); Dr. P. T. Johnson
Dr. H. K. Townes; Dr. F. M. Carpenter (Harvard Univ.); Dr. L. R.
Setty (Howard Univ.); Miss Sophie Parfin (U. S. National Museum)
Dr. W. J. Gertsch; Dr. M. H. Muma
Dr. E. G. McLeod (Univ. of Md.); Dr. W. E. Bickley (Univ. of Md.);
Miss Sophie Parfin
Dr. M. J. Westfall, Jr. (Univ. of Fla.)
Dr. A. B. Gurney; Dr. T. J. Walker (Univ. of Fla.); Dr. H. F. Strohecker
(Univ. of Miami, Fla.); Dr. T. H. Hubbell, Dr. I. J. Cantrall (Univ. of
Dr. W. J. Gertsch; Dr. M. H. Muma; Dr. R. E. Crabill, Jr.

Drs. C. J. and Marie Goodnight (Purdue Univ.)

Dr. A. B. Gurney, Miss Sophie Parfin

Dr. C. C. Hoff (Univ. of N. Mex.)

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

Dr. E. L. Mockford (Ill. Nat. Hist. Survey); Dr. K. M. Sommerman
(Arctic Health Research Center, Anchorage)
Dr. W. J. Gertsch; Dr. M. H. Muma; Dr. R. E. Crabill, Jr.
Dr. P. T. Johnson; Dr. Irving Fox (Univ. of Puerto Rico); Dr. J. N.
Layne (Univ. of Fla.)
Dr. M. H. Muma
Dr. R. M. Bohart
Miss Kellie O'Neill (U. S. National Museum); Dr. J. D. Hood (Cornell
Dr. C. H. Remington (Yale Univ.)
Dr. H. H. Ross (Ill. Nat. Hist. Survey)
Dr. A. B. Gurney

Current projects are:
1. Head curator of the arthropod collections of the State
Plant Board and Florida State Museum Collections.
2. Collaboration with approximately 45 other dipterists on
the preparation of a Catalogue of North American Diptera,
the work being coordinated by Dr. Alan Stone of the United
States National Museum. Dr. Weems is compiling the
portion on the Syrphidae.
3. Taxonomic and ecological studies on Diptera, Family Syrph-
4. Collaboration with G. W. Dekle on the revision of State
Plant Board Bulletin 1, "Scale Insects of Florida."
5. Presentation of lectures on arthropods during the special
summer lecture series given at the Florida State Museum.
6. Directed the work of William W. Platt, III, high school sci-
ence student from Gainesville, Florida, during the National
Science Foundation-sponsored program at the University of
Florida during the summer of 1959. Mr. Platt continued
a study of Florida millipedes and centipedes which was
started during the summer program, entering his project
in the National Science Talent Search contest sponsored

State Plant Board of Florida

by the Westinghouse Foundation. He was selected among
the top 40 winners in the nation and received a week's trip
to Washington, D. C., where he competed for further honors
with 39 other top students and won the first award for the
exhibit based on his project.
7. Taxonomic and ecological study of the scorpions of Flor-
ida, in collaboration with Dr. Martin H. Muma of the Uni-
versity of Florida Citrus Experiment Station.
8. Identification of fruit flies for the fruit fly trapping and
detection program.

ROBERT E. WOODRUFF, Entomologist

The Survey Entomologist is responsible for publishing a weekly
report concerning the status of insects in Florida based on the
identification made by the staff of the Entomology Department
and collaborators. This report is published with the cooperation
of the following organizations: U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture, Plant Pest Control Division; Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Stations; Florida Agricultural Extension Service; Florida
State Livestock Board; Florida Pest Control Association; Florida
State Board of Health; Florida Board of Forestry; Department
of Entomology, University of Florida; and Florida Nurserymen
and Growers Association. The report is mailed weekly to over
300 contributors and interested parties throughout the State
and is used by the United States Department of Agriculture in
compiling a weekly national report.
In order to increase the usefulness of this report, it is necessary
to obtain information and specimens from various contributors
throughout the State. It is thus necessary for the Survey En-
tomologist to make numerous personal contacts with various
agricultural workers, and during the biennium approximately
two weeks of each month was spent contacting field personnel.
Considerable time and effort have been spent improving survey
techniques, enlisting additional cooperators and improving the
survey report. Special emphasis has been placed on detection
of species not previously found in Florida.
During the biennium, four injurious beetles were discovered
in Florida which are new to the United States. These are:

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

1. Phyllophaga bruneri Chapin. This Cuban May beetle was
first discovered in Miami in June 1959. This is the first West In-
dian species of the injurious genus Phyllophaga which has been
introduced into the United States, although there are over 60 spe-
cies in that area. This species apparently is very rare in Cuba,
where it is probably kept in check by native parasites and preda-
tors. Life history and control studies are being conducted in Mi-
ami to obtain additional information which would be of value
should this species become a serious pest. Approximately four
square miles are presently infested in the city of Miami.
2. Sinoxylon conigerum Gerstaecker. This twig borer is
widely distributed in the tropics and has been intercepted many
times at ports of entry in the United States. Apparently this
species has not been previously established in the United States.
Specimens of this species were collected in the stems of sapodilla
(Achras zapota Linnaeus) at Miami on August 10, 1959. The
beetles were found boring in the main stem of a tree which was
approximately ten feet tall. They appeared to be the only cause
of death of the tree. All infested wood was burned and no ad-
ditional specimens have been found.
3. Caryoborus serripes (Sturm). This palm seed-weevil
which is native to South America was collected from palm seeds
at Miami on December 3, 1958. The weevils were found in the
seeds of two species of palm (one of which was Astrocaryum sp.),
imported for extraction of oils and subjected to methyl bromide
fumigation. Live adults were taken from the fumigated seeds
some time after they were introduced. All remaining seeds were
destroyed by burning.
4. Heterobostrychus aequalis (Waterhouse). Specimens of
this twig borer, which is a native of India and vicinity, were found
boring in a mahogany boat at Winter Haven on May 18, 1959.
It was not possible to determine whether these beetles were pres-
ent in the mahogany boards before they were used to build the
boat which was constructed at Port Orange, Florida. This species
also has been intercepted at ports of entry many times, but ap-
parently never has been established in the United States.
In addition, another foreign beetle, Plectris aliena Chapin,
which previously had been established at Charleston, South Caro-
lina, was collected at Pensacola, Florida. This is presumably a
South American species which could become a pest of turf.
Mr. Woodruff has a special interest in the taxonomy, biology
and ecology of the beetle family Scarabaeidae. An effort has

State Plant Board of Florida

been made to learn as much as possible about the fauna of the
State of Florida and neighboring States. Several hundred speci-
mens have been added to the reference collection through ex-
Several blacklight traps have been operated in various por-
tions of the State (see Fig. 1), and these have been screened for
possible new or rare Scarabaeidae. These traps also are used to
detect many of the economically important insects for the insect





15' ?

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

pest survey and as a survey tool for the Cuban May beetle in
Miami. In addition, data have been kept on a weekly basis for
the species taken in the light trap operated at Gainesville. This
reveals some of the badly needed seasonal and life history infor-
mation. Several species new to science, discovered in this man-
ner, will be described in forthcoming articles.
Current projects are:
1. Improving economic insect pest survey techniques, coopera-
tion, and reporting.
2. Taxonomy, biology, and ecology of the families Scarabaei-
dae and Trogidae.
a. Preparation of a bulletin on the Scarabaeidae of Flor-
b. Preparation of a catalogue of the Scarabaeidae of the
United States and Canada.
c. Detection of new pests by checking light trap collec-
tions for unusual material and obtaining seasonal and
life history information on species of Scarabaeidae
taken at light traps at various strategic points in
d. Obtaining additional reference material by exchanges
and determinations, for outside collectors.
3. Special study of life history, ecology, and control of Cuban
May beetle (Phyllophaga bruneri Chapin) which is estab-
lished in Miami. This project is being conducted in co-
operation with P. E. Briggs and other plant inspectors at
4. Identification of stored grain beetles in connection with the
Khapra beetle survey program (of the United States De-
partment of Agriculture and State Plant Board).

GEORGE W. DEKLE, Entomologist

Asiatic red scale was collected on Podocarpus spp. 66 times in
the State during the biennium. It is now known to occur in 19
cities and 9 counties (see Fig. 2).

66 State Plant Board of Florida


Aonidiella taxus Leon. C LA (3)

GOLDSTEIN (1) -i .." ..*"

The numbers in parenthesis are the
total collections made at
each location

..u. I .S.... FORT LAU IERDALE (4)

AMI (4)
/ TH KAMI (1)

The scale has become widely distributed in Florida despite
intensive efforts to eliminate it in infested nurseries by eradica-
tion procedures. A satisfactory fumigation technique was de-
veloped for plants grown in containers and also for small balled-
and-burlapped field-grown plants. Large podocarpus trees could
not be handled in the fumigation chambers operated by the Plant

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

Board, so it was necessary to spray the podocarpus trees with oil
plus parathion or oil plus malathion.
Fumigated plants became reinfested with the scale in several
nurseries which were handled in the manner described.
Since Asiatic red scale has become widely disseminated in
Florida and fumigated plants are becoming reinfested from the
sprayed trees, the Plant Board on February 10, 1960, discontinued
the policy of quarantining infested nurseries. Asiatic red scale
is handled in the same manner as the other scale insects, a reason-
able tolerance being permitted.

Figure 3. Lychee leaves infested with Aceria litchii Keifer

Erinose Mite (Aceria litchii (Keifer)) Eradication
The eradication procedures directed against erinose mite, a
host specific introduced pest, were completed during the last
biennium. Special intensive surveys conducted in Sarasota

State Plant Board of Florida

County have proved negative. The most recent survey, which
terminated on May 13, 1960, was the second survey made during
the period covered by this report. It is believed that eradica-
tion of this mite has been accomplished.
It is significant that the late Dr. J. M. Henry in 1955 recog-
nized an unusual distorted condition of the foliage on several of
the lychee trees in his grove. The leaves were curled and a
brown felty condition was found on the underside of the distorted
leaves. He was interested in the cause and reported it immedi-
ately to the State Plant Board. Examination by Mr. Dekle of
the leaves revealed an eriophid mite associated with the leaf
condition. Specimens were sent to Dr. H. H. Keifer of the Cali-
fornia State Department of Agriculture who identified the mites
as Aceria litchii Keifer, a species not known to occur in this
The action of the State Plant Board in placing a quarantine on
the infested grove, which prohibited the movement of all lychee
trees, nursery stock, air layers and foliage, is considered the
deciding factor in confining the mite to one locality. The in-
fested grove was severely damaged by the cold in December
1957, and this may have contributed to the success of the pro-
Forest Insects
Aerial Insect Survey. The fourth aerial insect survey was
completed in June 1959; E. W. Holder, Jr., plant inspector of
Macclenny, was assigned as an observer. The results indicated
no serious insect problems to the forest industry. The severe
sawfly outbreak in Taylor, Dixie, and Jefferson Counties reported
in the last biennium collapsed, and the defoliated trees are recov-
ering. A complete report was prepared by Vaughan F. Mc-
Cowan, Branch Assistant, Entomology, Florida Forest Service,
Tallahassee, Florida.
Nursery Inspections
JUNIPER WEBWORM (Dichomeris marginella (Fabricius)).
On January 27, 1960, E. B. Smith and L. W. Holley of the Plant
Inspection Department collected specimens of juniper webworm
on Juniperus communis Linnaeus in a cemetery planting at Day-
tona Beach. The plantings consisted of 20 balled-and-burlapped
plants from Birmingham, Alabama. All plants were infested.
A re-inspection of the plants following three spray applications
failed to reveal any live specimens. Four hundred and twenty

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

cocoons were examined for pupae during June 1960 with negative
results, indicating that the incipient infestation apparently has
been eradicated.
(Polystichum spp.). Pyralid larvae again were found infesting
the stems of leatherleaf fern at Crescent City during December
1959. The insect had been found infesting this fern in Orlando
several years ago. At that time, it was determined as Ambia
sp., family Pyraustidae, by H. W. Capps, U. S. National Museum,
Washington, D. C. District Inspector Charles R. Roberts vis-
ited the Crescent City infestation to become familiar with the
insect. Control measures were not recommended, but Dr. L .C.
Kuitert of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station is now
conducting phytotoxicity tests with materials which should prove
effective against this insect in the event a serious outbreak should
occur in Florida.
MIMOSA WEBWORM (Homadaula albizziae Clarke). The
mimosa webworm was found in Florida first in September 1958
by Plant Inspector E. M. Collins, Jr., at Ft. Walton Beach. Since
the original find it has been discovered at Milton and Pensacola in
July 1959 and Jacksonville in August 1959. Most of the trees
in the Jacksonville area were severely defoliated and control was
not recommended. Dr. Kuitert found that malathion, lindane
and thiodan wettable powders were not toxic to small mimosa
plants. They will be field-tested in Jacksonville during 1960
if infestations recur.
RED WAX SCALE (Ceroplastes rubens Maskell). Re-inspec-
tions made of a nursery in Orlando which was infested with red
wax scale have proved negative during the biennium. Five hun-
dred plants of Aglaonema tricolor were inspected on June 10,
1960 and found to be free of this scale. Apparently the scale
has been eradicated from the nursery.

Embedding Specimens in Plastic
Errol Fielding, student assistant, is embedding specimens in
plastic for the State Plant Board. Approximately 2,000 speci-
mens of economic insects not known to occur in Florida have been
embedded to aid plant inspectors and United States Department
of Agriculture personnel stationed in Florida in their survey
work. Some of the insects embedded were melon fly, Mediter-
ranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, Natal fruit fly, and Khapra

State Plant Board of Florida

beetle. These economic pests could cause serious damage to agri-
culture should they become established in the State.
The imported fire ant (Solenopsis saevissima (F. Smith)),
which is known to occur in parts of Florida, has been embedded
in single and series mounts.
Current projects are:
1. Collaboration with Dr. Weems on a revision of State Plant
Board Bulletin 1, "Scale Insects of Florida."
2. Preparing a bulletin on the Lepidoptera larvae of ornamen-
tal plants in Florida.
3. Embedding economic insects in plastic for plant inspectors
and United States Department of Agriculture personnel for
use in survey work.


Ornamental plants often are damaged by leaf-feeding insects.
Studies were made on some of these insects, namely, leaf miners,
leaf tiers, and leaf skeletonizers of ornamentals. These insects
may go unnoticed until considerable damage has been caused,
and in some cases the insect with a short life cycle will complete
its feeding stages and leave the plant before the damage is ob-
served. Damaged plant parts often are collected and sent to this
department to be examined for possible cause. Unless the en-
tomologist is familiar with the damage, diagnosis will be difficult
because the insect no longer can be found on the plant.
An insectary 12 x 20 feet was constructed at the Pathology
Laboratory in November 1958 for life history studies of leaf-
feeding insects. Numerous specimens were submitted by plant
inspectors, but most specimens failed to complete their life cycle
or colonies could not be established in the insectary. Although
some individual species were reared from plant material, only one
life history study was completed. A life history and biological
study of Lobesia liriodendrana (Kearfott) on Magnolia grandi-
flora Linnaeus was made in the Gainesville area.
Technical assistance was provided to Dr. L. A. Hetrick, En-
tomologist, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, in
studies conducted on the ecology of the pine sawfly (Neodiprion

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

excitans (Rohwer)). Dr. Hetrick summarized the studies as
"The sawfly, N. excitans, is mainly a defoliator of loblolly pine.
Oviposition occurs on established pine needles with one egg per
needle just above the needle sheath. In the spring of 1959, eggs
hatched in approximately 10 days. The 4 larval feeding instars
require approximately 10 days each. Most prepupae spin co-
coons in the litter and soil, but some are found on pine needles,
on bark, or on low growing vegetation. This is a multiple-gen-
eration species, but the number of generations per year has not
been determined. Important factors in natural control are insect
parasites, predators, polyhedral disease and excessive rainfall."
Insect eggs or gravid females were collected and photographed
and notes recorded. This study contributed greatly to the knowl-
edge of insects. It will assist in identifications, as the egg stage
of insects is often collected by inspectors while making routine
plant inspections.
A first award for photomicro photography was received by Dr.
Peterson for color photographs of insect eggs entered in the In-
sect Photo Salon at the 1959 Entomological Society of America
meeting in Detroit.

H. A. DENMARK, Chief Entomologist
A gynecological study of the effects of the imported fire ant
(Solenopsis saevissima (F. Smith)) was initiated in west Florida
in December 1958. The Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion, the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, and
the State Plant Board are cooperating in this study. The purpose
of this project is to secure reliable quantitative data on the effects
of the imported fire ant and the eradication and control program
on the endemic biota of the treated areas. Inasmuch as there
is diversity of opinion as to the effects of the imported fire ant
and the eradication program on birds, mammals, fish, amphibians,
reptiles, and food chain organisms, there is a vital need for con-
crete data. These data are expected to be useful in future eradi-
cation programs. W. C. Rhoades is the project leader of this
study which will be continued for five years.
The citrus bud mite (Aceria sheldoni (Ewing)) was found in
Florida for the first time in August 1959 at South Miami by

State Plant Board of Florida

Hassan H. Attiah, Director, Acarology Investigations, Ministry
of Agriculture, Dokki, Egypt, U. A. R. A survey was made in
January 1960 at South Miami with Regional Inspector C. F.
Dowling, Jr., but the citrus bud mite could not be found at that
time. The mite was discovered in July 1960, however, at South
Miami on sweet orange and lemon and at Ft. Pierce on lemon.
These surveys were made jointly with Mr. Dowling at South
Miami and District Inspector E. W. Campbell at Ft. Pierce. Ap-
parently the citrus bud mite is widely scattered in Florida, but
surveys must be made in other citrus growing areas to confirm
Mr. Attiah also found a second mite new to the United States,
Aceria mangiferae Sayed, on mango at the Subtropical Experi-
ment Station, Homestead and at the United States Department of
Agriculture Plant Introduction Garden at South Miami. This
mite was collected again at the Plant Introduction Garden when
a survey was made with Mr. Dowling in January and again in
July 1960. The mite has not been found outside of Dade County.
Current projects are:
1. Population study of the litter infesting mites of the sand
scrub areas of Florida.
2. Collecting mites and information for future publications
on mites of Florida.
In August 1958, Mr. Woodruff visited several eastern museums
to obtain duplicate material for strengthening the State Plant
Board reference collection. These included the Museum of Com-
parative Zoology at Harvard University, the American Museum
of Natural History in New York City and the U. S. National
Museum in Washington, D. C. Over 2,250 specimens representing
approximately 1,500 species were secured on this trip. Practi-
cally all of these were new to the Plant Board collection. At
these museums Mr. Woodruff also studied type specimens which
will assist greatly in his taxonomic work.
Dr. Weems made a trip to Arizona and California, August 20
through October 12, 1958 primarily to work at the Southwestern
Research Station of the American Museum of Natural History.
Approximately 40,000 arthropods were collected during this trip.
Mr. Denmark and Mr. Woodruff attended the annual meeting
of the Entomological Society of America at Salt Lake City, Utah.
December 1-4, 1958, and visited the Entomology Departments of

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

Utah State University and the University of Utah. On the re-
turn trip Mr. Denmark visited the University of Kansas at Law-
rence, and Mr. Woodruff studied material in the Chicago Natural
History Museum.
Mr. Dekle attended the Bee Research Association meeting in
Tampa in January 1959.
In order to obtain additional information concerning the life
history, biology and habits of Phyllophaga bruneri Chapin, Mr.
Woodruff made a trip to Cuba from August 9 to 17, 1959. He
visited with entomologists at the Cuban Ministry of Agriculture
in Havana and the Agricultural Experiment Station at Santiago
de las Vegas and also contacted Ing. Fernando de Zayas who has
the largest collection of Cuban insects in existence. Mr. de Zayas
assisted Mr. Woodruff in trying to obtain information about P.
bruneri. Three days were spent at San Vicente, Pinar del Rio,
in search of white grubs, additional information, and status of
cotton growing in this province. The United States Department
of Agriculture was interested in knowing the extent of cotton
growing to determine if there was a possible threat of pink boll-
worm. Apparently, P. bruneri is a rare species in Cuba. Only
three specimens are known to have been collected in Cuba, and
these in 1932. However, closely related species are known pests
of sugarcane in the West Indies. It is probable that native para-
sites and predators are responsible for the low populations in
Cuba. Approximately 3,000 insects were collected on this trip,
which will be of considerable assistance in relating the Cuban
fauna and that of the Florida Keys. Through personal contacts
on this trip, working relationships were established with a num-
ber of Cuban entomologists, which should be of considerable as-
sistance in the future for obtaining additional information about
Cuban insects.
Mr. Denmark, Mr. Woodruff, and Dr. Weems attended the Flor-
ida Entomological Society meeting in Miami, September 10-13,
Messrs. Dekle and Woodruff attended the Forestry Insect Con-
ference, Alexandria, Louisiana, October 13-14, 1959. Mr. Dekle
also attended the Florida State Horticultural Society meeting at
Miami, October 26-28, 1959.
Dr. Weems and Mr. Woodruff attended the meetings of the
Entomological Society of America at Detroit, Michigan, Decem-
ber 1-4, 1959. At this time they visited the University of Michi-
gan Museum of Zoology and obtained additional specimens for

State Plant Board of Florida

the Board's collection and also visited the Chicago Natural His-
tory Museum to obtain specimens and study the collections. Dr.
Weems visited arthropod collections of Mr. R. R. Dreisbach, pri-
vate collector living in Midland, Michigan, and Dr. A. E. Emerson,
the world's leading authority on Isoptera, at the University of
Chicago. Important contributions to the arthropod collection
were obtained from all of the collections visited. Mr. Woodruff
also visited the Canadian National Insect Collection at Ottawa,
Canada, where he obtained valuable research material and studied
specimens in that collection.
In December 1959, Mr. Denmark attended a meeting at Gulf-
port, Mississippi, of personnel from States infested with the im-
ported fire ant and United States Department of Agriculture
personnel for discussion of the Imported Fire Ant Program.
Mr. Dekle attended the Southeastern Branch, Entomological
Society of America, meeting in Savannah, Georgia, January 26-
27, 1960.
The Insect Detection Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, February
29-March 1, 1960 was attended by Mr. Woodruff.
Messrs. Dekle and Denmark attended the Georgia Entomologi-
cal Society meeting at Athens on March 29-31, 1960.

This biennium has been one of organization and consolidation
for the library of the State Plant Board. In 1958 the State Plant
Board employed its first librarian. The library has been evolving
since the creation of the State Plant Board in 1915.
The first project of the librarian was to bring order to a mass
of material which was completely unusable in the state in which
it existed. Since the library is facing a problem of inadequate
space and facilities, those publications completely unrelated to
the work have been donated to the Agricultural Library at the
University of Florida, while those of historical value or interest
have been placed in the P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History
at the University of Florida.
The library contains a wealth of material. This has been
divided into four groups: State and Federal documents, includ-
ing Experiment Station publications; uncataloged pamphlets;
books; and periodicals. As the library is cataloged, cards are
being put in the card catalog of the University of Florida Li-

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

braries and the Agricultural Library. A reciprocal agreement
has been made with the University of Florida Libraries whereby
the State Plant Board Library is to receive cards and maintain
a file on their holdings in Entomology. This will make the spe-
cial collection available to research workers throughout the
Southeast. The back volumes of many sets of periodicals have
been completed. During the biennium the mailing of Plant Board
publications has been made a part of the library's work.
Mrs. Batey, with suggestions from the Librarian of the Li-
brary of Congress; Mr. Lynn Walker, Engineering Sciences
Librarian, University of Florida; Plant Board Entomologists Mr.
Denmark, Dr. Peterson, Mr. Woodruff, Dr. Weems, and Mr. Dekle,
developed a classification system for the cataloging of books
dealing with the Insecta. This is a modification of the Library
of Congress system of classification, and is to be published in
the periodical Special Libraries. The Library of Congress Classi-
fication Scheme is used in cataloging all other categories.
The State Plant Board was represented by Mrs. Batey at the
Florida Library Association convention in Clearwater March 31-
April 2, 1960. She appeared on the program of the College and
Special Libraries Section and discussed the State Plant Board
It is hoped that during 1960-61 most of the library will be cat-
aloged. Continued efforts will be made to complete the files of
periodicals and complete the binding. The plan for the future
is to emphasize library service.
The library would like to acknowledge and express apprecia-
tion for gifts from the following:
Dr. K. W. Cooper (Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire)
2 books
Stanley V. Fuller (Cassadaga, Fla.) 1 book
Lewis S. Maxwell (506 E. Hollywood Ave., Tampa 4, Fla.) 2 books
Dr. Ralph A. Morgen (Research Dir., Purdue Research Foundation,
Lafayette, Ind.) 1 book
Ohio Department of Agriculture (Columbus, O.) 1 book
Dr. Alvah Peterson (State Plant Board of Fla.) 1 book
United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency 1 book
Dr. John W. Wilson (Agr. Exp. Sta., Univ. of Fla.) 2 books
H. E. Woodcock (4140 Lovegrove Road, Jacksonville 11, Fla.) 31 books,
numerous periodicals
223 reference questions answered
5 translations of material in foreign languages
11 interlibrary loan requests

76 State Plant Board oj Florida

9,079 publications mailed
600 hours (approximately) devoted to correction of papers, etc.
Current size of library
3,200 bound volumes (approximately) of which 1,331 have been cata-
15,695 paper bulletin documents
1,100 paper bound documents
4,386 uncataloged pamphlets
168 current periodicals received, including 56 paid subscriptions,
93 gifts, 19 exchanges
Added material
14 new subscriptions
234 new books
3,312 gifts (41 books, 3,271 reprints)
33 complete volumes plus 23 separate numbers of missing peri-
3 metal book shelves-from Plant Inspection Department
1 metal book truck
2 charging trays

Plant Pathology Department

D. B. CREAGER, Chief Plant Pathologist
The work of the Plant Pathology Department has continued
to grow along with that of the Plant Inspection Department in
attempting to keep pace with the rapid expansion of Florida's
nursery and flower business. With the increased inspector-
activity during this two-year period there has been a doubling
of the number of disease specimens sent into the laboratory for
diagnosis, and there have been more calls from the field for as-
sistance from Plant Board pathologists.
The Plant Pathology staff has taken an active part in the
inspector trainee program, giving lectures, laboratory demon-
strations and field instruction. All phases of plant diseases im-
portant to an inspector are covered in the course-the funda-
mentals of detecting plant diseases, the general nature of such
diseases, methods of collecting and packing specimens for mail-
ing, and demonstration of the methods and processes employed
in the laboratory for diagnosing diseases (Figure 1).
During the first year of this biennium, 2,526 disease specimens
were processed at the plant pathology laboratories in Gainesville
and Winter Haven, and 2,964 specimens were processed the sec-

SIi -

Figure 1.-A class of inspector trainees being instructed by a plant path-
ologist to recognize and diagnose diseases of roses in a nursery.

State Plant Board of Florida

ond year. This total of 5,490 specimens compares with 2,829
processed during the previous biennial period. These figures
show not only that the number of disease specimens processed
has essentially doubled, but also that the volume of work is
still growing. Last year's total shows an increase of 438 speci-
mens over that of the first year of the biennium and 72 speci-
mens more than were diagnosed during the entire biennium of
As a part of the service rendered to plant inspectors, a monthly
Plant Disease Report is prepared by the Plant Pathology De-
partment in cooperation with the Nematology Department. Be-
ginning with July 1958, these reports have been mailed to all men
in the field, keeping them informed of the important diseases
picked up during the month in the various parts of the State.
The Report is a mimeographed publication which serves as a
general communique between the laboratory staff and the plant
In addition, the Plant Pathology Department, cooperating with
the Nematology Department, also issues another mimeographed
series known as Laboratory Notes. These are articles based on
investigations and studies conducted by Plant Board pathologists
and nematologists, or compiled from literature on certain disease
problems important to Florida plant inspectors. Subject mat-
ter of Notes included "Camellia Flower Blight", "Lethal Yel-
lows of Coconut Palms in Key West", "Major Orchid Diseases",
and "Poinsettia Scab".
As in previous bienniums, the bulk of each pathologist's time
was spent in the laboratory performing diagnostic and investiga-
tional work. However, approximately 80 days per man were
spent working with inspectors on disease problems in the field,
participating in inspectors' meetings, and attending or taking an
active part in growers' programs, short courses, and scientific
There have been no major changes in personnel during the past
two years. At present the Gainesville staff consists of a Chief
Plant Pathologist who administers the work of both laboratories,
two plant pathologists, one assistant plant pathologist, one techni-
cian, one nurseryman, one field assistant, one secretary and one
stenographer, plus one plant pathologist, one assistant plant path-
ologist, one technician and one secretary (shared with Nema-
tology and Plant Inspection Departments) at the Winter Haven

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

This period has shown no exception as to the need for special
surveys or short-term investigations on a number of disease prob-
lems. Some of these special investigations have been continued
from the previous biennium while others are new. Certain spe-
cialized routine work as well as special investigations are sum-
marized under the following numbered projects:

Project 1. Diseases of Palms
A. P. MARTINEZ, Plant Pathologist
(1) "Lethal Yellows" disease of coconut. The "Lethal Yel-
lows" disease of Cocos nucifera that apparently occurs only in
Key West has received considerable attention during this period.
The Pathology and Nematology Departments collaborated in the
preliminary investigation in which root and soil samples were
collected from diseased and non-diseased plants. The nematode
phase will be reported by the Nematology Department.
The most conspicuous visible symptom of the disease is the
rich yellow color first observed on one of the lower fronds of an
affected palm. This coloration eventually spreads over the whole
crown. The premature shedding of nuts appears to be a definite
symptom, although in general affected plants had few nuts or
none at all. The inflorescences, which normally are creamy yel-
low, develop a chocolate brown color, beginning at the outermost
tip. The older nuts split open, while most of the immature ones
drop from the tree. The roots of affected plants are dry, shriv-
eled, and have few lateral roots with new, growing tips. It is
a well-known fact that even in healthy coconuts, dead or dying
roots are a matter of course. Yet there seems to be a noticeable
difference in the number of lateral roots with growing tips in
healthy versus diseased plants that were observed. This, how-
ever, may be due to factors other than the causal agent or agents.
The roots processed for fungi were selected from the outer
perimeter of the root zone. All samples were carefully washed
with a forced water spray. The regular procedure for surface
sterilization was employed, using 10 percent Clorox. The fungi
recovered in culture from root tissue were: Diplodia sp., Fu-
sarium sp., Sphaeropsis sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Trichoderma sp.,
and Phoma sp. A bacterium was also recovered. The most con-
sistent by far was the fungus Fusarium. There was not a clear
correlation between incidence of the fungus and symptom ex-
pression by the plant.

State Plant Board of Florida

Chemical treatments of the roots of trees and surrounding
soil for the control of Lethal Yellows disease of coconut palms
in the Key West area have given some promise. The applica-
tion of chemicals to the palms has been in the hands of local in-
dividuals; consequently, results have been erratic. However,
the spread of the malady appears to have been halted and palm
growth has been improved by the treatment.
The importation of Malayan dwarf coconuts (Cocos nucifera
L.), finally has become a reality for the people of Key West.
The dwarf varieties, which seem to have some degree of resist-
ance to the Lethal Yellows disease, have been made available to
local citizens through the efforts of the city working with Cham-
ber of Commerce personnel.
(2) Helminthosporium leafspot of royal palm, Roystonea
regia. The incidence of Helminthosporium leafspot on royal
palm in the field was negligible during this period. The only
additional work that has been done on this malady consists of
cross-inoculation of the fungus on some grasses. Single spore
isolates were employed to procure inoculum. Pearl millet (Pen-
nisetum glaucum) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) were
inoculated by spraying the foliage with a spore suspension. The
fungus produced infection on both hosts within the period of a
Additional work needs to be done on all phases of this problem,
and will be accomplished as time permits.
(3) Exosporium leafspot of Butia capitata. The first Florida
report of Exosporium palmivorum on Butia capitata was re-
corded November 24, 1958, from a nursery in the Tampa area.
Plants in nursery row plantings were heavily infected. The
bottom fronds were the most severely affected in the planting
where all the plants exhibited some degree of infection.
This fungus has been reported previously on Attalea sp.,
Chamaerops sp., Coccothrinax argentata, Livistona chinensis,
Pritchardia sp., Serenoa repens, and Thrinax sp.
(4) Mineral deficiency studies. This project was undertaken
in cooperation with H. W. Winsor, Assistant Chemist in Soils,
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, to deter-
mine the possible need of supplemental boron for coconut palms
(Cocos nucifera L.) in Florida. (Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Project
785.) Fruits frequently show grooved and misshapen surfaces,
probably as a result of a mineral deficiency.

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

Plots were set up in Fairchild Tropical Gardens, Miami, through
the efforts of C. F. Dowling, Regional Inspector, and S. C. Kiem,
Superintendent of the Gardens. A total of 16 coconut palms of
various ages and sizes, representing several varieties of Cocos
nucifera, were selected for the tests. Individual plots contained
four trees each. Each treatment was replicated four times and
was represented once in each plot. The four treatments were as
Treatment A-One palm in each plot received no fertilizer
but was trenched. Trenches, which extended from the butt
of the trunk out for 3 feet, were the width of a spade and
approximately 8-12 inches deep. One trench at each major
point of the compass for each tree.
Treatment B-One palm in each plot received approximately
fifty pounds of regular superphosphate.
Treatment C-One palm in each plot received fifty pounds of
regular superphosphate plus one pound of Colemanite (boron
Treatment D-One palm in each plot received fifty pounds of
regular superphosphate plus five pounds of frits (boron plus
other minor elements). Frits are soft glass materials of
special composition containing specific nutrient elements.
In all cases the soil amendments were divided roughly into four
equal portions, for the four trenches around each tree. The one
exception was the control tree in every plot which was trenched
but received no fertilizer.
As pretreatment preparation, soil samples from the site were
analyzed to check mineral content, pH, and soil types, and an
illustrated map was drawn to pinpoint each plot in the experi-
ment, and each tree in the plot.

Project 2. Diseases of Pine Seedlings
A. P. MARTINEZ, Plant Pathologist
A root-rot problem in the pine seedling nurseries was brought
to the Plant Board's attention in the spring of 1958 by District
Inspector Ellis W. Holder, Jr. The material submitted did not
exhibit the common damping-off symptoms and for this reason
both Pathology and Nematology processed some of the specimens
-seedlings of Pinus elliottii.
The fungus Fusarium was recovered consistently from the

State Plant Board of Florida

affected seedlings, while healthy samples were clean. The nema-
tologists recovered some parasitic nemas from the same material.
The problem was magnified in the spring of 1959, either be-
cause the Department was aware of it or because there was a
higher incidence of the causal agent or agents. Nurseries in
Lake Butler and Olustee were in trouble early in the season. The
fungus Fusarium was again recovered consistently from affected
seedlings, while healthy ones were clean. The nematologists
again recovered parasitic nemas from the same specimens.
The symptoms as observed were: affected plants wilt, leaves
droop and begin turning a dull, ash-grey color. As this condition
progresses, the lower leaves turn reddish-brown in color and plant
growth comes to a standstill. The stem, basal stem included, is
firm and shows no evidence of injury. The root area is the most
severely affected. There is a noticeable lack of lateral roots and
in most cases only the taproot remains. The striking thing is
that even plants that are dead will remain erect for a time.
Duplication of the problem in the greenhouse was attempted
with pine seedlings in pots. Twenty-four seedlings in individual
pots were inoculated as follows: six with nemas only, six with Fu-
sarium only, six with nemas and Fusarium, and six uninoculated
to serve as controls. Another series consisting of six pots, each
planted with four seedlings, was inoculated with the Fusarium
fungus only. Since insufficient data have been collected and all
possibilities have not been exhausted, it is not practicable at
this time to make any valid conclusions.
It is interesting to note that where methyl bromide was used
as a pre-planting soil fumigant (one pound per 100 square feet
or one pound per 150 square feet) there was no problem of root-
rot in the pine seedling nurseries.
One result of the investigations of the root-rot problems of
seedling slash pines (Pinus elliottii Engelmann) has been the
initiation of fumigation test plots on commercial nursery sites.
S. J. Rowan, United States Department of Agriculture Forest
Service Plant Pathologist, has set up such plots this year in three
pine nurseries. These nurseries are located at Lake Butler, Lee,
and Perry. During the second year of the biennium, the process-
ing of pine seedling samples for root-rot was continued, but only
for routine determinations.

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

Project 3. Diseases of Landscape and Flowering Shrubs

A. P. MARTINEZ, Plant Pathologist
(1) Chemical phytotoxicity studies for Gardenia jasminoides.
At the request of H. M. van Pelt, District Inspector at Apopka,
this study was undertaken, with the assistance of Charlie Baum,
Plant Board nurseryman, to determine the effect of three chemi-
cal dips on gardenia tip cuttings. Three materials were used:
a) HgC12-bichloride of mercury; b) NaOCl,-Clorox; c) 8-Quinoli-
nol sulfate; d) Control-six cuttings were not treated with any
chemical. Each material was used at two different concentra-
tions: a) HgCl, 1:1000 and 1:500; b) Clorox 10% and 20%; c)
8-Quinolinol sulfate 1:1000 and 1:500. Immersion time for each
bundle of three cuttings was as follows: a) HgCl--5, 10, and 30
minutes; b) NaOCl.-5, 10, and 30 minutes; c) 8-Quinolinol sul-
fate-30, 60, and 90 minutes.
All cuttings were allowed to air dry before they were plunged
in a flat filled with sterilized sand and placed under constant mist.
This work is still in progress.
(2) Boxwood wilt. During the fall of 1959, District Inspect-
ors A. L. Baker and A. E. Graham submitted wilted specimens of
boxwood (Buxus microphylla Sieb. & Zucc.) to the laboratory
for diagnosis. In these and subsequent specimens, a verticillately
branched fungus (Verticillium Nees) was recovered in culture.
Healthy cuttings were inoculated with the fungus under con-
trolled conditions in the greenhouse; these reproduced the visible
and vascular symptoms previously observed in naturally diseased
plants. Leaf inoculations undertaken at a later date failed to
demonstrate that the fungus gains entry into the vascular system
by way of the leaves. In every case inoculated leaves were ab-
scised before the fungus made entrance into the petiole.
The field symptoms for plants attacked by Verticillium wilt
are: a) Single branches may wilt, leaves turn ashen or may be-
come a bright lemon-orange color; b) the best single symptom is
the discoloration, dark green or blackish-green, of the vascular
tissue beginning in the root zone and extending upward; c)
newly fallen leaves may have masses of bright orange-red spores
on the underside (Figure 2).
Additional work is under way in an attempt to uncover further
useful information concerning this fungus disease.

State Plant Board of Florida

vij^ 4fW \. ^ 3'$,


a 5' 4 3 2 i


Figure 2.-Boxwood wilt. (a) Healthy plant at the left and others show-
ing various stages of root rot; (b) leaves showing the fungus fruiting on
the surface after falling from an infected plant.

Project 4. Diseases of Floricultural Crops
J. H. BOLICK, Assistant Plant Pathologist
(1) Bacterial bud blight of chrysanthemums. This disease
came to the attention of the laboratory staff in November of
1959 through a request for field assistance from District In-
spector E. W. Campbell of Fort Pierce. A survey indicated that
the disease was confined to one establishment in that area, and
that the degree of infestation varied with different varieties be-
ing grown. The most striking symptom of the disease is bud
blast (Figure 3).

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

Figure 3.-Bacterial bud blight of chrysanthemums, showing blackened
and blasted flower buds. This appears to be a new disease of mums, first
found in Florida in 1959.

Isolations made from the diseased material yielded a bacterium
which proved capable of causing the disease when inoculated
into healthy plants. This pathogen has been identified as a
Pseudomonas species close to P. calendulae (Takimoto). (Mor-
phological and physiological determinations were run by J. R. Mi-
lam, Bacteriology Curator, University of Florida.) Confirmation
of this determination is still under way.
A review of the literature revealed that a similar disease oc-
curred in England in 1927, but the disease apparently is new
to the United States. A formal report of Plant Board investiga-
tions of this disease will be presented at the Florida State Horti-
cultural Society meetings in October 1960.
(2) Corynespora leafspot of Hydrangea macrophylla. The
fungus Corynespora cassiicola (Helminthosporium vignae) was
consistently isolated from leafspots on hydrangea. Preliminary
inoculations carried out in the Gainesville greenhouse have con-
firmed its pathogenicity.
(3) Stem galls on Hydrangea macrophylla. Specimens of hy-
drangea, bearing stem galls, were submitted for diagnosis during
the past year. A fungus, belonging to the genus Cephalosporium,
was isolated from the gall tissue. Preliminary inoculation studies
indicate that this fungus is capable of causing the disease. There

State Plant Board of Florida

is no report, in the literature reviewed, of galls being formed by
any member of this fungus genus.
Further investigation of these two diseases of hydrangea will
be conducted as time permits.
(4) Cercospora leafspot of snapdragon. A species of Cerco-
spora was isolated from Antirrhinum majus, snapdragon, and
was tentatively identified as Cercospora antirrhini. It was for-
warded to Dr. Charles Chupp of Cornell University for final iden-
tification. He confirmed the species and stated that it was the
first find in the United States. Subsequent inoculations have
proven the pathogenicity of the fungus. Control measures in-
clude sanitation and a good fungicidal coverage. The results of
this work were published in Plant Disease Reporter 43 (4):
511, 1959.
Project 5. Diseases of Foliage Crops
J. H. BOLICK, Assistant Plant Pathologist
(1) Leafspot of leather-leaf fern. Early in this biennium a
leaf-spotting organism was isolated from leaf spots on leather-
leaf fern, Polystichum adiantiforme, and was identified as Cylin-
drocladium pteridis. Greenhouse inoculations proved its patho-
genicity. A search of the literature revealed that Dr. F. A. Wolf
had previously isolated the fungus from Florida ferns and proved
its pathogenicity in 1928.
A survey of the occurrence of this disease was conducted in
15 leather-leaf ferneries involving approximately 40 acres in the
central part of the State. This survey in 1959 revealed that
Cylindrocladium pteridis infections had caused a loss of from
10 to 30 percent, varying with the individual growers and the
prevention measures taken by them. Preliminary greenhouse
tests have indicated that the fungus may be controlled by using
good sanitation practices, in conjunction with a preventive spray
program which utilizes fixed copper at the rate of two pounds
per 100 gallons of water plus a spreader-sticker.
During the second half of this biennium, preliminary green-
house tests of fungicides using a Fixed Copper, Maneb, Zineb,
and Captan gave indications that all may be used safely on the
leather-leaf fern. The rates of application were at two pounds
per 100 gallons of water plus a spreader-sticker.
Based on greenhouse tests and grower experience, Copper A
Compound is recommended as a safe and effective spray for con-
trol of Cylindrocladium. Good coverage is essential with any of

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

these materials, and a spreader-sticker must be used to insure
surface-spread and adhesion. If a fungicide is to be effective,
the fern plants must be sprayed before infection occurs.
Tests indicate that optimum conditions for infection occur
when there is high temperature and high humidity. The fungus
is relatively inactive during periods of cool weather and/or low
humidity. This means that spraying during the winter months
may not be necessary.

Project 6. Diseases of Orchids
J. H. BOLICK, Assistant Plant Pathologist
Orchid diseases continue to be of considerable importance in
Florida. A majority of the pathogenic diseases of orchids en-
countered have been of two general types: those causing soft
rots, and the rust fungi.
(1) Rust diseases of orchids. Three rusts submitted for di-
agnosis during this period proved to be new to Florida. One of
these rusts, Uredo oncidii, was found on three plants out of ap-
proximately 100 inspected in one nursery. These orchids were
placed under quarantine and the infected plants destroyed. Sub-
sequent inspections of the remaining plants under quarantine
have proven negative.
The second new rust, a species of Sphenospora, was found on
Oncidium tetrapetalum. It was forwarded to Dr. George B. Cum-
mins of Purdue University for identification. He named the
new species Sphenospora saphena. Two Oncidiums in one nurs-
ery were found to be infected, but in tracing them back to an-
other nursery in Florida, a total of 19 out of 473 plants was
found to be infected. This lot of plants was imported originally
from Jamaica. The diseased plants were destroyed and the re-
mainder placed under quarantine for further observation. Green-
house inoculation tests have shown that another Oncidium, O.
variegatum, is also susceptible to S. saphena.
The third orchid rust new to Florida proved to be another
species of Sphenospora: Sphenospora Kevorkianii. This rust
was submitted in the same week by District Inspectors E. W.
Miller and C. R. Roberts from widely separated locations. The
fungus was found on native orchids, Epidendron tampense, that
were originally collected from the wild. Identification of the rust
was confirmed by Dr. George B. Cummins of Purdue University.
A brief paper concerning these two Sphenospora species is be-
ing prepared for publication.

State Plant Board of Florida

Project 7. Diseases of Poinsettia
DON B. CREAGER, Chief Plant Pathologist

(1) Bacterial blight caused by Corynebacterium poinsettia.
A disease of poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, new to Florida,
was first discovered in an experimental planting at the Subtropi-
cal Experiment Station, Homestead, early in the summer of
1958 by Dr. Lorne McFadden. Plants in a Palm Beach County
nursery, the source of the plants at Homestead, were examined
and found to be infected. Specimens from this nursery were
sent to the State Plant Board laboratory for study and diagnosis.
The disease causes tip blight of the branches, discolored
streaks in stems and leaf lesions (Figure 4). Diseased stock
plants are weakened, cuttings fail to root properly in cutting
benches, and many potted plants may be rendered unsalable.
Poinsettia blight has been picked up by State Plant Board
inspectors in 10 other home and nursery plantings in five different
counties in addition to the Homestead area (Figure 5).
There is no indication at present that the disease in Florida
has had its origin from any one source, and there is no real infor-
mation as to how or when it might have been introduced into the
State. Prior to its discovery in Florida, bacterial blight of poin-
settia was known to occur in New Jersey, Maryland, New York,
and Pennsylvania as reported to Starr and Pirone in 1942, and
in New Zealand as reported by Brien and Dingley in 1957. Also,
since its first discovery in Florida, it has been reported from
Since this disease is so little known, and since it is newly-
discovered in Florida, inoculation and histological studies were
conducted to gain a better understanding of the potentialities
of the malady. These studies are not yet complete, but enough
information has been gleaned to warrant the following conclu-
(a) The cause of this new disease in Florida was determined
to be the bacterium Corynebacterium poinsettia Starr and Pi-
rone indicating that the disease in Florida is the same as that
first discovered in New Jersey in 1941.
(b) Inoculation studies demonstrated that infection can occur
through wounded and "unwounded" leaves as well as through
various types of stem wounds, facts which may be useful to con-
sider in devising a control program.

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

S.. .

Figure 4.-Symptoms of poinsettia blight, showing streaks in stems,
blotches and tattered lesions in leaves, and blighting and distortion of stem
tip. This disease was first found in Florida in the summer of 1958.

(c) Most directly-infected leaves dropped from the plant be-
fore infection reached the stem, under conditions of the tests.
However, it seems possible that the incidence of stem infection
from such direct leaf infections, developing under conditions of
high temperatures and humidity in the nursery, might be greater.
At any rate, such directly-infected leaves, before or after drop-
ping, can serve as a constant source of inoculum. This is another
fact to be considered in any control program.

State Plant Board of Florida

Figure 5.-Known distribu-
tion of bacterial blight of
poinsettia (Corynebacterium
poinsettia Starr & Pirone)
in Florida. Each dot repre-
sents the approximate loca-
tion of a home or nursery
planting in which the disease
was found.

I,_ ol*

(d) Any one of the several methods of inoculation used in these
tests would be useful in conducting bactericidal tests in the
greenhouse, but the methods of employing leaf wounds, stem-tip
wounds after removal of tip-cuttings, and the basal stem wounds
of tip-cuttings before rooting, appear to possess the most promise.

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

(e) Histological studies reveal that the bacterial pathogen
advances upwards and downwards in stems between parenchyma
cells in the phloem and cortical tissues, causing the formation of
elongate, lysigenous cavities. This internal condition shows on
the outside of the stem as hydrotic to necrotic streaks.
(f) Progress of the pathogen in the leaf occurs via the inter-
cellular spaces in parenchyma tissues, especially in the xylem
and phloem area of veins, as well as in the xylem vessels in later
stages of infection.
A commercial grower attempted to control this disease during
the 1959 season in 10 acres of large stock plants used as a source
of propagation for pot plants. He carried out a careful pruning
and spraying program, using Agrimycin 500, but failed to con-
trol the blight. As a result, the entire acreage of stock plants,
being unfit for propagation, was destroyed by burning.
Two papers on bacterial blight of poinsettia, covering the re-
sults of investigations, have been published, one in the Proceed-
ings of the Florida State Horticultural Society and one in the
Plant Disease Reporter.
(2) Poinsettia scab caused by Sphaceloma poinsettia. This
disease continues to cause considerable losses to nurserymen and
florists in the central and southern parts of the State where
plants are grown in the open. Eighty-seven specimens of scab-
infected poinsettia plants were submitted for confirmation and
diagnosis during this biennium, the majority coming from Dade,
Brevard, Polk, Hillsborough, and Pinellas Counties. It is against
regulations to sell a scab-infected plant, so many thousands of
plants are destroyed annually because of this malady.
Since this is the most destructive and most widespread disease
of poinsettias in the State at the present time, preliminary studies
have been started on the pathogen, conditions and nature of in-
fection, host range, and possibilities of practical control through
the use of fungicides. For these studies, the pathogen Sphace-
loma poinsettia has been isolated in pure culture from scab-
infected plants of poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, and from
several wild species of Euphorbia.
Observations and preliminary culture studies indicate that
wild, native species of Euphorbia may be hosts of Sphaceloma
poinsettia as well as the poinsettia. In one case, scab-infected
wild Euphorbia plants, growing as weeds in a nursery, were
found within five feet of scab-infected poinsettia plants. The
organism isolated from both hosts appeared identical in culture.

State Plant Board of Florida

Cross-inoculation studies may determine whether or not the in-
fected wild species can act as a source of inoculum for the disease
in the cultivated poinsettia.

Figure 6.-Fig leaf showing symptoms of fig mosaic. Fig mosaic is a
virus disease not yet established in Florida.

Project 8. Diseases of Figs
HARRY C. BURNETT, Plant Pathologist
In 1958 several hundred fig plants, Ficus carica, from Italy,
grown under postentry quarantine, and also several hundred fig

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

plants from California, were found affected with fig mosaic virus
(Figure 6). During this two-year period a number of species of
Ficus have been inoculated with buds from infected fig to deter-
mine their susceptibility. The following plants have been found
susceptible to this virus: Ficus lucescens (Ficus wrightiana),
F. retusa (F. nitida), F. rubiginosa, F. jacquinifolia, Ficus sp.
(an unidentified species), and Cudrania tricuspidata.
Ficus lucescens is extremely susceptible when inoculated. The
leaves are twisted and distorted, and in addition have a mosaic
pattern. It makes a better indicator plant for this virus than
does F. carica. Cudrania tricuspidata is the first plant outside
of the genus Ficus to be found susceptible.
A paper on this subject is being prepared for presentation at
the Florida State Horticultural Society meetings in October

Project 9. Host Range Studies of Fungi Affecting
Citrus and Subtropical Fruits
HARRY C. BURNETT, Plant Pathologist
(1) Leafspot of Barbados cherry. Host range studies of the
leaf spot disease, Cercospora bunchosiae, on Barbados cherry,
Malpighia glabra, have been conducted. A paper on this disease
is in press, reporting Malpighia glabra to be a new host for this
pathogen. It will appear in the July 15th issue of the Plant Dis-
ease Reporter. Currently, two other plants in the Malpighiaceae
family are under study. They are Malpighia coccigera and
Thryallis glauca.
(2) Cercospora leafspot of sweet orange. Host range studies
of a leafspot, Cercospora penzigii, on sweet orange, Citrus sinen-
sis, are now under way. This disease, although usually rare on
citrus in Florida, is becoming more common. For this reason,
the Department will endeavor to study the susceptibility of the
various citrus varieties commonly used in Florida.

Project 10. Tristeza Indexing, in Cooperation with the
Citrus Budwood Certification Program
HARRY C. BURNETT, Plant Pathologist
Testing citrus trees for the presence of the tristeza virus con-
tinues to be an important part of the work at the Winter Haven
laboratory. This cooperative work is done in connection with

State Plant Board of Florida

the Citrus Budwood Certification Program. Many thousands
of Key lime seedlings are used annually in these budding tests.
During this two-year period, 2,439 trees were indexed for
tristeza. The work during the past year (1959-60) alone involved
1,739 trees, requiring 6,043 Key lime seedlings for the tristeza
tests. Twelve percent of these trees carried the virus.
The large increase in the number of trees under test during
the fiscal year of 1959-60 involved candidate tree V-16-6-22 and
its progeny. In 1955, this tree was found free of tristeza. When
it was retested in 1959, it was found infected. Because of the
large number of buds taken from this tree since 1955, it was
necessary to determine at approximately what date the tree con-
tracted the virus. This process necessitated indexing 529 scion
or nursery trees, the buds of which had been taken from V-16-
6-22 at various times since 1955. This one tree and its progeny
alone required 1,654 Key lime plants for the tests.
The 1,739 trees reported above as indexed for tristeza far ex-
ceeds the number for any year in the past. In fact, more than
twice as many plants were indexed during the fiscal year 1959-60
than in any previous twelve-month period. This 1,739 almost
equals the 1,931 plants tested in the previous 67-month period,
beginning in 1953.

Project 11. Childs' Color Test for Exocortis
HARRY C. BURNETT, Plant Pathologist
To determine the presence of exocortis virus infection in citrus
plants budded on Poncirus trifoliata Raf. rootstock, Dr. J. F. L.
Childs of the United States Department of Agriculture, Subtropi-
cal Fruit Field Station, Orlando, developed a histological tech-
nique using Phloroglucinol-Hydrochloric acid reagent. This test
has been under trial in our laboratory for the past two years.
During this period, bark sections were tested and examined
microscopically. Of this total, 128 were positive for exocortis
according to the test, 42 were questionably positive, 312 were
negative, and 36 were questionably negative.
The accuracy of the Childs' Color Test has not been determined
definitely. However, correlation of test results with examina-
tions of trees in the field indicates that the percentage of accuracy
is quite high.

Nematology Department

The vacant position of Chief Nematologist created by the res-
ignation of Dr. B. G. Chitwood in February 1958, was filled with
the appointment of Dr. L. G. van Weerdt in February 1959.
After serving one year, Dr. van Weerdt resigned to enter law
school. Dr. Wray Birchfield resigned his position of Nematol-
ogist at the Winter Haven laboratory on June 1, 1959, and Dr.
E. B. Sledge was appointed at that date to fill the vacancy. F. S.
Donaldson, Jr. was appointed October 5, 1959, as a field assistant
with the responsibility of processing and diagnosing soybean and
golden nematode cyst samples in cooperation with the United
States Department of Agriculture. Field Assistant Shaw K.
Buck resigned January 13, 1960, and was succeeded at Winter
Haven by J. T. Denmark, Jr. Jack Solomon has worked in the
Gainesville laboratory as a part-time laboratory technician since
September 1959.

R. P. ESSER, Nematologist

Diagnostic Work
The number of samples processed this biennium reached a
total of 3,048-more than double the number handled in the pre-
vious biennium. Vastly improved processing techniques in addi-
tion to assembly-line procedures allowed efficient handling of
this increase without the addition of personnel.

Table 1.-Source of Samples Processed from
July 1, 1958 through June 30, 1960
Number of
Source Samples
Nursery (ornamental, tree & turf) .....................- ............. 1,501
Private home owners ....-..---.. ............ .........--............. 612
Survey (by staff, chiefly coconut and pine) ...................... 502
Survey (U.S.D.A., golden nema and soybean cyst nema).. 226
Foreign examinations --...-------....... .......... .......... ..... 129
State and Federal property .--................- ...... ........... 69
Unknown ........ ............. ...................-- ........ 9

The significant trend in diagnostic work has been, in addition
to an over-all increase in samples processed, an increase in num-

State Plant Board of Florida

bers of nursery samples handled and a decrease in survey sam-
A number of innovations in processing techniques were initi-
ated during the biennium. The practice of hand sieving and the
use of the Baermann funnel were all but abandoned in favor of
elutriation systems imported from Europe (Figure 1). These
systems effected separation of nematodes from various sub-
strates by means of differences in respective specific gravities of

Figure 1.-Oostenbrink Elutriation system. A device imported
from Europe to separate nematodes from their soil habitat.

Twi ,,,ty-Third Biennial Report

nematodes and associated particulate matter in solution. A set
of three "Seinhorst Elutriators" was modified into a highly effi-
cient unit capable of processing a soil sample every 10 minutes.
The "Oostenbrink Elutriator" imported from Holland was put
into operation late in the biennium. This single unit increased
sample production capacity from 40 to 72 samples per day. Com-
parative trials are anticipated in the next year to demonstrate
which elutriator system yields the greater number of nematodes.
A streamlining of handling procedures has enabled the comple-
tion in six days of 40 samples, a total which two years ago would
have required 30 days to complete.
A method used in Europe to recover large numbers of migra-
tory endoparasitic nematodes from infested roots was employed.
Roots were spread out on a cross-wire support under an intermit-
tent fine mist spray supplying sufficient water output to keep the
roots moist. The support holding the roots was placed in the
regular sink surrounded by a tin frame which kept the spray
water within the confines of the sink. The drain was closed by a
rubber stopper which had been provided with a glass overflow
tube in its center. The water from the mist spray filled the sink
overnight to the overflow. Nematodes emerging from the roots
were washed into the sink by the mist spray and sank to the
bottom. The next morning the sink was emptied by connecting
a large rubber hose to the drain. The water was screened and
the nematodes collected in this manner. Through the use of
this technique a large quantity of Radopholus similis-infected
citrus roots was kept without decay for three to four weeks. Bur-
rowing nematodes were recovered daily.
Since the initiation of the Seinhorst Elutriators the recovery
of nematodes especially in the genera Criconemoides, Hemicrico-
nemoides, and Hemicycliophora has increased manyfold. This
is easily understood when it is realized that the Baermann fun-
nel technique relies on the active cooperation of the nematodes
to wriggle their way through the facial tissues. In the case of
the elutriators, an upward stream of water carries nematodes-
dead or alive, mobile as well as inactive ones-to a collecting
point. The more accurate determination of kinds and numbers
of nematodes present in a soil sample made it possible to diagnose
more accurately the pathogens of diseased plants. It also con-
tributed considerably to a more realistic interpretation of the
results of these analyses for the purpose of certification of plants
for out-of-state shipments, nursery-site approvals, etc.

State Plant Board of Florida

To keep the diagnostic work in efficient operation the taxo-
nomic file on plant-parasitic nematodes was kept up-to-date wher-
ever possible. Towards this goal, 26 books in the general field
of nematology were purchased. Over 1,500 reprints dealing
entirely with nematodes were included in the nematology library.
A permanent slide collection was initiated to keep on hand speci-
mens of plant parasitic nematodes believed to be new to science
or otherwise of interest to nematologists.

Burrowing Nematode Survey.-As part of the Spreading De-
cline program the Gainesville laboratory processed numerous
samples, representing many different plant genera, for the pres-
ence of burrowing nematodes (Radopholtus similis). The great
majority of these samples were collected in north and west Flor-
ida. None of the samples was found to be positive for burrowing
nematodes. The results were forwarded to Special Inspector
J. M. McNamee and included in his annual report on spreading
decline activities.
Unusual collections included burrowing nematodes recovered
from the soil about the roots of coconut palm in Key West, in
Jamaica, British West Indies, and in a deep muck soil in West
Palm Beach about the roots of Melaleuca leucadendra.
Citrus Nematode Survey.-Citrus nematodes (Tylenchulb's
semipenetrans) were recovered from Citrus spp. at Citra, Lowell,
McIntosh, Weirsdale, Georgetown, Winter Haven, Gainesville,
Summerfield, Crescent City, Winter Park, and Palm Beach, and
from Cocos nucifera in the Florida Keys. One sample from ferns
in Ocala rendered a few citrus nematodes. The finding of citrus
nematodes from around Cocos nucifera in the Florida Keys is be-
lieved to be a new record. Most citrus nematodes were found in
site survey submissions.
Lethal Yellows Nemic Survey.-As part of an effort to deter-
mine the etiology of "Lethal Yellows" of Cocos nucifera L. in
Key West, the nemic populations associated with coconuts in
that locality were studied. The following genera and species of
plant-parasitic nematodes were found: Criconemoides citri, Cri-
conemoides mutabile, Criconemoides sp., Helicotylenchus n. sp.,
Helicotylenchus erythrinae, Hemicriconemoides strictathecatus
n. sp., Hemicriconemoides wessoni, Hoplolaimus sp., Meloidogyne
spp., Paratylenchus minutus, Paratylenchus sp., Pratylenchus
brachyurus, Pratylenchus hexincisus, Radopholus similis, Roty-

Twenty-Third Biennial Report

lenchulus n. sp., Trichodorus christiei, Tylenchorhynchus sp.,
Xiphinema americanum and Xiphinema n. sp.
Golden Nematode and Soybean Cyst Nematode Survey.-
(Fred Donaldson in cooperation with the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture.) In September 1959 a new endeavor-evalu-
ation of cyst survey samples-was added to existing functions.
Objective of this survey is detection of those serious nemic pests
as yet unrecorded in Florida soil. Golden and soybean cyst nema-
todes cause great damage in Europe and Asia, respectively, and
while not yet established in Florida, cysts are intercepted each
year at various Florida ports of entry.
During the biennium, 226 soil samples were examined for cysts.
Special racks were constructed in the Plant Board's Gainesville
warehouse to air-dry and contain the hundreds of cyst samples
prior to examination. Methods peculiar to cyst examination of
soil were devised since the methods used in routine soil sample
examination will not work with air-dried cyst samples.
Heterod) a cacti appears to be the most common cyst nematode
recovered from Florida and is not considered a serious pest. A
new species of cyst nematode, currently being described by Dr.
M. A. Golden of the United States Department of Agriculture, has
been recovered in large numbers from the potato- and cabbage-
growing areas near Hastings and Palatka, as many as 2,500 being
recovered from a single sample. Some of these cysts were still
viable after a year's storage.
The large volume of soil which accompanied these cyst samples
quickly strained waste facilities, so a soil bin was constructed
to contain the increase of contaminated soil.
Literature and survey files have been established to keep this
new operation at peak efficiency and in touch with all pertinent
Turf Certifications
Regulations by the State of Georgia specify that all turf
shipped into Georgia be reasonably free of plant-parasitic nema-
todes. In compliance with this regulation, a total of 816 turf
samples was examined for the presence of plant-parasitic nema-
todes. Broken down according to host, the numbers of samples
processed were as follows: Zoisia sp., 254; Stenotaphrum se-
cundatum, 221; Eremochloa ophiuroides, 180; Cynodon dactylon,
59; Zoisia matrella, 18; Paspalum sp., 14; Zoisia japonica, 6;
Paspalum notatum, 6; sod (host unidentified), 5.

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