Report of the state plant...
 Biennial report on tristeza...
 Quarantine inspection departme...
 Grove inspection department
 Entomological department
 Apiary inspection department

Group Title: Report for the period ... of the State Plant Board of Florida
Title: Report for the period ... /
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098574/00015
 Material Information
Title: Report for the period ... /
Alternate Title: Biennial report
Physical Description: 19 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: State Plant Board of Florida
Publisher: State Plant Board of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1948/50
Frequency: biennial
Subject: Plants, Protection of -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: State Plant Board of Florida.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 4th (1920/22)- 23rd (1958/60).
Numbering Peculiarities: Vols. for 1950/52-1958/60 also called: Bulletin.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098574
Volume ID: VID00015
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10989019
lccn - sn 86033752
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the biennial period ending ... and supplemental reports to ...
Succeeded by: Biennial report

Table of Contents
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    Report of the state plant board
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    Biennial report on tristeza research
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
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    Quarantine inspection department
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Grove inspection department
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Entomological department
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Apiary inspection department
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
Full Text




JULY 1, 1948-JUNE 30, 1950

(Eighteenth Biennial Report)

MARCH, 1951


FRANK M. HARRIS, Chairman, St. Petersburg
N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
ELI H. FINK, Jacksonville
GEORGE J. WHITE, SR., Mount Dora
W. F. POWERS, Secretary, Tallahassee


ARTHUR C. BROWN, Plant Commissioner
J. C. GOODWIN, Nursery Inspector and
Assistant Plant Commissioner
H. S. MCCLANAHAN, Grove Inspector
G. B. MERRILL, Entomologist
W. H. MERRILL, Quarantine Inspector
H. S. FOSTER, Apiary Inspector
L. R. HUNTER, Chief Clerk

Eighteenth Biennial Report


Gainesville, Florida
January 1, 1951
To His Excellency,
Fuller Warren,
Governor of Florida
SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the State Plant
Board of Florida for the biennium ending June 30, 1950. Please
submit same to the Legislature.

The biennial report of the State Plant Board of Florida is pre-
sented herewith for the information of the executive and legis-
lative branches of the State Government, as well as for the
citizens of Florida.
The membership of the Board was changed on October 18,
1949 by reason of the expiration of the appointments held by
Mr. J. Thomas Gurney, Orlando, Mr. Thos. W. Bryant, Lake-
land, and Mr. J. Henson Markham, Jacksonville. These citizens
were succeeded by the writer who serves as chairman, Mr. Eli
H. Fink, of Jacksonville, and Mr. George J. White, Sr. of Mt.
Dora. Mr. N. B. Jordan, of Quincy, and Mr. Hollis Rinehart,
of Miami, are the other two members of the Board.
The membership of the State Plant Board is identical with
that of the Board of Control, which Board has jurisdiction over
and control of the several state institutions of higher learning.
The provisions of the Act creating the State Plant Board require
that the administration of the Act shall be exercised and per-
formed by the members of the Board of Control acting as the
State Plant Board; and furthermore, that the Plant Board shall
be provided with office space on the campus of the University
of Florida at Gainesville. It was the thought of the sponsors
of the Act and members of the Legislature that the State Plant
Board should be so situated as to use to the best advantage the
services and counsel of specialists attached to the Florida Agri-

State Plant Board of Florida

cultural Experiment Station and the College of Agriculture at
Gainesville. This arrangement tends to economy of administra-
tion and provides a close and mutually advantageous relation
between the regulatory forces and the research and educational
organizations. Members of both Boards serve without com-
pensation other than reimbursement for expenses. Both Boards
meet at the same time-there are no extra costs for travel and
subsistence. One Secretary and one office and office force at Talla-
hassee serve both boards, with expenditures divided. Office space
for the Plant Commissioner, the Board's executive officer, is pro-
vided by the University of Florida. Although the activities of
the Board are almost solely of a regulatory nature, some scien-
tific work of a special nature is done. Expert advice and counsel
on the part of entomologists, plant pathologists, horticulturists,
and other specialists attached to the Experiment Station is
readily available to the Plant Commissioner in such instances.
Florida is, and will probably continue to be, an agricultural
state, whose chief source of income is from the sale of plants
and plant products. By reason of its geographical location,
Florida is exposed more than any other state to invasion by
alien plant pests, especially from tropical and subtropical coun-
tries. Its climate is such as to permit the rapid development
of introduced pests and diseases of many kinds. In the past,
protection from entry of plant pests from abroad was a com-
paratively simple task when funds and personnel sufficient to
perform the task were available. But in recent years the de-
velopment of international air traffic has increased manyfold
the risk of entry of injurious insects and diseases. It behooves
us, therefore, to inform ourselves of the presence of injurious
organisms of major importance in foreign countries located only
a few hours distant by airplane. In addition, it is necessary
that we be informed of the most effective means for the control
of certain of these insects and diseases. In the event that they
are brought to Florida, by accident or through the actions of
some traveler, uninformed as to the seriousness of the organ-
isms and the economic losses likely to follow their establishment
in Florida, we would be in a position to start control or eradi-
cation measures without delay.
The State Plant Board has on several occasions interested itself
in the development of such information. As far back as 1917, the
citrus industry became apprehensive on account of the pres-
ence in Cuba and the serious injury to citrus and other plants

Eighteenth Biennial Report

caused by the spiny citrus whitefly (Aleurocanthus woglumi
Ashby), commonly known as citrus blackfly. Foliage infested
with these insects was intercepted at our ports of entry. It
was obvious that unless brought under control in Cuba, black-
fly would slip into Florida. The investigators sent by the Board
at that time to Cuba soon learned that by reason of a number
of factors the insects could not be brought under control through
the application of oil sprays. The Board then turned its atten-
tion to the use of natural enemies, and interested appropriate
officials in Cuba and this country in the idea of sending special-
ists to India and Burma, believed to be the original home of the
blackfly, to collect parasites and predators. The results of these
expeditions were most satisfactory, for these natural enemies-
one predator in particular-became established in Cuba, the
Bahamas, and other blackfly infested countries, where they are
effecting excellent commercial control of the insects.
Another example of the Board's policy of learning of the
nature of and control for major insects or diseases that could
come to Florida from abroad is the investigations of the tristeza
disease of citrus in the Argentine Republic. This disease has
destroyed plantings of orange trees growing on sour orange
roots in every country in which it has appeared. First reported
from South Africa about 1910, it moved into Java about 1928,
and into Brazil about 1936. It is known to be present in Argen-
tina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, and is present, no doubt, in other
countries in South America.
Here was a disease only thirty hours distant by airplane, a
disease capable of wiping out a large portion of Florida's citrus
industry, about which practically nothing was known as to
cause or manner of dissemination. The need for the develop-
ment of authentic information with respect to these two factors
was clearly indicated. During the course of a number of con-
ferences in the spring and summer of 1946, participated in by
Governor Caldwell, the Honorable Nathan Mayo, Commissioner
of Agriculture, members of the State Plant Board, and repre-
sentatives of the citrus and allied industries, plans were made
whereby two of the Board's investigators proceeded to the
Argentine in December of 1946. By reason of the close asso-
ciation between the State Plant Board and the Board of Control,
there was no delay in the selection and assignment of Dr. A. F.
Camp, Vice Director in Charge of the Citrus Experiment Sta-
tion at Lake Alfred, to take charge of these investigations.

State Plant Board of Florida

As a result of these investigations, which are still under way,
it is now known that tristeza is a virus disease and is trans-
mitted from tree to tree by one or more species of aphids.
Additional information of value concerning tristeza and a num-
ber of other major diseases and insects not known to be present
in the United States has been developed by these investigators.
An informative article on the tristeza project will be found in
the Report of the Plant Commissioner, which is made a part
of this report. Members of the Board recommend that the
1951 Legislature reappropriate the sum of $30,000.00 annually
for the investigation in South America or elsewhere of tristeza
and other major diseases or insects of citrus.
Another endeavor on the part of the Board to develop up-to-
date information with respect to plant pest and disease condi-
tions in a foreign country is a survey now being made in Cuba.
Provision is made in the regulations of the Bureau of Ento-
mology and Plant Quarantine, United States Department of
Agriculture, for the entry into Florida of citrus fruits from
Cuba and the Isle of Pines. The Board is without authority
to prohibit such movement in the absence of knowledge as to
the presence in that country of major insects or diseases of
citrus which could be introduced through the medium of com-
mercially packed fruits. Ordinarily there is no appreciable
movement of Cuban oranges or grapefruit into the Florida mar-
ket. However, by reason of the high prices paid for Florida cit-
rus fruits last winter and spring, several importers turned their
attention to Cuba as a source of supply. The Board protested
the issuance of permits, on the grounds that Bureau officials
were without comprehensive information with regard to pest
conditions in Cuba and the Isle of Pines. Upon receipt of this
protest, Bureau officials prohibited, temporarily, the importa-
tion of citrus fruit from those countries and made arrangements
to send investigators to learn something of the insects and dis-
eases established in the two Islands. The Board accepted an
invitation to have one of its inspectors participate in the survey,
at the Bureau's expense.
What was probably the most important development with
regard to domestic regulatory matters was the finding of a dis-
ease believed to be quick decline in several orange groves in the
vicinity of Buras, Louisiana, some forty miles south of New
Orleans. This is the first report of the presence of this disease
outside of California. Quick decline is very similar to tristeza,

Eighteenth Biennial Report

in that it is a virus disease and kills sweet orange trees budded
on sour orange roots. The finding of quick decline so close to
Florida is a matter of concern to Board members and citrus
growers. Specialists of the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake
Alfred, Florida, who are informed as to the appearance and
behavior of quick decline and tristeza, have made a study of
the situation at Buras. In addition a number of the Board's
inspectors were sent to the affected area to learn something of
the appearance and behavior of quick decline. The movement
into Florida of citrus fruits and plants from Louisiana is pro-
hibited by the Board's regulations. However, to make certain
that none of these commodities are moved into Florida, it would
be necessary to stop and search all automobiles, trucks, and
airplanes which move into Florida, as well as the baggage of
all of the occupants of these vehicles.
A more complete report on the activities of the State Plant
Board during the past biennium is presented in the Report of
the Plant Commissioner. The disbursement of funds as re-
ported by the Plant Commissioner was with the proper approval
of the Board. The estimates as to the amounts believed to be
necessary for the efficient operation of the Plant Board organ-
ization have received the careful scrutiny and approval of the
The members of the Board take this opportunity to express
appreciation of the assistance, advice, and cooperation of the
Director of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and
his associates; the Chief of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, United States Department of Agriculture; the Col-
lector of Customs and his associates at Tampa; growers and
growers' organizations in Florida. We further take this oppor-
tunity to express appreciation for the able and capable manner
in which Mr. Arthur C. Brown, Plant Commissioner, has per-
formed his duties.
Respectfully submitted,

State Plant Board of Florida

For Biennium Ending June.30, 1950

Gainesville, Florida
January 1, 1951

Honorable Frank M. Harris, Chairman
State Plant Board of Florida
SIR: I have the honor to present herewith my report as Plant
Commissioner for the biennium 1948-1950.
Plant Commissioner

July 1, 1948 to June 30, 1950

Plant quarantine enforcement, always a complex problem,
becomes more and more complicated each year. The advent
of the motor vehicle as a means of transportation for man and
commodities on a large scale has made the enforcement of do-
mestic inter- and intrastate quarantines difficult, even impos-
sible. The only way these quarantines could be enforced with
any degree of success would be to stop and search all motor
vehicles at the state line, a costly and thoroughly impracticable
The advent of the airplane as a means of international trans-
portation has brought into close proximity, as far as time is
concerned, countries located thousands of miles apart geograph-
ically. Officials and residents of some foreign countries may
not be as concerned as we are with regard to the need for strict
quarantine enforcement to exclude insects and diseases which
affect plants, animals or man. This could bring about a condi-
tion whereby insects and diseases of major importance located
in countries far removed from the United States could be car-
ried by airplane from one country to another, coming closer
to the United States at each move, until they arrived at and
became established in countries adjoining or adjacent to the

Eighteenth Biennial Report

United States and eventually make their way into the United
The situation in Mexico with respect to the foot-and-mouth
disease of cattle and the blackfly of citrus is offered as an illus-
tration. Foot-and-mouth disease was carried into Mexico on
cattle obtained in a South American country and soon spread
over a large area. Its presence not only menaced cattle in Texas
and elsewhere in the United States but brought about an ex-
penditure of millions of dollars of our own money in an attempt
to eradicate the disease. Citrus blackfly worked its way from
Central America, possibly the Canal Zone, into Mexico. Accord-
ing to eminent authorities, this insect is capable of destroying
the productiveness of a citrus grove within the space of a few
years. Citrus growers in California spent about $25,000.00 of
their own funds for control on the west coast of Mexico in an
attempt to check its spread northward. The United States De-
partment of Agriculture is now spending large sums in co-
operation with officials of the Mexican government in an attempt
to bring blackfly under control. If these attempts are not
successful the insect will move into Texas and from there into
other southern states.
Any measure which seeks to prevent or retard the movement
of insects or diseases, regardless of whether they affect man,
animals or plants, through exclusion or regulation of the move-
ment of all possible carriers of such insects or diseases must
of necessity interfere with the orderly flow of trade and travel.
Enforcement of the regulations brings about delays and irrita-
tions to the traveling public and causes loss of markets to deal-
ers in the things or commodities affected, and loss of tonnage
to the carriers. In the past these delays, inconveniences, and
losses were accepted by all affected parties more or less as a
matter of course. In recent years, however, when speed of
movement of man and commodities is of the essence, and officials
of highly competitive national and international air transport,
motor truck, and railway agencies are seeking to increase pay
loads and reduce costs of operation, this attitude has changed.
Particular attention is being directed to the possibility of
changes in regulations of the federal Departments of Agricul-
ture, Public Health, Customs and Immigration. Other factors
which may have a direct bearing on our national quarantine
and clearance procedures are the demands for economy in our
national government and our obligations to residents of other

State Plant Board of Florida

nations brought about by our commitments as a member of the
United Nations. The following three references are indicative
of the trend of the times:
1. Several years ago President Truman provided for the ap-
pointment of an Air Coordinating Committee. A subcommittee,
known as the Committee for the Facilitation of International
Civil Aviation, is charged with the responsibility of studying
problems brought about by foreign air travel and trade and
recommending revisions in existing governmental regulations
dealing with foreign air transportation for the purpose of adapt-
ing national clearance procedures to the needs of air transporta-
tion wherever the needs for such changes are indicated. The
subcommittee is composed of representatives from the Depart-
ments of State, Commerce, Treasury, Agriculture, Justice, Pub-
lic Health, Bureau of the Budget, and the Civil Aeronautics
Representatives of the Air Transport Association and the
International Air Transport Association are permitted to par-
ticipate in the meetings of this subcommittee, make representa-
tions and offer technical advice but are excluded when matters
of policy are decided upon. It is possible that the commercial
air transport industry could benefit by changes in clearance
procedures recommended by this subcommittee. It would ap-
pear, therefore, that representatives of other industries which
may be affected by changes in the manner of handling foreign
travel and trade should be granted the same privileges. The
broader the representation, within limits, the better the chances
for impartial and well-considered decisions.
2. About two years ago the Secretary of the Treasury au-
thorized McKinsey and Company, a commercial management
survey organization, to make a study of the procedures of the
Bureau of Customs and offer recommendations which would
improve the service, expedite the movement of passengers
through the ports of entry into this country and reduce opera-
tional costs. The investigators, after completing the survey,
recommended in part that Customs discontinue its present prac-
tice of making examinations of all the baggage brought in by
passengers from abroad and adopt a system of spot or percent-
age inspection. The figure of 10 per cent has been mentioned
informally. The thought behind this recommendation was that
a percentage inspection would not require the services of the
number of Customs inspectors now required to inspect each

Eighteenth Biennial Report

piece of baggage and, through the elimination of a large number
of Customs inspectors, operational costs could be reduced.
The sponsors of the percentage system of inspection evidently
did not give consideration to the facts that its adoption would
open the way for the entry of major insects and diseases of
plants, and the costs for eradication of any pests or diseases
that might come in would be far greater than the saving made
in Customs pay rolls over a long period of years.
Experience has demonstrated that a considerable portion of
the insects or diseases intercepted at ports of entry were found
in plant material taken from passengers' baggage. During the
past year Customs and Plant Board inspectors at Florida ports
examined 814,092 pieces of baggage. It is obvious that any
system of inspection short of 100 per cent of all the baggage
offered for entry would open the doors for the entry of plant
pests, as well as narcotics, drugs, dangerous virus diseases, un-
authorized toxins for man and animals and subversive literature.
Officials of Customs and the Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine have made surveys at several ports of entry in the
country for the purpose of learning something of the practic-
ability of the percentage system of inspection. It is understood
that their report will be in opposition to the proposal.
3. Members of the Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations for several years have been considering the
adoption by member countries of an International Plant Protec-
tion Convention or Agreement. At a meeting of FAO and regu-
latory officials held at The Hague, Netherlands last May a draft
of such an agreement was prepared and will be presented for
approval at the next meeting of the FAO. A committee within
the FAO has recommended that consideration of the approval
of the Agreement be postponed until the November, 1951 meet-
ing of the Organization. The purpose of this Agreement is to
provide for a common and effective means to control the inci-
dence and prevent the introduction and spread of insects and
diseases of plants. Provision is made for the establishment
of national organizations for plant protection which would pro-
vide for the inspection, certification and treatment of plants
and plant products moving in international trade; requirements
in relation to exports and imports; international cooperation;
settlement of disputes in case of disagreement regarding the
interpretation of the clauses of the Agreement or if one country
wishes to challenge the grounds of measures prohibiting the

State Plant Board of Florida

importation of plants or plant products-such disputes to be
considered by a technical committee; and amendments to the
Agreement. It is planned to extend the authority of this FAO
Agreement so as to include diseases of animals. It is necessary
that state regulatory officials, growers and representatives of
commercial agricultural organizations give careful study to this
Agreement to ascertain whether ratification by the United States
would in any way interfere with the present authority of the
Secretary of Agriculture to take independent and immediate
action whenever necessary to protect this country against entry
of injurious insects and diseases. In the article dealing with
imports the right to require inspection and detention of plants
and plant products, or to prohibit their importation, is re-
served to the importing countries. Officials of the Agricultural
Research Administration and the Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine have expressed the opinion that ratification
of the Agreement by the United States would in no way abro-
gate the quarantine powers of the Secretary of Agriculture.
However, representatives of the commercial agricultural in-
dustries, in the consideration of the need for and advisability
of this country becoming a party to an international agreement
of this nature, should keep two things in mind: (1) that the
officials of the Agricultural Research Administration and the
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine are without au-
thority to formulate national policies; they must comply with
instructions and directives handed down by their superiors;
(2) the possible impact on all of our national procedures as a
result of our ratification of the United Nations Charter. Justice
Emmit H. Wilson of the District Court of Appeals of Los An-
geles, California, in handing down his opinion on the California
Alien Land Law dispute ruled that the law was nullified by our
ratification of the United Nations Charter. "The Charter," Jus-
tice Wilson stated, "has become the supreme law of the land
and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything
in the Constitution or Laws of any state to the contrary not-
The apparent trend towards downward revisions of our na-
tional clearance procedures, as well as the possibility' that the
United States may be required to amend its quarantines against
insects and diseases in accordance with the provisions of such
international agreements to which we may become parties, em-
phasizes the need for investigations in foreign countries to de-

Eighteenth Biennial Report

velop information as to the nature, manner of dissemination
and control of major insects and diseases which may come to us.
With such information at hand we will be prepared to deal with
such invaders immediately, in the event they slip into the State,
without wasting precious time searching for means of control.
An investigation of this nature has been under way in the Ar-
gentine Republic for several years. About four years ago rep-
resentatives of the citrus and allied industries in Florida became
concerned about the destruction of hundreds of thousands of
sweet orange trees growing on sour orange roots in South Africa,
Java, Brazil and Argentina. No worthwhile information as to
the cause or manner of dissemination of the disease responsible
for this injury, commonly known as tristeza, was available. It
is estimated that about 30 percent of the bearing sweet oranges
in Florida are growing on sour orange roots. It was deemed
desirable for the Plant Board to send investigators to Argentina
to learn as much as possible about tristeza, its nature, means of
dissemination, possible control measures, etc. Work was started
early in 1947 and is still being carried on. The project is
financed by a legislative appropriation of $30,000.00 annually.
A comprehensive report on the investigation, what has been ac-
complished and the need for a continuance of the research work
will be found in the report on tristeza by Dr. A. F. Camp, Vice
Director of the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred, Flor-
ida, which is made a part of the Plant Commissioner's report.
Included in the Board's estimates for 1951-1953 is an item of
$30,000.00 annually for investigations of tristeza and other dis-
seases and insects in foreign countries. A program of this
nature should be of great value to Florida. In the first place
there would be developed essential information as to the appear-
ance, method of spread, economic importance and means of con-
trol of tropical and subtropical insects and diseases about which
little or nothing is known at the present time and which could
find their way into Florida. In the second place a system of
rotation of the individuals assigned to foreign investigations
would enable Florida to build up a research organization which
would be composed of investigators whose comprehensive knowl-
edge of tropical and subtropical insects and diseases would not
be equaled anywhere in the United States. At the request of the
Plant Commissioner the Chief of the Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine has arranged for a survey to be made in Cuba
for the purpose of learning whether any insects of major economic

State Plant Board of Florida

importance have found their way into that country. This sur-
vey is now being carried on by an inspector of the Cuban Depart-
ment of Agriculture, who will furnish transportation, one from
the Bureau and one from the Plant Board. The expenses for
the Board's representative will be paid from federal funds.
Quick decline of citrus, a virus disease which closely resembles
tristeza, has been present in California for a number of years
where it has killed many sweet orange trees on sour orange
roots. A condition very similar to that caused by quick decline
has recently been observed in sweet orange plantings in Louisi-
ana located south of New Orleans. Specialists who are familiar
with the disease are of the opinion that quick decline is respon-
sible for the condition. Unfortunately, there is no way of making
a quick determination of either quick decline or tristeza, as indi-
cated in Dr. Camp's report. Budding experiments have been
undertaken by pathologists of the Louisiana Agricultural Ex-
periment Station and some authentic information as to the cause
of the condition should be available in the near future.
The Plant Board sent ten grove inspectors to Louisiana to
make firsthand studies of the affected groves in order to inform
themselves as to the appearance of quick decline. It is planned
to start a rapid scout of all sweet orange groves in Florida to
search for suspicious looking trees. If such trees are encoun-
tered they will be checked by Dr. Camp, who is familiar with
both quick decline and tristeza, and by one of his assistant
entomologists, Mr. John R. King, who spent two years on tris-
teza investigations in South America. The Plant Board's regu-
lations prohibit the entry of citrus fruits, except lemons from
California, and all citrus plants and parts thereof from other
states. However, there is always the possibility that some in-
dividual wholly uninformed of the need for excluding such
things might bring small citrus trees or budwood into the state,
and thus introduce quick decline. It is necessary, therefore,
that growers and inspectors keep all sweet orange trees on sour
orange stock under close observation.
The Board's other activities were in line with those of previous
years: enforcement of plant quarantines, inspection of nurseries,
groves and apiaries, as well as the control of sweet potato weevil
and white-fringed beetle. Detailed information regarding these
activities will be found elsewhere in this report.

Eighteenth Biennial Report

Nurseries in Florida have been increasing in size and number
over a period of years. The number of nurseries under inspec-
tion as of June 30, 1950, was 3,408, or an increase of 398 over
the number under inspection on June 30, 1949. Demand for
the services of the inspectors has increased to a degree where
the efficiency of the service has been impaired. It is necessary
as a pest protective measure to inspect nurseries in the central
and northern part of the state four times each year. Last year
the average number of inspections declined to 3.2 times for each
nursery. There is a real need for the employment of two addi-
tional assistant nursery inspectors. Provision is made in the
Board's estimates for the employment of these two additional
The work of the Apiary Inspection Department has been
on an increase during recent years. In the past the Apiary
Inspector has attempted to take care of the work through the
utilization of four full-time and three part-time inspectors. The
use of part-time inspectors has not been entirely satisfactory
and it is desirable that two full-time inspectors be employed in
lieu of the part-time employees. In the Board's estimates pro-
vision is made for this addition in the force.
The Legislature of 1949, without the solicitation of the Plant
Commissioner, provided an item of $20,000 annually for the
purchase of DDT for the treatment, without cost to the occu-
pants, of farm lands in west Florida infested with white-fringed
beetles. These insects have at times caused crop injury in areas
in west Florida since they were first reported in 1936. The most
extensive damage was in 1937, 1938 and 1942. From 1943
through 1949 crop injury was very light and was confined to small
areas within fields. Government control investigators several
years ago recommended that infested farm lands be treated with
DDT at the rate of 20 pounds of the 50 percent grade per acre,
the material to be purchased by the states affected-Florida,
Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Tennessee-and
furnished gratis to farmers. It is now known that row crops
can be protected by the application of small amounts of DDT
mixed in the fertilizer and drilled in the rows. It would appear
that this treatment of localized injury spots could be taken care
of by the occupants of infested properties. No provision is made
for the state purchase of DDT in the estimates for 1951-53.

State Plant Board of Florida


A statement with regard to the funds available for the Board's
use during 1948-49 and 1949-50 follows:

1948-1949 Salary Expense Total
Unexpended Balance
Balance in Releases Carried For-
ward June 30, 1948 ....................$ 25,558.38 $ 12,644.11 $ 38,202.49
Reserves Withheld by Budget
Commission Carried Forward
June 30, 1948* ............................................................................ 100,967.50
Legislative Appropriation
General Activities .............................. 232,840.00 91,770.00 324,610.00
Apiary ............................................... 18,670.00 12,330.00 31,000.00
Special Tristeza ........................................................................... 30,000.00
Continuing Appropriation .................................................................. 35,000.00
From State Emergency Fund for
White-fringed Beetle ............................................................ 5,000.00
Total All Funds .................................................................. $564,779.99
Reserves Withheld by Budget Commission* ................................ 168,741.37
Total Funds Available ....................................................... $396,038.62
Amounts Reverting to State Treasury June 30, 1949
Reserves Withheld by Budget Commission* .......................... 168,741.37
Balance, Operating Budget ...................................................... ... 19,988.47
Total Reverting .................................................................. $188,729.84
I* Incls $ 0 ilt5
Includes $50,000 Emergency Fund.


Salary Expense Total

Legislative Appropriation**
General Activities ..............................$303,900.00 $104,245.00
Apiary .................................................... 18,840.00 15,070.00
Special Tristeza ...........................................................................
Special White-fringed Beetle ..................................... ...........
Total Appropriated Funds ..............................................
Collections (Nursery Department) ..............................................
Total All Funds ......................................... .................
Reserves Withheld by Budget Commission ..................................
Total Funds Available ...............................................
** Includes Amounts Withheld by Budget Commission.


Eighteenth Biennial Report 17


Expenditures of the Board for each year of the biennium are
shown in the following tabulations. Expenditures by depart-
ments are indicated in Table A. In Table B are shown expendi-
tures for specific purposes.



Grove Inspection ........................................
Nursery Inspection ........................ ...........
Quarantine Inspection .............................
Office of the Board .........................................
Plant Commissioner's Office ........................
Department of Entomology .......................
Sweet Potato Weevil Control ...................
White-fringed Beetle:
Fm Legislative Appropriations:
Plant Board, Expense-General ..............
State Emergency .....................................
Special, White-fringed Beetle ...............
Apiary Inspection .........................................
Tristeza Investigations ...............................

Total ....................... .-- .................










$376,050.15 $388,242.33




Salaries .............................................................. $271,316.97 $290,909.36
Travel and Subsistence Expense .................... 86,949.77 73,880.36
Labor .................................................................. 631.80 12.00
Stationery and Small Printing ...................... 1,953.16 4,529.78
Postage ........................................................... 1,036.25 1,544.66
Bulletins, Circulars ........................................ 554.11 272.25
Telegraph, Telephone ...................................... 854.99 825.25
Office and Miscellaneous Supplies* ............. 9,002.81 11,222.24
Miscellaneous Expenses .................................. 1,567.93 4,112.42
Office Equipment ................................................ 639.54 483.71
Laboratory Equipment, Supplies .................. 1,046.11 179.19
Freight, Drayage, Express ............................ 194.54 91.02
Library ............. ..................................... 302.17 180.09

Total .............................................. $376,050.15 $388,242.33

Includes Expenditures for DDT for White-fringed Beetle Control.

_ _

State Plant Board of Florida

July 1, 1948-June 30, 1949
Balance brought forward July 1, 1948 ............................$11,273.00
Receipts During the Year:
For special inspection of nurseries ..............$ 570.22
For inspection and certification of citrus
fruit for shipment to California and
for export .-..............-.......... ......-- ... ---- 148.03
For nursery inspection tags, invoices,
and special certificates .............. ..... 2,348.20 3,066.45 $14,339.45
Disbursements During the Year:
For special inspection of nurseries ............. 629.70
For inspection and certification of citrus
fruit for shipment to California and
for export ...---- ------ --------- 356.31
For printing tags, invoices, certificates, etc. 307.67
For postage for mailing tags, invoices, etc. 559.36
For maintenance expenses, Plant
Board automobile ....---......... ......------ 145.02 1,998.06
BALANCE JUNE 30, 1949 ....................................... ...............$12,341.39
State Plant Board Revolving Fund*
Gainesville .........-------------------------- 5,000.00
A S OF JU NE 30, 1949 ............................................ ....................... $17,341.39
This account was closed out and check for $5,000 dated July 13, 1949 was mailed to
Mr. Powers, who delivered it to the State Treasurer on July 13, 1949.
The Plant Commissioner presents herewith the estimates as
to the amounts believed to be necessary and desirable to finance
the Board's activities during each of the two years of the bi-
ennium 1951-53.

Department Salaries Expenses Total
I __ (Annual)

Office of the Board ...................-----.........---- $ 3,360 $ 2,000 $ 5,360
Plant Commissioner's Office ...............-......... 21,360 10,475* 31,835
Nursery Inspection ..........---.---------- 52,560 20,575 73,135
Grove Inspection ......-----. --- ----------- 129,360 60,560 189,920
Quarantine Inspection ..-----... ---.----- --- 79,680 12,725 92,405
Entomology ...-..........------- ----------- 9,800 3,000 12,800
White-fringed Beetle ................. ------ 6,600 2,110 8,710
Sweet Potato Weevil ..........-- ........------.----.---. 10,600 6,100 16,700
Contingent (For Quarantine Dept.) ............ 7,440 1,500 8,940
Subtotal .------ $320,760 $119,045 $439,805
Apiary Inspection ..-..................-....- .. 24,600 20,200 44,800
Investigations Tristeza and other insects
and diseases abroad ..... 30,000

Grand Total ..................-- -------------.. $345,360 $139,245 $514,605

Expenses for the Plant Commissioner's Office for the year 1952-53 would be $8,225.

Eighteenth Biennial Report

J. C. Goodwin, Nursery Inspector

The nursery industry in Florida, like other agricultural in-
dustries, has increased to a considerable degree within the past
ten years. Some idea of the growth of this industry may be
formed by a study of the following tabulation:

Nursery Industry in Florida in 1950 as Compared to 1940
Planted to Quantity Nursery
Number of Inspection Districts Nursery Stock in State
1940- 8 ....................................................... 5,080.05 i 60,606,180
1950--8 .... ...... ............. ............. 5,992.86 92,726,816

The increase in the production of bulbs and soft-bodied plants
kept pace with the nursery industry. A statement as to the
varieties of these plants, as well as the acreage and production,
Attention is directed to the fact that while there has been a
considerable increase in the acreage planted to nursery stock
and other plants and bulbs, there has been no increase in the
number of inspection districts or inspectors.
For the purpose of increasing the efficiency of the nursery
inspection activities, changes have been made in the extensive
north Florida inspection district which formerly extended from
Pensacola to Jacksonville and south to about Marion County.
Under the new arrangement the inspector assigned to sweet
potato weevil and white-fringed beetle control activities with
headquarters at Marianna takes care of the inspections of nurs-
eries between Chattahoochee and the eastern boundary of
Santa Rosa County, and the plant quarantine inspector at Pensa-
cola also serves as nursery inspector in Escambia and Santa
Rosa Counties.
The slowing down of the nursery inspection schedule brought
about by the increase in work that must be performed is a mat-
ter of concern to regulatory officials and nurserymen alike.
Florida's climatic conditions, which are so beneficial for the
health of its citizens, are also favorable for the development of

State Plant Board of Florida

insects and diseases. In most states in the Union the develop-
ment of insects and diseases is held in check for many months
of each year by cold weather. One annual inspection of nursery
stock is, as a rule, sufficient to keep the inspector informed as
to the sanitary conditions of plants in commercial nurseries.
Here in Florida we do not have this arresting of the develop-
ment of insects and diseases, and the pests are able to grow and
flourish during each month of the year. It is necessary and
desirable that all commercial plantings, particularly those lo-
cated in the central and southern parts of the state, be inspected
once every ninety days. It should be borne in mind that by
reason of our proximity to tropical countries and the great
movement of aircraft with their passengers and cargoes from
these countries we are constantly exposed to the entry of new
and destructive insects and diseases. The best means for the
rapid and wide dissemination of plant pests is by means of
affected nursery stock. This was clearly demonstrated a number
of years ago when it was learned that 90 percent of the out-
breaks of citrus canker in 26 counties were caused by the move-
ment of infected citrus trees from one citrus canker infected
nursery in Florida. Incidentally, this happened before the State
Plant Board was created.
The number of nurseries under inspection increased during
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1950 from 2,620 to 3,018, an
increase of 398. The bulk of this expansion was in the Miami,
Orlando and Tampa nursery inspection districts, although sub-
stantial increases in the number of nurseries occurred in all the
districts. By reason of the increase in the number of nurseries
in the vicinity of Tampa and St. Petersburg, the east halves of
Hernando and Pasco Counties were transferred from the Tampa
to the Eustis inspection district.
The present inspection force is composed of one Chief and
eight assistant nursery inspectors. Although the number and
size of the nurseries have been increasing since 1941, there has
been no increase in the number of inspectors. The field work
has increased to a point where the present force is not large
enough to take care of the work.
If the inspection of nurseries in Florida is to be conducted
in an efficient and effective manner, it is necessary that two
additional assistant nursery inspectors be employed. Provision
is made in the Board's estimates for this increase in personnel.

Eighteenth Biennial Report

Assistant Nursery Inspectors M. R. Brown and R. A. Knight
retired from the Board's employ on July 31, 1949. These ca-
pable and loyal employees served the Board for 33 years, 2
months, and 32 years, 10 months, respectively.
The following tabulations depict the extent and scope of the
nursery inspection activities during the biennium:


Variety 1947-1948 1948-1949 1949-1950

Orange .............................................. 646,081 494,333 1,094,368
Grapefruit .......................................... 228,729 252,401 383,641
Tangerine .......................................... 18,511 21,931 40,729
Satsuma ............................................ 19,559 19,408 25,537
Lemon ............................................... 6,283 7,185 12,336
Lime .................................................. 28,674 35,856 24,373
Miscellaneous Citrus ...................... 18,918 25,918 50,814
Seedlings ............................................ 987,013 331,825 947,650

Total ......................................... 1,953,768 1,188,857 2,579,448


July 1, 1949 to June 30, 1950
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1950, copies of certifi-
cates of nursery inspection of Florida nurserymen were filed
with the proper authorities of 47 states, the District of Colum-
bia, and several foreign countries. Three hundred and eleven
certificates were filed during the year, 292 being filed with other
states, and 19 with foreign countries as follows: Belgium,
Dominican Republic, Iran, El Salvador and other Central Ameri-
can countries.


Kind of Stock Acres Acres Acres Plants Plants Plants
1947-1948 1948-1949 1949-1950 1947-1948 1948-1949 1949-1950

Orange .............................. .... 841.20 862.99 825.23 3,116,535 3,116,440 2,032,631
Grapefruit .......... ................. 265.60 269.49 256.71 1,126,350 1,076,763 723,567
Tangerine ............................. 19.50 24.50 30.23 93,385 69,796 77,020
Satsuma ............................... 18.95 27.04 25.67 86,600 124,435 126,830
Lemon ........ .......................... 2.30 2.45 5.99 6,350 8,556 14,127
Lime ...... ....... -..... ..-.... ......... 15.55 14.72 11.75 95,970 64,352 45,287
Miscellaneous Citrus ............. 139.00 173.27 82.56 321,070 378,067 163,183
Citrus Seedlings ................... 539.80 351.58 320.32 11,555,750 6,224,210 5,795,624

Total Citrus ..................... 1,841.90 1,726.04 1,558.46 16,402,010 11,062,619 8,978,269

Pecan ........................................ 120.10 139.13 148.19 306,000 276,450 260,750
Tung ................................ 65.10 25.70 9.50 246,300 80,000 40,000
Fern ............................ 531.25 521.19 537.84 18,166,000 29,174,000 21,382,500
General and Ornamental ........ 3,093.35 3,891.79 3,738.87 51,995,780 67,785,550 62,065,297

Total Non-Citrus ............... 3,809.80 4,577.81 4,434.40 70,714,080 97,316,000 83,748,547

GRAND TOTAL .............. 5,651.70 6,303.85 5,992.86 87,116,090 108,378,619 92,726,816

JULY 1, 1949 JUNE 30, 1950

Total Acres and Plants


Amaryllis ...............
Caladium ...................
Gladiolus .....................
Easter Lily ................
Narcissus ...........-
Iris ...........................
Vegetable Plants ........
Tobacco Plants .........

TOTALS ..............











Bulbs or Bulbs or Total Bulbs
Total Plants Plants or Plants
Acres Certified Refused Inspected

72.10 2,215,050 0 2,215,050
50.69 1,504,000 0 1,504,000 M
2,610.00 104,575,000 0 104,575,000
10.50 319,000 0 319,000
69.50 12,255,000 0 12,255,000
.06 50,000 0 50,000
22.06 10,530,000 0 10,530,000
81.35 48,882,000 0 48,882,000

2,916.26 180,330,050 0 180,330,050

State Plant Board of Florida

A. F. Camp, Technical Advisor, State Plant Board

When work was started in Argentina in cooperation with the
growers of Texas we only knew that some disease had killed
millions of orange, mandarin, and grapefruit trees budded on
sour orange stock. The cause of the disease, its method of
transmission and the over-all relationships of varieties and root-
stock were unknown. There were any number of theories as
to its cause with the virus theory being prominent but the nema-
tode theory also being strongly supported as well as a variety
of theories having to do with varietal degeneration, incompati-
bility and malnutrition being advanced. Work was started by
Florida and Texas by sending down Mr. E. P. DuCharme in
December 1946 and in December 1947 Mr. John R. King. Since
the work was started before there was a regular appropriation
for the work and consequently it does not appear in the previous
biennial report the entire field of research will be reviewed to
indicate the progress up to the present time. It should be
pointed out that our active entrance into this field stimulated
other agencies to start work and as a result a great deal of
progress has been made in this field where little progress had
been made in the previous 18 or 19 years. It is fair to state,
we believe, that without the active interest of Florida and Texas
little would have been done.

The cause is now known to be a virus. Reports on this find-
ing came from Brazil and are paralleled by work in Argentina.
This was further confirmed by the finding that the very similar
disease known as Quick Decline in California was also of a
virus nature.
The vector of the disease in the field in South America is now
known to be the black citrus aphid (Aphis citricidus (Kirk.))*
Aphis citricidus (Kirk.), known as the black aphid in South America,
is also called in the Argentine Paratoxoptera argentinensis Blanchard,
which presumably is a synonym. A. citricidus (Kirk.) has also been re-
ferred to in literature as the brown citrus aphid, the vector of the tristeza
virus in Brazil. It is not the same as Toxoptera aurantii (Fonsc.), which
is called both brown citrus aphid and black citrus aphid in the United

Eighteenth Biennial Report

in both Argentina and Brazil. There is some question concern-
ing the proper classification of this aphid, but by whatever name
it is known it is not in the continental United States though
widely distributed in South America. We have also found that
the virus is apparently transmitted at times when there are no
black aphids present and there is every evidence that there are
other though less efficient vectors. Some work done last year
gave very promising leads that are being checked this year.
That there should be other vectors is not surprising, since Quick
Decline in California, which is a very similar if not the same
disease, is being transmitted though the vector is not yet identi-
fied. It is apparent, therefore, that we cannot go on the as-
sumption that without the black aphid in Florida there would
be no danger.
In addition to the black aphid, the virus is readily transmitted
by buds and grafts. We have fairly well established that the
disease was brought from Australia to Argentina in nursery
stock budded on rough lemon though this would be impossible
to prove absolutely at this late date. It is extremely significant,
however, that the disease broke out around plantings of nursery
stock obtained from infected areas in Australia.

The virus has been recovered from the tops of oranges, man-
darins, grapefruit, lime, and lemon trees on all standard root-
stocks and so far only trifoliata (Poncirus trifoliata), as a top,
has not been found to contain the virus. Orange trees on a
stock such as sweet orange can contain the virus without any
damaging effects and be healthy in appearance and produce
good crops but if the tree is on sour orange stock it will die.
In general it may be said that certain combinations are tolerant
to the disease rather than resistant to infection by the virus,
except in the case of trifoliate orange. This complicates the
quarantine problem because budwood from perfectly healthy
appearing trees on so-called tolerant stocks could contain the
virus and if plant parts from these were brought in could start
the disease. This emphasizes the necessity of keeping out all
citrus propagation material except seed. Our work has indi-
cated that the virus is strained out by passing through the seed
stage and this is paralleled by other work in South America
and by work on Quick Decline in California. This has indicated

State Plant Board of Florida

that new varieties could probably be introduced by using seed
and taking advantage of polyembryony where it exists.
Our work on stocks has included not only the usual small
plant tests but also a study of the major commercial stocks in
the field where they have survived the passage of the disease.
It is reasonable to suppose that the presence of the virus in
trees on so-called tolerant stocks may be affected to some de-
gree. It was believed that work with small plants might not be
too reliable and that information was needed on the behavior
of bearing groves on tolerant stocks that have survived infec-
tion with the virus for long periods. Advantage has been taken
here of the wide variety of stocks used in Argentina and the
tendency of growers to interplant groves on one stock with
trees on other stocks. One of our early findings based on both
the death of bearing groves and the behavior of test plants
was that grapefruit stock was susceptible to the effects of the
disease when oranges, mandarins, or grapefruit were budded
on it. The death or decline of the top was slower than when
the trees were budded on sour orange but the end effects were
the same. Grapefruit stock was thus added to sour orange as
a standard stock to be avoided.
Studies based on both small plants and bearing groves indi-
cated that sweet orange, rough lemon, mandarins in general,
and Cleopatra in particular, trifoliate orange, sweet lime known
in Argentina as Lima de Persia and Rangpur lime could be
classed as tolerant stocks. The reaction of bearing groves on
these stocks in infected areas was studied in order to obtain
further information on their possible value to Florida and Texas.
The information on each one is briefly summarized below:

Sweet Orange:
There are many groves on this stock that have now survived
the disease for 10 to 20 years after the area in which they were
planted became infected and trees on sour orange or grapefruit
stock had died. These groves, if properly cared for, bear well,
are vigorous and thrifty. The virus can be recovered from them
showing them to have been infected. There are some indications
in small plant research that some strains of sweet orange are
less resistant to the effects of the virus than others and it is
impossible in the field to establish the source of the seed for
many of the bearing groves but none have been found that were
seriously affected by the disease.

Eighteenth Biennial Report

Rough Lemon:
There are a number of very fine groves on rough lemon planted
with stock which originally came from Australia and located
in areas where trees on sour orange stock have been dead from
tristeza from 10 to 20 years. These were quite probably the
trees that brought the virus to Argentina. Where cared for
along the lines which we use in Florida these are beautiful
groves and very heavy producers and include grapefruit, Va-
lencia and Lue Gim Gong oranges as tops. There are also other
varieties in smaller numbers doing well on this stock and many
fine young groves.
There have been reports that the South African type of rough
lemon did well but that Florida rough lemon was susceptible.
This report was investigated with care and it was found that
what was being called Florida rough lemon was of a type we
have never seen in Florida and bearing a fruit that smelled
like a lemon but which resembled a sour orange and was prob-
ably a hybrid. It was further found that this type was appar-
ently mixed in some of the plantings where Australian nursery
stock had been used and apparently came from there. All of
our work indicates that Florida rough lemon stock is satisfac-
tory but to make certain of this extensive tests are being made
of seed from a large number of individual seed source trees in
Florida and all that are found satisfactory will be budded out
at Lake Alfred to provide a source of seed from individually
tested trees. Since many of the commercial lemons show sus-
ceptibility to tristeza when used as stocks the old practice of
mixing Everbearing and other lemon seeds with rough lemon
seed may result in the death of trees budded on these stocks
in groves that are supposedly on rough lemon. There is every
reason to believe that trees budded on true rough lemon will
be tolerant.
Cleopatra Mandarin and Other Mandarins:
There are some small plantings on Cleopatra stock that have
survived trees on sour orange stock by 15 or more years and
these trees appear healthy and fruit well and this parallels our
experience with small plants. It appears that Cleopatra and
other mandarins as stocks are quite tolerant to the effects of
the virus and can be considered as satisfactory stocks. No
grapefruit is found on this stock but a considerable variety of
oranges and mandarins.

State Plant Board of Florida

Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliata):
This stock is widely used in Argentina for mandarins and also
for oranges. Groves on this stock have survived by up to 20
years the advent of tristeza and it may be that we have over-
looked the possibilities of this stock in Florida. In Argentina
it is primarily used on heavy soils that are subject to too much
water and better growth of the top has been obtained by very
low budding. The stock is subject to another disease which
is a distinct disadvantage. This disease is known as Exocortis
and affected plants are characterized by a scaling of the trunk
below the bud union and an unthrifty condition. The disease
is known in the United States and has caused a good deal of
loss in Louisiana where the stock is used widely for Navel
oranges. It is thought by many that this is a virus disease car-
ried by the top and experiments are being carried out in Argen-
tina to check this hypothesis. If Exocortis is controllable this
stock might have advantages for some of our heavy wet soils
especially as a stock for late oranges and tangerines. It is ap-
parently highly susceptible to salt injury which might limit its
use in coastal areas.,
Sweet Lime (Known in South America as Lima de Persia or
Persian Lime But Not to Be Confused with Our Persian Lime):
This stock has not been used commercially in the United
States but experiments with it had been started in Argentina
when tristeza appeared. Its great vigor and the rapid growth
and bearing of young trees on this stock led to extensive plant-
ings since it was apparently tolerant to tristeza. Other dis-
advantages have developed, however, which have eliminated it
as far as we are concerned. The fruit produced is of poor quality
and the trees are subject to a disease known as Xyloporosis
which dwarfs the tree and in the case of some varieties on this
stock may result in a complete decline. Seed varieties of oranges
similar to our Pineapple and Homosassa have survived the ad-
vent of tristeza for many years but are partially dwarfed by
Xyloporosis and the fruit sizes are small. Valencia and Lue
Gim Gong oranges on this stock have generally been failures
while the Pera orange of Brazil has apparently done quite well
in spite of evidence of the disease in the trunk. It is not to be
recommended for use in Florida.
Rangpur Lime:
This stock has only been tried experimentally in Florida in

Eighteenth Biennial Report

the past but is widely used around Rio de Janeiro where it pro-
duces a dwarf, usually unthrifty looking tree which produces
heavy crops of small fruit. These groves have survived the
advent of the tristeza virus and the decline of trees on sour
orange by some 15 to 20 years. While it might be reasoned from
the appearance of the trees that there has been some deleterious
effect from the virus the condition of these trees is little dif-
ferent from what it was before tristeza came to the area. The
groves generally are growing on badly depleted soils and are
unfertilized and unsprayed and consequently suffer heavy loss
of bearing wood and leaves from a variety of fungus diseases.
Scattering trees on this stock in Argentina have survived in-
fection with the virus and extensive experiments need to be
carried on here with this stock as a possibility for our heavy
wet soils.

Other Stocks:
A great many other stocks have been tested both by ourselves
and other workers but, where a stock has not been used com-
mercially, at least 20 to 25 years will be necessary to evaluate
it commercially. Hybrids of sweet orange x trifoliate orange
are of particular interest and are being investigated.

In an eradication or control operation within the state a most
important factor would be the quick identification of the disease.
In the case of tristeza the obvious symptoms are those char-
acteristic of trees which have dead root systems or are girdled.
Water damage, lightning injury and a number of other things
may give the same over-all symptoms and it would be necessary
to wait and chart the spread before being certain whether you
had tristeza or something else unless dealing with groves on
mixed stocks. The obvious method is to place buds from sus-
pected trees in sour orange seedlings and similar buds in sweet
orange seedlings and during spring and summer the difference
in growth will be obvious in about 90 days. It has been found
in our work that it was easier and a little faster if healthy sweet
orange plants on sour orange root were prepared and blind buds
from suspected trees inserted in the sweet top, the symptoms
commonly appearing in 60 to 70 days if growing weather is
good. These small trees are produced by approach grafting
sweet orange seedlings in pots to sour orange seedlings in pots

30 State Plant Board of Florida

then severing the sweet orange root and the sour orange top
after the union has taken. It is thus possible to produce plants
much smaller than would be possible if one had to wait until
the seedlings were big enough to bud by ordinary techniques.
Such methods are too slow and search is continuing for
quicker methods which can be immediately applied. This work
is of the utmost importance if eradication or intensive control
were to be attempted. The maximum amount of virus is found
in the trees before they show obvious symptoms so that the
removal of visibly affected trees would accomplish no good pur-
pose since there would be a continued distribution from trees
not yet showing symptoms. A method whereby all infected
trees could be identified regardless of outward symptoms would
make eradication possible.
As soon as it was determined that the disease was caused by
a virus it was realized that absolute control in the ordinary
sense was impossible with the information available today. It
was thought, however, that by controlling the vector it might
be possible to delay the spread of the virus for a considerable
period if this were combined with a rigid control of the move-
ment of nursery stock and budwood or plant parts. Experi-
ments along this line have been reasonably successful in spite
of the difficulties of doing the work under South American con-
ditions. In areas where aphids were thoroughly controlled new
infections were reduced as much as 80 percent but where there
was any letup or reduction in treatment the advantage dis-
appeared. It would appear possible, however, if the disease were
found when limited to a relatively small area in Florida to
greatly delay its spread within the area and to other areas thus
greatly lengthening the time available for replanting of groves
on sour orange or grapefruit stock.

Since the work was started the cause of tristeza has been
established as a virus, the common transmitting agents as the
black citrus aphid, buds and grafts. Highly susceptible com-
mercial stocks have been identified as sour orange and grape-
fruit and stocks that appear tolerant enough for commercial
use as rough lemon, sweet orange, mandarins including the
Cleopatra mandarin, trifoliate orange and Rangpur lime; sweet

Eighteenth Biennial Report

lime is probably tolerant but eliminated for other reasons.
Some progress has been made on methods of identification but
they are still too slow. Experiments have shown the possibility
of greatly slowing down the spread of the disease by rigid aphid
control plus tight quarantine on the movement of plant parts.
Important work that is under way is the search for additional
vectors, the development of further information on the behavior
of commercial rootstocks, the search for a better and more
rapid method of identification of trees which have become in-
fected but which do not yet show visual evidence of the disease;
tree certification for seed supply trees of rough lemon and work
on the delaying of the spread of the disease. All of these lines
of work bear directly on the problem of controlling the situation
if the virus is brought into Florida and should be continued.

When the work was started it was realized that the work,
while pointed at tristeza, would yield corollary results of ad-
vantage to the Florida citrus industry. Argentina was selected
as the location because to begin with the area selected had a
climate and some soils much like Florida and second because
most of the common troubles of citrus were active there, in-
cluding fruit flies of all sorts, California red scale, sweet orange
scab, scaly bark, Xyloporosis, blind pocket, various types of
mites not present in Florida and a profusion of varieties and
rootstocks. One of the primary corollary results is the train-
ing of men to recognize readily a lot of diseases and insects
which may at some time appear in Florida. Seeing such plagues
in action for a year is worth more than a lifetime of bulletin
and publication reading and leads to quick recognition on casual
contact. A brief resume of some of the other things that have
been or will be useful is given below:
At the time that the work was started in Argentina there
was a great deal of fear in Florida that much of our decline
trouble was due to the citrus nematode and in Argentina the
report had been made that the citrus nematode was the cause
of tristeza. In investigating this theory it was found that all
groves in Argentina were heavily infested with citrus nema-
todes except when the rootstock was trifoliate orange. This
stock appears to be almost immune to attack and a study of its

State Plant Board of Florida

hybrids may develop stocks that are better than P. trifoliata
but still resistant to nematode attack. Groves on all tolerant
stocks free of other damaging pests were found to be vigorous
and good producers with no sign of damage in spite of enor-
mously high nematode infestations. This finding changed the
trend of some of our research here with beneficial results.
For a great many years it had been accepted that we had
California red scale in Florida but that it did not cause severe
damage because of climatic conditions. The finding that in a
similar climate in Argentina it caused tremendous damage and
was exceedingly difficult to control led to a reappraisal of the
situation here. A study of the scale found here on citrus and
hitherto classified as California red scale revealed that it was
really the yellow scale and that apparently the California red
scale does not exist in Florida. This emphasized the necessity
for readjusting our quarantines to keep this insect out.
For many years scaly bark or nailhead rust caused a great
deal of damage in Florida and then almost disappeared. What
appeared to be the same disease had caused much damage in
Paraguay and later Argentina where it is known as lepra ex-
plosiva. Work by two Argentines indicated that the lesions
were caused directly or indirectly by the feeding of a very small
mite. This work was not widely publicized but a personal
examination of the work indicated that it had merit even though
done under very difficult conditions. An outbreak of scaly bark
occurring at Oak Hill, Florida, made possible a detailed study
of the disease here and as a result the same mite or a very simi-
lar one was found to cause the lesions in Florida. This mite
had previously gone undiscovered as had some other mites which
were also uncovered. The mite causing the trouble was found
to be very easily controlled by sulfur and the disappearance of
the disease in the 20's was undoubtedly due to the increase in the
use of sulfur. It might also be pointed out that a reduction in
the use of sulfur could easily lead to other outbreaks.
It had long been recognized that some sort of disease caused
lesions on lemons in Argentina exactly like the lesions produced
by citrus canker on orange formerly found in Florida. At odd

Eighteenth Biennial Report

times, Mr. DuCharme studied the Argentine form and found
it was actually caused by a bacterium as was the Florida form.
This probably is a physiological race of the same organism
eradicated in Florida with a slightly different host preference.

Observations of trees on sweet lime stock in Argentina reveal
that while trees on this stock appear to be tolerant to tristeza,
they are severely injured by another disease present in that
country, Xyloporosis. Because of the susceptibility of sweet
lime stock to Xyloporosis, together with the possibility that that
disease may come to us at some time in the future, this stock
is not recommended for use in Florida.

Since Florida's experience with the Mediterranean fruit fly
there has been constant apprehension concerning its reintroduc-
tion. Recognizing this possibility plus the possibility that we
might not be able to eradicate another infestation, the Technical
Advisor of the Florida State Plant Board instituted experiments
in cooperation with a local firm in Argentina on the control of
fruit flies long before a laboratory was actively established.
Utilizing the information collected during the eradication cam-
paign in Florida, a control program on a large scale has been
developed that has worked successfully for the last five years.
It is expensive, but has proven successful in spite of heavy in-
festations in other groves in the area. This information might
at some time be worth an incalculable amount to the citrus in-
dustry and other fruit industries of Florida.
With increase in rapid transportation and travel the hazards
of introducing new diseases and insects are constantly increas-
ing. Past experience has indicated time and again the great
importance of advance information and the need for trained
personnel when such crises are faced. It would seem to the
writer that the importance of having personnel thoroughly fa-
miliar with these diseases and insects and the measures necessary
for their control is the cheapest insurance that the industry
can buy.

State Plant Board of Florida

W. H. Merrill, Quarantine Inspector

Florida's geographical location renders the State peculiarly
exposed to the entry and development of plant pests from tropi-
cal and subtropical countries. The risk of entry is greatly aug-
mented by the movement into Florida of thousands of airplanes
and hundreds of thousands of passengers from abroad. The
State's climate and flora are favorable for the year-round de-
velopment of such insects or diseases as may come to us from
countries to the south.
Aircraft operated by approximately 80 different transporta-
tion agencies enter at Florida ports. Some of these operate
on an extensive scale, and some are small companies who operate
only a few planes. During the fiscal year 1948-49, 19,826 planes
came in from abroad, and during 1949-50 there were 22,034
foreign arrivals.


Total Number of Air- Total Total Number of
Year and Watercraft Number Pieces of Baggage
Planes Vessels ( Passengers Inspected
1948-49 ........ 19,826 4,303 327,467 833,710
1949-50 ........ 22,034 4,517 312,716 814,092

Because of the menace presented by international air trans-
portation through Florida ports, there is need for the expendi-
ture of considerable sums from state sources for foreign plant
quarantine enforcement. Actually this is the responsibility of
the Federal Government. Experience has demonstrated, how-
ever, that the government cannot furnish a force of inspectors
sufficient to provide adequate protection. It is necessary, there-
fore, that the State provide generously for this service. There
are twenty State employees assigned to plant quarantine en-
forcement in Florida and five Federal inspectors-four at Miami
and one at West Palm Beach. In addition, two Federal em-
ployees are assigned to the inspection and fumigation house at
Miami. These individuals do not board air- or watercraft.
Federal officials furnish three stenographers-one each at Miami,

Eighteenth Biennial Report

Tampa, and Jacksonville. Office space is furnished gratis by
the United States Customs Service at all ports except Miami.
At that place the Board pays a proportional share of the cost of
the space occupied by Customs boarding officers and leased from
the City of Miami.
(Arriving by Ship, Express, Freight, Mail, and Airplane)

1948-1949 1949-1950

Passed .................... ..........................----- 7,151,956 5,721,367
Treated and passed ....... ........... ....................... 30 0
Cleaned and passed ............................................ 7,962,172 5,351,855
Returned to shipper ......................... ...... 79 144
Returned to stores ............................. ........ 15,128 19,707
Contraband destroyed .................................... 10,162 8,009
Diverted (to Hoboken, Washington, Miami, etc.) 215 398

TOTAL .............-............... ... ...... .....-... 15,139,742 11,101,480

It should be stated that the bulk of the plant material recorded
under the headings "Passed" and "Cleaned and Passed" consists
of bananas, coconuts, tomatoes, and similar commodities from
countries where they are not exposed to attack by major insects
or diseases. The significant material is that recorded under
the headings "Returned to Shipper" and "Contraband Destroy-
ed". It is in this material that injurious insects or diseases
are found. The bulk of the plant material handled moves on
to destinations in other states.
The fact that some eighty different air lines engaged in inter-
national air transportation enter through Florida ports may be
a surprise to the reader. He may be equally surprised to learn
that during the fiscal year 1948-49 plant material of one kind
or another came to us from 83 foreign countries and 6 foreign
possessions; and during 1949-50, 89 foreign countries and 7
foreign possessions were represented.

1. Antigua 4. Australia
2. Argentina 5. Austria
3. Aruba, N. W. I. 6. Azores

State Plant Board of Florida

Bahama Islands
Belgian Congo
British East Africa
British Guiana
British Honduras
British West Indies
Canary Islands
Cayman Islands
Costa Rica
Curacao, N. W. I.
Dodecanese Islands
Dominican Republic
Dutch Guiana (Surinam)
El Salvador
Fiji Islands
French West Africa
Gold Coast
India (Bengal)
Iran (Turkey)

Ireland (Eire)
Israel (Palestine)
Netherlands East Indies
Netherlands West Indies
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Philippine Islands
St. Vincent, B. W. I.
Siam (Thailand)
Sierra Leone
Singapore, Colony of
Solomon Islands, British
Union of South Africa
Unknown countries

Eighteenth Biennial Report

United States Possessions
Alaska Guam Swan Island
Canal Zone Hawaiian Islands Virgin Islands
Puerto Rico

The menace presented by this air traffic is obvious. In the
past there were no direct means of communication between
Florida and most of the countries listed in the above tabula-
tion. Our concern with respect to the entry of plant pests from
such countries reposed in the comparatively few shipments which
were entered at ports elsewhere in the country and found their
way into Florida. The advent of the airplane as a popular
means of international travel and trade has changed the whole
picture. Fresh fruits may be transported great distances by
air and arrive at destinations thousands of miles distant in ex-
cellent condition. Such insects as may be present within the
fruits arrive in a similar condition. On several occasions during
the biennium live Mediterranean fruit fly larvae were found in
fresh peaches carried as ships' stores in airplanes from Spain.
Live larvae of the same insect were found in green and ripe
coffee berries brought in from Brazil. A total of seven inter-
ceptions of Mediterranean fruit fly were made during the bi-
ennium. Fruit flies of the species Anastrepha, including Ana-
strepha ludens or Mexican fruit fly, were intercepted on 67 dif-
ferent occasions during the biennium.
The Board's inspectors board all incoming air- and watercraft
from abroad and, together with Customs inspectors, search the
craft for plant material. This may be in the form of stores,
or parcels, and remnants of plants or fruits discarded by pas-
sengers. Plant material carried as cargo is listed on the craft's
manifest and is examined by the quarantine inspectors before
it is released by Customs. The Board's inspectors do not actually
examine the baggage carried by passengers. This task is per-
formed by Customs inspectors. The quarantine inspectors stand
by in the Customs Inspection Room and are available to take
charge of any plant material found.
The expansion of international air transport has brought
about an increase in the costs for foreign plant quarantine en-
forcement. In the past, governmental regulations authorized
craft to enter only between sunrise and sunset, and the services
of inspectors were needed only during these hours. Conse-
quently only a comparatively few inspectors were required.

State Plant Board of Florida

Now planes and vessels enter at any time during the day and
night, and they must be boarded without delay. This has in-
creased the working hours at the several ports of entry from
8- 10 to 18 24 and has made necessary the employment of
additional personnel. At Miami the Board's inspectors operate
three eight-hour tours of duty daily. At other ports it is
necessary to stagger the hours of work in order to provide for
the inspection of night arrivals. The situation is further com-
plicated by the facts that these planes and vessels must be
boarded even though they arrive on Sunday, Thanksgiving,
Christmas, New Year's or other holidays, and the Plant Board
employees are not paid overtime, as is the case with federal
quarantine and Customs personnel.
At only one port-Miami-is the volume of arrivals at any
one airfield sufficient to justify the permanent assignment of in-
spectors to that field. At the other ports, inspectors must travel
between their offices and the airfields to inspect the planes.
Most airfields are located considerable distances from town, and
the need for this extra travel has increased the mileage incurred
by the inspectors. The inspectors must supervise the arrival
of military aircraft as well as those operated by commercial
The Quarantine Inspector is in charge of sweet potato weevil
control. A report on this activity follows.

The sweet potato weevil, a destructive insect pest attacking
the sweet potato, was first discovered in south Florida in 1878.
Since then its dissemination into all counties in peninsular Flor-
ida has taken place. A few counties in west Florida can still
boast that it has never been reported there. It is present in
most southern states.
During this biennium more complaints than usual reached
us concerning damage by the weevil in banked and stored po-
tatoes. This increased damage can be attributed undoubtedly
to the mild weather we enjoyed during the winter months of
1949 and 1950, which permitted the rapid development of all
stages of the weevil during the period when normal mortality
is caused by the freezing weather.
Most infestations of the sweet potato weevil are established
in new areas by means of sweet potato seed, plants, or table

Eighteenth Biennial Report 39

potatoes brought in from infested areas. Quarantines are main-
tained by the principal sweet potato growing states to prevent
introduction of the weevil and to assist in its control and eradi-
The present rules and regulations made by the State Plant
Board of Florida designate as Infested Area all that portion of
Florida lying east and south of Hamilton, Madison, and Jeffer-
son Counties, where the weevil is widely and generally dissemi-
nated. The Control Area includes the remaining eighteen coun-
ties in west Florida, where there is a possibility that control,
if not eradication, of the weevil on the properties now known
to be infested may be accomplished.
It has been the policy of the Board to insist that the sweet
potato weevil program be a cooperative project participated
in by the State and Federal Governments, supported by the
County Agents to the limit of their ability, city and county au-
thorities, farmers, and businessmen in the affected area.
A total of eight inspectors, four State and four Federal, with
headquarters at Monticello, Tallahassee, Quincy, and Marianna,
devote full time to the project in supervising control and doing
the work connected with the eradication program.
The following Table I reports the progress of the work in
counties in west Florida in which the sweet potato weevil was
found during the biennium, together with the number of prop-
erties found infested and cleaned; while Table II gives an ac-
cumulative infestation report from 1944 June 30, 1950.


Infestations No. Properties Infestations No. Properties
County Found Released Dur- Found Released Dur-
7-1-48-6-30-491 ing Period 7-1-49-6-30-50 ing Period
Gadsden .... 79 .... 49 41
Leon .......... 56 18 64 29
Jefferson .... 11 51 7 29
Jackson .... .... .... 50 13
Okaloosa .... .... 16
Madison .... ....... 1

146 80 171 112

40 State Plant Board of Florida

From 1944 to June 30, 1950

Counties Total Found Total Cleaned Total Active
S_ and Released

Calhoun ......................... 1 1.
Escambia ........................ 7 7
Gadsden ............................ 129 44 85
Hamilton ......................... 2 1 1
Jackson ......................... 50 1 49
Jefferson ........................ 172 163 9
Leon ................................. 158 48 115
Liberty ........................... ... 46 46 ....
Madison ...................... 1 .... 1
Okaloosa ................... 16 16
Santa Rosa ..................... 6 2 4

588 324 264

Eighteenth Biennial Report

H. S. McClanahan, Grove Inspector
The name of this department is somewhat misleading. In-
spectors do make regular inspections of citrus plantings, other
than nurseries. They also make surveys of vegetable, mango,
avocado, and other plantings whenever it is desirable to look
for specific insects or diseases. These inspectors participate in
the annual state-federal Japanese beetle trap survey, certify
shipments of citrus fruits destined for points in California and
foreign countries, assist in white-fringed beetle control-in fact,
carry on inspections and perform duties of all kinds incidental
to pest and disease control work.
During 1948-49 the grove inspectors examined 12,910,310
citrus trees in grove formation, backyard plantings, and in the
wild. The number inspected during 1949-50 was 12,143,107.
The arrival at Miami of many thousands of foreign aircraft
each year makes Dade and adjoining counties vulnerable to the
entry of alien plant pests and diseases, and it is desirable that
that area be kept under close observation. In September 1948,
two of the Board's best inspectors were assigned to make a
special inspection of the area. This work continued from Septem-
ber 1948 to June 1949, for a total of 600 man-days. Fruits,
vegetables, plants, shrubs, and grasses, wild and cultivated, were
carefully examined. In addition, 202 man-days were spent in
trapping activities using glass McPhail fruit fly traps. While
no new insects were found, two pests known to be present for
some time were observed to be causing unusual injury. One is
Heilipus squamosus (Lec.). This beetle, known for some time
as a pest of pine trees, has evidently turned its attention to
avocados. These insects girdle the bark of host trees at or
immediately below the ground level. Another insect, Xyleborus
morstatti Haged., was noted causing serious injury to avocado
trees in Manatee County. Other hosts of this insect are:
Acalypha, Annona, Jacobinia, mahogany, and Peruvian water
During May and June 1949, a total of 240 Japanese beetle
traps were in operation at various localities between Miami and
Tampa and north to Jacksonville. The trapping activities for
1950 were started earlier, and 200 traps were in operation for
periods varying from 30 to 60 days at each of the following
towns: Miami, Tampa, and Jacksonville. No Japanese beetles
were collected in 1949 or 1950.

State Plant Board of Florida

Grove inspectors spent 12 man-days looking for white-fringed
beetles in and around properties in the vicinity of Orlando and
Winter Garden, on which suspected plant material from Geor-
gia was planted about four years ago. This reinspection was
negative. The Grove Inspector also supervised the application
of DDT on approximately 3,000 acres in west Florida infested
with white-fringed beetle.
Certification of citrus fruits for export is a duty of the grove
inspectors. In 1948-49 a total of 49,491 boxes of grapefruit,
66,822 boxes of oranges, and 50 boxes of tangerines were certi-
fied for export shipment. During 1949-50 certification was
made of 2,321 boxes of grapefruit and 700 boxes of oranges.
Florida citrus fruits destined to points in California must
be treated with oil or fumigated under the supervision of the
Board's inspectors and move under permits issued by California.
During 1948-49 200 man-hours were devoted to the supervision
of treatment of 45,736 boxes by fumigation and 19,087 with
oil. The bulk of the 12,376 boxes of grapefruit, 4,144 boxes
of oranges and tangerines, and 7,266 boxes of limes which
moved to California in 1949-50 were fumigated under super-
During the latter part of 1948, claims were made that fire
ants, Solenopsis saevissima var. richteri Forel, were causing
serious injury to corn, potato, and cotton crops and destroying
young quail, rabbits, and other animals in parts of Alabama,
Mississippi, and Florida. Much publicity was given to these
claims by newspaper writers, and farmers were requested to
join in the demand for a federal eradication project. This was
a wholly impracticable idea, for the ants are widely distributed
over large areas in the Southeast. Plant Board inspectors went
into Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties, where the ants were
present, to learn something of the extent and severity of the
infestation. They found that the ants, if left uncontrolled, could
become serious nuisances. It was also learned that the ants
could be killed by punching holes in the nests and applying
small amounts of 5% chlordane dust. These nests are large
and easily discernible.
The 5% chlordane dust costs about 25 a pound in small lots,
and one pound would treat from 8 to 12 nests. One man could
treat between 20 and 40 nests per hour, depending upon their
size and density.

Eighteenth Biennial Report

B. MERRILL, Entomologi*
The primary function of the Entomological Department con-
tinues to be the identification of insects and diseases collected
by the Board's field inspectors during the course of their in-
spectional activities. The imposition of a quarantine on a nurs-
ery or other planting, or the refusal of entry of plants or plant
material is a serious matter. In order that there may be no
unfairness to the interests involved and that administering
officials may act intelligently, examination of suspicious plant
material for insects and diseases by trained specialists is neces-
sary. The majority of the insect specimens received are deter-
mined by the Board's entomologists. In instances where there
is doubt as to the identity of insects, or in the case of insects
not previously reported as being present in Florida, specimens
are referred to specialists of the United States Department of
Agriculture or to other institutions of renown for determina-
tion, confirmation, or record.
Specimens of plant or insect diseases are sent to the patholo-
gists of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations for de-
The following tabulation depicts the number of collections
sent in by the inspectors and the number of determinations of
insects or diseases made by the specialists.


Department 1 1948-49 1949-50
SNo. Coll. I No. Ident. No. Coll. No. Ident.
Nursery ................... 697 895 657 814
Quarantine ............... 249 385 249 373
Grove ........... ............. 2319 4510 1051 1627
Entomology .............. 26 31 16 25
Others ........................ 67 101 86 114
Unaccounted for ..... ... 21 .... 21

3358 5943 2059 2974

The personnel of the Entomological Department is composed
of an Entomologist and an Assistant Entomologist.
There was a considerable decrease in the number of speci-
mens collected by the Grove Inspection Department during
1949-50. This may be accounted for by the fact that during

State Plant Board of Florida

1948-49 prolonged and intensive inspections were made in Dade
County. That locality is particularly exposed to entry of in-
jurious insects or other pests from tropical countries because
of the great volume of international air travel through the port
of Miami. We are especially concerned with respect to the
possible introduction into that area of the destructive Oriental
fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendl.) which has caused such great
destruction to fruits, vegetables, nuts, and even flowers in the
Hawaiian Islands.
No insects of major importance were found during that sur-
vey. However, the inspectors did find that the very small berry
of whitewood (Schoepfia chrysophylloides), a tree native to sub-
tropical countries, is a host of Anastrepha interrupta Stone.
Adults of this fruit fly were collected during the course of a
fruit fly trapping survey made by the Board during the early
1930's. Its range is from Micco, Brevard County, and St. James,
Lee County, south to Key West. It has subsequently been found
in Cuba. Although careful search was made for hosts of Ana-
strepha interrupt, none were found until the time of the col-
lection of larvae in whitewood berries. There are two other
species of Anastrepha in Florida for which there are no host
records-Anastrepha ocresia (Walker) and Anastrepha edentata
The part played by mites-not true insects but closely related
to the spiders-in the transmission of diseases is being given
more study by economic entomologists. An interesting observa-
tion as to the economic importance of mites as carriers of lepra
explosive will be found in the report on tristeza investigations
in the Argentine Republic.
During the biennium a number of species of mites were col-
lected by the field force and sent to Gainesville for identification.
Many of them are new species (n. sp.) which will be described,
in due time, by specialists in this group. A list of these mites
Tenuipalpus pacificus Baker on Orchid from Miami area (CP)
Tenuipalpus n. sp. on Mahogany at Coconut Grove (ODL)
Tetranychus n. sp. on Burweed at Miami (ODL)
Tetranychus n. sp. on Maranta sp. at Ft. Lauderdale (CP)
Paratetranychus n. sp. on Broom Grass at Miami (ODL)
Brevipalpus linki Baker on Live Oak at Orlando (ODL)
Brevipalpus n. sp. on Wild Lantana at Homestead (ODL)
Brevipalpus n. sp. on Jamaica Dogwood at Miami (ODL)
Mite, new genus and new species on Mangrove at Homestead (ODL)

Eighteenth Biennial Report

Gall or Fuzz Mites
Aceria n. sp. on Wild Lantana at Homestead (ODL)
Aceria n. sp. on Osmia odorata at Coral Gables (ODL)
Epitrimerus n. sp. on Podocarpus sp. at Boynton (GHB)
Mite, new genus and new species on Rapanea sp. at Coconut Grove
These mites were collected by Plant Board Inspectors G. H.
Baker (GHB), O. W. Calkins (OWC), O. D. Link (ODL) and
Charles Poucher (CP) and are so initialed.
The Quarterly Bulletin of the State Plant Board, Volume VII,
No. 4, 1923, was devoted to a treatise on the scale-insects then
known to be present in Florida, by Merrill and Chaffin. Since
that time a number of additional scale-insects have been re-
ported. These include:
1. Aonidia atlantica Ferris
2. Aonidomytilis hyperici Ferris
3. Aspidiotus coloratus Ckll.
4. Aspidiotus palmae Ckll.
5. Chionaspis gleditsiae Sanders
6. Chortinaspis divaricata Ferris
7. Chrysomphalus personatus (Comst.)
8. Diaspis dignus Hoke
9. Diaspis visci (Schrank)
10. Furcaspis biformis (Ckll.)
11. Lepidosaphes machili (Mask.)
12. Lepidosaphes mackienna McKenzie
13. Lepidosaphes newsteadi (Sulc.)
14. Lepidosaphes solidaginis Hoke
15. Leucaspis cockerelli (deCharm.)
16. Lindingaspis floridana Ferris
17. Melanaspis coccolobae Ferris
18. Melanaspis smilacis (Comst.)
19. Mycetaspis defectopalis Ferris
20. Neopinnaspis harper McKenzie
21. Odonaspis penicillata Green
22. Odonaspis saccharicaulis (Zehnt.)
23. Parlatoria camelliae Comst.
24. Parlatoria chinensis Marlatt
25. Parlatoria crotonis Douglas
26. Parlatoria pseudaspidiotus (Lindinger)
27. Phenacaspis natalensis Ckll.
28. Pinnaspis buxi (Bouche)
29. Praecocaspis diverse Ferris
30. Pseudaonidia paeoniae (Ckll.)
31. Pseudoparlatoria ostreata Ckll.
32. Targionia cueroensis (Ckll.)
33. Targionia dearnessi (Ckll.)

State Plant Board of Florida

1. Aclerda andropogonis McConnell
2. Aclerda holci Teague
3. Coccus viridis (Green)
4. Pulvinaria acericola (W. & R.)
5. Pulvinaria ericicola McConnell
6. Pulvinaria floccifera Mask.
7. Pulvinaria icerya (Guerin) ?

1. Antonina graminis Mask.
2. Antonina nortoni Parr. & Ckll.
3. Asterolecanium epidendri (Bouche)
4. Asterolecanium miliaris miliaris (Boisd.)
5. Asterolecanium miliaris robustum (Green)
6. Asterolecanium pseudomiliaris Green
7. Asterolecanium puteanum Russell
8. Eriococcus araucariae Mask.
9. Margarodes meridionalis Morrison
10. Matsucoccus gallicolis Morrison
11. Neostingelia texana Morrison
12. Nipponorthezia ardisiae Kuwana
13. Orthezia tillandsiae Morrison
14. Phenacoccus gossypii T. & C.

Eighteenth Biennial Report

H. S. Foster, Apiary Inspector

Beekeeping occupies a position of ever increasing importance
to Florida and the nation at large.
Almost everyone appreciates the fact that we must turn to
the apiary industry for our supplies of honey and beeswax. The
value of and the need for honey in our diet is well known. The
important part played by beeswax in industry is not so well
known. During the last world .war the apiary industry was
given a high priority rating by the Federal Government. It has
been stated that there were over three hundred uses for beeswax
for military purposes. The annual needs for military purposes
were estimated at 1,000,000 pounds. Another million pounds
were required for pharmaceutical purposes. Proportional quan-
tities were required by allied governments. In times of war,
foreign supplies of beeswax are not available, and we must look
to our own apiary industry to supply the needs.
Bees make another significant contribution to the prosperity
of the State that is generally overlooked by the public. This is
the considerable increase in the per-acre yields of many crops
brought about by cross pollination as the bees fly from blossom
to blossom in search of nectar and pollen. Wild bees and other
insects are of value as pollinating agents. However, the density
of populations of the wild insects varies from year to year, and
their services are not wholly satisfactory. Growers, on the
other hand, can control the number of bees by arranging with
beekeepers to place sufficient colonies in the fields at the time
the plants are in bloom. The demand for bees for pollination
purposes is constantly increasing.
Control of diseases of bees in Florida is complicated by reason
of the annual movement of thousands of colonies from other
states. Inspection of these migratory bees following their ar-
rival in Florida at times discloses the presence of American
foulbrood. These diseased apiaries are a menace to the apiaries
owned by Florida beekeepers. At times the out-of-state bee-
keepers appear to be indifferent to the need for compliance with
the Board's regulations, and furthermore appear to have little
or no consideration for the established procedures of Florida
beekeepers with regard to the location of apiaries. At times

State Plant Board of Florida

out-of-state bees are set down within a quarter mile of a Florida
apiary. This is too close for efficient apiary management.
As a result of the representations of Florida beekeepers with
regard to the menace presented by migratory bees, the Legisla-
ture in 1947 passed a law which prohibited the movement into
Florida of bees on combs and used beekeeping equipment from
other states. Enforcement of the embargo was a difficult task.
Furthermore, it worked a hardship on beekeepers in north and
west Florida who for years have moved bees back and forth into
Georgia and Alabama. Beekeepers in Georgia who could not
move their bees into Florida urged their legislature to take re-
taliatory action. The questioner of the validity of the Act was
brought into court before Judge R. H. Rowe of the Third Judicial
Circuit who, on January 18, 1949, declared the Act to be invalid.
Following this decision, the 1949 Legislature repealed the em-
bargo and amended the Bee Disease Law so as to provide for
the issuance of permits for the entry of bees in instances where
satisfactory assurance as to the sanitary condition of the bees
could be established.
The present rules and regulations require that anyone who
intends to move bees on combs and used beekeeping equipment
into Florida must:
1. Make application for a permit, and in addition furnish information
as to the location, number of colonies, the number of pieces of
used equipment to be moved, and the proposed destinations in Florida.
2. Furnish the Plant Commissioner with a valid certificate of inspec-
tion signed by the Apiary Inspector or other official of the state of
origin certifying that all of the colonies, apiaries, etc., owned or
operated by the applicant, his agents or representatives, have been
inspected annually and at a time when the bees were actively rear-
ing brood, including one inspection made within a period of thirty
days preceding date of movement into Florida; and that no Ameri-
can foulbrood, European foulbrood, or other infectious diseases have
been found in any colony, apiary, or beeyard owned or operated by
the applicant, his agent or representative, for a period of two years
prior to date of shipment; and furthermore, that the used beekeeping
equipment has been disinfected in accordance with the requirements
of the Board.
3. Agree, in the event that American foulbrood is found after the ar-
rival of the bees in Florida, to remove the bees from the State with-
out delay; and to refrain from placing the bees within two miles
of any established Florida apiary.
Permits for movement into Florida are good for approximately
fifteen days after date of issue. The revised rule also requires

Eighteenth Biennial Report

beekeepers who are residents of Florida to obtain permits for
the movement of bees within the State. These permits are valid
throughout the calendar year for which they are issued, unless
revoked. The finding of American foulbrood in any apiary
would be one of the reasons for revoking a permit.
During the biennium a beekeeper whose apiary was under
quarantine moved the quarantined apiary from its location in
Lake County to a new site in Suwannee County. He was ar-
rested and charged with violating the Board's rules and regula-
tions. Judge J. M. Hearn of Suwannee County found the bee-
keeper guilty and fined him $35.00.
The use of sulfathiazole for the control of American foul-
brood was authorized during the biennium in the case of lightly
infected apiaries. In such cases all of the frames which contain
diseased brood are burned, and sulfathiazole is used in accord-
ance with the provisions of an agreement which must be signed
by the beekeeper. However, many beekeepers are finding it
desirable to burn diseased colonies as soon as they are found.
During the fiscal year 1948-49, there were made 105,678 colony
inspections in 3,710 apiaries in 57 counties. Four hundred and
six colonies were found to be affected with American foulbrood,
or .0024% of the colony inspections. Two hundred and five
colonies were treated with sulfathiazole, and two hundred and
sixty-one were burned.
The total cost for the Apiary Inspection Department during
the year was $28,395.39. The average per-colony inspection
cost was 27 cents.
During 1949-50, 105,296 colony inspections were made in
3,082 apiaries in 51 counties. Three hundred and sixty-nine
colonies were found to be infected with American foulbrood, or
.0035% of the colony inspections. Two hundred and twelve
colonies were treated with sulfathiazole, and one hundred and
ninety-seven were burned.
The total expenditures for apiary inspection during 1949-50
were $27,399.90, or approximately 26 cents per colony.
During both years of the biennium a number of colonies which
had been treated with sulfathiazole were burned when, in the
opinion of the Apiary Inspector, the treatment was not satis-
There are presented below tabulations depicting the volume
of work performed by the Apiary Inspection Department during
the biennium:

State Plant Board of Florida


1948-49 1949-50

Number colonies inspected ................................. 105,678 105,296
Number apiaries inspected ............................ 3,710 3,082
Number counties in which inspections were made.. 57 51
Number apiaries infected with American foulbrood 167 175
Number colonies infected with American foulbrood 406 369
Percentage infected colonies of total colonies
inspected ....................... ........ ............. .0024 .0035
Number infected, colonies burned .............................. 261 197
Number infected colonies treated with
sulfathiazole .................................. ............... 205* 212"

Treated colonies that failed to clean up in a specified time were burned.

Apiaries In- I Colonies In-
Apiaries Colonies fected with fected with
Year Ending Inspected Inspected American American
Foulbrood Foulbrood

June 30, 1920 .... 394 16,121 30 104
June 30, 1921 ... 753 18,078 16 33
June 30, 1922 ... 837 22,522 14 34
June 30, 1923 .... 1,016 23,848 18 30
June 30, 1924 .... 803 22,806 8 13
June 30, 1925 ... 675 21,378 7 58
June 30, 1926 .... 676 16,756 5 22
June 30, 1927 .... 796 23,791 6 34
June 30, 1928 .... 1,248 20,115 18 74
June 30, 1929 ... 1,297 32,442 21 85
June 30, 1930 .... 2,273 44,645 53 182
June 30, 1931 .... 2,374 45,238 37 114
June 30, 1932 .... 2,744 44,211 42 74
June 30, 1933 .... 2,219 42,307 38 76
June 30, 1934 .... 2,305 43,877 71 132
June 30, 1935 ... 2,445 49,379 78 167
June 30, 1936 .... 3,344 73,415 69 131
June 30, 1937 .... 3,544 72,795 32 98
June 30, 1938 ... 3,451 64,668 38 173
June 30, 1939 .... 3,371 70,655 56 416
June 30, 1940 .... 3,414 76,851 61 234
June 30, 1941 .... 3,711 81,950 80 371
June 30, 1942 .... 3,671 83,354 106 698
June 30, 1943 .... 3,347 80,823 100 524
June 30, 1944 .... 2,646 73,649 106 456
June 30, 1945 .... 2,371 69,262 105 379
June 30, 1946 .... 2,265 71,161 138 959
June 30, 1947 .. 2,464 87,674 104 683
June 30, 1948 .... 3,266 98,147 100 391
June 30, 1949 ... 3,710 105,678 130 406
June 30, 1950 .... 3,082 105,296 175 369

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