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Group Title: Report for the period ... of the State Plant Board of Florida
Title: Report for the period ...
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098574/00014
 Material Information
Title: Report for the period ...
Alternate Title: Biennial report
Physical Description: 19 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: State Plant Board of Florida
Publisher: State Plant Board of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1946/48
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Plants, Protection of -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: State Plant Board of Florida.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 4th (1920/22)- 23rd (1958/60).
Numbering Peculiarities: Vols. for 1950/52-1958/60 also called: Bulletin.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098574
Volume ID: VID00014
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10989019
lccn - sn 86033752
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the biennial period ending ... and supplemental reports to ...
Succeeded by: Biennial report

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Report of the state plant board
        Page 3
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        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Report of the plant commissioner
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Full Text







STATE PLANT BOARD

OF FLORIDA







REPORT FOR THE PERIOD

JULY 1, 1946-JUNE 30, 1948


(Seventeenth Biennial Report)


MARCH, 1949
















STATE PLANT BOARD


J. THOMAS GURNEY, Chairman, Orlando
N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
THOSE. W. BRYANT, Lakeland
J. HENSON MARKHAM, Jacksonville
HOLLIS RINEHART, Miami
W. F. POWERS, Secretary, Tallahassee



STAFF

ARTHUR C. BROWN, Plant Commissioner
J. C. GOODWIN, Nursery Inspector
H. S. MCCLANAHAN, Grove Inspector
G. B. MERRILL, Entomologist
W. H. MERRILL, Quarantine Inspector
H. S. FOSTER, Acting Apiary Inspector
L. R. HUNTER, Chief Clerk






Seventeenth Biennial Report


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
March 1, 1949
To His Excellency,
Fuller Warren,
Governor of Florida
SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the State Plant
Board of Florida for the biennium ending June 30, 1948.
Respectfully,
STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA
By: J. THOMAS GURNEY
Chairman

REPORT OF THE STATE PLANT BOARD
In accordance with established practice, the State Plant Board
here presents for the information of the executive and legisla-
tive branches of the State government and the people of the
State an account of its activities during the biennial period end-
ing June 30, 1948.
The Board is charged, under the provisions of the Florida
Plant Act of 1927, with the protection of Florida's agriculture
and horticulture from the introduction, establishment, and
dispersion of dangerous plant pests and diseases and the eradi-
cation and control of such pests and diseases if introduced.
The Board is also charged with the responsibility, under the
provisions of the Bee Disease Law of Florida, of protecting
the State's apiary industry from losses through bee diseases.
The Board formulates policies and practices, makes rules and
regulations, and supervises expenditures. Regular monthly
and occasional special meetings are held, at which time reports
and recommendations from the Board's executive officers are
received, considered and acted upon, and instructions are issued.
As in the past, the administrative and field operations of the
Board have been conducted through the Plant Commissioner
as executive officer for the Board. Under the Plant Commis-
sioner, the work has been carried on through several depart-
ments, namely: Grove Inspection, Nursery Inspection, Quaran-
tine Inspection, Entomology, Apiary Inspection, and Tristeza
Investigations.






State Plant Board of Florida


Florida is, and will probably continue to be, an agricultural
state, whose chief source of income is from the sale of its plants
and plant products. As a general proposition, any factor which
causes an increase in the cost of production, such as expendi-
tures for control of insects and diseases, or reduction in yield,
likewise causes a reduction in profits received. When costs of
production reach a point where the growing of a crop is un-
profitable, commercial production of that particular commodity
is discontinued.
Florida is exposed more than any other state to invasion by
insects and diseases, especially from foreign countries. Its
climate is such as to permit of the ready establishment and
rapid development and spread of such organisms and its trans-
portation facilities are so highly developed as to magnify very
greatly the possibilities of dissemination. By reason of the ex-
pansion of transportation by motor vehicle, effective enforce-
ment of domestic plant quarantines has become greatly com-
plicated. Affected plants and plant products may be, and are,
picked up by operators of trucks or occupants of passenger cars
and in a very short time are transported, together with such
insects and diseases as may be present, to destinations hundreds
of miles distant. Supervision of this movement is exceedingly
difficult. Likewise, the great development of international air
travel and trade has greatly enhanced the likelihood of intro-
duction of major insects and diseases from abroad. Some idea
of the degree of this risk may be formed when it is stated that
during the fiscal year 1947-48 the Board's quarantine inspectors
boarded 17,995 aircraft from foreign countries and possessions.
In addition 4,925 watercraft were boarded. Plant material
from 92 foreign countries and four foreign possessions passed
under the scrutiny of these inspectors. Insects or diseases were
intercepted on plant material from forty-two countries. These
include such widely separated countries as the West Indies,
Central and South America, Denmark, Iraq, Egypt, Palestine,
Spain, and many others. Plants and plant products affected
by major pests were intercepted frequently. Perhaps the most
important was the interception on several occasions of live Medi-
terranean fruit fly larvae in fresh peaches carried as ship's
stores by aircraft which stopped at Miami while en route from
Spain to Mexico.
Board members, fully informed as to the risk of entry of
major plant pests as a result of the expansion of international






Seventeenth Biennial Report


air travel and trade, gave sympathetic attention to requests
made by citrus growers that investigations be undertaken in
South America for the purpose of developing information as
to the cause and manner of dissemination of the destructive
disease known as tristeza, which was responsible for the death
of hundreds of thousands of orange trees on sour orange roots.
The need for development of information that would be helpful
in combating tristeza in the event it came to this state was
clearly indicated. At conferences held during the summer of
1946 and participated in by Governor Caldwell and his associates,
members of the Board, and representatives of the citrus indus-
tries of Florida and Texas, plans were made to send investigators
to the Argentine. The project was initially financed by contribu-
tions in the sum of $20,000 each by the Commissioner of Agri-
culture, the Honorable Nathan Mayo, the State Plant Board,
and citrus growers in Texas. The 1947 Legislature appro-
priated $60,000 for this work during the biennium 1947-49,
and a like sum has been requested for the coming biennium.
Dr. A. F. Camp, Vice Director of the Citrus Experiment
Station at Lake Alfred, Florida, a recognized authority on prob-
lems affecting citrus, who had previously visited the tristeza
affected areas of Brazil and the Argentine Republic, was placed
in charge of the investigational program. Under the terms
of a cooperative agreement entered into between officials of the
Ministry of Agriculture of the Argentine Government and Dr.
Camp, the former undertook the task of furnishing laboratory,
greenhouse, and office space at Concordia, Entre Rios, Argen-
tina, as well as the services of trained investigators. The Plant
Board assigned two investigators to the project: Mr. E. P.
DuCharme, a pathologist from the Citrus Experiment Station,
and Mr. John R. King, an entomologist in the Board's employ.
As a result of the activities of these investigators, it has
been learned that tristeza is a virus disease, and, like most
viruses, is transmitted from plant to plant by insect vectors.
The black citrus aphid, not known to be present in Florida, is
regarded as the principal vector. Search for additional vectors
is being made. It has also been learned that, in addition to
oranges, mandarins, limes, and grapefruit growing on sour
orange roots are affected by the disease; and that oranges, limes,
and mandarins budded to grapefruit root stocks are susceptible.
In the category of resistant stocks are included sweet orange,
rough lemon, Rangpur lime, Cleopatra mandarin, and Poncirus







State Plant Board of Florida


trifoliata. The investigators are searching for hosts of tristeza
other than citrus, such as ornamentals and other plants which
may also be found in Florida. Another important activity is
the development of methods of field determination so that in-
spectors and growers may be enabled to identify the disease
without delay in the event it comes to Florida.
The Board's investigators are accumulating information as
to the presence and manner of dissemination of major insects
and diseases other than tristeza that should be invaluable in the
event that they become established in Florida. It has been
found that Poncirus trifoliata is practically immune to attacks
by the citrus nematode, a pest that in recent years has become
troublesome to citrus trees in Florida. Special attention is being
given to Poncirus trifoliata hybrids to determine whether they,
in turn, possess this immunity to root knot. Lepra explosive
was at one time established over large areas in Florida under
the name of "scaly bark" or "nail head rust". It apparently
disappeared from this state, for no known reason. It is wide-
spread in northern Argentina and Paraguay, and growers who
have followed the control recommendations of the Board's in-
vestigators have met with considerable success. This informa-
tion should be of considerable interest to Florida growers, as
scaly bark has reappeared in some groves in Florida. Valuable
information regarding the habits and control of destructive
fruit flies such as the Mediterranean fruit fly and Anastrepha
fraterculus has been accumulated. Study is also being made of
a disease, closely related to citrus canker, which attacks lemons
in several South American countries.
Board members and citrus growers share the opinion that
the information with regard to the habits, means of dissemina-
tion, and methods of control of tristeza and other diseases and
insects developed during the course of these investigations will
be invaluable to the State in the event that any of them reach
this country, and is well worth the $30,000 annually that is
being expended on the project. Board members earnestly recom-
mend that the estimates in the same sum for tristeza investiga-
tions contained in the budget be appropriated in order that
the research investigations may be carried on for another two
years.
Information as to the actual functioning of the other activities
under the Board's direction will be found in the report of the
Plant Commissioner, which is included as a part of this report.







Seventeenth Biennial Report


The disbursement of funds as reported by the Commissioner
was with the proper approval of the Board. The estimates of
amounts believed to be necessary for the efficient operation of
the organization during the coming biennium have received the
careful scrutiny and approval of the Board.
The support and cooperation given the Board by growers and
governmental agencies, both state and federal, has been most
appreciated. The Board is especially grateful for assistance
and advice frequently given by the Director of the Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Station and the Chief of the Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United States Department
of Agriculture, and their associates, and for the cooperation
that has been forthcoming from the Ministry of Agriculture
of the Argentine Republic in connection with the tristeza in-
vestigations.
The composition of the Board at the close of the biennium
was as follows: J. Thomas Gurney, Orlando, Chairman; N. B.
Jordan, Quincy; Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland; J. Henson Mark-
ham, Jacksonville; and Hollis Rinehart, Miami.
Respectfully submitted,
STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA
J. THOMAS GURNEY, Chairman







State Plant Board of Florida


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
Gainesville, Florida
March 1, 1949

Honorable J. Thomas Gurney, Chairman
State Plant Board of Florida
SIR: I have the honor to present herewith my report as Plant
Commissioner for the biennium ending June 30, 1948.
Respectfully,
ARTHUR C. BROWN
Plant Commissioner

REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER
The advent of the motor vehicle and the airplane as major
means of transportation has further complicated an already
complicated problem, namely, the regulation of the interstate
or intrastate movement of plants and plant products in an at-
tempt to prevent dissemination of insects and diseases. The day
has passed when a comparatively few inspectors stationed at
railway and steamship depots can effectively supervise the move-
ment of such commodities. Today a large portion of the volume
of restricted plants and plant products moved in interstate com-
merce is transported by motor truck. Some measure of control
of trucks and passenger cars moving into Florida could be
achieved through the establishment of inspection stations on the
state line, where all motor vehicles would be required to stop for
inspection. The cost for the construction of the number of
stations that would be required for this purpose, together with
their operation on a twenty-four-hour schedule, would be pro-
hibitive. The supervision of movement of motor vehicles from
one county to another within the state is not practicable. Fur-
thermore, even were it practicable to effectively and economically
regulate movement of motor vehicle traffic, there would still re-
main the airplane problem to be solved.
As a rule, plant quarantines can be justified only when pro-
vision is made for the closing of all avenues for the entry or
escape of a given insect or disease; the measure is drawn and
administered so that there is the least possible interference with
the movement of commodities and persons; there is available a
force of inspectors sufficient to carry out all the provisions of







Seventeenth Biennial Report


the quarantine; and when the quarantine is not intended for
any purpose other than the exclusion of insects and diseases.
Insects and diseases may be disseminated in two ways: through
the activities of man and by natural agencies. We have indicated
the man-made means for dissemination: the movement of affected
commodities by freight, express, steamship, parcel post, motor
truck, passenger, and airplane. Many insects may be carried
by commerce in or on commodities that have no connection with
the host plant upon ,which they feed and develop. Nature has
provided for the dispersal of winged insects by flight; for the dis-
semination of other insects and of disease spores by means of
wind currents; for the carriage of young insects and pathogenic
organisms by birds; by running water; and other means. Man
has no effective means of control over agencies which make nat-
ural dispersal possible, and such dispersal cannot be prevented
by quarantine action. Attempts to do so can be justified only in
very special cases, when the importance of preventing the dis-
semination of an insect or disease is such as to warrant extreme
measures; as, for example, in eradication campaigns. The kill-
ing of animals or birds for even the most laudable of purposes
is bound to meet with strong opposition from certain groups of
society. However, the killing of deer in the Everglades several
years ago could be justified as a means to the elimination of cattle
tick, a pest capable of causing serious economic upsets in Flor-
ida. In the early days of the citrus canker eradication project in
Florida, it was demonstrated to the satisfaction of inspectors
and grove owners that birds were capable of carrying citrus
canker bacteria from diseased to healthy trees. It was not un-
common to find citrus canker lesions on a single leaf growing at
the very top of a large citrus tree, or on leaves close to bird nests
located in the center of the trees. In one locality, the presence
of robins in large numbers in and around infected citrus groves
presented a serious menace to the progress of the eradication
work. Inspectors were furnished with shotguns and blank shells
and were instructed to fire into flocks of robins for the purpose
of driving them from the neighborhood.
Domestic plant quarantines may be justified as a means of re-
tarding long-range dispersal of insects and diseases, provided
that state and federal plant quarantine officials are in a position
to regulate movement of restricted commodities by truck and
aircraft. On the other hand, regulations designed to prevent the
purely local movement of commodities considered to be carriers






State Plant Board of Florida


of an insect or disease are difficult to justify when it is recog-
nized that other means of dispersal not subject to control will,
in all likelihood, distribute the insect or disease over the same
area in about the same time, regardless of the regulations. Such
new outbreaks as might become established by local transport
would be swallowed up before they became serious by the dis-
persal of the organism by other means over which man has no
practical control. Efforts to prevent local dissemination of an
insect or disease are likely to cause a maximum amount of irri-
tation and objection with a minimum amount of achievements of
value.
Of far more serious import is the situation with regard to the
enforcement of foreign plant quarantines. Utilization of the air-
plane and motor vehicle as major means of foreign trade and
travel, together with the demand for the facilitation of interna-
tional air transport through changes in long established practices
and procedures dealing with foreign commerce and travel, is
likely to hasten the entry and establishment of insects and dis-
eases from abroad. International air travel and commerce are
constantly expanding. Fresh fruits, orchids, and other plants
and flowers are now transported by the planeload. Leaves of
crotons and other ornamental plants are shipped by air from the
Hawaiian Islands into the United States by the thousands of
packages. On an average of once every hour, quarantine in-
spectors at Florida ports board an airplane from some foreign
country or possession. During the past fiscal year plants and
plant material from 92 foreign countries located in Europe, Asia,
Africa, South and Central America, Mexico and the West Indies
passed through the hands of the Board's quarantine inspectors.
Many hundreds of parcels of plants or fruits affected with major
insects and diseases were confiscated and destroyed. On two
occasions live Mediterranean fruit fly larvae were intercepted
in fresh peaches from Spain. Mangoes and other fruits infested
with the destructive fruit fly of South America, Anastrepha
fraterculus (Wied.), and other species of Anastrepha were in-
tercepted on many different occasions. Spiny citrus whitefly,
or blackfly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby), the pink bollworm
(Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders)), and the bean pod borer
(Maruca testulalis (Geyer)) were included in the list of major
pests confiscated and destroyed by the inspectors.
The construction of excellent highways to connect the United
States with Mexico and Central America affords opportunities






Seventeenth Biennial Report


for insects and diseases to come into the United States by motor
trucks or passenger cars. There are in these countries several
insects and diseases capable of causing serious economic losses
in event they become established in the United States. The
reader is familiar with the situation with respect to the foot-
and-mouth disease in Mexico. A cooperative eradication pro-
gram participated in by representatives of the United States
and Mexico was discontinued as being impractical after the
expenditure of many millions of dollars of our money. Author-
ities and cattlemen must now depend on vaccines to control
the disease in Mexico, and upon the enforcement of quarantine
regulations to prevent its entry into the southwestern states.
Of greater interest to the growers is the menace presented
by the establishment and wide dissemination in Mexico of the
spiny citrus whitefly, or blackfly (Aleurocanthus woglumi
Ashby). This is the same insect that threatened the citrus
industry in Cuba and the Bahama Islands before it was brought
under control by the introduction of natural enemies from
India and Burma some fifteen years ago. This insect has been
present in the Canal Zone for many years. It has now worked
its way northward and is established on the western coast of
Mexico in the vicinity of Empalme, State of Sonora, and Valles,
San Luis Potosi, on the east coast. By 1947 it was obvious that
a very destructive and serious pest was moving northward
towards California, Arizona, and Texas. It was learned that
the natural enemies that were so effective in Cuba are appar-
ently a failure under the climatic conditions present in Mexico.
Growers in California and Arizona, fearful that unless prompt
action was taken the insect would work its way northward
into their groves, raised funds which were used to finance a
spray program in the Empalme area on the west coast. This
project, in cooperation with officials of the Mexican govern-
ment, was in operation from November 1947 to April 1948, at
which time the material and equipment were turned over to
the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United States
Department of Agriculture. A Congressional appropriation of
$100,000 for blackfly investigations in Mexico, including for-
eign search for parasites, became available on May 1, 1948.
The grower control program was under the direction of Mr.
R. S. Woglum, Entomologist for the California Fruit Growers
Exchange. Incidentally, Mr. Woglum, after whom the insect
was named, originally found citrus blackfly in British India in







State Plant Board of Florida


1910. He has stated that blackfly can more effectively reduce
a citrus tree to the stage of unproductiveness than any other
insect he has ever seen. Leaves become so heavily infested with
immature blackfly forms in various stages of development as to
produce an almost continuous black pattern on the underside;
whereas, on the top the leaves are completely covered with a
heavy film of sooty mold. A two-year infestation appears to
lead to almost total crop failure. There are, incidentally, ap-
proximately one hundred known hosts of blackfly, of which
citrus and mango appear to be the favorites. Mr. Woglum
and his associates are rather optimistic with regard to the suc-
cess of the control program in Sonora. A formula consisting
of 3 gallons of Mexican kerosene, 2 pounds of technical grade
DDT, and 4 ounces of albumen spreader per 100 gallons of
water was the most effective of all the insecticides tried. This
mixture appeared not only to kill the immature stages, but the
spray residue appeared to kill the adults when they emerged.
Specialists of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
will make experiments with other insecticides for the purpose of
developing an effective and economical means of control. The
situation with respect to the infestation in the Valles district,
approximately 450 miles from the Texas border, is a matter
of concern. Unless Bureau investigators are successful in the
discovery in India or Burma of natural enemies capable of
flourishing in Mexico, Texas growers must depend upon spray
applications and quarantine enforcement in Mexico to prevent
the pest from invading their state.
Growers and quarantine officials have regarded plant quar-
antine enforcement activities as the first line of defense against
entry of new plant pests, with field inspection serving in the
second line and, far back in the rear, with little or no commu-
nication with advance posts, were the research investigators
upon whom reliance must be placed for the development of
manner and means of combating an insect or disease after it
has become established in a new community. In recent years
there has been a gradual change in the evaluation of the relative
importance of these several lines of defense. Adequate en-
forcement of foreign plant quarantines is still regarded as
being of primary importance by one and all. There is an ever-
increasing demand for the intensification of nursery and field
inspection through state-wide surveys for the purpose of de-
tecting the presence of insects or diseases that might have sur-






Seventeenth Biennial Report


reptitiously slipped into a state or states. Such surveys would
be of value in event that the invader was one capable of caus-
ing serious economic disturbances, in that its presence might
be detected before it had an opportunity to become so firmly
established that eradication was not practicable. In addition
to foreign plant quarantine enforcement and crop pest sur-
veys, more and more thought is being given to the need for
making investigations in foreign countries or possessions of
means for the control of insects or diseases of major importance
that are likely to work their way into the United States. With
information of this nature at hand, there would be no loss of
time seeking for adequate control measures in the event that
one of these insects or diseases did establish itself in this coun-
try. The work of the State Plant Board and the Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine in investigations of the
tristeza disease in South America, as well as the activities of
the citrus growers of California and Arizona and the Bureau
in making blackfly investigations in Mexico, are indicative of
this trend.
In Florida the need for plant pest surveys has long been rec-
ognized and these services have been performed by the Board's
Nursery and Grove Inspection Departments. Under our cli-
matic conditions, many insects and diseases flourish and mul-
tiply throughout the year. It has been demonstrated that the
movement of pest-ridden nursery stock affords one of the very
best means for the rapid and widespread dissemination of
insects and diseases affecting plants. It is believed that the
Board's system of nursery inspection and the manner in which
it is performed is as efficient as any in the country. Detailed
information with regard to the activities of the Nursery In-
spection Department will be found in the Report of the Nursery
Inspector.
Inspection of the many citrus trees growing in Florida is a
large task. It is believed that each citrus tree in the state should
be inspected at least once every two years. There are approxi-
mately 32,000,000 citrus trees-wild, cultivated, or abandoned,-
exclusive of nursery stock, growing in the peninsular portion of
the state. A good inspector, working without interruption
eight hours a day, should be able to examine an average of
1,400 trees per day. It would require the services of thirty-
five men working continuously, Sundays and holidays excepted,
to examine the citrus trees growing in the peninsular portion







State Plant Board of Florida


of Florida. Because of the interruptions caused by inclement
weather, illness, annual leaves, as well as inspection of plant-
ings other than citrus, provision should be made for the em-
ployment of between thirty-eight and forty assistant grove
inspectors. Although provision was made in the 1947-49 budget
for the employment of a grove inspection force of this size, at
no time was this number actually employed. This was due
largely to the fact that applicants for employment who were
qualified for the positions were not interested in the salaries
the Board was able to pay. The grove inspection force should
be composed of graduates of agricultural colleges specially
trained in entomology, plant pathology, and horticulture, and
of individuals possessed of a practical knowledge of citrus cul-
ture, as well as the appearance and means of control of the more
common insects and diseases. The Board was not in a position
financially to compete with the United States Department of
Agriculture or state and commercial agricultural agencies for
the services of individuals possessed of those qualifications.
Provision is made in the estimates for the biennium 1949-51
for the payment of salaries more in line with those offered by
other agencies.

RESOURCES

During the biennium ending June 30, 1948, the Board had
available for current expenses $372,578.09* for the first year
and $420,610.00 for the second. These amounts were derived
from legislative appropriations as follows:
July 1, 1946:
Salaries Expense Total
Unexpended Balance ........... .......... $ 48,130.52 $ 8,447.57 $ 56,578.09
Legislative Appropriation .................. 190,000.00 59,000.00 249,000.00
Contingent Fund .............................. 12,000.00 12,000.00
Continuing Appropriation ................ ... 35,000.00
Total ........................ ................-. ---. .------ .----- .......... ..... ..... $352,578.09
Emergency Fund for the Biennium 1945-47 ................................ 50,000.00*
The sum of $20,000 from the Emergency Fund was released by the Budget Commission
on July 17. 1946, for tristeza investigations in South America.
July 1, 1947:
Salaries Expense Total
Legislative Appropriation ................. $232,840.00 $91,770.00 $324,610.00
Special Tristeza Appropriation ............ 30,000.00
Apiary Appropriation ..................... 18,670.00 12,330.00 31,000.00
Continuing Appropriation .............. 35,000.00
Total ........................... ...... ...................... ..... .................. $420,610.00
Emergency Fund for the Biennium 1947-49 ................................. 50,000.00








Seventeenth Biennial Report


EXPENDITURES

Expenditures of the Board for 1946-47 and 1947-48 by de-
partments are shown in Table A. In Table B are shown ex-
penditures for specific purposes.


TABLE A


Department 1946-47 1947-48


Grove Inspection ....................... $102,081.78 $114,758.87
Nursery Inspection ........... ...... 46,649.26 46,594.20
Quarantine Inspection ..................... 80,629.45 80,716.45
Office of the Board ................ ...... 5,548.72 3,340.00
Plant Commissioner's Office ................ 14,790.00 14,123.88
Department of Entomology ................ 4,268.81 7,853.58
Sweet Potato Weevil Control ............ 5,057.83 8,630.12
White-fringed Beetle Control ............ 3,324.88 5,111.75
Apiary Inspection ............................. 22,730.27 28,558.17
Mole Cricket Investigations .............. 540.41 ...........
Tristeza Investigations .................... 9,085.11 21,752.99


Total .......... .............. ..... $294,706.52 $331,440.01



TABLE B


Item 1946-47 1947-48


Salaries ....... ...... ..... ..................... $213,868.07 $245,709.12
Travel and Subsistence Expense ...... 67,667.65 71,163.16
Labor ........................................ .. 179.10 1,942.75
Stationery and Small Printing .......... 2,048.60 624.82
Postage ....... ........................ ....... 1,464.24 1,124.01
Bulletins, Circulars .............. ........... 502.57 219.50
Telegraph, Telephone ....................... 743.86 804.98
Office and Miscellaneous Supplies .... 2,769.57 3,509.04
Miscellaneous Expenses .................. 969.31 2,540.82
Office Equipment .................................. 2,774.07 1,077.34
Laboratory Equipment and Supplies 1,393.77 2,150.50
Freight, Drayage, Express ................ 30.92 287.70
Library ... .......................... .... .. 294.79 286.27


Total ................. ............. $294,706.52 $331,440.01








16 State Plant Board of Florida

STATE PLANT BOARD INCIDENTAL FUND
July 1, 1946 June 30, 1947

Balance brought forward July 1, 1946 ........................................ $ 8,312.24
Receipts during the year:
For special inspection of nurseries ............................ $ 517.79
For nursery inspection tags, invoices,
and special certificates ............................-............. 1,599.23
For miscellaneous .-..................... ... ..... ... ...-. --4.00 2,121.02

Balance June 30, 1947 (Tallahassee) ...................................... $10,433.26
Amount collectible: State Plant Board
Revolving Fund, Gainesville ................................-..........- 5,000.00

TOTAL RESOURCES, JUNE 30, 1947 .................................... $15,433.26
Note: No disbursements for this year. The State Comptroller said that
he had no authority to disburse Incidental Funds.


STATE PLANT BOARD INCIDENTAL FUND
July 1, 1947 June 30, 1948

Balance brought forward July 1, 1947 ...................- $10,433.26
Receipts during the year:
For special inspection of nurseries ........ $ 937.30
For nursery inspection tags, in-
voices, and special certificates ........ 1,795.72 2,733.02 $13,166.28

Disbursements during the year:
For special inspection of nurseries
and tobacco .......--................--.............. $ 981.18
For printing certificates, tags,
invoices, etc. ........................... ......... 441.52
For postage for mailing tags,
invoices, etc .......----................................ 387.04
For maintenance expenses, Plant
Board automobile .....................-..... 83.54 1,893.28

BALANCE JUNE 30, 1948 ...................................------- ............... $11,273.00
Amount collectible: State Plant Board Revolving Fund,
Gainesville ............-........ ...................--- --... ..... 5,000.00

TOTAL RESOURCES, JUNE 30, 1948 ........................................ $16,273.00


ESTIMATES

The Plant Commissioner presents the estimates as to amounts
believed necessary and desirable to finance the activities of
the Board during each of the two years of the biennium 1949-51.
Provision is made for the continuance of the tristeza investi-
gations in the Argentine Republic.








Seventeenth Biennial Report


SUMMARY OF ESTIMATES EACH YEAR
of Biennium 1949-1951


Department


Office of the Board ...........
Plant Commissioner's Offic
Nursery Inspection ..........
Grove Inspection ...........
Quarantine Inspection .....
Entomology .....................
White-fringed Beetle .......
Sweet Potato Weevil .......

Sub-Total .........................

Tristeza Investigations ...
Apiary Inspection .............


Salaries


.........-... $ 3,360
e ............ 15,240
.-............. 43,380
....-........... 134,100
............... 80,880
................. 8,760
................. 9,300
.-..-...-.. ..... 8,880

.............. 8303,900

...-......-..... 18,160
................. 18,840


Expenses


$ 2,000
6,000
16,585
57,500
13,450
1,500
2,110
5,100

$104,245

11,840
15,070


GRAND TOTAL ........................---- ... ...........
Incidental Fund ........................ .....-----.. ------------ .
Emergency for the Biennium ....................................


Total


$ 5,360
21,240
59,965
191,600
94,330
10,260
11,410
13,::80

$408,145

30,000
33,910

8472,055
2,000
50,000

$524,055






State Plant Board of Florida


REPORT OF THE NURSERY INSPECTOR
J. C. Goodwin, Nursery Inspector

At the beginning of the biennium, July 1, 1946, there were
1,939 nurseries under inspection. This number had increased
to 2,298 as of June 30, 1947, and to 2,462 at the close of the
biennium. An average of four inspections was made of each
nursery during each year of the biennium. During the first
year, 1946-47, 327 nurseries went out of business, and 570
requested inspections for the first time. During 1947-48, 504
new nurseries were registered, while 372 of the established
ones went out of business.
During 1946-47, 298 quarantines were imposed on nurseries
-219 because of the presence of insects or diseases, and 79
because of the presence of grass or weeds in amounts that made
it difficult to make thorough examinations of the nursery plants.
During the past year, 266 quarantines were imposed-198
because of insect or disease conditions, and 68 because of im-
proper cultivation.
The work performed during the biennium by the Nursery
Inspector and his eight field assistants can best be depicted in
statistical form. There are presented, therefore, a number of
tabulations dealing with the number and kind of plants in-
spected during each year of the biennium.
An important part of the Nursery Inspector's duty is the
certification of Florida nurseries in order that the owners
thereof may comply with the sanitary requirements of other
states and foreign countries so as to be able to ship Florida-
grown trees and plants to destinations in those states and
countries.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1947, certificates of
nursery inspection of various Florida nurseries were filed with
the appropriate authorities of 47 states, the District of Colum-
bia, and 3 foreign countries. A total of 310 certificates were
filed-294 with state officials and 16 with officials of foreign
countries. During 1947-48, certificates were filed with officials
of 47 states, the District of Columbia, and 5 foreign countries.
A total of 337 certificates were filed-324 with state officials
and 13 with officials of foreign countries. It is interesting to
note that shipments of Florida nursery stock were made to
countries in Africa.








TABLE I
APPROXIMATE ACREAGE AND AMOUNT OF NURSERY STOCK, JUNE 30, 1948, AS COMPARED WITH TWO PREVIOUS YEARS


Kind of Stock Acres Acres Acres Plants Plants Plants
_1945-1946 1946-1947 1947-1948 1945-1946 1946-1947 1947-1948

Orange ................. ................. ...... 673.29 779.37 841.20 1,915,670 2,312,460 3,116,535
Grapefruit ......... ........................... 161.65 209.35 265.60 553,415 1,104,502 1,126,350
Tangerine ....................................... 4.91 15.76 19.50 14,050 58,595 93,385
Satsuma .............. ........................... 11.62 8.92 18.95 35,950 37,075 86,600
Lemon ............................... ..... ...... 1.47 2.72 2.30 4,510 14,250 6,350
Lime ................................. .. ....... 15.19 16.19 15.55 67,525 74,792 95,970
Miscellaneous citrus ......................... 110.34 113.18 139.00 187,445 304,050 321,070
Citrus seedlings .......................... ...... 445.67 573.62 539.80 9,636,500 12,212,590 11,555,750


Total citrus ........................................ 1,434.67 1,719.81 1,841.90 12,415,065 16,118,414 16,402,010


Pecan .............................. ... ....... 91.78 123.16 120.10 259,700 274,325 306,000
Tung ................................................. 79.12 86.12 65.10 309,300 330,500 246,300
Fern ...................................................... 334.31 440.71 531.25 12,789,065 16,054,500 18,166,000
General and Ornamental .................... 2,787.29 2,757.86 3,093.35 25,403,612 43,707,505 51,995,780


Total non-citrus ............................. 3,292.50 3,407.85 3,809.80 38,762,112 60,366,838 70,714,080


GRAND TOTAL .............................. 4,726.64 5,127.66 5,651.70 51,177,177 76,485,244 87,116,090







State Plant Board of Florida


TABLE II
MISCELLANEOUS BULBS AND PLANTS (NOT CLASSIFIED AS NURSERY STOCK)
INSPECTED JULY 1, 1946 TO JUNE 30, 1948
Approximate Acres and Quantities Under Inspection


7 I
No. Plants No.
or Bulbs Farms

53,000 7
4,565,500 22
103,687,000 30
3,26%.000 7
45,575,000 5

87,500 3

25,850,000 1


183,083,000 75


1947-1948
SNo. Plants
Acreage or Bulbs

15.40 226,500
49.25 2,074,000
2,164.50 85,620,000
7.00 99.000
229.00 42,545,000

3.22 58,000

3.50 3,000,000


2,471.87 133,622,500


TABLE III
VOLUME OF CITRUS NURSERY STOCK MOVED DURING THE PAST THREE YEARS*


Variety 1945-1946


Orange ...............................--- 795,509
Grapefruit .------..--....--....-...... 219,158
Tangerine ................ .. ... 12,272
Satsuma ........................... 11,092
Lem on ................................... 2,665
Lim e ....................................... 21,546
Miscellaneous citrus ............ 18,289
Seedlings ...........--.. ........ 2,685,744


Total ...............- .... ............. 3,766,275


Figures taken from invoices
Florida.


on file in office


1946-1947


853,083
285,492
21,659
23,124
8,365
41,640
14,596
2,977,742


1947-1948


646,081
228,729
18,511
19,559
6,283
28,674
18,918
987,013


4,225,701 1,953,768

the Nursery Inspector, Gainesville,


In September, 1947, Georgia authorities imposed a quaran-
tine on the movement of Flbrida-grown tobacco plants into that
state. Under the provisions of the quarantine, plants produced
in Broward and Palm Beach Counties were denied entry, while
those produced in other counties could move into Georgia only
after the beds had been inspected and the plants found to be
apparently free from the tobacco virus disease commonly known
as etch mosaic.


Variety


Amaryllis ..
Caladium
Gladiolus
Easter lily
Narcissus .
Miscellan-
eous bulbs
Vegetable
plants ......


Total .......


No.
Farms

4
15
38
124
8

5

5


199


1946-194

Acreage

3.18
122.06
3,064.50
168.10
257.59

3.85

43.05


3,662.33







Seventeenth Biennial Report


TABLE IV
SUMMARY OF WORK PERFORMED BY THE NURSERY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
DURING 1946-1947 AND 1947-1948
1946-1947 1947-1948
8 Number of Inspection Districts ............ 8
2,298 Number of Nurseries in the State ...... 2,462
9,707 Number of Inspections Made ................ 9,803
4 Average No. Inspections per Nursery 4
5,127.66 Nursery Acreage in State ..................... 5,651.70
1,719.81 Citrus --........................... 1,841.90
3,407.85 General and Ornamental 3,809.80
76,485,244 Nursery Stock in State ........................ 87,116,090
16,118,414 Citrus -. .................- 16,402,010
60,366,830 General and Ornamental 70,714,080
Total Acreage Inspected
19,814.27 and Passed ................ ............... 21,417.43
6,786.50 Citrus ................................ 7,412.52
13,027.77 General and Ornamental 14,004.91
Total Acreage Inspected
464.65 and Refused ..............................-- 393.86
45.00 Citrus ................................ 66.37
419.65 General and Ornamental 327.49
20,278.92 Total Acreage Inspected .................... 21,811.29
6,831.50 Citrus ................................ 7,478.89
13,447.42 General and Ornamental 14,332.40
Total Amount of Stock
289,547,009 Inspected and Passed .................. 310,762,736
65,366,041 Citrus .............................. 66,080,382
224,180,968 General and Ornamental 244,762,736
Total Amount of Stock
2,956,547 Inspected and Refused .................. 3,832,796
478,925 Citrus ................................ 593,700
2,477,622 General and Ornamental 3,239,096
Total Amount of Stock
292,503,556 Inspected ........................................ 314,595,532
65,844,966 Citrus .... ................. ... 66,674,082
226,658,590 General and Ornamental 247,921,450
Number of Nurseries that
327 Went Out of Business ...................... 372
570 Number of New Nurseries .................... 504
These figures do not include inspections made of miscellaneous bulbs and
plants.

The Nursery Inspection Department was called upon to
provide the required inspections. A total of 240 tobacco plant
growers requested inspection. A total of 330,447,000 plants
produced on 461.50 acres were inspected and certified to the
satisfaction of the Georgia authorities. Some 270,000 plants
produced on 3.12 acres were refused certification.






State Plant Board of Florida


TRISTEZA INVESTIGATIONS IN SOUTH AMERICA
Dr. A. F. Camp,* Technical Adviser

Over a period of years the writer has on several occasions
accepted invitations from growers and officials of other coun-
tries to investigate some condition adversely affecting citrus
and allied industries in their respective countries. It is believed
that these visits have been of considerable value to Florida's
citrus industry, in that opportunities were afforded the writer
to observe and study injurious insects and diseases that at
some future date may become established in Florida. Of par-
ticular interest was the destructiveness of a disease affecting
sweet orange trees budded on sour roots, known in Brazil as
"tristeza" (sadness) and in the Argentine Republic as "podre-
dumbre de las raicillas" (root rot). Regardless of its name,
this disease (it is now known that a virus is the causal agent)
has been responsible for the death of hundreds of thousands
of sweet orange trees grafted on sour orange roots in Brazil,
the Argentine, Paraguay, and Uruguay. The disease was first
noted in the Argentine, where it was responsible for the death
of trees in the northern Provinces of Corrientes and Misiones,
about 1931 or 1932. All of the groves in those areas have been
killed. The only surviving groves on sour stock that were set
out prior to 1931 are lemons and a grove of oranges on sour roots
the tops of which were worked to lemons when the presence of
the disease was first noted. This top-worked lemon grove is now
a flourishing and productive one. Since 1931, the disease has
spread into other parts of the Argentine. During the 1946-47
spring and summer seasons an estimated 1,000,000 mandarin
trees on sour orange roots in the Concordia area have gone out
of production because of tristeza. This disease was reported
from South Africa, where it has wiped out orange trees on
sour stock, about 1910; from Java, about 1928; from Brazil
in 1936. It is known to be present in Paraguay and Uruguay,
and its presence has recently been reported from Ecuador.
The cause of the disease and the manner in which it was dis-
seminated was not known to investigators of these countries.
Florida growers and officials became greatly concerned over
the information regarding tristeza brought back from South

Dr. Camp is Vice-Director of the Citrus Experiment Station, Lake
Alfred, Florida.






Seventeenth Biennial Report


America. Here was a disease only thirty hours distant by
plane that was capable of wiping out a large portion of Florida's
citrus industry and about which practically nothing was known.
After a number of conferences participated in by growers of
Florida and Texas, members of the State Plant Board, and
state officials at Tallahassee, it was deemed necessary and ad-
visable to undertake some investigational work in South Amer-
ica, in order to provide information that would be of value in
event the disease became established in Florida or Texas. A
fund of $60,000 made up of contributions of $20,000 each from
Texas citrus growers, the Honorable Nathan Mayo, Commis-
sioner of Agriculture, and the State Plant Board, to finance
these investigations was raised. The writer then proceeded to
South America, where he interested responsible officials of the
Argentine government in the project. Research work was
started in December 1946, when Mr. E. P. DuCharme, Path-
ologist of the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred, pro-
ceeded to the Argentine and set up a station at Concordia,
Entre Rios. There were a number of reasons for the decision
to set up headquarters for the investigations at Concordia.
In the first place, officials of the Argentine Ministry of Agri-
culture were most cooperative and provided, in addition to ample
laboratory facilities in the Experiment Station at Concordia, the
services of several scientists to work with Mr. DuCharme.
Furthermore, the climate is similar to that of Florida with
respect to rainfall and temperature. The soil types are com-
parable, and there are in commercial use a wide variety of
rootstocks budded to many different varieties of citrus. Tris-
teza was still actively killing trees in the Concordia area and
there were available for study trees in different stages of
decline.
The construction of a quarantine cage was started almost
immediately and the necessary laboratory equipment either
purchased in Argentina or sent from the United States. The
Ministry of Agriculture of Argentina assigned Eng. Schaatz
to work with Mr. DuCharme and also supplied some labor as
well as laboratory space in the Experiment Station building.
Later a technician and an office man were employed and in De-
cember of 1947 Mr. John R. King, an entomologist, was sent
down from the State Plant Board staff. The sending of Mr.
King was occasioned by the fact that it had been shown that
tristeza was insect transmitted and the services of an ento-
mologist were needed.






State Plant Board of Florida


The initial research work attempted had to do with the study
of the nematode theory, since many Argentine technical work-
ers held to the view that the disease was primarily caused by
nematodes. It was readily shown that this was not the case,
and in the process it was discovered that Poncirus trifoliata
as a rootstock was apparently not attacked to any extent by
the citrus nematode. This may eventually be an important
observation, since the citrus nematode appears to constitute
an increasing problem in Florida. It was also shown in the
early work that when Cleopatra mandarin was used as a root-
stock for oranges, grapefruit or mandarins the combination was
not visibly affected by tristeza and since this rootstock appears
to hold possibilities in both Florida and Texas, this information
was of considerable importance.
Following the finding that the disease is caused by a virus,
work has been centered on this angle and the other work ter-
minated. Plans call for an exhaustive study of insect vectors
to determine just what insects may transmit the disease. The
black citrus aphid, which appears to be the common vector in
South America, is not found in this country but there is evi-
dence that other insects may transmit it also. If we knew all of
the vectors it might be possible, by intensive insect control,
to delay indefinitely the spread of the disease. A study also
is being made of various rootstock and top combinations and
in this connection it has become apparent that the virus can
exist in trees on rootstocks such as sweet orange without any
visible decline and that buds from such trees will transmit the
disease. Such combinations may be classed as "tolerant com-
binations" but the net result is that buds from apparently
healthy trees might be carrying the virus or insects feeding
on such trees transmit it to trees on sour orange which would
then die. This means that in an area where there was no sour
orange stock the trees might have the disease and yet appear
healthy, and importation of budwood or insect vectors from that
area could start the disease in a new area. Such healthy appear-
ing yet infected trees might be considered in the same category
as typhoid carriers who have and transmit the disease while
appearing healthy.
In the course of the work an effort has been made to find
usable symptoms for identification purposes or, in lieu of such
symptoms, to develop a rapid method of identification. It was
found that by taking buds from infected trees and budding






Seventeenth Biennial Report


them into sour orange seedlings which were growing in an
insect-proof screen quarantine cage, the disease could be iden-
tified owing to the stunted and poor growth as compared with
that of buds free from the disease. Tissue grafts in lieu of
buds have shown indication of being somewhat faster and
this work is being pushed with the idea that such a quarantine
cage system of identification could be used in Florida as a means
of testing suspicious trees. The setup would require either
screened greenhouses or a screened inclosure so that the neces-
sary sour and sweet orange seedlings could be grown free from
the virus and from insect attack. At present this seems to be
the best way of identifying suspicious cases which arise in
Florida.
Using the quarantine cage technique, a study is being made
of rootstock and top combinations to determine which stocks
are resistant. Recent work indicates that grapefruit stock
may also result in trees which are adversely affected by tristeza
though combinations which include grapefruit as the stock
show the effects of tristeza much more slowly than do those
combined with sour orange as a stock. This tends to confirm
a previous observation that trees on grapefruit stock in Brazil
might be affected with tristeza.
Some work is being done with other diseases and insects
which might at sometime be brought into Florida. A close
check is being kept on attempts at Mediterranean fruit fly con-
trol and also on other types of fruit flies. A small amount of
work is being done with Cancrosis B which resembles the citrus
canker that was eradicated in Florida, except that lemon is the
preferred host, while the form which was present in Florida
seldom attacked lemons. Scaly bark is causing tremendous
damage in the Province of Corrientes in the Argentine. (This
disease was serious in Florida in the 'teens and twenties but
has disappeared except for sporadic outbreaks of small size.
However, it is being watched closely here in Florida in the hope
of getting some clue as to the cause of its disappearance and
the possibility of its breaking out again.) These side lines
indicate the great value of working in this particular area.
The specialists assigned to tristeza investigations will, on their
return, be familiar with practically all of the citrus diseases
and insects which we have reason to fear, and this actual con-
tact with a disease or insect is worth more in training men than
all the bulletins they could read, for it gives them a certainty






26 State Plant Board of Florida

in identification that is not possible if only publications are
available. In addition to knowledge of new diseases and in-
sects, there is an opportunity to observe our common insects and
diseases free of control methods and thus better evaluate the
possibilities of reducing control measures here. The rotation
of men at this station should give us the best trained citrus
entomologists and pathologists in the world, as well as thorough
knowledge of diseases and insects which pose a threat to our
industry.






Seventeenth Biennial Report


QUARANTINE INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
W. H. Merrill, Quarantine Inspector

During the biennium the Board continued the operation of
quarantine inspection stations at Pensacola, Jacksonville, West
Palm Beach, Fort Lauderdale, Miami, Key West, and Tampa.
Inspectors stationed at these ports are employees of the State
Plant Board of Florida. They also hold appointments as
Agents of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine,
United States Department of Agriculture, and as such have
authority to enforce federal foreign plant quarantines. In
addition to the Board's inspectors, the services of five full-time
Bureau inspectors are utilized, four at Miami and one at West
Palm Beach. Stenographic services are furnished by the Bureau
at Jacksonville, Miami, and Tampa. The Bureau operates an
inspection station at Miami to which are sent for treatment
plants that come into Florida under federal permit.
Inspection of aircraft from abroad has necessitated the em-
ployment of additional personnel and brought about increases
in operational costs. Airfields as a rule are located some dis-
tance from the towns they serve. Incoming planes must be in-
spected upon arrival. Inspectors must be available to proceed
to the landing fields on very short notice. The volume of work
performed at several fields at Miami is sufficient to justify the
assignment of inspectors to these fields. At Tampa and Jack-
sonville this is not the case. Plant quarantine, Customs, and
Immigration inspectors from Tampa must make at least one,
and at times two, trips daily to the airfield located near St.
Petersburg in Pinellas County. At Jacksonville the inspectors
must make daily trips to the Naval Air Station located south of
town. Inspectors at West Palm Beach make from one to three
trips a day to Morrison Field, located some distance from down-
town West Palm Beach. Mileage incurred each month in visit-
ing the several airfields under supervision accounts for a con-
siderable portion of the department's operation expenses.
Fruit fly larvae, chiefly Anastrepha spp., were intercepted
on 171 different occasions during 1946-47 and on 65 occasions
during 1947-1948. Spiny citrus whitefly, or blackfly (Aleuro-
canthus woglumi Ashby), bean pod borer (Maruca testulalis
(Geyer)), sweet orange scab (Elsinoe australis B. & J.), pink
bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders)), and many







State Plant Board of Florida


different scale-insects, ants, aphids, beetles, and other insects
were intercepted. During 1946-47, 1,555 determinations of
insects and diseases were made from various plant materials
intercepted. During 1947-48, 578 such determinations were
made.
Plant material from 86 foreign countries and four foreign
possessions was intercepted during 1946-47; and from 92 for-
eign countries and four foreign possessions during 1947-48.
The following tabulations depict the volume of work per-
formed by the plant quarantine inspectors during the biennium:

TABLE I
NUMBER OF PARCELS OF PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS HANDLED
(Arriving by Ship, Express, Freight, Mail, and Airplane)


P a sse d -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Treated and passed .... ..............- ...--. --.-------------
Treated and passed .... .
Cleaned and passed ............ ............-.----. ---..
Returned to shipper ..................... ..
Returned to stores .................... ....- ..
Contraband destroyed --......... .
Diverted (to Hoboken, Miami, Washington,
Brownsville, Laredo, Boston, San
Francisco, etc.) ...................--- ----- ..


T otal ..................- ...-- ----------- ----


1946-47


9,552,438
58
12,866,183
196
16,952
16,276

224


22,452,327


1947-48


7,744,631
2
10,364,635
94
17,138
12,694

293


18,139,487


TABLE II
FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINE ACTIVITIES DURING BIENNIUM 1946-1948


Year Total Number Air- Total Total N
and Watercraft Number Pieces of
Planes Vessels Passengers Insp

1946-1947 .......... 22,202 5,185 335,689 1,01
1947-1948 .......... 17,995 4,931 322,916 84
I]


umber of
Baggage
ected


1,575
7,537


The table above includes traffic with the Territory of Puerto
Rico. During 1946-47 there entered from Puerto Rico 3,246
planes; 6 ships; 55,371 passengers; 114,669 pieces of baggage.
During 1947-48, the figures were: 2,358 planes; 17 ships;
49,378 passengers; 114,260 pieces of baggage.







Seventeenth Biennial Report


SWEET POTATO WEEVIL
The sweet potato weevil has been present in sweet potato and
morning-glory plants in parts of the South for some seventy-five
years. It has been in Florida since 1878 at least. The penin-
sular portion of the state is generally infested. The weevil is
to be found in wild morning-glories along the coast as far
north as North Carolina, and on the Gulf coast from Key West
to the Mexican border. It is also to be found at times in sweet
potato plants in a number of southern states. Since about 1935,
the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, in cooperation
with state officials, has attempted to keep the insect under con-
trol. On numerous occasions following its establishment in a
new area, it has been eradicated, only to appear again in some
other heretofore uninfested locality. These localized outbreaks
are as a rule caused by infested sweet potatoes or sweet potato
plants brought in from some affected area. Probably the largest
contiguous infested areas are to be found in the peninsular
portion of Florida and in the large commercial sweet potato
producing areas in Texas and Louisiana. Thus the truck move-
ment of sweet potatoes from infested areas in the last two
named states, and of early plants from south Florida, may be
responsible for the appearance of the weevil in areas not known
to be infested.
In west Florida it has been the Board's policy to cooperate
with farmers and county officials in event an outbreak of the
sweet potato weevil is found. Eradication of the weevil from a
community can be accomplished in a comparatively short period
through the cooperative activities of farmers residing within the
area. These include the thorough clean-up and destruction of
all crop remnants after harvest, together with potatoes in the old
beds and banks. The new beds or fields should be planted to
uninfested stocks and located at least one-half mile from any
known infested field, bank or seedbed. On small farms where it
is not possible to locate the new planting the required distance
from known infested points, the growing of sweet potatoes is
discontinued for a year or so.
As previously stated, it has been the policy of the Board to
insist that the eradication program be a cooperative one par-
ticipated in by the Board and county officials, farmers and bus-
inessmen in the affected county. The Board provides limited
quantities of weevil-free plants for use on infested farms where
planting has been approved, as well as potatoes for consumption







State Plant Board of Florida


by occupants of properties on which planting is prohibited.
These stocks may be purchased outright or grown on shares-
the Board furnishes the planting stocks and other interests
furnish the land, fertilizer, and labor for producing the crop.
In each instance the County Agent cooperates to the limit of
his ability.
The following tabulation depicts the number of counties in
west Florida in which sweet potato weevil was found during the
biennium, together with the number of properties found in-
fested and cleaned during the biennium:*

Date Number Number Number
County Infestations Infestations Infestations Infestations
S Reported Reported June 30, 1948 Eradicated
Jefferson ....... July 1947 ....-..... 158 69 89
Leon .............. May 1947 ........ 37 37 0
Gadsden ....... April 1948 ........ 8 1 7
Hamilton ..... March 1947 ...... 1 0 1
Liberty .......... November 1946 3 0 3
Jackson .......... October 1946 .... 1 0 1
Okaloosa ........ May 1947 .......... 16 0 16
Santa Rosa .... May 1947 ........ 1 0 1

225 107 118


The weevil control work in west Florida is under the super-
vision of the Board's Quarantine Inspector.

Since the close of the biennium on June 30, 1948, a number of infested
properties have been found in Tallahassee, Leon County, and in the vicinity
of Havana, in Gadsden County.






Seventeenth Biennial Report


GROVE INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
H. S. McClanahan, Grove Inspector

During the year 1946-47, a total of 11,557,394 citrus grove
trees were examined by the Board's inspectors. During 1947-48,
11,771,932 were inspected. Trees growing on the lower Keys
as far south as Key West were looked at during the biennium.
No new or dangerous insects or diseases were noted.
During the course of the year's activities the services of the
grove inspectors are utilized for purposes other than grove in-
spection. Some of the employees are assigned temporarily to
nursery or quarantine inspection activities in order that they
may learn the duties of nursery and quarantine inspectors and
qualify themselves to fill vacancies that occur from time to time
in these last-named departments. Grove inspectors are also
called upon to furnish relief to the other departments whose
inspectors may be absent on sick or annual leave. Grove in-
spectors also participate in the annual white-fringed beetle and
sweet potato weevil surveys in west Florida.
During the biennium special attention was paid to the grass-
hopper situation. These insects (Schistocerca americana) have
been more or less troublesome to citrus growers and farmers
in Florida for many years. In the spring of 1947 there were
indications that grasshopper populations might increase to a
degree where injury to citrus trees might occur. Some injury
had been noted in the vicinity of Hopewell, in Hillsborough
County, in the fall of 1946. At the request of the Plant Com-
missioner, Dr. P. N. Annand, Chief, Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine, assigned Mr. A. E. Frazier, Area Supervisor
for the Bureau's grasshopper control project in Arizona, to
make surveys in Florida. Accompanied by the Grove Inspector,
Mr. Frazier made trips to a number of citrus-producing counties
from which grasshopper injury had been reported. It was
learned that the insects were numerous in several areas in
Hillsborough and Polk Counties. Outbreaks of lesser intensity
were observed in the extreme northern portion of Brevard
County and in the neighborhood of Vero Beach in Indian River
County. It was noted that grasshopper populations were as a
rule most numerous in groves in which the bulk of the cover
crop consisted of crab grass. Mr. Frazier's familiarity with
grasshoppers and their habits was of great help in the evalua-






State Plant Board of Florida


tion of the grasshopper situation in Florida. It was his opinion
that, while localized injury might be expected in some areas,
the situation did not warrant a state-federal control program.
It was estimated that not over one per cent of the citrus plant-
ings in Polk and Hillsborough Counties was affected. Mr. Frazier
returned to Arizona about October 1, 1947.
The situation was one that might at any time become serious.
A few groves were severely injured in spots and several small
groves were almost defoliated by the feeding grasshoppers.
The Plant Board assigned one of its inspectors to work with Dr.
J. T. Griffiths of the Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred
on experiments with various insecticides for the control of grass-
hoppers. It was learned that chlordane and chlorinated cam-
phene applied as dusts or sprays would effect satisfactory
control. It was also learned that the disking or chopping of
cover crops was very helpful in the control of newly hatched
grasshoppers. Growers who are interested in grasshopper con-
trol should get in touch with Dr. A. F. Camp, Vice Director in
Charge, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Florida, for
the most recent information as to insecticides and procedures.
Assistant grove inspectors are also called upon to make in-
spections of Irish potato plantings in order that shippers may
be able to ship their potatoes into states that require inspection
and certification. During 1946-47, seventeen carlots of potatoes
were certified as being free from Colorado potato beetle, and
in 1947-48, seventy-three carlots were certified.

WHITE-FRINGED BEETLE
The white-fringed beetle situation in the western part of
Florida and other southern states is essentially as follows:
In the summer of 1936 an insect, now known as Graphognathus
leucoloma fecundus, or white-fringed beetle, so-called because of
its distinctive markings, was found near Svea in the northeast
corner of Okaloosa County, Florida. At that time it was be-
lieved to be a pest new to this country and of comparatively
recent introduction. Injury to peanuts, cotton, corn, velvet
beans, and other crops was attributed to white-fringed beetle
larvae, which feed upon plant roots. Investigations disclosed
the presence of this insect, or closely related species, in con-
tiguous areas in Walton County, Florida, and in Covington and
Geneva Counties, Alabama.
In 1937 the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine,
United States Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with






Seventeenth Biennial Report


officials of the State Plant Board of Florida and the Alabama
Department of Agriculture, established the white-fringed beetle
control project, with headquarters at Florala, Alabama. At
the same time the Bureau established a white-fringed beetle re-
search station at Florala. Surveys made in 1937 and 1938
rapidly disclosed the presence of white-fringed beetle of one
kind or another in Escambia County, Florida, and in several
counties in Louisiana and Mississippi. State and federal quar-
antines designed to prevent further dissemination of the insects
were promulgated during 1937 and 1938.
White-fringed beetles are parthenogenetic insects, the adults
of which are capable of depositing viable eggs without fertil-
ization. Eggs are deposited on plant stems or trash at the
ground level. After they have hatched, the larvae work their
way into the ground. The bulk of the crop injury is caused by
the larvae feeding upon plant roots in the spring. The larvae
enter the pupal stage in the late spring and the majority of the
adults emerge from the ground during the latter part of June
or the first part of July.
As it was believed that this insect was of recent introduction
and that it was confined to comparatively small areas in Ala-
bama, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi, eradication was at-
tempted. Measures used consisted chiefly of applications of
poison dusts or sprays directed towards the adult, as there was
no way to work on the larvae in the soil. It was soon learned
that applications of calcium arsenate or cryolite were frequently
of no great value, as the time of treatments coincided with the
advent of the rainy season and the poison was washed from the
plants almost as rapidly as it could be applied.
A concentrated spray developed by the research investigators
was found to be more effective. Research investigators, working
with representatives of the Florida Agricultural Extension Serv-
ice, developed a crop rotation plan for the use of occupants of
infested properties that was of considerable value. According
to statements made by Bureau representatives assigned to white-
fringed beetle control activities, the effectiveness of this cultural
control program has to a large degree obviated the necessity
of insecticidal control on these farms.
Beginning in 1938, annual surveys were made in the southern
states for the purpose of finding new infested areas. Rather
large increases in infested areas were reported each year from
Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. In 1942, white-







State Plant Board of Florida


fringed beetle was found in some 14 counties in North Carolina.
Repeated inspections were made in Georgia, with negative re-
sults. In April 1946, white-fringed beetle was found on a farm
located near Eastman, Georgia. It was soon learned that
one species of white-fringed beetle, Graphognathus leucoloma
striatus, was present in some fifty counties in that state. Two
large commercial nurseries, as well as a number of backyard
nurseries, were found to be infested. There is evidence at hand
to substantiate the belief that one large commercial nursery
in Georgia had been infested as long ago as 1934 or 1935, or
about one year before white-fringed beetle was "discovered"
at Svea in 1936. During this period this nurseryman enjoyed
normal operations and sales wholly without restraint by white-
fringed beetle quarantines, while his competitors in infested
areas in Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi were
greatly handicapped in their operations by the need for com-
pliance with the provisions of the federal interstate quarantine.
The states, together with the number of affected counties, in
which white-fringed beetle was known to be present at the end
of 1947 are listed below:
Number Counties Number Counties
State Infested State Infested
Alabama .......................- 14 Mississippi ........................ 15
Florida .................-........ 5 North Carolina ............- 15
Georgia ............................. 53 South Carolina ............. 2
Louisiana ....................... 8
The annual increase in the known infested acreage at the close
of each year is depicted in the following tabulation:
Year Acres Infested Year Acres Infested
1937 ....................... .. 14,000 1942 ........................... 106,000
1938 ....... ......... 44,000 1943 .......................... 124,000
1939 ............... ..... 74,000 1944 ..... ............... .. 140,000
1940 ......................... 88,000 1945 ......................... 153,000
1941 ..... .................... 97,000 1946 ............................ 199,000
1947 ............................ 223,000
As previously stated, white-fringed beetles are parthenogenetic
insects-a single adult beetle set down in a new locality with
favorable climatic and host conditions may create a new infested
area. The insects, in one form or another, have been observed
to feed upon some 375 different species of plants. As adults
they may crawl into vehicles and be carried into new areas.
In the egg, larval, and pupal stages they may be disseminated
through the movement of soil or practically any article or com-
modity that comes in contact with the ground. In an attempt
to prevent dispersal from known infested areas, state and fed-






Seventeenth Biennial Report


eral quarantine regulations prohibit or restrict the movement
from infested areas of such things as hay and straw; nursery
stock; uncleaned grass, grain, and legume seed; seed cotton and
cottonseed; peanuts in shells and peanut shells; sand, soil,
manure, scrap iron, junk, etc. It is practical to regulate move-
ment of these articles from an infested area when offered for
transportation by rail. Supervision of truck movement is wholly
impractical.
As one result of investigations conducted by Mr. H. C. Young,
the Bureau's research investigator at Florala, it is now known
that larval populations may be greatly reduced through appli-
cations of DDT to the soil. Ten pounds of technical DDT per
acre applied as a broadcast soil treatment almost eliminated
larval populations in cultivated fields. It has been demonstrated
that DDT applied in drill rows at planting time or broadcast
in the spring at rates of 2.5 and 5 pounds per acre gave sig-
nificant reductions in larval populations.
With this information at hand, Bureau representatives held
a conference with state quarantine officials at Montgomery, Ala-
bama in November 1947 to recommend a change in control pro-
cedures. It was announced that the government could no longer
assume the major portion of the costs for control activities
(federal white-fringed beetle field obligations for the period
1938-1948 were $6,811,520) and that farmers or state officials
would be required to participate in the program. The follow-
ing procedure was recommended by Bureau officials:
(1) That all infested nurseries be treated with DDT (tech-
nical grade) at the rate of 50 pounds per acre, with subsequent
foliage applications; and (2) that infested cultivated farm lands
be treated with DDT at the rate of 10 pounds per acre. Bureau
officials offered to supervise the treatment of nurseries or farms,
provided the growers or state officials furnished the DDT.
Nurserymen as a rule purchased the amounts of DDT neces-
sary to treat their infested properties and otherwise complied
with the recommendations of federal specialists. In return,
they were exempted from the need for compliance with some of
the more burdensome provisions of the federal quarantine.
Farmers, on the other hand, did not manifest any enthusiasm
for the proposal and very few of them treated their infested
cultivated lands at the 10-pound rate recommended. This atti-
tude may have been due to one or more of the following reasons:
Farmers who for years had their infested properties treated
gratis by the government were not willing to assume the costs







State Plant Board of Florida


for the control material; a number of infested farms are oper-
ated by tenant farmers, a group not likely to be interested in
the financing of a long-range control program; white-fringed
beetle larval populations in the Florala area in 1947 were gen-
erally low and larval crop injury was exceedingly light, while
in 1948 but little damage was caused by the insects; and finally,
farmers were not in a position to finance a program that would
require a cash outlay of approximately $7.50 per acre. On the
other hand, the Plant Board was without funds to buy the DDT
and give it to farmers. It would have required an outlay of
approximately $65,000 to purchase sufficient quantities of DDT
to treat the estimated 9,000 acres of infested cultivated farm
land in Florida.
As previously stated, research investigations have demon-
strated that DDT applied at the rates of 21/ and 5 pounds per
acre gave significant reductions in larval populations. Proceed-
ing on the assumption that farmers might be able to treat their
infested fields at the 21-pound rate, and that one application
of 212 pounds of DDT per acre would be better than no appli-
cations at the 10-pound rate, the Plant Commissioner and his
assistants have recommended the application of 21/ pounds of
DDT either broadcast or placed in the drills. Experiments
have demonstrated that normal cultivation practices will tend
to distribute the DDT laterally from the drill rows.
The question as to the economic importance of white-fringed
beetle is a controversial one. Some authorities and farmers
regard it as a serious menace, while others equally well informed
regard it as a pest capable, under certain conditions, of causing
some localized crop injury. One well informed authority has
stated that the insect has performed along the lines to be ex-
pected of newly introduced pests: for several years after their
establishment they may be expected to cause some economic
upsets, but after a few years' residence their depredations level
off to a degree where they are not regarded with any great con-
cern by occupants of infested properties. In 1947 and 1948
in the Florala area, where the insect has been established since
1936 at least, crop injury was negligible. On the other hand,
serious injury to peanuts was noted in the eastern part of Jack-
son County, where the presence of the insect was first reported
in the summer of 1948.
Regardless of the economic importance of the white-fringed
beetle, it is evident that in DDT the farmers have a means of
control that will keep larval populations reduced to the minimum.







Seventeenth Biennial Report


APIARY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
H. S. Foster, Acting Apiary Inspector

The activities of the Apiary Inspection Department during
the past two years were high-lighted by two events of consider-
able importance to the industry in Florida: (1) enactment by
the 1947 Legislature of a law prohibiting the movement into
Florida of used beekeeping equipment and bees on combs; (2)
the retirement of Mr. Robert E. Foster, who had been in charge
of the Apiary Inspection Department since July 1, 1926. The
legislative act with regard to the entry of used beekeeping equip-
ment and bees on combs is quoted herewith:
"584.05 Movement of second-hand hives, etc., into State prohibited.-
"A. The following Acts or the causing thereof are hereby prohibited:
"(1) The bringing, shipping, or transporting knowingly into this State
of any used or second-hand beehives, honeycombs, supers, frames or other
beekeeping fixtures.
"(2) The bringing, shipping, or transporting knowingly into this State
of any bees whatsoever unless they be in combless package.
"(3) The opening or moving knowingly of beehives or the removal of
frame or frames therefrom in this State by any person or persons other
than the owner or owners, his or their agent or agents or authorized
officials of the State of Florida or their agents.
"584.06 Penalty for violations-
"(1) Whoever violates any of the provisions of this Chapter other than
Subsection A (3) of Section 584.05, Florida Statutes, 1941, or whoever
violates any of the rules or regulations adopted by the State Plant Board
in accordance with the provisions under this Chapter, shall, for the first
offense be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof
be punished by a fine of not less than One Hundred ($100.00) Dollars nor
more than Five Hundred ($500.00) Dollars or by imprisonment for not
more than six (6) months in the County Jail, and upon a second conviction
thereof shall be deemed guilty of a felony and shall be punished by im-
prisonment in the State Prison for a term not to exceed three (3) years.
"All laws and parts of laws in conflict herewith are hereby repealed."
This piece of legislation was enacted at the demand of com-
mercial beekeepers in Florida in protest against the activities
of migratory beekeepers from other states. The movement of
apiaries had increased in recent years to a degree where it was
estimated that between 20,000 and 25,000 colonies of bees were
brought into the state each year. This annual influx of bees
increased to a considerable extent the duties of the Apiary In-
spector and his assistants because of the need for inspection
to determine the presence or absence of disease, American foul-
brood in particular. The situation was further aggravated by
the attitude of some migratory beekeepers who not only mani-
fested resentment at the need for complying with the Board's







State Plant Board of Florida


rules and regulations but were most inconsiderate of the rights
of established beekeepers in their immediate neighborhood. At
times diseased apiaries were set down on sites located within
easy flying distance of already established apiaries. Careless
manipulation of the diseased apiary and exposure of honey or
comb from infected colonies at times resulted in the dissemina-
tion of American foulbrood throughout a community. Further-
more, the arrival of several hundred colonies of migratory bees
in a locality was likely to bring about an overcrowding of de-
sirable "bee pastures" to a degree wherein the production of
surplus honey was considerably decreased. After putting up
with these annoyances and inconveniences for a period of years,
Florida beekeepers resorted to a legislative embargo as one
means of putting a stop to the abuses of migratory beekeepers.
During the biennium the Board continued to authorize the
use of sulfathiazole as a means for the control of American
foulbrood. Owners of infected apiaries who are authorized to
use the drug in lieu of destruction of diseased colonies are re-
quired to sign an agreement similar to the following one:

STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA
...................................... ..., Florida
.................................... ........... 194....
In return for the privilege of using sulfathiazole for the control of
American foulbrood in my apiary, or apiaries, instead of burning each
and every infected colony, I agree to comply with the following conditions
and requirements as set forth by the State Plant Board:
1. Infected apiaries shall be placed under quarantine and otherwise handled
in accordance with the provisions of Rule 41 F of the Board.
2. All surplus honey in the diseased colonies shall be removed and other-
wise handled in accordance with the provisions of Rule 41 E, Par. 1.
3. All combs showing undue amounts of diseased brood shall be destroyed
by burning.
4. Bees in infected apiaries shall have available before them at all times
while this quarantine is in effect a solution made up of gram of sulfa-
thiazole, three pounds of sugar, and sufficient water to make one gallon
of syrup. This solution shall be fed to the bees in manner and form
generally accepted by the apiary profession for the feeding of the bees
and approved by the Board's Apiary Inspector.
5. Treatment of affected apiaries shall be under the supervision of an
inspector of the Board for such period as the apiary may be under
quarantine.
6. It is understood that if at any time following a period of sixty (60)
days after this date, the diseased conditions in the treated colonies
have not been brought under control to a degree believed necessary by
the Apiary Inspector, the colonies shall be destroyed by burning.
7. All costs for materials used in the treatment shall be borne by the
owner of the quarantined apiary.

Owner or Operator of Apiary

Inspector, State Plant Board






Seventeenth Biennial Report


The use of sulfathiazole for the control of American foul-
brood continues to be a highly controversial subject. Some au-
thorities approve its use, while others are opposed to it. The
Plant Commissioner and Apiary Inspector, before approving
the use of sulfathiazole, gave careful study to the experiments
performed by Dr. Leonard Haseman, Chairman of the Depart-
ment of Entomology, University of Missouri. In addition, in-
vestigations were conducted by the Apiary Inspector in a small
experimental apiary located in Gainesville. As a result of these
studies, the opinion was formed that (1) through the use of
sulfathiazole a colony infected with American foulbrood may
be transformed from a sickly, nonproductive unit, doomed to
destruction by burning, to a vigorous and apparently healthy
one capable of making a profit for its owner; (2) that through
the judicious use of sulfathiazole the resistance of a colony to
American foulbrood infection is apparently increased; and (3)
carelessness in the use of sulfathiazole on the part of the bee-
keeper may result in the drug's being stored in marketed honey.
This latter possibility was a matter of concern to the Plant
Commissioner and Apiary Inspector. It was known that sam-
ples of honey from hives treated with sulfathiazole by Dr. Hase-
man were submitted to representatives of the federal Food,
Drug, and Cosmetic Administration, who, in tests set up to
detect a minimum of 10 parts per 1,000,000, were unable to find
any trace of sulfathiazole. It was realized, however, that care-
lessness on the part of beekeepers might result in sulfathiazole's
being found in measurable amounts in commercial packs by
representatives of the Administration, who would be required
to take appropriate action that might be harmful to the apiary
industry. The conclusion was reached that it would be the bet-
ter policy for the Board to approve the use of sulfathiazole under
supervision than to attempt to prohibit its use. Beekeepers
who know that they can use sulfathiazole and discuss its use
freely and intelligently with their apiary inspection officials are
likely to follow very closely their recommendations, to the end
that the chances of sulfathiazole's being carried over to stored
honey would be reduced to the minimum. On the other hand,
beekeepers who are denied the privilege of using sulfathiazole
by their apiary inspectors are likely to use it surreptitiously and
improperly. In this connection, one state official who opposed
the use of sulfathiazole has stated that beekeepers who found
trouble in buying it locally have bootlegged sulfathiazole from







State Plant Board of Florida


other areas. If there is abuse of the use of sulfathiazole for the
control of American foulbrood, it is likely to be found in states
where beekeepers are denied the privilege of using it, and not
where beekeepers and apiary inspectors use it in close and cor-
dial cooperation.
There are presented below several tabulations depicting the
volume of work performed by the Apiary Inspection Depart-
ment during the biennium:

INSPECTION RECORDS 1946-47 AND 1947-48

1946-47 1947-48

Number colonies inspected ...................................... 87,674 98,147
Number apiaries inspected ........................................ 2,464 3,266
Number counties in which inspections were made 47 58
Number apiaries infected with American
foulbrood .................................. .....................-- 104 100
Number colonies found infected with American
foulbrood ............................. ........---- ... ........ 683 391
Percentage infected colonies of total colonies
inspected ......................................... .0078% .004%
Number infected colonies burned ..................... 263 182
Number infected colonies treated with
sulfathiazole .................... ......... ................. 420 226*

Seventeen colonies were destroyed after they failed to respond to treatment.

As indicated elsewhere in this report, Mr. R. E. Foster served
as Apiary Inspector for the Board from July 1, 1926 to the time
of his retirement in March 1948. Throughout his period of
service Mr. Foster commanded the respect and affection of bee-
keepers in Florida and elsewhere in the United States. During
his period of active duty he served several terms as President
of the Apiary Inspectors of America and one term as President
of the Southern States Beekeeping Federation. He was a mem-
ber of the Board of Directors of the American Honey Institute
for some eleven years, and is a life member of the Florida State
Beekeepers Association. He contributed many articles on bee-
keeping problems for the bee magazines. Mr. Foster's retire-
ment was a distinct loss to the apiary industry of the state.
Mr. H. S. Foster (no relation) was appointed Acting Apiary
Inspector to succeed Mr. R. E. Foster. Mr. H. S. Foster served
as Assistant Apiary Inspector for a number of years and is
well known to members of the South's beekeeping industry.







Seventeenth Biennial Report


SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES OF APIARY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT 1920-1948

Apiaries I Colonies
Infected Infected
Year Ending Apiaries Colonies with with
Inspected Inspected American American
Foulbrood Foulbrood

June 30, 1920 ............ 394 16,121 30 104
June 30, 1921 ............ 753 18,078 16 33
June 30, 1922 ............ 837 22,522 14 34
June 30, 1923 ............ 1,016 23,848 18 30
June 30, 1924 ........... 803 22,806 8 13
June 30, 1925 ............ 675 21,378 7 58
June 30, 1926 ............ 676 16,756 5 22
June 30, 1927 ............ 796 23,791 6 34
June 30, 1928 ............ 1,248 20,115 18 74
June 30, 1929 ............ 1,297 32,442 21 85
June 30, 1930 ............ 2,273 44,645 53 182
June 30, 1931 ............ 2,374 45,238 37 114
June 30, 1932 ............ 2,744 44,211 42 74
June 30, 1933 ............ 2,219 42,307 38 76
June 30, 1934 ............ 2,305 43,877 71 132
June 30, 1935 ............ 2,445 49,379 78 167
June 30, 1936 ........... 3,344 73,415 69 131
June 30, 1937 ............ 3,544 72,795 32 98
June 30, 1938 ............ 3,451 64,668 38 173
June 30, 1939 ............ 3,371 70,655 56 416
June 30, 1940 ............ 3,414 76,851 61 234
June 30, 1941 ............ 3,711 81,950 80 371
June 30, 1942 ............ 3,671 83,354 106 698
June 30, 1943 ............ 3,347 80,823 100 524
June 30, 1944 ............ 2,646 73,649 106 456
June 30, 1945 ............ 2,371 69,262 105 379
June 30, 1946 ............ 2,265 71.161 138 959
June 30, 1947 ............ 2,464 87,674 104 683
June 30, 1948 ............ 3,266 98,147 100 391






State Plant Board of Florida


REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY
G. B. Merrill, Entomologist

The principal activities of this department consist of making
identifications of insects collected by employees of the several
departments that comprise the Board. Florida is perhaps more
exposed than most states to entry of alien insects and diseases
by reason of the annual arrival of thousands of air- and water-
craft from all over the world, together with their cargoes of
plants and plant products, fruits, vegetables, and flowers. The
risk is augmented by the likelihood that live insects may have
strayed into cabins, holds, or other places of concealment.
A majority of the identifications of the insects is made by
the entomologists of this department. A few insects for which
descriptions are inadequate, or for which verification of our
determination is desirable, are referred to specialists of the
United States Department of Agriculture in Washington or to
specialists elsewhere in this country or abroad.
Collections of plant or insect diseases are referred to the
Department of Pathology, Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station, for determination and recommendation.
During the interim for which this report is made there have
been several species of scale-insects found that have not, as yet,
been described. None of these seems to be of economic import-
ance at the present time.
A number of important books have been added to the library
which will greatly facilitate the determination of some of the
specimens that come to hand. As has been intimated in previous
years, the Board's entomological library is one of the best in
the South.
The Board's collection of insects was considerably enlarged
during the biennium through the receipt of some six thousand
Florida insects representing many orders that made up the
collection of Dr. Henry T. Fernald, of Winter Park, Florida.
Dr. Fernald was Professor of Entomology at Massachusetts
Agricultural College from 1899 until his retirement in 1930.
He has been a resident of Florida for many years, and has
devoted a considerable portion of his time to the collection of
insects in and around Orange County, Florida. In April 1948,
Dr. Fernald generously donated this valuable collection to the
Board's Entomological Department.







Seventeenth Biennial Report


The insects are mounted in forty-one standard size Schmitt
Boxes and a cabinet which belonged to Dr. Fernald's father,
Charles H. Fernald, Professor of Entomology at the Massa-
chusetts Agricultural College from 1886 to 1910. This cabinet
contains nineteen large glass-covered trays. About half of the
insects in the collection have been determined by specialists in
their respective groups. The Plant Board is very fortunate in
receiving this valuable collection.
During the fiscal year 1946-1947, 2286 collections of plant
material were received from which 3352 identifications of in-
sects and diseases were made.
The record of collections and identifications by departments
for the first year of the biennium is as follows:


No.
Department Collections
Quarantine Inspection ............................ 1,047
Nursery Inspection .......................... 516
Grove Inspection ....... ................................ 583
Entomological ......... ............ 18
O others ....................................................... 122
T otal .................................. .................... 2,286


No.
Identifications
1,620
778
778
31
145
3,352


During the fiscal year 1947-1948, 2171 collections of plant
material were received from which 3342 identifications were
made.
The record of collections and identifications by departments
for the second year of the biennium is as follows:


No.
Department Collections
Quarantine Inspection ............................. 393
Nursery Inspection ................................ 586
Grove Inspection ................................ 1,102
Entomological ............. ..... ........ 18
O others ................. ................. .............. 72
T otal ................................ ........... .. 2,171


No.
Identifications
593
927
1,683
27
112
3,342


This department has on file over three hundred thousand cards
relative to insects, diseases, and pests. These are filed according
to insects, etc., host, and consecutive number. The original
report from which these cards are made is filed according to town
or city, state or foreign country from which the collection was
made. This makes for easy access to certain specific data if
and when needed.
The personnel of the department consists of the Entomologist
and the Assistant Entomologist, Mr. George W. Dekle.






44 State Plant Board of Florida

During the interim July 1, 1946 June 30, 1947, Mr. Dekle,
as Assistant Grove Inspector, was assigned to this department
for work. On July 1, 1947, he was appointed as Assistant En-
tomologist and continued as such for the remainder of the bi-
ennium. Occasionally he is sent to assist in one or another of
the departments of the Plant Board.




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