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Group Title: Report for the period ... of the State Plant Board of Florida
Title: Report for the period ...
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098574/00013
 Material Information
Title: Report for the period ...
Alternate Title: Biennial report
Physical Description: 19 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: State Plant Board of Florida
Publisher: State Plant Board of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1944/46
Frequency: biennial
regular
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Subject: Plants, Protection of -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: State Plant Board of Florida.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 4th (1920/22)- 23rd (1958/60).
Numbering Peculiarities: Vols. for 1950/52-1958/60 also called: Bulletin.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098574
Volume ID: VID00013
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10989019
lccn - sn 86033752
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the biennial period ending ... and supplemental reports to ...
Succeeded by: Biennial report

Table of Contents
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    Report of the state plant board
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    Report of the plant commissioner
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Full Text





STATE PLANT BOARD

OF FLORIDA







REPORT FOR THE PERIOD

JULY 1, 1944-JUNE 30, 1946


(Sixteenth Biennial Report)


NOVEMBER, 1946

















STATE PLANT BOARD


J. THOMAS GURNEY, Chairman, Orlando
N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
THOSE. W. BRYANT, Lakeland
M. LUTHER MERSHON, Miami
J. HENSON MARKHAM, Jacksonville
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee



STAFF

ARTHUR C. BROWN, Plant Commissioner
J. C. GOODWIN, Nursery Inspector
GEO. B. MERRILL, Entomologist
R. E. FOSTER, Apiary Inspector
H. S. MCCLANAHAN, Grove Inspector
WM. H. MERRILL, Quarantine Inspector
J. W. BLANDING, Supervising Auditor
L. R. HUNTER, Chief Clerk






Sixteenth Biennial Report


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
November 15, 1946
To His Excellency
Millard F. Caldwell
Governor of Florida

SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the State Plant
Board of Florida for the biennium ending June 30, 1946. Please
submit same to the Legislature.
Respectfully,
STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA
By: J. THOMAS GURNEY
Chairman

REPORT OF THE STATE PLANT BOARD
1944-45 and 1945-46

The State Plant Board presents for the information of Your
Excellency and the members of the Legislature an account of
its activities during the biennium ending June 30, 1946.
The Plant Board consists of the same individuals who compose
the Board of Control, in charge of the institutions of higher
learning. This tends to economy of administration and provides
a close and mutually advantageous relation between the regu-
latory force and the research and investigational organizations.
Board members receive no compensation.
The Board is charged with the responsibility of protection of
Florida's agricultural and horticultural interests from the intro-
duction, establishment, and dispersion of plant pests, and pro-
tection of the apiary industry from losses through bee diseases.
Protection from introduction of plant pests is afforded through
the activities of the Quarantine Inspection Department. Do-
mestic plant quarantines seeking to prevent the entry of plant
pests from other states are promulgated by the Board. Depend-
ence for prevention of entry of foreign plant pests is placed, in
large measure, upon federal plant quarantines. All quarantines
are enforced by employees of the Board. These individuals, sta-
tioned at Pensacola, Jacksonville, West Palm Beach, Port Ever-
glades, Miami, Key West, and Tampa, hold appointments as
Collaborators of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quaran-
tine, United States Department of Agriculture, and as such are






State Plant Board of Florida


authorized to enforce federal plant quarantines. Detection of such
pests as may slip past the quarantine inspectors is the task of
the inspectors of the Nursery and Grove Inspection Departments.
Nursery inspectors make periodical inspections of all commer-
cial nurseries. Discovery of any new pest or of the more com-
mon ones in large numbers is followed by a quarantine prohibit-
ing the movement of plants from the nursery until the condition
responsible for the quarantine has been corrected. It is the
duty of the grove inspectors to examine every citrus tree-culti-
vated, wild, or abandoned. Protection of the apiary industry
from serious losses through ravages of the destructive bac-
terial disease known as American foulbrood is afforded through
the activities of the Apiary Inspection Department. Infected
colonies are destroyed or treated, and the entire apiary is placed
under quarantine until such time as the Board believes that the
disease has been brought under control.
The Board believes that the funds placed at its disposal have
been effectively and economically disbursed. It also believes
that in the performance of its other duties-promulgation of
rules and regulations, decisions as to matters of policy, and
direction of the activities of the Plant Commissioner and his
assistants-it has well served the interests of the State. But
it believes it would be remiss in its duty if it failed to direct
the attention of Your Excellency, the members of the Legisla-
ture, and the citizens of Florida to what it regards as a most
serious menace to the well-being of the farms, groves, and
forests not only of Florida but of the entire nation.
Reference is made to the foreign plant quarantine policy of
the federal government. Authority for the promulgation of
foreign plant quarantines and responsibility for their enforce-
ment are vested in the Secretary of Agriculture under the pro-
visions of the National Plant Act of 1912, a somewhat antiquated
and ineffective piece of legislation. The Act provides, among
other things, that (1) a permit for the entry of foreign plants
and plant products must be issued by the Secretary under such
conditions as he may prescribe; (2) each shipment must be
accompanied by a certificate issued by the proper official of the
country from which the importation is made, to the effect that
the plants have been inspected and are believed to be free of
pests; and (3) the containers must be marked in a specified
manner. The authority delegated by these sections of the Act
for prescribing control over the entry of plants is confined to






Sixteenth Biennial Report


entry conditions, and does not authorize any control over im-
portations after they have entered the United States. Authority
under which the Secretary may require that importations shall
be free of pests is only implied. It is within his province to
cause inspection to be made to determine compliance with this
requirement. When conditions prescribed by the Act have
been met, it is mandatory for the Secretary to issue a permit
for any particular importation of nursery stock. The Secretary
may also prescribe conditions to govern the entry of nursery
stock from countries not maintaining official systems of inspec-
tion. Furthermore, the Secretary may, and does, prohibit entry
of certain plants and plant products likely to serve as carriers
of specific pests, such as fruit flies, citrus canker, and others.
Acting on the theory that in reducing the volume of importa-
tions of foreign plants the danger of importation of pests is
thereby correspondingly reduced, the Department made pro-
vision in foreign plant quarantine No. 37, promulgated in 1919,
to limit the issuance of permits to import to certain qualified
individuals or firms and only for amounts actually needed for
propagation purposes. Equable enforcement of this require-
ment was difficult, but on the whole the volume of imports be-
tween 1919 and 1941 was curtailed to some extent. In 1940
the Solicitor of the Department of Agriculture advised that in
his opinion the Secretary was without authority to establish
limits reducing the number of plants which may be imported,
under permit, in any given fiscal year by one permitted. In
1942 the last remaining requirements applicable after entry of
nursery stock were discontinued, and quantity limits were in-
creased by twenty-five percent. In 1943 all limitations were
suspended. Today the situation with respect to plant importa-
tions is similar to that which existed prior to 1919, in so far as
volume of imports is concerned-permits are issued for the im-
portation of foreign nursery stock in unlimited quantities. Upon
arrival in the United States, the plants are examined by federal
inspectors. The value of such examination is debatable. In-
dividual shipments may consist of many thousands of plants,
and in the opinion of well informed state quarantine officials
the Department has neither funds, personnel, nor facilities to
make proper examinations of all of the imports. Furthermore,
there are certain diseases of plants, of which virus diseases are
examples, which cannot be detected by inspection of dormant
plants. There are certain stages in the development of some






State Plant Board of Florida


insects that are not likely to be noticed by visual examination.
The danger of entry of alien plant pests and the risk incurred
in dependence upon certification as to freedom from insects and
diseases by foreign inspectors has been well stated by officials of
the Department of Agriculture. There are quoted herewith two
such statements made by a former Secretary of Agriculture and
a former Chief of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quaran-
tine, the federal agency responsible for foreign plant quarantine
enforcement:
1. "A practical test over a seven-year period of the possi-
bility of safeguarding plant imports by inspection and disinfec-
tion plainly indicated the inadequacy of this method and the
conclusion is forced that the only possible means of effectively
lessening the introduction of new plant enemies is the policy
of exclusion of all plants not absolutely essential to the agricul-
ture and forestry needs of the United States."
2. "Imported nursery stock and other plants and seeds have
been the source of the introduction of some ninety per cent of
the insect pests and plant diseases which have come to us from
other countries, and which now occasion losses to our agriculture
and forestry of approximately one billion dollars annually."
These statements were made in 1926. The annual loss was
estimated a few years ago as being one and one-half billion
dollars.
It is not possible to determine the approximate time that any
alien plant pest reached this country. But it is a matter of
record that the presence in the United States of a number of
introduced major plant pests was not observed until periods up
to twenty or twenty-five years subsequent to enactment of the
Act of 1912. Japanese beetle, European corn borer, Mediter-
ranean fruit fly, Dutch elm disease, pink bollworm, white-
fringed beetle, and others are included in this list.
Thus, with full knowledge of the pest risks involved, the
Secretary of Agriculture must, under the provisions of the
National Plant Quarantine Act, continue to issue permits to
import from foreign countries.
Attention should also be directed to the fact that after plants
entered under permit have been released following the examina-
tion given by federal inspectors, they may proceed to destination,
and state quarantine officials are without authority to interfere
until after the plants have been delivered to the consignee. By






Sixteenth Biennial Report


this time it might be too late to prevent establishment of some
major pest.
There was held at Washington in February 1946 a conference
attended by state and federal quarantine officials and repre-
sentatives of the nation's nursery industry, called for the pur-
pose of discussing remedial measures. It was the consensus of
opinion of those present that while need for revision of the Act
of 1912 was clearly indicated, it was doubtful if this could be
accomplished early enough to afford relief during 1947. It was
deemed the better plan, therefore, to work for the early adop-
tion of a brief amendment to the Act which would enable the
Secretary to limit imports of foreign nursery stock to quantities
actually required for propagation purposes, and to provide for
post-entry quarantine until sufficient time had elapsed to enable
the Department to determine freedom of imported plants from
pests not discernible at time of entry examination. An amend-
ment embodying these features was introduced in the Senate
by Senator Elmer Thomas of Oklahoma on March 27, 1946.
This amendment had the support and approval of the Secretary
of Agriculture, the nation's Commissioners, Directors, and Secre-
taries of Agriculture, the plant quarantine inspectors of the
United States, the American Association of Nurserymen and
many state nurserymen's associations, growers and growers'
organizations. Members of Congress from all parts of the coun-
try had signified their intent to vote favorably for the adoption
of the amendment. Your Excellency will recall that last April
you directed the attention of the members of Florida's own Con-
gressional delegation to the need for prompt enactment of this
piece of legislation.
As Your Excellency is aware, established procedure requires
that when a report on legislation is sought by one of the depart-
ments of the executive branch of the government, it be con-
sidered and approved by such other branches as may be involved.
The Board is informed that as the result of objections to certain
features of S. 1990 on the part of representatives of the Depart-
ments of State and Commerce it was necessary to call a con-
ference to revise the bill. By the time this was accomplished
and the approval of all agencies obtained, Congress had ad-
journed. Thus, Congress was denied the opportunity to act
upon the bill, and the country remains wide open to a flood of
foreign nursery stock, together with such plant pests as may
be present.






State Plant Board of Florida


As previously stated, enactment of this amendment would
afford only partial relief. Revision of the Act itself is necessary
if the nation's agricultural, horticultural, and forest investments
are to receive proper protection from losses brought about by
the entry of additional foreign pests. Common sense demands
that the enormous investment in fruit, vegetable, farm, and
timber production in the United States, an investment unequaled
by any other country, be safeguarded from further loss, even
destruction, brought about by introduced alien pests. The vast
stands of native chestnuts growing in the eastern states were
wiped out by the ravages of the imported chestnut blight; the
nation's citrus industry was menaced by the imported citrus
canker disease; control of the imported white pine blister rust,
a destructive disease of white pines, has cost state and federal
governments the sum of $43,000,000 since 1916; the magnificent
elm trees growing in the northern states are dying rapidly as
the result of attacks by the imported Dutch elm disease. Sev-
eral pages could be filled with similar illustrations of the great
losses to plants in this country as the result of depredations
of imported plant pests.
Unfortunately for the advocates of the adoption of a strong
foreign plant quarantine policy, recommendations for Congres-
sional action of this nature come at an inopportune time. In
the Bretton Woods and other conferences with world-wide rep-
resentation, there was stressed the need for fair exchange of
products between nations, so that those which have surpluses
can export them to others less fortunate. As provided for in
Public Law 171, 79th Congress, the United States is now com-
mitted to the policy of eliminating international trade barriers
in so far as this can be done. Federal officials charged with
this responsibility will no doubt scrutinize closely both existing
and proposed plant quarantine regulations. Many people do
not, as a rule, distinguish clearly between sound and unsound
quarantines, with the result that quarantines in general are
more or less under suspicion. Even were the effects of the
spread of destructive plant pests fully understood, there may
be a hesitancy in approving regulations that would require a
sacrifice on the part of some classes or groups for the benefit
of others. Your Board believes, however, that the classes and
groups in the United States who will be benefited through enact-
ment of legislation or promulgation of regulations seeking to
close more effectively the doors to the entry of alien plant pests





Sixteenth Biennial Report


are sufficiently large to warrant the adoption of a more vigorous
foreign plant quarantine policy.
It is interesting to note, in connection with the policy declared
under Public Law 171, that several months ago the Chief of the
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine advised the Plant
Commissioner that the Secretary of Agriculture had been re-
quested to explore the possibilities of heat treatment of Bra-
zilian oranges, so as to kill such immature stages of fruit flies
as may be present, as one of the conditions of entry of the fruit
into the United States. (Mediterranean fruit fly and a very
destructive species of Anastrepha, fraterculus, are responsible
for considerable injury to citrus fruits in Brazil, and entry of
these fruits has for a number of years been prohibited.) It is
the Board's information that this request originated in the
office of the Secretary of State. This incident is of particular
significance when it is recalled that only recently the Secretary
of Agriculture modified the Department's embargo on Mexican
oranges and mangoes, promulgated for the purpose of prevent-
ing entry into the United States of the Mexican orange maggot,
so as to authorize entry of such fruits after they had been
treated by heat in a manner calculated to kill immature stages
of this fruit fly.
Your Board is opposed to the entry of all hosts of fruit flies,
treated or untreated, from countries where these insects are
known to cause serious crop losses. It is admitted that the heat
treatment properly applied will reduce to the minimum the risk
of entry of live fruit fly larvae. By reason of the nature of the
heat treatment, the line of balance between 100% mortality of
such larvae as may be present and serious injury to the fruit
is a fine one. This fact may influence the owners of the fruits
or the operators of the treating plants to the extent that the
temperatures and periods of exposure may not be sufficient to
kill the larvae. That Department of Agriculture officials ar-
in accord with the Board in this contention that complete de-
pendence upon freedom of imported plants and plant products
from insects and diseases should not be placed on foreign certi-
fication is indicated by the following quotation from a statement
made by a responsible Department official:
". .are not convinced of the wisdom of placing a country's
vital interests so unreservedly in the hands of foreign officials,
who, even if motivated by an unquestioned good will, can have
no compelling interest in or real responsibility for another





State Plant Board of Florida


nation's welfare . and they express profound misgivings,
based on years of actual experience, concerning the standards
of performance to be expected, claiming that few countries could
be relied on to provide the accurate and reliable certification
which disease-exclusion objectives would undoubtedly demand."
Thus in spite of the facts that responsible officials of the
Department realize, and have so stated, that (1) ninety per cent
of the foreign plant pests responsible for annual losses of one
and one-half billion dollars have come in on imported nursery
stock; and (2) dependence cannot be placed upon either foreign
inspection or inspection at port of arrival as a means of exclud-
ing foreign plant pests, the Secretary of Agriculture must con-
tinue to permit entry of this dangerous material.
The citizens of the United States are called upon to give
generously and continuously of their wealth and commodities
for the benefit of people throughout the world. It is not too much
to ask in return that provision be made to prevent entry from
these same countries of alien plant pests whose establishment
would further increase the staggering amount of one and one-half
billion dollars now paid in tribute to invaders from alien shores.
Florida, by reason of its geographical location, is situated at
the cross-roads of international air traffic with tropical countries
and is particularly exposed to invasion by alien plant pests.
This is indicated by the fact that during the past fiscal year
the Board's inspectors boarded 22,705 air- and 5,205 watercraft
from 85 foreign countries. Thousands of packages of plants and
plant products carried as cargo, ship's stores, and in hand
baggage were examined. Many lots of contraband material,
together with approved commodities, found upon inspection to
be affected with dangerous plant pests, were confiscated and
destroyed. Illustrative of the grave risk to the state's horti-
cultural and agricultural investments presented by imported
plants and plant products is the fact that in one twenty-
day period twenty-eight separate interceptions were made of
fruits infested with fruit flies. Most of these infested fruits
were found in parcels carried by passengers.
Difficulties encountered in enforcement of foreign plant quar-
antines, together with costs of operation, are increasing annually,
by reason of the continuous increase in the flow of humanity and
commodities through our ports of entry from foreign countries.
Fortunately such entries are concentrated through designated
ports of entry under supervision of the United States Customs.





Sixteenth Biennial Report


(The Board desires at this time to express its appreciation and
thanks for the assistance and cooperation that has been forth-
coming from the Collector and Assistant Collector of Customs
in the Florida District since the beginning of the quarantine
activities-assistance and cooperation that has been a matter
for favorable comment and envy on the part of federal and out-
of-state quarantine officials.) On the other hand, supervision
of entry of plants and plant materials from other states has
become most difficult-almost impossible-on account of the
impracticability of regulating entry of the many motor trucks
transporting host materials which cross the state line at all
hours of the day and night. This situation is further aggravated
by the movement of plants and plant products by aircraft.
Your Board regards with great concern the presence and
rapid dissemination throughout several South American coun-
tries of the condition locally known as "tristeza" which is re-
sponsible for the death of hundreds of thousands of orange trees
budded on sour orange roots. Introduction of this condition
into Florida where approximately 40% of the orange trees are
budded on sour stock, into Texas where practically all oranges
are growing on sour roots, and into California, would be dis-
astrous. The Board, encouraged by the interest manifested by
Your Excellency and the Honorable Nathan Mayo, Commissioner
of Agriculure, as well as other leaders in the state, and upon
assurance by the Honorable J. Tom Watson, Attorney General,
that it has authority to carry on investigations in foreign coun-
tries, will institute research investigations in Argentina or
Brazil for the purpose of developing information as to the cause
and manner of dissemination of tristeza, together with control
measures. Thanks to the foresight of the framers of the Florida
Plant Act in providing that members of the State Plant Board
should be ex-officio members of the Board of Control, arrange-
ments were made without difficulty or delay to assign Dr. A. F.
Camp, Vice Director in Charge, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake
Alfred, Florida, an international authority on citrus culture and
pests, to direct the investigations. Dr. Camp has made two
surveys of the affected areas in South America, and has the
confidence and respect of officials and citizens in Argentina and
Brazil. Costs for the first year's operations, estimated at $60,000,
will be met from a fund made up of $20,000 from the Board's
Emergency Appropriation; $20,000 from the General Inspection
Fund of the State Department of Agriculture; and $20,000 raised





State Plant Board of Florida


by popular subscription among citrus growers in Texas. The
work will be under the supervision of a committee composed of
Dr. A. F. Camp, Mr. T. M. Melden, a banker and citrus grower
of Mission, Texas, and the Plant Commissioner. Mr. F. M.
O'Byrne, President of the Florida State Horticultural Society;
Mr. W. W. Giddings, Chairman of the Florida Citrus Growers
Research Liaison Committee, and Mr. Geo. E. Copeland, Super-
vising Inspector, representing the State Department of Agricul-
ture, will serve as an Advisory Committee. Donations made by
interested citrus growers in Florida will provide a revolving fund
of $15,000 which will be of great assistance in making purchases
and paying labor in South America.
A report of the amounts made available and expended during
the biennium, together with estimates as to the amounts believed
to be necessary for the Board's activities during each of the two
years of the biennium beginning July 1, 1947, will be found in
the report of the Plant Commissioner, which is made a part of
this report. The unexpended balances on hand at the end of
each fiscal year represent in large measure savings in expendi-
tures for salaries and expenses as a result of inability to find
qualified men to fill vacancies brought about by loss of personnel
to the armed services.
The estimates for 1947-49 are in excess of the amounts avail-
able for the current biennium. Provision is made in these esti-
mates for salary increases and additional personnel. No salary
increases have been made since July 1, 1944, and the remuner-
ation now offered by the Board is not sufficient to interest quali-
fied men or to retain the services of experienced employees.
Freedom of the state's vast citrus and other plantings from
destructive pests is in large measure the responsibility of the
Board's inspectors. These individuals should be possessed of a
college training in entomology, pathology, and horticulture, or
an equivalent in practical experience in horticulture and pest
control.
Frequent inspection of citrus plantings is necessary in order
to detect at the earliest possible moment the presence of newly
introduced plant pests. During the war years when opportunities
for the entry of alien plant pests on Army aircraft were legion,
and at a time when inspectional activities should have been
intensified, the efficiency of the Grove Inspection Department was
the lowest in the history of the Plant Board. This condition was
brought about by the loss of personnel to the armed services and








Sixteenth Biennial Report 13

inability to find qualified individuals to fill the vacancies thus
created at the salaries offered by the Board. Instead of the force
of thirty-one inspectors provided for in the budget, the average
monthly number employed was about twenty. The citrus plant-
ings of the state should be inspected at least once every two
years. To accomplish this and take care of other activities, there
should be available a force of 40 inspectors, or nine more than
provided for by the 1945 Legislature. The salaries and expenses
for nine additional employees account for a considerable portion
of the increase in the estimates over current appropriations.
The Board is very appreciative of the support given by state
officials, growers, and growers' organizations. Leaders in the
horticultural industry have been consulted with regard to the
Board's problems and their advice has been sought. The Board
is especially grateful for advice and assistance rendered by the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and the Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United States Department
of Agriculture.








State Plant Board of Florida


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

Gainesville, Florida
November 1, 1946

Honorable J. Thomas Gurney, Chairman
State Plant Board of Florida
SIR: I have the honor to present herewith my report as Plant
Commissioner for the biennium ending June 30, 1946.

Respectfully,
ARTHUR C. BROWN
Plant Commissioner

REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER
For Biennium Ending June 30, 1946
The armed conflict between men came to an end, or at least
to a truce, during the biennium ending June 30, 1946. But the
age-old conflict between man on one hand and insects and diseases
affecting man, animals, and plants on the other, continues with-
out interruption. The great advances made in the suppression of
these pests through the development of new control materials
and methods of application have been offset to a considerable
degree by the almost unlimited opportunities for rapid spread
of pests from state to state and from country to country pre-
sented by the world-wide air transportation agencies. Natural
barriers such as deserts, oceans, and mountain ranges which in
the past have prevented, or retarded, spread of insects and dis-
eases have been leveled by the airplane.
Florida, by reason of its geographical location, presents a bulge
in the line of defense against invasion by alien plant pests. The
state is surrounded on three sides by tropical countries which
are the homes-native or adopted-of many destructive tropical
and subtropical pests seeking new fields to conquer. Any doubt
that these pests are constantly seeking to invade our state may
be dispelled by a study of the record of interception of infested
and infected plants and plant materials made by the Board's
quarantine inspectors stationed at the principal ports of entry.
A total of 1,794 specimens of insects and diseases were inter-
cepted during 1945-46 from 58 foreign countries. In one twenty-
day period these inspectors stopped entry of fruit flies on twenty-








Sixteenth Biennial Report


eight occasions. The entry of many other pests of economic
importance was also prevented. These invaders use the modern
means of attack-the airplane. Unfortunately, while the oppor-
tunities for invasion by foreign plant pests are increased through
the opening of new airports for entry of foreign planes, the
strength of the defense is dissipated through the need for
spreading its inspectors so as to cover these new danger points.
Beginning with the advent of the destructive pest of wheat,
Hessian fly, believed to have been brought into the United States
on straw used as bedding by Hessian soldiers during the Revolu-
tionary War, the costs to our agricultural, horticultural, forest,
and allied interests by reason of the presence of imported plant
pests have increased to the point where they are now estimated
at one and one-half billion dollars annually.
Common sense demands that the foreign plant quarantine
policy of the United States be changed so as to close the many
avenues now open for entry of alien plant pests. It is doubtful
if even the most ardent advocate of foreign plant quarantines
believes that complete exclusion is possible; the best that may
be expected is that the entry of the most destructive ones will
be delayed for many years. The longer the period during which
the entry of specific pests is prevented, the longer growers will
be spared from crop losses and expenditures for control brought
about by their presence.
Briefly, the foreign plant quarantine situation today is some-
what as follows: The Secretary of Agriculture is required to
issue, upon request, a permit to import five or five hundred
thousand plants, with the exception of a few prohibited items,
from foreign countries which maintain official systems of in-
spection. His authority to exercise any control of these plants
after their arrival in the United States is limited. Upon arrival
at a port of entry the plants are examined by a federal inspector.
In the case of large shipments, the personnel is inadequate to
give more than a "sample" inspection. As it is contemplated
by Department officials that such reinspections as might be
necessary to determine the pest condition of the shipment shall
be made by the inspector of the state to which the shipment is
destined, this official is notified as to the nature of the shipment
and its destination in order that he may arrange for the re-
examination. Little consideration is given to the probability
that the state official is without funds, personnel, or facilities








State Plant Board of Florida


to properly inspect and, if necessary, treat large quantities of
plants; or to the fact that he is without authority to require
that the plants be grown under quarantine for a period of time
to ascertain that they are not affected with some pest whose
presence cannot be detected at time of entry by even the most
careful visual inspection.
The situation is further aggravated by reason of certain de-
fects in the Department's foreign nursery stock quarantine,
No. 37, promulgated under the provisions of the Act of 1912.
Plant products, many of them capable of propagation, may
enter without permit or other compliance with the regulations,
when they are intended for food, medicinal, or manufacturing
purposes. Dutch elm disease, which is slowly but surely de-
stroying the nation's elm trees, was introduced by means of elm
logs from Holland imported for manufacturing purposes. Euro-
pean corn borer entered the United States on shipments of
imported broom corn. There are no specific quarantines against
entry of cut flowers, in spite of the fact that records of the
Department show that they are frequently affected with plant
pests. Practically all field, flower, and vegetable seeds may
enter without restraint. That foreign plant pests may be
brought in on such commodities is evidenced by the discovery
in the United States of two destructive pests of vetch and sweet
pea, not by examination when the seeds were entered, but after
they had entered into domestic commerce.
The Secretary of Agriculture and his associates are fully
informed as to the defects in the nation's plant quarantine
structure, and over a period of years they have stressed many
of the faults mentioned in these reports. They cannot of them-
selves take full corrective action. This can be accomplished
only with the hearty cooperation of Congress, ranking officials
of other federal departments, and, most important, the general
public. Congress has declared for free trade. Responsible of-
ficials appear to be reluctant to adopt a vigorous foreign plant
quarantine policy lest foreign governments regard such policy
as being measures in restraint of trade.
There can be no question but that the enforcement of an
effective foreign plant quarantine policy, even one based on
sound practical pest control reasons, would place a restraint on
the movement of foreign plants into this country. But public
officials who oppose such action on the ground that it would
interfere with the business of foreigners who are engaged in







Sixteenth Biennial Report


the production and shipment of plants into the United States
are not consistent. Immediately following the discovery in this
country of foreign pests introduced on imported commodities,
our federal officials frequently promulgate quarantines, even
embargoes, restraining citizens of this country who are un-
fortunate enough to reside on properties or in localities in af-
fected areas from moving host plants or plant products. This
action is taken for the sole purpose of preventing widespread
dissemination of the pest within our own borders. Again, every
state in the Union has in effect regulations seeking to prevent
nurserymen within its borders from moving plants from a
nursery that has been placed under quarantine because of the
presence therein of some plant pest, even though it may be a
common one well established throughout the state.
Thus the growers of the United States find themselves in an
unfortunate position. The federal government does not afford
adequate protection against the introduction of destructive for-
eign plant pests, and state regulatory officials are restricted in
their authority to act by reason of the limitations imposed on
their authority to interfere with interstate commerce. To date
state quarantine officials have been reluctant to take this matter
into court. But it does seem reasonable to believe that the
courts would go far to uphold a state law or regulation seeking
to exclude any article as dangerous to the property of its citizens
where there appears to be reasonable basis for a belief that the
conclusions as to its dangerous character are the result of in-
vestigation or study. If legislation of this nature were to be
invalidated by the courts, responsibility for such losses as may
follow the introduction of new alien plant pests must rest
squarely upon Congress and responsible officials of the govern-
ment of the United States, and not on the state organizations.

RESOURCES

During the biennium ending June 30, 1946, the Board had
available for current expenses $273,925.45 for the first year.
For the second year there was available $296,000, of which
$20,000 was withheld by the Budget Commission as Reserve,
and $12,000 was in the form of a Contingent Fund for quaran-
tine activities-to be used only if necessary, and with the consent
of the Budget Commission.








State Plant Board of Florida


July 1, 1944:
Salaries:
From General Revenue ..................................$154,720.00
From Continuing Appropriation .................... 35,000.00
Balance, 1943-44 ............................................... 25,712.42 $215,432.42

Necessary and Regular Expenses:
From General Revenue ....................................$ 52,628.00
Balance, 1943-44 .....--...............-................ 5,844.64 58,472.64
$273,905.06
June 30, 1945, unexpended balance to revert to the state treasury $43,107.75
July 1, 1945:
From General Revenue:
Salaries .................--- .. -- ...........--------... ... *$190,000.00
Expenses ......................................... ...... ..... .. 59,000.00 $249,000.00

From Continuing Appropriation .............................................. 35,000.00
**Contingent, for Quarantine ........................................................ 12,000.00
$296,000.00

**Emergency, for the biennium .......... .................................... 50,000.00
June 30, 1946, there remained an unexpended balance in the
amount of ....................-----------.. .... .....$56,578.09

Includes item of $20,000 set aside as Reserve.
** To be used only with the consent of the Budget Commission.


EXPENDITURES

Expenditures for 1944-45 and 1945-46 by departments are
indicated in Table A. Expenditures for specific purposes are
shown in Table B.


TABLE A


Department


1944-45


1945-46


Office of the Board ................................................ $ 2,939.75 $ 3,981.58
Plant Commissioner's Office .............................. 13,854.74 11,987.92
Nursery Inspection Department ...................... 40,207.95 42,210.30
Quarantine Inspection Department .................. 72,839.98 74,137.50
Grove Inspection Department .......................... 69,763.27 73,603.94
Apiary Inspection Department .......................... 18,187.78 21,055.59
Entomological Department ................................ 4,526.97 4,053.91
Sweet Potato Weevil Control ............................ 3,894.75 4,630.06
White-fringed Beetle Control ............................ 4,582.12 3,171.10
Mole Cricket Control ................................................... 590.00


Total ........................ ... ..................... $230,797.31 $239,421.91








Sixteenth Biennial Report


TABLE B


Item


1944-45


1945-46


Salaries ..........................-........-....... ............. $179,761.90 $184,339.48
Travel and subsistence expense ........................ 43,384.67 50,381.14
Labor ...................................................................... 574.75 100.50
Stationery and small printing ............................ 1,083.40 608.60
Postage ................................................................. 1,092.49 762.42
Bulletins and circulars ........................................ 641.70 195.00
Telephone and telegraph .................................... 704.11 642.35
Office and miscellaneous supplies ...............----... 2,485.04 1,037.76
Miscellaneous expenses ........................................ 837.52 1,054.02
Laboratory supplies .....................-................-..-.. ............ 60.52
Freight and express ...................---........... ...... 19.26 67.71
Library .................-........................................ 212.47 172.41


Total .....


$230,797.31


$239,421.91


STATE PLANT BOARD INCIDENTAL FUND


July 1, 1944-June 30, 1945
Balance brought forward July 1, 1944 ........................_
Receipts during the year:
For special inspection of nurseries ........$ 164.93
For nursery inspection tags, invoices .... 1,087.24
For reimbursement by potato growers
for automobile mileage incurred by
Plant Board inspectors in making pack-
ing-house inspection of Irish potatoes.. 40.50
For fumigating two cars of Irish po-
tatoes .......------.......------..... ..------ .... ---30.40
For miscellaneous receipts ..-..................... 1.00


Disbursements during the year:
For special inspection of nurseries ..........$
For printing certificate tags, invoices,
etc. ............................................. ..............
For postage for mailing tags, invoices....
For automobile mileage of Plant Board
inspectors in making packing-house in-
spection of Irish potatoes .................--
For mileage of Plant Board inspector in
fumigating two cars of Irish potatoes
For maintenance expenses, Plant Board
autom obile ............................... ..........
For miscellaneous expenses .......................
For check to J. Edwin Larson, State
Treasurer, Tallahassee ............................


-$11,210.48








1,324.07 $12,534.55


166.04

311.91
101.80


44.10

5.40

84.26
1.00

8,320.04 $ 9,034.55


BALANCE JUNE 30, 1945 ..................................-......................$ 3,500.00
Amount collectible: (Advanced to L. R. Hunter, Chief Clerk
for miscellaneous cash expenses) ..................... .................... .... 1,500.00
TOTAL RESOURCES, GAINESVILLE, JUNE 30, 1945 ................$ 5,000.00







State Plant Board of Florida


STATE PLANT BOARD INCIDENTAL FUND
July 1, 1945-June 30, 1946
Balance brought forward July 1, 1945 ..........................$ 8,320.04
Receipts during the year:
For special inspection of nurseries ........$ 252.74
For nursery inspection tags, invoices...... 1,249.29
For miscellaneous receipts ..................... 81.84 1,583.87 $ 9,903.91
Disbursements during the year:
For special inspection of nurseries ........$ 249.24
For printing certificate tags, invoices,
etc ..............- ........ - ....... 349.59
For postage for mailing tags, invoices.... 389.23
For maintenance expenses, Plant Board
automobile ..................................-..-- .... 155.20
For miscellaneous expenses ....................... 22.30
For traveling expenses, A. F. Camp ........ 456.96 $ 1,622.52
BALANCE JUNE 30, 1946 ............................. ..........$ 8,281.39
(Tallahassee)
Amount collectible: State Plant Board Revolving Fund,
Gainesville ................... ---- ----------....... ...................... $ 5,000.00
TOTAL RESOURCES, JUNE 30, 1946 .........................................$13,281.39

ESTIMATES

The Plant Commissioner presents herewith his estimates as
to the amounts believed necessary and desirable to finance the
activities of the State Plant Board during each year of the
biennium beginning July 1, 1947.
The Board cannot operate effectively and efficiently without a
large and well-trained field force. Applicants for employment
with the Board should have a B.S. degree from an agricultural
college, or at least several years' training in entomology, plant
pathology, and horticulture, or several years of practical train-
ing in the care and cultivation of citrus trees or nursery plants,
together with a wide knowledge of the appearance and habits
of the more common plant pests and their control. Assistant
apiary inspectors should be thoroughly familiar with apiary
manipulation and bee diseases. Above all, the Board's employees
must be possessed of qualifications that will enable them to go
onto a citizen's property and, when necessary, require com-
pliance with the Board's regulations without causing undue
irritation.
It is obvious that if the Board is to properly discharge its
responsibilities the salary rates must be increased to figures
that are more likely to interest qualified applicants. The grove
inspection force should be increased from thirty-one to forty
in order that this important activity may be conducted on a







Sixteenth Biennial Report


schedule providing for one complete coverage of our citrus
plantings every two years. Furthermore, provision should be
made for employment of additional personnel in other depart-
ments in order to take care of new demands. Provision is made
for tristeza investigations in South America in the sum of
$30,000. This item should be made available for salaries and
expenses, without specifying.

SUMMARY OF ESTIMATES PER ANNUM
For Biennium Beginning July 1, 1947
Salaries Expenses Total
Department Per Annum Per Annum Per Annum

Office of the Board .................... $ 3,240 $ 1,525 $ 4,765
Plant Commissioner's Office .... 11,340 6,390 17,730
Nursery Inspection ..............-- 35,160 14,485 49,645
Quarantine Inspection ................ 81,900 15,000 96.900
Grove Inspection .......................... 120,300 47,440 167,740
Entomology .................................. 7,800 1,200 9,000
Apiary Inspection ...................... 18,670 12,330 31,000
Sweet Potato Weevil Control .... 5,400 4,120 9,520
White-fringed Beetle Control.... 2,700 1,610 4,310

Total ....................................... $286,510 $104,100 $390,610
*Tristeza Investigations in
South America ..................... ... .... ............ $ 30,000
Grand Total ....................................... ......... ............ $420,610
Emergency Fund (for the biennium) not to be used except
with the consent of the Budget Commission ...................... $ 50,000

This item should be made available for salaries and expenses, without specifying.







State Plant. Board of Florida


REPORT OF THE NURSERY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
J. C. Goodwin, Nursery Inspector

The Nursery Inspection Department was one branch of the
Plant Board's organization that was not plagued by the man-
power situation, and it was able to operate on a high level of
efficiency during the biennium. This is fortunate, for the state's
nursery industry not only operated at full force during this
period but enjoyed some expansion. The Nursery Inspector and
his eight field assistants were able to keep up with the demands
made upon them. Each nursery was inspected on an average
of 4.8 times during 1944-1945, and 4.3 times during 1945-1946.
No new pests were observed.
In Florida, where climatic conditions are such as to encourage
the year-round growth and development of insects and diseases
affecting plants, frequent and intensive inspections of nursery
stock are desirable. It is believed that a statement quoted by
the Chairman in his report, with regard to the dissemination
of plant pests, is worth repeating: "Imported nursery stock
and other plants and seeds have been the source of some ninety
per cent of the insect pests and plant diseases which have come
to us from other countries." And we must not overlook the
fact that ninety per cent of the 62 centers of infection of citrus
canker found by the Board's inspectors in 1915 were traceable
to shipments from one nursery in the state in which the disease
was established.
Ferns and bulbs are not classified as nursery stock by the
Board. However, these industries are of considerable import-
ance in Florida. The bulk of these commodities are shipped to
destinations in other states. In order to enable growers to
comply with out-of-state regulations, fern and bulb plantings

TABLE I

1944-1945 1945-1946

Number of inspection districts .................................... 8 8
Number of nurseries in the state ............................... 1,751 1,937
Number of inspections made ........................................ 8,397 8,302
Average number of inspections per nursery ........... 4.8 4.3
Total number of refusals ......................................... 260 198
Number of nurseries going out of business .............. 301 260
Number of new nurseries ........................................... 247 405









TABLE II
APPROXIMATE ACREAGE AND AMOUNT OF NURSERY STOCK, JUNE 30, 1946, AS COMPARED WITH TWO PREVIOUS YEARS

Kind of Stock Acres Acres Acres Plants Plants Plants
1943-1944 1944-1945 1945-1946 1943-1944 1944-1945 1945-1946

Orange .................................................. 835.60 558.25 673.29 1,929,275 1,132,635 1,915,670
Grapefruit ............................................ 167.50 104.03 161.65 395,600 239,785 553,415
Tangerine ............................................ 10.65 11.74 4.91 5,427 18,000 14,050
Satsuma ............... .......................... 22.65 21.71 11.62 41,447 44,400 35,950
Lemon .................................................... 4.50 .88 1.47 4,603 2,965 4,510
Lime .................. .......................... 26.90 12.41 15.19 36,637 75,835 67,525
Miscellaneous budded citrus ............ 115.58 100.61 110.34 125,395 122,645 187,445
Seedlings ................................................ 381.09 441.03 445.67 5,561,481 5,500,530 9,636,500


Total Citrus ................................... 1,564.47 1,250.66 1,434.14 8,099,865 7,136,795 12,415,065


Pecan .......... .......................... 131.80 131.16 91.78 265,065 226,400 259,700
Tung .................. ............................. 69.70 54.93 79.12 206,425 185,200 309,300
Fern ...................................................... 376.60 377.44 334.31 18,641,600 11,173,000 12,789,500
General and ornamental .................. 2,453.23 2,624.89 2,787.29 28,988,691 30,271,625 25,403,612


Total non-citrus ............................... 3,031.33 3,188.72 3,292.50 48,101,781 41,856,235 38,762,112


GRAND TOTAL .......................... 4,595.80 4,439.38 4,726.64 56,201,646 48,993,030 51,177,177







State Plant Board of Florida


are inspected upon request. Most of the Easter lily growers
are located in the vicinity of Lake Placid and Lorida in High-
lands County; Arcadia in DeSoto County; and Bay Lake in
Lake County. The chief gladiolus producing areas are in the
vicinity of Clearwater, Bradenton, Fort Myers, and Fort Pierce.
There is also some production in West Florida, at Chipola in
Jackson County.
It is believed that the activities of the Nursery Inspection
Department can best be depicted through the use of statistical
data, and there are presented several tabulations indicating the
volume of inspectional work performed, as well as the import-
ance of the nursery industry in Florida.

TABLE III
MISCELLANEOUS BULBS AND PLANTS (NOT INCLUDED AS NURSERY STOCK)
INSPECTED JULY 1, 1944 TO JUNE 30, 1946
Approximate Acres and Quantities Under Inspection

Variety 1944-1945 1 1945-1946
Acres I Plants or Bulbs ] Acres ] Plants or Bulbs
Amaryllis .......... 2.12 203,000 23.25 610,000
Caladium ............ 1.87 170,000 11.15 203,000
Gladiolus ............ 984.00 39,310,000 1,492.50 75,614,500
Lily .................... 62.75 1,571,000 189.85 4,299,200
Narcissus .......... 456.00 77,000,000 330.00 43,025,000
Vegetable plants 18.00 15,700,000 79.00 61,000,000

These figures are not intended to show actual acreages, plants, or bulbs
in the State, but only acreage and commodities inspected.

TABLE IV
Citrus Stock Moved as Compared with Two Previous Years

Variety 1943-1944 1944-1945 1945-1946

Orange .............................. .......... 743,745 695,262 795,509
Grapefruit ........................................ 138,415 126,576 219,158
Tangerine ................................... 9,150 6,249 12,272
Satsuma .......................................... 13,845 17,969 11,092
Lemon .............................................. 3,931 2,048 2,665
Lime .................................................. 12,539 17,483 21,546
Miscellaneous citrus ................... 28,350 21,422 18,289
Seedlings ................ ......................... 698,608 1,699,545 2,685,744

Total ........................... ........ 1,648,584 2,586,554 3,766,275







Sixteenth Biennial Report


REPORT OF THE QUARANTINE INSPECTION
DEPARTMENT
W. H. Merrill, Quarantine Inspector

The great increase in the number of arrivals of airplanes and
surface vessels from foreign countries, with the attendant need
for the services of inspectors to supervise their entry, brought
about a demand for additional assistant quarantine inspectors
beyond the ability of the Board to meet. During 1944-45, 17,398
air- and 4,560 watercraft arrived from 67 foreign countries.
The number during 1945-46 was 22,705 air- and 5,190 water-
craft from 85 foreign countries. In this emergency the Board
turned to the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine,
United States Department of Agriculture, for assistance. Dr.
P. N. Annand, Chief of the Bureau, and Mr. E. R. Sasscer, in
Charge, Division of Foreign Plant Quarantines, were well in-
formed as to the seriousness of the situation, as well as the
need for augmenting the inspectional force, and readily trans-
ferred federal employees to work in Florida under the direction
of the Plant Commissioner and Quarantine Inspector. At the
end of the biennium there were six federal inspectors stationed
at Miami and three at Morrison Field, West Palm Beach.
Plant quarantine enforcement, always a complicated problem,
has become more so by reason of the world-wide development
of air transportation. However, planes engaged in foreign com-
merce must comply with certain federal regulations, such as
entry, together with cargoes, stores, and passengers, at desig-
nated ports under the supervision of Customs, Public Health,
and plant quarantine inspectors. Thus there are provided the
facilities for examination of plants and plant products from
foreign countries.
This is not the case with regard to motor trucks and airplanes
engaged in the transportation of plants and plant products be-
tween states. These vehicles may move from place to place
without giving advance notice of their destinations or the nature
of the materials transported. Hundreds of motor trucks enter
Florida daily. There are at least twenty-nine daily scheduled
airplane flights from other states into Jacksonville and fourteen
additional ones that pass over that city for other destinations
in the state. There are also eight or ten independently operated
planes, some of them cargo ships with capacities up to 6,000







State Plant Board of Florida


pounds of freight. These planes pick up whatever cargoes they
can find and fly them to any point in Florida. Some of the
nation's largest nursery and cut flower establishments operate
their own planes. Costs for establishment and maintenance
of any system of supervision of vehicles engaged in domestic
commerce would be prohibitive.
During the past year 1,794 specimens of insects and diseases
were collected by the foreign plant quarantine inspectors. Many
of these pests were cosmopolitan, but a number of them were
new to this country and of considerable economic importance.
Included were 115 interceptions of fruit flies collected from 12
different hosts from 16 foreign countries; two major pests of
lima beans, the lima bean pod-borer (Maruca testulalis (Geyer))
and a scab, Elsinoe canavaliae Rac.; pink bollworm, a destruc-
tive cotton insect. Sixteen additional specimens are still await-
ing determination by specialists. Unfortunately, most of these
interceptions were made at Miami, where the flora and climatic
conditions are favorable for the establishment of introduced
tropical plant pests.
There are presented herewith several tabulations depicting
the volume of the work performed by the Board's plant quaran-
tine inspectors: (1) the number of parcels of plants and plant
products handled; (2) the number of air- and watercraft from
foreign countries, together with the number of passengers and
pieces of baggage from foreign countries only; and (3) a list
of foreign countries from which plant materials were inter-
cepted.
TABLE I
NUMBER OF PARCELS OF PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS HANDLED
(Arriving by Boat, Express, Freight, Mail, and Airplane)

1944-45 1945-46

Passed ........... ......... ....... .. .............. 4,209,180 5,129,520
Treated and passed ................... ............. ..... 107,780 37
Cleaned and passed .................................... 10,572,216* 16,380,159*
Returned to shipper ................................ ...... 63 110
Returned to stores .................................. .. .... 11,238 13,548
Contraband destroyed ................. ............ ....... 11,192 13,841
Diverted (to Hoboken, Washington, Brownsville,
Laredo, Boston, San Francisco) ............................ 41 233

Total .................................... .. .................. 14,911,710 21,537,448

Includes bunches of bananas.









Sixteenth Biennial Report


TABLE II
FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINE ACTIVITIES DURING BIENNIUM 1944-1946

Number Number Number Pieces
Year Air- and Watercraft Passengers of Baggage
Planes Vessels I Inspected


1944-45 ............. 17,398
1945-46 ............... 22,705


4,560
5,190


237,706*
349,483*


* Includes military personnel.
TABLE III
FOREIGN COUNTRIES FROM WHICH PLANT MATERIAL WAS
DURING YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1946


627,946
1,007,696




INTERCEPTED


1. Africa* (countries
not known)
2. Algeria
3. Antigua, B.W.I.
4. Argentina*
5. Aruba, N.W.I.*
6. Australia
7. Azores*
8. Bahama Islands*
9. Barbados, B.W.I.
10. Belgium*
11. Bermuda Islands*
12. Bolivia
13. Brazil*
14. British Guiana*
15. British Honduras*
16. British West Indies
(islands not
known)
17. Burma*
18. Canada
19. Canary Islands
20. Cayman Islands*
21. Chile*
22. China*
23. Colombia*
24. Costa Rica*
25. Cuba*
26. Curacao, N.W.I.*
27. Denmark


28. Dominica, B.W.I.
29. Dominican Re-
public*
30. Dutch Guiana*
(Surinam)
31. Ecuador*
32. Egypt
33. El Salvador*
34. England
35. France*
36. French Indo-China
37. French Morocco
38. Germany*
39. Greece
40. Grenada, B.W.I*
41. Guadeloupe,
F.W.I*
42. Guatemala*
43. Haiti*
44. Holland*
45. Honduras*
46. India*
47. Ireland*
48. Italy*
49. Jamaica*
50. Liberia*
51. Luxembourg*
52. Martinique, F.W.I.*
53. Mexico*
54. Netherlands West
Indies*
United States Possessions


55. Newfoundland
56. New Hebrides*
57. Nicaragua*
58. Nigeria
59. Nouvelle Caledonie
(New Caledonia)
60. Palestine*
61. Panama*
62. Paraguay*
63. Persia
64. Peru*
65. Philippine Islands*
66. St. Kitts, B.W.I.
67. St. Lucia, B.W.I.*
68. St. Vincent, B.W.I.
69. Scotland
70. Sicily*
71. Society Islands
(Tahiti)
72. Spain*
73. Sweden
74. Syria
75. Trinidad, B.W.I.*
76. Union of South
Africa
77. Unknown coun-
tries*
78. Uruguay*
79. Venezuela*
80. Wales*


Guam* Panama Canal Zone* Puerto Rico* Swan Island Virgin Islands*
Countries from which insect pests and plant diseases were intercepted.
Note: Many planes arrived from Africa carrying infested
plant products, but in many instances it was not possible to
establish definitely the country in which the material originated.
Ships or planes arrived from: The Gold Coast, Hawaii, Japan,
Okinawa, New Guinea, Poland, Russia, Portugal, Morocco, and
Yugoslavia, carrying passengers and baggage, but no plant
material.







State Plant Board of Florida


REPORT OF THE GROVE INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
H. S. McClanahan, Grove Inspector

For several years prior to the beginning of the war, the Board
had carefully selected a number of graduates of agricultural
colleges who possessed qualifications that should enable them
to fill positions of responsibility in the field and in the Plant
Commissioner's office. As most of these individuals held com-
missions as reserve officers, they were the first to leave the
Board's employ. Demands for the services of other employees
for military service and in essential war plants so depleted its
personnel that the Board was unable to keep the grove inspec-
tion force up to the number, thirty-one, provided for in the
budget. As a matter of fact, there was a period of several
months when only between fifteen and eighteen men were in-
specting in the groves.
Thus, at a time when the risk of establishment of new plant
pests was the greatest since the Plant Board was created in
1915, because of the great influx of aircraft, passengers, and
cargoes from foreign countries, the strength of the grove in-
spection force was at its lowest ebb. Acting on the theory that
it would be the better plan to make a "sample" inspection of all
citrus plantings in the state rather than an intensive inspection
of a comparatively small portion of the total acreage, the work
was speeded up to the extent that a total of 12,769,093 citrus
trees was examined during 1945-1946. The Grove Inspector
has not been able to compile a tabulation depicting the total
number of citrus trees in the state inspected during the course
of one complete coverage since 1941. At that time a total of
28,722,593 commercial, back yard, wild, and abandoned trees
was recorded. The records of the Nursery Inspector show that
between July 1941 and June 30, 1946, a total of 4,362,399 budded
nursery trees moved from Florida nurseries to destinations
within the state. This does not mean that the state's plantings
have been increased to over 33,000,000 trees, for many of these
young trees were set out as replacements, and a considerable
number of the new trees themselves probably died.
It is estimated that a force of thirty-one grove inspectors,
uninterrupted by assignments to other activities, and walking
at a normal pace down the middle of every other row, should
inspect between twelve and fourteen million trees annually.






Sixteenth Biennial Report


However, there is a constant demand for the services of these
men for purposes other than inspection of citrus trees. During
the past year one crew was required to make careful inspections
of the groves in a certain area as the result of receipt of in-
formation that fruit shipped therefrom into another state had
upon arrival been found infested with worms. We are happy
to report that this survey failed to disclose the presence of any
serious pest. From examination of a few fruit found to be
affected, in a manner described in the report, it is almost certain
that the trouble was due to injury caused by Pyroderces rileyi
(Wals.), commonly known as the pink corn worm. The full
time of a number of other inspectors was devoted to a careful
inspection of mango fruits on the lower east coast as the result
of the finding of several fruits infested with larvae of some sort.
Careful and intensive inspections developed the fact that fruit
growing on one property had been attacked by the common and
widely spread papaya fruit fly (Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerst.).
The shipment into the state of a number of balled and bur-
lapped plants from nurseries in Georgia, which were afterwards
found to be infested with a species of white-fringed beetle,
Pantomorus striatus Buch., made necessary the assignment of
a number of inspectors to a survey of the properties located
in five counties in Florida on which these suspected plants were
set out. As the larvae and pupae of this insect are to be found
in the soil, it was necessary to make intensive examinations of
the soil immediately surrounding these plants and, in addition,
all vegetation within three hundred feet of the plants was
examined for the presence of adults. Only one suspicious larva
was found during the course of this inspection which, to date,
has not been positively identified by specialists. As a precau-
tionary measure, the surface of the ground, together with vege-
tation within a radius of three hundred feet from all the plants,
received two applications of a DDT solution. The spray equip-
ment and materials, together with an experienced inspector,
were furnished by the Division of Domestic Plant Quarantines,
United States Department of Agriculture.
In addition to the above mentioned activities, the grove in-
spectors were required to inspect each year many thousands of
acres of Irish potatoes, as well as the tubers at the packing
houses, to determine their freedom from potato tuber moth
infestation. Without this inspection and certification, the mar-
kets of several western states would be closed to Florida grow-






State Plant Board of Florida


ers. At times, employees of the Grove Inspection Department
were assigned to work with nursery and quarantine inspectors
for training and experience in the activities of these depart-
ments.
Thus, it is evident that the desired goal of one complete in-
spection coverage of all citrus trees in Florida about every two
years cannot be achieved with a force of thirty-one assistant
grove inspectors. In the opinion of the Grove Inspector and
the Plant Commissioner, this force should be increased to forty.
Provision for this number is made in the estimates as to amounts
believed to be necessary to operate the Grove Inspection Depart-
ment effectively during each of the two years of the biennium
beginning July 1, 1947.

SWEET POTATO WEEVIL
This pest has been present in Florida since 1878 at least.
It is well established throughout the peninsular portion of the
state. For control purposes, the Board has designated all that
portion of the state lying east and south of Jefferson and Madi-
son Counties as infested area. Between 1919 and 1927 the
Board, in cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology, United
States Department of Agriculture, attempted to eradicate the
weevil from this area. It was learned that efforts of this nature
were not practical, as the pest is present in wild morning-glory
plants along the coast from Fernandina around to Pasco County
on the Gulf and in the hammocks throughout the area, and all
attempts at eradication were discontinued.
From time to time the weevil makes its appearance in the
clean area in west Florida. About ten years ago it was found
in, and eradicated from, Gadsden County. Several years ago
it was found on a number of farms in the vicinity of Bristol,
in Liberty County, where eradication measures are now in
effect. Last spring it was found on several farms near Monti-
cello, in Jefferson County. Immature stages of the weevil are
to be found in both plants and potatoes, and the appearance of
the pest in a new locality is usually due to the introduction of
infested planting stock. As the weevil is present in Florida,
Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, oppor-
tunities to obtain infested plants or seed potatoes are legion.
The outbreaks in Gadsden and Liberty Counties were traced to
infested plants brought in from south Florida. The origin of
the infestation in Jefferson County is not known at this time,






Sixteenth Biennial Report


although some farmers in that area believe it came in on plants
obtained in Georgia. Thus, unless a farmer obtains new plant-
ing stock from some state in which the weevil cannot exist
because of unfavorable weather conditions, he is liable to intro-
duce this pest on his own property.
The procedure recommended for elimination of the sweet po-
tato weevil from infested properties in Florida is the one
developed by the State Plant Board and the Bureau of Ento-
mology in the eradication project previously mentioned. This
consists of (1) destruction of all infested potatoes, and a thor-
ough clean-up of old banks; (2) planting of clean plants or
seed on a portion of the farm well removed from the site of
any field on which infested potatoes were present the previous
year; (3) destruction of all vines, strings, and cull potatoes
at time of harvest; (4) removal of such volunteer plants as may
make their appearance in the field during the fall and winter
months. By careful compliance with these sanitary precau-
tions, farmers will be enabled to grow normal crops almost in
the presence of the pest.
The efforts of the one inspector assigned to sweet potato
weevil control are devoted to inspections of sweet potatoes grow-
ing outside the quarantined area and to assisting farmers in
newly found infested areas to eliminate the pest. In such in-
stances, a certain area is placed under quarantine, and the
movement of potatoes and plants therefrom is prohibited. Com-
pliance with the sanitary precautions already mentioned is
required until such time as the Board believes that the infesta-
tion has been eradicated from the fields and banks. At times
the Plant Board furnishes growers in the eradication area with
plants sufficient to enable them to set out a certain percentage
of their customary plantings. This is believed to be necessary
and desirable to insure that only non-infested planting stock
is used.
WHITE-FRINGED BEETLE
This insect, Pantomorus leucoloma (Boh.), was first reported
in the United States in 1936, when it was found attacking pea-
nuts, cotton, and other staple crops, as well as vegetables in
the northern parts of Okaloosa and Walton Counties, Florida,
in the vicinity of Florala, Alabama. At that time it was be-
lieved to be a comparatively recent introduction from South
America, probably from Argentina. A large force of state and
federal inspectors were assigned to make surveys and to attempt






State Plant Board of Florida


to eradicate the pest. It was soon learned that six species of
this insect were well established over large areas in Alabama,
Mississippi, Louisiana, and in Escambia County, Florida. A
few years later it was found in several counties in North Caro-
lina, and only recently it was learned that one species, Panto-
morus striatus Buch., was well established in forty counties in
Georgia.
Eradication of this pest appears to be an impractical task.
It has several hundred wild and cultivated hosts, and its eggs,
larvae, and pupae may be disseminated by any article that rests
in or upon the ground. The beetle is a parthenogenetic insect:
any adult is capable of depositing viable eggs without fertiliza-
tion. The greatest injury to plants is caused by larvae feeding
upon the roots.
State and federal quarantines regulate the movement from
the quarantined areas of all commodities likely to serve as car-
riers of adults or immature stages of the weevil. In the Florida
area, the Plant Board furnishes the services of one inspector
to assist in quarantine enforcement. At Pensacola the Board's
quarantine inspector performs a similar service. In both areas
the state men work in cooperation with employees of the Bureau
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. For several years control
measures, first consisting of application of cryolite and calcium
arsenate and later DDT, have been confined in large, measure
to treatment of soil and vegetation around shipping points in
order to reduce the risk of dissemination of the pest. Provision
is made at times for those farmers who care to do so to obtain
control materials provided by the federal government. Appli-
cations of comparatively small amounts of DDT per acre will
effect considerable mortalities among larvae.
Plant quarantine officials and farmers in the infested areas
find it difficult to evaluate the economic importance of this pest.
There can be no question but that it is capable of causing seri-
ous injury to peanuts. At times up to 50 per cent of the crop
may be severely injured, but this injury is frequently confined
to a relatively small portion of the infested field. It is also true
that in portions of Alabama Irish potatoes are severely injured
by white-fringed beetle larvae. Experiments have demonstrated
that tobacco plants may suffer to a considerable extent by at-
tacks of the pest. We have no information as to whether or not
celery is likely to be injured by this pest. On the other hand,
production of peanuts in the infested areas in Florida has






Sixteenth Biennial Report 33

steadily increased since the beetle was first found. Farmers
apparently regard the annual losses caused by velvet bean cater-
pillars as much more serious than those caused by white-fringed
beetle. Again, one species of this pest, Pantomorus striatus
Buch., has been present, apparently, in a number of counties
in Georgia since 1936, yet has never caused crop loss to a degree
sufficient to attract the attention of growers or entomologists.
It was found last spring more or less by accident.
A study of the insect in South America leads authorities to
believe that the infestations in Florida are located on the south-
ern edge of its probable range in this country, and weather
and climatic conditions existing south of this area would not
be favorable for its establishment.






State Plant Board of Florida


REPORT OF THE APIARY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
Robert E. Foster, Apiary Inspector

There are approximately 200,000 colonies of bees in Florida,
owned by some 10,000 beekeepers. At a conservative estimate
of $10.00 a colony, these holdings represent an investment of
$2,000,000. About one thousand of these beekeepers are en-
gaged in the commercial production of honey and beeswax. In
addition to their beehives, they have considerable investments
in honey houses, storage tanks, extractors, containers, and
trucks. It is evident that the total amount invested in the
apiary industry is a large one.
A study of the records indicates that during 1944, Florida
beekeepers produced 10,324,000 pounds of honey, and 500,000
pounds of beeswax. The production for 1945 was 9,282,000
pounds of honey and 400,000 of wax. The federal government
has urged beekeepers to increase their production for 1946, and
preliminary surveys indicate that the 1946 production will be
as large, or larger, than was the case in 1944. The income from
the sale of honey and wax, if sold at ceiling prices, should be
in the neighborhood of $1,500,000.
In addition to the revenue from the sale of honey and wax,
progressive Florida beekeepers are now in a position to capitalize
on a comparatively new industry-the sale of live bees to north-
ern beekeepers. For years the latter have been faced with the
trouble and expense of putting their bees in storage during the
winter season. Winter losses were large, and commercial oper-
ators frequently started the spring honey producing season with
a comparatively few bees. They now find it to be more profit-
able to kill all of their bees at the end of the summer honey
flow, and purchase vigorous southern bees in the spring to refill
their empty hives. With the advent of the rapid air express,
Florida beekeepers can now ship bees to any point in the nation
with inconsequential losses. The operator of a 500-colony apiary
should be able to sell 1,500 packages of bees in the spring with-
out interfering with the normal production of his beeyard.
Package bees with queens are quoted in two- and three-pound
packages at $4.15 and $5.15 respectively.
There are three main honey-producing areas in Florida.
Tupelo honey, which is in great demand because it will not
granulate or "turn to sugar" even after long periods in storage,






Sixteenth Biennial Report


is produced from tupelo trees growing along the Choctawhatchee,
Ocklockonee, and Apalachicola Rivers in Bay, Calhoun, Franklin,
Gadsden, Gulf, Holmes, Liberty, Wakulla, Walton, and Washing-
ton Counties.
The ever popular orange blossom honey is produced largely
in the central portion of the peninsula, in the Counties of Hills-
borough, Indian River, Lake, Marion, Orange, Osceola, Palm
Beach, Pinellas, Polk, Seminole, and Volusia.
The state's third largest honey producing area is the Ever-
glades section of Charlotte, Collier, DeSoto, Glades, Hardee,
Hendry, Highlands, Lee, and Okeechobee Counties. Palmetto,
sunflower, thistle, and many other plants furnish the nectar in
this area.
Apiculture occupies a unique position in that the activities
of the bees during the course of their nectar and pollen collect-
ing flights are of more value to the beekeeper's neighbors than
they are to the beekeeper himself. This is due to the fact that
bees in their movements pollinate millions of flowers of plants
that require cross-pollination to set fruit or seed. Competent
authorities estimate that the value of the honeybee as a cross-
pollination agent is twenty times greater than its value as a
producer of honey and beeswax. Fruit and vegetable plants
grown on a commercial scale in Florida that are known to be
greatly benefited through the cross-pollination activities of bees
include: avocado, bean, blackberry, blueberry, cantaloupe, cow-
pea, cucumber, huckleberry, pear, pepper, pumpkin, squash,
strawberry, and watermelon.
Production of seeds of field, flower, and vegetable crops is an
important industry. Yields of the following plants would be
greatly curtailed were it not for the activities of honeybees:
clover, and other legumes, cabbage, cauliflower, collard, onion,
pepper, carrot, radish, rutabaga, soybean, sunflower, and turnip.
The opinion of specialists with regard to the value of the bee
in the cross-pollination of citrus is divided about equally pro
and con. It would appear that comprehensive investigation
activities along these lines would be of value to the citrus grow-
ers of Florida.
The productiveness of an apiary is dependent, in large meas-
ure, upon its freedom from disease. American foulbrood, Euro-
pean foulbrood, nosema, paralysis, sac brood, and other diseases
attack bees from time to time. Control of all of these diseases,
with the exception of American foulbrood, is comparatively






State Plant Board of Florida


simple and can be accomplished by the beekeeper without much
trouble or expense. American foulbrood is a destructive bac-
terial disease capable, if unchecked, of wiping out entire apiaries
in a comparatively short time. Discovery and eradication of
this disease occupies the greater portion of the time of the
Board's assistant apiary inspectors. Affected apiaries are placed
under quarantine until such time as the disease can be eradi-
cated.
The State Plant Board was among the first state regulatory
agencies to require that all bees in a colony affected with Ameri-
can foulbrood be killed; that all brood and honey, together with
the frames and combs, be destroyed by burning; and that the
hive bodies be either destroyed in the same manner or the in-
teriors scorched by fire. This drastic treatment had the support
of experienced beekeepers, many of whom had suffered con-
tinuous losses through attacks by American foulbrood. Bee-
keepers on the whole supported the Board in its burning pro-
gram although they realized that this procedure might, at some
future time, be the cause of the destruction of their entire
apiaries. For years investigators sought, without success, for
some other means of control. About four years ago scientists,
such as Leonard Haseman, Entomologist of the Missouri Experi-
ment Station, and others, together with practical beekeepers
throughout the country, learned that sulfa drugs were of con-
siderable value in the control of American foulbrood. The
Board's Apiary Inspector has been carrying on investigations
with considerable success.
With this information at hand, the State Plant Board again
took the lead and approved the use, under certain conditions,
of sulfathiazole as a means of control for American foulbrood.
The Board, in arriving at this decision, was influenced by the
following facts:
1. There was considerable doubt as to whether the courts
would support the Board in its demands that infected
colonies be destroyed by burning, in the face of statements
by competent authorities that sulfathiazole would effect
control of the disease.
2. These same authorities had apparently demonstrated that
even severely affected colonies can be restored to their nor-
mal honey and wax production capacities through the
feeding of a mixture of sulfathiazole, sugar, and water.
3. It was a known fact that beekeepers throughout the state







Sixteenth Biennial Report


and nation were hiding infected colonies and treating them
with sulfa combinations, and it was deemed best to ap-
prove of the use of the drug under official supervision and
thereby restore the honest and frank relationship between
beekeepers and inspectors.
4. While the use of sulfa is in the nature of a large-scale
experiment, the chances for success in Florida, where all
commercial and many non-commercial apiaries are in-
spected a number of times annually, are greater than
would be the case in other states without funds to employ
sufficient personnel to keep the apiaries under constant
supervision.
"INSTRUCTIONS OF THE STATE PLANT BOARD TO THE PLANT
COMMISSIONER RELATIVE TO THE CONDITIONS AND SAFE-
GUARDS UNDER WHICH APIARIES WITHIN THE STATE OF
FLORIDA KNOWN TO BE INFECTED WITH AMERICAN FOUL-
BROOD MAY BE TREATED WITH SULFATHIAZOLE
"Subject to the conditions hereinafter specified, colonies of bees found to
be infected with American foulbrood may be treated with sulfathiazole
in accordance with the provisions of Rule 41 H of the Board.
"1. Infected colonies shall be placed under quarantine and otherwise
handled in accordance with the provisions of Rule 41 F of the Board.
"2. Bees in infected colonies shall have available before them at all times
while this quarantine is in effect a solution made up of % gram of
sulfathiazole, 1% lbs. (1 quart) of sugar, and sulficient water to make
1 gallon of syrup. This solution shall be fed to the bees in manner
and form generally accepted by the apiary industry for the feeding
of bees and approved by the Board's Apiary Inspector.
"3. Treatment of affected colonies shall be under the supervision of an
inspector of the Board for such periods as the apiary may be under
quarantine.
"4. All costs for materials used in the treatment shall be borne by the
owner of the quarantined apiary or colonies.
"Compliance with the spirit, as well as the letter, of these requirements is
expected in connection with the treatment of diseased colonies."

The volume of work performed during each of the two years
of the biennium is indicated in the following tabulation:

1944-1945 1945-1946

Number of colony inspections ................................ 69,262 71,161
Number of apiary inspections ........................... 2,731 2,265
Number of counties covered .............................. 42 47
Number of colonies infected with American
foulbrood .................................. ......................... 379 959
Number of apiaries infected with American
foulbrood ................................................................ 105 132
Number of counties in which infection was
found ................................................................. 20 21
Cost per colony inspection........................................ $.24% $.29%






State Plant Board of Florida


The increase in the number of diseased colonies found in
1945-1946, as compared to the previous year, was due almost
entirely to one factor-shortage of manpower. Some of the
Board's inspectors were lost to the armed services and it was
not possible to find qualified replacements. For years the Board
has depended almost entirely upon the services of part-time
inspectors, practical beekeepers well and favorably known to
their neighbors, whose time was not fully occupied by the care
of their own apiaries. During the war these men were called
upon to increase their production of honey and wax at a time
when it was impossible to purchase new supplies and equip-
ment, or hire labor to assist in the operation of the beeyards.
It was not possible for them to keep up with the inspectional
schedule, and in some sections of the state but very little work
was performed. After the war when labor was more plentiful
several full-time inspectors were employed and inspections were
made in the more neglected areas. As was to be expected, a
considerable number of diseased colonies were found.
As the result of experience over a long period of years with
the use of part-time inspectors, it has been decided that better
results would be achieved through the employment of full-
time inspectors. The apiary inspection force at the end of the
biennium consisted of one Chief, 2 full-time, and five part-time
inspectors.






Sixteenth Biennial Report


REPORT OF DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY
G. B. Merrill, Entomologist

The imposition of a quarantine on a nursery, or other prop-
erty, or the refusal of entry of any plant or plant material by
reason of the presence of insects or diseases, is a serious matter.
In order that there may be no unfairness to the interests in-
volved, and that the administrative officers may take intelligent
action, all specimens of affected plants or plant products col-
lected by the field force are sent to the Board's Entomologist,
at Gainesville, for examination. In the case of insects, identi-
fications of most specimens received are made by the Entomolo-
gist, and copies of the determination reports are sent to the
inspector and to the head of his particular department. At
times, particularly in the case of new insects, tentative determi-
nations are made at Gainesville and the specimens are sent to
specialists in other organizations or states for confirmation.
Thus, every effort is made to obtain the correct identification
of all insects collected. Material infected with plant diseases
is sent to the Pathologist of the Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station for determination. Thanks to the foresight of
the framers of the Florida Plant Act in providing that the
membership of the State Plant Board and the Board of Control
be identical, the Plant Board has available the services and
cooperation of the entire scientific staff of the University of
Florida and the Agricultural Experiment Station. This ar-
rangement makes it possible for the Plant Board to devote to
field inspectional activities considerable sums that otherwise
would have to be used to employ pathologists, horticulturists,
and other specialists.
Perhaps one of the most interesting determinations made by
the Entomologist during the past year is found in the case of
larvae recovered from mangoes grown on the lower east coast.
As mangoes are favorite hosts of several fruit flies, Anastrepha
spp., and others, the finding of larvae in these fruits is a matter
of concern. In this particular instance, however, the infesta-
tion was caused by the common and widespread papaya fruit
fly (Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerst.). This is the third collec-
tion of this kind made since 1939. In each instance only a few
fruits produced on single properties were found, and on two
occasions at least the condition was observed during years when






40 State Plant Board of Florida

papaya fruits were scarce as the result of unseasonable weather
and papaya fruit flies were abundant. It would appear that
these were instances of chance or forced oviposition.
During the fiscal year 1944-45, 1,227 collections of affected
plant material were received by the Entomologist, from which
1,935 determinations of insects and diseases were made. The
record for 1945-46 was 1,874 collections and 2,822 determina-
tions.
The record of collections and determinations by departments
for the last year is indicated below:

Number Number
Department Collections Determinations
Quarantine Inspection ....................... 1,111 1,793
Nursery Inspection ............................ 492 684
Grove Inspection .................................... 136 175
Entom logical ........................................ 3 4
Others .......... ................ ....................... 132 166

Total....................... ........... 1,874 2,822


Growers, county agents, and others frequently send affected
plant material to the Entomologist for determination of the
pests present and requests for advice as to control measures.
The required information is either furnished by the Entomolo-
gist, or the letter and material are sent to specialists of the
Agricultural Experiment Station for attention.




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