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Group Title: Report for the period ... of the State Plant Board of Florida
Title: Report for the period ...
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098574/00012
 Material Information
Title: Report for the period ...
Alternate Title: Biennial report
Physical Description: 19 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: State Plant Board of Florida
Publisher: State Plant Board of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1942/44
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Plants, Protection of -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: State Plant Board of Florida.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 4th (1920/22)- 23rd (1958/60).
Numbering Peculiarities: Vols. for 1950/52-1958/60 also called: Bulletin.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098574
Volume ID: VID00012
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10989019
lccn - sn 86033752
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the biennial period ending ... and supplemental reports to ...
Succeeded by: Biennial report

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Report of the state plant board
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Report of the plant commissioner
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
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Full Text






STATE PLANT BOARD

OF FLORIDA







REPORT FOR THE PERIOD

JULY 1, 1942-JUNE 30, 1944


(Fifteenth Biennial Report)


NOVEMBER, 1944
















STATE PLANT BOARD


HENRY P. ADAIR, Chairman, Jacksonville
N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
T. T. SCOTT, Live Oak
THOSE. W. BRYANT, Lakeland
M. LUTHER MERSHON, Miami
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee
J. W. BLANDING, Auditor, Gainesville



STAFF

ARTHUR C. BROWN, Plant Commissioner
J. C. GOODWIN, Nursery Inspector
GEO. B. MERRILL, Entomologist
R. E. FOSTER, Apiary Inspector
H. S. MCCLANAHAN, Grove Inspector
WM. H. MERRILL, Associate Quarantine Inspector
L. R. HUNTER, Chief Clerk






Fifteenth Biennial Report


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
November 9, 1944
To His Excellency
Spessard L. Holland
Governor of Florida

SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the State Plant
Board of Florida for the biennium ending June 30, 1944. Please
submit same to the Legislature.
Respectfully,
STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA
By: HENRY P. ADAIR
Chairman

REPORT OF THE STATE PLANT BOARD
The State Plant Board of Florida presents for the informa-
tion of Your Excellency and members of the Legislature an
account of its activities during the biennium ending June 30,
1944.
The personnel of the Board at the end of the biennium is
as follows: Henry P. Adair, Jacksonville; N. B. Jordan, Quincy;
T. T. Scott, Live Oak; Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland; M. Luther
Mershon, Miami. Mr. Mershon, appointed to succeed Mr. R.
H. Gore of Fort Lauderdale, presented his credentials at the
meeting on January 17, 1944, and was recognized as a member
of the Board. Mr. Adair is the Chairman, Mr. J. T. Diamond
of Tallahassee is the Secretary, and Colonel J. W. Blanding of
Gainesville is the Auditor. Members of the Board serve without
compensation, except for reimbursement for actual subsistence
and travel expenses. .
It is the duty of the Board to prevent, if possible, the intro-
duction, establishment, and dissemination of additional plant
pests. Florida is peculiarly exposed to entry and establishment
of alien plant pests. It is open on three sides to entry of insects
and diseases from foreign countries, and its climate is such as
to offer almost ideal conditions for the establishment and de-
velopment of plant pests from tropical and subtropical countries.
Florida is literally at the crossroads of international air traf-
fic. At its many commercial and service airfields arrive daily
between thirty and forty giant aircraft from Europe, Africa,






State Plant Board of Florida


Asia, Central and South America, Australia and other island
countries. Through these ports of arrival flows a constant
stream of returning service personnel, diplomats and high-
ranking officials of foreign countries, and representatives of
our own government, together with hand baggage, ships' stores
and cargo, which presents an avenue for entry of foreign plant
pests most difficult to close. At Miami alone the Board's in-
spectors supervised the arrival during the past fiscal year of
10,130 aircraft from foreign countries. Plants and plant
products which arrived at this and other ports, carried as bag-
gage or cargo, were scrutinized by the inspectors and contraband
or affected material confiscated. Citrus from Africa infested
with the Mediterranean fruit fly, oranges from Central America
infested with the Mexican orange maggot, and fruits from South
America and the West Indies infested with the West Indian and
other fruit flies have been seized and destroyed.
The risk of entry of alien plant pests will increase, rather
than decrease, with the termination of the war. Hundreds of
thousands of service men and women will be brought back by
airplane. This will undoubtedly require the use as disembarka-
tion points of service airfields located in the interior of the
state and now used as training fields. In fact, one such field
has already been designated as a disembarkation center. Today,
the ports of entry are located on the coasts, and the exposure
of the state's horticultural and agricultural investments to in-
vasion by foreign pests is marginal. When inland airfields,
such as those located at Orlando and Avon Park, are used for
disembarkation purposes, the exposure will be in the very
heart of our citrus and truck-producing areas.
To accomplish its objectives, the Board maintains an organiza-
tion consisting of the Plant Commissioner and several depart-
ments, with special duties, as follows: Nursery Inspection,
Grove Inspection, Quarantine Inspection, Apiary Inspection, and
Entomology. It is the duty of the Board to formulate policies
and practices, make the necessary rules incidental to its regula-
tory work, issue instructions to the Plant Commissioner for his
guidance, supervise expenditures, and otherwise act as an ad-
ministrative body. Regular monthly and occasional special
meetings are held, at which reports from the Plant Commissioner
are received, considered and acted upon, and vouchers and
pay rolls, previously examined by the Board's auditor, are ap-
proved when found in order. The Nursery Inspection Depart-






Fifteenth Biennia Report


ment is responsible for the regular and frequent inspection of
all commercial nurseries in the state. In the event that any
serious plant pest is observed, or if there is an excessive amount
of the more common insects or diseases present, the nursery is
placed under quarantine and no plants are permitted to move
therefrom until the pest or pests in question have been elimi-
nated. During the past fiscal year, the assistant nursery in-
spectors inspected on an average of 4.7 times the 8,099,865
citrus plants and 48,101,781 general and ornamental plants,
growing in the state's more than 1,700 nurseries.
The Grove Inspection Department is responsible for the in-
spection of citrus trees growing in the state; inspection and
certification of Irish potatoes, without which our growers would
not be able to ship their crops into a number of states of the
Union; distribution of poison bait furnished gratis by the federal
government to farmers for the protection of their crops against
loss by mole crickets; and making special inspections following
reports of crop injury from residents of the state. The Grove
Inspector, in addition, has supervision of the white-fringed
beetle control activities of the Board. A force of 31 assistant
grove inspectors working without interruption would be able
to inspect the state's twenty-six million citrus trees once every
two years. This is not frequent enough to afford adequate pro-
tection. Under war-time conditions, loss of personnel and addi-
tional activities have made it impossible to maintain this sched-
ule, and the present coverage will require approximately five
years.
Uninformed individuals are frequently amused by the idea
of inspection of honeybees. They do not realize that the state's
production of honey, of queen bees, and of package bees for
shipment to northern states is an important industry under
normal conditions. Under war-time conditions, the importance
of the industry has increased manyfold. The armed services
have over three hundred uses, from medical to munitions, for
beeswax. The annual needs for some million pounds of bees-
wax on the part of the Nation's armed services, and another
million for civilian medical and pharmaceutical purposes, were
in the past met in part by importations from abroad. This
source of supply has been cut off by the war, and the federal
government has strongly urged beekeepers to step up the pro-
duction of beeswax, along with honey as a substitute for sugar.
Unfortunately, bees are subject to attacks by diseases, one of






State Plant Board of Florida


which, a bacterial disease commonly known as American foul-
brood, is fully capable of wiping out entire colonies, even api-
aries, in a very short time. This disease, fatal to the immature
stages of bees, but which does not affect honey intended for
human consumption, is held in check in Florida by the activities
of the Apiary Inspection Department.
No new pests of major importance were reported during the
biennium, although two insects, apparently not firmly established
nor widely disseminated, namely, Japanese beetle and pink boll-
worm, mentioned in previous reports, were again encountered.
Further reference to these insects will be found in the biennial
report of the Plant Commissioner which is included as a part
of this report.
The Board believes that the funds placed at its disposal have
been expended efficiently and economically, and its record for
never having expended money or incurred obligations in excess
of the appropriations made by the Legislature has been sus-
tained. In order to avoid unnecessary repetition, for a financial
statement reference is here made to that part of the Plant Com-
missioner's report covering amounts available and expended
during the biennium. Attention is also invited to the Plant
Commissioner's estimates as to the amounts which should be
made available for the use of the Board for the biennium be-
ginning July 1, 1945. The Board has approved of these esti-
mates, and urgently recommends that the Legislature make the
necessary appropriations. It is especially desirable that the
"emergency appropriation" of $50,000, as heretofore made, be
continued. This fund, first made available by the 1923 Legis-
lature as a precautionary measure, has been provided by each
successive Legislature. The release of the Emergency Fund
has been conditioned on approval by the Governor and the
Budget Commission. It has been used in its entirety on one
occasion only: in 1929, when Mediterranean fruit fly was dis-
covered in the state. In 1924, $10,000 was released for use in
controlling coconut bud rot. On February 18, 1925, and again
on August 25, 1925, sums of $10,000 each were made available
for control and Tinvestigation of the citrus aphid. On January
12, 1938, $3,000 was authorized by the Budget Commission for
tobacco disease investigations. Of this amount, $2,511.09 was
expended, for investigational work and for demonstrating
methods* of control of tobacco blue mold, while the balance,
$488.91, reverted to the treasury.







Fifteenth Biennial Report


The Board, the State of Florida, and the Nation suffered an
irreparable loss during the biennium, when Dr. Wilmon Newell,
Plant, Commissioner, died at his home in Gainesville on October
25, 1943. Selected as Plant Commissioner by the Board in
1915 because of his demonstrated ability as an administrator
and scientist, Dr. Newell, by his masterly direction of the citrus
canker, Mediterranean fruit fly, and blackfly eradication pro-
jects and other Plant Board activities, added laurels to his
name and fame to the State Plant Board, and saved the state's
and even the South's horticultural interests from tremendous
annual losses. To succeed Dr. Newell, the Board appointed
Arthur C. Brown as Plant Commissioner. Mr. Brown has been
connected with the Plant Commissioner's office almost continu-
ously since June 1915, and is familiar with plant quarantine and
pest control measures.
Very truly yours,
STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA
By: HENRY P. ADAIR, Chairman







State Plant Board of Florida


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
Gainesville, Florida
November 9, 1944
Honorable Henry P. Adair, Chairman
State Plant Board of Florida
SIR: I have the honor to present herewith my report as Plant
Commissioner for the biennium ending June 30, 1944.
Respectfully,
ARTHUR C. BROWN
Plant Commissioner

REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER
During the period covered by this report there has been no
material change in the plan upon which the organization has
been built. The Plant Commissioner has had general direction
of the activities of the several departments, which have been con-
ducted along lines which experience has shown to be most ef-
ficient.
No serious outbreaks of major plant pests have been observed
in the state during the period covered by this report. However,
two insects capable of causing serious economic losses and which
have been mentioned in previous reports were again encountered
during the biennium. Reference is made to Japanese beetle and
pink bollworm of cotton.
Japanese beetle, which since 1916 has spread from a small
area near Riverton, New Jersey, to as far west as Chicago and
St. Louis, and into South Carolina and Georgia in the South, has
been collected from traps in three localities in the state during
the past several years.
The following tabulation depicts the number of adult beetles
collected since 1940 in the annual trap survey conducted by the
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United States De-
partment of Agriculture:
1940 Miami 2 Tampa 1 Jacksonville 5
1941 Miami 0 Tampa 0 Jacksonville 0
1942 Miami 1 Tampa 0 Jacksonville 1
1943 No survey made
1944 Miami 0 Tampa 0 Jacksonville 5
Traps were set out in many cities and towns in Florida in addi-
tion to the above localities, with negative results.






Fifteenth Biennial Report


In the past, collections at Jacksonville were from traps quite
widely separated. This year four of the beetles were collected
within a few blocks, two of them from the same trap, which
indicated a possibility of the establishment of an infestation.
Control measures were applied, which consisted of the treatment
of approximately five and one-half acres in the neighborhood
where the collections were made with powdered lead arsenate
at the rate of five hundred pounds per acre. The poison was
applied to the surface of the ground in the form of a spray, which
was immediately followed by an application of water to wash
the poison into the soil. The treatment is for the control of the
larval, or grub, stage, which feeds upon the roots of grasses.
The poison should be effective for a period of several years.
Plans have been made for the concentration next year of a large
number of traps around the affected area. The results of this
survey should indicate whether or not the pest has become es-
tablished in the vicinity of Jacksonville.
The other insect referred to is the pink bollworm of cotton.
The extermination of this destructive cotton pest has been the
objective of an eradication campaign in Florida since 1932. In
that year it was found infesting wild cotton on the lower keys
and the mainland at the southern end of the peninsula, as well
as commercial plantings in Alachua, Columbia, Levy, Madison,
Suwannee, and Jackson Counties. Application of quarantine
measures which required, among other things, sterilization of
seed cotton, compressing of lint, and movement of lint under
permit to designated mills apparently resulted in eradication of
the pest from the commercial areas, and the quarantines were
removed in October 1936. No further infestations were found
in or near the commercial cotton producing areas in the state
until the fall of 1942, when one infested cotton boll was re-
covered from a planting located in Pasco County. Fortunately,
no cotton was planted on this or adjacent properties in 1943
and 1944. Intensive inspections of all cotton in that area have
been negative. This finding, although on the lower edge of the
commercial cotton producing areas of the state, emphasizes the
need for and value of the annual cooperative surveys made by
the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine and the State
Plant Board. If pink bollworm becomes established in the cotton
producing areas in Florida, its depredations, added to those of
the boll weevil, will make profitable cotton production in the
state almost impossible. Further reference to the pink bollworm







State Plant Board of Florida


eradication project will be found in the report of the Grove In-
spector.
During the biennium the Plant Commissioner's office, along
with others, experienced a considerable turnover in personnel
due to the needs of the Nation's armed forces and competition
from commercial organizations. For several years prior to the
beginning of the war, the Plant Commissioner had carefully
selected for employment a number of outstanding graduates of
the College of Agriculture, University of Florida. Most of these
individuals held commissions as reserve officers, and all of them
promptly and without hesitation responded to the call for duty.
The Board felt that these employees represented a type urgently
needed by the Army and Navy, and made no attempt to seek
their deferment. As a matter of fact, it is doubtful if any of
this group would have accepted exemption from service. Other
employees left the Board's employ to seek more gainful occupa-
tion. In the fall of 1943, when it appeared that the Selective
Service System would call older employees whose loss would
seriously interfere with the Board's work, the Plant Commis-
sioner was instructed to prepare and submit to the State Di-
rector of Selective Service a Replacement Schedule. This sched-
ule was approved, and it has been possible to retain the services
of these few employees.
The special work of the several departments of the State Plant
Board organization is fully covered in the reports of the de-
partment heads which are made a part of this report.
In June 1942 the Board transmitted to the Plant Commissioner
the instructions of the Budget Commission to the effect that re-
ductions of approximately ten percent in the expenditure of
public funds for the fiscal year 1942-1943 must be made, due to
the financial condition of the state. With these instructions at
hand, the Plant Commissioner prepared an operating budget for
the fiscal year 1943-1944 in the sum of $242,348, or $23,904
(8.98%) less than the $266,252 provided by legislative action.
In addition, the unexpended balance of $18,757.12 from the pre-
ceding year was not budgeted but reverted to the state treasury.
The estimates of the Plant Commissioner as to amounts be-
lieved to be necessary for operating expenses for each of the
two years of the biennium 1943-1945 were, in line with the re-
quest of the Budget Commission, identical with the amounts
budgeted for the fiscal year 1942-1943, namely, $242,348.







Fifteenth Biennial Report 11

RESOURCES

During the biennium ending June 30, 1944, the State Plant
Board had available for current expenses $242,348 for each
year. This amount was derived from State Appropriations as
follows:

July 1, 1942:
State Plant Board, Chapter 20980:
Salaries --.......................................... $145,940
Less amount of reduction ................ 7,600 $138,340
Necessary and regular expenses .... 55,312
Less amount of reduction .................... 11,314 43,998 $182,338.00
Apiary Inspection Department,
Chapter 20980:
Salaries .........................-............... ... .... 12,000
Necessary and regular expenses .... 8,000
Less amount of reduction ................ 1,040 6,960 18,960.00
Combating White-Fringed Beetle,
Chapter 20980: .................................. 10,000
Less amount of reduction ................ 1,250 8,750.00
The Florida Plant Act of 1927,
Chapter 12291: .................................... 35,000
Less amount of reduction ................ 2,700 32,300.00
Total ........... ........... ...... ................................ $242,348.00
June 30, 1943, unexpended balance to revert to the
state treasury ........ .......... .................... .................. $ 18,757.12

July 1, 1943:
State Plant Board, Chapter 22071:
Salaries .......................................... $154,720
Necessary and regular expenses ...... 52,628 $207,348.00
The Florida Plant Act of 1927,
Chapter 581, Section 581.11: ..........................-................ 35,000.00
Total .....................--- ---............... $242,348.00
June 30, 1944, there remained an unexpended balance in the
amount of .-............................ ------------... -......-..--- $ 31,577.45






12 State Plant Board of Florida

EXPENDITURES

Expenditures of the Board for 1942-43 and 1943-44 by de-
partments are shown in Table A. In Table B are shown ex-
penditures for specific purposes:


TABLE A


Department 1942-1943 1943-1944


Grove Inspection ............................................... $ 79,707.76 $ 71,206.01
Nursery Inspection .........................-................ 35,827.69 36,579.62
Quarantine Inspection ....................................... 64,658.01 61,238.43
Office of the Board ..................................-....... 2,343.66 2,433.71
Plant Commissioner's Office ............................ 6,844.90 7,351.21
Entomology ........................................................ 5,432.35 4,030.18
Sweet Potato Weevil Control ........................... 4,733.74 4,246.83
Apiary Inspection ............................................ 16,930.02 17,460.21
White-fringed Beetle Control .......................... 7,112.75 6,224.35


Total ...................... .......................... $223,590.88 $210,770.55





TABLE B


Item 1942-1943 1943-1944


Salaries .............................................................. $178,786.31 $164,007.58
Travel and subsistence expense ........................ 39,523.69 42,778.52
Labor ..................................................................... 1,003.30 219.00
Stationery and small printing ........................ 582.88 461.65
Postage ................................................ ....-- 1,033.91 853.26
Bulletins, circulars .............................................. 338.80 165.00
Telegraph, telephone ........................................ 476.01 671.95
Miscellaneous supplies ...................................... 756.98 625.31
Miscellaneous expenses ...................................... 823.36 720.56
Laboratory supplies .......................................... 46.04
Office equipment ................................................ ........ 56.60
Freight, drayage, express ................................ 82.30 38.65
Library ........................................................ ........ 137.30 172.47


Total ........................ .......................... $223,590.88 $210,770.55







Fifteenth Biennial Report


STATE PLANT BOARD INCIDENTAL FUND
July 1, 1942-June 30, 1943
Balance brought forward July 1, 1942 ............................$10,890.94
Receipts during the year:


For special inspection of nurseries ............$111.80
For nursery inspection tags, invoices ........ 984.63
For sale of Aschersonia and Vedalia ............ 165.70
For reimbursement by potato growers for
automobile mileage incurred by Plant
Board inspectors-packing house inspec-
tion of Irish potatoes ...........................----....------... 81.35
For mileage on Plant Board automobile
used for official travel by the Director of
Experiment Station and Agricultural
Extension Service, a total of 1,110 miles
at 5 ...............................- --.....-----... 55.50
For fumigation of potatoes and cotton ........ 47.00
For miscellaneous receipts ..............-----.............. 29.31

Disbursements during the year:
For special inspection of nurseries ..............$114.95
For printing certificate tags, invoices ........ 195.99
For postage for mailing tags, invoices ...... 435.36
For labor, supplies, postage, etc., in con-
nection with Aschersonia and Vedalia
Projects ..............................-..--....---.. . ... 186.20
For automobile mileage of Plant Board in-
spectors, packing house inspection of
Irish potatoes ....................... ....- .. 81.55
For operating expenses, Plant Board
automobile ..---.-----.---- ----- .. 114.34
For expense, fumigation of potatoes ........... 7.20
For miscellaneous expenses .......................... 14.15


1,475.29 $12,366.23


1,149.74


BALANCE JUNE 30, 1943 ............................... .....................$11,216.49
Amount collectable (advanced to L. R. Hunter, Chief Clerk, for
miscellaneous cash expenses) ................................. ...-- 1,500.00
TOTAL RESOURCES JUNE 30, 1943 ...................................---............$12,716.49
L. R. Hunter
Chief Clerk
July 19, 1943






State Plant Board of Florida


STATE PLANT BOARD INCIDENTAL FUND
July 1, 1943-June 30, 1944
Balance brought forward July 1, 1943 .........................$11,216.49
Receipts during the year:
For special inspection of nurseries ............$152.55
For nursery inspection tags, invoices ........ 925.39
For reimbursement by potato growers for
automobile mileage incurred by Plant
Board inspectors-packing house inspec-
tion of Irish potatoes ..................... .......... 92.08
For miscellaneous receipts ......................... 26.00 1,196.02


$12,412.51


Disbursements during the year:
For special inspection of nurseries ..............$143.70
For printing certificate tags, invoices, etc. 268.95
For postage for mailing tags, invoices, etc. 553.90
For automobile mileage of Plant Board
inspectors, packing house inspection of
Irish potatoes .................... ........................ 97.48
For operating expenses, Plant Board
autom obile ........................ ............ ...... 127.28
For miscellaneous expenses ..................... 10.72 1,202.03
BALANCE JUNE 30, 1944 ................... ...........................$11,210.48
Amount collectable (advanced to L. R. Hunter, Chief Clerk, for
miscellaneous cash expenses) ............................................... 1,500.00
TOTAL RESOURCES JUNE 30, 1944 .......................................... $12,710.48
L. R. Hunter
July 17, 1944


ESTIMATES

A detailed report covering the subject of estimates of amounts
believed to be necessary for operating expenses for each of the
two years of the biennium beginning July 1, 1945, has been
approved by the Board. From this report the following sum-
mary was prepared. The total exceeds the current annual
appropriations by $55,840, and provides for the employment of
three additional assistant grove inspectors, five additional assist-
ant quarantine inspectors, and one additional full-time assistant
apiary inspector, together with an allotment for mole cricket
control and investigational activities. No salary increases are
included in these estimates, although provision has been made
for a slight increase in expenses for several departments.







Fifteenth Biennial Report


SUMMARY OF ESTIMATES PER ANNUM
For Biennium Beginning July 1, 1945

Salaries Expenses Total
Department Per Annum Per Annum Per Annum

Office of the Board ......................... $ 2,880 $ 875 $ 3,755
Plant Commissioner's Office ............ 10,380 3,580 13,960
Department of Entomology ............ 3,840 600 4,440
Quarantine Inspection Department 77,700 12,250 89,950
Grove Inspection Department ........ 80,520 25,000 105,520
Nursery Inspection Department .... 30,600 8,938 39,538
Sweet Potato Weevil Control ........ 2,400 1,725 4,125
Apiary Inspection Department ...... 16,230 8,770 25,000
White-fringed Beetle Control ........ 5,700 1,200 6,900
Mole Cricket Control and
Investigations* .............................. 5,000 5,000


Total ............................................ $235,250 $62,938 $298,188

Emergency Fund, not to be used unless found necessary
by the Budget Commission (for the biennium) ..............................$50,000

This sum should be available for salaries or expenses without specifying and is, there-
fore, listed under salaries.






State Plant Board of Florida


NURSERY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
J. C. Goodwin, Nursery Inspector
In a state whose chief sources of income are the production
and sale of horticultural, agricultural and ornamental plants
and plant products, maintenance of nurseries and plant beds in
a pest-free condition is necessary. This is particularly true in
a state like Florida, where the climate is such as to permit of
the ready establishment and rapid development and spread of
such pests, and transportation facilities, both domestic and
foreign, are so highly developed as to magnify very greatly the
possibilities of introduction.
The needs for careful and repeated inspections of nursery
stock have been intensified by war-time conditions which effect
handicaps on the proprietors in the form of shortages of certain
pest control materials, machinery, and labor for application of
control measures. Pests introduced into nurseries may in a short
time become so numerous as to severely impair the vitality of
the plants. Purchases of nursery stock are likewise affected
by these wartime shortages, and the planting of trees or shrubs
heavily infested or infected with plant pests may result in
serious financial losses.
The State Plant Board has ample reasons, probably more so
than any other pest control organization, for insisting on careful,
intensive, and frequent inspection of nursery stock. In the
first inspection of citrus nursery stock moved prior to the crea-
tion of the Board in 1915, it was disclosed that 56, or 90%
of the 62 centers of citrus canker infection, found in twenty-one
counties, were due to the planting of citrus trees shipped from
one nursery.
It is believed that the activities of the Nursery Inspector and
his eight assistants, together with the volume of work performed,
can best be depicted in a statistical rather than narrative man-
ner. The attention of the Board is directed, therefore, to the
tabulations presented at the end of the Nursery Inspector's re-
port.
It is also believed that the Board will be interested in the
tabulation showing the annual movement of citrus trees from
Florida nurseries to Florida destinations since 1928. The
present supply of budded citrus trees of certain varieties is
somewhat restricted as a result of rather extensive planting







Fifteenth Biennial Report


operations. However, the number of citrus seedlings under
observation increased from 3,700,970 as of June 30, 1943, to
5,561,481 as of June 30, 1944. During the same period, the
number of seedlings moved for lining out in nursery formation
increased from 287,836 to 698,608. This increase in the supply
of budding stocks would indicate the availability of ample trees
in the near future.
Attention is also directed to the fact that while the State
Plant Board does not consider narcissus, gladiolus, ferns or
vegetable plants as nursery stock, it is necessary to inspect and
certify such plantings so as to enable growers to ship their
stocks to out-of-state destinations. Some idea of the volume of
these industries may be formed from a study of the following
statistics as to acreages planted to narcissus and gladiolus, to-
gether with the number of bulbs or plants produced during
the biennium:

1942-1943 1943-1944

Narcissus:
Number acres ...... ........................ 560 510
Number bulbs ........-- -..............- ......- ... 56,600,000 76,000,000
Gladiolus:
Number acres ............. .............. 894 908
Number bulbs .... ... .............. .. 42,496,000 50,050,000


The Nursery Inspector is happy to report that there was a
continuation of the cordial relationship which has existed be-
tween the Nursery Inspector and his assistants on one hand
and the nurserymen on the other. Operators of nurseries look
forward with some pleasure to the visits of the inspectors and
frequently seek their advice on pest control and cultural prac-
tices. Nurserymen are not allowed to take advantage of this
friendly spirit, as is evidenced by the fact that, during the fiscal
year 1943, 494 nurseries were placed under quarantine, wholly
or in part, on account of the sanitary conditions of the proper-
ties; while the number quarantined during 1943-1944 was 604.
During the biennium it was found necessary to file information
against only one nurseryman for violation of the Board's rules.
This particular individual was convicted of the charges made
against him.







State Plant Board of Florida


SUMMARY OF WORK ACCOMPLISHED BY THE NURSERY DEPART-
MENT DURING THE BIENNIUM, JULY 1, 1942 TO JUNE 30, 1944


Number of Inspection Districts ............
Number of Nurseries in State ............
Number of Nursery Inspections Made
Average Number of Inspections
per Nursery ......................... .......
Total Number of Refusals ....................
Nursery Acreage in State:
Citrus .......................... 1,614.28
Non-citrus ................. 3,011.75
Nursery Stock in State:
Citrus .......................... 7,403,254
Non-citrus ................ 37,452,583
Total Acreage Inspected and Passed:
Citrus ........................ 7,323.30
Non-citrus .................. 13,289.26
Total Acreage Inspected and Refused:
Citrus ........................ 216.58
Non-citrus .................. 521.99
Total Acreage Inspected:
Citrus .......................... 7,539.88
Non-citrus .................. 13,811.25


1942-1943
8
1,843
9,317

4.6
494

1,564.47
4,626.03 3,031.33


44,855,837


8,099,865
48,101,781


7,269.50
20,612.56 12,864.97


738.57


197.41
852.75


7,466.91
21,351.13 13,717.72


Total Amount of Stock Inspected and Passed:
Citrus .......................... 33,031,750
Non-citrus ..................148,346,725 181,378,475
Total Amount of Stock Inspected and Refused:
Citrus .......................... 1,361,145
Non-citrus .................. 1,901,496 3,262,641
Total Amount of Stock Inspected:
Citrus .......................... 34,392,895
Non-citrus ..................150,248,221 184,641,116
Number of Nurseries Going Out
of Business ................................ 370
Number of New Nurseries .............. 257


37,879,288
193,530,229


1943-1944
8
1,722
8,135

4.7
604


4,595.80


56,201,646


20,134.47


1,050.16


21,184.63


231,409,517


701,663
2,591,375 3,293,038


38,580,951
196,121,604


234,702,555

228
148







Fifteenth Biennial Report


Total Number of Citrus Trees Moved from Florida Nurseries to Florida
Destinations, from July 1, 1928 to date as Reported to the Nursery
Inspector, State Plant Board, Gainesville, Florida.*

Year |Oranges Grapefruit Mandarin Limes ILemons I Misc. I Total

1928-29 699,343 305,641 271,403 8,348 2,020 75,783 1,362,538
1929-30 295,031 330,266 139,877 8,547 1,907 10,288 785,916
1930-31 401,023 264,803 91,725 11,187 3,031 16,501 788,270
1931-32 430,379 73,401 62,492 25,687 3,771 8,119 603,849
1932-33 499,679 144,597 53,391 47,785 4,313 12,825 762,590
1933-34 440,429 158,471 74,187 40,616 22,438 17,919 754,060
1934-35 351,289 89,468 30,880 33,666 11,486 10,930 527,719
1935-36 530,564 153,986 34,128 61,207 29,472 13,036 822,393
1936-37 746,849 106,421 38,427 123,054 19,381 21,855 1,055,987
1937-38 799,439 150,557 26,507 80,034 13,407 14,108 1,084,052
1938-39 512,526 87,876 21,795 47,432 8,600 23,096 -701,325
1939-40 403,775 80,588 21,819 26,899 6,435 19,849 559,365
1940-41 592,208 85,954 36,156 26,550 2,961 20,420 764,249
1941-42 579,809 64,069 58,413 14,412 2,751 30,434 749,888
1942-43 533,802 104,754 55,545 14,406 2,229 17,886 728,622
1943-44 743,745 138,415 22,995 12,539 3,931 28,350 949,975

Compiled by the Department of Agricultural Economics. Agr. Exp. Sta., Univ. of Fla.






State Plant Board of Florida


GROVE INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
H. S. McClanahan, Grove Inspector
This branch of the State Plant Board organization might
well be designated as the "General Inspection Department."
During the course of one year's activities assistant grove in-
spectors, in addition to inspecting citrus, may inspect and certify
Irish potatoes, make surveys for white-fringed beetle, inspect
non-citrus or vegetable plantings following receipt of reports
of the presence of some unusual pest condition, apply control
measures when necessary, and substitute for assistant nursery
or quarantine inspectors.
In order to detect at the earliest possible moment the presence
of major plant pests in our citrus plantings, the state's twenty-
six million citrus trees should be inspected once every year. For
financial reasons this is not possible, and the State Plant Board
has set as its goal one coverage every two years. This could
be accomplished were the thirty-one inspectors provided for in
the budget available for grove inspection alone. It has not been
possible under war-time conditions to keep thirty-one inspectors
on the rolls; nor has it been possible for the inspectors employed
to devote their full time to grove inspection activities. We re-
gret to state that with the present force and with the need for
assignment of inspectors to duties other than grove inspection
it will require approximately five years to complete the present
inspection coverage. Even following the lowering of the stand-
ard set as qualification for employment with the Grove Inspection
Department (a B. S. A. degree or a practical knowledge of plant
pests and several years' experience in control and eradication
practices) it has not been possible to find a sufficient number
of qualified men to serve as assistant grove inspectors. Men
with the necessary qualifications prefer employment in govern-
mental or commercial organizations, where compensation is paid
for overtime and various benefits are enjoyed.
No new pests of major importance were found during the bi-
ennium. However, this is no assurance that none are present,
for opportunities for entry under war-time conditions have been
ample, while at the same time there has not been available a
sufficient number of inspectors to search for new pests in citrus
and other horticultural plantings. Particular attention has been
paid, however, to citrus in the vicinity of the larger ports of





Fifteenth Biennial Report


entry and airfields. Through a cooperative arrangement with
officials of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, in-
tensive inspections were made over a period of twelve months of
truck crops growing in the chief vegetable producing areas of
the state. No major pests were encountered during the course
of this inspection.

MOLE CRICKET CONTROL
The Plant Board again cooperated with the Bureau of Ento-
mology and Plant Quarantine, United States Department of
Agriculture, in the distribution of poison bait for mole cricket
control during each of the two years of the biennium. The
Board will recall that in the fall of 1940 truck growers in the
southern part of the state, financially unable by reason of several
unprofitable seasons to purchase sufficient quantities of poison
bait to control an unusually severe outbreak of mole crickets,
petitioned the federal government for assistance. The latter,
through its Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, agreed
to furnish the material gratis through some responsible agency,
provided the government was relieved of responsibility for any
damages that might follow the use of the poison bait.
An arrangement was worked out whereby the Bureau shipped
the materials to Plant City, where they were mixed, sacked, and
turned over to the State Leader of the Florida State Mole
Cricket Control Committee for distribution to the farmers. This
Committee is composed of J. C. Goodwin, representing the State
Plant Board; L. 0. Gratz, representing the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station; and J. J. Taylor, representing the State
Department of Agriculture. H. S. McClanahan, Grove Inspector,
is State Leader and the Plant Commissioner is Secretary. Bait
is furnished to growers when mole cricket populations in the
affected counties are such as to be beyond the ability of the
individual farmer to control, and after the Committee has been
furnished with resolutions adopted by boards of county com-
missioners assuming responsibility for all damage resulting from
the distribution of poison bait in their respective counties and
agreeing to furnish transportation for the bait from the mixing
plant at Plant City to distribution points in the counties as well
as office space and clerical help. Farmers desiring the bait
must fill out requisitions for the amounts needed.
The'number of farmers to whom poison bait was furnished
decreased from 5,339 in 1940 to 3,096 in 1943, while the acreage





State Plant Board of Florida


treated increased during the same period from 30,722 to 33,583.
The number of pounds of mixed bait distributed each year, to-
gether with expenditures from state and federal funds, is indi-
cated below:
Number Pounds I Cost to Federal
Bait Distributed Cost to State Government
1940 ........................ 2,516,865 $10,508.00 $70,000.00
1941 ................. 2,177,603 9,155.00 60,958.00
1942 ............... ........ 1,399,394 5,000.00 50,300.00
1943 ....... ................... 1,307,160 4,750.63 41,315.00


There can be but little question as to the need for federal
aid in the fall of 1940. The appearance of mole crickets in epi-
demic numbers threw growers, who had experienced several
unprofitable seasons, into a condition verging on panic. Com-
mercial baits, which a few growers were able to purchase, were
of doubtful value. Neither state nor federal authorities were
able to recommend means of controlling the insects other than
through the use of poison baits. Research investigations con-
ducted by the State Plant Board and Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine since 1940 have furnished a considerable
amount of information concerning the life history of the in-
sects, their feeding habits, degree of crop injury, and toxic
materials, which raises the question as to whether or not the
attack on the insect is directed at its most vulnerable stage. A
brief mention of some of the information developed follows:
Four species of mole crickets are present in Florida, two of
which, Scapteriscus acletus and S. vicinus, are present in the
sandy soils in areas where truck crops are grown commercially.
The bulk of the eggs are deposited during April, May, and
June in cells from three to eight inches below the surface of
the ground. The females construct from three to five cells, each
containing about thirty-five eggs. By July 15, most of the
young mole crickets, or nymphs, have emerged from the eggs,
and by midwinter are well on their way to maturity. They are
very much in evidence during the late summer and early fall
at the time seed beds are constructed and the planting of fall
vegetable crops is started. The poison bait developed through
experimental investigations, made up of 100 pounds of millrun
bran and eight pounds of sodium fluosilicate, slightly moistened
with water so as to make a flaky mixture, will, when properly
applied, kill mole crickets that consume the mixture. The bait






Fifteenth Biennial Report


must be evenly distributed at the rate of twenty pounds per acre
so that a particle is present on every square inch of the ground.
It should be applied in the evening when the ground has been
moistened by rain or irrigation and during periods of warm,
moist weather when the insects are very active, especially at
night. However, cool, dry weather has the effect of driving
them deep into their burrows where they will remain inactive
until climatic conditions are more favorable, when they will
again move closer to the surface of the ground. (A heavy rain,
however, is likely to wash the poison from the bran and render
the bait ineffective.) While mole crickets may leave their bur-
rows and move around on top of the ground, they rarely feed
upon materials which ordinarily would serve as food. Careful
observations have demonstrated that 95% of the feeding takes
place while the insects are wholly or partially within their
burrows. The antennae, or feelers, are pushed through cracks
in the burrows in search for food, which, when located, the in-
sects will attempt to reach without entirely leaving the shelter
of the burrow.
Thus it would appear that the effectiveness of the poison bait
treatment recommended is dependent upon several factors be-
yond the ability of the growers to control. It is evident that
further investigations are needed to develop control measures
that are not dependent in large measure upon an ideal combina-
tion of climatic and soil conditions and, possibly, upon chance
contact between insect and poison.
Observations made in the Plant City area over a period of
years indicate the possibility of obtaining effective control
through the use of cultural measures. It has been the custom
of the owners of several farms near Plant City and one near
Wauchula to plow their fields after the main spring money crop
has been removed, and to plant crotalaria which, in turn, is
plowed under in time to prepare the land for the fall crop. This
practice was adopted as a soil improvement measure, but for
some reason not known at this time it has also effected control
of mole crickets. It is possible that the turning of the soil in
the late spring or early summer destroys thousands of egg cells
and immature mole crickets. It is also possible that the crota-
laria has a toxic or repellent effect on the insects.
It is the belief of the Grove Inspector and his associates that
some investigational work along these lines should be under-
taken with the view of developing a more effective and practical






State Plant Board of Florida


means of control of mole cricket. Tentative plans have been
made for entering into a cooperative activity for this purpose
with the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

IRISH POTATO INSPECTION
Shipments of Florida grown Irish potatoes intended for de-
livery at points located in Colorado, Idaho, Utah, and Texas
must be certified as to freedom from potato tuber moth, and
shipments intended for delivery in California, Idaho, Nevada,
Oregon, Texas, and Utah must be certified as to freedom from
Colorado potato beetle. Thus it is necessary, in order that
Irish potato growers may find markets for their produce, for
the assistant grove inspectors to devote several weeks each
year to the inspection for, and certification as to freedom from,
these pests.
Inspections are confined to the potato producing areas in
South Florida, as the white potatoes produced in the Hastings
area are not in demand in the western states. Tuber moth may
be found throughout Florida and in most of the southern states
as well. It is seldom found infesting the main winter crops.
In fact, over a period of years field infestations have been found
only in the vicinities of Fort Myers and Belle Glade. A tabula-
tion depicting the number of acres inspected each year, together
with the number of cars certified, follows:

1942-1943 1943-1944
County No. Acres No. Cars No. Acres No. Cars
Inspected Certified Inspected Certified
Dade .............. 5,264 207 5,977 152
Lee .................. 184* 6 100* 108
Palm Beach 2,065 6 720* 5

Total ...... 7,513 219 6,797 265

Field inspection discontinued upon finding of infestations.

It required approximately 280 man-days for potato inspection
during 1942-1943 and 300 man-days to accomplish the task
during 1943-1944.
PINK BOLLWORM
A study of the pink bollworm infestations in Florida brings
up the rather interesting question as to how the pest was intro-






Fifteenth Biennial Report


duced into the state-by means of infested cottonseed or seed
cotton, or through drift of full-grown adult moths borne by
wind currents from infested fields located in the Bahama Islands,
Cuba, or the West Indies. Brief mention of the pink bollworm
situation in the United States follows:
This destructive cotton pest, firmly established in every major
cotton-producing country in the world, was not reported from
the United States until about 1917, when it was found in several
fields in Texas and Louisiana counties. Eradication measures
applied under state and federal authority apparently resulted
in eradication of the pest from those areas. However, at a
later date the insect was found in cotton fields along the Rio
Grande River. Reinfestations from Mexico, probably through
flight of the moths, have nullified attempts to eradicate, and it
would appear that pink bollworm will be encountered in cotton
fields in southern Texas for many years to come.
In the spring of 1932 the pest was reported attacking wild
cotton growing in Dade County, Florida. A survey disclosed
the fact that this wild host was growing on the keys on both
sides of the peninsula and on the mainland in the vicinity of
Cape Sable, and that the infestation was general and widespread.
In the late summer of 1932, incipient infestations were found
in commercial cotton fields and at gins in Alachua, Columbia,
Levy, Madison, Suwannee, and Jackson Counties. Control
measures were immediately applied to these areas, with the
result that the pest was apparently eradicated by 1936. Eradi-
cation of the insect has not been accomplished on the keys and
in the Cape Sable area, in spite of the fact that since 1932 there
has been in progress an extensive and careful search for wild
cotton plants which have been destroyed whenever found. Find-
ing the last wild cotton plant growing in the jungles and swamps
of the keys and the Everglades is like searching for the pro-
verbial needle in the haystack. But it is essential for the well-
being of the South's cotton industry that these wild plants be
removed so as to eliminate the possibility that infestation may
again spread into the commercial cotton-producing areas of the
state, and from there to other states.
It is possible that the pest was introduced into the northern
part of Florida as a result of the planting of infested cottonseed
smuggled past the quarantine lines thrown around the infested
fields in far-off Texas. But this would not account for the gen-
eral and widespread infestation of wild cotton in the southern






State Plant Board of Florida


part of the state. It is within the realm of possibility that this
wild cotton became infested as a result of moths which drifted
across the ocean from infested fields in the island countries to
our south and that infestation of the interior portion of Florida
was due, in turn, to drift of moths from the keys. In considering
this possibility, it should be remembered that our prevailing
winds are from the southeast.
It has been demonstrated by careful investigational work re-
quiring the use of specially equipped airplanes that there is a
considerable dispersal of insects by wind currents. Collections
have been made at altitudes varying from less than one hundred
feet to over fifteen thousand feet. It is a matter of record that
in Mexico live pink bollworm moths were collected in traps at
elevations of 6,700 feet. It is admitted that there is no evidence
at hand to indicate whether or not the violence of the wind
currents in the upper air would render these moths capable of
descending to the ground in good condition. Thus it is possible
that Florida, by reason of its geographical location, is exposed
to entry of foreign plant pests by means other than the bringing
of affected plant material into the state by air- or watercraft.


FEDERAL EXPENDITURES ON WILD COTTON AND PINK BOLLWORM
ERADICATION IN FLORIDA

Bureau of I
Entomology Acreage
Year and Plant W P A Total Cleaned and
Quarantine Recleaned

1932-33 ............ $ 60,000 $ 60,000 3,000
1933-34 ............ 60,000 60,000 4,500
1934-35 ............ 60,000 60,000 4,500
1935-36 ............ 60,000 $ 90,000 150,000 45,000
1936-37 ............ 60,000 40,000 100,000 45,000
1937-38 ............ 53,000 53,000 41,938
1938-39 ............ 61,400 28,386 89,786 34,305
1939-40 ........... 57,723 51,000* 108,723 38,757
1940-41** ........ 50,202 50,507 100,709 44,790
1941-42 ............ 61,500 44,424 105,924 36,340
1942-43 ............ 79,800 79,800 17,989
1943-44 ........... 97,000 97,000 36,197

Total ............. $760,625 $304,317 $1,064,942 352,316

Estimated.
** Estimated C. C. C. expenditures for 1940-41 amount to $65,000. There was no C. C. C.
cooperation in 1941-42.






Fifteenth Biennial Report


WHITE-FRINGED BEETLE
During the period covered by this account, there was no
extension of the areas in Escambia, Walton, and Okaloosa
Counties quarantined on account of the presence of white-
fringed beetle. There was, however, some increase in the known
infested acreage within the quarantine lines, due to migration
of the insects from one farm to another. Control measures,
consisting of applications of cryolite to peanuts and calcium
arsenate to cotton and other preferred hosts, were applied almost
entirely by agents of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, United States Department of Agriculture. As the
time for treatment (shortly after emergence of the adults
during late June and July) coincides with the beginning of
our rainy season, the poison was frequently washed from the
plants shortly after application. In some fields as many as
eight applications were made. Federal agents report satis-
factory control following repeated applications.
Several years ago the Plant Commissioner and his associates
expressed the opinion that eradication of a parthenogenetic
insect such as the white-fringed beetle, which was firmly estab-
lished over some one hundred thousand acres in the States of
Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and North Carolina,
was impractical, and that attempts to control the insect during
the rainy season through applications of poison dust were likely
to be too expensive for farmers to attempt without government
subsidization. With these thoughts in mind, Plant Board of-
ficials urged the Bureau to intensify its research program for
the purpose of developing some practical means of control
whereby farmers in the infested area might continue their
operations without undue expenditures for control of the white-
fringed beetle. As evidence of its belief in this line of attack,
the State Plant Board furnished the services of two employees
to assist in research investigations. It is believed that expendi-
tures for this purpose have been justified by the recommenda-
tions of the Research Division that farmers attempt to control
white-fringed beetle through the adoption of a modified crop
rotation program which provides for the planting of winter cover
crops either immune or highly resistant to beetle attacks in
heavily infested fields and the planting of peanuts or other pre-
ferred hosts on the portions of the farm where the pests are
present in small numbers or entirely absent. The merits of a
program of this nature as good farming and soil improvement







28 State Plant Board of Florida

practices have aroused the interest of representatives of the Flor-
ida Agricultural Extension Service. Through the cooperative
efforts of these individuals, representatives of the State Plant
Board and the Bureau in the fall of 1943, a number of farmers
in the affected areas adopted the program with excellent results.
Yields of blue lupine seed as high as 750 pounds to the acre
and winter oats up to fifty bushels per acre have been reported.
As this cultural program was not inaugurated until the fall
of 1943, it is too early to form any definite opinion as to its
value as a pest control activity. It is believed by state and
federal officials that the plan has merit, and, in addition, is
probably the only practical suggestion yet presented for farming
operations in the infested areas. It may be the means by which
farmers in those areas can operate without undue loss from
white-fringed beetle in the event the federal government termi-
nates its rather large expenditures for control operations in
Florida. A tabulation depicting estimated federal expenditures
since 1938 follows:*

FEDERAL EXPENDITURES FOR WHITE-FRINGED BEETLE CONTROL IN FLORIDA
Year Amount Expended
1938 ........-..... ...--... -$ 60,080.81
1939 .......... ...................... .. ....... 107,481.40
1940 ............ .............. ......... 103,482.32
1941 .....-.............- .... ......... ............ 110,192.73
1942 .......................................... .............. 93,873.28
1943 ....................................... 107,032.44
1944 (first half of calendar year) ........ 82,630.41

Total ........... ... . ................ $664,773.39




Expenditures from state funds for white-fringed beetle research, con-
trol, and quarantine enforcement since July 1937 were approximately
$66,000.






Fifteenth Biennial Report


REPORT OF THE APIARY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
Robert E. Foster, Apiary Inspector
Bees, like humans, are subject to attack by diseases capable
of causing great mortalities. To reduce to a minimum the
losses to Florida's apiary industry, the Legislature in 1919
adopted the Florida Bee Disease Law and made the State Plant
Board responsible for its administration. Uninformed citizens
may regard the activities of the bee inspectors as a joke and
criticize the expenditure of state funds for their support. But
well informed individuals realize fully the importance of the
State's beekeeping industry, together with the need for pro-
tecting it against losses as a result of attacks by infectious
diseases.
The busy little bee is an important cog in the machinery
of war. The apiary industry has been given a high priority
rating by the government. It is reported that there are 350
uses, from munitions to medical, of beeswax for military pur-
poses. All ammunition from the rifle cartridges up to 16-inch
shells are coated with beeswax. This commodity is used to
protect and waterproof delicate coils and electric wiring in
aircraft, trucks and tanks. Canvas and leather are water-
proofed with beeswax, and all leather equipment is sewn with
waxed thread. The annual needs for beeswax on the part of
the Army and Navy have been estimated at 1,000,000 pounds.
Another million pounds are required for medical and pharma-
ceutical purposes. These are the requirements for the United
States alone. Our allies require proportionate amounts. Sup-
plies of beeswax in the past imported from foreign countries
are no longer available, and the Federal Government has re-
peatedly urged beekeepers to step up the production of this
essential commodity. Under war-time conditions, honey is
widely used as a substitute for sugar, particularly by the baking
industry, and beekeepers are called upon to produce larger
amounts of honey. Without the cross-pollination of flowers, so
essential in the setting of certain fruits and vegetables, the
yields of these crops would be too low to pay for the costs of
production, and there would be a serious shortage of many
essential food and forage crops.
All of these important contributions to the successful prose-
cution of the war could be greatly minimized by an epidemic of
diseases affecting bees. One in particular, a highly contagious






State Plant Board of Florida


(to bees) bacterial disease commonly known as American foul-
brood, is fully capable of wiping out entire colonies, even apiaries,
in a very short time. It is eradication of this disease that
occupies most of the time and efforts of the Plant Board's apiary
inspectors. This disease, harmless to humans, may be spread
from hive to hive, and from apiary to apiary through the activi-
ties of the bees themselves, and by carelessness on the part
of the beekeeper. The disease affects the larvae and pupae,
those stages in the life cycle of the bee between the egg and
the adult. As the adult bee does not live much beyond forty
days, any interference with the continuous development of the
new brood will cause a rapid decline in the population of the
colony, to the point where the orderly conduct of the hive is
disrupted and the entrance left wide open for invasion by robber
bees. When robbing once starts, the news is promptly and
widely disseminated, and bees from colonies located several
miles away will join with the raiders. The infected honey
carried away by these intruders is capable of introducing Ameri-
can foulbrood into the robbers' own hives. There is no satis-
factory cure for this disease, and the rules of the State Plant
Board require destruction of diseased colonies by burning. As
the large commercial apiaries arp kept under regular inspection,
presence of the disease is usually detected before it can become
well established. The greatest menace is presented by the
householder with only a few colonies, whose location is not
known to the inspectors. As a rule these backyard beekeepers
are not familiar with bee diseases and American foulbrood may
be present. Such colonies serve as foci from which the disease
spreads in all directions.
The need for the finding of infected colonies and clean-up
of American foulbrood at the earliest possible moment is essen-
tial. This is the task of the apiary inspectors of the State Plant
Board. Florida's apiary industry is a considerable one. During
the past year there were 8,586,000 pounds of honey, valued at
121/2 cents a pound, and 197,000 pounds of beeswax, at a value
of 41 cents a pound, produced in our apiaries. In addition, there
was a considerable income from the sale of queen bees. Many
beekeepers have worked up a nice business in the sale of pack-
ages containing two to three pounds of bees to out-of-state
beekeepers. These are used to strengthen colonies in the North
which have become depleted during the long winter months
when the bees were confined to their hives. There is no way of






Fifteenth Biennial Report


estimating the value of bees to the State's truck farmers and
fruit growers. Yields of cucumbers, watermelons, cantaloups,
beans and other legumes, onions, carrots, avocados, mangoes,
and possibly citrus, are greatly increased as a result of the cross-
pollination of flowers of these plants as the bees move from
blossom to blossom in the collection of pollen and nectar.
According to records on file in the Apiary Inspector's office,
there are approximately 7,500 beekeepers in Florida, and 147,414
colonies of bees. During the fiscal year July 1, 1942-June 30,
1943, there were 80,823 colony inspections made in 3,347 apiaries.
American foulbrood was found in 524 colonies in 100 apiaries.
This figure represents .0065% of the total number of colonies
inspected. The 100 apiaries were located in 18 counties.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1944, there were
73,649 colony inspections made in 2,646 apiaries, in 47 counties.
American foulbrood was found in 456 colonies in 106 apiaries in
23 counties. This figure represents .0062% of the colony in-
spections.
The apiary inspection force consists of one chief inspector,
one full-time inspector, and five part-time inspectors.






State Plant Board of Florida


QUARANTINE INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
Arthur C. Brown, Quarantine Inspector
Florida is exposed to invasion of domestic and foreign plant
pests by land, air, and water. The assistant quarantine in-
spectors stationed at Pensacola, Jacksonville, West Palm Beach,
Fort Lauderdale, Miami, Tampa, and Key West can, and do,
prevent entry of destructive insects and diseases affecting plants
and plant products that arrive by rail, mail, motor vehicles,
vessels, and airplanes. But they can do little with respect to
insects and diseases that may be present in plant material
washed ashore along our vast coast line. During the height
of the submarine warfare, there were at times stretches of the
Florida coast covered with fruits, vegetables, and other plant
products washed ashore from torpedoed ships. Nor can the
Board's inspectors control the movement of insects carried into
the state by air currents from the tropical countries lying to
the southeast. Further reference to the likelihood of entry of
air-borne insects will be found in the section of the Grove In-
spector's report dealing with pink bollworm.
Coastwise shipping has almost disappeared under war-time
conditions, and cruise ships with great numbers of passengers
no longer arrive at Florida ports. But the air traffic between
Florida airfields and foreign countries has increased manyfold.
The Board's assistant quarantine inspectors at Miami supervise
the entry of baggage and cargo arriving on between thirty-five
and forty aircraft daily. As many as fifty-one airplanes from
foreign countries have been inspected at that port during one
twenty-four-hour period. The number of arrivals at other ports
where inspectors are stationed is not as great as is the case
at Miami. These planes arrive from practically every country
in the world-Burma, Guadalcanal, Tahiti, and the Gold Coast
of Africa are included in the list of eighty-six foreign countries
from which plant material has been intercepted. Planes from
other countries such as Sicily and Paraguay, on which no plant
material was carried, were also inspected.
World-wide warfare, with the attendant need for secrecy re-
garding the movements of millions of men and thousands of
air- and watercraft, together with supplies and equipment, has
greatly increased the risk of entry of alien insect pests as well
as the difficulties of the plant quarantine enforcement officers.






Fifteenth Biennial Report


The Secretaries of War and the Navy have issued orders regu-
lating the movement of plants and plant products by service
aircraft and directing commanding officers of service airfields
to cooperate with the plant quarantine inspectors stationed in
the vicinity of the airfields. At the larger fields where there
are regular arrivals of aircraft from foreign countries, the
Board's inspectors are afforded an opportunity to visit incoming
planes and enforce quarantine regulations. But there are other
fields in Florida at which aircraft arrive from time to time on
unscheduled flights and from which planes at times make opera-
tional flights to foreign countries. As neither plant quarantine
nor Customs officers are stationed at these fields, there is no
one to enforce plant quarantine regulations, and there is opened
an avenue for the entry of such plant material as may be brought
back by members of the crew.
The termination of the war will undoubtedly increase, rather
than decrease, the degree of risk of entry of plant pests. Mem-
bers of the armed forces stationed in Europe, Africa, and parts
of Asia will be returned by plane via the shortest routes, which
will mean entry into the United States via Florida airfields. The
volume of returning service men and women will overtax the
facilities of the airfields now designated as ports of arrival.
It is to be expected that large interior training fields will be
designated as points of disembarkation. Such utilization of in-
terior airfields will mean that fresh fruits and plants will be
carried right into the center of citrus and vegetable producing
areas.
It is not uncommon for returning service personnel to have
fresh fruits and other plant products in their possession. Dur-
ing the course of a two-hour tour of duty, inspectors stationed
at one airfield confiscated cotton linters from India, cottonseed
from the French Sudan, pineapples from an unknown point in
Africa, citrus fruits from Trinidad, pears and mangoes from
Brazil, oranges from Panama, and apples from the Netherlands
West Indies-all carried on different planes. At one time chance
examination of a crate marked "military equipment" disclosed
the presence of an extra large stem of bananas!
That plant pests may be transported by planes from distant
lands and arrive in a live condition is evidenced by interceptions
made by the Board's inspectors. Fresh fruits infested with fruit
flies, including Mediterranean fruit fly and the Mexican fruit






State Plant Board of Florida


worm, have been confiscated on several occasions. During the
past fiscal year the Entomologist made 404 determinations for
the Quarantine Inspection Department, 18 of which were fruit
flies and 22 insects either new or rare in this country. One
disease specimen is yet to be identified.
It has been a most difficult task to keep the several ports
of entry staffed with a sufficient number of qualified men to
inspect the aircraft which arrive at any hour during the day
or night. Qualifications that tend to make a good plant quaran-
tine inspector are many and varied. He must be trained to
recognize plant pests; have the physical endurance to enable
him to work long hours in the rain or sun; be familiar with the
voluminous federal plant quarantine regulations; and he must
be endowed with a combination of force and tact that will enable
him to get along with dock workers and stevedores; enlisted
men and general officers or admirals; high-ranking govern-
mental officials and ambassadors. In addition, he must be will-
ing to spend long hours on Thanksgiving Day, Christmas, and
other holidays waiting for the arrival of a ship or a plane. The
State of Florida owes a debt of gratitude to its plant quarantine
inspectors for their unselfish and faithful services.
A study of the several tables presented herewith will enable
Board members to form some impression as to the extent and
scope of the activities of the Quarantine Inspection Department.


SHIP AND AIRPLANE INSPECTION AT FLORIDA PORTS
S 1942-1943 1943-1944
Ships and planes from foreign ports*
By air .............................................. 7,520 10,843
By water ........................................-.. 3,451 5,153
Passengers .......................................... 98,052** 155,580**
Pieces baggage ..................................... 288,225 455,576
Parcels of plant products, etc.,
handled ............................................. 10,714,558 14,643,929
Foreign countries from which plant
material was intercepted ........... 66 77
Foreign countries from which infest-
ed or infected plant material was
intercepted .......................... ............ 25 26
Packages destroyed, contraband ......... 3,971 6,524

Includes Puerto Rico and other foreign possessions.
** Includes military personnel.







Fifteenth Biennial Report 35

FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINE ACTIVITIES DURING BIENNIUM 1942-1944 AS
COMPARED TO PREVIOUS BIENNIUM

No. Air- and Parcels Plant Number Baggage
Watercraft Products Passengers Inspected
Planes I Vessels | Handled

1940-41 .. 2,768 2,769 5,745,308 112,884 349,545
1941-42 .... 3,169 2,163 6,013,380 79,669 249,806

Total ....... 5,937 4,932 11,758,688 192,553 599,351


1942-43 7,520 3,451 10,714,558 98,052 288,225
1943-44 .. 10,843 5,153 14,643,929 155,580 455,576

Total ........ 18,363 8,604 25,358,487 253,632 743,801






State Plant Board of Florida


ENTOMOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT
Geo. B. Merrill, Entomologist

Identification of insects collected by the Board's field in-
spectors continued to occupy most of the time of the Ento-
mologist during the biennium. Specimens of diseases sent to
the Entomologist are referred to the Pathologist of the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station for examination. It is de-
sirable that determinations of insects and diseases should be
made by specialists, for upon their findings rests the decision
as to whether or not a property should be placed under quaran-
tine, or a shipment of plants or plant products destroyed or sent
out of the state.
The number of plant pests received and identified during the
fiscal year 1942-1943 was 3,706 as compared to 1,981 during
1943-1944.
The Entomologist devoted considerable time during the bi-
ennium to a study of the behavior, host plants, and economic
importance of two scale-insects recently discovered in Florida,
together with measures for their control. These insects are
Parlatoria chinensis Marlatt, previously reported in this coun-
try from St. Louis, Missouri, and from Egypt, China, Japan,
and India; and Coccus viridis (Green) which is present through-
out the tropics. It would appear that both of these scale-insects
have been present in Florida for some time, since P. chinensis
was found in localities as widely separated as Boynton, in Palm
Beach County, and Bonita Springs, in Lee County. Green scale
has been found severely infesting glades myrtle or groundsel
(Baccharis halimifolia) growing wild along the Glades on the
lower east coast.

Parlatoria chinensis Scale
The scale-insect Parlatoria chinensis Marlatt was found on
January 26, 1943, infesting cluster fig (Ficus glomerata Roxb.)
at Boynton, Florida, by Assistant Nursery Inspector George
H. Baker. This was the first report of the scale from Florida.
Its occurrence on the trunks and larger branches of Ficus trees
growing near Boynton, West Palm Beach, Palm Beach, Lake
Park, Pahokee, Fort Lauderdale, Clewiston, Hollywood, and
Bonita Springs would indicate that it has been present in the
state for many years.






Fifteenth Biennial Report


Careful inspection of nursery stock in Florida, known to be
hosts of the scale in the vicinity of St. Louis, Missouri, was
negative. The majority of the infestations noted in Florida
have been on large Ficus trees, twenty species and one variety
having been reported as hosts. To date Parlatoria chinensis
has not been observed on the commercial fig, Ficus carica. It
would appear, from the severity of individual infestations ob-
served, that the larger trees having considerable flaky or corky
outer bark are preferred by the scale.
The adult female scale-covering is flat or very slightly convex,
short elliptical to oval, length up to 1/25 of an inch. The
exuviae are marginal, or submarginal, and are covered with a
thin, easily detachable film of secretion. There is no trace of
a cone or a ring and dot arrangement on the surface, as in many
other scales. The color of the live adult female is light purple,
becoming darker as it matures. The dried adult female is
a reddish brown color. The scale covering tends towards
coloration of the host bark, more so on some hosts than on
others. The presence of this scale may be indicated by the
purple color of the adult female and ventral molt skins of the
males which remain as tiny white specks on infested plants long
after the male covers slough off.
On our only hosts, several species of Ficus, the scales are
usually found between the flaky or corky layers of the bark,
under which conditions it is very difficult to see them.
Some experimental investigations have been made in an at-
tempt to determine the effectiveness of various oil sprays as
control measures. This work was done in cooperation with the
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United States
Department of Agriculture. Three well-known standard com-
mercial oil spray concentrates readily available on the local mar-
kets were used. Effective controls were obtained through the
use of a solution containing four percent actual oil without ap-
parent injury to the trees up to nine months after application.
There is presented below a tabulation depicting the varieties of
trees sprayed, materials used, and control achieved.

Green Scale (Coccus viridis (Green))

This scale was first reported from Davie on May 25, 1942,
when it was observed on the young growth of citrus. A survey
disclosed its presence on some eighty wild and cultivated plants






TABLE I


White Hall Hotel, Palm Beach, Florida


Sprayed October 27, 1943 co


oo


Percent Alive Percent
Control
Plat Number Treatment Host Nov. April July Nov.
15-16, 16-17, 18-19, 15-16,
1943 1944 1944 1943

1 and 2 ........................ Niagara Volck 4% plus Lethane Ficus religiosa 0.3 0.4 0.0 99
60, 1-800
3 ................................ Growers Oil 4% Ficus vogelii I 0.0 0.0 0.0 100

4 .................................... Niagara Volck 4% Ficus elastic 2.4 1.4 0.0 95

5 ................................I Scale-0 4% Ficus elastic 0.0 0.0 0.0 100
Check .......................... None Ficus religiosa 59.1 37.0 64.2

Check ............................ None Ficus vogelii 36.6 57.0


Rugby Road, West Palm Beach, Florida Sprayed October 27, 1943


1 ............................... Scale-0 4% plus Lethane 60, 1-800 Ficus religiosa 4.5 9.0 8.9 95

2 ................................... Niagara Voick 4% plus Lethane Ficus religiosa 0.3 4.0 1.3 99
60, 1-800
3 .................................... Growers Oil 4% plus Lethane 60, Ficus religiosa 0.4 1.0 0.0 99
1-800
Check ............................ None Ficus religiosa 82.0 77.0 69.1






Fifteenth Biennial Report


growing in localities from Fort Lauderdale southward to Florida
City, especially in the Glades area.
This scale in many ways resembles the soft brown scale
(Coccus hesperidum (Linn.)) in appearance and habits. It is
oval in shape, more pointed in front and moderately convex, and
from 1/16 to 1/8 of an inch in length. The covering is rather
soft or pliable, of a light pale green color, with two black eye
spots on the forward rim of the scale. A distinct U-shaped,. or
irregular, group of blackish spots are usually present' in the
middle of the upper surface. It would appear that this scale
prefers the young tender growth, and when this wood hardens
the scale migrates to the new flush of growth. This scale is
usually found on the younger trees; in fact, infestations on older
trees are rarely observed. A few scales have been noted on
young citrus fruit, but never on mature fruit.
During the past year several trips were made to Broward and
Dade Counties for the purpose of observing any possible fluctua-
tion, from an economic standpoint, of the green scale. As in-
dicated in a previous report, this scale is not at present con-
sidered as especially injurious on citrus or other tropical fruit
trees, for the reason that the entomogenous (friendly) fungus
Cephalosporium lecanii apparently keeps it under economic con-
trol. The preferred hosts, glades myrtle or groundsel (Baccharis
halimifolia) and false-willow (Baccharis angustifolia), seem
to show slightly less infestation than was the case last year.
Where located close to water, there was a small amount of
Cephalosporium present.

Hosts of Green Scale in Florida

1. Achras sapota Sapodilla
2. Amaranthus spinosus Thorny amaranth
3. Ambrosia monophylla Ragweed
4. Andropogon virginicus Broom sedge
5. Annona montana Mountain soursop
6. Annona muricata Soursop
7. Antidesma bunius Bignay, tropical currant, etc.
8. Aster exilis Aster
9. Baccharis angustifolia False willow
10. Baccharis halimifolia Glades myrtle, groundsel,
. : silverling
11. Bidens bipinnata Spanish needle






State Plant Board of Florida


12. Boehmeria cylindrica
13. Capraria'biflora
14. Carissa carandas
15. Casasia clusiifolia
16. Casimiroa edulis
17. Casimiroa sp.
18. Cephalanthus occidentalis
19. Chiococca pinetorum
20. Chrysophyllum olivaeforme
21. Cirsium sp.
22. Citrus spp.
23. Coccolobis uvifera
24. Coffea arabica
25. Cyperus brunneus
26. Diodia virginiana
27. Dipholis salicifolia
28. Erechtites hieracifolia
29. Ehretia microphylla
30. Eupatorium capillifolium
31. Ficus area
32. Ficus macrophylla
33. Gardenia florida
34. Hiptage sp.
35. Icacorea paniculata
36. Ilex paraguariensis
37. Ipomoea learii
38. Iresine celosia
39. Ixora coccinea
40. Jussiaea peruviana
41. Jussiaea scabra
42. Kopsia (Ochrosia) elliptica
43. Laguncularia racemosa

44. Lantana camera
45. Lucuma nervosa
46. Ludwigia microcarpa
47. Lythrum lanceolatum
48. Malacantha warneckeana
49. Malvastrum spicatum
50. Metopium toxiferum
51. Mikania batatifolia
52. Momordica charantia


Button-hemp, false nettle

Christ's thorn, karanda
Seven-year apple
White sapota
Golden sapota
Button bush
Snowberry
Satinleaf
Thistle
Many
Seagrape
Coffee
Sawgrass
A buttonweed
Bustic, cassada
Fireweed, pilewort
Philippine tea
Dog fennel
Strangler fig, golden fig
Moreton Bay fig
Cape jasmine

Marlberry
Yerba mate
Blue dawn-flower
A blood-leaf
Scarlet Ixora
Peru water primrose-willow
A primrose-willow

White mangrove, white button-
wood
Lantana
Eggfruit, canistel
A rattle or seed-box
A Lythrum

A false mallow
Poisonwood
A climbing hempweed
Wild balsam apple






Fifteenth Biennial Report


53. Morinda roioc
54. Musa sapientum
55. Nectandra coriacea
56. Panicum purpurascens
57. Parthenocissus quinquefolia
58. Phragmites phragmites
59. Phytolacca rigida
60. Pluchea camphorata
61. Plumeria sp.
62. Psidium guajava
63. Psychotria nervosa
64. Pycnoria pinctorum
65. Rapanea guayanensis
66. Rhus leucantha
67. Ricinis communis
68. Rumex sp.
69. Sabal palmetto
70. Salix amphibia
71. Sambucus simpsonii
72. Sida acuta
73. Smilax laurifolia
74. Solanum Blodgettii
75. Solidago fistulosa
76. Solidago mexicana
77. Tetrazygia bicolor
78. Thelypterus sp. (Dryop-
teris sp.)
79. Urena lobata
80. Vitis simpsonii


Yellow root, Royoc
Banana
Lancewood
Para grass
Virginia creeper, woodbine
Common reed
Pokeberry, inkberry
A marsh fleabane
Frangipani
Guava
Wild coffee
Fern
Myrsine
Southern sumac
Castor bean, Palma christi
Dock
Cabbage palmetto
Willow
Gulf elder, southern elder
Teaweed
Bamboo vine, blaspheme vine
A nightshade
A goldenrod
A goldenrod
Tetrazygia

A fern
Cottonweed
Currant grape


Dr. E. W. Berger, Entomologist, retired from active service
on January 1, 1943, after a long and distinguished period of
employment with the State of Florida. He was first employed
on May 1, 1906 in the capacity of Entomologist by the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station. On July 1, 1911, he was
appointed State Inspector of Nursery Stock, and served in that
position until May 1, 1915, when he resigned to become Ento-
mologist for the newly created State Plant Board.
Dr. Berger's investigations and work with entomogenous fungi
won for him international fame. Up to the time of his retire-
ment, he supervised the culture of the Aschersonias and one or
two other friendly fungi for distribution to growers in the state






42 State Plant Board of Florida

for control of whiteflies and scale-insects. He made the first
investigations of citrus canker in the state and was active, in
an advisory capacity, in the growers' fight to eradicate this
disease.




To succeed Dr. Berger, the Board promoted Mr. G. B. Merrill
from the position of Associate Entomologist to that of Ento-
mologist. Mr. Merrill has been with the Board since January
1916. After several years' activities with the Quarantine In-
spection Department, he became associated with Dr. Berger, and
has been active in entomological work since that time. Mr.
Merrill is a recognized authority on the scale-insects and white-
flies of the world.















THE ROLL OF HONOR


The following employees of the State Plant Board of Florida
are serving in the several branches of the military service, as
indicated:

ANDERSON, M. L., Ensign. -......................Navy-Malaria Control
BARCUS, DAVID, Lt..-..-........------....------..--Army-Infantry
BREAZEALE, J. I., Ph. M.........-..~......---------. ..Naval Reserve
DEKLE, GEO. W., Lt-------....... --.......--...............------Army-Paratroops
FREDRICK, JOHN M..............----------...................Navy-Medical Corps
FRIERSON, PAUL E., Capt....................---.... Army-Infantry
GIRARDEAU, J. H., Lt....--....----... --.... ..-- -- Army-Infantry
GUTHRIE, J. B., Capt..... -..-... .............-- ...Army-Q. M. Corps
LEE, FRANK A., Sgt .........................Army-Malaria Survey
MITCHELL, LORRY W., Capt...--------...................Army-Air Corps
REMINGTON, RICHARD, Lt.....-...-.......---------- Marine Corps
SHEPARD, C. E., Lt. .-...- --------.. ----- Army-Infantry
SHEPARD, C. R., Lt ..............----------............ .Navy-Intelligence
SKINNER, JOHN D., Staff Sergeant------...... ....Army-Infantry




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