• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Report of state plant board
 Report of the plant commission...














Group Title: Report for the period ... of the State Plant Board of Florida
Title: Report for the period ...
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098574/00011
 Material Information
Title: Report for the period ...
Alternate Title: Biennial report
Physical Description: 19 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: State Plant Board of Florida
Publisher: State Plant Board of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1940/42
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Plants, Protection of -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: State Plant Board of Florida.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 4th (1920/22)- 23rd (1958/60).
Numbering Peculiarities: Vols. for 1950/52-1958/60 also called: Bulletin.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098574
Volume ID: VID00011
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10989019
lccn - sn 86033752
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the biennial period ending ... and supplemental reports to ...
Succeeded by: Biennial report

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Report of state plant board
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Report of the plant commissioner
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
Full Text







STATE PLANT BOARD

OF FLORIDA








REPORT FOR THE PERIOD

JULY 1, 1940-JUNE 30, 1942

(Fourteenth Biennial Report)


JANUARY, 1943




/02


AGRI-
CULTURAL
LSRARY








STATE PLANT BOARD

HENRY P. ADAIR, Chairman, Jacksonville
R. H. GORE, Fort Lauderdale
N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
T. T. SCOTT, Live Oak
THOSE. W. BRYANT, Lakeland
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee


STAFF

WILMON NEWELL, Plant Commissioner
E. W. BERGER, Entomologist
J. C. GOODWIN, Nursery Inspector
ARTHUR C. BROWN, Quarantine Inspector
R. E. FOSTER, Apiary Inspector
H. S. MCCLANAHAN, Grove Inspector
L. RI. HUNTER, Chief Clerk






Fourteenth Biennial Report


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
July 20, 1942
To His Excellency,
Spessard L. Holland,
Governor of Florida.
SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the State Plant Board
of Florida for the biennium ending June 30, 1942. Please submit
same to the Legislature.
Respectfully,
STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA,
By: HENRY P. ADAIR,
Chairman.

REPORT OF THE STATE PLANT BOARD

There is presented herewith for the information of Your Ex-
cellency and the members of the Legislature an account of the
activities of the State Plant Board for the biennium ending
June 30, 1942.
The personnel of the Board at the end of the biennium is as
follows: Henry P. Adair, Jacksonville; R. H. Gore, Fort Lauder-
dale; N. B. Jordan, Quincy; T. T. Scott, Live Oak; Thos. W.
Bryant, Lakeland. Changes made since the last report include
the appointment of Mr. Scott to succeed Mr. C. P. Helfenstein
and of Mr. Bryant to succeed Mr. W. M. Palmer. Mr. Adair is
the Chairman, and Mr. J. T. Diamond of Tallahassee is the
Secretary.
The application of the Florida Plant Act and of the rules and
regulations adopted by the Board has been entrusted, as in the
past, to the Plant Commissioner as Chief Executive Officer. The
activities of the several departments are directed by a depart-
ment head under the direct supervision of the Plant Commis-
sioner. All recommendations of the Plant Commissioner re-
ceived the serious consideration of the Board at its monthly
meetings before actions were taken.
It is felt that the organization has functioned efficiently, eco-
nomically, and with considerable benefit to the state. There is
no doubt that entry and dissemination of plant pests have been
curbed. That it has operated economically is evidenced by the
facts that not only has its record of never creating a deficiency


/, ) I






State Plant Board of Florida


been maintained, but it has closed each year of the last biennium
with unexpended balances.
The Board has had splendid cooperation from all organizations
engaged in work of a similar nature or whose activities in any
way touch those in which we are engaged. The United States
Department of Agriculture, through its Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine, has carried more than its share in the con-
trol of white-fringed beetle. The same Bureau is to be thanked
for providing, at no cost to Florida farmers, poison bait for the
control of mole crickets, which pests appeared in the fall of 1940
and 1941 in such numbers as to create an emergency beyond the
power of individual farmers to control. The Board is also greatly
indebted to the Collector of Customs at Tampa, whose interest
in the enforcement of foreign plant quarantines has made pos-
sible the boarding of foreign vessels without undue delay.
The activities of the Board are almost solely of a regulatory
nature. It is consequently advantageous to have available for
consultation and advice the specialists attached to the College of
Agriculture and the Agricultural Experiment Station, who have
been most generous in rendering assistance. The offices of the
Plant Commissioner are located in the Seagle Building, Gaines-
ville. Under the law, suitable quarters are provided by the Uni-
versity of Florida.
Detailed information as to the activities of the several depart-
ments is made a part of the Plant Commissioner's report, which
is attached hereto.
The Board has given considerable thought to two grave re-
sponsibilities thrust upon it by reason of the world war. These
are (1) adequate protection of the state's vast, and vital, agri-
cultural and horticultural investments against added loss that
might result from invasion by alien insects and diseases; and
(2) the need for curtailing to the minimum expenditures re-
quired to achieve such protection. It has provided for a decrease
of some ten percent in its expenditures for 1942-43. Its estimates
as to the amounts necessary to operate effectively and efficiently
during the biennium beginning July 1, 1943, are a part of the
Plant Commissioner's report. In arriving at this estimate, con-
sideration was given to the fact that while the need for economy
at present and for several years to come is most evident, there
may be some question as to the wisdom of practicing economy to
the point where the future prosperity of our citrus and vegetable
industries may be placed in jeopardy.






Fourteenth Biennial Report


The Plant Commissioner in his report indicates how changed
transportation policies brought about by the war have widened
the avenues of entry for foreign plant pests. Foreign plant
products, many of them hosts of destructive insects and diseases
which in the past were excluded entry into the South by federal
quarantines, are now discharging at the principal ports of entry
in Florida. In the past, vessels loaded with foreign plant prod-
ucts infested with certain pests were fumigated before discharge
was authorized. Today, on account of the need for the utmost
speed in loading and unloading ships, delays such as would be
caused by treatment of a ship and its cargo would not be tol-
erated. There are no commercial fumigation plants large enough
to treat large quantities of foreign goods available in Florida.
The use of freight cars as fumigation chambers is not practical.
Infested material may remain on the dock for days-even weeks
-awaiting transportation, thereby affording an excellent oppor-
tunity for the escape and establishment of such pests as may be
present. Even when loaded, freight cars may be placed on sid-
ings in the interior of the state, thereby exposing our citrus and
other plantings to infection or infestation.
Airplanes arrive at frequent intervals from almost every
country in Central and South America and even the eastern hem-
isphere. Commercial planes are limited by regulations of the
United States Customs Service to entry for inspection at certain
ports. Commanders of army and navy planes are required by
orders issued by the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the
Navy to abide by the provisions of the federal plant quarantine
regulations and, upon arrival at a port in the continental United
States, to communicate promptly with the nearest plant quaran-
tine inspector. These orders apply also to commanders of naval
vessels and army transports. Thus provision has been made for
inspection of service air and watercraft arriving at ports where
our plant quarantine inspectors are stationed. There are records
of airplanes, probably flown by uninformed pilots, proceeding di-
rectly to interior airports without communicating with Customs
or plant quarantine officers. Infested fruits secured in a foreign
country and discarded upon arrival in Florida may be the means
of establishment in the heart of our citrus producing area of new
and possibly destructive plant pests. These planes arrive from
countries where citrus canker, Mediterranean fruit fly, Mexican
orange maggot, and many other major pests are established.






State Plant Board of Florida


This situation makes almost imperative close and frequent
inspections of our nurseries, groves, and other plantings. The
Board's grove inspection force at the present time is not ade-
quate to afford proper protection to our citrus industry alone, and
any curtailment in the number of inspectors employed, as well
as the number of inspectors assigned to nursery inspection,
would seriously impair the value of the inspection service.
All these factors were carefully considered in the preparation
of the estimates for the biennium beginning July 1, 1943. It is
hoped that the legislature, in considering the appropriation for
the State Plant Board, will likewise give thought to the need for
protection of our horticultural and agricultural interests and the
consequences that might result if adequate protection is not
forthcoming.
The Board especially urges that the Emergency Fund of $50,-
000 customarily provided be continued. No expenditures from
this fund were made during the past biennium.

Respectfully submitted,
STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA
By H. P. ADAIR, Chairman






Fourteenth Biennial Report


REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER
For Biennium Ending June 30, 1942

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
Gainesville, Florida
July 15, 1942

Honorable Henry P. Adair, Chairman,
State Plant Board of Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to present herewith my report as Plant
Commissioner for the biennium ending June 30, 1942.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Plant Commissioner.


REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER
The need for protecting the nation's agricultural and horti-
cultural industries against losses due to attacks by plant pests
and preventing entry of additional ones is an urgent one during
periods such as we are now passing through. Adequate supplies
of fresh and processed foodstuffs for our armed forces, our allies,
and ourselves, and of plant materials required in the production
of essential war materials must be forthcoming in ever increasing
quantities. Every precaution should be taken to prevent inter-
ruptions in this flow of materials such as are likely to follow
serious crop losses resulting from attacks by major plant pests.
Again, production of essential plant products without the need
for application of pest control measures not only enables grow-
ers to produce larger yields at a low cost, but, highly important
at this time, reduces to a minimum the demand for labor and for
spray machinery and materials composed of commodities such
as iron, steel, rubber, and many others, urgently required for war
purposes.
Florida, by reason of its geographical location and nearness
to many foreign countries, has always been exposed to invasion
by alien insect pests. Today the exposure is far greater than in
the past. A few illustrations of such risks are mentioned.
On account of the risk of introducing destructive tropical and
subtropical plant pests into the South where conditions favorable






State Plant Board of Florida


for their development are comparable to those existing in their
native countries, the federal government has heretofore wisely
restricted entry of certain plant products to northern ports only.
The submarine menace has forced a change in this policy. Today,
on account of the demand for prompt and safe delivery of essen-
tial foreign plant products with the least possible exposure to
priceless shipping, plant products from Cuba, the West Indies,
Central and South America are unloaded at the nearest port.
And Florida, jutting far out into the Atlantic and the Gulf, offers
many havens for the discharge of these cargoes.
Until recently, one of the largest fruit importing corporations
in the country maintained its headquarters in a city located in
another southern state, and confined the bulk of its business to
out-of-state ports. Today the headquarters of this concern are
located in a Florida city, practically all of its out-of-state termi-
nals have been discontinued, and its ships, or at least those re-
maining of its once large fleet, discharge their cargoes in Florida
ports. Another large company which in the past did little busi-
ness in Florida now operates almost exclusively out of Florida
ports.
Foreign cotton was in the past prohibited entry at southern
ports on account of the possibility of introduction of the pink
bollworm, a pest fully capable of destroying in the field up to
75% of the crop. Today, on account of the apparent need for
foreign cotton in the manufacture of explosives, cotton from
Brazil and Puerto Rico is unloaded at southern ports, including
Florida. That there is risk of the entry of pink bollworm on
such shipments is evidenced by the finding of live immature
stages of this pest in a shipment recently unloaded at Pensacola.
In the past, when a serious foreign plant pest was found in a
ship's cargo, unloading was not permitted until the ship had
been fumigated. Today any plant quarantine inspector who
would attempt to delay even for one hour the discharge of a
ship's cargo would find himself in the center of a storm of official
criticism impossible to withstand.
Increase in foreign airplane arrivals at Miami is a matter of
concern to the Plant Commissioner. It is not unusual for our men
to board from 15 to 18 foreign arrivals daily. Passengers' bag-
gage, mail, and express are inspected along with custom officials
for the presence of contraband materials. These planes arrive
from, or stop while en route from, cities in practically every






Fourteenth Biennial Report


allied or neutral country located in South America, Asia, and
Africa.
The increased risk of entry of plant pests, both foreign and do-
mestic, as a result of changed conditions imposed by the war
greatly increases the need for, and importance of, close and fre-
quent inspection of our nurseries and groves in order to detect
the presence of any serious plant pest at the earliest possible
moment. Such finding is desirable in order to permit of the
eradication of any major plant pest, if such action is deemed
necessary and practical, before it has an opportunity to become
well established and widely disseminated. The movement of
affected nursery stock offers one of the most rapid and wide-
spread means of dissemination of plant pests. It would be a seri-
ous matter if some disease such as citrus canker should appear
in our nurseries and be permitted, for lack of inspection and
quarantine action following its discovery, to spread throughout
the state. Under present conditions, it is doubtful if funds neces-
sary for eradication would be forthcoming, and unless the disease
was eradicated, our citrus industry would probably find itself
fighting for its very existence.
Of equal importance is the need for inspection of our groves
and agricultural plantings. Today airports are located in the
heart of our citrus industry. The landing at such places of army
planes from some place in the tropics is not an unlikely event.
Nor is it unlikely that there may be in the possession of the crew
foreign fruits infested with an insect capable of causing serious
injury to our citrus trees or fruit. It is a matter of record that
at a naval air station navel oranges which were undoubtedly pro-
duced in Brazil were removed from service planes from a foreign
country by Plant Board inspectors, in spite of the statement of
the flight commander that no fruits were on board. The Medi-
terranean fruit fly is well established in Brazil. A number of
apples produced in Argentina were also confiscated.
Of considerable importance in our present-day scheme of life
is the production of honey as a substitute for sugar and of bees-
wax for industrial usages. The apiary industry of Florida is an
important one and affords a means of livelihood to thousands of
our citizens. Again Florida, by reason of its many advantages,
is exposed to invasion from without by serious diseases affecting
bees. It is not uncommon for many northern beekeepers to ship
their bees into Florida during the winter season, a season of in-
activity in the North, in order to make a honey crop during the






State Plant Board of Florida


winter months. Nor is it uncommon for these bees to be affected
with the incurable and highly infectious disease known as Ameri-
can foulbrood. Frequent inspections are necessary to prevent
serious losses from this disease. The only successful treatment
is the destruction of diseased colonies by fire, a treatment first
put into effect by the State Plant Board, and since adopted by
apiary inspectors throughout the country.
Like other organizations, the work of the Plant Commissioner
has been handicapped by loss of personnel to our armed services,
and by difficulty in securing trained replacements. The gravity
of the situation confronting our nation, and the need for man
power for war activities, are fully appreciated, and the Plant
Commissioner has not asked for deferment for any of the Board's
employees. Nor have any of the men called for military duty
asked for assistance in obtaining deferment. The names of those
employees who have been given leaves of absence for the dura-
tion of the war appear elsewhere in this report. Much credit
is due to the field inspectors who have performed their duties
efficiently in spite of the handicaps resulting from the rationing
of gasoline and tires. Assistant quarantine inspectors have
frequently worked from twelve to eighteen hours a day alongside
employees of other agencies who have received overtime which,
in some instances, has amounted to as much as $220.00 per
month.
The activities of the several departments of the Board's organ-
ization are presented as a part of this report. Included in the
Grove Inspector's report is a brief mention of the white-fringed
beetle and wild cotton eradication, which projects are under the
direct supervision of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quar-
antine. All of the expenditures for wild cotton eradication were
from federal sources, as well as a considerable portion expended
on white-fringed beetle eradication.

RESOURCES

During the biennium ending June 30, 1942, the Plant Board
had available for current expenses $279,752.29 for the first year,
and $266,252.00 for the second. These amounts were derived
from State Appropriations as follows:







Fourteenth Biennial Report


July 1, 1940:
Unexpended balance June 30, 1940 .......
State Plant Board. Chapter 19280:


Salaries ........................................ ........ .. $137,620.00
Necessary and Regular Expenses ................ 44,312.00

The Florida Plant Act of 1927, Chapter 12291.......................
Apiary Industry, Chapter 19280 ............................... .........
Eradicating Sweet Potato Weevil, Chapter 19280 ................
Combating White-Fringed Beetle, Chapter 19280 ............

T o ta l ............... .... ... ...... .................


July 1, 1941:
State Plant Board, Chapter 20980:
Salaries .................... ................ ... $145,940.00
Necessary and Regular Expenses ............ 55,312.00

The Florida Plant Act of 1927, Chapter 12291 ............
Apiary Inspection Department, Chapter 20980:
Salaries ........ .... .................... ................. $ 12,000.00
Necessary and Regular Expenses ............ 8,000.00

Combating White-Fringed Beetle, Chapter 20980 ..............

T otal ................ ............... .... ............

June 30, 1942, there remained an unexpended balance in the
am ount of ................... .... ........... ... ... .............


$ 37,820.29


181,932.00

35,000.00
15,000.00
5,000.00
5,000.00

$279,752.29


$201,252.00

35,000.00


20,000.00

10,000.00

..$266,252.00


..$ 37,621.65


EXPENDITURES

Expenditures of the Board for 1940-41 and 1941-42 by depart-
ments are shown in Table A. In Table B are shown expenditures
for specific purposes:
TABLE A


Department


Grove Inspection ........... ..............
Nursery Inspection ....................
Quarantine Inspection ....................
Office of the Board ...........................
Plant Commissioner's Office .............
Entomology ....................-... ........
Sweet Potato Weevil Control .........
Apiary Inspection ..........................
White-Fringed Beetle Control .........


------------------
------------------
..................

------------------
------------------
..................


1940-1941


$ 87,462.90
33,261.86
56,937.69
2,277.95
7,760.87
7,263.52
5,060.40
15,072.00
8,042.67


1941-1942


$ 85,100.86
36,016.12
61,825.60
2,263.30
6,936.06
6,659.30
4,717.69
16,443.93
8,667.49


Total $223,139.86 $228,630.35
Total .............................-- - -..... ................ $223,139.86 $228,630.35







State Plant Board of Florida


TABLE B


1940-1941 1941-1942


- - - -


Salaries .................--..........--------.
Travel and Subsistence Expense .....
Labor ...............---........------.
Stationery and Small Printing .......
Postage ................ .....--.-.- .....-
Bulletins and Circulars .....................
Telephone, Telegraph ........ .....
Miscellaneous Supplies ..................
Miscellaneous Expenses ..................
Office Equipment ............... -
Laboratory Supplies ...........
Freight, Express .................. ........
Library .................... .- .... .... ...


T otal ................. .- ...- .


$173,881.53
41,030.27
496.50
1,117.28
1,140.73
150.00
623.83
1,975.34
944.74
1,014.74
103.29
25.60
636.01


$223,139.86


$180,621.21
41,975.88
335.26
1,207.66
1,100.41
150.00
618.19
1,279.23
886.21
36.54

172.78
246.98


$228,630.35


ESTIMATES

A detailed report covering the subject of estimates of amounts
believed to be necessary for operating expenses for the biennium
beginning July 1, 1943, has been approved by the Board. From
this report the following summary is presented:

SUMMARY OF ESTIMATES PER ANNUM
For Biennium Beginning July 1, 1943

Salaries Expenses Total 1943-45
Department Per Annum Per Annum Per Annum

Office of the Board ................ $ 1,980.00 $ 875.00 $ 2,855.00
Plant Commissioner's Office 5,280.00 2,035.00 7,315.00
Entomology ............................ 6,240.00 420.00 6,660.00
Quarantine Inspection I
Department ........ ... 54,000.00 9,345.00 63,345.00
Grove Inspection
Department .................... 71,820.00 20,660.00 92,480.00
Nursery Inspection
Department ....--..- ... 28,020.00 8,938.00 36,958.00
Sweet Potato Weevil ............ 3,300.00 1,725.00 5,025.00
Apiary Inspection |
Department .................... 12,000.00 6,960.00 18,960.00
White-Fringed Beetle ..........| 7,080.00 1,670.00 8,750.00


Total ................................ $189,720.00 $ 52,628.00 $242,348.00

Emergency Fund, no part of which is to be used unless found
necessary by Budget Commission (for biennium) ....................$50,000.00


Item






Fourteenth Biennial Report


REPORT OF THE NURSERY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
July 1, 1940-June 30, 1942
J. C. Goodwin, Nursery Inspector

Because of the fact that Florida's climate is such as to permit
the ready establishment and rapid development and spread of
plant pests, the Board has always provided for frequent and in-
tensive inspections of nurseries. It is a known fact that the
movement of infested or infected nursery stock presents one of
the most rapid means of widespread dissemination of plant pests.
The argument might be advanced that under present condi-
tions when our citizens are making expenditures for essentials
only, and nurserymen themselves are retrenching, this need for
repeated and thorough inspection does not exist. However, we
feel that a continuation of this type of inspection is very desir-
able, for the following reasons:
1. The possibility of introduction of new insects and diseases
is greater at this time than has been the case for many years.
This is due, in part, to the lowering of foreign plant quarantine
bars as a result of the war effort.
2. Faced with a labor shortage and a need for curtailing ex-
penditures, nurserymen are not able to exercise their usual care-
ful supervision of their plantings or to take proper care of their
plants, with the result that plant pests may slip in and become
firmly established before the owners are aware of their presence.
3. Close supervision of nurseries enables the Board to detect
at the earliest possible moment the presence of any destructive
plant pest that may slip past our quarantine inspectors.
4. Such findings permit the Board and the affected nursery-
men to effect control with the minimum of expenditures for con-
trol materials and machinery and for labor. Furthermore, quar-
antines placed in affected properties following the finding of de-
structive pests would greatly reduce the possibility of their being
carried into our citrus groves and agricultural plantings. This,
in turn, would eliminate expenditures for control measures on
the part of our growers, as well as a possible loss of market by
reason of the imposition of quarantines by other states.
Some idea of the extent and value of Florida's nursery hold-
ings may be formed from a study of the summary of work per-
formed during the biennium by attaches of the Nursery Inspec-
tion Department, which appears at the end of this report.







State Plant Board of Florida


The Plant Board does not consider narcissus, gladioli, ferns,
or vegetable plants as being nursery stock. However, such plant-
ings are inspected upon the request of growers and certified
when possible so as to permit them to ship their products into
other states. Were it not for such certification, these markets
would be closed to our growers.
That the production of bulbs and cut flowers of narcissus and
gladioli is an important industry in the state is shown by the
following tabulation:
1940-41 1941-42
Narcissus:
Number acres inspected ............(Figures not 960
available)
Number bulbs inspected ........... 72,000,000 53,147,000
Gladioli:
Number acres inspected .............. 1,572 1,770
Number bulbs inspected ........... 100,282,500 96,950,000
During the fiscal year 1940-41, assistant nursery inspectors
made 897 collections of infested or infected plant material, from
which 1,332 determinations of insects and diseases were made.
During the last fiscal year, 1,107 collections yielded 1,741 deter-
minations.
The usual cooperation on the part of nurserymen was in evi-
dence during the biennium, with the result that it was not neces-
sary to prosecute any of them for violation of the Board's regu-
lations.







Fourteenth Biennial Report 15

SUMMARY OF WORK ACCOMPLISHED BY THE NURSERY INSPECTION
DEPARTMENT DURING THE BIENNIUM ENDING JUNE 30, 1942
1940-1941 1941-1942
Number of Inspection Districts .........- 7 8
Number of Nurseries in the State ....-.. 2,065 1,971
Number of Nursery Inspections Made 7,753 9,214
Average Number of Inspections
per N ursery ..................................... 3.7 4.3
Total Number of Refusals .................. 363 459
Nursery Acreage in State:
Citrus .......................... 2,150.97 1,734.23
Non-citrus .................. 3,204.66 5,355.63 3,432.03 5,166.26

Nursery Stock in State:
Citrus .......................... 12,114,600 8,530,753
Non-citrus .................. 43,369,950 55,484,550 40,394,984 48,925,737

Total Acreage Inspected and Passed:
Citrus .......................... 7,825.09 7,401.45
Non-citrus .................. 12,025.11 19,850.20 14,396.11 21,797.56

Total Acreage Inspected and Refused:
Citrus .......................... 295.39 272.65
Non-citrus .................. 87.57 382.96 88.91 361.56

Total Acreage Inspected:
Citrus .......................... 8,120.48 7,674.10
Non-citrus .................. 12,112.68 20,233.16 14,485.02 22,159.12

Total Amount Stock Inspected and Passed:
Citrus ....-..................... 43,924,920 36,342,145
Non-citrus ..................161,204,720 205,129,640 166,610,975 202,953,120

Total Amount Stock Inspected and Refused:
Citrus ......................... 2,205,360 998,465
Non-citrus ........-......... 387,587 2,592,947 507,731 1,506,196

Total Amount Stock Inspected:
Citrus .....................-- --..... 46,130,280 37,340,610
Non-citrus ..................161,592,307 207,722,587 167,118,706 204,459,316

Number of Nurseries Going Out
of Business ............................. 385 387
Number of New Nurseries ................ 292 246







State Plant Board of Florida


REPORT OF THE QUARANTINE INSPECTION
DEPARTMENT

July 1, 1940-June 30, 1942
Arthur C. Brown, Quarantine Inspector

The need for expediting the entry into the United States of
foreign plant products so urgently needed in the production of
war materials has brought about changes in the enforcement of
our plant quarantine regulations that may have a far-reaching
effect on the future of the nation's horticultural and agricultural
industries. The bars have not been removed, but they have been
lowered to the point where entry of foreign pests may be ex-
pected.
In the past, good business procedure provided for the discharge
at northern ports of dried plant products produced in foreign
countries and used for manufacturing purposes. Today, on ac-
count of the submarine menace, it is desirable for these cargoes
to be unloaded at ports nearest to the point of loading. Florida
offers many such ports.
Also in the past the federal government has prohibited the
entry of certain plant products likely to carry infestation or in-
fection at southern ports, where the combination of climatic,
biological, and environmental factors is favorable for the estab-
lishment and development of many tropical and subtropical in-
sects and diseases affecting plants. But the need for the prompt
delivery of certain products, plus the demand for the most effec-
tive use of our ships, has made necessary a revision of this em-
bargo so as to permit the discharge of such materials at southern
ports. As a result, cotton produced in Brazil and Puerto Rico, and
other countries where the pink bollworm is established, now
enters at ports in the South. Indicative of the risk thus pre-
sented is the finding of live pink bollworm larvae in a shipment
of Puerto Rican cotton discharged at Pensacola.
However, the terrific losses to our shipping as a result of sub-
marine attacks have curtailed to a considerable extent the num-
ber of ships that would otherwise have discharged cargoes of
dangerous materials at Florida ports.
Since January 1, 1942, shipping schedules and routes have
been in a constant state of change, and the task of assigning a
sufficient number of inspectors to take care of the work at the






Fourteenth Biennial Report


several ports has been a trying one. Official announcement to
the effect that a certain large shipping agency would operate out
of a Florida port on a certain date would be followed by a transfer
of the company's personnel to the port selected; the lease, and
at times, the construction of warehouses; an increase in the Cus-
toms and Immigration forces; and the assignment of additional
Plant Board inspectors. Frequently the ship, or ships, after
making a few trips, would be taken over by the Navy, or a shift
in convoy regulations would necessitate a shift to another port.
At times the ships sailed from port and were never seen again.
While there has been an increase in the number of ships ar-
riving at Florida ports with cargoes which were in the past pro-
hibited entry, or were discharged at northern ports, there has
been a decrease in the total number of watercraft boarded by our
inspectors. Coastwise shipping has almost disappeared, and the
large passenger vessels which in the past arrived almost daily
from foreign ports are now used for cargo or transport purposes.
The arrival of a number of large navy transports loaded to capac-
ity with refugees, families of soldiers and sailors, and survivors
of sunken ships, with their attendant baggage, may be expected
at any port at any time.
Airplane arrivals occupy most of the time of our inspectors
stationed at Miami. During the fiscal year 1940-41, 2,768 foreign
planes were boarded by our men, and 3,169 during 1941-42. Dur-
ing June 1942, 367 foreign planes arrived at Miami airports.
(In July 1942, the arrivals numbered 452.) These figures in-
clude Puerto Rican planes and planes arriving from foreign coun-
tries via Puerto Rico. The number of passengers carried by plane
increased from 44,178 during 1940-41 to 52,307 during 1941-42.
All of the baggage carried by these passengers was inspected
by our men, along with the Customs inspectors.
The inspection of airplanes, together with passengers' bag-
gage, mail, and express, occupies the time of four inspectors at
Miami from 7:00 A.M. until 6:00 P.M., and of three inspectors
from 6:00 P.M. until early the next morning. And frequently,
around 2:00 A.M., when the inspector has finished with the last
passenger or the last piece of express and is ready to leave the
airport, he may be informed that a huge army or navy plane is
expected "within an hour or so."
That there is a risk of entry of plant pests on foreign fruits
carried by the crews of army and navy air and watercraft is
recognized by the Secretaries of War and Navy, and general







State Plant Board of Florida


orders have been issued by both officials requiring the comman-
ders of such craft arriving from ports outside the continental
United States to comply with the provisions of the federal for-
eign plant quarantines and to communicate with the nearest plant
quarantine officer immediately upon arrival. The army has gone
so far as to prohibit the carrying of any foreign fruits on air-
planes. The opportunity to board and inspect these Service
craft is a cherished privilege greatly appreciated and respected
by our inspectors. They never inquire as to the name of the
country from which the plane took off. But the collection of
fruits confiscated by them and identified as products of certain
countries by their appearance or by their wrappers justifies the
fear that fruit flies, citrus canker, and other destructive pests
may be introduced by means of airplanes.
Enemy submarines have opened another avenue of entry of
foreign insects and diseases. At times, parts of our coast line
are strewn with loose and crated plant products carried as stores
and cargo by ships sent to the bottom by torpedoes. Submerg-
ence of such jetsam for comparatively short periods of time may
not be sufficient to kill all stages of any plant pests that may be
present, and their introduction into Florida may result.
The volume of work performed by the quarantine inspectors
is indicated in the following tabulations:

SHIPS INSPECTED
From foreign ports: 1940-1941 1941-1942
Direct by Air ................................ ....... 2,659 2,961
Direct by W ater .... ... ......... .................. 2,460 1,996
Total Direct ................ ... .. 5,119 4,957

Via United States Ports by Air ................ 11 0
Via United States Ports by Water ............... 241 132
Via Puerto Rican Ports by Air ..................... 88 145
Via Puerto Rican Ports by Water .............. 0 5
Total Foreign ......................................... 5,459 5,239
From Puerto Rican Ports:
D irect by A ir ........................ .... ....... ... 10 63
Direct by W ater .........................---. ........ 66 23
Via United States Ports ................ ......... 6 4
Total Puerto Rican ........................................ 82 90

From United States Ports Via Panama Canal.... 2 7
From United States Ports Other than Florida.... 1,047 295
From Florida Ports ................................................ 423 198
GRAND TOTAL OF SHIPS INSPECTED ........ 7,013 5,829







Fourteenth Biennial Report


NUMBER OF PARCELS OF PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS HANDLED
Arriving by Boat, Express, Freight, Mail and Airplane
Passed ....................- ...............- ..... 2,487,574 1,396,390
Treated and passed ... ......... ................................... 52 643
Cleaned and passed ......................... ....................... 2,889,147 4,351,918
Returned to shipper ....... ....................................... 14,856 78
Returned to stores ..... ................................ ... -_- 11,608
Contraband destroyed .. .... .................... ......... .. 4,078 2,883
Diverted to H oboken ... ......................................... 45 42
Diverted to Washington ...................................... 9 12
Diverted to San Francisco ................. .............. 2 0

Total ................... .. ................... .... 5,395,763 5,763,574
Number Pieces of Baggage Inspected ................... 349,545 249,806

Grand Total of Parcels Handled ...................... 5,745,308 6,013,380
*A separate record of material returned to stores was not kept prior to
1941-42.

TABULATION SHOWING THE WORK OF THE QUARANTINE DIVISION BY YEARS
SINCE THIS WORK WAS INAUGURATED


Year


1915-16
1916-17
1917-18
1918-19
1919-20
1920-21
1921-22
May and
June 1922
1922-23
1923-24
1924-25
1925-26
1926-27
1927-28
1928-29
1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34
1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42


Air and

Foreign
(incl.
P.R.)

166
1,240
1,777
1,724
2,458
3,035
2,225

364
2,207
2,309
2,437
2,705
2,989
3,430
3,941
4,684
4,449
3,669
3,373
3,425
3,691
3,969
4,614
4,739
4,994
5,181
5,541
5,329


Total | 90,665


Watercraft


Total


370
3,257
4,253
3,485
4,504
4,948
4,179

697
4,559
4,842
5,464
6,668
5,980
6,094
6,352
7,175
7,154
6,305
6,046
5,999
6,461
6,646
7,269
6,829
7,007
6,961
7,013
5,829
152,346


S Number of Packages
SArriving by
| Boat, Express,
SFreight, Mail, Returned ID
SAirplane

500 18
3,105 255
3,422 485
69,985* 1,521
336,059 4,936
710,412 2,130
1,333,333 2,610

747,972 201
1,827,727 1,006
1,410,860 1,566
1,633,015 2,630
2,435,470 3,766
2,304,594 5,237
2,415,694 4,633
2,537,695 4,925
3,007,540 9,127
2,596,716 6,810
1,836,141 9,846
1,385,729 6,284
1,881,309 4,968
2,795,765 7,891
2,482,648 9,958
5,076,432 10,979
4,639,484 17,249
5,099,896 14,674
4,893,642 6,039
5,745,308 14,856
6,013,380 11,686
S65,223,833 166,286


destroyedd


69
1,182
1,037
1,743
2,345
1,564
1,757

311
2,278
4,478
3,040
3,469
3,538
4,844
5,177
4,875
3,737
4,133
2,922
2,447
3,053
3,687
4,090
4,697
4,187
3,791
4,078
2,883
85,412


*Prior to August 1, 1918, horticultural material inspected was reported by shipments.
A shipment might comprise 1 or 1,000 packages. Subsequent to above date, reports were
made of the number of packages and bulk shipments were reduced to packages on basis
of contents of standard containers used for particular products.





SHIP INSPECTION AT FLORIDA PORTS


_ Miami IJacksonville Tampa
1940-1941


I W. Palm I *Port I
I Pensacola Beach Everglades] Key West


From foreign ports:
D irect by air ................................
Direct by water ........................
Via U. S. ports by air..................
Via U. S. ports by water .......
Via P. R. ports by air ...............
Via P. R. ports by water ............
Total .................................. ... ....
From Puerto Rican ports:
Direct by air .............................
Direct by water ..........................
Via U. S. ports ............................
Total ................ ......................
From U. S. ports via Panama Canal
From U. S. ports other than Florida
From Florida ports ...........................


Grand Total ..........


From foreign ports:
Direct by air ...........................
Direct by water .........................
Via U. S. ports by air ..........I
Via U. S. ports by water ...........
Via P. R. ports by air ..............
Via P. R. ports by water ........
Total ...............................
From Puerto Rican ports:
Direct by air ......... ................
Direct by water .......................
Via U. S. ports ....... ................
Total ....................... .. .... .... ... ..
From U. S. ports via Panama Canal
From U. S. ports other than Florida
From Florida ports ........................
Grand Total ............. ..................


2478
1445
0
7
88
0
4018

10
3
0
13
0
2
5


1 4038


2915
817
0
7
145
4
3888

38
1
0
39
0
0
0
3927


*Figures for Port Everglades begin October 1941,


1580


0
33
0
32
0
0
65

0
0
0
0
0
83
52


97
165
0
4
0
0
266

0
0
1
1
0
0
71


484 1 200 336


1941-1942

22 6
358 337
0 0
17 88
0 0
0 0
397 431

1 10
5 7
3 1
9 18
7 0
204 1
44 0


Total


2659
2460
11
241
88
0
5459

10
66
6
82
2
1047
423
7013


0 15 0 3 2961
58 103 241 82 1996
0 0 0 0 0
15 0 4 1 132
0 0 0 0 145
0 0 0 1 5
73 118 245 87 5239

0 14 0 0 63
7 0 0 3 23
0 0 0 0 4
7 14 0 3 90
0 0 0 0 7
64 2 0 24 295
56 77 0 21 198


S 661 I 450 I 200 211
at which time a full-time inspector was stationed there.


245 1 135


5829






Fourteenth Biennial Report


REPORT OF THE APIARY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT

July 1, 1940-June 30, 1942

Robt. E. Foster, Apiary Inspector

A study of the progress of American foulbrood control activi-
ties of the State Plant Board since 1919 might lead to the belief
that but little headway had been made in combating this disease.
It is felt, however, that much has been accomplished. The Florida
beekeepers have good reason to feel less apprehensive about
losses from this disease than is the case with beekeepers located
in other states.
The number of cases of the disease found each year may be
attributed, in large measure, to two things: carelessness, even
indifference, on the part of a few operators in Florida, and the
introduction of new sources of infection from outside the state.
An example of the losses that may occur as a result of care-
lessness is found in the study of a recent outbreak in a west
Florida county, where it was necessary to destroy 367 diseased
colonies. This figure represents 53% of the state total of 698
affected colonies found during 1941-42. The disease appeared
in one apiary and through the apparent carelessness of the owner
in the management of his business, it was enabled to spread
throughout that section. The situation in Glades, Hendry, and
Palm Beach Counties, where the disease persists in spite of
efforts to eradicate it, has been the subject of considerable
thought and study on the part of the Plant Commissioner and
the Apiary Inspector. It would appear that, again, carelessness
on the part of a few operators is the cause of the trouble. Plans
have been formulated for the prosecution of the work in these
counties in a manner which it is believed should result in a con-
siderable improvement.
It is also believed that a more effective means of supervision
of bees shipped into the state has been developed. The new plan
will not prevent the entry of diseased bees, but will enable the
Apiary Inspector to ascertain their condition immediately upon
their arrival, and to provide for the destruction or deportation
of affected shipments before the disease has had an opportunity
to spread to clean colonies and cause widespread losses.
The uninformed may feel that expenditures for the inspection
for and control of bee diseases is unwarranted. Yet it is a fact






State Plant Board of Florida


that the apiary industry in Florida is an important one, afford-
ing a means of livelihood to thousands of our citizens. The pro-
duction of honey is necessary as a substitute for sugar, and
beeswax is in demand for the manufacture of essential materials.
The importance of the industry is indicated by the fact that those
in charge of our government have allotted high priority ratings
to beekeepers which will enable them to secure needed equipment
and supplies.
During the biennium, the services of a chief apiary inspector,
one assistant, and six part-time inspectors were utilized to ad-
vantage.
For the fiscal year 1940-41, 81,950 colony-inspections were
made in 3,711 apiaries located in 58 counties. American foul-
brood was found in 371 colonies in 80 apiaries, situated in 21
counties. This figure represents .004% of the total number of
colonies inspected.
During the fiscal year 1941-1942, 83,354 colony-inspections
were made in 3,671 apiaries, in 57 counties. Six hundred and
ninety-eight colonies were found to be infected with American
foulbrood, or .0084% of the total number inspected. These
infections were found in 108 apiaries located in 20 counties.

SUMMARY OF APIARY INSPECTION WORK SINCE THE DEPARTMENT
WAS CREATED IN JULY, 1919
Apiaries Colonies
Infected Infected
Year Ending Apiaries Colonies with with
Inspected Inspected American American
SFoulbrood Foulbrood
June 30, 1920 ...........- 394 16,121 30 104
June 30, 1921 .......... .. 753 18,078 16 33
June 30, 1922 ................ 837 22,522 1 14 34
June 30, 1923 ................ 1016 23,848 18 30
June 30, 1924 .............. 803 22,806 8 | 13
June 30, 1925 ................ 675 21,378 7 58
June 30, 1926 ................ 676 16,756 5 22
June 30, 1927 ................ 796 23,791 6 34
June 30, 1928 ................ 1248 20,115 18 74
June 30, 1929 ............... 1297 32,442 21 85
June 30, 1930 ................ 2273 44,645 53 182
June 30, 1931 ................ 2374 45,238 37 114
June 30, 1932 ................ 2744 44,211 42 74
June 30, 1933 ................ 2219 42,307 38 76
June 30, 1934 ............. 2305 43,877 71 132
June 30, 1935 ............-.. 2445 49,379 78 | 167
June 30, 1936 ............. 3344 73,415 69 131
June 30, 1937 ................ 3544 72,795 32 98
June 30, 1938 ................ 3451 64,668 38 173
June 30, 1939 .............. 3371 70,655 56 416
June 30, 1940 ............ 3414 76,851 | 61 234
June 30, 1941 ........... 3711 81,950 80 371
June 30. 1942 ................ 3671 83,354 106 698






Fourteenth Biennial Report


REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY
July 1, 1940-June 30, 1942
E. W. Berger, Entomologist

The activities of the Board's employees assigned to the Ento-
mology Department during the biennium were essentially the
same as in previous years. The principal task of the Entomolo-
gist and his associate is the determination of the specimens of
plant pests collected by the field inspectors. It is necessary that
such determinations be made by experts. The bulk of the insects
received are identified in the Entomologist's office, although at
times it is necessary to send a few specimens to Washington for
determination. Collections of plant diseases are sent to the Path-
ologist of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station for de-
termination.
The Entomologist also supplies Red Aschersonia to growers
for the control of whiteflies. This fungus is cultured at Gaines-
ville, and is supplied to growers at cost. Colonies of the lady
beetle, Vedalia, are supplied to growers, at a small charge, for the
control of the destructive Cottony-Cushion Scale.
Information is furnished to those making inquiry with respect
to the proper means of controlling various insects attacking
plants, and from time to time field trips are made to determine
the extent and severity of outbreaks of plant pests.
The Board's entomological library is rather complete, and com-
pares favorably in size and scope with libraries maintained by
larger organizations.
During the fiscal year 1940-41, 3,944 specimens of plant pests
were received and determined, while the number for 1941-42
was 3,693.
The personnel of the Entomological Department consists of the
Entomologist, Associate Entomologist, and a part time employee,
usually a student of the University of Florida.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED AND RECORDED ANNUALLY
(April 30, 1915, through June 30, 1942)
1915-1916 ........ ........................................... 388
1916-1917 ....... ...... ........ .......................... 612
1917-1918 .......................... .... .... ..................... 2,593
1918-1919 .............. ............ ........ ---.....- ....... 1,921
1919-1920 .................. ........... .. ......... .... .......... .. 2,521
1920-1921 ........ .......... .... ................ 1,998
1921-1922 ... .................... ......................... 3,545







State Plant Board of Florida


1922-1923 ............... ........................... .......... 2,904
1923-1924 ..............- .... ...................... 2,418
1924-1925 ....................................................... 2,940
1925-1926 -.............-........................- 2,023
1926-1927 (Includes 75 duplicates) ........................... 1,651
1927-1928 ... ..... ....................................... 2,463
1928-1929 ....... ...-- -........ .... -............... 2,038
1929-1930 ............ .. ........................ ...... ..... 2,718
1930-1931 ....-... ..................... .......-....... 3,696
1931-1932 ............................ .................... 5,281
1932-1933 ............... ....................... ........... 4,646
1933-1934 .......................................... 5,139
1934-1935 .. ...... .. ........ ...................... 4,778
1935-1936 .....-......... ................................... 4,027
1936-1937 .... ................................. ........ .... 5,884
1937-1938 ..... .....---................................... 3,140
1938-1939 ... ................... .................................. ....... 2,996
1939-1940 .... ........ ..... ....... .............. ..... 2,550
1940-1941 ........ ......................................... 3,944
1941-1942 .... .............. ............. ................... 3,693

T otal ...................................... .............. 82,507






Fourteenth Biennial Report


REPORT OF THE GROVE INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
July 1, 1940-June 30, 1942
H. S. McClanahan, Grove Inspector

This department might better be designated as the Horticul-
tural and Agricultural Inspection Department. Created primari-
ly for the inspection for, and eradication of, citrus canker, the
Department is called upon to assign its inspectors to duties which
carry them into fields far removed from the inspection of citrus
plantings. Inspection and certification of Irish and sweet pota-
toes, control of white-fringed beetle, distribution of mole cricket
control materials, and other activities come more or less under
the supervision of the Grove Inspector.
Assistant grove inspectors are trained to perform the duties
required of assistant nursery and assistant quarantine inspec-
tors, and the department is the source of supply for replacements
in these other activities.
The many demands for the services of the assistant grove in-
spectors have severely interfered with the inspection of citrus
plantings. It is felt that one inspection every two years of the
more than twenty-eight million citrus trees in the state is neces-
sary to afford adequate protection to this great industry. Need
for the services of the assistant grove inspectors for other ac-
tivities severely interferes with this schedule.
The opportunities for entry of foreign plant pests are greater
now than has been the case for many years. Freight cars loaded
with foreign commodities which in the past either were not per-
mitted to discharge in Florida, or for economic reasons were dis-
charged at northern ports, today roll through the heart of the
citrus plantings, or may remain for hours, even days, on side
tracks. Florida is studded with airports where service planes
from South America, Africa, and Asia may land without super-
vision on the part of plant quarantine inspectors. While risk
of entry of foreign plant pests by such means is slight, there is,
nevertheless, a risk.

GREEN SCALE
On May 25, 1942, an assistant grove inspector found green
scale (Coccus viridis (Green)) on citrus trees in the vicinity of
Davie, Broward County, Florida. Intensive surveys promptly






State Plant Board of Florida


disclosed the presence of the scale from a point located about
five miles north of Fort Lauderdale southward to the vicinity of
the Royal Palm Park in Dade County. Infestations on citrus
were rather light and scattered. Other cultivated hosts include
Casimiroa spp., Coffea sp., gardenia, Annona spp., tropical cur-
rant (Antidesma bunuis), yerba mate, canistel, and guava. Some
thirty wild hosts have been reported, including the common
glades myrtle, or groundsel, which appears to be a favorite host.
Infestation has been found in only six nurseries, four in the
Davie area and two in Dade County. In every instance, only a
few infested plants were found. No special quarantine activi-
ties for the purpose of controlling green scale have been promul-
gated by the Board. Infestations found in nurseries, which are
inspected at intervals of from seventy to ninety days, may be
controlled by rules already in effect.
This is the first record of the presence of green scale in the
field in the Continental United States. Its presence has been
known for years in foreign tropical countries where it is re-
garded as a serious pest on citrus and rr~ a. va- -
The adult scales are generally oval in shape, more pointed in
front and moderately convex, and from 1/16 to 1/8 inch in
length. The skin, or covering, is rather soft, or pliable, never
heavily chitinized, of a bright pale green color, and with two
black eye spots on the forward rim of the scale. A distinct group
of dark spots are usually present in the middle of the upper sur-
face, usually in the form of a U. In many ways this scale has
the appearance and habits of soft brown scale (Coccus hes-
peridum (Linn.)).
A fungus, Cephalosporium lecanii, appears to be effecting con-
siderable control of green scale infesting citrus trees.
It would appear that the scales prefer the young, tender
growth of citrus, and when this growth hardens the scales mi-
grate to the new flush of growth. Infestations on older trees
are rare; the scale is usually found on from one to three branches
on younger trees. No infestation was noted on mature fruit;
in fact, only a few scales were observed on very young fruit.
The State Plant Board, in cooperation with the Citrus Experi-
ment Station, has under way a project for the purpose of develop-
ing an effective and economical spray program for the control of
green scale, to study its life history, determine extent of injury
caused by the scale, and to ascertain, if possible, the possibilities
of natural control. It is too early to form any conclusions with






Fourteenth Biennial Report


respect to observations made, but it would appear that the scale
may readily be controlled by two applications of an oil emulsion;
that it is not yet injuring young citrus trees; and that the fungus,
Cephalosporium lecanii, is apparently spreading rapidly on the
citrus trees in the Davie area. It is believed that the fungus will
effect considerable control of the scale during the rainy season.
This is true in several foreign countries where green scale is
established.
MOLE CRICKET CONTROL

In the late summer of 1940, two species of mole crickets,
Scapteriscus vicimns and S. acletus, appeared in epidemic propor-
tions in several of the peninsular counties, where they caused in-
jury to young vegetable and berry plants in the fields and seed-
beds far beyond the ability of individual growers to control.
Supplies of syrup and calcium arsenate furnished gratis by the
State Department of Agriculture were soon exhausted without
achieving relief, and the growers petitioned the federal govern-
ment for aid.
Such aid was promptly furnished through the Bureau of En-
tomology and Plant Quarantine, United States Department of
Agriculture, conditioned upon the Bureau being relieved of all
responsibility for any damage that might occur as a result of
the distribution of poison bait. The plan adopted for the activity
was essentially as follows:
1. The Bureau was responsible for the purchase, shipment,
mixing, and sacking of the poison bait material for delivery to
2. The Florida State Mole Cricket Control Committee, com-
posed of Dr. Wilmon Newell, representing the State Plant Board
and the Florida Agricultural Extension Division, and Mr. J. J.
Taylor, State Chemist, representing the State Department of
Agriculture. The Committee was responsible for distribution
of bait to the individual growers and keeping the necessary
records.
3. The Boards of County Commissioners of the counties par-
ticipating assumed responsibility for all damages resulting from
the distribution of poison bait in these counties, agreed to fur-
nish necessary office and storage space, as well as clerical help
incidental to the activity in their respective counties, and to fur-
nish transportation for the materials from the mixing depot to
the distribution points in these counties.






State Plant Board of Florida


4. Growers who applied for aid signed requisitions for the
amounts needed and assumed responsibility for any damages re-
sulting from the use of the materials on their own properties.
The Bureau was represented by Mr. H. T. Rainwater, Project
Leader, who was charged with the receipt of the materials and
for delivery of the mixed bait. The State Leader for the Mole
Cricket Control Committee, H. S. McClanahan, Grove Inspector,
accepted the mixed bait for the Committee and supervised its dis-
tribution.
Distribution was started on September 28 and the project was
closed on December 14, 1940. During the period, a total of 1,258
tons of mixed bait (made up at the rate of 100 pounds of bran
and 10 pounds of calcium arsenate) were distributed to 5,339
farmers residing in 12 counties, for the protection of 30,772 acres
of berry and vegetable plants. Mixing stations were operated at
Plant City, Lakeland, Wauchula, and Palatka. At the peak of
the activity at Plant City alone, some 15 clerks, some furnished
by outside agencies, some volunteers, were busily engaged in fill-
ing out requisitions and keeping records. Eight sets of platform
scales were used to weigh the materials. At one time a total of
eight Plant Board inspectors were assigned to Plant City. At one
time or another, the services of twenty-six Plant Board em-
ployees were utilized on this project.
For the 1941 season, 1,104 tons of mixed bait were issued to
3,860 growers in 11 counties for the protection of 28,940 acres
of vegetable and berry crops. Only two mixing stations were
operated, one at Plant City and one at Wauchula. Eighteen Plant
Board employees were assigned to mole cricket activities at one
time or another.
Expenditures from federal funds in 1940 were approximately
$70,000, and $60,958.16 in 1941. Expenditures from Plant Board
funds were $10,508.50 in 1940, and $9,155.57 in 1941.
Counties which received assistance in 1940 were: Bradford,
Flagler, Hardee, Hillsborough, Lake, Lee, Manatee, Pinellas, Polk,
Putnam, St. Johns, and Volusia. In 1941, distribution was made
in the same counties with the exception of Bradford, and Clay
County was added to the list.
In order to ascertain the most efficient means of controlling the
mole cricket, it was necessary to establish a research laboratory
at Plant City under the direction of Mr. C. B. Wisecup, Ento-
mologist for the Bureau. In the fall of 1940, Associate Ento-
mologist G. B. Merrill conducted experiments for the purpose of






Fourteenth Biennial Report


developing the most toxic materials and formulas. In 1942 the
Board assigned three full-time employees to research investiga-
tions. Much valuable information has been developed as a result
of the experimental work carried on by federal and state investi-
gators.
IRISH POTATO CERTIFICATION
Other activities of the Grove Inspection Department included
certification of Irish potatoes as to freedom from tuber moth in-
festation, or carlot fumigation of potatoes produced in infested
areas, for shipment to the far West. During 1940, a total of 117
cars were certified. For the 1941 season, 271 cars were certified
after inspection, and 9 were fumigated. This activity is one that
in no manner effects control of potato insects, yet is necessary
in order to enable Florida growers to comply with out-of-state
quarantines and to dispose of their crop.

WHITE-FRINGED BEETLE
There were no startling developments with respect to the
white-fringed beetle control project during the biennium. Treat-
ment to control adult beetles was confined to localities such as
railway yards, schools, and other places likely to serve as points
of dissemination. Quarantines promulgated to prevent spread
were enforced as in the past, and inspections made for the pur-
pose of locating infestations outside the quarantined areas were
continued.
Perhaps the most important development was the finding (not
unexpected) of infestations along the right-of-way of the L. & N.
Railway between Pensacola and the Alabama line.
The Board is still of the opinion that farmers in the infested
areas will have to learn to carry on with their farming activities
in the presence of the beetle, and that intensive research investi-
gations are necessary to develop information as to its life history,
control, and cropping measures which will enable farmers to
operate without undue crop loss or expenditures for control
measures. With this in mind, it has furnished the Bureau of En-
tomology and Plant Quarantine with the services of one full-time
and two part-time inspectors for research investigations.

JAPANESE BEETLE
It will be recalled that in May and June 1940 a total of seven
adult Japanese beetles were collected in traps at Miami (2),






State Plant Board of Florida


Tampa (1), and Jacksonville (4). During the course of the
trap survey operated by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, United States Department of Agriculture, in 1941,
no beetles were collected. However, the 1942 survey resulted
in the trapping of one adult at Miami and one at Jacksonville.
While this second collection is small, it indicates the possibility of
establishment of this insect in Florida. This would not be sur-
prising, for there have been numerous opportunities for entry
of this pest during the past ten years, particularly by means of
watercraft during the summer when millions of the adults are in
flight at northern ports.
Control measures consist, in large measure, of applications of
lead arsenate at the rate of from 500 to 1,000 pounds per acre.
It may become necessary to apply such measures at Miami and
Jacksonville.
PINK BOLLWORM

The wild cotton eradication activities of the Bureau of Ento-
mology and Plant Quarantine, United States Department of Agri-
culture, were continued during the biennium. This task, together
with the eradication of pink bollworm infesting the plants, is
essential for the protection of the cotton industry of the entire
South from infestation by this pest with resulting losses of con-
siderable magnitude.
The area in which this plant persists consists of a comparative-
ly narrow strip extending along the Gulf coast from Manatee
County southward to Cape Sable. On the east coast, the plants
are found on the keys from Elliotts Key south to Key West, and
along the mainland as far as Cape Sable.
It will be recalled that pink bollworm was first found near
Miami in 1932, and light infestations were subsequently discov-
ered in cultivated cotton in Alachua, Columbia, Madison, Jack-
son, and Levy Counties, as well as larvae in trash collected at a
gin in Live Oak where cotton grown in Suwannee, Hamilton, and
Lafayette Counties had been ginned. Intensive clean-up meas-
ures and treatment of seed cotton resulted in the eradication of
the pest from these areas within a few years' time.
Eradication of wild cotton, which was generally infested, was
started in June 1932, but the entire area was not completely
covered until 1936. Beneficial results, indicated by the decrease
in the number of wild cotton plants and in the degree of infes-
tations, were noted on each subsequent coverage.






Fourteenth Biennial Report


This activity has been conducted under the most unfavorable
conditions. The plants grow along the shore lines just above
high tide level. Clean-up activities are limited to the winter
months when mosquitoes are not so plentiful and lands sub-
merged during the rainy season have dried out somewhat. It has
been necessary to make roads and construct bridges for the trans-
portation of men and supplies. Camps are usually established at
Cape Sable and other places on the keys. Many areas are worked
from house boats which are towed from place to place. Too
much credit cannot be given to the Bureau's employees in charge
of this activity, L. F. Curl, and more recently, W. E. Conn, for
the manner in which this work has been conducted.
During the past year the undertaking, like other activities, has
been handicapped by the labor shortage. During the biennium,
WPA allotments were secured, but it was not possible to keep an
adequate force in the field.
Infestations of pink bollworm were found in the Cape Sable
area on both ends of Key Largo, and Easton Key in the Key West
section.

FEDERAL FUNDS EXPENDED ON WILD COTTON ERADICATION IN FLORIDA
I Bureau I
SEntomology IAcreage Cleaned
Year and Plant WPA Total and Recleaned
I Quarantine

1932-33 ....... $ 60,000 $ 60,000 3,000
1933-34 ........ 60,000 60,000 4,500
1934-35 ....... 60,000 60,000 4,500
1935-36 ...... 60,000 $ 90,000 150,000 45,000
1936-37 ........ 60,000 40,000 100,000 45,000
1937-38 ........ 53,000 53,000 41,938
1938-39 ........ 61,400 28,386 89,786 34,305
1939-40 ........ 57,723 51,000" 108,723 38,757
**1940-41 .... 50,202 50,507 100,709 44,790
1941-42 ....... 60,520 44,424 104,944 36,340

Total ......... $582,845 $304,317 $887,162 $298,130

*Estimated.
"Estimated C.C.C. expenditures for 1940-41 amount to $65,000. There was no C.C.C.
cooperation in 1941-42.

SWEET POTATO WEEVIL

The activities of the two inspectors assigned to this project
have consisted largely of inspection for the weevil in counties
lying near the quarantine line (the eastern boundaries of Jeffer-






32 State Plant Board of Florida

son and Madison Counties) ; certification of sweet potato plants
and seed for shipment out of the state; and consultation with
farmers in infested areas with respect to cultural measures likely
to be successful in producing weevil-free plants and tubers.
The production of potato plants and tubers in the vicinity of
Jackson County developed into a rather large industry several
years ago, and many shipments of potatoes and plants were sent
into nearby states. On account of out-of-state quarantines, it
was necessary to inspect the fields in which these potatoes were
grown, as well as the potatoes at digging time, and certify them
as to freedom from sweet potato weevil.
Two full-time inspectors are assigned to this activity. It is be-
lieved that the work, which is largely seasonal, could be per-
formed as efficiently and more economically by using the services
of men assigned to grove or nursery inspection.







Fourteenth Biennial Report


EMPLOYEES OF THE STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA

As of June 30, 1942

OFFICE OF THE BOARD:
DIAMOND, J. T. ................................ -- Secretary and Auditor (part time)
LEWIS, MRS. ELIZABETH ........Stenographer and Filing Clerk (part time)

PLANT COMMISSIONER'S OFFICE:
NEWELL, WILMON .........................--.---..-. ----- Plant Commissioner
HUNTER, LENA R............... ......... ..... ..........................Chief Clerk
MORGAN, MAE HUDSON ............ .........Stenographer and Filing Clerk
LLOYD, HENRY ............. --------.---------------- ----------------.. Janitor

GROVE INSPECTION DEPARTMENT:
MCCLANAHAN, H. S .......--- .....----- .......--------... ....- Grove Inspector
ALDERMAN, C. A. ................ .....-.---....-.. --- Assistant Grove Inspector
BELL, J. C. ............. ..............-- ......... Assistant Grove Inspector
BRANAM, JAMES R .............----------------------Assistant Grove Inspector
BURDEN, G. F ......-........-..-.-.....-- .------.....Assistant Grove Inspector
CALKINS, O. W. ..-..............---- .......----------------..Assistant Grove Inspector
CLARK, V. I. .........................---.... ......-... ... Assistant Grove Inspector
DYSON, Z. V. ......-...............-...----------..Assistant Grove Inspector
EILAND, J. F ....--..---------...... ------...------..Assistant Grove Inspector
FLORA, ROY L. ..........................--.----.........Assistant Grove Inspector
FREDRICK, JOHN M .........-.....-- --------------..Assistant Grove Inspector
FRIERSON, ED ..............----. ................ Assistant Grove Inspector
FRIERSON, H. H ....-...----..............-. .A-------- assistant Grove Inspector
GEBHART, ELMER F. ..................- --------------... Assistant Grove Inspector
GRACE, DON H. ..........------........------....--------------..... Assistant Grove Inspector
HAYSLIP, NORMAN C ..........----------------...........Assistant Grove Inspector
HENDERSON, J. HARVEY ................................--Assistant Grove Inspector
LIGHT, L. S. JR. ........................................---Assistant Grove Inspector
LINDNER, R. W. ...........-....----..--...------- Assistant Grove Inspector
LINK, O. D. ............---.....--..----------............... Assistant Grove Inspector
LUDLAM, J. W .......................--------------............- Assistant Grove Inspector
MAYES, WINFRED J. ...........------...--..--.....------ --.............Assistant Grove Inspector
SEALEY, J. H. .........-.....-..-..............-...-....Assistant Grove Inspector
STEPHENS, C. S ......................................... Assistant Grove Inspector
STOKES, C. R ...................... .. ------------Assistant Grove Inspector
WALSINGHAM, C. B. .....................-......--------...--Assistant Grove Inspector
WARD, ROBERT G. .............. ...............-..Assistant Grove Inspector
YDE, HOWARD ....................------- ----------------.. Assistant Grove Inspector
RIDDICK, E ......- ................ .... --... ----.- -----..... ---Stenographer
White-fringed Beetle Control:
BRAGDON, K. E .................. -----------------------.........-... Assistant Inspector
HUME, E. G ........................ ................ ----------..A Assistant Inspector
BAKER, ROSCOE ..........-. ... ..... ..........------Assistant Grove Inspector
Sweet Potato Weevil Control:
DEXTER, WORTH ..........-... ........-....----.. -........-- Assistant Inspector
PREVATT, W M ........... ............................ ..... Assistant Inspector

NURSERY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT:
GOODWIN, J. C. -............-......... .. .................. Nursery Inspector
BAKER, GEO. H. ...................-.....---......-.- Assistant Nursery Inspector
BASS, C. A. ....................... ........................Assistant Nursery Inspector
DANIEL, B. E ....................................Acting Assistant Nursery Inspector
FOGG, HARRY W. ..............................--- .........Assistant Nursery Inspector
KERSEY, WALTER L. ......................................Assistant Nursery Inspector






34 State Plant Board of Florida

KNIGHT, R. A. ....................... ............... Assistant Nursery Inspector
NANNEY, WM.C. ...............-......................Assistant Nursery Inspector
SPRINGER, JOHN R .......----................................Assistant Nursery Inspector
BRYAN, PAULINE ....... .....-- ......-...-........... Stenographer
MCILVAINE, LUCRETIA ............ .................................. ........ Stenographer
QUARANTINE INSPECTION DEPARTMENT:
BROWN, ARTHUR C .......... ...................Quarantine Inspector and
Assistant Plant Commissioner
BARCUS, G. D. ......-... .............................. Assistant Quarantine Inspector
GIST, J. V. ...............- -............................Assistant Quarantine Inspector
HART, REGINALD ............................- Assistant Quarantine Inspector
HELSETH, GEORGE A. ...............................Assistant Quarantine Inspector
JACKSON, H. C. .............................-...... Assistant Quarantine Inspector
LEROY, MERTON ..---.................. ................Assistant Quarantine Inspector
LINGER, RUSSELL B -..............................Assistant Quarantine Inspector
LYLE, W. R. .......................--.............Assistant Quarantine Inspector
MERRILL, W. H. .....-....-- .......................Assistant Quarantine Inspector
MILNER, R. G. .....................................Assistant Quarantine Inspector
POTTER, R. D. .................-- .......-- .......... -.Assistant Quarantine Inspector
ROBERTSON, P. F. ............ ......... .... ----Assistant Quarantine Inspector
SHEPARD, C. R. ------.........--.....--.......... Assistant Quarantine Inspector
THOMAS, PAUL ............... ...................Assistant Quarantine Inspector
WINTER, H. K. ....................................Assistant Quarantine Inspector
ANDERSON, M. L .--.....---... ....-- Acting Assistant Quarantine Inspector
BROWN, M. R. ....................... Acting Assistant Quarantine Inspector
LEE, FRANK A. .........................Acting Assistant Quarantine Inspector
MASON, A. S --..---.... ----... .....Acting Assistant Quarantine Inspector
MCMULLEN, G. S. A..................- Acting Assistant Quarantine Inspector
LOVEJOY, ELITA ............ ....... ...-- ---- Office Assistant
DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY:
BERGER, E. W. .--........ ---....---...---..... --- ..--.---. Entomologist
MERRILL, G. B ..............-- ........-. .........- ...... Associate Entomologist
APIARY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT:
FOSTER, ROBERT E. ........... ....... .. ..... ................ ... Apiary Inspector
HAYNIE, J. D. --............--- .....................Assistant Apiary Inspector
BOOTH, J. H. ...---. ------..........--.- .......Assistant Apiary Inspector
FOSTER, H. S. ..-----....... .................. Assistant Apiary Inspector
GLENN, J. A. .------........................ Assistant Apiary Inspector
MACK, CHAS. ............- ---............ -..........Assistant Apiary Inspector
NORDMAN, J. B. ........... ------.............. Assistant Apiary Inspector















THE ROLL OF HONOR


The following employees of the State Plant Board of Florida
are serving in the several branches of the military service, as
indicated:

BARCUS, DAVID, Lt. ...-... ......---------..- Army-Infantry
BREAZEALE, J. H. .... --........-------. Naval Reserve, Ph. M.
DEKLE, GEO. W., Lt. .......------....------ Army-Paratroops
FRIERSON, PAUL E., Capt ..............------Army-Infantry
GIRARDEAU, J. H., Lt. -..- .....----- Army-Infantry
GUTHRIE, J. B., Lt. --..... -.......--- Army-Q. M. Corps
LEE, FRANK A., Pvt ............-...------------------.... Army
MITCHELL, LORRY W., Lt. .......-----. Army-Air Corps
REMINGTON, RICHARD, Lt. .-..... -........ Marine Corps
SHEPARD, C. E., Lt. --- Army-Induction Center
SIIEPARD, C. R., Lt ... --------------- --------- Navy
SKINNER, JOIN D., Staff Sergeant .---- Army-Infantry




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs