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Group Title: Report for the period ... of the State Plant Board of Florida
Title: Report for the period ...
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098574/00010
 Material Information
Title: Report for the period ...
Alternate Title: Biennial report
Physical Description: 19 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: State Plant Board of Florida
Publisher: State Plant Board of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1938/40
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Plants, Protection of -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: State Plant Board of Florida.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 4th (1920/22)- 23rd (1958/60).
Numbering Peculiarities: Vols. for 1950/52-1958/60 also called: Bulletin.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098574
Volume ID: VID00010
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10989019
lccn - sn 86033752
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the biennial period ending ... and supplemental reports to ...
Succeeded by: Biennial report

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Report of state plant board
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Report of the plant commissioner
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
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Full Text






STATE PLANT BOARD

OF FLORIDA








REPORT FOR THE PERIOD

JULY 1, 1938 -JUNE 30, 1940

(Thirteenth Biennial Report)


JANUARY, 1941







Thirteenth Biennial Report


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
July 20, 1940
To His Excellency,
Fred P. Cone,
Governor of Florida.
SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the State Plant
Board of Florida for the biennium ending June 30, 1940. Please
submit same to the Legislature.
Respectfully,
STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA,
By: HENRY P. ADAIR,
Chairman.

REPORT OF THE STATE PLANT BOARD
The State Plant Board presents for the information of Your
Excellency and members of the Legislature, an account of its
activities during the biennium ending June 30, 1940. The Board
has continued to act as an administrative body-to promulgate
the necessary rules and regulations in connection with plant pest
control, to decide matters of policy, to approve for payment
payrolls and accounts, and to issue instructions to the Plant
Commissioner. The latter official acts as the Board's chief
executive officer, and exercises general supervision of the field
activities.
The personnel of the Board at the end of the biennium is as
follows: Henry P. Adair, Jacksonville; C. P. Helfenstein, Live
Oak; W. M. Palmer, Ocala; R. H. Gore, Fort Lauderdale; and
N. B. Jordan, Quincy. Changes made since the last report in-
clude the appointment of Mr. Gore, on October 19, 1939, to
succeed Mr. R. P. Terry, of Miami, and of Mr. Jordan, on
October 29, 1939, to succeed Mr. Thos. W. Bryant, of Lakeland.
These gentlemen qualified as Board members at the regular
meeting of the Board held on November 11, 1939. The present
organization of the Board was perfected January 15, 1940, by
electing Mr. Adair as Chairman, and J. T. Diamond as Secretary.
The activities of the Board have been continued along the
same general lines as during previous years. Fulfillment of the
intent and purpose of the Florida Plant Act of 1927, namely,
to prevent or retard entry into or spread within the state of
destructive plant pests, becomes more complicated each year by







State Plant Board of Florida


reason of the vast increase in travel between Florida and other
states and foreign countries. The inspection of imported plants
and plant products for the purpose of detecting the presence
of injurious plant pests is made comparatively simple by reason
of the fact that all such shipments are required to enter at
specified ports and under the supervision of customs officials.
Such importations are subject, as a condition of entry, to scru-
tiny by the Board's quarantine inspectors, who hold appoint-
ments as collaborators of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, United States Department of Agriculture, and have
authority to enforce federal plant quarantines. On the other
hand, efforts to exclude plant pests from other states through
enforcement of domestic plant quarantines have become most
difficult on account of the impossibility of regulating the entry
of the many motor trucks transporting host materials which
cross the state line daily. To attempt to handle properly such
movement would require the establishment and maintenance of
traffic control stations on all roads entering the state,-an under-
taking prohibitive because of the cost.
The departments operating under the general supervision of
the Plant Commissioner are: Nursery Inspection, Grove Inspec-
tion, Quarantine Inspection, Apiary Inspection, and Entomology.
For detailed information concerning the activities of these
departments, attention is invited to the Report of the Plant
Commissioner, which is made a part of this report.
Probably the most significant occurrence of the biennium was
the finding of a few Japanese beetles at several localities in
Florida as a result of trapping activities by agents of the Bureau
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United States Department
of Agriculture. The Board has sought the advice of officials of
the Bureau as to the best means of meeting this invasion, and,
when so advised, will endeavor to eradicate the pest. In areas
in the eastern part of the country, where the beetle is established,
it has proved to be one of the most destructive foreign plant pests
ever introduced.
Considerable space was devoted in the last biennial report
to the finding of the white-fringed beetle in several counties
in the western part of the state. Intensive inspections made
since that time have failed to disclose any spread from the areas
first quarantined. Control operations have been largely a task
of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, the State
Plant Board cooperating wherever possible. Reports received







Thirteenth Biennial Report


from the research and control organizations indicate a decrease
in both the numbers of beetles and the severity of their attack.
No reason can be advanced at this time for this condition. It
is of the utmost importance, however, that provision be made
for a continuance of the control and research programs now
under way. It is doubtful if eradication can be accomplished.
The best that can be hoped for is to keep the pest under control
until some practical program has been worked out by the re-
search investigators which will enable farmers to produce normal
crops in the presence of this pest.
Attention is directed to the fact that expenditures for the
year ending June 30, 1940, are less than the amounts appro-
priated. The reason for this is found in the Board's determina-
tion to comply with your request for drastic curtailments of
expenditures in all departments of the state. The Board feels
that it has cooperated to the utmost in this respect. The un-
expended balance accumulated was made possible by the Board's
disinclination to make sorely needed appointments to fill vacan-
cies in the inspection force, its reluctance to put into effect
certain merited and authorized salary increases, and its in-
sistence that purchases of supplies and equipment be reduced
to the minimum.
Reference is also made to the report of the Plant Commis-
sioner for a financial statement covering amounts available and
expended in conducting the Board's activities. Attention is
directed to the Plant Commissioner's estimates as to amounts
which should be made available for the biennium beginning
July 1, 1941. The Board has approved of these estimates and
urgently recommends that the Legislature make the necessary
appropriations. As a result of the unsettled world conditions,
there is bound to be a tremendous increase in traffic, both
domestic and foreign, between Florida and other states and
countries. With this increase will come an increase in the risk
of invasion by plant pests. Provision is therefore made in the
estimates presented for an expansion in the Board's inspectional
force to meet such a risk if it materializes. The Board especially
requests that the emergency fund of $50,000 customarily pro-
vided be continued.
Respectfully submitted,
STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA,
By: HENRY P. ADAIR,
Chairman.







State Plant Board of Florida


REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER
For Biennium Ending June 30, 1940

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
Gainesville, Florida
July 15, 1940

Honorable Henry P. Adair, Chairman,
State Plant Board of Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to present herewith my report as Plant
Commissioner for the biennium ending June 30, 1940.

Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Plant Commissioner.


REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER
July 1, 1938 to June 30, 1940
The Legislature of 1915 delegated two tasks to the State Plant
Board. One is the prevention of entry of injurious plant pests
and the other is the prevention of spread of such pests as may
gain entry.
Prevention of entry of foreign plant pests is a far more
difficult task at the present time than was the case in the early
days of the Board's existence. Then all the plant material likely
to carry infestation or infection from other parts of the United
States entered the state by rail or water through a few ports.
This movement was brought under control by the assignment
of inspectors to the several ports. Today a large portion of the
plant products is brought in by means of motor trucks and
trailers. Some are units operated by established transportation
agencies with fixed destinations and transfer points in the state.
Others may be likened to the gipsy caravans that used to roam
the side roads of the country, trading anything and everything.
Florida is also exposed to invasion by plant pests from other
states by reason of uncertified plants carried into the state by
tourists who maintain winter homes in Florida. Supervision
of the licensed trucking companies would be possible if suffi-






Thirteenth Biennial Report


cient funds were available. Control of the gipsy class is im-
possible. Supervision of the tourist movement is not practical.
Thus the motor car and truck have provided a means for the
introduction and spread of plant pests on affected plant material
most difficult to control.
Prevention of entry of foreign plant pests is also more com-
plicated now than it was some years ago. Fast ships, equipped
with adequate refrigeration units, offer a means of delivery in
this country of perishable fruits and vegetables, many of which
are hosts of destructive insect pests or diseases in their foreign
homes. Cut flowers may now be shipped to Miami by airplane
from the West Indies, Central America, and even South America,
and arrive at destination in excellent condition. Any plant pests
that may be present also arrive in first-class condition. Enforce-
ment of foreign plant quarantines has become somewhat com-
plicated by the policy of the State Department of the United
States, whose officials are attempting to better trade relations
between the United States and foreign countries. It is likely
that if the State Department's "good neighbor" policy is con-
tinued, its wishes will have to be given consideration by the
Secretary of Agriculture in the promulgation and enforcement
of foreign plant quarantines.
Each year there is an increase in the volume of traffic between
Florida and foreign countries,-traffic which must be brought
under the supervision of our plant quarantine inspectors. The
Board is now faced with the problem of assigning full time
inspectors to ports served in the past on a part time basis.
Provision must be made for contacts with the commanding
officers of army and navy airplanes, as well as watercraft, which
will ply between their bases of operations in Florida and nearby
insular possessions.
Thus, by reason of factors over which the Board can exert
little, if any, control, the possibility of some major plant pest
slipping past our first line of defense is far greater today than
was the case several years ago. To cope with this hazard it is
necessary that this line of defense be strengthened. Provision
must be made, also, for the fulfillment of the second duty im-
posed on the Board, namely, the prevention of spread of intro-
duced plant pests.
Nurserymen in their quest for new plants are constantly re-
ceiving plant material from all parts of the United States and







State Plant Board of Florida


from foreign countries. There is always present the possibility
that some destructive plant pest may be introduced in this
manner. We must not lose sight of the fact that inspections
for citrus canker made in the fall of 1915 disclosed that of the
62 centers of infection found, ninety per cent were traceable
to shipments of diseased citrus trees from one infected nursery.
(Shipments from this nursery were made before the creation
of the State Plant Board.) Under the present system of nursery
inspection, the unusual conditions existing in this nursery would
have been noted, and steps taken to prevent state-wide distribu-
tion by means of infected nursery stock. Frequent and inten-
sive inspections of our nurseries are necessary in order to prevent
widespread dissemination of plant pests on shipments of nursery
stock.
Our vast citrus holdings are distributed over the greater por-
tion of Florida, vulnerable to invasion by alien plant pests from
every side,-by land in the form of pest-infested plant material
transported into the state by means of motor vehicles; by sea
in the form of affected fruits or vegetables smuggled into the
country by water and aircraft and landed at points unguarded
by customs agents; by air by means of insects carried by air
currents from the West Indies, Cuba, Central and even South
America. The only practical manner in which to afford pro-
tection to this industry is to inspect at frequent intervals every
citrus tree growing in the state in order that newly introduced
plant pests may be discovered and eradicated before they can
establish themselves. Such an activity is the responsibility of
the Grove Inspection Department, whose inspection schedule
provides for an examination of every citrus tree growing in
the state every two years. An annual inspection would be better.
The State Plant Board, as well as the entire State of Florida,
suffered a great loss through the death of Dr. J. H. Montgomery,
Quarantine Inspector and Assistant Plant Commissioner, on
February 16, 1940. Doctor Montgomery was one of the citrus
growers of Dade County who took a leading part in the volunteer
fight waged by growers in that area in an effort to control the
ravages of citrus canker. He entered the employ of the State
Plant Board in March, 1916, and continued to devote his time
to the canker eradication project. He was promoted to the posi-
tion of Quarantine Inspector on May 10, 1918, and became
Assistant Plant Commissioner on February 1, 1921. Possessor






Thirteenth Biennial Report


of a keen, analytical mind, and of a strong personality, he ren-
dered the Board invaluable service for a quarter of a century.
He was recognized as an authority on plant quarantine matters
by state and federal quarantine inspectors.
To succeed Doctor Montgomery, the Board appointed Arthur
C. Brown, Grove Inspector, to the positions of Quarantine In-
spector and Assistant Plant Commissioner. H. S. McClanahan,
who first joined the organization in May, 1916, was appointed
to succeed Mr. Brown. Mr. McClanahan has had considerable
experience in plant pest control activities; he served through
the citrus canker and Mediterranean fruit fly eradication pro-
jects, and was in charge of field operations of the successful
blackfly eradication campaign at Key West. These two appoint-
ments become effective July 1, 1940.
The activities of the several departments of the Board's or-
ganization are fully covered in the reports of the department
heads which are herewith submitted and made a part of this
report. Included as information in the report of the Grove In-
spection Department is a reference to the wild cotton and pink
bollworm eradication project. This activity, as well as the
white-fringed beetle control project, is under the direct control
of officials of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine,
United States Department of Agriculture. All of the funds
expended on wild cotton eradication and a large portion of the
expenditures for white-fringed beetle control were from federal
sources.
RESOURCES
During the biennium ending June 30, 1940, the Board had
available for current expenses $216,935.62 for the first year,
and $241,932.00 for the second. These amounts were derived
from state appropriations as follows:
July 1, 1938:
Unexpended balance June 30, 1938 ........................................ $ 7,323.62
State Plant Board, Chapter 17707:
Salaries -........... ....... ......-.- ............ .... $124,612.00
Expenses ...........-........... ..... .... 30,000.00 154,612.00
The Florida Plant Act of 1927, Chapter 12291 ...................... 35,000.00
Apiary Industry, Chapter 17707 .......................... ........... 15,000.00
Sweet Potato Weevil Eradication, Chapter 17707 ............... 5,000.00
Total --.... ............ ............-.. ... ..... ......... .. $216,935.62







State Plant Board of Florida


July 1, 1939:
State Plant Board, Chapter 19280:
Salaries ...................... .................................. $137,620.00
Expenses ..... ............. .. ........... ...... 44,312.00 $181,932.00
The Florida Plant Act of 1927, Chapter 12291 .................. 35,000.00
Apiary Industry, Chapter 19280 ..................................... 15,000.00
Eradicating Sweet Potato Weevil, Chapter 19280 .............. 5,000.00
Combating White-fringed Beetle, Chapter 19280 ................ 5,000.00

Total ...... -.............................................. $241,932.00

On June 30, 1940, there remained an unexpended balance in
the amount of $37,820.29.

EXPENDITURES

Expenditures of the Board for 1938-39 and 1939-40 by depart-
ments are shown in Table A. In Table B are shown expenditures
for specific purposes.
TABLE A


Department

Grove Inspection ........................-...-.........
Nursery Inspection ......... ....................|... .
Quarantine Inspection ....................... ... ......
Apiary Inspection ................-..-... -..........
Sweet Potato Weevil Control ...----...............
Office of the Board ... ................
Plant Commissioner's Office ..........................
Entomology -..-............................ |I
Tobacco Blue Mold ........-..............................
White-fringed Beetle Control ....................-....

Total ............................................- I


1938-1939

$ 86,084.93
33,746.22
54,714.73
15,151.10
4,681.72
3,228.76
7,064.07
7,048.86
1,493.70


$213,214.09


TABLE B


Item

Salaries -....- -. ...... ....... ..... ............. .
Travel and Subsistence Expense ................
Labor .. .... ...........................................
Stationery and Small Printing .........-............
Postage -....- ..... ............ ..... .........
Bulletins and Circulars ....................................
Telephone, Telegraph ...... -----.....|..... ........
M miscellaneous Supplies ......................... .......
Miscellaneous Expenses .................. ..........
Office Equipment ................... ... .... ..........-
Laboratory Supplies .......- ...-.... .. ........
Freight, Express ...................... . ...........
L library ................................. .........................

T6al .........


1938-1939

$165,350.76
40,918.96
763.15
762.45
1,206.28
395.00
594.69
1,096.61
1,007.07
769.70
19.00
52.01
278.41


1939-1940

$ 75,701.83
33,451.43
52,114.40
14,928.00
4,383.13
2,295.13
6,465.56
6,563.33

8,208.90

$204,111.71




1939-1940

$165,272.99
34,398.84
288.25
485.05
723.72
418.94
504.30
398.63
1,069.21
320.02

19.57
212.19


1a29140nc i V.0R411171I


.. .. ... ... .... .... .... .. .. ... .... .. --- ---- I








Thirteenth Biennial Report


ESTIMATES

A detailed report covering the subject of estimates of amounts
believed to be necessary for operating expenses for the biennium
beginning July 1, 1941, has been approved by the Board. From
this report the following summary is presented:

SUMMARY OF ESTIMATES PER ANNUM
For Biennium Beginning July 1, 1941


Department


Office of the Board ...............
Plant Commissioner's Office
Entomology ..............................
Quarantine Inspection ..........
Grove Inspection ....................
Nursery Inspection ...........
Apiary Inspection ...... .......
Irish Potato Inspection and
Certification ..................
White-fringed Beetle ..........
Sweet Potato Weevil
Eradication .............


Total ......


I Salaries
I Per Annum


$ 1,980.00
5,100.00
6,240.00
56,760.00
70,560.00
28,400.00
9,500.00

1,600.00

3,300.00


$183,440.00


Expenses
Per Annum

$ 1,200.00
2,512.00
1,000.00
12,000.00
23,000.00
9,500.00
5,500.00
1,400.00

1,700.00


$ 57,812.00
i


Total 1941-1943
Per Annum

$ 3,180.00
7,612.00
7,240.00
68,760.00
93,560.00
37,900.00
15,000.00

3,000.00
10,000.00*

5,000.00


$251,252.00


Emergency Fund, no part of which is to be used unless found
necessary by Budget Commission (for biennium) ................... $50,000.00

*This sum should be available for either salaries or expenses without specifying. The
activity is in cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United
States Department of Agriculture, and other Federal agencies, which plan to carry the
larger portion of the total expense incurred. The $10,000 requested from the state is con-
sequently a small proportion and is evidence of the "state participation" required by the
Federal Government.







State Plant Board of Florida


REPORT OF THE GROVE INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
July 1, 1938 June 30, 1940
Arthur C. Brown, Grove Inspector
During the biennium no newly introduced major plant pests
were found in our citrus plantings. Hosts of the spiny citrus
whitefly, or blackfly, growing on the lower Keys and at Key
West were inspected for the presence of this pest, with negative
results. It will be recalled that blackfly was found in Key West
in August, 1934, and eradication measures were immediately
instituted, with the result that the insect was eradicated from
that area. This, incidentally, is the third successful plant pest
eradication project participated in by the State Plant Board, in
cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture.
Although known as the Grove Inspection Department, the
activities of inspectors assigned to this division are by no means
confined to the inspection of citrus plantings. In fact, demands
for their assignment to inspection of other commodities seriously
interfere with the search of our groves for the presence of major
plant pests. The Plant Commissioner and his assistants feel
that one inspection every two years of all citrus trees growing
in the state is essential for the safeguarding of this industry.
Annual inspections would be more desirable. It is believed that
citrus canker has been eradicated from Florida. However, the
disease still persists in plantings in Texas and Louisiana, and
the risk of reintroduction is ever present. Every automobile
and motor truck that crosses our state line from other states
is a potential carrier of some destructive plant pest. The de-
velopment of express, mail and passenger traffic by airplane
between Florida and foreign countries to the south of us offers
a means of entrance of some foreign plant pest. It is essential
that the presence of any introduced major insect or disease be
detected as rapidly as possible and eradication measures, if neces-
sary and practical, instituted. This can be accomplished only
by the careful and repeated inspection of every citrus tree in
the state.
Interruptions in the course of inspection of citrus plantings
during the biennium were caused by the need of assignment of
inspectors to search for white-fringed beetle and for the in-
spection and certification of Irish potatoes. It may be interesting
to readers to learn that the development of the cattle industry







Thirteenth Biennial Report


in Florida has increased somewhat the cost of grove inspection.
The erection of pasture fences over large areas has blocked many
roads which in the past served as short cuts to scattered and
isolated citrus plantings. Inspectors seeking entry to these en-
closures for the purpose of examining citrus trees are now obliged
to drive considerable distances in order to find gates. The growth
of our cities has also had its effect on the progress of grove
inspection. In examining citrus trees in towns and cities, it is
necessary to enter every yard or enclosure in order to make
sure that no trees are overlooked. Property occupants fre-
quently engage inspectors in conversation for the purpose of
obtaining information on pest control and cultural matters. The
rapid coverage of such areas is not possible. Records for the
city of Miami on the last coverage show that an average of only
225 trees per man day were inspected. Contrast this with the
coverage in some localities, such as Polk County, where large
plantings free from underbrush and unencumbered by fences
are encountered. The record for this county shows an average
inspection coverage for thirty-day periods of as many as 2,500
trees per man day.
Reports on several other projects coming under the general
supervision of the Grove Inspector, such as white-fringed beetle,
sweet potato weevil control, and inspection and certification of
Irish potatoes, are included in the Grove Inspector's report. As
a matter of record, there is included a brief report on the con-
trol of blue mold of tobacco, wild cotton eradication, and the find-
ing of the Japanese beetle in Florida.

WHITE-FRINGED BEETLE
Inspections conducted along the northern tier of counties in
the summers of 1938 and 1939 failed to indicate any material
increase in the areas infested by white-fringed beetle. In the
summer of 1939 light infestations were found in Crestview, Oka-
loosa County, and just north of DeFuniak Springs in Walton
County. It was also learned that the city of Pensacola is gen-
erally infested, although no damage as a result of attacks by
this insect has been reported.
Upon recommendation of the Chief of the Bureau of Ento-
mology and Plant Quarantine, the State Plant Board on June
19, 1939, adopted Rule 49C, providing for the treatment of host
plants for the purpose of controlling the beetle. At the same
time the Board issued its Instructions to the Plant Commissioner







State Plant Board of Florida


with respect to application of the Board's rules and regulations
in re control of the white-fringed beetle. These instructions
were based upon recommendations of the Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine.
Principal damage to host plants is caused in the spring by
larvae feeding on the roots of the young plants. Pupation takes
place probably in the latter part of May, and the adults emerge
from the soil in large numbers during the early summer months.
After feeding for a few days, they start to deposit eggs at the
point of contact between the ground and such objects as sticks,
stones, twigs and similar debris.
Control activities are largely seasonal, in that about the only
practical point of attack is the pre-oviposition stage of the adult.
Unfortunately, adult emergence dates coincide with the arrival
of our summer rains. Applications of poison were frequently
washed off before all beetles had an opportunity to ingest a
lethal dose. Thus some adults were enabled to deposit sufficient
eggs to insure a carry-over to the following crop season. How-
ever, reports from the research and control organizations indi-
cate a considerable decrease in the beetle population each year
since 1937. To date, 1940 crop loss as a result of beetle attacks
appears to be rather light. The causes of the decline in the
number of beetles observed and the corresponding decrease in
crop losses are not fully understood at this time.
Research is a vital part of any endeavor to cope with an insect
pest. If eradication is the aim, vulnerable points are exposed
by research investigations. If eradication is not possible or prac-
tical, a program which will enable the grower to carry on in the
presence of the pest must be developed by the research worker.
In order to intensify the Bureau's white-fringed beetle research
program, an agreement was entered into in March 1939 between
the State Plant Board and the Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, United States Department of Agriculture, whereby
a portion of the Board's funds was allotted for employment of
research investigators, while the Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine agreed to pay the salaries of a sufficient num-
ber of state men engaged in control activities to offset such
expenditures for research which were assumed by the Board.
This agreement was renewed for the fiscal year 1940-41. Similar
agreements were entered into by the federal officials and quaran-
tine officers of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. The Plant
Board's participation in this agreement consists of the assign-






Thzrteenth Biennial Report


ment of one full time and two part time entomologists to work
under the direction of the Bureau's official in charge of research.
This is in addition to another full time investigator who has
been assigned to host plant investigations since April 1938..

SWEET POTATO WEEVIL
The sweet potato weevil, first reported in Florida from Man-
atee County in 1878, is established in nearly every county in
the peninsular portion of the state. An effort to eradicate this
pest was made several years ago by the Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine, United States Department of Agriculture,
in cooperation with the State Plant Board of Florida. The effort
was apparently successful in several areas, but at a later date
reinfestation took place. It was learned that the weevil is pres-
ent in wild morning-glories growing in the hammocks and along
the seashore, and that these wild hosts serve as foci from which
infestation spreads into clean areas. The eradication project
was abandoned, and a plan was worked out whereby farmers
could produce normal crops of sweet potatoes in the presence
of the weevil.
It has been demonstrated in several parts of the state that
the plan worked out by the Bureau and the State Plant Board
is practical. Sweet potatoes can be grown free from weevil
injury and with but little extra cost if the following cultural
recommendations are adopted:

1. Plant only uninfested potatoes or plants.
2. Clean up the old storage bank as soon as it is empty by
burning all old potatoes and litter.
3. Plant the new crop as far as possible from the previous
year's planting.
4. Plant draws for only a small part of the crop. The bulk
of the planting should be made from vine cuttings.
5. Plant a crop that requires clean cultivation in the field
where potatoes were grown the previous year. Volunteer
sweet potato plants should be destroyed.
6. At harvest time cut the vines and remove them from the
field before digging the potatoes. The vines should be
burned as soon as possible. Hand cull the potatoes at
digging time and destroy any suspicious looking potatoes.
Collect and destroy all crowns, roots, small potatoes and






State Plant Board of Florida


other crop remnants. Turn the hogs into the potato field
immediately after harvest.
7. Do not bed, bank, or plant potatoes in the same place two
years in succession.
The legislatures of 1937 and 1939 made available for sweet
potato weevil control the sum of $5,000 annually. The informa-
tion at hand indicated that Baker County was the only county
in the northern part of the state in which the weevil was present,
and considerable time and effort were devoted to assisting the
farmers in that area to control the pest. The number of known
infested farms has been reduced from 62 to 2. Incidentally,
Baker County was the scene of the intensive and costly sweet
potato weevil eradication project participated in by the Bureau
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United States Department
of Agriculture, and the State Plant Board during the period
from 1917 to 1927. The task was considered completed, but
the weevil was reintroduced by some means.
A survey made during the present biennium disclosed the
presence of the weevil in the southern parts of Suwannee and
Columbia Counties, the western part of Alachua County, and in
Gilchrist and Lafayette Counties. Meetings for the purpose of
explaining control measures were held in several of these local-
ities. These meetings were rather largely attended by farmers,
who showed considerable interest in the discussions on control
measures by members of the Agricultural Extension Division
of the University of Florida and inspectors of the State Plant
Board. In addition, the Board's inspectors visited many of the
infested farms and outlined control activities with the occupants.
A survey is now being made of the northern tier of counties
between the Suwannee and Perdido Rivers. At the close of
the biennium, practically all of this territory, with the excep-
tion of Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties, has been inspected.
No sweet potato weevil was reported.






Thirteenth Biennial Report


IRISH POTATO INSPECTION
On account of the presence in Florida of the potato tuber
moth and Colorado potato beetle, shipments of Irish potatoes
destined to points in several far western states must be certified
as to freedom from infestation from such pests. Such certifica-
tion is based on an inspection of the plants in the field while
the tops are still green and of the tubers themselves when
harvested. A force of from four to six inspectors for a period
of about a month is required to make field inspections in south
Dade County. Inspectors are also assigned for shorter periods
in Lee, Palm Beach, and St. Lucie Counties. In addition, one
man is detailed for packing house inspection in each locality.
A tabulation of the acreage inspected and number of cars
certified is shown below:


S 1938-39 1939-40
County Number Number Number Number
Acres Cars Acres Cars
SInspected Certified Inspected Certified
Dade ........................ 6,753 727 7,813 141
Lee ...............-............ 400 10 545 74
Palm Beach .......... 250 1 825 2
St. Lucie .............. 545 4
7,403 738 9,728 221

The reduction in the number of cars certified in 1940 was due
to the curtailment of the crop as a result of the cold weather
of last January.

BLUE MOLD OF TOBACCO
During February and March, 1939, the State Plant Board again
participated in an endeavor, first started in 1938, to demonstrate
to tobacco farmers the most effective means of controlling blue
mold of tobacco (Peronospora tabacina). The Pathologist of
the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station was in charge of
the demonstration, assisted by two other employees of the Sta-
tion, County Agents of the affected counties, and one inspector
of the Board.
Meetings were held at various places for the purpose of ex-
plaining and demonstrating approved control measures. A total






State Plant Board of Florida


of 37 meetings were held in 21 counties, attended by 713 farmers.
Later, when the disease made its appearance, tests were made
on plant beds to demonstrate the effectiveness of the control
recommended.
It was shown that effective control could be obtained in 24
hours by making two applications of 3 or 4 pounds of paradi-
chlorobenzene per 100 square yards of plant beds at 24 hour
intervals and leaving the heavy cloth over the beds continuously,
or one application of 5 or 6 pounds. This treatment killed the
fungus, even after practically 100 percent of the plants were
infected. The only injury to plants noted was in a few instances
where the ground was wet, the sun shone during the day, and
the cloth was close to or touching the plants. Slight injury
was also noted where there was uneven distribution of the crys-
tals. While benzol was found to be equally effective in con-
trolling the disease, costs of application were higher. It was
found that a grade of unbleached sheeting with 54 x 56 threads
per square inch made a satisfactory cover. When lighter covers
were used, the fungus was not killed.
The disease was first noted on February 9. By March 6, it
was found in practically every bed examined. In all beds ob-
served where blue mold appeared early in February, the plants
were all killed except in the treated beds. A survey showed
that many farmers used some means to control the disease. The
majority used paradichlorobenzene according to recommenda-
tions, and were able to check the disease.

THE JAPANESE BEETLE
The Plant Commissioner has been advised by officials of the
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine of the finding of
a few Japanese beetles at several points in Florida during the
course of the Bureau's annual Japanese beetle trapping survey
of the state. Two beetles were collected at Miami, one at Tampa,
and four at Jacksonville.
The presence of the beetle in Florida is a serious matter. In
the eastern part of the United States where this insect has been
established for years, it is a most destructive plant pest. Severe
injury, at times defoliation, is caused by the feeding of the adults
on the leaves, flowers, and fruit of the host plants. Some 275
species of plants are known to be hosts of this insect. The
favorite hosts appear to be peaches, apples, and plums. Among
vegetables, corn is one of the preferred hosts. The growing of






Thirteenth Biennial Report


sweet corn for market during the beetle season has been aban-
doned in some localities. Of the ornamental plants, roses are
perhaps the preferred host. Considerable damage is caused to
the roots of grasses and some vegetable plants by the feeding
of the larvae.
The adult is a handsome, highly colored insect, broadly oval
in shape, from 3/8 to 1/2 inch long and about one-half as wide.
The tops of the wing covers are bronze in color and the rest
of the body is a bright, metallic green. The full-grown larva
is about one inch long and resembles our June beetle larva. This
insect was first discovered in a nursery near Riverton, New
Jersey, in 1916. It has since spread into twenty-three states
and the District of Columbia. It is thought that the beetle was
introduced into New Jersey on shipments of iris plants from
Japan about 1912. State and federal quarantines have been
enforced since the pest was introduced, with a view of prevent-
ing its spread. However, it is a strong flier, and the infested
area has increased each year in this manner. The adults cluster
in large numbers on host fruits and may be carried considerable
distances on shipments of host material. The larval stage of
the insect is passed in the ground, and the pest may be intro-
duced into new areas in shipments of infested soil. Quarantines
have retarded, not prevented, the spread of the beetle.
Control measures in heavily infested localities consist of the
application of insecticides or fumigants to infested soil, the
spraying or dusting of host plants with insecticides, and the
collection of adults in traps. The treatment of incipient infesta-
tions consists of the application to the soil of from 500 to 1,000
pounds of lead arsenate per acre. The Plant Commissioner has
been advised by officials of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine that about the only step to be taken at this time
with respect to the infestation in Florida is the concentration
of traps in the areas in which the captures were made, in order
to form some idea of the density of infestation and possible
limits of the infested area. Officials of the Bureau will advise
the Board when, in the opinion of their specialists, suppressive
measures should be applied.

PINK BOLLWORM
A constant threat to Florida's cotton industry is the presence
of the pink bollworm on the lower Keys and on the mainland
in extreme south Florida.







State Plant Board of Florida


This insect is established in almost every cotton producing
country in the world, causing losses, at times, as high as 75
per cent of the crop. It was found in Texas and Louisiana in
1917,-an introduction from Mexico. Eradication measures
were immediately applied, with the result that the pest was
eliminated from Louisiana and part of Texas. Later it was
found in the Big Bend area in Texas, and since that time, under
the direction of officials of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, a constant battle has been waged against this pest.
It was first reported in the eastern part of the United States
in March 1932, when it was found attacking wild cotton in the
vicinity of Miami, Florida. Surveys disclosed the presence of
the insect in the wild host on the east coast from Miami south
to Key West, and north on the Gulf coast to Terra Ceia in Man-
atee County. In addition, light infestations were found in cul-
tivated cotton in several north Florida counties. Intensive clean-
up measures and treatment of all cotton seed produced in these
infested counties soon 'eliminated the pest from the cultivated
crop.
A general infestation of Florida's cotton producing areas was
prevented, no doubt, by the almost complete absence of cotton
between the northern limits of the wild cotton range and the
southern limits of the commercial cotton producing areas, which
served as a barrier to the advance of the pest. In recent years
the existence of this non-cotton belt has been threatened by
plantings of Sea Island cotton. A revival of interest in the
production of long staple cotton has influenced farmers in the
southern part of the state to turn to this commodity as a cash
crop. Plantings have been made so far south as to cause con-
cern to those familiar with the situation. Some fields are located
only twenty miles from colonies of wild cotton. If the pest is
enabled to move across the barrier area to these plantings of
cultivated cotton and become established in north Florida, the
situation will be serious.
The only solution of the problem is the elimination from
Florida of the pink bollworm, together with its wild host. Such
a project has been under way since 1932, under the direction
of agents of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine,
United States Department of Agriculture. To anyone familiar
with the overflow and jungle lands of the lower Keys and on
the mainland in the vicinity of Cape Sable and the Ten Thousand
Islands, this would appear to be a hopeless task. Under the







Thirteenth Biennial Report


able direction of the Bureau's agents, L. F. Curl and, more re-
cently, W. E. Conn, remarkable progress has been made. On
account of climatic conditions, it is possible to work in some
areas only from December to May of each year. Wild cotton
is usually found near the shore line just above the high tide
level. Each colony site, when located, is numbered, charted, and
described on maps. Repeated visits are made to each colony
site in order to remove new seedlings. The seeds, scattered by
birds or floods, are likely to germinate even after being in or
on the soil for several years.
It has been estimated by Bureau employees that there are
some 16,000 acres of wild cotton lands in Florida. During the
biennium all of these lands were cleaned of plants twice, and
a part, three times. During the fiscal year 1938-39, 1,457,584
wild cotton plants were destroyed, and in 1939-40 the number
removed was 1,344,218. Since the work was started in 1932,
217,000 acres have been cleaned and recleaned, and 14,257,820
wild plants destroyed.
The project has been financed from federal funds. Expendi-
tures have been made from regular Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine appropriations, from the WPA, and from
Civilian Conservation Corps allotments. Federal expenditures
from Bureau and WPA funds are given below. There is no
record of expenditures by the CCC, but it has been estimated
that the costs for construction and maintenance of the camp
are around $85,000 for the past year.
FEDERAL FUNDS EXPENDED ON WILD COTTON ERADICATION IN FLORIDA
Bureau | I
Entomology [ I Acreage Cleaned
Year Iand Plant W WPA Total | and Recleaned
Quarantine I
1932-33 -......- $ 60,000 $ 60,000 3,000
1933-34 ........ 60,000 60,000 4,500
1934-35 ....... 60,000 60,000 4,500
1935-36 ........ 60,000 $ 90,000 150,000 45,000
1936-37 ..... 60,000 40,000 100,000 45,000
1937-38 ....... 53,000 53,000 41,938
1938-39 ........ 61,400 28,386 89,786 34,305
1939-40 ........ 57,723 51,000* 108,723 38,757

$472,123 $209,386 $681,509 217,000

*Estimated.






State Plant Board of Florida


REPORT OF THE NURSERY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
July 1, 1938 June 30, 1940
J. C. Goodwin, Nursery Inspector
The necessity for nursery inspection is apparent when con-
sideration is given to the fact that destructive insects and dis-
eases attacking plants can be widely and quickly disseminated
throughout the state on shipments of affected plants. To pre-
vent such dissemination, the Nursery Inspection Department
maintains an inspection service throughout the entire year.
Frequent and intensive inspection of nurseries is essential
for the successful operation of our plant propagation industry.
The Plant Board's certificate is an assurance that the stock grow-
ing on the property is apparently free from injurious plant pests.
It also enables the proprietor to dispose of his plants in other
states and foreign countries where such certification is required
as a condition of entry.
The nursery inspection force, consisting of a Chief Inspector
and seven Assistant Inspectors, inspected each of the 2,103
nurseries in the state an average of 3.8 times during 1938-1939.
During 1939-1940, the 2,158 nurseries in the state were inspected
an average of 3.9 times.
In 1938-1939, 5,082 acres were devoted to the growing of
nursery stock, and 5,080 acres were thus used in 1939-1940.
At the end of the biennium, June 30, 1940, there were
60,606,180 plants, both citrus and non-citrus, under inspection.
In 1938-1939 citrus nurserymen disposed of approximately
1,500,500 trees. In 1939-1940 they disposed of 916,400 trees.
Nurserymen made shipments of plants to 25 states and 33
foreign countries in 1938-1939 and in 1939-1940 they made ship-
ments to 23 states and 25 foreign countries.
Due to the requirements of certain states, the narcissus plant-
ings of nine growers were inspected twice each year during the
biennium. Approximately 80,000,000 bulbs were grown each
year on these plantings.
Since Canada requires inspection of all plant material at 30-
day intervals, as a condition of entry into that country, such
inspection was provided for 107 ferneries and several succulent
plant farms during 1938-1939. Approximately 293 acres of ferns
and 12,348,000 plants were inspected that year. In 1939-1940,
99 fern growers received this inspection service for 340 acres







Thirteenth Biennial Report


and 13,012,000 plants. Several states in the Union also require
an inspection of this type of plant material, although the State
Plant Board of Florida does not classify these plants as nursery
stock.
Vegetable plants, such as tomato, cabbage, onion, and sweet
potato plants were inspected upon request of the grower. Such
an inspection assists him in marketing his product in other
states.
Some states require the inspection and certification of cut
flowers and cut ferns. Upon request, such material was in-
spected and certificates were issued in order that growers could
make shipments to the states requiring such certification. At
the end of the biennium, 20 cut flower plantings were under
inspection, comprising approximately 895 acres with 48,500,000
plants, mainly gladiolus.
During the biennium, the Nursery Inspection Department col-
lected from nurseries and submitted 1,491 specimens of plant
material infested with plant pests or diseases. From these speci-
mens, 2,379 determinations were made by the Entomological
Department. One new scale insect and a new plant disease were
found.
Cooperation between nurserymen and the Department through-
out the biennium was very good. It was necessary to bring
charges against only two firms for violations of the Board's
rules and regulations. Both of these cases were pending at the
end of the biennium.








State Plant Board of Florida


SUMMARY OF WORK ACCOMPLISHED BY THE NURSERY INSPECTION
DEPARTMENT DURING THE BIENNIUM ENDING JUNE 30, 1940


1938-1939
Number of Inspection Districts ..........
Number of Nurseries in State ............
Number of Nursery Inspections Made
Average Number of Inspections
per Nursery ........-..................----
Total Number of Refusals .................


1939-1940


7
2,103
8,153


Nursery Acreage in State:
Citrus ........................ 2,109.73
Non-citrus ................ 2,972.26

Nursery Stock in State:
Citrus ........................ 15,847,242
Non-citrus ................ 41,979,986


Total Acreage Inspected
and Passed:
Citrus ........................
Non-citrus ..........

Total Acreage Inspected
and Refused:
Citrus ..............-----
Non-citrus ................


8,450.57
11,955.80



160.18
110.16


Total Acreage Inspected:
Citrus ........................ 8,610.75
Non-citrus ................ 12,065.96

Total Amount Stock
Inspected and Passed:
Citrus ....... ............... 63,080,620
Non-citrus ................ 168,201,777


Total Amount Stock
Inspected and Refused:
Citrus ..................
Non-citrus ............


870,590
609,807


2,101.55
5,081.99 2,978.50


15,618,845
57,827,228 44,987,335



8,409.71
20,406.37 11,944.38


270.34


95.35
65.85


8,505.06
20,676.71 12,010.23



62,073,120
231,282,397 184,216,390



927,380
1,480,397 130,260


Total Amount of Stock
Inspected:
Citrus ........................ 63,951,210
Non-citrus ................ 169,811,584

Number of Nurseries Going Out
of Business ....................................
Number New Nurseries ......................


63,000,500
233,762,794 184,346,650 247,347,150


7
2,158
8,514

3.9
247


5,080.05



60,606,180



20,354.09



161.20



20,515.29



246,289,510



1,057,640






Thirteenth Biennial Report


REPORT OF THE QUARANTINE INSPECTION
DEPARTMENT
July 1, 1938 June 30, 1940
The study of a map of the North and South American con-
tinents depicts the exposure of the United States to attack in
the event that an aggressive nation secures a base of operations
in the western hemisphere. If we consider the aggressor in the
form of plant pests, rather than human, the vulnerability of
Florida to invasion by alien insects and diseases is most ap-
parent.
Opportunities for the entry of destructive foreign plant pests
into Florida are increasing each year. To the risk of introduc-
tion by means of affected plants and plant products in carriers'
cargo, ships' stores, or in baggage on commercial and private
vessels and airplanes, must be added the exposure brought about
by the plying of army and navy water and aircraft between bases
in Florida and Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Canal Zone. On
account of unsettled world conditions, it is likely that army and
navy planes will in the future make many goodwill flights to
South American countries.
The likelihood of the introduction of live insects by means of
airplanes is a matter of concern to plant quarantine and public
health officials. The latter are concerned chiefly with the possi-
bility of the introduction of mosquitoes and other insects that
may be vectors of diseases affecting man and animals, while
the former are interested in insects likely to be destructive to
plant life. The records of the United States Public Health
Service at Miami during the winter of 1936-37 show that of 160
airplanes arriving from foreign countries 39, or 23.9%, were
found to harbor live insects other than mosquitoes and 9, or
5.5%, contained dead insects other than mosquitoes. The most
prevalent insect was the common housefly. Other insects found
alive included beetles, spiders, weevils, cockroaches, gnats,
midges, and other diptera. With a view of preventing entry
of mosquitoes by airplane, public health officials adopted regula-
tions requiring the spraying of the inside of the planes with
an insecticide one-half hour before arrival at Miami and again
when the plane docked. On overnight stops on the routes from







State Plant Board of Florida


Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires, the planes are sprayed after
the passengers and crew disembark and are kept closed until
the time of departure the following morning. In spite of these
precautions, live insects are found at the time of inspection at
Miami.
Prevention of the entry of foreign plant pests is a task of
the Board's quarantine inspectors stationed at Pensacola, Jack-
sonville, West Palm Beach, Miami, Key West, and Tampa. All
parcels of plants and plant products entering the state by mail,
freight, or express are subject to their supervision. All vessels,
air as well as watercraft, are boarded upon arrival from foreign
countries. In cooperation with the United States Customs offi-
cials, the vessels are thoroughly searched for contraband plant
material. The baggage of the crew and passengers, as well as
the ship's cargo and stores, are checked in order to ascertain
that no plants or parts thereof are moving in violation of federal
quarantines. The Board's inspectors hold appointments as col-
laborators of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine,
United States Department of Agriculture, and as such have
authority to enforce the federal plant quarantines.
Indicative of the increase in foreign air traffic is the fact that
during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1940, the number of air-
planes entered at the Miami Customs Office exceeded by 80 the
number of entries of watercraft for the same period. Some
41% of the total number of foreign passengers who arrived
at Miami made the trip by airplane. The total number of air-
planes entered at all ports in Florida in 1939-40 was 2,419,
compared to 1,993 for the previous year.
The volume of work performed by the quarantine inspectors
is indicated in the following tabulations:

SHIPS INSPECTED
From foreign ports: 1938-1939 1939-1940
Direct by Air ..- ..... ...................................... 1,993* 2,419**
Direct by W ater .............................- .......... 2,355 2,339
Total Direct ................. .... ..... .... ........ 4,348 4,758
Via United States Ports ..................... ........... 646 423
Total Foreign ................................. ............. 4,994 5,181
From United States Ports Other than Florida .... 1,426 1,301
From Florida Ports ............................ ........... 587 479
Total .......... ............................................. 7,007 6,961


*Includes 5 airplanes arriving at Miami from Puerto Rico.
**Includes 6 airplanes arriving at Miami from Puerto Rico.







Thirteenth Biennial Report


NUMBER OF PARCELS HANDLED
Arriving by Boat, Express, Freight, Mail and Airplane


Passed ...............................................-... 4,780,049
Treated and Passed .................................. ..... 74
Returned to Shipper -.......................---...-......... 14,674
Contraband Destroyed --.... -............................ 4,187
Diverted to W ashington --....................... ..- ............ 51

Total ... ................ ....... ........... .......... ...... 4,799,035
Number Pieces of Baggage Inspected .................... 300,861

Grand Total of Parcels Handled .............................. 5,099,896


4,565,127
135
6,039
3,791
32

4,575,124
318,518

4,893,642


TABULATION SHOWING THE WORK OF THE QUARANTINE DIVISION BY YEARS
SINCE THIS WORK WAS INAUGURATED


Number

Year
Foreign


1915-1916 166
1916-1917 1,240
1917-1918 1,777
1918-1919 1,724
1919-1920 2,458
1920-1921 3,035
1921-1922 2,225
May and
June, 1922 364
1922-1923 2,207
1923-1924 2,309


1924-1925
1925-1926
1926-1927
1927-1928
1928-1929
1929-1930
1930-1931
1931-1932
1932-1933
1933-1934
.1934-1935
1935-1936
1936-1937
1937-1938
1938-1939
1939-1940


Total


SBoats


Total


370
3,257
4,253
3,485
4,504
4,948
4,179

697
4,559
4,842


Number of Packages
Arriving by |
Boat, Express,
Freight, Mail, Returned De
Airplane

500 18
3,105 255
3,422 485
*69,985 1,521
336,059 4,936
710,412 2,130
1,333,333 2,610
747,972 201
1,827,727 1,006
1,410,860 1,566


destroyed


69
1,182
1,037
1,743
2,345
1,564
1,757

311
2,278
4,478


2,437 | 5,464 1,633,015 2,630 3,040
2,705 i 6,668 2,435,470 3,766 3,469
2,989 5,980 2,304,594 5,237 3,538
3,430 6,094 2,415,694 4,633 4,844
3,941 6,352 2,537,695 4,925 5,177
4,684 7,175 3,007,540 9,127 4,875
4,449 7,154 2,596,716 6,810 3,737
3,669 6,305 1,836,141 9,846 4,133
3,373 6,046 1,385,729 6,284 2,922
3,425 5,999 1,881,309 4,968 2,447
3,691 6,461 2,795,765 7,891 3,053
3,969 6,646 2,482,648 9,958 3,687
4,614 7,269 5,076,432 10,979 4,090
S4,739 6,829 4,639,484 17,249 4,697
S4,994 7,007 5,099,896 14,674 4,187
S5,181 6,961 4,893,642 6,039 3,791


I 79,795 139,504 53,465,145 139,744 78,451


*Prior to August 1, 1918, horticultural material inspected was reported by shipments.
A shipment might comprise 1 or 1,000 packages. Subsequent to above date reports were
made of the number of packages, and bulk shipments were reduced to packages on basis
of contents of standard containers used for particular products.
















From:
Foreign ports
Direct by air ........................ ...
Direct by water .........................
V ia U S. ports ............................
T otal ............... ..............-.....

Domestic ports
U. S. ports other than Florida...
Florida ports ...........................
Total ......- ...................
Grand T otal .......................................



From:
Foreign ports
Direct by air .-............-..............
Direct by water ............... ......
Via U. S. ports .......................
T otal .......... .. .... ......

Domestic ports
U. S. ports other than Florida...
Florida ports ............................
T otal ........... ..-. ......
Grand Total ....................................

TOTAL FOR BIENNIUM ...............


SHIP INSPECTION AT FLORIDA PORTS
Summary

Key West Jacksonville Miami Pensacola Tampa West Palm |
I IBeach
1938-1939



30 0 1,860 0 1 102
169 311 1,387 47 294 147
18 117 34 187 284 6
217 428 3,281 234 579 255


118 1,064 98 97 49 0
119 250 68 55 8 87
237 1,314 166 152 57 87
S 454 1,742 3,447 386 636 342


1939-1940


2
312
71
385


983
238
1,221
1,606

3,348


2,216
1,383
27
3,626


82
26
108
3,734

7,181


9
54
111
174


84
S 59
143
317

703


0
267
196
463


68
2
70
533

1,169


*Includes 5 airplanes from Puerto Rico.
**Includes 6 airplanes from Puerto Rico.


Total


1,993*
2,355
646
4,994


1,426
587
2,013
7,007


-tt


'-.


0L


2,419**
2,339
423
5,181


1,301
479
1,780
6,961

13,968


--








Thirteenth Biennial Report 29

PASSENGERS' BAGGAGE INSPECTION AT MIAMI AND KEY WEST
Miami
Airplanes
1938-39 1939-40
Number Airplanes .................. .............. 1,860 2,216
Number Pieces Baggage .......................... 65,042 90,576
Number Passengers ............... ............... 28,463 38,970
Ships
Number Foreign Ships Arriving (direct) 1,387 1,383
Number Pieces Baggage ............................ 179,957 180,919
Number Passengers ................. ................ 57,541 54,558

Total Baggage ............................................... 244,999 271,495
Total Passengers ................................. .......... 86,004 93,528

Key West
Airplanes
Number Airplanes ................... ............. 30 57
Number Pieces Baggage ............................ 150 400
Number Passengers .................................... 39 41
Ships
Number Foreign Ships Arriving (direct) 169 151
Number Pieces Baggage ......................... 29,694 19,395
Number Passengers .................................... 9,467 4,540

Total Baggage ....................................... 29,844 19,795
Total Passengers ............... ..... ...................... 9,506 4,581
GRAND TOTAL:
Baggage ..................... ................. .. ... ... 274,843 291,290
Passengers .................. ........ . ....... 95,510 98,109








State Plant Board of Florida


REPORT OF DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY

July 1, 1938 June 30, 1940

E. W. Berger, Entomologist

The finding of insect pests and diseases in a nursery frequently
results in the imposition of a quarantine, and the prohibition of
the movement of plants therefrom until the pests have been
brought under control. Likewise, when plant pests are found
on shipments of plants or plant products moving into the state,
entry of the material may be refused. In order that there may
be no unfairness to the interests involved, it is essential that
all suspicious plant material be examined by trained specialists.
Records are made of their findings, and specimens of all insects
and diseases are filed in the Entomologist's office.
The Plant Board employs two entomologists and utilizes the
services of the pathologists of the Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion, University of Florida, in making examinations of insects
and diseases collected by the Board's field inspectors, as well as
of affected material sent in by growers.
The number of plant pests received and identified by these
specialists during the fiscal year 1938-39 was 2,996. During
1939-40 the number was 2,550. The tabulation which follows
indicates the amount of work of this character which has been
performed to date.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED AND RECORDED ANNUALLY
(April 30, 1915, through June 30, 1940)


1915-1916 ........ ...............................
1916-1917 ..........................................
1917-1918 ........ .................
1918-1919 .......................... ...........
1919-1920 .........................................
1920-1921 .......................................
1921-1922 .........................................
1922-1923 ............................... ......
1923-1924 ... ................... ........
1924-1925 .................. ..................
1925-1926 ........................................
1926-1927 (includes 75 duplicates)
1927-1928 ............. .......................
1928-1929 ........ .............................-
1929-1930 .......................................
1930-1931 ......................... ..
1931-1932 ........... .................... ..
1932-1933 ....................................
1933-1934 ......................................
1934-1935 .............................. ....-
1935-1936 ............................................
1936-1937 .........................................


................ 388
-..... .......... .... 612
-........ ........... 2,593
..- ..- ............. 1,921
....- .- ..-.-- .......- 2,521
........... 1,998
..-.-. ............- 3,545
-.. .-..- .......... 2,904
.- ..- ..-...- ....- 2,418
.- ..- .- ... ...-..-.. 2,940
-..- ..-..- .... ..- 2,023
............. ..... ....... 1,651
- ..-.- ....- ...- .. 2,463
..- ....-- .. .........- 2,038
........ ........... 2,718
.-.. ... ......... 3,696
.-.. ..- ........- .. 5,281
...- ............ 4,646
-.- .-.- ...-.. ....... 5,139
....- ...-........ 4,778
....... ..................... 4,027
... ..- . ......-... 5,884







Thirteenth Biennial Report 31

1937-1938 ............................... -- ...- ----------. 3,140
1938-1939 ................................ ..--------------. 2,996
1939-1940 ................................. -----..... .. 2,550
T otal ..............-.- ................. ..... .. --- -----..... 74,870
The State Plant Board supplies at cost to growers two means
of natural control of insects. These are sent out through the
Entomological Department, and consist of Red Aschersonia fun-
gus for the control of whitefly and Australian ladybeetles
(Vedalia) for the control of cottony-cushion scale. During
1938-39, 278 cultures of Aschersonia and 122 colonies of Vedalia
were distributed. During 1939-40, 833/ cultures of Aschersonia
and 138 colonies of Vedalia were distributed.
The Entomologist and the Associate Entomologist are fre-
quently called upon to furnish information to growers as to
pest control measures. They participate in consultations on pest
control matters with other entomologists. Their studies and
investigations contribute to the development of information of
importance in devising control measures.







State Plant Board of Florida


REPORT OF THE APIARY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
July 1, 1938 -June 30, 1940
Robert E. Foster, Apiary Inspector
The State Plant Board was a pioneer among pest control agen-
cies in providing for the eradication of destructive bee diseases
as well as plant pests. While there are several diseases that
affect bees, the Board's efforts have been directed almost en-
tirely to the eradication of one: American foulbrood. No satis-
factory treatment for this disease has been developed other than
destruction of the affected colony by fire.
Eradication- of the disease has not been achieved. A study
of the records showing the number of infected colonies found
each year would indicate that little progress towards eradication
has been made. The reason for this apparent failure lies in the
fact that there is a constant movement of bees into the state,
many of which are affected with American foulbrood. Northern
beekeepers have learned that it is a sound business practice to
move their bees into Florida after the honey flow ceases in their
localities. Winter losses are small in Florida, and frequently
the bees are enabled to store a surplus of honey. In the past,
these migratory beekeepers brought their bees into the state
by motor truck without notifying the Apiary Inspector. The
discovery of such bee yards is often accidental, and when found,
American foulbrood is frequently present. In many cases the
disease has spread to other apiaries in the neighborhood, making
the task of eradication difficult and costly.
It is believed that by reason of an amendment to the bee
disease law, enacted by the 1939 legislature, and regulations
adopted by the Board, a check has been placed on the movement
of bees into Florida. Beekeepers in other states who contem-
plate moving into Florida are now required to supply the Apiary
Inspector with a valid certificate of inspection showing that
their bees are free from infection of American foulbrood. In
addition, they must inform the State Plant Board, ten days
before date of movement, of the approximate date of shipment
and the destination to which the bees are to be shipped.
During the fiscal year 1938-39 the apiary inspectors made
70,655 colony inspections in 3,371 apiaries located in 62 counties.
Four hundred and sixteen colonies located in 56 apiaries in 13
counties were found to be infected with American foulbrood.








Thirteenth Biennial Report


This was .00587% of the colony inspections. The infections in
seven of these counties were traceable, directly or indirectly,
to bees shipped from other states.
Expenditures during this period were $15,151.10, an average
cost per colony inspection of 211/2 cents.
For the year 1939-40, 76,851 colony inspections were made.
These colonies were located in 3,414 apiaries in 63 counties.
Two hundred and thirty-four colonies, located in 61 apiaries in
17 counties, were found to be infected with American foulbrood.
This was .003% of the colony inspections. Forty-nine percent
of the infections found during the year were traceable, directly
or indirectly, to bees moved into the state.
Expenditures during the year were $14,928.00, and the aver-
age cost per colony inspection was 191/2 cents.

SUMMARY OF APIARY INSPECTION WORK SINCE THE DEPARTMENT
WAS CREATED IN JULY, 1919


Year Ending



June 30, 1920 ................
June 30, 1921 ...............
June 30, 1922 ...............
June 30, 1923 ................
June 30, 1924 ...............
June 30, 1925 ................
June 30, 1926 ................
June 30, 1927 ...............I
June 30, 1928 ................
June 30, 1929 -........------
June 30, 1930 ................
June 30, 1931 ...............
June 30, 1932 ................
June 30, 1933 ...............
June 30, 1934 ................
June 30, 1935 ................
June 30, 1936 ................
June 30, 1937 ................
June 30, 1938 ................
June 30, 1939 ................
June 30, 1940 ................
i


Apiary Colony
Inspections Inspections


394
753
837
1,016
803
675
676
796
1,248
1,297
2,273
2,374
2,744
2,219
2,305
2,445
3,344
3,544
3,451
3,371
3,414


16,121
18,078
22,522
23,848
22,806
21,378
16,756
23,791
20,115
32,442
44,645
45,238
44,211
42,307
43,877
49,379
73,415
72,795
64,668
70,655
76,851


Apiaries
Infected
with
American
Foulbrood

30
16
14
18
8
7
5
6
18
21
53
37
42
38
71
78
69
32
39
56
14* b


Colonies
Infected
with
American
Foulbrood

104
33
34
30
13
58
22
34
74
85
182
114
74
76
132
167
131
98
173
416
234









34 State Plant Board of Florida



EMPLOYEES OF THE STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA

As of July 1, 1940

OFFICE OF THE BOARD:
DIAMOND, J. T. .......-.........-. -......... Secretary and Auditor (part time)
LEWIS, MRS. ELIZABETH ........ Stenographer and Filing Clerk (part time)


PLANT COMMISSIONER'S OFFICE:
NEWELL, W ILMON ................................
HUNTER, LENA R .- .......-.......................
HUDSON, MAE .....-........................ .......
LLOYD, HENRY (Col.) -..... ...................

GROVE INSPECTION DEPARTMENT:


MCCLANAHAN, H. S. ........
ANDERSON, M. L. .........---...
BAKER, GEO. H. .........-.........
BARCUS, DAVID F ...... ....- .
BELL, J. C ..............
BISHOP, R. J. ............. ...
BURDEN, G. F ............ ..
CALKINS, 0. W ...................
CLARK, V. I .....................
DANIEL, B. E ............. .
DYSON, Z. V ........................
FOGG, HARRY W ............--....
FRIERSON, ED .....................
FRIERSON, H. H .............
GRACE, DON H. ...................
GUTHRIE, J. B., JR. ...........
HELSETH, GEO. A ...........
HENDERSON, J. HARVEY ......
LIGHT, L. S., JR. .......... --
LINDNER, R. W .........--....
LINK, O. D. ........................
LUDLAM, J. W ....................
MCMULLEN, G. S. ................
MASON, A. S. .....................
SEALEY, J. H. ..........---........
SHAW, SAM H. ...................
SHEPARD, CHARLES E. ......
SHEPARD, C. R ......-..............
STEPHENS, C. S .... .... .......
STOKES, C. R ...................
RIDDICK, MRS. ELOISE ...........
White-fringed Beetle Control
FRIERSON, PAUL E...--...---.....
GIRARDEAU, J. H., JR. -..-------
HUME, E. G. .......................
Sweet Potato Weevil Control
DEXTER, WORTH ..................
PREVATT, W. M .---......--.....


.-... ........ Plant Commissioner
..................................... Chief Clerk
. Stenographer and Filing Clerk
................................. ...... Janitor


--................ ....... Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
........ Assistant Grove Inspector
......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
.......... Assistant Grove Inspector
......... Assistant Grove Inspector
................. ............. Stenographer


......................... ......... Assistant Inspector
.............................. .. Assistant Inspector
-. .... ................... Assistant Inspector

................................... Assistant Inspector
---................................ Assistant Inspector


NURSERY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT:
GOODWIN, J. C. ......... ......... ........................ Nursery
BASS, C. A. ........--....-........-.. ................. Assistant Nursery
BROWN, M. R. .-------................... ............... Assistant Nursery
CHAFFIN, JEFF ........... ... ...................... Assistant Nursery
KERSEY, WALTER L. ................................. Assistant Nursery
KNIGHT, R. A ..................... ...............- Assistant Nursery


Inspector
Inspector
Inspector
Inspector
Inspector
Inspector


-----------------
-------------------
--------------

--------------- ---

----------------
- -----------------

-------------------
-------------------
-------------------
------------------
-------------
------------------
------------------
-------------------
-----------

----------
------------------
----------- -- __
------------------
-------------------
--------------- -
-------------------
-------------------
--- ---------

-------------








Thirteenth Biennial Report


NANNEY, WM. C. ........
SPRINGER, JOHN R .......
BRYAN, PAULINE -..........
MCILVAINE, LUCRETIA ....
QUARANTINE INSPECT
BROWN, ARTHUR C. .....

BARCUS, G. D. ............
GIST, J. V ................
HART, REGINALD .............
JACKSON, H. C ....... ....--
LEROY, MERTON .-..........
LINGER, RUSSELL B ....
LYLE, W. R ............
MCGLAMERY, J. W ......
MERRILL, W. H..........
MILNER, R. G. ..........
POTTER, R. D .-............
ROBERTSON, P. F .........
THOMAS, PAUL .............
W INTER, H. K. .............
LOVEJOY, ELITA ..............-


ON


...........- ....... Assistant Nursery Inspector
....................... Assistant Nursery Inspector
....-.--.-.-. ....- .........-..- ...- Stenographer
.... ............. ...... .... Stenographer
DEPARTMENT:


-... ...-.......------- Quarantine Inspector and
Assistant Plant Commissioner
..................... Assistant Quarantine Inspector
....................... Assistant Quarantine Inspector
........-.. .... ...... Assistant Quarantine Inspector
......................... Assistant Quarantine Inspector
........... ........... Assistant Quarantine Inspector
......................... Assistant Quarantine Inspector
.......................... Assistant Quarantine Inspector
......................... Assistant Quarantine Inspector
.......................... Assistant Quarantine Inspector
............. ......-... Assistant Quarantine Inspector
......................... Assistant Quarantine Inspector
-........................ Assistant Quarantine Inspector
...................... Assistant Quarantine Inspector
...... .............. Assistant Quarantine Inspector
. --..................... .... ............ Office A assistant


DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY:
BERGER, E. W ..... ...- -------------... ....................................... Entomologist
MERRILL, G. B. ............................ ......-------------- Associate Entomologist
APIARY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT:
FOSTER, ROBERT E. .......-.....-..-....................-- ----..... Apiary Inspector
HAYNIE, J. D ...... ........................................... Assistant Apiary Inspector
BOOTH, J. H ...................... --........................ Assistant Apiary Inspector
FOSTER, H. S. .................................................. Assistant Apiary Inspector
GLENN, J. A. ...............--.......---..............--...... Assistant Apiary Inspector
LOTT, W. K. ................. ..................... Assistant Apiary Inspector
MACK, CHARLES .............................................. Assistant Apiary Inspector
NORDMAN, J. B. ........................................ Assistant Apiary Inspector




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