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Group Title: Report for the period ... of the State Plant Board of Florida
Title: Report for the period ...
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098574/00009
 Material Information
Title: Report for the period ...
Alternate Title: Biennial report
Physical Description: 19 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: State Plant Board of Florida
Publisher: State Plant Board of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1936/38
Frequency: biennial
regular
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Subject: Plants, Protection of -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: State Plant Board of Florida.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 4th (1920/22)- 23rd (1958/60).
Numbering Peculiarities: Vols. for 1950/52-1958/60 also called: Bulletin.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098574
Volume ID: VID00009
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10989019
lccn - sn 86033752
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the biennial period ending ... and supplemental reports to ...
Succeeded by: Biennial report

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Report of state plant board
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Report of the plant commissioner
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
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Full Text






STATE PLANT BOARD

OF FLORIDA








REPORT FOR THE PERIOD

JULY 1, 1936 JUNE 30, 1938

(Twelfth Biennial Report)


JANUARY, 1939


















STATE PLANT BOARD
of Florida

R. P. TERRY, Chairman--............-.........................------Miami
THOS. W. BRYANT..-......-.......... .---.....-- ..-.....Lakeland
H. P. ADAIR.................--- .......------------...Jacksonville
C. P. HELFENSTEIN ................--------------------Live Oak
W. M. PALMER............. .....................------------------..Ocala
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary and Auditor.........-..............Tallahassee

STAFF
WILMON NEWELL, Plant Commissione........---......--........-- Gainesville
E. W. BERGER, Entomologist ......................-------- Gainesville
J. C. GOODWIN, Nursery Inspector ..------........................Gainesville
J. H. MONTGOMERY, Quarantine Inspector-...................Gainesville
R. E. FOSTER, Apiary Inspector...........-....-- --...---.... Gainesville
ARTHUR C. BROWN, Grove Inspector.............................Gainesville
Miss LENA R. HUNTER, Chief Clerk...........................-- Gainesville





















CONTENTS
PAGE
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL .................................... ............. 5
REPORT OF STATE PLANT BOARD ......-............................- ....... 5
REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER .-.................. .... ...... 9
Resources ............. ...- ...- ----.- .........-......-- -----.... 12
Expenditures .......... ..- ....----- --- ----- ---.... ........-- --- ....... 13
Estim ates .........-...........-..-... ---.....-- ...... ..... .. ...... 14
Report of Grove Inspection Department ....................................-- 15
Blackfly Eradication ............. ............... ...... ... ............ 15
White-fringed Beetle ............. -...... ....----...-- 18
Sweet Potato Weevil Control ............... ......... ............... 25
Blue Mold of Tobacco ......... ..-..-------------- ........ ........ 29
Pink Bollworm ............................ --- ...----.......... 31
Inspections of Citrus Plantings .............. ....... ................- 33
Irish Potato Inspection ........................ ..- ..--.- -- ---------------- 34
Report of Quarantine Inspection Department .................................... 35
Report of Nursery Inspection Department .................................. 39
Report of Department of Entomology .................................... 42
Report of Apiary Inspection Department .......................................... 44






Twelfth Biennial Report


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

December 15, 1938
To His Excellency,
Fred P. Cone,
Governor of Florida.
SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the State Plant
Board of Florida for the biennium ending June 30, 1938. Please
submit same to the Legislature.
Respectfully,
STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA
BY R. P. TERRY,
Chairman.

REPORT OF STATE PLANT BOARD
According to figures recently released by the Bureau of En-
tomology and Plant Quarantine, United States Department of
Agriculture, the loss and damage to American agriculture di-
rectly traceable to plant pests, i. e., insects and diseases, reaches
the enormous sum of two billions of dollars per year. Further-
more, the same release indicates that American farmers, or-
chardists and plant lovers pay an annual toll of one hundred
millions of dollars each year for materials for the control of
insects alone. This amount is for insecticides solely and does
not include costs of equipment and labor used in their applica-
tion. Florida, of course, carries its proportion of the pest con-
trol bill. Indeed it is probable that this state carries a dis-
proportionate share of the burden, for by reason of climatic,
soil and cultural conditions plant pests, like plants themselves,
thrive throughout our long growing season.
It is the duty of the State Plant Board, operating under the
Plant Act, to curtail as much as possible losses due to plant pests
and to prevent, if possible, the introduction, establishment and
dissemination of additional pests of an especially injurious char-
acter. This is a task of no mean size for, as stated, our condi-
tions are such as to favor rapid development of plant pests and,
too, our exposure to invasion by pests from tropical countries
is greater perhaps than that of any other state.
To accomplish its objectives, the Board maintains an organiza-
tion consisting of the Plant Commissioner as executive officer,






State Plant Board of Florida


and several departments with special duties as follows: Quaran-
tine Inspection, Nursery Inspection, Grove Inspection, Entomol-
ogy and Apiary Inspection. The Board, the members of which
serve without compensation other than reimbursement for actual
subsistence and travel expenses, makes the necessary rules inci-
dent to its regulatory work, passes on all matters of policy and
practice, issues instructions to the Plant Commissioner for his
guidance, audits and approves for payment all pay rolls and
accounts, and otherwise acts as an administrative body. The
Plant Commissioner as chief executive officer of the Board puts
into effect the policies and practices of the Board and exercises
general supervision of the field activities of the Board. Under
his direction the several departments function. The Quarantine
Inspection Department maintains inspectors at the ports and
rail gateways to safeguard entry of plants and plant materials.
These inspectors are clothed with both state and federal author-
ity and apply the restrictive or prohibitive regulations of the
United States Department of Agriculture, as well as of the State
of Florida. This department may be regarded as our first line
of defense. The second line of defense consists of the Depart-
ments of Nursery Inspection and Grove Inspection. All nurs-
eries in the state are under inspection and must attain certain
standards with respect to pest conditions before shipments of
nursery stock are permitted. The Grove Inspection Depart-
ment inspects citrus and other plantings to ascertain if citrus
canker, blackfly, fruit flies and other major pests have become
established. In event of such establishment, it would be the
duty of this department to apply the necessary control or eradi-
cation measures. The Entomology Department identifies pest
specimens submitted by inspectors and others and engages to
a limited extent in research work to determine the best means
of pest control. The function of the Apiary Inspection Depart-
ment is to inspect apiaries in the state for bee diseases, to
control or eradicate and prevent spread of same when found,
and to advise beekeepers regarding bee disease control and the
best beekeeping practices.
It is a pleasure to report that the Plant Board organization
has operated efficiently, effectively and economically, although
somewhat handicapped on account of curtailed financial re-
sources. Routine work has been conducted along the lines
previously found to be most advantageous. For details atten-
tion is directed to the report of the Plant Commissioner which






Twelfth Biennial Report


is herewith presented and made a part of the Board's Biennial
Report. The Board desires, however, to call special attention
to two activities in which it has been engaged, namely: (a) the
effort to eradicate the citrus blackfly at Key West and (b) the
discovery of a new and apparently serious plant pest-the white-
fringed beetle (Naupactus leucoloma Boh.) in West Florida.
The citrus blackfly was discovered in Key West by inspectors
of the Board on August 10, 1934. This insect is a native of
the Orient and has become established in Central America and
certain of the West Indian Islands, including Cuba, Jamaica
and the Bahamas. It attacks citrus and other subtropical plant
life common to Florida, and has occasioned great losses else-
where. Immediately upon its discovery in Key West, eradica-
tion measures were instituted. An oil spray recommended by
the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United States
Department of Agriculture, was used on a scheduled application
at intervals of twenty days. Notwithstanding obstacles of one
kind or another, including opposition on the part of some of
the residents of Key West which made resort to the courts
necessary, steady progress was made, with the result that the
pest was finally eradicated. The Board officially recognized this
by lifting, on April 13, 1938, the quarantine on the affected area
on materials likely to carry the insect. Thus again did Florida
make horticultural history by adding to her previous achieve-
ments of eradicating the citrus canker and the Mediterranean
fruit fly the further accomplishment of eradicating the citrus
blackfly.
During the summer of 1936 farmers in the northern portions
of Okaloosa and Walton Counties noticed that an insect with
which they were not familiar was occasioning considerable
damage to field and garden crops. The damage was much more
pronounced in the summer of 1937. Entomologists identified
the insect as Naupactus leucoloma Boh. and gave it the common
name of "the white-fringed beetle". This insect had not previ-
ously been known to occur in North America, but had been
reported as occurring in certain countries of South America
where it was not regarded as a pest of major economic im-
portance. Field inspections showed that the insect was present
in two Alabama counties adjoining Walton and Okaloosa Coun-
ties, Florida. Still further surveys disclosed its presence at
Pensacola and in the southern portions of the States of Alabama,
Mississippi and Louisiana. Observations also indicated that






State Plant Board of Florida


great damage to cotton, corn, peanuts, velvet beans and other
crops could be anticipated. Little or nothing was known as to
the insect's life history, habits or range of hosts, and no effec-
tive remedial or control measures were known. State and
federal entomologists and plant quarantine agencies have en-
gaged in an intensive study of the insect and of means to control
it. At the same time, Florida and other affected states promul-
gated and enforced quarantine regulations to prevent spread
to unaffected areas.
In the handling of this serious situation state and federal
agencies have cooperated fully and harmoniously. At this time
it is not possible to predict with any degree of assurance what
the final effect of the presence of this insect will be on southern
agriculture. It is of the utmost importance that intensive efforts
be continued to find an effective means of control, and at the
same time every reasonable effort should be made to prevent
further distribution.
The Board believes that the funds placed at its disposal have
been expended in such manner as to give the best results. In
order to avoid unnecessary repetition, reference is here made
to the report of the Plant Commissioner for a financial state-
ment covering amounts available and expended in conducting
the Board's work. Attention is also invited to the Plant Com-
missioner's estimates as to amounts which should be made avail-
able for the use of the Board for the biennium beginning July 1,
1939. The Board has approved of these estimates and urgently
recommends that the Legislature make the necessary appropria-
tions. The Board especially urges that an Emergency Fund of
at least $50,000 be provided.
The Board here expresses its deep appreciation of the helpful
spirit of cooperation in its work displayed by the Governor, the
Commissioner of Agriculture, and other state officials.

Respectfully submitted,
STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA
R. P. TERRY,
Chairman.






Twelfth Biennial Report


REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER
For Biennium Ending June 30. 1938

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
Gainesville, Florida
December 1, 1938
Honorable R. P. Terry, Chairman,
State Plant Board of Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to present herewith my report as Plant
Commissioner for the biennium ending June 30, 1938.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Plant Commissioner.


REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER
1936-37 and 1937-38
During the period covered by this report the routine work
of the Board has been carried on along the lines heretofore
found to be most productive of satisfactory results. Under
the organizational set-up the Plant Commissioner exercises gen-
eral supervision of the protective work for which the Plant
Board was created. The special activities of the several depart-
ments are supervised by the several department heads. These
departments are: Grove Inspection, Nursery Inspection, Quaran-
tine Inspection, Apiary Inspection and Entomology. The special
efforts of these departments are covered by the reports of the
department heads, which reports are submitted herewith.
The outstanding activities during the biennium, in addition
to the routine work of the departments, have been (1) the
carrying forward to a successful conclusion of the effort to
eradicate the blackfly of citrus which had found lodgment in
Key West and threatened to invade the mainland; and (2) dis-
covery in the summer of 1936 in the northern portion of Walton
and Okaloosa Counties of a new insect-the white-fringed beetle
(Naupactus leucoloma Boh.) which appeared to possess serious
potentialities as a major pest of practically all farm crops. Both
of these subjects are dealt with at length in the report of the






State Plant Board of Florida


Grove Inspector. It is gratifying to report that the blackfly
menace seems to have, been averted for, notwithstanding very
intensive inspections at Key West and on the "Lower Keys",
no evidence of the insect has been found since February 26,
1937. The Board repealed on April 13, 1938, its quarantine
on a portion of Monroe County on account of the blackfly.
The situation with respect to the white-fringed beetle pre-
sented difficulties of an unusual nature. In the first place, little
or nothing was known as to its life history, its habits, hosts, or
the damage to be anticipated. The literature on the subject was
extremely meager, although it was reported to be present in
parts of South America and Australia. Early observations in
northwest Florida and adjacent parts of Alabama indicated that
the damage and loss due to the depredations of the insect might
influence very greatly agricultural practice, for apparently there
was a wide range of host plants, both cultivated and wild, and
unfortunately the favored or preferred hosts were such main
crops as cotton, corn, peanuts, velvet beans, etc. Furthermore,
it was found that damage was done to crops by both the adults
of the insect feeding on the foliage of mature plants and the
immature or grub stage feeding on the root system of the host
plants. It was also found that although the insect was wingless
and therefore could not fly, yet the means of dispersal were
multitudinous, thus making the problem of prevention of spread
extremely difficult.
Following the discovery of the infestation in the vicinity of
Florala, Alabama, conferences and consultations of state and
federal entomologists and plant quarantine officials were held.
The determination was reached to immediately institute an
intensive and thorough study of the situation, at the same time
making every effort to prevent further distribution. Conse-
quently, the State Plant Board, by special ballot on August 6,
1937, passed two rules intended to check the spread of the
insect by means of the movement of various plants and other
articles which might serve as carriers.
In the meantime surveys were instituted in Florida and Ala-
bama and other Gulf Coast states to learn if the insect were
established elsewhere. The result of these inspections was that
infested localities were found along the Gulf coast from Pensa-
cola to New Orleans, both included, and in the interior of Ala-
bama, Mississippi and Louisiana for a distance of approximately
one hundred miles north of the coast. In all cases measures






Twelfth Biennial Report


were instituted to control the pest and prevent its spread. These
efforts were joint activities of the Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine, United States Department of Agriculture,
and the affected states, the Federal Government carrying the
greater portion of the burden, supplying personnel as well as
financial aid, although the affected states contributed propor-
tionately. The affected states also provided, in the absence of
Federal action, the necessary quarantine machinery.
The problem presented is, indeed, a very complicated and
difficult one with respect to both control and prevention of
spread. It is the opinion of the Plant Commissioner and his
staff that the prospects of eradication are very meager. Con-
trol measures to limit the amount of loss and damage must be
developed. This is being concentrated on by both federal and
state workers. Reports from the areas in South America where
infestation has been reported seem to indicate there may be some
natural control which exerts an influence in holding down the
insect population, thus reducing loss and damage to growing
crops. It is the Plant Commissioner's understanding that the
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United States
Department of Agriculture, is investigating this and will send
an expedition south next winter (summer in South America)
to study the situation.
In the last two biennial reports reference was made to the
finding of several light infestations of pink bollworm in north
Florida and the institution of eradication measures by the
Federal Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the
State Plant Board. On October 15, 1936, the quarantines on
these somewhat isolated infestations were lifted. Since that
time the intensive inspections by federal forces have continued,
with negative results. Likewise the efforts to clean up wild
cotton (infested with the pink bollworm) in south Florida have
been vigorously prosecuted. Both of these activities have been
financed almost exclusively from federal sources.
The Board has rendered assistance to the sweet potato grow-
ers of northern Florida through cooperation in the control of
the sweet potato weevil in Gadsden and Baker Counties. The
Irish potato industry has been aided by maintaining an inspec-
tion and certification service in connection with shipments to
states requiring certification. The Board, in cooperation with
the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and the Agricul-
tural Extension Service, rendered assistance in the spring of







State Plant Board of Florida


1938 to tobacco farmers in north Florida in developing and
applying methods to control the blue mold disease.
The special work of the several different departments of the
Plant Board organization is fully covered in the reports of the
department heads which are here submitted and made part of
this report. Particular attention is called to the report of the
Grove Inspection Department, in which are included somewhat
detailed accounts of the white-fringed beetle and blackfly activ-
ities. Attention is also directed to the fact that a special effort
has been made through the Apiary Inspection Department to
carry on a rather extensive campaign of education among bee-
keepers to improve beekeeping practices and to familiarize them
with the appearance of disease conditions.

RESOURCES

During the biennium ending June 30, 1938, the Board had
available for current expenses $364,153.55 for the first year and
$209,612.00 for the second. These amounts were derived from
state appropriations as follows<

July 1, 1936:
Unexpended Balance June 30, 1936 ........................................ $ 56,541.55
State Plant Board Chapter 16772:
Salaries ............................. .............. $119,612.00
Expenses ......... ................ ................................ 30,000.00 149,612.00
State Plant Board Apiary Industry, Chapter 16772 ............ 15,000.00
State Plant Board Chapter 16772 Eradication
West Indian Fruit Fly and Blackfly .............................. 108,000.00
The Florida Plant Act of 1927, Chapter 12291 ...................... 35,000.00
Total ........................................ ..................... $364,153.55
July 1, 1937:
State Plant Board, Chapter 17707:
Salaries ..... ............................................ $124,612.00
Expenses ..................................... .......... 30,000.00 $154,612.00
The Florida Plant Act of 1927, Chapter 12291 ..................... 35,000.00
State Plant Board Apiary Industry, Chapter 17707 ............ 15,000.00
State Plant Board Sweet Potato Weevil Eradication,
Chapter 17707 ..................................................................... 5,000.00
T otal ..................................................... ................. ............ $209,612.00
Released from Emergency Fund for Blue Mold of Tobacco 3,000.00
Total ........................................................... $212,612.00

On June 30, 1938, there remained an unexpended balance in
the amount of $7,323.62.







Twelfth Biennial Report


EXPENDITURES

Expenditures of the Board for 1936-37 and 1937-38 by depart-
ments are shown in Table A. In Table B are shown expenditures
for specific purposes, salaries, etc.

TABLE A


Department


Grove Inspection Department
General Inspection ....................................
Fruit Fly and Blackfly ... ..............-.....
Nursery Inspection Department ............
Quarantine Inspection Department ..............
Apiary Inspection Department ...................
Sweet Potato Weevil Control ........................
Office of the Board .........................................
Plant Commissioner's Office ............................
Department of Entomology .....................
Tobacco Blue Mold (Emergency Fund) ........


Totals .............................................


1936-1937



$ 79,322.20
113,905.49
34,607.18
52,201.38
15,511.57

2,986.84
12,451.73
9,408.77



$320,395.16


1937-1938



$ 81,967.40
33,729.26
53,646.40
15,000.00
4,143.79
2,068.05
6,993.57
6,722.52
1,017.39


$205,288.38


TABLE B

Item 1936-1937 1937-1938


Salaries
Field and Administrative ........................ $179,367.18 $148,587.97
Clerical .......................................................... 11,790.65 12,480.00
Travel and Subsistence .................................... 49,384.82* 35,764.50**
Labor .................................................................... 56,189.32 1,977.21
Stationery and Small Printing ....................... 1,153.80 491.93
Postage ................................................................ 1,905.94 835.95
Bulletins and Circulars .................................... 342.12 245.50
Telegraph, Telephone ....................................... 555.36 476.17
Miscellaneous Supplies ...................................... 7,797.05 619.20
Miscellaneous Expenses .................................... 6,110.78 2,229.91
Office Furniture and Equipment .................... 3,267.67 1,245.14
Laboratory Equipment and Supplies .............. 468.47 35.55
Freight, Drayage, Express .............................. 225.08 100.72
Library .................... ........................................ 1,836.92 198.63


Totals ....................... ...- ....... ...... .. $320,395.16 $205,288.38


*Including $24,498.40 for automobile mileage.
**Including $21,085.05 for automobile mileage.










State Plant Board of Florida


ESTIMATES

A detailed report covering the subject of estimates of amounts
believed to be necessary for operating expenses for the biennium
beginning July 1, 1939, has been prepared for submission to the
Board. From this report the following summary is presented:

SUMMARY OF ESTIMATES PER ANNUM
Salaries Expenses Total
Department or Division per annum per annum per annum

Office of the Board ................- ....... $ 1,980 $ 1,200 $ 3,180
Plant Commissioner's Office .......... 3,900 2,000 5,900
Entomology ..............--....--... ........--- 6,240 1,000 7,240
Quarantine Inspection ........ 53,600 10,200 63,800
Nursery Inspection .................. 26,040 8,000 34,040
Grove Inspection ...............- ..-..- 64,260 22,000 86,260
Apiary Inspection ...................... 9,500 5,500 15,000
White-fringed Beetle ................... 10,000*
Irish Potato Inspection and
Certification --.............. ---- 1,600 1,400 3,000


Total ............................... $167,120 $ 51,300 $228,420

Emergency Fund, no part of which is to be used unless found
necessary by Budget Commission (for biennium) ........................ $50,000
*This sum should be available for either salaries or expenses without specifying. The
activity is in cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United
States Department of Agriculture, and other Federal agencies, which plan to carry the
larger portion of the total expense incurred. The $10,000 requested from the state is
consequently a small proportion and is evidence of the "state participation" required by
the Federal Government.






Twelfth Biennial Report


REPORT OF THE GROVE INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
July 1, 1936 to June 30, 1938

Arthur C. Brown, Grove Inspector

Highlights of the biennium were the successful termination
of the blackfly eradication project at Key West, and the finding
in West Florida of a newly introduced, and destructive, plant
pest commonly known as the white-fringed beetle.

BLACKFLY ERADICATION
It will be recalled that spiny citrus whitefly, or blackfly
(Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby), was first found in the state
on August 10, 1934, when a severe infestation covering several
city blocks was reported from Key West. A hurried inspection
of the keys located between Key West and the mainland failed
to disclose the presence of the pest. Since that time these keys
have been inspected a number of times with negative results.
Eradication plans were immediately worked out in coopera-
tion with officials of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, United States Department of Agriculture. As was
the case in the citrus canker and Mediterranean fruit fly eradi-
cation projects, the Board had no precedent to guide it in making
plans to eliminate this pest. However, for several years the
California quarantine officials had been engaged in an effort to
eradicate citrus whitefly by cutting back host plants and making
applications of an oil spray. It was decided to spray all host
plants with a mixture of oil, whale oil soap, and water. The
emulsion approved by the Bureau was made up of two gallons
of Diamond Paraffin oil, two pounds of whale oil soap, and one
gallon of water. The oil selected had an unsulphonation of 76
and a viscosity of 105. The price f.o.b. Jacksonville was 221/2c
a gallon. The oil content of the spray mixture as used at Key
West varied with the seasons and ranged from .66% to 1%.
As it was known that elsewhere the life cycle of blackfly
also varied with the seasons with a minimum of 45 days and
a maximum of around 113 days, it was decided to make applica-
tions at twenty-day intervals. For a while the spray was applied
to all trees and plants known to be hosts in Key West. Towards
the last of the campaign applications were made only to the
apparently favorite hosts-citrus and mango. It is interesting






State Plant Board of Florida


to note that although this oil spray was applied to citrus trees
almost continuously from September 1934 to June 30, 1938, there
was apparently no injury resulting from this oil coverage.
In consequence of the active opposition of a relatively large
group of property occupants and the passive attitude of a much
larger group, the work of the Board was greatly handicapped.
Every effort was made through argument, persuasion and edu-
cation to allay antagonism and enlist support. These efforts
were unsuccessful and the Board was finally, but with reluctance,
forced to resort to the courts for support. Attempts were made
to enforce the provisions of the Plant Act and of the rules and
regulations of the Board through criminal procedure. The case
selected for trial was one of aggravated violation, but the jury
failed to agree. Recourse was then had to the civil courts.
Application for a temporary injunction restraining 55 objectors
from interfering with Plant Board employees in the performance
of their duties was denied by Judge Jefferson B. Browne, of
the 11th Judicial Circuit, on June 20, 1935. At the same time
Judge Browne appointed a Master to take testimony as a pre-
liminary to a hearing on an application for a permanent injunc-
tion. On December 10, 1935, Judges Browne, Barnes and Atkin-
son, of the 11th Judicial Circuit, granted the permanent in-
junction.
The Supreme Court acting upon the appeal of enjoined citizens
of Key West on May 5 handed down a decision upholding the
authority of the State Plant Board, and gave the defendants
15 days within which to file petition for rehearing. When this
time limit expired the Supreme Court on May 22, 1936, issued
its mandatory order.
In the meantime, pending judicial determination as to the
authority of the Board to enforce its requirements, the blackfly
eradication work was more or less in suspense. On April 20,
1936, the Board, disappointed at its own failure as well as that
of interested and public spirited citizens to reduce opposition,
had discontinued spraying and withdrew its inspection force.
Following the issuance of the Supreme Court order inspectors
were immediately returned to Key West where a partial inspec-
tion was made to determine the degree of infestation and extent
of spread which had resulted from the six weeks' suspension of
spraying. This task was completed on June 3, when it was
learned that the number of known infested properties had in-
creased from 55 to 212.







Twelfth Biennial Report


On June 4, 1936, spraying was resumed. Opposition on the
part of a few citizens continued and the court cited these in-
dividuals for contempt. Finally, the fact that the Board was
operating in a legal manner and was supported by the courts,
had its effect and opposition declined almost to the vanishing
point. From this time on inspection and spraying operations
were carried on without interruption, with a constantly decreas-
ing amount of infestation. The inspection completed October
12, 1936, disclosed the presence of small numbers of immature
stages of blackfly on only a few properties. The last evidence
of infestation was found on only one leaf on one property, on
February 26, 1937. Since that time, although intensive inspec-
tion has continued, no blackfly has been located. On April 13,
1938, the Board, through its Chairman, suspended the quaran-
tine in effect on Key West and adjacent keys on account of the
blackfly under Rule 6B. This action of the Chairman was
approved by the Board at its meeting held at Tallahassee, May
10. With this action of the Board was successfully concluded
for the third time eradication in Florida of major plant pests.
the two other successful efforts having been in connection with
citrus canker and Mediterranean fruit fly. On April 14, at
Lakeland, at the annual meeting of the Florida State Horticul-
tural Society, Plant Commissioner Newell reported on the
blackfly eradication campaign and the apparently successful
outcome.
During the entire course of the blackfly eradication campaign
state officials and leaders of the citrus industry were kept advised
of developments. On several occasions joint meetings of the
Plant Board and the Citrus Commission were held. At one of
these meetings Governor Sholtz was present and afterwards
went to Key West with Chairman Baldwin in an effort to enlist
support for the Board. The Plant Commissioner also informed
growers as to conditions through addresses at the annual meet-
ings of the State Horticultural Society and otherwise.
With the exception of a $36,000 PWA allotment made to the
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United States
Department of Agriculture, for blackfly eradication, all costs
for the project were borne by the State. The total expendi-
tures from state funds, September 1934 to March 1938, was
$161,464.95. With proper cooperation on the part of property
occupants at Key West this project should have been completed
in one year, and at a considerable reduction of the total amount
expended.







State Plant Board of Florida


WHITE-FRINGED BEETLE
During the summer of 1936 a new insect, with which the
farmers of the locality were not familiar, was reported as doing
considerable damage to cotton, corn, etc., in the northern por-
tions of Okaloosa and Walton Counties. It was also reported
in adjoining portions of Alabama. The situation was brought
to the attention of the State Plant Board and the Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Station. Indications pointed to the prob-
ability of this insect proving to be of major economic importance
on account of its wide range of hosts, its rapacious feeding
habits, the fact that a single insect would reproduce, and the
ease with which distribution could be accomplished even though
the insect could not fly. Conferences of state and federal ento-
mologists were held to consider the problem presented with the
result that an intensive study of the beetle was undertaken
while, at the same time, quarantines were imposed to prevent
or retard spread. There appeared to be little in entomological
literature to guide the investigators other than that it was
recorded as being present in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay
in South America, and had been reported in New South Wales,
Australia. In none of these places was there evidence of serious
crop losses.
The following description of this newly introduced plant pest
is taken from a report by Messrs. H. C. Young, B. A. App, and
G. D. Green, Division of Cereal and Forage Insect Investiga-
tions, and R. N. Dopson, Jr., Division of Domestic Plant Quaran-
tines, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United
States Department of Agriculture, dated January 1938:
"The first report of the appearance of the white-fringed beetle
in the United States was made by the Division of Insect Identi-
fication in the Bureau News Letter dated September 1, 1936,
when it was reported that L. L. Buchanan had identified as
Naupactus leucoloma Boh. two specimens received from A. N.
Tissot, of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. These
beetles came from the area around Svea, Okaloosa County,
Florida, and at that time were reported to be injuring peanuts.
In the October 1, 1936, issue of the Insect Pest Survey Bulletin,
J. R. Watson reported that this insect had appeared during
the summer in the northern part of Walton County, in western
Florida, and in adjacent areas in Alabama, where it was caus-
ing much damage to peanuts and some injury to cotton and
other plants.
"This insect is a native of Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay, in
South America, and has recently been discovered in New South






Twelfth Biennial Report


Wales, Australia (Rev. App. Ent., vol. 21, p. 303, 1933), where
it was 'attacking the roots of lucerne'.
"The research upon which this paper is based was started
at Florala, Alabama, on June 23, 1937. This work has been
under way for too short a period to cover all phases of the
life history, but a brief summary of the data secured prior to
January 1, 1938, is presented herein.
"Description.-The adult beetle is seven-sixteenths of an inch
in length and about five-thirty-seconds of an inch across the
abdomen. The color is dark gray, with a lighter band along
the margins of the elytra, and two paler longitudinal lines on
each side of the thorax and head (one above and one below the
eye). The body is densely covered with pale hairs, which are
especially long on the elytra. The underwings are present but
very rudimentary and vary greatly in size with the individual
beetles. The elytra are fused together and the adults are in-
capable of flight.
"Activities of the Adults.-In 1937 the adults began to emerge
about June 15, but according to farmers in the Florala area
none was seen in 1936 until July 1. The peak of emergence
was reached between July 7 and July 11. After emerging, the
adults crawl to the nearest favorite host plant to feed and pass
the preoviposition period. On cotton plants they congregate in
clusters near the terminal buds but usually on the underside
of the leaves. In peanuts the beetles are usually found on the
lower part of the vines near the surface of the soil. Beetles
in corn that is not intercropped with velvet beans or peanuts
migrate therefrom in search of other food.
"After several days of feeding the beetles begin gradually
to disseminate over the plants. When ready to deposit eggs
the beetles have become well distributed over the plants, either
individually or in small clusters. The ground activity is very
limited until egg deposition commences, provided favorite host
plants are present. The beetles confine their feeding to the
outer margin of the leaves, usually the portion of leaf nearest
the petiole. They prefer the older leaves of all plants rather
than the tender buds. They feed often but consume no great
quantity of leaf surface. On cotton plants 30 inches in height,
where 100 to 200 beetles fed for 6 to 10 days, less than 50
percent of the leaf surface was consumed. On velvetbeans, 100
to 150 beetles have been observed to feed for several weeks
without consuming more than 25 percent of the leaf surface.
In a few instances where peanuts adjoined heavily infested
cornfields the adjacent rows of peanuts have been totally stripped
by the hordes of migrating beetles.
"Observations made at various hours during the day and
night showed less activity at night than during daylight. After
egg deposition begins, the beetles feed and rest on the lower
parts of the plants. The period of greatest activity is from
1 p.m. to 4:30 p.m.






State Plant Board of Florida


"After the beetles have passed the preoviposition period they
leave the plants to deposit eggs. At the end of each day's activ-
ity they come to rest on the lower portion of a plant or may
rest on the ground if there is sufficient cover of grass or weeds
to conceal them. The migration is more or less a gradual dis-
semination away from the areas where they emerged or passed
the preoviposition period. The beetles do not move any great
distance per day but gradually keep moving in the same general
direction day after day. The seasonal movement covered from
one-fourth to three-fourths mile, depending on the type of vege-
tation in the path of the beetles. The movement is greatest
over areas bearing scant vegetation and less over areas covered
with dense vegetation. The beetle's habit of investigating prac-
tically every plant in its path prevents it from moving any great
distance.
"Parthenogenesis.-So far as is known there are no males.
This insect reproduces parthenogenetically. Dissection of more
than 2,300 adults collected in the field in the Florala area showed
that all the individuals were female. Thirty-two beetles were
reared from larvae or pupae in the insectary and were confined
separately from the day of emergence in small jelly glasses with
soil and foliage. Every one of these individuals deposited fer-
tile eggs.
"Abundance of Adults.-In a heavily infested cotton field one
man collected approximately 80,000 beetles from one-half acre
in 4 hours on July 14. As the bag-and-hoop method was used
for collecting the beetles shaken from the plants and only about
two-thirds of the beetles were captured, they were present at
the rate of about 240,000 per acre. The average population
was 48 beetles per plant. Approximately 50 percent of the
plants in this field had been destroyed by the larvae, and the
stand was only 5,000 plants per acre.
"During the period immediately after emergence, July 7 to
July 20, it was common to find from 50 to 100 beetles per plant
in the infested cotton fields, and from 150 to 200 beetles were
taken from individual plants in the heavily infested portions
of cotton fields. On July 10, 250 beetles were taken from one
cotton plant, 78 from one velvetbean plant and 44 from one
peanut plant. As late as September 6, 226 beetles were collected
from one cocklebur plant, 188 from one velvetbean plant, and
30 from one cotton plant.
"The seasonal decrease in the abundance of adults was checked
during the fall by making daily counts of the number trapped
in designated sections of a barrier trench surrounding a corn
and velvetbean field. During the period of September 20-24 a
total of 1,037 beetles were caught. The number captured de-
creased to 213 for the period of October 10-14 and to 130 for
the period of October 30-November 3. Only 24 beetles were
captured during the period of November 9-13 and 2 during
the period of November 19-23. The last beetle captured in the






Twelfth Biennial Report


sections of the trench under observation was taken on December
5; however, living beetles were found as late as December 18.
"Preoviposition Period.-The average preoviposition period
for 32 individuals reared in the insectary was 11.4 days; the
periods ranged from 4 to 37 days. These beetles were fed on
cotton or peanut foliage.
"Length of Life of Adults.-The average length of life for
32 beetles kept under insectary conditions was 96.9 days. The
total length of life was divided as follows: Preoviposition period
11.4 days, oviposition period 71.9 days, and postoviposition
period 13.6 days. The maximum length of life was 147 days
for a beetle which emerged on July 21 and died on December 15.
"The Effect of No Food and of Different Foods on the Lon-
gevity of Adults.-Newly emerged beetles kept without food did
not deposit eggs. The average longevity was 13.8 days and the
maximum was 46 days.
"The egg is approximately 0.9 mm. long and 0.6 mm. wide,
and is oval in shape. The color when freshly deposited is milky
white; the color changes to dull light yellow after 4 or 5 days.
"The eggs are deposited in masses, ranging in number from
a few to as high as 60 or more, but the usual number is from
15 to 25. The individual eggs and masses are covered with a
gelatinous substance which makes them adhere to one another
and to objects or the soil.
"Place of Deposition.-The eggs are deposited at the point
of contact between soil and objects such as sticks, gravel, plant
stems, and other things lying on or protruding from the ground.
In some instances, where the soil is easily penetrated by the
ovipositor, eggs are deposited directly in the soil. The depth
of the eggs in the soil ranged from one-sixteenth to five-
sixteenths inch. In a few instances egg masses have been found
on plants as much as 11/2 inches above the surface of the soil.
Egg masses have been found on cotton bolls, seed cotton, pecans,
maypops, and corn husks where they were in contact with the
soil. In fields cropped to cotton the previous year, the parts
of the old stalks that are partially covered with soil seem to
be favorite places for egg deposition. In peanuts and Mexican-
clover the egg masses are often found attached to the underside
of the stems where they are in contact with the soil. The beetle
prefers to deposit eggs in shaded places beneath plants, but the
greatest egg-laying activity occurs between 1 and 4:30 p. m.,
i. e., usually during the warmest part of the day.
"Duration of the Egg Stage.-The eggs kept for incubation
records were removed from the oviposition jars daily and
placed in metal salve boxes on moistened blotting paper. This
blotting paper was kept moistened throughout the incubation
period.
"The incubation periods for eggs deposited from July 15 to
September 2 averaged 14.3 days, and 85.5 percent of the eggs






State Plant Board of Florida


hatched on the 12th to the 15th day inclusive. After Septem-
ber 2 the incubation period increased. The average incubation
period for eggs deposited from September 3 to September 12
was 18 days; September 13 to September 22, 20 days; Septem-
ber 23 to October 2, 23.3 days; and October 3 to October 12,
41 days. Complete incubation records are not available at pres-
ent (January 10) for eggs deposited after September 25. Eggs
deposited after this date have hatched very slowly, many re-
quiring more than 60 days.
"No larvae have emerged from eggs deposited prior to July 23,
when the eggs were kept under dry conditions. As late as
December 20 these eggs were still viable, as is shown by the
fact that larvae emerged within 3 days after the eggs were
placed under moist conditions at natural temperatures. Larvae
emerged from these eggs within 3 hours after they were placed
under moist conditions at a temperature of 700 to 800 F. The
larvae within such eggs are fully developed. Apparently moist
conditions are not necessary for the development of the larva
within the egg. The moist conditions which are apparently
necessary for the emergence of the larvae from the eggs also
cool and soften the soil, making it favorable for the newly
emerged larvae.
"Description.-The full-grown larva averages approximately
one-half inch in length. The body is yellowish white, fleshy,
more or less curved, legless, and sparsely covered with hair.
It consists of 12 much-folded segments, which are interrupted
by two sublateral longitudinal grooves running the length of
the body. The dorsal portions of the segments are bulging; the
ventral portions are flat. On the sides, above the longitudinal
separating grooves, small spiracles are present on all segments
except the second, third, and twelfth (last).
"Feeding Habits of the Larvae and the Injury They Cause.-
The principal damage is caused by the larvae feeding on the
roots of the young plants in the spring. The lower parts of the
stem and taproot are chewed away, but the smaller lateral roots
are not attacked. In many instances the larvae burrow into
the seed and devour the contents before the young plant has
had sufficient time to appear above the ground.
"On most plants such as cotton, velvetbeans, peanuts, field
peas, and sweet potatoes the larvae consume the fleshy portion
of the underground stem and taproot, usually leaving the tougher
central portion. Only occasionally is the stem or root completely
severed and then only in the case of very young plants. On
larger plants the larvae may feed only on one side of the root
and then for only several inches.
"The feeding on corn and sugarcane is somewhat different
from that on other plants. On these plants the larva cuts a
small hole one-fourth to one-half inch in diameter into the main
stem, usually burrowing one-fourth to one-half inch into the






Twelfth Biennial Report


stem, but has never been observed tunneling along the root for
more than one inch.
"The major portion of the feeding on roots during the spring
extends from the surface of the ground to a depth of 6 inches.
Where the feeding is severe the plants turn yellow, wilt, and
die. Where only a small section of the cambium layer is eaten
away the plants survive but produce very little or no crop. The
larvae undoubtedly feed at greater depths during the summer
as the root systems of plants extend downward.
"The larvae are very general feeders and caused serious in-
jury to field and garden crops in the Florala area during 1937.
The infestations are still localized on many farms, but the yields
were materially reduced in many fields. In some fields as high
as 90 percent of the plants were killed in areas ranging from
a few square yards to an acre or more. In many instances,
after the larvae had destroyed the stand, the fields were re-
planted and the larvae then destroyed the second planting. In
heavily infested spots the larvae not only killed the cultivated
crops but also the grass and weeds. Late in June and early in
July these spots were barren and could easily be detected at
great distances. After the greater number of the larvae matured
and emerged as adults, a heavy growth of grass developed on
the former barren areas.
"The larval injury to peanuts occurs at two distinct periods.
At planting time and shortly thereafter the larvae feed on the
planted seed and on the roots of the young plants, thereby
damaging the stand. The adults after emerging concentrate
on the remaining plants and deposit eggs in the area immediately
surrounding the plants. Later in the season the newly emerged
and older larvae attack the developing nuts, chewing away por-
tions of the hulls, and often boring through the hull and destroy-
ing the kernel. The nuts of chufa are injured in the same
manner as are those of peanuts.
"During the fall larvae have been observed feeding on the
underground stems and taproots of cowpeas and peanuts after
these plants had matured and died or had been killed by frost.
Evidently the decaying roots furnish a desirable food for the
larvae. In one field the soil from around 96 cowpea plants
was examined, and an average of 16.6 larvae per plant was
found. An area 4 inches in diameter around each plant was
examined to a depth of 6 inches.
"Larval Development.-Newly hatched larvae were found in
the fields on July 27, and it is highly probable that some new
larvae emerged several weeks previously. There were many
larvae in the soil during July that appeared to be fully matured
but which did not pupate, and no pupae were found after
August 1. These large larvae were active throughout the sum-
mer, feeding principally on Mexican clover, but during the fall
they fed very lightly when compared with larvae that hatched
during July and August 1937. No reason is known for this






State Plant Board of Florida


carry-over of apparently mature larvae, and the maximum and
minimum length of the life cycle is still to be determined.
"The newly emerged larvae are capable of living for a long
period without food. On August 13, 197 newly emerged larvae
were confined in salve boxes without food, soil, or moisture.
The average length of life for these larvae was 24.2 days. On
September 1, or 19 days after hatching, 49.7 percent were alive.
One month after hatching 29.4 percent were alive. The last
larvae lived through October 24, or 73 days.
"The larvae are not entirely dependent upon plant roots for
development, at least during the early stages. Larvae hatched
during August have been kept in sifted soil and have developed
in size as well as other larvae that were provided with plant
roots. It has not been determined whether larvae can develop
to maturity without feeding on plant roots.
"The pupa is approximately seven-sixteenths inch in length,
and when first formed is white. Parts of the body and append-
ages darken somewhat before transformation.
"Just before pupation the larva prepares a neat earthen cell
and lines it with a secretion from the body. It pupates mostly
from 3 to 6 inches below the soil surface, and the pupal cell
is approximately three to four times as large as the pupa. The
longitudinal axis of the pupal chamber is on an inclined plane,
and the exit tunnel is usually cut at approximately the same
angle until the adult is within 1 inch of the surface and then
it usually makes the exit hole perpendicular to the surface.
"The date when pupation begins has not been ascertained.
Loftin and Watson did not find any pupae in the area around
Svea, Florida, on May 14; pupae were abundant, however, on
June 23 and a few adults had already emerged on that date.
Most of the adults had emerged by July 15, but an occasional
pupa could be found during the last part of July. No pupae
were found after August 1."
Infested Areas.-Intensive inspections made in the summer
and fall of 1937 disclosed the presence of this pest at Pensacola,
Florida, and at several localities in Alabama, Mississippi, and
at New Orleans, Louisiana. By the last of July 1938, Naupactus
leucoloma Boh. had been found in the following localities:
Florida No extension of infested areas.
Alabama Mobile, and a rather general infestation in the vicinity of
Monroeville, in Monroe and Conecuh Counties.
Mississippi General infestations at Pass Christian, Harrison County;
at Bolton, Hinds County; and at Carriere, Pearl River County.
Infestations were also found at Moss Point, Jackson County;
Laurel, Jones County; and Collins, Covington County. A
closely related species has been found in the vicinity of Gulf-
port and Saucier, Harrison County; and at Landon and Mac-
Henry, Stone County.






Twelfth Biennial Report


Louisiana The river front of New Orleans is rather generally infested.
It has been found at one place on the west side of the river.
Hosts.-The host plants of this pest are apparently legion.
Cultivated crops, weeds, and forest plants and trees are attacked
by either the adult or the larvae. As a part of the Board's
contribution in the investigational activities, E. G. Hume, As-
sistant Grove Inspector, was assigned to the Bureau's research
division at Florala, Alabama. Mr. Hume is exceptionally well
informed on Florida plant life, and has been of considerable
value in working on host plants.
Mr. Hume's work was confined to field weeds and plants
indigenous to wooded areas, and more particularly to those
that are most common and widely distributed over a wide range.
It was learned that the larvae apparently did not differentiate
in their feeding habits between closely related species and em-
phasis was placed upon plant families and genera rather than
on species. The number of species found infested in a given
family seems to vary directly with the number of species of
that family which are present in a particular area. The lis'
of host plants is not presented in this report. It is a long one-
some 180 plants being affected by the larvae alone and, in
addition, is being revised almost continuously. No doubt this
list will appear shortly in a Bureau of Entomology release.
If, as indicated by past investigations, this pest is as much
at home in the wilds as it is in cultivated areas, eradication
over the large areas already involved is questionable. It is to
be hoped that out of the investigations now being carried on
by federal workers some practical and economical method of
control will be developed.

SWEET POTATO WEEVIL CONTROL
Before commenting on this activity, it is felt desirable to
give a brief history of sweet potato weevil (Cylas formicarius
(Fab.)) eradication and control activities in Florida.
From April 1918 to 1927 the Bureau of Entomology, United
States Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with the
Florida Plant Board, undertook to eradicate this pest from
several areas in Florida. The weevil was first reported from
Manatee County in 1878, and for years it was known to be
present in those counties facing the Atlantic Ocean and the






State Plant Board of Florida


Gulf of Mexico where sandy beaches favored the growth of a
favorite host, the seaside morning glory, Ipomoea Pes-Caprae.
In 1917 it was learned that the weevil was present in Baker
County. This was the first record of its presence in an interior
county, and although the initial outbreak was serious, it was
believed that the infestation was of comparatively recent origin
and prompt eradicative action would remove a menace to the
sweet potato industry in Florida and Georgia. Cooperative
activities were started in April 1918, under the direction of
J. E. Graf and B. L. Boyden, Bureau of Entomology, United
States Department of Agriculture. After overcoming many
difficulties the pest was eliminated and the project terminated
in 1927.
Shortly after the work was started in Baker County, it was
learned that the weevil was well established in DeSoto, Lake,
and Orange, all interior counties, and in the eastern part of
Hillsborough County. At Lily, in DeSoto County, where the
insect was apparently newly introduced, eradicative efforts were
successful. In Hillsborough County where the infestation was
of comparatively long standing, cleaned farms were reinfested,
either from the seaside morning glory, or from weevils carry-
ing over on the wild morning glory (Ipomoea pandurata L.).
After three years' experimentation this project was abandoned
as impracticable.
A study of the data at hand revealed the facts that practically
the entire coast line of Florida was infested; several of the
interior counties were infested; and eradication of the weevil
from the extensive coast line, and from infested farms both
along the coast and in the interior counties was not feasible.
The Bureau then directed its efforts to working out a system
of cropping whereby the farmer could grow normal crops of
sweet potatoes even in the presence of the weevil. Those efforts
were successful, and the Bureau withdrew its force from Florida.
A report of cooperative sweet potato weevil eradication activ-
ities in Florida and Georgia is found in the Plant Board's
Monthly Bulletin for August 1927, Vol. XII, No. 2.
In view of subsequent events we are herewith quoting from
one paragraph of this report:
"There is not much doubt but that the entire coast of Florida
wherever seaside morning glory occurs will be infested in a few
years, and that the infestation will increase in intensity. This
beach infestation will constitute a continuing menace to the
inland potato districts. The beach morning glory is a very






Twelfth Biennial Report


attractive vine and appears to grow well inland. With the grow-
ing popularity of the beaches because of their accessibility due
to good roads, inland importations of weevils in these vines will
become more frequent. The distribution of the weevil in plant-
ing stock will also become more rapid as the infested areas
become more numerous."
Prophetic words! The weevil has spread into new areas in
Florida and in addition has made its reappearance in Baker
County. Not only has it spread in Florida, but in other states
as well. This is illustrated by the fact that an eradication cam-
paign was carried on in Mississippi during the period the Bureau
of Entomology was operating in Florida. Four counties were
infested at that time. Now these four counties are still infested
and the weevil has spread into four others.

CONTROL ACTIVITIES IN GADSDEN COUNTY
The weevil made its appearance several years ago in a portion
of Gadsden County, located between Quincy and the Florida-
Georgia State line. In the winter 1936 the District Agent, in
charge of Agricultural Extension activities in this area requested
the Plant Commission to undertake to eradicate the weevil. This
the Plant Commissioner declined to do, because (1) the weevil
was well established in other parts of the state, and any eradica-
tion project should be state wide; (2) the Board had no funds
for such an undertaking, and (3) it has been demonstrated that
farmers could grow normal crops of sweet potatoes in the pres-
ence of the weevil provided they practiced simple sanitary
measures. It is interesting to note that while the District Agent,
the County Agent for Gadsden County, and growers and busi-
ness men of the county insisted that the Board undertake to
eradicate the weevil, they protested against the imposition and
enforcement of a quarantine-one of the first steps in an eradi-
cation project.
The request was then made that the Board supply the services
of an inspector for two or three months for the purpose of
delimiting the infested area, while the County Agent aided by
Gadsden County growers and business men, undertook to elim-
inate the weevil by the imposition of a volunteer "no sweet
potato year" in the affected area. Costs for the work were
to be paid out of a WPA allotment of $3300.00.
The Board's inspector arrived at Quincy on April 1, 1936,
and started his survey. It was soon learned that of the 204
properties in the affected area, 61 were infested. Press of






State Plant Board of Florida


other work prevented the County Agent from devoting sufficient
time to make the project a success, and it became necessary
for the Board's inspector, in addition to his survey activities,
to contact occupants of the infested properties for the purpose
of explaining details of the project and to get them to sign
agreements to clean their infested properties and to refrain
from planting sweet potatoes in 1936. When clean-up activities
started, the Board's representative was forced to supervise their
activities as well.
As is to be expected in volunteer projects, the high hopes of
the County Agent to the effect that every grower in the affected
area would be delighted to undertake additional labor in the
form of clean-up activities and to refrain from growing a staple
that formed a considerable part of his menu, sweet potatoes,
were not realized. Some growers cheerfully did their part,
but others did nothing, and one or two refused to permit the
destruction of their old beds or banks.
As a part of the agreement entered into with the County
Agent, farmers in the control area who refrained from plant-
ing sweet potatoes were to be supplied with potatoes for table
use during the "no potato year". A total of 3043 bushels were
contracted for in this manner. Farmers outside the affected
area, and business men of Quincy, were obligated to furnish
these potatoes. In order to make sure that at least part of the
required amount would be available the County Agent planted
25 acres to sweet potatoes. Land, tools, teams, fertilizer, and
plants were donated. From this planting 2521 bushels of pota-
toes were harvested. The bulk of this yield was distributed as
food to farmers who refrained from planting sweet potatoes
in 1937, while a few were set out in beds in order to grow
weevil-free plants for the 1937 crop. A total of 1,279,500 draws
were distributed from these beds.
A reinspection of the infested area was started in October
1937, when it was learned that three properties within the
area, and four located outside, were infested. Clean-up activ-
ities on these farms were undertaken, costs being paid from
the unexpended balance of $859.47 in the WPA allotment, aug-
mented by $73.40 from Plant Board funds. The services of
Inspectors Dexter and Prevatt were used in supervising clean-
up activities on the infested farms and in making inspections
in Gadsden County until May, when they were transferred to
Baker County.






Twelfth Biennial Report


BAKER COUNTY
Inspections of 416 farms in Baker County in 1937 disclosed
that sweet potato weevil was present on 62 of them, all located
in the northeastern part of the County. This area adjoins the
St. Marys River, and is close to the Okefenokee Swamp.
It is doubtful if satisfactory control can be accomplished in
this area. The farmers expect to have their infested holdings
cleaned up and to be supplied with weevil-free seed potatoes or
plants, as was the case when eradication was under way from
1919 to 1927. This cannot be done with the funds available.
Growers have been contacted, and advised as to the proper way
to handle their plantings so as to reduce weevil infestation. In
a few cases they have been aided in destroying crop remnants.
Most of the control work in 1937-38 was performed in Gads-
den County, as it was necessary to complete the clean-up in that
area. It is expected that the bulk of the work for next year
will be in Baker County. The 1937 Legislature made available
for sweet potato weevil control the sum of $5000 annually. Two
inspectors are assigned to this project.

BLUE MOLD OF TOBACCO
Although the Grove Inspection Department was not involved
in this activity, mention is made herein merely as a matter of
record.
Last winter the Plant Commissioner was approached by a
committee composed of State Senators R. S. Adams, Jasper,
S. A. Hinely, Live Oak, and F. B. Parker, Mayo, representing
the tobacco growers of their districts, to request that the Plant
Board assist the tobacco growers in combating the ravages of
a fungus disease of tobacco, known as blue mold (Peronospora
tabacina), capable of causing large losses to young tobacco plants
in the seed bed.
The committee was advised that this was a fairly widespread
disease, one that could be controlled by the farmers at a small
cost, and like many other common plant pests, was a matter
for the individual grower to control. It was also pointed out
that the Board had no funds for such use. After considerable
discussion the committee decided to request Governor Cone to
release for blue mold control a portion of the Board's $10,000
Emergency Fund. As a result of their representations, on
January 20, 1938, the Governor and the Budget Commission
made available the sum of $3,000 for this purpose.






State Plant Board of Florida


According to plans worked out with Board Member Helfen-
stein, at Live Oak, on January 20, 1938, the affected counties
were divided into eight districts, with a demonstrator in charge
of each district. Headquarters were established at Live Oak,
with W. B. Tisdale, Pathologist, Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, in charge. Assigned as demonstrators were three
employees of the Plant Board, four from the Agricultural Ex-
periment Station, and one from the Agricultural Extension
Division. In each county close contacts were maintained with
the County Agent.
Two treatments were recommended for the control of the
fungus in seed beds: (1) exposure of the plants to fumes of
benzol gas, and (2) application of a red copper oxide-cottonseed
oil spray mixture. Meetings were scheduled for certain dates
in each community, and sufficient advance notice was given in
order that growers could make plans to be present. Growers
were also advised of the meetings by post cards sent out by
the County Agents. At these meetings demonstrations were
made of the proper preparation and application of the control
materials. After the scheduled series of meetings were com-
pleted demonstrators visited growers in all parts of their dis-
tricts for the purpose of advising the growers of the proper
manner of preparing and applying the materials. Growers were
frequently assisted in making the first application of spray
material. Careful watch was also kept for the appearance of
blue mold.
The reception accorded the demonstrators varied, as was to
be expected. Some farmers appreciated the efforts that were
made to assist them; they purchased the necessary materials
and equipment, attended demonstrations, and followed instruc-
tions as closely as was possible. Others displayed no great
interest until after the disease made its appearance in their
seed beds. A third group was unable financially to purchase
materials or equipment. A few put off treating their seed beds
until advised by their County Agent as to the acreage they
would be permitted to plant. A total of 2004 growers attended
one or more of the 156 scheduled demonstrations.
The salaries of the demonstrators were charged to the regular
allotments under which the men were employed. Thus, the
salaries of the assistant nursery inspectors assigned to the pro-
ject were paid from funds allotted to that department and not
to the Emergency Fund. The same was true with respect to
the Station and Extension employees.






Twelfth Biennial Report


The total expenditure for blue mold control work was
$3,754.74. Of this amount $1,017.39 was expended from Plant
Board funds.
Dr. Tisdale reported that because of unfavorable conditions
it was impossible to obtain any conclusive information as to
the results of the activity. In a number of cases there was
evidence that spraying had delayed the appearance of the fungus
and had reduced the amount of damage which might have
resulted had spraying been omitted. In other instances little
or no difference could be detected between sprayed and un-
sprayed seed beds. There was great variation in the time of
beginning and the total number of spray applications made by
different growers. Most of the growers who sprayed according
to schedule felt that the treatment was beneficial and stated
that they intended to spray again next year.
The benzol treatment was developed in Australia and has
been tested in the United States for two seasons. Its use is
expensive and requires an extra amount of attention. The spray
treatment was developed in this country, it is comparatively
inexpensive and uncomplicated, and experimentation has shown
that when properly prepared and applied it has reduced the
amount of fungus in a treated seed bed to a point where it
does little or no damage. The spray treatment was the one in
which the growers were the most interested.

PINK BOLLWORM
It will be recalled that on March 7, 1932, bollworm, a most
destructive insect attacking cotton, was found by federal in-
spectors in the United States Plant Introduction Garden at
Miami. Inspections disclosed the presence of this pest in wild
cotton along the lower Atlantic and Gulf coasts. The Bureau
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine immediately undertook to
search out and destroy all wild cotton in Florida. Some 3000
acres of wild cotton were destroyed in the winter of 1932-33,
and 10,000 acres of potential cotton territory were scouted.
Expenditures from federal sources were $60,000.
On September 26, 1932, one pink bollworm pupa was found
in the Jordan Gin, at High Springs, Alachua County. Within
the next several years light infestations, mostly in gin trash,
were found in Columbia, Madison, Jackson, and Levy Counties,
and at Live Oak larvae were recovered from gin trash from
cotton that had been grown in Suwannee, Hamilton, and La-






State Plant Board of Florida


fayette Counties. Slight infestations were also found in Tift
and Berrien Counties, Georgia. Intensive clean-up measures
and treatment of cotton seed soon eliminated these infestations.
Since 1932 wild cotton clean-up activities have been continued
by federal forces in the extreme southern part of the state and
on the keys on both coasts. In addition, gin trash inspections
have been made annually in the commercial cotton producing
areas of north and west Florida with negative results. The
federal quarantine restricting movement of affected commodities
from the quarantined areas was removed October 15, 1936.
Eradication of wild cotton in the jungles and swamps of south
Florida appeared in the beginning to be a hopeless task, but
progress made by the federal forces under the able direction of
L. F. Curl, has been almost unbelievable. Camps were estab-
lished in the vicinity of Cape Sable and Flamingo, where laborers
from Miami and Homestead were concentrated. Trails were cut
through jungles, and bridges were constructed over canals and
streams. In these areas the wild cotton sometimes grows to
a height of from 20 to 25 feet, with trunks several inches in
diameter. One coverage was not sufficient-it was necessary
to make repeated visits to each locality in order to remove seed-
lings sprouted from the previous year's seed.
Costs were borne by the federal government. Part of the
expenditures was charged to Congressional appropriations made
to the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine for pink
bollworm eradication, while the balance was cared for by WPA
allotments.
AMOUNTS AVAILABLE FROM FEDERAL SOURCES FOR PINK BOLLWORM
ERADICATION IN FLORIDA
Bureau I
Entomology I Acreage Cleaned
Year and Plant IWPA Total and Recleaned
Quarantine
1932-33 ...... $ 60,000 $ 60,000 3,000
1933-34 .... 60,000 60,000 4,500
1934-35 ........ 60,000 60,000 4,500
1935-36 ........ 60,000 $ 90,000 150,000 45,000
1936-37 ........ 60,000 40,000 100,000 45,000
1937-38 ........ 53,000 53,000

$353,000 $130,000 $483,000_

For the season 1937-38 the Bureau funds were reduced to
$53,000, and there have been no supplementary allotments from
other sources. This amount will hardly provide for the con-






Twelfth Biennial Report


tinuation of wild cotton clean-up during the fiscal year. This
will mean that many seedlings which have sprouted during the
past year will be left to grow and to serve as foci for distribu-
tion of both plants and bollworm.
In order that the federal authorities might be able to carry
on essential inspection activities, the several interested states
were requested to assist in meeting the pay roll for gin trash
inspections. At a meeting held in Atlanta, in September 1937,
and attended by representatives of the southern states and the
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, estimates as to
probable costs were prepared. The amount estimated as being
necessary to complete the gin trash inspection in Florida was
$600.00. This sum was made available, but only $385.00 was
expended.
INSPECTIONS OF CITRUS PLANTINGS
Nothing of a startling nature affecting citrus plantings has
occurred during the past year. It may be possible that no
injurious insect pest was found because of the comparatively
little time devoted to grove inspection during the past fiscal
year.
After providing for the Board's other activities out of the
$209,612 annual appropriations made by the 1937 Legislature,
there remained available for the grove inspection department
the sum of $84,412 annually. This provided for the employment
of 27 field inspectors, the smallest number of men assigned to
this important activity since the department was organized.
Even if it were possible to devote the full time of these 27
men to grove inspection, they could not make one complete cov-
erage of all citrus plantings in Florida in less than three years.
But demands are constantly being made upon this department
for inspection of plantings other than citrus. In the summer
and fall of 1937 the services of eight assistant grove inspectors
were used for a period of two months on white-fringed beetle
inspection. One of these men was retained on this project
until February 1938, while another has worked in the research
division almost continuously. Demands for Irish potato inspec-
tions have fallen off somewhat. Need for inspections to enable
our white potato crop to enter the far western states continues
to require the services of four men for a period of from 3 to
4 weeks for field inspections, and those of one man for several
months for packing house inspection and certification.






State Plant Board of Florida


Inspection of groves on the mainland was also interrupted
for a period of one month last fall and for another month this
spring due to the necessity for blackfly inspection at Key West.
Conservation of expenditures during the past fiscal year has
made possible the employment during the coming year of one
additional inspector, whose services will be sorely needed.

IRISH POTATO INSPECTION
Quarantine regulations of the states of Idaho, Montana,
Oregon, Utah, Texas and Washington require that shipments
of Florida grown potatoes be certified to the effect that the
tubers were grown in an area in which the potato tuber moth
is not known to be present, or that the tubers were vacuum
fumigated. As the tuber moth is present in Florida, and as
there are no vacuum fumigation plants large enough to handle
car lot shipments in the east, the Board is called upon each
year to make inspections of extensive plantings and certify ship-
ments as to apparent freedom from this pest. The services
of some six men are required for a period of a month or more
annually for this task. Inspection and certification of Irish
potatoes as to freedom from tuber moth does not prevent the
spread within the State of any major plant pest, but the Board
feels that the expenditure for inspection can be justified by
the fact that only by such inspection and certification can our
growers market their crop in several states where our potatoes
are in demand. In other words, this is a service activity.
Last year inspections were requested only by shippers in
Dade County, where a total of 7500 acres of potatoes were
inspected, and 581 car lots were inspected and certified as being
free from tuber moth infestation.







Twelfth Biennial Report


REPORT OF THE QUARANTINE INSPECTION
DEPARTMENT
July 1, 1936 to June 30, 1938
J. H. Montgomery, Quarantine Inspector
The first line of defense against the introduction and spread
of major plant pests as maintained by both State and Federal
Governments is the inspection service at ports of entry. The
State of Florida, through the State Plant Board and its Quaran-
tine Inspection Department, carries on this work for both the
State and Federal Governments at the following ports: Jack-
sonville, Pensacola, West Palm Beach, Miami, Key West and
Tampa. Inspectors of the State Plant Board are clothed with
federal authority as collaborators of the Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine, United States Department of Agriculture.
As such collaborators, the federal requirements with respect
to the shipments into the United States of plants and plant
products are administered.
During the biennium here reported on and for some years
past there have been from 6,000 to 7,000 vessels (watercraft
and airplanes) per annum entering Florida ports. Nearly half
of these vessels enter the port of Miami, which is one of the
largest international airports in the world. In 1936-37 there
were over 1500 airplanes from foreign countries entered at
Miami, while in 1937-38 the number was 1617.
Frequent interceptions of major plant pests have been made
at the Florida ports, and unquestionably the introduction of
these pests and their establishment in Florida has thus been
prevented.
The statistical material included in the annual reports of
the Quarantine Inspection Department shows graphically the
volume of work which is done by this branch of the Plant
Board's organization and its important place in the scheme of
protecting Florida's agriculture.
SHIPS AND VESSELS INSPECTED
From foreign ports: 1936-1937 1937-1938
Direct by Air .....................................----...... 1,610 1,707
Direct by Water ........... ................ ......... 2,264 2,348
Total Direct .................... ................... 3,874 4,055
Via United States Ports ..................................... 740 684
Total Foreign ........................ ............. ............ ... 4,614 4,739
From United States Ports Other than Florida .......... 1,803 1,428
From Florida Ports ................. ..... ..................... 852 662
Total ................ ........................................ 7,269 6,829







State Plant Board of Florida


NUMBER OF PARCELS HANDLED
Arriving by Boat, Express, Freight, Mail and Airplane
Passed .................... ............... .. ............... 4,999,828 4,617,389
Treated and Passed ........ ..................................... 61,495 46
Returned to Shipper .......................................-..... 10,979 17,249
Contraband Destroyed .............................. .......... 4,090 4,697
Diverted to W ashington ................................................ 40 103

Total ........................... .................................... 5,076,432 4,639,484

TABULATION SHOWING THE WORK OF THE QUARANTINE DIVISION BY YEARS
SINCE THIS WORK WAS INAUGURATED

Number Boats Number of Packages
Arriving by
Year Boat, Express,
Foreign Total Freight, Mail, Returned Destroyed
_____ ____ Airplane

1915-1916 166 370 500 18 69
1916-1917 1,240 3,257 3,105 255 1,182
1917-1918 1,777 4,253 3,422 485 1,037
1918-1919 1,724 3,485 *69,985 1,521 1,743
1919-1920 2,458 4,504 336,059 4,936 2,345
1920-1921 3,035 4,948 710,412 2,130 1,564
1921-1922 2,225 4,179 1,333,333 2,610 1,757
May and
June, 1922 364 697 747,972 201 311
1922-1923 2,207 4,559 1,827,727 1,006 2,278
1923-1924 2,309 4,842 1,410,860 1,566 4,478
1924-1925 2,437 5,464 1,633,015 2,630 3,040
1925-1926 2,705 6,668 2,435,470 3,766 3,469
1926-1927 2,989 5,980 2,304,594 5,237 3,538
1927-1928 3,430 6,094 2,415,694 4,633 4,844
1928-1929 3,941 6,352 2,537,695 4,925 5,177
1929-1930 4,684 7,175 3,007,540 9,127 4,875
1930-1931 4,449 7,154 2,596,716 6,810 3,737
1931-1932 3,669 6,305 1,836,141 9,846 4,133
1932-1933 3,373 6,046 1,385,729 6,284 2,922
1933-1934 3,425 5,999 1,881,309 4,968 2,447
1934-1935 3,691 6,461 2,795,765 7,891 3,053
1935-1936 3,969 6,646 2,482,648 9,958 3,687
1936-1937 4,614 7,269 5,076,432 10,979 4,090
1937-1938 4,739 6,829 4,639,484 17,249 4,697


Total 69,620 125,536 43,471,607 119,031 70,473

*Prior to August 1, 1918, horticultural material inspected was reported by shipments.
A shipment might comprise 1 or 1,000 packages. Subsequent to above date reports were
made of the number of packages, and bulk shipments were reduced to packages on basis
of contents of standard containers used for particular products.





SHIP INSPECTION AT FLORIDA PORTS
Summary

Key West Jacksonville Miami Pensacola

1936-1937


Tampa West Palm
Beach


From:
Foreign ports
Direct by air ..............................
Direct by water ........................
Via U. S. ports ..........................
Total ............... ......................

Domestic ports
U. S. ports other than Florida
Florida ports ..............................
Total .......................................
GRAND TOTAL ................................



From:
Foreign ports
Direct by air ..............................
Direct by water ........................
Via U. S. ports ............................
Total .......................................

Domestic ports
U. S. ports other than Florida
Florida ports ............................
T otal ..............................................
GRAND TOTAL .............................

TOTAL FOR BIENNIUM ................


S Total


0
270
315
585


75
2
77
662


1937-1938

I


1,610
2,264
740
4,614

1,803
852
2,655
7,269


0
258
126
384

992
241
1,233
1,617

3.499


1,617
1,435
29
3,081

109
93
202
3,283

6.652


8
44
181
233

151
30
181
414

976


0
292
308
600

75
5
80
680

1,342


1,707
2,348
684
4,739

1,428
662
2,090
6,829

14,098


--







38 State Plant Board of Florida

PASSENGERS' BAGGAGE INSPECTION AT MIAMI AND KEY WEST
Miami
Airplanes
1936-1937 1937-1938
Number Airplanes ....................................... 1,506 1,617
Number Pieces Baggage ....................................... 47,950 49,812
Number Passengers ..................... ................. 22,829 24,159
Ships
Number Foreign Ships Arriving (direct) ................ 1,381 1,435
Number Pieces Baggage ................................ ..... 118,758 142,159
Number Passengers .................. ............................ 49,286 58,417
Total Baggage .................................. ..... ........ 166,708 191,971
Total Passengers .................................. ....... 72,115 82,576
Key West
Number Foreign Ships Arriving (direct) ............. 152 152
Number Pieces Baggage ......................................... 16,158 16,062
Number Passengers ............................ ......... 7,025 7,168
Grand Total:
Passengers ............................... ........ 79,140 89,744
Baggage ............. ........-.......-...-- 182,866 208,033






Twelfth Biennial Report


REPORT OF THE NURSERY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
July 1, 1936 to June 30, 1938
J. C. Goodwin, Nursery Inspector

The nursery inspection force, consisting of a Chief Inspector
and seven assistant inspectors, inspected each of the 1,779 nurs-
eries in the state an average of 4.6 times during 1936-1937.
During 1937-1938, the 1,964 nurseries in the State were in-
spected an average of 4.2 times.
In 1936-1937, 4,205 acres were devoted to the growing of
nursery stock, and 4,721 acres were thus used in 1937-1938.
At the end of the biennium, June 30, 1938, there were
53,389,233 plants, both citrus and non-citrus, under inspection.
In 1936-1937 citrus nurserymen moved (sold, traded, or other-
wise disposed of) approximately two and one-half million trees.
In 1937-1938 they moved 3,022,603 trees.
Nurserymen made shipments of plants to 26 states and 28
foreign countries in 1936-1937. In 1937-1938 they made ship-
ments to 28 states and 34 foreign countries. Without inspection
and certification, these markets would not have been open' to
Florida nurserymen.
During the year ending June 30, 1937, 281 out-state nursery-
men applied for and secured 31,451 permit tags for use when
making shipments of nursery stock to this state. During the
year ending June 30, 1938, 289 out-state nurserymen secured
32,248 permit tags.
There was an increase in the total number of nursery certifi-
cate tags secured during 1937-1938 as compared to 1936-1937.
In 1936-1937 there was issued a total of 194,841 tags to 2,191
firms or individuals. In 1937-1938 there was issued a total of
213,934 tags to 2,504 firms or individuals. In addition to the
number of tags issued for the movement of nursery stock, a
large number of special tags, not included in the foregoing
totals, was issued for the movement of ferns, cut flowers and
narcissus bulbs.
Since the revocation of the Federal domestic quarantine with
respect to narcissus bulbs on April 1, 1935, there has been a
decrease in the number of persons requesting inspection of their
narcissus plantings. Some States promulgated quarantines when
the Federal quarantine was revoked and inspections of plant-






State Plant Board of Florida


ings were continued when requested by the grower. In 1936-
1937 there were 11 plantings under inspection on which were
produced a total of 94,597,000 bulbs. In 1937-1938 only 9 grow-
ers asked for inspection of their bulbs, and their plantings
produced 79,223,000 bulbs. Without inspection and certifica-
tion, the narcissus producers would have been unable to market
their bulbs in some States. During the biennium it was not
found necessary to quarantine any of the narcissus plantings
in the State.
In order that fern growers might ship their product into
other States and Canada, the department inspected ferneries
when requests for such inspections were made. The Canadian
regulations require that all ferns and other succulent plants be
inspected not more than 30 days prior to shipment and that
all woody plants be inspected at time of shipment. As quite a
number of Florida growers ship into Canada, it was necessary
to make special inspections of such establishments. At the end
of the biennium, June 30, 1938, 107 ferneries were under in-
spection. On the 295 acres devoted to fern growing, there were
12,971,250 plants.
Vegetable plants, such as cabbage, onion, tomato, etc., were
inspected on request. Some States require inspection and cer-
tification of this type of plants, hence the inspections were made
as a service to growers.
Some states require inspection and certification of cut flowers
and cut ferns. Upon request, such material was inspected and
certificates were issued in order that growers could make ship-
ments to the States requiring certification of cut flowers and
cut ferns.
During the biennium, the Assistant Nursery Inspectors sub-
mitted 2,084 specimens from nurseries. The Entomological
Department made 3,261 determinations from the specimens sub-
mitted by this Department.
Cooperation between nurserymen of the State and the Plant
Board throughout the biennium was very good, as evidenced
by the fact that in only one case was it necessary for the Board
to institute proceedings against a nurseryman. In the case in
question, the nurseryman was prosecuted for movement of
nursery stock without inspection and certification and without
treating with an oil emulsion prior to movement. The judge
before whom the case was heard imposed a six-months' sentence.
However, the sentence was suspended upon payment of the








Twelfth Biennial Report


costs, $25.00, provided the defendant refrains from engaging
in the nursery business in any form, either directly or indirectly.

SUMMARY OF WORK ACCOMPLISHED BY THE NURSERY INSPECTION
DEPARTMENT DURING THE BIENNIUM ENDING JUNE 30, 1938


Number of Inspection Districts ............
Number of Nurseries in State ................
Number of Nursery Inspections Made
Average Number of Inspections
per Nursery ............................----............
Total Number of Refusals ....................
Nursery Acreage in State:
Citrus ............................ 1,731.12
Non-citrus .................... 2,474.08
Nursery Stock in State:
Citrus ............................ 8,627,322
Non-citrus .................... 34,217,004

Total Acreage Inspected
and Passed:
Citrus ............................ 7,932.75
Non-citrus .................... 10,923.83
Total Acreage Inspected
and Refused:
Citrus ............................ 276.89
Non-citrus .................... 298.90


1936-37
7
1,779
7,967

4.6
381


1937-38
7
1,964
8,323
4.2
251


2,003.69
4,205.20 2,717.30


14,966,927
42,844,326 38,422,306



7,854.60
18,856.58 10,951.18


222.16
575.79 105.15


Total Amount of Stock
Inspected and Passed:
Citrus ............................ 47,371,600
Non-citrus .................... 152,769,969 200,141,569


Total Amount of Stock
Inspected and Refused:
Citrus ............................ 1,560,125
Non-citrus .................... 1,815,375


4,720.99



53,389,233



18,805.78



327.31


58,651,480
157,164,507 215,815,987


1,519,770
3,375,500 493,136


Total Amount of Stock
Inspected:
Citrus ............................ 48,933725
Non-citrus .................... 154,583,344 203,517,069
Number of Nurseries Going Out
of Business ........................................ 306
Number of New Nurseries ...................... 278


2,012,906


60,171,250
157,657,643 217,828,893

284
394







State Plant Board of Florida


REPORT OF THE APIARY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
July 1, 1936 to June 30, 1938
R. E. Foster, Apiary Inspector

The main object of the Apiary Inspection Department is to
prevent the introduction into and dissemination within the State
of Florida of communicable diseases of honeybees.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1937, 72,795 colony
inspections were made. These involved 3,544 apiary inspec-
tions in 64 counties. Ninety-eight colonies in 32 apiaries,
located in 8 counties were found to be infected with American
foul brood. This was .00134% of colony inspections.
The cost of operating the department for the year was
$15,511.57, an average cost per colony inspection of 211/3 cents.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1938, 64,668 colony
inspections were made. These involved 3,451 apiary inspections
in 62 counties. One hundred seventy-three colonies in 39
apiaries located in 11 counties were found infected with Ameri-
can foul brood, or .00267% of colony inspections.
The cost of operating the department for the year was
$15,000, or an average cost per colony inspection of 23.2 cents.
A summary of apiary inspection since the department was
created in 1919 follows:
SUMMARY OF APIARY INSPECTION WORK SINCE THE DEPARTMENT
WAS CREATED IN JULY, 1919
Apiaries Colonies
Infected Infected
Year Ending Apiary Colony with with
Inspections Inspections American American
Foul Brood Foul Brood
June 30, 1920 ........... 394 16,121 30 104
June 30, 1921 ............. 753 18,078 16 33
June 30, 1922 ............... 837 22,522 14 34
June 30, 1923 ... ....... 1,016 23,848 18 30
June 30, 1924 ............ 803 22,806 8 13
June 30, 1925 ............. 675 21,378 7 58
June 30, 1926 ............. 676 16,756 5 22
June 30, 1927 ............. 796 23,791 6 34
June 30, 1928 ... .... 1,248 20,115 18 74
June 30, 1929 .......... 1,297 32,442 21 85
June 30, 1930 .......... 2,273 44,645 53 182
June 30, 1931 .....-.... 2,374 45,238 37 114
June 30, 1932 ........... 2,744 44,211 42 74
June 30, 1933 ........... 2,219 42,307 38 76
June 30, 1934 ....... 2,305 43,877 71 132
June 30, 1935 ......... 2,445 49,379 78 167
June 30, 1936 .......... 3,344 73,415 69 131
June 30, 1937 ....... 3,544 72,795 32 98
June 30, 1938 ............ 3,451 64,668 39 173






Twelfth Biennial Report


The Apiary Inspector and his Assistant, together with the
local inspectors who are employed part-time, have assisted the
beekeepers of the state in every way possible. Educational
work has been conducted among them in order to familiarize
them with the appearance of bee diseases so that abnormal
conditions in the apiaries would be discovered and reported
to the Apiary Inspector. This has been accomplished to quite
an extent by personal contact, attending beekeepers' meetings,
giving lectures on bee diseases, radio talks, and writing letters.
Each year the Apiary Inspector answers hundreds of letters
of inquiry regarding all phases of beekeeping.
The Apiary Inspector has interested himself to a consider-
able extent in the Florida Fair held at Tampa. He has helped
to assemble the bee and honey exhibit and has acted as super-
intendent of the exhibit during the Fair. This arrangement
has proven advantageous, since it has thrown him in contact
with many beekeepers attending the Fair and has given him
an opportunity to distribute information in regard to bee dis-
eases and their control. By this means it is believed that
beekeeping methods in Florida have been improved and disease
conditions in the apiaries held at a minimum. It has been
estimated that there is an investment in the beekeeping in-
dustry of a half million dollars and that the annual income of
beekeepers is approximately a quarter of a million dollars. It
is also estimated that about five thousand Floridians are en-
gaged in beekeeping.




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