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Group Title: Report for the period ... of the State Plant Board of Florida
Title: Report for the period ...
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098574/00008
 Material Information
Title: Report for the period ...
Alternate Title: Biennial report
Physical Description: 19 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: State Plant Board of Florida
Publisher: State Plant Board of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1934/36
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Plants, Protection of -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: State Plant Board of Florida.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 4th (1920/22)- 23rd (1958/60).
Numbering Peculiarities: Vols. for 1950/52-1958/60 also called: Bulletin.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098574
Volume ID: VID00008
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10989019
lccn - sn 86033752
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the biennial period ending ... and supplemental reports to ...
Succeeded by: Biennial report

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
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    Report of state plant board
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Report of the plant commissioner
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
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Full Text






STATE PLANT BOARD

OF FLORIDA








REPORT FOR THE PERIOD

JULY 1, 1934 JUNE 30, 1936

(Eleventh Biennial Report)


JANUARY, 1937


















STATE PLANT BOARD
of Florida

GEO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman ...--................---.....--Jacksonville
0. J. SEMMES ...--..---- ......----....----Pensacola
H. C. DUNCAN --..........-- -.........- ........---..--....Tavares
T. W. BRYANT --..-.---.. ... .. ...----....-Lakeland
R. P. TERRY -..-..... -.. --- ... -..... -.....- Miami
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary and Auditor ..... ........Tallahassee

STAFF
WILMON NEWELL, Plant Commissioner ................Gainesville
E. W. BERGER, Entomologist ..--...........-.. .....------ -- _Gainesville
J. C. GOODWIN, Nursery Inspector -........ .......... Gainesville
J. H. MONTGOMERY, Quarantine Inspector ...-...............Gainesville
R. E. FOSTER, Apiary Inspector .................................... Gainesville
ARTHUR C. BROWN, Grove Inspector ..............................Gainesville
MISS LENA R. HUNTER, Chief Clerk .......................Gainesville










CONTENTS

PAGE
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL ................................................ ...... 5
REPORT OF STATE PLANT BOARD ................................. 5
REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER ...................................... 10
R sources ............................................................... .. ....... .... .... 12
Expenditures ........................ ..................................... ....... .. ...... 13
Estim ates .................................. ................................. ................ .. 14
Report of the Grove Inspection Department .............. ................ 15
W est Indian Fruit Flies ........................................ ................ 15
P lan of E radication ....................................... ........................... 16
F ruit R em oval ................................................. .. ....... ........ 16
Spray A application .............................. ....... ....... ................ 17
Research ......................................................... ..... .............. 17
Trapping Activities ............. .................... ......... 17
Trap Bait Materials .................. ...................... ...... 18
Areas Trapped ................. .......... .............. ...... ... -- 18
Anastrepha spp. Collected in Traps on Mainland ........ 20
Anastrepha spp. Collected on Florida Keys (East
Coast) .......................................... ......... ....... 21
Species of Azndstrepha Found in Florida .............................. 19
Legal A actions .................. ................................ .. ..... .. 19
Blackfly Eradication ....................................... ....................... 21
Discovery in Florida .................................... ..... ........ 21
Eradication Plans ..................................... .. .. .... ...... 22
Progress of Eradication ...................................... ........... 23
Results ..................................................... ...... 25
Summary of Court Actions .................................. ...... 25
Criminal Cases ........................... .. ....... 25
Civil Cases ..................... ....... ....... .......... 25
Contempt Proceedings ................................... ..... 26
Sweet Potato W eevil ........................................... ..... ........... 26
Irish Potato Inspection ................ ............. ... .... 27
Report of the Quarantine Inspection Department ...... ................... 28
Ships and Vessels Inspected ........................................................ 29
Parcels Inspected ........................ .................. ..... ....... .... .... 29
Tabulation of Quarantine Inspection Work Since Inauguration 29
Ship Inspection at Florida Ports ................................. ............... ... 30
Passengers' Baggage Inspection at Miami and Key West ........ 31
Report of the Nursery Inspection Department .................................. 32
Summary for Biennium Ending June 30, 1936 ......................... 34
Report of the Department of Entomology ..................................... 35
Specimens Examined and Recorded Annually ............................. 85
Report.of the Apiary Inspection Department ................................. 36
Summary of Apiary Inspection Work Since Creation of
Departm ent .................. ....... ......... .................................... 37






Eleventh Biennial Report


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

January 11, 1937
To His Excellency,
Fred P. Cone,
Governor of Florida.
SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the State Plant
Board of Florida for the biennium ending June 30, 1936. Please
submit same to the Legislature.
Respectfully,
STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA
BY GEO. H. BALDWIN,
Chairman.


REPORT OF STATE PLANT BOARD
Florida has ample cause, by reason of its location, to be
fearful of invasion by plant pests, and for the maintenance of
an efficient corps of plant inspectors. It is exposed on one
side to pests already established in the United States and on the
other three to foreign pests. In addition, climatic conditions are
such as to offer almost ideal conditions for the year round growth
and development of insects and diseases affecting plants and
plant products, as contrasted to other states where more severe
winters offer checks to their development.
Florida is, and will probably continue to be, an agricultural
state, whose chief source of income is from the sale of its plants
and plant products. As a general proposition, any factor which
causes an increase in the cost of production, such as expenditures
for plant pest control or reduction in yield, likewise causes a de-
crease in profits received. When costs of production reach a point
where the growing of a crop is unprofitable, commercial pro-
duction of that particular commodity is discontinued.
In order to protect our horticultural and agricultural inter-
ests against invasion and establishment, with resultant losses, of
plant pests, the State Plant Board maintains two lines of de-
fense. The first line is the Quarantine Department, whose in-
spectors are stationed at Pensacola, Jacksonville, Miami, West
Palm Beach, Key West and Tampa. Their task is to inspect all
shipments of plants and plant products arriving from foreign
ports and certain commodities shipped from other points in the






State Plant Board of Florida


United States. All plant materials found to be affected by in-
jurious insects and diseases are either destroyed, treated or de-
ported. Appointed as collaborators of the Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine, United States Department of Agricul-
ture, these inspectors are empowered to enforce Federal plant
quarantines. Thus is provided an efficient means of preventing
entry of plant pests. A second line of defense is provided by the
Nursery and Grove Inspection Departments. Assistant Nursery
Inspectors are required to make frequent and thorough inspec-
tions of all plants growing in commercial nurseries. In the event
that any serious plant pest is found, the nursery is placed un-
der quarantine and no plants are allowed to move therefrom
until the pest in question has been eliminated. During the past
year Assistant Nursery Inspectors inspected on an average of
4.9 times the 51,363,969 nursery plants growing in Florida's
more than 1,700 nurseries. The task of the Grove Inspection De-
partment is to inspect as frequently as possible each of the
26,000,000 citrus trees growing in the state. The present schedule
provides for one inspection every two years. This is not frequent
enough to provide adequate protection, but it is the best that
can be done under present conditions. The purpose of these two
services is to locate just as promptly as possible the presence
of any major plant pest before it can spread throughout the
state, and to undertake the eradication of the insect or disease
if such a course is desirable and practical.
Inspection of honeybees frequently affords amusement to un-
informed people, who do not realize that in Florida the produc-
tion of honey, of queen bees, and of package bees for shipment
to the northern states, is an important industry. Yet bees, like
plants, are subject to attacks by destructive diseases, and the
industry could be wiped out, or at least most severely handi-
capped, by ravages of the disease known as American foul brood.
This disease, which does not affect honey intended for human
consumption, but is fatal to the immature stages of the honey-
bee, is held in check in Florida by the activities of the Apiary
Inspection Department.
While prevention is better than cure, the Plant Board is pre-
pared for both: prevention of entry of destructive plant pests;
prevention of spread of those pests slipping past the quarantine
inspectors and becoming established in our nurseries; and cure,
by means of eradication, of such major pests as may become
established in our fields and groves.







Eleventh Biennial Report


In carrying out the provisions of the State Plant Act and
affording the service outlined above, the Plant Board acts some-
what as a board of directors of a large corporation acts. It
formulates policies and practices, makes rules and regulations,
supervises expenditures, employs a directing head for its organ-
ization and assistants for carrying on field and technical work.
Regular monthly and occasional special meetings are held, at
which time reports from the Board's chief executive, the Plant
Commissioner, are received, considered and acted upon, and in-
structions issued. Vouchers are approved and other matters per-
taining to the protection of Florida's plant life considered and
disposed of.
As to the actual functioning of the organization operating
under the Board's direction, attention is invited to the Biennial
Report of the Plant Commissioner, which is included as a part
of this report. The disbursement of funds as reported by the
Commissioner was with the proper approval of the Board. The
estimates of amounts requested for the biennium beginning July
1, 1937, have received the careful scrutiny and approval of the
Board. It is earnestly requested that the sums indicated be
provided by the Legislature. It is especially desirable that the
"emergency appropriation" of $50,000 as heretofore made be
continued. This fund has been made available by successive
Legislatures as a precautionary measure. The release of the
Emergency Fund has been conditioned on approval by the Gov-
ernor and the Budget Commission. On only one occasion has
the fund been used in its entirety: in 1929 when Mediterranean
fruit fly was discovered in the State. In 1924 $10,000 was re-
leased for use in combating the coconut bud rot. For combating
citrus aphis $10,000 was used in 1925. The Plant Board through-
out its life has never expended or incurred obligations in excess
of the appropriations made available by the Legislature. On
the contrary, on a number of occasions balances have reverted
to the treasury. At the end of the 1934-1936 biennium there
remained a balance of $56,541.55. Although this sum is available
for expenditure along with the sums appropriated for use during
1936-37, it is not anticipated that it will be used.
Attention is particularly directed to that portion of the Plant
Commissioner's report dealing with the efforts of the Board
to control or eradicate two plant pests of major magnitude
which had become established at Key West. These are the black-
fly of citrus and the West Indian fruit flies. Many difficulties






State Plant Board of Florida


have been encountered. These principally involved the human
element, as numerous property occupants objected to the applica-
tion of spray materials to their plants and to other necessary
measures. These difficulties have been overcome. Unfortunately,
resort to the courts was necessary in order to gain access to
some sixty-five properties. An injunction was secured by the
Board restraining the property occupants from interfering with
the Board's employees. This order of the Eleventh Circuit Court
was later sustained by the Supreme Court.
Marked progress has been made in the control of the blackfly,
and it is confidently anticipated that with regular and efficient
application of the oil spray the pest will be eradicated, thereby
removing a serious threat to the citrus industry. Should the
blackfly become firmly established in the citrus producing area,
the annual toll levied on citrus producers through the use of
remedial measures would constitute a serious handicap to the
industry. With respect to the situation regarding the West Indian
fruit flies, conditions have materially changed since the sub-
mission of the biennial report for 1932-34. At that time it was
believed that infestation was confined to Key West and was
restricted to two members of the group of insects going under
the scientific name of Anastrepha, namely, Anastrepha acidusa
and A. suspense. Later inspection and investigation disclosed
that these two insects, as well as Anastrepha tricincta and three
other members of the Anastrepha group, to which specific names
have not been given, were to be found on the Florida Keys and
on both the lower East Coast and lower West Coast. No infested
fruits have been found on the upper Keys or the mainland. All
specimens secured have been of adults captured in traps. After
these disclosures, the Board, in January of 1936, had a confer-
ence with Lee A. Strong, Chief of the Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine, United States Department of Agriculture,
at which were also present the Plant Commissioner and mem-
bers of his staff. After full consideration of the situation, and
particularly in the light of the recent developments, the deter-
mination was reached to discontinue further eradication efforts.
There were two primary reasons for this decision: (a) Qualified
entomologists who had made a special study of this situation
reached the conclusion that the insects had probably been in the
areas where found for a long time without attacking cultivated
fruits and therefore could not be regarded as of major economic
importance; (b) the area involved was so great that eradication






Eleventh Biennial Report


could not be accomplished except at enormous cost, and it was
questionable if such expenditures would be justified even if
funds were available.
The support and cooperation given the Board by growers and
governmental agencies, both State and Federal, has been most
helpful and is appreciated. At various times leaders in the hor-
ticultural industry have been consulted with respect to the prob-
lems confronting the Board and advice has been sought. Mem-
bers of the Florida Citrus Commission have been especially
helpful to the Board. Our relations with the plant quarantine
organizations of other States have been satisfactory and cordial.
The Board is especially grateful for assistance and advice so
frequently given by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quar-
antine.
Respectfully submitted,
STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA
GEO. H. BALDWIN,
Chairman.






State Plant Board of Florida


REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER
For Biennium Ending June 30, 1936

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
Gainesville, Florida,
December 24, 1936.
Honorable Geo. H. Baldwin, Chairman,
State Plant Board of Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to present herewith my report as
Plant Commissioner for the biennium ending June 30, 1936.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Plant Commissioner.


REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER
1934-35 and 1935-36
In the preparation of the customary biennial report to the
Board of the activities under the direction of the Plant Com-
missioner it will be noted that there has been some deviation
from the manner of presentation heretofore followed. For this
biennium the subject matter, other than the general introduction
and comments of a special character, is presented in the form
of condensations of the annual reports of the heads of the sev-
eral departments, except that in the case of the Grove Inspec-
tion Department the annual reports are presented at somewhat
greater length. This is due to the fact that two special activities
in which the Board has been engaged, namely, the eradication
of fruit flies and the citrus blackfly at Key West, are dealt with
extensively in the Grove Inspector's report, and it is believed
desirable that a complete record of this work should be available.
During the period covered by the report there has been no
material change in the general plan upon which the organiza-
tion has been built. The activities of the several departments
have been conducted along the lines which experience has shown
to be most efficient. The Plant Commissioner has had general
direction of the several departments, each of which has a respon-
sible head. These departments are Nursery Inspection, Grove






Eleventh Biennial Report


Inspection, Quarantine, Apiary Inspection, and Entomology. The
general administration work is handled through the office of
the Plant Commissioner.
No serious outbreak of major plant pests has occurred in the
State since July 1, 1934, except the discovery, in August of
that year, of infestation by blackfly (Aleurocanthus woglumi
Ashby) at Key West. This insect is a native of the Orient and has
become established throughout Central America and the West
Indian Islands. It attacks a wide range of plants and is espe-
cially injurious to citrus. Immediately on the discovery of this
infestation and after consultation with officials of the Bureau
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United States Department
of Agriculture, an eradication program was launched. This con-
sisted of applications of an oil emulsion spray at 20-day inter-
vals to hosts of the blackfly. The efficiency of the spray was
fully demonstrated early in the campaign. Delays occasioned by
opposition of many Key West residents and consequent legal
involvements have prevented early conclusion of the campaign.
It now appears that, barring accidents and unforeseen difficulties,
success is assured at a comparatively early date. Details with
respect to both the blackfly and West Indian fruit fly activities
will be found in the Grove Inspector's report, which is made
a part of this Biennial Report.
The Plant Commissioner reports that in the past several
years there has developed a pronounced trend upon the part of
Federal and State plant quarantine organizations toward greater
uniformity and standardization of inspection methods and re-
quirements. Progress has been made. It is a pleasure to advise
that the Florida organization has played no small part in this
movement. Much remains to be done, and time will be required.
It is hoped, however, that within a relatively short time a work-
able plan or system will be devised which will simplify pro-
cedure in interstate traffic of plants and plant products, while
at the same time safeguarding such movements from the pest-
risk standpoint.
In the last biennial report reference was made to the pres-
ence in several north Florida counties of light infestation by
the pink bollworm of cotton and that the eradication of this
cotton pest had been undertaken by the Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine, United States Department of Agricul-
ture. It is a distinct pleasure to report that marked progress
has been made in this work. On October 15, 1936, the United







State Plant Board of Florida


States Secretary of Agriculture announced the lifting of the
Federal quarantine, in so far as it applied to Florida. The
State quarantine was likewise raised.
The Board has rendered assistance to the sweet potato grow-
ers of northwest Florida through cooperation in the eradica-
tion of the sweet potato weevil in Gadsden County. The Irish
potato industry has been aided by maintaining an inspection
and certification service in connection with shipments to States
requiring certification.
The operations of the organization have been carried on
efficiently and economically. Attention is directed to the tabular
statements here presented showing resources and expenditures
for the two years of the biennium. Expenditures for the Nursery,
Quarantine, Apiary and Entomology Departments and the Plant
Commissioner's Office were closely in line with the allotments
for those divisions. Allotments for the Grove Inspection Depart-
ment, including the special activities at Key West, were not
fully expended. Considerable balances remained unexpended.
The reasons for this are fully given in the report of the Grove
Inspector, but in brief they were principally due to discontinu-
ance of the West Indian fruit fly work and to interruptions and
delays in the Key West work.

RESOURCES
During the biennium ending June 30, 1936, the Board had
available for current expenses $207,050.53 for the first year
and $307,612.00 for the second. These amounts were derived
from state appropriations as follows:
July 1, 1934: Unexpended Balance June 30, 1934 ......................... $ 12,437.77
State Plant Board State Appropriation Chap-
ter 15858: Salary ........................................ $119,612.00
Expense ......................................... 30,000.76 149,612.76
State Plant Board Apiary Industry Chapter 15858 ............ 10,000.00
The Florida Plant Act of 1927, Chapter 12291 ...................... 35,000.00
Total ................ ........................ $207,050.53
July 1, 1935: State Plant Board Chapter 16772:
Salary ...................................... ... $119,612.00
Expense .................................... 30,000.00 149,612.00
State Plant Board Apiary Industry Chapter 16772 ......... 15,000.00
State Plant Board Chapter 16772 Eradication West Indian
Fly and Blackfly ........................... .................. 108,000.00
The Florida Plant Act of 1927, Chapter 12291 .. ........... 35,000.00
Total ........... ......................................... ......................... $307,612.00







Eleventh Biennial Report


On June 30, 1936, there remained an unexpended balance in
the amount of $56,541.55.

EXPENDITURES
Expenditures of the Board for 1934-35 and 1935-36 by depart-
ments are shown in Table A. In Table B are shown expenditures
for specific purposes, salaries, etc.

TABLE A

Department 1934-1935 1935-1936

Grove Inspection Department:
General Inspection ................................... $ 63,703.14 $ 64,868.44
West Indian Fruit Fly Eradication ........ 21,244.37 45,408.04
Blackfly Eradication ................................ 23,970.94 33,105.23
Nursery Inspection Department .................... 31,853.24 32,467.49
Quarantine Inspection Department .............. 42,191.21 46,771.03
Apiary Inspection Department ...................... 10,241.44 14,488.43
Office of the Board ............................................ 2,664.97 1,800.00
Plant Commissioner's Office ............................ 5,600.04 5,736.39
Department of Entomology ............................ 5,581.18 6,425.40

Totals .................................................. $207,050.53 $251,070.45


TABLE B

Item 1934-1935 1935-1936

Salaries ..........-- ...................... ....---.....-.. $141,555.10 $163,229.30
Travel and Subsistence Expenses .................. 37,828.77 45,042.77
Labor ................................................................... 13,868.88 26,906.94
Stationery and Small Printing ........................ 471.61 508.61
Postage ........-----.................... ..........------- -- ..--766.36 1,247.76
Bulletins and Circulars .................................... 780.00 159.10
Telegraph, Telephone ....................................... 538.35 574.33
Miscellaneous Supplies ................................... 9,045.70 10,403.51
Miscellaneous Expenses .................................... 1,594.70 1,875.33
Office Equipment ..............................-...-.....-- .. 346.56 586.86
Laboratory Supplies ........................................ ............ 86.50
Freight, Drayage, Express ............................ 98.41 188.50
Library ...................-..............----- ...... 156.09 260.94

Totals ................-..-- ----...-- ..---- .. $207,050.53 $251,070.45


The Plant Commissioner submits herewith estimates of the
amounts believed to be necessary for the proper prosecution
of the Board's work for the biennium beginning July 1, 1937.







State Plant Board of Florida


In this connection consideration has been given to the fact that
in all lines of endeavor there is an expansion of the work which
the inspection force is called upon to do. This is particularly
true with respect to the Grove Inspection and Quarantine In-
spection Departments. Citrus plantings in the State are increas-
ing and traffic into and through Florida ports is showing a
decided upward trend. This is especially true of the port of
Miami. At this port there has been a great increase in both ocean
and air traffic, with all indications pointing toward still further
expansion. According to information from Federal sources,
Miami is second only to New York in the number of foreign
passenger arrivals. It leads in the number of foreign pas-
senger arrivals by airplane. Miami also leads in the num-
ber of airplanes arriving at any United States port from for-
eign countries and, counting both boat and airplane arrivals,
stands second to New York in number of foreign craft entering
United States ports.
ESTIMATES
A detailed report covering the subject of estimates of amounts
believed to be necessary for operating expenses for the biennium
beginning July 1, 1937, has been prepared for' submission to
the Board. From this report the following summary is pre-
sented:
SUMMARY OF ESTIMATES PER ANNUM

Department or Division Salaries Expenses Total
I per Annum per Annum per Annum
Office of the Board .................... $ 2,178.00 $ 2,500.00 $ 4,678.00
Plant Commissioner's Office ............ 4,092.00 2,000.00 6,092.00
Entomology ................................ 6,600.00 582.00 7,182.00
Quarantine Inspection ...................... 45,150.00 7,300.00 52,450.00
Nursery Inspection .................... 27,840.00 7,800.00 35,640.00
Grove Inspection:
General Inspection ............... 78,060.00 15,650.00 93,710.00
Blackfly Eradication ............... 64,320.00* 8,058.00 72,378.00
Apiary Inspection ............................ 10,360.00 5,500.00 15,860.00

Total ................................ $238,600.00 $ 49,390.00 $287,990.00

Emergency Fund, no part of which is to be used unless found
necessary by Budget Commission (for biennium) ................ $50,000.00
*Includes expenditures for local labor, $40,320.00.







Eleventh Biennial Report


REPORT OF THE GROVE INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
July 1, 1934 to June 30, 1936
Arthur C. Brown, Grove Inspector
The primary task of this department is the inspection of all
citrus trees in the State for the purpose of detecting the pres-
ence of major plant pests before they have the opportunity to
become so firmly established or wide-spread that eradication, if
deemed advisable, is neither practical nor possible. The schedule
of this department calls for one complete inspection of all citrus
trees once every two years. Assigned solely to grove inspection,
the 32 Assistant Grove Inspectors employed are able, if not in-
terrupted, to keep up to schedule. For the past two years the
services of many of the Assistant Grove Inspectors have been
needed at Key West. Others have been called upon to make in-
spections of Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, and other commod-
ities. Resignations and transfers have further handicapped the
work of this department, with the result that it will take at
least three years to complete the coverage started in December,
1934. Replacements in the force have been made, but it has taken
time to train and develop men to the point where they can
qualify as efficient grove inspectors.
During the biennium ending June 30, 1936, the only new and
important plant pest found in Florida was the spiny citrus
whitefly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby) (sometimes called
citrus blackfly) at Key West.
WEST INDIAN FRUIT FLIES
As previously reported this insect was first reported in Flor-
ida in November 1930, when inspectors of the Plant Quarantine
and Control Administration, United States Department of Ag-
riculture, found several pupae in Key West. The Board imme-
diately assigned inspectors to this island, where intensive inspec-
tions and investigations were carried on until August 1933,
when, following a conference at Key West between members
of the State Plant Board, the Plant Commissioner, and officials
of the United States Department of Agriculture, it was decided
to attempt eradication of this insect. By this date it was known
that two species of Anastrepha were present on the island: A.
acidusa and A. suspense. Intensive inspections since November
1930 disclosed field infestations in guavas, hog plums (Spondias
sp.), and Barbados cherries (Malpighia sp.) only.







State Plant Board of Florida


PLAN OF ERADICATION
As a result of laboratory investigations at Key West, it was
learned, among other things, that in cages under laboratory
conditions some 34 different fruits were attacked by Anastrepha
acidusa and 11 by A. suspense; and that a mixture of tartar
emetic (antimony and potassium tartrate) 4 pounds, syrup 5
gallons, and water 100 gallons, is highly toxic to the fruit flies
in a comparatively short time.
Eradication plans called for the removal prior to ripening of
the three known field hosts; application at 15-day intervals of
the tartar emetic-syrup spray mixture to all trees producing
fruits shown by laboratory investigations to be susceptible to
infestation; enforcement of the quarantine at Key West and
No Name Key (the quarantined area included all that portion of
Monroe County lying west of a north and south line projected
through the easternmost point of No Name Key); intensified
laboratory investigations; and the use of traps for the purpose
of forming some idea as to the density of adult population.
This program was carried out in full, with a few modifica-
tions, until January 14, 1936, when, after a conference between
the State Plant Board, the Plant Commissioner, and Lee A.
Strong, Chief of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quaran-
tine, United States Department of Agriculture, at which time
careful study was made of accumulated data, it was decided
that eradication was not practical. Investigations and careful
scientific study had shown that in addition to the two previously
mentioned species of Anastrepha there are four others estab-
lished on the Keys and on the mainland over an area so large
that eradication appeared to be impractical, if not impossible;
and, further, qualified entomologists had reached the conclusion
that these insects had probably been in the areas where found
for a long time, and are not of economic importance, as indi-
cated by the failure to find infested fruits on the mainland after
careful and repeated examinations over a period of years of
fruits known elsewhere to be hosts. A brief summary of the
eradication program follows:

FRUIT REMOVAL
During 1934 the field hosts (guavas, hog plums and Barba-
dos cherries) were again removed prior to ripening. In the sum-
mer of 1935 the fly population had apparently been reduced to






Eleventh Biennial Report


a point where only hog plums were attacked in slight degree.
As a result removal of this fruit only was deemed necessary.
SPRAY APPLICATION
This activity was continued during the biennium in spite of
opposition of property occupants. Tartar emetic in combina-
tion with syrup and water appeared to be most toxic to the
fruit flies. It is believed that eradication in Key West under
the plan outlined was both practical and possible, had the full
cooperation of the citizens of that place been secured.
RESEARCH
The research activity conducted by the Federal Government
from November 21, 1932 to November 11, 1933, was resumed in
December, 1934, when J. F. Cooper was sent to Key West by
the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United States
Department of Agriculture. In July 1935 Mr. Cooper was given
a leave of absence by his Bureau Chief in order that he might
continue his investigations under the direction of the State
Plant Board. Data of great value concerning the life history
and host range of Anastrepha, as well as toxicity of various
materials, and other information essential to eradication and
control have been accumulated through the efforts of the re-
search workers. The Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quar-
antine has kept in close touch with the research division, and
has offered valuable suggestions and advice at various times.
TRAPPING ACTIVITIES
The use of traps to collect adult insects is for two purposes:
(a) to determine if such insects are present and (b) to ascer-
tain in connection with an eradication effort whether there is
increase or decrease in insect population. Consequently, trap-
ping operations were engaged in at Key West where the at-
tempt was being made to eradicate the West Indian fruit fly.
Traps were used on the other Keys and on the mainland to
learn if there were any of these insects there established. In
neither case was sole reliance placed on the traps, for large
quantities of fruits were dissected and also placed on pupation
trays for observation. Inasmuch as the traps used were of a
particular type and were secured only on special order, delays
were encountered in obtaining sufficient numbers to permit






State Plant Board of Florida


of early and extensive trapping surveys on the upper Keys and
the mainland. Prior to the placing of traps on the mainland,
extensive and intensive inspection had been carried on in South
Dade County without finding any evidence of infestation. It
was only after trapping had been undertaken that specimens
of any of the several members of the Anastrepha group were
secured. It is worthy of note that even after such collections
were made no infested fruits have been found, although exam-
ination of fruits has been continued.
At Key West in 1931, 1932, and part of 1933, there had been
used with negative results the wire traps operated successfully
during the Mediterranean fruit fly campaign. In the summer
of 1933 there were obtained from the Federal Government 25
glass traps of a new type which proved to be effective. The
number in use was increased as rapidly as they could be secured.
In the late summer of 1935 a few traps were placed on the
mainland. With the finding of one Anastrepha acidusa near
Redlands, on November 12, 1935, every effort was made to
secure additional traps and as rapidly as traps were received
they were placed in the field, first in Dade County and later
along both the East and West Coasts. Still later a large num-
ber of traps were placed in the interior.

Trap Bait Materials
As first used, the traps were baited with a fermenting mix-
ture made as follows:
Soft brown sugar .................................... 11 ounces
Orange juice ......................................... 5 ounces
Water to make .................................... 1 gallon
At a later date pineapple juice was found to be very effective
and was substituted for orange juice.
Several other materials were tested for their effectiveness as
attractants and discarded.

Areas Trapped
In July 1934 some 200 glass traps were in use. This num-
ber was increased until approximately 3,000 were in the field
on June 30, 1936. In August 1935 trapping activities on a
small scale were started in Dade County. With the finding of
one Anastrepha acidusa in a trap near Redlands on November
12, 1935, the work was intensified by the placement of 1,000
traps in Dade and Broward Counties. To date, December 24,






Eleventh Biennial Report


1936, the following portions of the state have been trapped:
on the East Coast from a point southwest of Royal Palm Park
in Dade County north to Ormond, in Volusia County; on the
West Coast from Everglades City in Collier County north to
Dunedin in Pinellas County; in the interior from the south side
of Lake Okeechobee north to and including all of Lake and
parts of Marion and Volusia Counties. At present traps are
in use only in the southern part of Dade County and on Key
Largo. This activity will be discontinued on January 11, 1937.

SPECIES OF Anastrepha FOUND IN FLORIDA
Elsewhere in this report will be found a tabulation showing
the different species of adult Anastrepha collected on the Keys
and on the mainland, and the localities from which the collec-
tions were made. To date six species have been collected: A.
acidusa, A. suspense, A. tricincta, and three unnamed species,
referred to as new species "E", "F" and "W".
On the Keys adult specimens of each species have been col-
lected in traps. Immature stages in fruits have been found only
in Key West and the lower Keys as follows: of A. acidusa in
hog plums, guavas and Barbados cherries, of A. suspense in
guavas, and of "W" in Mimusops.
On the mainland adults of species acidusa, suspense, "E" and
"F" have been collected. No fruit infestations have been re-
ported. Suspensa was collected at several localities from be-
low Royal Palm Park in Dade County to Riviera, just north of
West Palm Beach in Palm Beach County, and one specimen only
at St. James City, Pine Island, Lee County. New species "E"
were found from a point southwest of Royal Palm Park, in Dade
County, to Micco in Brevard County, and one specimen only on
Caxambas Island in Lee County. One adult only of acidusa,
and one of new species "F", were collected on the mainland
from the same property near Redlands, Dade County.

LEGAL ACTIONS
The Board, when first undertaking to eradicate fruit fly in
Key West, adopted the policy of attempting to secure coopera-
tion of citizens through personal contacts and discussions, rather
than to resort to the courts. For this reason there was no
litigation in connection with fruit fly activities. It must be
admitted that the Board's expectations in securing cooperation
without resort to legal action were not realized.







20 State Plant Board of Florida

ANASTREPHA SPP. COLLECTED IN TRAPS ON MAINLAND
July 1935 to December 31, 1936

County Acidusa ISuspensa "E" I "F"

Brevard County
M icco ............................................ 0 2
Broward County
Deerfield ...................................... 0 0 4
Fort Lauderdale ........................ 0 1 1
Fort Lauderdale Beach ............ 0 0 1
Pompano .................................... 0 1 0
Collier County
Caxambas .................................... 0 1
Dade County
Cape Sable Road
(W. of Royal Palm Park) .... 0 1 6
Chapman Field .......................... 0 0 5
Coconut Grove ............................ 0 1 2
Cutler .......................................... 0 0 1
Florida City .............................. 0 2 11
Goulds ......................................... 0 0 1
Homestead .................................. 1 4 9
Kendall ........................................ 0 0 1
Lemon City ................................ 0 0 1
Miami .......................................... 0 1 4
Modello ........................................ 0 1 1
Redlands ...................................... 0 1 4 1 (Only
Rockdale ...................................... 0 0 1 "F" col-
South Miami .............................. 0 0 4 elected on
Royal Palm Park ...................... 0 0 41 main-
land)
Lee County
St. James City (Pine Island) 0 1 0
Martin County
Hobe Sound ................................ 0 0 1
Jensen .......................................... 0 0 13
Port Sewall ................................ 0 0 13
Salerno .....................................-- 0 0 6
Stuart .......................................... 0 0 8
Palm Beach County
Boynton .................................... 0 1 0
Delray ......................... 0 1 0
Jupiter ........................................ 0 0 1
Kelsey City ............................... 0 0 8
Lake Worth ................................ 0 2 1
Lantana ...................................... 0 0 1
Riviera ........................................ 0 1 0
West Palm Beach ...................... 0 1 6
Yamato ...................................... 0 0 1
St. Lucie County
Ankona ................................. 0 0 10
Eldred ........--- .....-.....- ..----- ..--- -----. 0 0 1
Fort Pierce ............................... 0 0 1
Walton .............................. ... -------- 0 1







Eleventh Biennial Report 21

ANASTREPHA SPP. COLLECTED ON FLORIDA KEYS (EAST COAST)

**
1. Big Pine ............ Acidusa Suspensa "F" "W" -
2. Boca Chica ........ "W" -
3. Cudjoe ................ - "W" -
4. Florida .............. "W" -
5. Grassy .............. "W" -
6. Johnson ............ "W" -
7. Key West .......... Acidusa Suspensa "F" "W" "E" Tricincta
8. Largo ................ "F" "W" Tricincta
9. Matecumbe ...... "W" -
10. No Name .......... Acidusa Suspensa "F" "W" -
11. Ramrod ............ "W" -
12. Saddle Bunch .... "W" -
13. Stock Island ...... "F" "W" -
14. Sugar Loaf ........ Suspensa "W" -
15. Summerland .... "W" -
16. Torch .................. - "W" -
17. Vaca .................. -- "W" -

*F-"Long ovipositor"
**W-"Black band"

BLACKFLY ERADICATION

DISCOVERY IN FLORIDA

At Key West, on August 10, 1934, spiny citrus whitefly or
blackfly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby) was found infesting
several varieties of trees and shrubs, citrus particularly. A
survey made immediately afterward of the Keys from Key West
to Miami disclosed the fact that the insect was apparently con-
fined to the Island of Key West. Subsequent inspections of the
island showed that the following plants and trees were infested
-although citrus appeared to be the favorite host and most of
the others were either secondary or casual hosts: avocado,
banana, bougainvillea, chalcas, citrus, Cryptostegia, guava, gum-






State Plant Board of Florida


bo limbo, hog plum, Jamaica apple, lime berry, mango, morn-
ing-glory, papaya, peach, periwinkle, rose, sapodilla, sea grape,
Spanish lime, sugar apple, Surinam cherry, ti-es.
This pest is probably a native of India, and is established in
the Bahama Islands, Cuba, the West Indies, and the Canal
Zone. It was probably introduced into Key West from Cuba.
Where established in the New World this pest has proved itself
to be very injurious to citrus trees.

ERADICATION PLANS
At a conference held at Key West on August 12, and attended
by Board Member A. H. Blanding, Wilmon Newell, Plant Com-
missioner, J. H. Montgomery, Assistant Plant Commissioner, and
S. A. Rohwer, Assistant Chief of the Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine, United States Department of Agricul-
ture, it was decided to apply eradication measures as soon as
the necessary regulations could be promulgated and equipment
and materials secured. A meeting was held with J. E. Stone,
State Administrator, Emergency Relief Administration, B. M.
Duncan, Local Administrator, and J. Gerry Curtis, in charge
of the Landscape Division of the Key West ERA, at which time
the support and cooperation of the ERA was promised. Aid
and counsel from this source was of great value in the eradica-
tion work.
According to information available, it was learned that in
Panama the period required for the development of this pest
from egg to adult varies from 45 to 115 days, and the adult fe-
male may deposit considerably over one hundred eggs during
her lifetime, the duration of which ranges from 6 to 12 days.
With this information at hand, eradication measures as de-
cided upon included:
1. Promulgation of suitable regulations providing authority
for application of eradication measures.
2. Enforcement of quarantine at Key West and at the ferry
slip at No Name Key to prevent movement of uncertified
host plants to points outside the quarantined area.
3. Application at twenty-day intervals of an oil spray recom-
mended by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quaran-
tine, United States Department of Agriculture. The emul-






Eleventh Biennial Report


sion recommended by the Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine was made up of:
Fish oil soap ......................... 2 gallons
Oil ........................... ........... 2 gallons
W ater ................... ................. 1 gallon
The oil approved by the Bureau and used at Key West is
Standard Oil Company's Diamond Paraffin oil with an unsul-
phonation of 76 and viscosity of 105. This material costs 221/2
cents a gallon f.o.b. Jacksonville. The oil content of the spray
mixture as used in Key West varies from .66 % to 1% according
to the season. This spray has proven to be most effective in
killing immature forms of blackfly, and had the Board been
permitted to work without interruption or hindrance in Key
West the project would probably have been completed within
six months.
PROGRESS OF ERADICATION
Opposition on the part of some property occupants was en-
countered almost as soon as the work started. In order to effect
eradication it was imperative that all properties upon which
hosts were growing be entered and the host plants growing
thereon sprayed. Attempts to overcome opposition through
contacts by the Board's employees, both local and from Gaines-
ville, by officials of the ERA and officials and leading citizens
of Key West were not successful. It was necessary to turn to
the courts for relief. A summary of legal actions in connection
with blackfly eradication will be found elsewhere in this report.
Special counsel was employed to handle the Board's legal affairs.
The Board, during the spring of 1935, attempted to force
compliance with its regulations without success, through actions
in the City Court of Key West and the Court of Criminal Record.
Resort was then made to the Circuit Court and on June 20, 1935,
the Court refused to grant a temporary injunction restraining
55 property occupants from interfering with the Board's in-
spectors, and appointed a master to take testimony as a prelim-
inary to a hearing for the issuance of a permanent injunction.
On December 10, 1935, the Circuit Court, sitting at Miami with
Judges Browne, Barnes, and Atkinson in attendance, granted a
permanent injunction.
On March 11, 1936, the Supreme Court, acting upon the
appeal of the defendants in the injunction suits, issued a super-
sedeas writ which had the effect of nullifying the restraining






24 State Plant Board of Florida

order of the Circuit Court. By that time, the number of object-
ors was approximately one hundred, and as eradication is de-
pendent upon the effective spraying at regular intervals of
affected trees on all properties, the Board felt that a continuance
of eradication activities under the conditions existing at that
time would not be warranted. On March 18, 1936, the work,
with the exception of quarantine enforcement, was suspended.
The Board felt duty bound to advise leaders of the citrus
industry of the situation at Key West. (The Plant Commissioner
had previously at Winter Haven, on January 30, 1936, reported
conditions to the members of the Citrus Commission and others,
including Governor Sholtz.) Accordingly there was held at
Lakeland on March 30, 1936, a joint meeting of the State Plant
Board and the Florida Citrus Commission. Representatives of
allied industries were also present. Full reports on the Key
West situation were made by Chairman Baldwin and Plant
Commissioner Newell. The opinion was expressed by growers
present that the work should be resumed immediately and every
effort should be made to secure compliance with the Board's
eradicative measures. Governor Sholtz and Mr. Baldwin left
immediately after the meeting for Key West where contacts
were made with citizens and plans drawn for resuming opera-
tions.
It was felt desirable to postpone resumption of spray activities
until after the Supreme Court had acted upon the appeal. This
case was heard on April 15, 1936, and on May 5, 1936, the Court,
in a decision handed down, sustained the action of the Circuit
Court in granting the injunctions. The time limit allowed by
the Court for an appeal expired without action by the defendants
and on May 22 the Court issued its mandatory order.
Activities were resumed as promptly as possible following the
issuance of the mandate. Inspectors were recalled from the
mainland and spray crews reassembled. In order to protect its
employees, some of whom had been threatened with bodily injury,
and with the view of having available responsible witnesses in
case objections on the part of enjoined property owners were
encountered, the Board authorized the assignment of a deputy
sheriff to each spray truck. Costs for this service were assumed
by the Board.
The favorable decision of the Supreme Court had the effect
of reducing to a considerable extent opposition to spray applica-






Eleventh Biennial Report


tions. Some objections were encountered, but on the whole com-
pliance with the regulations on the part of property occupants
has been, in contrast with past experiences, satisfactory.

RESULTS
That progress of a satisfactory character has been made in
the eradication of the blackfly at Key West is evidenced by the
inspectional work which has been done to determine the density
of fly population. These reports show clearly and conclusively
the efficiency of the spray material used and the method of
application. Inspections made last spring indicated marked
progress. Unfortunately the suspension of work over a period
of seven weeks (April 18-June 3, when conditions at Key West
did not appear to justify continued work in the face of opposi-
tion) permitted of a general increase in infestation. At the
time work was suspended the records show 55 properties upon
which blackfly was present in small quantities. With the re-
sumption of work, June 4, 1936, inspection disclosed evidence of
the fly on 212 properties, and the fly population had been greatly
increased. At this writing, following regular sprayings since
June 4, inspection indicates a great reduction in fly population.

SUMMARY OF COURT ACTIONS
(In order that this summary might be complete, all actions up
to January 1, 1937, are included.)
Criminal Cases


May 14, 1935


Sept. 27, 1935



July 20, 1936



June 20, i935


One objector to Board's spraying program
tried for violation of Rule 6D. Jury failed to
reach verdict and was discharged.
Two property occupants, negroes, tried for (1)
assault, and (2) assault and interfering with
Board's employees. Found guilty and sen-
tenced to jail.
Property occupant found guilty of assault with
murderous weapon, fined $10.00 and costs.
Civil Cases
Petition in the Circuit Court at Key West for
restraining order against 55 property occu-
pants-objectors to spraying activities-heard.
Temporary injunction denied. Master ap-







State Plant Board of Florida


Dec. 10, 1935
Dec. 21, 1935

March 11, 1936

April 15, 1936
May 5, 1936

May 22, 1936

Sept. 11, 1936


Oct. 15, 1936


pointed to take testimony in re-hearing for
permanent injunction.
Permanent restraining order granted.
Objectors enjoined by Circuit Court on Decem-
ber 10, 1935, filed appeal with Supreme Court.
Supreme Court issued supersedeas writ in con-
nection with appeal.
Appeal case argued before Supreme Court.
Supreme Court handed down decision sustain-
ing Circuit Court in granting restraining order.
Supreme Court issued decree in connection
with its decision of May 5.
Temporary restraining order granted in the
case of eight property occupants, objectors to
spraying activities.
Temporary restraining order against one prop-
erty occupant, objector to spraying activities,
refused. Master appointed to take testimony in
re hearing for permanent injunction. (This
objector later granted permission to spray'his
property and case was dismissed.)


Contempt Proceedings
From January 23 to October 2, 1936, contempt
charges against ten enjoined property occu-
pants of Key West were disposed of as follows:
Adjudged in contempt 6
Dismissed 4
Penalties ranging from $10.00 or one day in
jail, to $50.00 or 15 days in jail were imposed.
SWEET POTATO WEEVIL
Growers and business men in Gadsden County requested the
Board to aid them in an attempt to control the sweet potato
weevil, a pest most destructive to sweet potatoes and established
in a small area between Quincy and the State line. The Board
supplied the services of one inspector from April 1 to June 30,
1936, to act in a supervisory capacity.
The plan, as formulated by the County Agricultural Agent of
Gadsden County, called for the clean-up of the infested proper-
ties, and the non-production of sweet potatoes within the in-






Eleventh Biennial Report


fested area during 1936. Growers living within the infested area
agreed to refrain from planting this crop during the year. The
Board of County Commissioners, business men of Quincy, and
growers agreed to assist in the project. An allotment of $3,300
was secured from the Works Progress Administration.
The project started on April 1, 1936, when the Board's in-
spector arrived at Quincy. An inspection of 204 properties in
the affected area disclosed the fact that weevil was present on 61.
These farms, together with 101 others, were cleaned of all po-
tatoes and parts thereof, and rechecked several times.
It will be necessary to continue the services of the Board's
inspector during the summer and fall.

IRISH POTATO INSPECTION
The Board was again called upon to make inspections of Irish
potatoes, both field and packing house, in order to enable our
growers to ship their tubers into states requiring certification
as to freedom from the potato tuber moth, Colorado potato beetle,
and nematode.
A total of 319 man-days was required to make the inspections
during the spring of 1935, at a cost of $2,664.25. In 1936, 262
man-days were required, at a cost of $2,000. No special appro-
priation has ever been made for this project. Inspectors have
been furnished by the Grove Inspection Department. As this
task requires the services of from six to eight men, it interferes
with the regular work of this department to a considerable ex-
tent. The time required to make the inspections varies from
six to eight weeks, and it is difficult, if not impossible, to find
trained and competent men who will accept employment for so
short a period.






State Plant Board of Florida


REPORT OF THE QUARANTINE INSPECTION
DEPARTMENT

July 1, 1934 to June 30, 1936
J. H. Montgomery, Quarantine Inspector

To prevent introduction into and spread within the State of
injurious plant pests is of primary importance in protecting
Florida's agriculture. To accomplish this the Board maintains
an inspection service to supervise at ports of entry and railroad
centers the movement of such material into the State. At the
ports of entry the inspectors of this department, acting as fed-
eral officers, administer the rules and regulations promulgated
by the United States Department of Agriculture applying to the
importation of plants and plant products.
Inspection service is maintained at Jacksonville, Pensacola,
West Palm Beach, Miami, Key West and Tampa. Of these Miami
handles the greatest volume of traffic and has the largest person-
nel. There are six inspectors stationed at that port. From 6,000
to 6,500 vessels each year enter and are inspected at the Florida
ports. Nearly half of these enter at Miami. Miami being one
of the largest international airports in the world, a large pro-
portion of the traffic handled is by airplane. In 1934-35 there
arrived at Miami 1,145 airplanes from foreign countries, while
the number in 1935-36 was 1,239.
Although at the ports of entry during the biennium many im-
portant interceptions of major pests were made, yet this does
not truly represent the value of the protective service rendered.
The mere knowledge that there is such a first line defense acts as
a deterrent. Travelers and shippers comply with the require-
ments. If there were no restrictions and no administration of
them, the country and Florida would be flooded with major for-
eign plant pests. Even with all the vigilance we now exercise,
there is danger.
The statistical material included in the annual reports of the
Quarantine Department shows graphically the volume of work
which is done by this branch of the Plant Board organization
and the part it plays in the general scheme of protecting Florida's
agriculture.







Eleventh Biennial Report


SHIPS AND VESSELS INSPECTED
1934-1935 1935-1936
From foreign ports:
Direct by air ................................ .... ...... 1,315 1,285
Direct by water .......................................... 1,691 1,874
Via United States ports ............................... 685 810
Total ..............- ................ ...... 3,691 3,969
From United States ports other than Florida ............ 1,620 1,725
From Florida ports ................................ .......... 1,150 952
Total .............. .... ............. ....... ..... ............ 6,461 6,646
NUMBER OF PARCELS INSPECTED
Arriving by Boat, Express, Freight, Mail and Airplane
Passed ........................ ............................... .... 2,778,969 2,468,599
Treated and passed ............................. ......... 5,739 346
Returned to shipper ................ ...... ..... ........ 7,891 9,958
Contraband destroyed ............................... ...... 3,053 3,687
Diverted to Washington ................................... 113 58

Total ........................... ......... ... ........... 2,795,765 2,482,648
TABULATION SHOWING THE WORK OF THE QUARANTINE DIVISION BY YEARS
SINCE THIS WORK WAS INAUGURATED


Year


1915-1916
1916-1917
1917-1918
1918-1919
1919-1920
1920-1921
1921-1922
May and
June, 1922
1922-1923
1923-1924
1924-1925
1925-1926
1926-1927
1927-1928
1928-1929
1929-1930
1930-1931
1931-1932
1932-1933
1933-1934
1934-1935
1935-1936


I Number Boats I


For-
eign


166
1,240
1,777
1,724
2,458
3,035
2,225
364
2,207
2,309
2,437
2,705
2,989
3,430
3,941
4,684
4,449
3,669
3,373
3,425
3,691
3,969


Total


370
3,257
4,253
3,485
4,504
4,948
4,179

697
4,559
4,842
5,464
6,668
5.980
6,094
6,352
7,175
7,154
6,305
6,046
5,999
6,461
6.646


Arriving by
Boat,
Express,
Freight,
Mail,
Airplane


500
3,105
3,422
*69,985
336,059
710,412
1,333,333

747,972
1,827,727
1,410,860
1,633,015
2,435,470
2,304,594
2,415,694
2,537,695
3,007,540
2,596,716
1,836,141
1,385,729
1,881,309
2,795,765
2,482,648


Total 60,267 111,438 33,755,691


Number of Packages
y I
Re- De- Tr
turned troyed
turnedII Tr


18
255
485
1,521
4,936
2,130
2,610

201
1,006
1,566
2,630
3,766
5,237
4,633
4,925
9,127
6,810
9,846
6,284
4,968
7,891
9,958


69
1,182
1,037
1,743
2,345
1,564
1,757
311
2,278
4,478
3,040
3,469
3,538
4,844
5,177
4,875
3,737
4,133
2,922
2,447
3,053
3,687


90.803 161.686


heated
and
.ssed


192,707
865,927
911,717
1,010,635
243,595
85,979
157,899
121,774
84,044
35,301
5,739
346


3,715,663


Di-
verted
to
Wash-
ington


40
85
128
132
113
58


*Prior to August 1, 1918, horticultural material inspected was reported
by shipments. A shipment might comprise 1 or 1,000 packages. Subse-
quent to above date reports were made of the number of packages and
bulk shipments were reduced to packages on basis of contents of standard
containers used for particular products.


I Pa


---


,







SHIP INSPECTION AT FLORIDA PORTS
Summary

Key West Jackson- Miami Pensacola Tampa West Palm Total
K ville Beach
1934-1935

From:
Foreign ports
Direct by air ................................. 7 0 1,145 0 64 99 1,315
Direct by water .............................. 331 213 766 57 258 66 1,691
Via U. S. ports...................... 16 135 15 210 309 0 685
Total .... .................................. 354 348 1,926 267 631 165 3,691
Domestic ports
U. S. ports other than Florida .... 102 1,117 157 156 69 19 1,620
Florida ports ............................. 324 222 388 99 0 117 1,150
Total ... ............. .............. 426 1,339 545 255 69 136 2,770
GRAND TOTAL ........................... 780 1,687 2.471 522 700 301 6,461
1935-1936

From:
Foreign ports
Direct by air .................................... 0 0 1,239 1 0 45 1,285
Direct by water .............................. 207 169 1,044 46 299 109 1,874
Via U. S. ports ........................ 63 163 28 229 325 2 810
Total .................................................. 270 332 2,311 276 624 156 3,969
Domestic ports
U. S. ports other than Florida .... 87 1,161 188 208 79 2 1,725
Florida ports ......... .................... 145 223 346 118 6 114 952
Total ................ ......................... 232 1,384 534 326 85 116 2,677
GRAND TOTAL .................................... 502 1,716 2,845 602 709 272 6,646


T1124 10 1 07


1.282


3,403 5,316


1.124


13-107


TOTAL FOR BIENNIUM


1.409







Eleventh Biennial Report 31

PASSENGERS' BAGGAGE INSPECTION AT MIAMI AND KEY WEST
Miami
Airplanes
1934-1935 1935-1936
No. Airplanes ............................ .. ........................... 1,145 1,239
No. pieces baggage .................................................. 30,010 35,046
No. passengers ........................ ...................................... 14,872 16,428
Ships
No. foreign ships (direct) .............................................. 766 1,044
No. pieces baggage ........................... ....... ...... .... 31,973 81,888
No. passengers .................................................... 12,787 30,924
Key West
No. foreign ships (direct) ............................................... 331 207
No. pieces baggage ................................. ........ 28,260 22,711
No. passengers .................................... 11,772 10,445
Total number of passengers (both ports) .................... 39,431 57,797
Total baggage (both ports) ........................................ 90,243 139,645






State Plant Board of Florida


REPORT OF THE NURSERY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
July 1, 1934-June 30, 1936
J. C. Goodwin, Nursery Inspector
The nursery inspection force, consisting of a Chief Inspector
and seven assistant inspectors, inspected each of the 1,729 nurs-
eries in the State an average of 4.8 times during 1934-1935.
During 1935-1936, the 1,691 nurseries in the State were inspected
an average of 4.9 times.
In 1934-1935, 4,085 acres were devoted to the growing of
nursery stock, and 3,844 acres were thus used in 1935-1936.
The small decrease in the number of acres in nursery stock is
in line with the decrease in the number of nurseries in business
as of June 30, 1936.
At the end of the biennium, June 30, 1936, there were 51,363,-
969 plants, both citrus and non-citrus, under inspection.
In 1934-1935 citrus nurserymen moved (sold, traded, or
otherwise disposed of) approximately a million trees. In 1935-
1936 they moved 1,626,586 trees.
Nurserymen made shipments of plants to 27 States and 27
foreign countries in 1934-1935. In 1935-1936 they made ship-
ments to 47 States and 32 foreign countries. Without inspection
and certification, these markets would not have been open to
Florida nurserymen.
During the year ending June 30, 1935, 294 out-state nursery-
men applied for and secured 20,710 permit tags for use when
making shipments of nursery stock to this State. During the
year ending June 30, 1936, 202 out-state nurserymen secured
24,955 permit tags.
There was an increase in the total number of nursery certificate
tags secured during 1935-1936 as compared to 1934-1935. In
1934-1935 there were issued a total of 159,673 tags to 2,247
firms or individuals. In 1935-1936 there were issued a total of
169,297 tags to 2,376 firms or individuals. In addition to the
number of tags issued for the movement of nursery stock, a
large number of special tags, not included in the foregoing totals,
was issued for the movement of ferns, cut flowers and narcissus
bulbs.
During the biennium there was a marked decrease in the
number of persons requesting inspection of their narcissus plant-
ings. This decrease was due to the revocation of the Federal
narcissus quarantine on April 1, 1935. Some States promulgated







Eleventh Biennial Report


quarantines when the Federal quarantine was revoked and in-
spections of plantings were continued when requested by the
grower. In 1934-1935 there were 45 plantings under inspection
on which were produced a total of 82,000,000 bulbs. In 1935-
1936 only 17 growers asked for inspection of their bulbs and
their plantings produced over 81,000,000 bulbs. Without in-
spection and certification, the narcissus producers would have
been unable to market their bulbs in some States. During the
biennium it was not found necessary to quarantine any of the
narcissus plantings in the State.
In order that fern growers might ship their product into other
States and Canada, the department inspected ferneries when
requests for such inspections were made. The Canadian regu-.
lations require that all ferns and other succulent plants be in-
spected not more than 30 days prior to shipment and that all
woody plants be inspected at time of shipment. As quite a
number of Florida growers ship into Canada, it was necessary
to make special inspections of such establishments. At the end
of the biennium, June 30, 1936, 69 ferneries were under inspec-
tion. On the 147 acres devoted to fern growing, there were
7,596,000 plants.
Vegetable plants, such as cabbage, onion, tomato, etc., were
inspected on request. Some States require inspection and certifi-
cation of this type of plants, hence the inspections were made
as a service to growers.
Some States require inspection and certification of cut flowers
and cut ferns. Upon request, such material was inspected and
certificates were issued in order that growers could make ship-
ments to the States requiring certification of cut flowers and
cut ferns.
During the biennium, the Assistant Nursery Inspectors sub-
mitted 2,114 specimens from nurseries. The Entomological De-
partment made 2,952 determinations from the specimens sub-
mitted by this Department.
Good cooperation between the nurserymen and the Plant Board
was evidenced throughout the biennium by the fact that it was
necessary to prosecute only one nurseryman. In this instance,
the nurseryman was prosecuted for moving plants from a quar-
antined nursery. The Court imposed a fine of $25.00 and costs
on the offender.







84 State Plant Board of Florida

SUMMARY OF WORK ACCOMPLISHED BY THE NURSERY INSPECTION DEPART-
MENT DURING THE BIENNIUM ENDING JUNE 30, 1936


1934-1935


1935-1936


7

1,729

8,373

4.8


319

4,085
1,595
2,490

45,006,336
8,543,685
36,462,651

19,774
7,912
11,862

675
192
483

20,450
8,105
12,345

182,540,839
42,959,054
139,581,785

2,400,632
607,530
1,793,102

184,941,471
43,566,584
141,374,887


Number of Inspection Districts

Number of Nurseries in State

Number of Nursery Inspections Made

Average Number of Inspections
per Nursery

Total Number of Refusals

Nursery Acreage in State
Citrus 1,436
Non-citrus 2,408

Nursery Stock in State
Citrus 8,064,525
Non-citrus 43,299,444

Total Acreage Inspected and
Passed
Citrus 7,131
Non-citrus 11,950

Total Acreage Inspected and
Refused
Citrus 153
Non-citrus 369

Total Acreage Inspected
Citrus 7,274
Non-citrus 12,319

Total Amount of Stock In-
spected and Passed
Citrus 39,581,964
Non-citrus 219,541,095

Total Amount of Stock In-
spected and Refused
Citrus 1,171,300
Non-citrus 2,346,627

Total Amount of Stock In-
spected
Citrus 40,753,264
Non-citrus 221,897,722

Number of Nurseries Going
Out of Business

Number of New Nurseries


7

1,691

8,299

4.9


8,844



51,363,969



19,081




522




19,603



259,123,059




3,517,927




262,650,986







Eleventh Biennial Report 35

REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY

July 1, 1934 td:une 30, 1936

E. W. Berger, Entomologist

In previous reports presented it has been pointed out that
the chief function of the Department of Entomology is the iden-
tification of pest material sent from the field by inspectors of
the Board and by growers. Upon the determination of the iden-
tity of this material largely depends what action shall be taken
to prevent dissemination and to effect cure. During the fiscal
year 1934-35 there were 4,778 such determinations made, while
in 1935-36 there were 4,027. The tabulation which follows in-
dicates the amount of work of this character which has been
done.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED AND RECORDED ANNUALLY
(April 30, 1915, through June 30, 1936)
1915-1916 ........................................ ............................. 388
1916-1917 ......................................................................... 612
1917-1918 ........................................ ............................... 2,593
1918-1919 .......................................................................... 1,921
1919-1920 .......................................................................... 2,521
1920-1921 .......................................................................... 1,998
1921-1922 ..................................................... ................... 3,545
1922-1923 .................................................... .................... 2,904
1923-1924 .......................................... ...................... .. 2,418
1924-1925 ........................-..-......-- ...----...-.....--- 2,940
1925-1926 ........................................................................ 2,023
1926-1927 (includes 75 duplicates) ............................ 1,651
1927-1928 ..................... .. .............. .................... 2,463
1928-1929 .......................................................................... 2,038
1929-1930 ........................................ .................. 2,718
1930-1931 ........................................................... 3,696
1931-1932 ...................................................... .... ........... 5,281
1932-1933 ........................................................... 4,646
1933-1934 ......................................... .................... 5,139
1934-1935 .......................................................................... 4,778
1935-1936 .......................................................................... 4,027
T otal .................. ............................................... 61,300

The department supplies at cost to growers two means of
natural control of insects: Red Aschersonia for the control of
whitefly and Australian ladybeetles (Vedalia) for the control
of cottony-cushion scale. These are supplied at cost and are
very helpful to growers. During 1934-1935, 265 cultures of
Aschersonia and 141 colonies of ladybeetles were distributed. In
1935-1936 the distribution was 372 cultures of Aschersonia and
270 colonies of ladybeetles.






State Plant Board of Florida


Not the least of the duties of the Entomologist and the Asso-
ciate Entomologist is in furnishing advice and information to
growers and inspectors as to pest control methods. The volume
and importance of this is difficult to assess. Participation in
consultations with other entomologists and members of the Plant
Board staff likewise constitutes an important phase of work
of this department. Investigation and study of insect structure,
habits and life history contributes to the development of infor-
mation of importance in devising control measures and the study
of insecticides and other remedial measures is in line with the
furtherance of plant pest control. The department engages in
these studies along with the general and special identification
work above referred to.


REPORT OF THE APIARY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
July 1, 1934 to June 30, 1936
R. E. Foster, Apiary Inspector

The main object of the Apiary Inspection Department is to,
prevent the introduction into and dissemination within the State
of Florida of communicable diseases of honeybees.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1935, 49,379 colony
inspections were made in 2,445 apiaries located in 41 counties.
One hundred sixty-seven colonies in 78 apiaries, located in 9
counties were found to be infected with American foul brood.
This was .0034% of colony inspections.
The cost of operating the department for the year was
$10,310.72, an average cost per colony inspection of 20-4/5 cents.
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1936, 73,415 colony
inspections were made in 3,344 apiaries in 63 counties. One
hundred thirty-one colonies in 69 apiaries located in 10 counties
were found infected with American foul brood, or .00178% of
colony inspections.
The cost of operating the department for the year was
$14,488.43, or an average cost per colony inspection of 19.7 cents.
A summary of apiary inspection since the department was
created in 1919 follows:







Eleventh Biennial Report


SUMMARY OF APIARY INSPECTION WORK SINCE THE DEPARTMENT WAS
CREATED IN JULY, 1919
Apiaries Colonies
Infected Infected
Year Ending Apiaries Colonies with with
Inspected Inspected American American
SFoul Brood Foul Brood

June 30, 1920 ................ 394 16,121 30 104
June 30, 1921 ................ 753 18,078 16 33
June 30, 1922 ................ 837 22,522 14 34
June 30, 1923 .............. 1,016 23,848 18 30
June 30, 1924 .............. 803 22,806 8 13
June 30, 1925 ............ 675 21,378 7 58
June 30, 1926 ................ 676 16,756 5 22
June 30, 1927 ................ 796 23,791 6 34
June 30, 1928 ................ 1,248 20,115 18 74
June 30, 1929 ................ 1,297 32,442 21 85
June 30, 1930 ............... 2,273 44,645 53 182
June 30, 1931 ................! 2,374 45,238 37 114
June 30, 1932 ............... 2,744 44,211 42 74
June 30, 1933 ............. 2,219 42,307 38 76
June 30, 1934 ................ 2,305 43,877 71 132
June 30, 1935 ................ 2,445 49,379 78 167
June 30, 1936 ............. 3,344 73,415 69 131

The Apiary Inspector and his assistants (part-time local in-
spectors) have endeavored to assist the beekeepers in the state
in every way possible, and tried to educate them in regard to
the appearance of bee diseases in their apiaries, at least to the
extent that if they did discover an abnormal condition of the
bees they would report to the Apiary Inspector. This has been
accomplished to quite an extent by personal contact, attending
beekeepers' meetings, giving lectures on bee diseases, radio talks,
and writing letters. Each year the Apiary Inspector has an-
swered hundreds of letters of inquiry in regard to all phases of
beekeeping.
A part of the Apiary Inspector's work has been to help assem-
ble the bee and honey exhibit for the Florida Fair at Tampa, and
act as superintendent of the exhibit during the Fair. This en-
abled him to contact a large number of beekeepers and give out
information in regard to bee diseases and their control. By
this means it is believed beekeeping methods in Florida have
been improved and disease conditions in the apiaries held at a
minimum. It is estimated that there is an investment in the
beekeeping industry of a half million dollars and that the annual
income of beekeepers is approximately a quarter of a million
dollars. It is also estimated that about five thousand Floridians
are engaged in beekeeping.




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