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Group Title: Report for the period ... of the State Plant Board of Florida
Title: Report for the period ...
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098574/00007
 Material Information
Title: Report for the period ...
Alternate Title: Biennial report
Physical Description: 19 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: State Plant Board of Florida
Publisher: State Plant Board of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1932/34
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Plants, Protection of -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: State Plant Board of Florida.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 4th (1920/22)- 23rd (1958/60).
Numbering Peculiarities: Vols. for 1950/52-1958/60 also called: Bulletin.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098574
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10989019
lccn - sn 86033752
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the biennial period ending ... and supplemental reports to ...
Succeeded by: Biennial report

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Report of state plant board
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Report of the plant commissioner
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
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        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text





STATE PLANT BOARD

OF FLORIDA








REPORT FOR THE PERIOD JULY 1, 1932-

JUNE 30, 1934

(Tenth Biennial Report)


JANUARY, 1935



















STATE PLANT BOARD
of Florida

GEO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman.------------.................--Jacksonville
A. H. BLANDING....---..-..--.--.....-------.............- ....... Bartow
A. H. WAGG............--------------.. .........-- .... Palm Beach
0. J. SEMMES --.--....----..--...----------- --- --........ Pensacola
H. C. DUNCAN.......................-------------..................... Tavares
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary and Auditor.......-................. Tallahassee

STAFF
WILMON NEWELL, Plant Commissioner........................Gainesville
E. W. BERGER, Entomologist.......-..---..-..-..--.................Gainesville
J. C. GOODWIN, Nursery Inspector..-.....-.......................Gainesville
J. H. MONTGOMERY, Quarantine Inspector....................Gainesville
R. E. FOSTER, Apiary Inspector...........--.............. Gainesville
ARTHUR C. BROWN, Grove Inspector..............................Gainesville
MIss LENA R. HUNTER, Chief Clerk......-......................Gainesville









CONTENTS
Page
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL ...............................................................- 5
REPORT OF STATE PLANT BOARD ................................................- 5
REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER ...................------..-------- 8
ESSENTIAL FACTS PERTAINING TO STATE PLANT BOARD ACTIVITIES ..- 9
D duties of Board ......................................... ........................... 9
Composition of Board ..-----.................. ..---- ---------- 9
Source of Authority ...-...............-....... --- ------------- 9
Va'ue of Industries Protected ..................... .---------------- 9
Resources and Expenditures of Board ..........................--....-------- 10
Reasons for Plant Quarantine ............................ -........... 11
ORGANIZATION ......................... ..... ..................... ......... ----- 11
Departmental Activities ................... ................... 12
Grove Inspection ....................... .... ..-................ 12
Extent of Citrus Plantings ........................................... 12
A creage in Citrus ............................ .............................. 12
Location of Citrus Plantings ........................................ 12
West Florida Citrus Plantings ....................................------ 12
Frequency of Inspections ................................................ 13
Nursery Inspection ................................................. 13
Transit Inspecion ....................................--.. ---------...... 14
Passengers' Baggage Inspection at Miami and
Key W est .............. .......-- ..--------- ----------------. 15
Departments of Entomology and Pathology ..........----.............16
Apiary Inspection Department ...........................--- .... ......---- 17
Research W ork .............. ..-- ......-- .......... ................... 18
Fumigation Investigations .... .......................... ..---. 19
ACCOMPLISHMENTS .................-..... .......-- ------- ------------- 19
Eradication of Citrus Canker ......-....--..--..-- ....--------- ..--- 20
Eradication of Mediterranean Fruit Fly .................................. 20
Control of Mosaic Disease ............................--... -------- 21
Control of the Green Citrus Aphid ......................-........---------. 21
Sweet Potato W eevil Control .................. ...........-. ........ 21
Celery Leaf Tyer Control .............................-----...------ 21
Development of Spray Formulas .........-..........----------....------- 21
SPECIAL ACTIVITIES ...--.........-................ .......---------- ----- 22
West Indian Fruit Fly-Key West .....................--.....----------..- 22
Eradication Project ..........................---..-.---------. 23
Number of Fruit Trees on Island .......................................- 23
Spray Campaign .......................... ------- --------- 23
Infestations in the Field ........................ ....-------- --- 24
Traps ...................................... -- -------- ---- 25
Expenditures ............................ ..------ ...-- ...... .--------....... 26
Cooperation Between State and Federal Government ........ 27
Inspection and Certification of Irish Potatoes ............................ 27
Pink Bollworm of Cotton ...........................--..--.-------- 27
MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION ..............------- ---------------------. 28
ENTRY OF CALIFORNIA ORANGES AND LEMONS ......................-.....--...... 29
ESTIMATES ...............~...- ................ ..............- ----- --- 29






Tenth Biennial Report


REPORT OF THE STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA
For Biennium Ending June 30, 1934

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
January 1, 1935
To His Excellency,
David Sholtz,
Governor of Florida.
SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the State Plant
Board of Florida for the biennium ending June 30, 1934. Please
submit same to the Legislature.
Respectfully,
STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA
By: GEO. H. BALDWIN,
Chairman.

REPORT OF STATE PLANT BOARD
1932-33 and 1933-34
Protection of agriculture against loss due to plant pests is
of vital importance because the prosperity of the industry is,
in large measure, dependent on such protection. The problem is
twofold: (a) to hold to a minimum, loss due to pests already
here; (b) prevent introduction and dissemination of additional
pests. The necessity is recognized by the federal government
and by all state governments.
The extent to which protective measures are used by the sev-
eral states depends, of course, on the relative value of the agri-
cultural interests. States whose interests are primarily of a man-
ufacturing, mining or live stock character do not, naturally,
take as intense interest in protecting agriculture as do those
states where farming and fruit-growing are paramount; as, for
instance, California and Florida. Nevertheless, even though in
individual cases the monetary value of agriculture may by com-
parison be small, protection is afforded through regulatory mea-
sures. This is especially true with respect to regulation, through
inspection and certification, of nursery stock movement both
interstate and intrastate.
That protection is of prime importance is evidenced by the
fact that losses to American agriculture due to plant pests are
variously estimated by competent authorities to be from one and






State Plant Board of Florida


one-half billion to two billion dollars per year. Furthermore, the
same authorities estimate that each year the American farmer
pays out of his income thirty-seven million dollars for insecti-
cides and other spray materials. This estimate does not include
the cost of spraying and dusting machinery or the cost for labor
in applying.
Plant quarantine may, therefore, quite properly be regarded
as the proverbial "ounce of prevention"-the "stitch in time."
Here in Florida the same favorable conditions which contribute
to bountiful yields likewise make possible rapid development of
plant pests. Those pests which are already here should be con-
trolled and wider distribution prevented.
Those pests which are threatening invasion should be kept
out. Many plant pests, especially those of the tropics, have not
yet gained entry. If and when they do enter and become firmly
established, the burden of the farmer will be increased. It is the
function of plant quarantine organizations such as the State
Plant Board to deal with such problems. The efficiency of the
effort depends on the strength of the organization.
The responsibility for affording this protection to the horti-
cultural industries of Florida was placed on the State Plant
Board by Act of the Florida legislature in 1915. That respon-
sibility the Board has met and discharged to its utmost ability.
As is indicated in the report of the Plant Commissioner which
is appended hereto and made part of this report, the funds of
the Board have been administered in a most economical manner.
The funds available for the fiscal year 1932-1933 totaled $235,-
000.00, while expenditures amounted to $206,685.83. Resources
for 1933-1934 were $194,612.00, from which $182,174.23 was
expended. In the former $28,314.17 reverted, while in the latter
$12,437.77 remained in the treasury. Thus through the utmost
economy and, in some instances, curtailing work, the Board suc-
ceeded in operating during the biennium for $40,751.94 less
than had been allotted for its use by the legislature.
It must be conceded that in doing so there was some sacrifice
in efficiency but it is our belief that there was justification in
view of the disturbed economic conditions and the necessity for
complying with the urgent and repeated request of His Excel-
lency, the Governor, that operating costs be held to the absolute
minimum consistent with good management and without at the
same time exposing the state's horticulture to too great danger.
The Board feels that it has acted in good faith and has held its
outlay to such minimum.






Tenth Biennial Report


Attention is directed to that portion of the Plant Commis-
sioner's report with respect to estimates of expenditures for
the biennium beginning July 1, 1935. These estimates total
$210,630.00 per annum. These estimates are based on the Board's
expenditures during the fiscal year 1933-1934 and the current
year.
The Board at the time of the preparation of this report has
prepared and presented to the Budget Commission requests for
the allotment of funds through the legislature for the operation
of the Board's work during the forthcoming biennium. The
amounts requested are the same as shown in the summary of
estimates as made in the Plant Commissioner's report. The
budget as submitted is in detail. The Board urges favorable con-
sideration on the part of both the Budget Commission and the
legislature, believing that the safeguarding of our state's horti-
culture cannot be adequately provided for with a less sum. The
Board also especially requests that the emergency fund custo-
marily provided be continued. This is a wise provision and its
availability has not been abused in the past.
The personnel of the Board at the opening of the biennium
was: P. K. Yonge, Chairman; A. H. Blanding, R. F. Maguire,
G. H. Baldwin, F. J. Wideman. At the close of the biennium the
Board was composed of G. H. Baldwin, Chairman; A. H. Bland-
ing, A. H. Wagg, H. C. Duncan, and 0. J. Semmes. The Secre-
tary has been J. T. Diamond. Wilmon Newell, who has served
as Plant Commissioner since the organization of the Plant
Board in 1915, has continued as chief executive officer.
The Board here desires to record its appreciation of the faith-
ful, loyal and efficient service rendered the State by Plant Com-
missioner Newell and his corps of capable assistants.
Respectfully submitted,
STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA
GEO. H. BALDWIN,
Chairman.






State Plant Board of Florida


REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER
For Biennium Ending June 30, 1934

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
Gainesville, Florida,
November 17, 1934.
Honorable Geo. H. Baldwin, Chairman,
State Plant Board of Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to present herewith my report as
Plant Commissioner for the biennium ending June 30, 1934.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Plant Commissioner.

REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER
1932-33 and 1933-34
In the preparation and submission of the Plant Commissioner's
biennial report for the period ending June 30, 1934, it is intended
to present as briefly as possible not only a report of activities
during that period but also a summary of accomplishments,
as well as an outline of the interests it is proposed to protect
through the operation of the Plant Act. In doing so the effort
will be made to so present this material as to make it readable
and informative-presenting essentials and facts rather than
engaging in discussion. This policy will be followed as closely as
possible throughout this report.
The regular or routine work of the organization through its
several departments has continued without experiencing especi-
ally difficult situations. Nurseries have been inspected, plant
movement within and into the state has been supervised and
safeguarded, inspections have been made to determine conditions
in citrus and other fruit plantings, and the apiaries of the state
have been kept under observation. All of these routine activities
,will be treated elsewhere under appropriate headings. The two
items of special and particular interest and importance de-
manding attention have been the handling of the West Indian
fruit fly infestation at Key West and of the pink bollworm
findings-very light in character-at several points in north
Florida. This latter work has been financed and manned ex-







Tenth Biennial Report


clusively by the Federal Department of Agriculture, Bureau
of Plant Quarantine.
This report will hereafter make further reference to both the
West Indian fruit fly and the pink bollworm.
ESSENTIAL FACTS PERTAINING TO STATE PLANT BOARD ACTIVITIES
DUTIES OF BOARD: Protection of Florida agriculture from
the introduction, dispersion and establishment of dangerous
plant pests and to control or eradicate such pests. The Board
is also charged with the responsibility of protecting the apiary
industry from loss through bee diseases.
COMPOSITION OF BOARD: The Plant Board is composed of the
same individuals who compose the State Board of Control, in
charge of the institutions of higher learning. This tends to
economy of administration and provides a close and mutually
advantageous relation between the regulatory force and the
research and educational organizations. Board members receive
no compensation.
SOURCE OF AUTHORITY: The Plant Act of 1927 (Chapter 12,-
291) which replaced the Act of 1915 (Chapter 6,885). The
Florida Bee Disease Law of 1927 (Chapter 12,050) which
replaced the Bee Disease Act of 1919 (Chapter 7,938).
VALUE OF INDUSTRIES PROTECTED: A conservative estimate
of the capital investment in agriculture in Florida is one billion
dollars. Of this huge sum citrus is the leader, with five hundred
million dollars invested in groves, packing houses, crate mills,
canning plants, machinery, etc., as estimated by the Florida
Citrus Growers Clearing House Association.
The nursery industry represents an investment of $5,000,000.
The 1929 Census Report values the production of Florida nur-
series at $3,185,615.
Florida's vegetable yield in 1929 was valued in the United
States Census Report 1930 as $26,609,957.00.
The value of Florida's fruit and nut crops for 1929, accord-
ing to the same authority, was $46,733,149.00.
The gross returns from the 1929-30 citrus crop were $52,-
757,313. This represents the total revenues divided among pro-
ducers, transportation agencies, packing house operators, crate
manufacturers and fertilizer companies, insecticide and spray
companies, labor, etc. This figure was taken from the report
of the Florida State Marketing Bureau.
The bee industry is claimed to represent an investment of a







State Plant Board of Florida


half million dollars and an annual income of a quarter million
dollars. Five thousand Florida citizens are engaged in bee-
keeping.
The citrus industry is said to afford employment to 20,000
individuals in summer while in winter 60,000 are so employed.
The value of Florida's 1929 field crops was placed at $16,189,-
002 in the 1930 Census Report.
RESOURCES AND EXPENDITURES OF BOARD: There was made
available by the 1933 legislature for current expenses of the
Board $194,612.00 per annum and an Emergency Fund of $50,-
000. The Board expended in its various activities for the fiscal
year 1933-34 $182,174.23. During the previous fiscal year (1932-
33) expenditures totaled $206,685.83. It is recommended that
approximately the same sum be made available for each of the
next two fiscal years as has been available for the past several
years. The exact amount recommended is $210,630.00 per annum,
with an emergency fund of $50,000 for the biennium.
Saving of approximately $29,000 for the fiscal year 1931-32
resulted from practice of utmost economy in operation, salary
reductions, reduced allowances for transportation and subsist-
ence of field men, etc. Similar economies resulted in savings of
$28,314.17 in 1932-33 and of $12,437.77 in 1933-34.
The Board has never operated beyond its resources. Quite
the contrary. Frequently balances reverted to the treasury. On
one occasion (other than those mentioned) a large sum ($16,-
775.12) reverted. This was for the fiscal year 1921-22.
Expenditures of the Board for 1932-33 and 1933-34 by de-
partments are shown in Table A. In Table B are shown ex-
penditures for specific purposes: salaries, etc.
TABLE A

Department 1932-1933 1933-1934

Grove Inspection Department ............................. $ 78,304.71 $ 89,275.04
Nursery Inspection Department .......................... 35,007.12 30,940.30
Quarantine Inspection Department ...................... 48,346.79 41,222.27
Apiary Inspection Department ........................ 10,985.65 9,758.56
Department of Plant Pathology .......................... 200.00 ....................
Fumigation Experiments ........................................ 3.292.12 ....................
Grape Pest Investigations .................................... 3,620.22 ...................
Office of the Board ................................................. 3,011.48 1,620.00
Plant Commissioner's Office .................................... 8,875.57 4,616.99
Department of Entomology .................................... 8,063.31 4,741.07
Reserve (Road Patrol and Quarantine) ............... 6,978.86 ..........


Totals............................ ... ....... ......... $206,685.83


$182,174.23








Tenth Biennial Report 11

TABLE B


Item


Salaries ........................ ................. ... .............
Travel and Subsistence Expenses .........................
Labor .................. -......... ......... --......... ..........
Stationery and Small Printing ................................
P stage .......... ......................... ........
Bulletins and Circulars ..........................................
Telegraph, Telephone ............................................
Fumigants, Insecticides, etc. ....................................
Miscellaneous Supplies ............................................
Miscellaneous Expenses ...........................................
Office Equipment ........................................... .............
Laboratory Supplies and Equipment ......................
Freight, Drayage, Express .....................................
Library ........................................... ....... ...........


1932-1933


$161,734.02
37,418.20
1,834.98
670.90
1,409.88
367.66
551.20
40.50
1,122.82
982.18
287.50
24.43
105.97
135.59


Totals....................... ........................ $206,685.83


Includes salary, travel, labor, and supplies
Indian fruit fly work at Key West.


1933-1934


$133,387.76
31,964.96
8,041.64
761.34
900.52
442.04
5,540.87
729.0O
94.00
6.78
163.34
141.92

$182,174.23*


in connection with West


REASONS FOR PLANT QUARANTINE
Florida's geographical location is such that she is exposed
more than any other state to invasion by plant pests, especially
from tropical countries. Her climate is such as to permit of
ready establishment and rapid development and spread of such
pests and the transportation facilities, both freight and pas-
senger, are so highly developed as to magnify very greatly the
possibilities of introduction. Only by maintaining well organized
transit inspection, nursery inspection and field and grove in-
spection forces can Florida's agriculture be protected.

ORGANIZATION

The Plant Commissioner has general direction of field activi-
ties. Under him are operated the several departmental or spe-
cial activities, each headed by a leader or chief..
The major departmental activities are:
Grove Inspection
Nursery Inspection
Quarantine (Transit) Inspection
Apiary Inspection
Entomology
Special activities are:
West Indian Fruit Fly Eradication
Pink Bollworm Eradication
Irish Potato Certification







State Plant Board of Florida


DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITIES
GROVE INSPECTION: Periodical inspections are made of the
citrus plantings of the state to determine the conditions ex-
isting therein with respect primarily to major plant pests such
as citrus canker, fruit flies, blackfly.
Observations are also made as to the presence of the commoner
pests: scales, whiteflies, rust mite, melanose, etc., and the con-
dition reported to the owner or operator of the property. Advice
is given, when sought, as to the procedure to be followed in
controlling these pests.
EXTENT OF CITRUS PLANTINGS: As of this date, there are in
the state a total of 26,500,000 citrus trees. Of these approximately
90 per cent are of bearing age. Orange trees represent 60 per
cent of the plantings, grapefruit 26 per cent, tangerines and
Satsumas 11 per cent, and the remaining 3 per cent is made up
of limes, lemons, kumquats, etc.
ACREAGE IN CITRUS: Reduced to an acreage basis, there are
in Florida 414,607 acres in citrus. Of these there are 248,438
acres of oranges, 107,660 acres of grapefruit, 45,547 acres of
tangerines and Satsumas. There are 12,422 acres of miscellane-
ous. This calculation is made on the assumption that 64 trees
per acre is the average.
LOCATION OF CITRUS PLANTINGS: The peninsular section
lying south of Alachua County is generally regarded as the citrus
producing area. The most extensive plantings are in the areas
surrounding and adjacent to the cities of Orlando, Leesburg,
Winter Haven, Tampa, St. Petersburg, Bradenton, Fort Myers.
The entire East Coast from Daytona south is heavily planted to
citrus and what is known as the "Ridge Section", extending from
Haines City to south of Sebring, is an almost continuous plant-
ing. Within a five-mile radius of Lake Wales are over 15,000
acres of orange and grapefruit trees.
The counties -in which the plantings are heaviest are:
1. Polk 6. Highlands
2. Orange 7. Brevard
3. Lake 8. Pine!las
4. Hillsborough 9. Indian River
5. Volusia 10. Dade
WEST FLORIDA CITRUS PLANTINGS: Although the bulk of
the citrus industry is located in the peninsular section, yet there
is quite an industry developed and expanding in West Florida.
These plantings are almost exclusively of Satsumas. In the







Tenth Biennial Report


area west of the Suwannee River there are something over
8,000 acres in citrus.
FREQUENCY OF INSPECTIONS: With the number of men now
engaged in grove inspection, namely, 32, the citrus plantings
are inspected once in two years.
The amount expended in grove inspection for the fiscal year
1932-33 was $78,304.71, and for 1933-34 $89,275.04.
NURSERY INSPECTION: The nursery inspection force, con-
sisting of a Chief Inspector and eight assistant inspectors,
inspected in 1932-33 each of the 1887 nurseries in the state an
average of four times. In 1933-34 the 1819 nurseries were in-
spected an average of 4.3 times.
The amount expended for the fiscal year 1932-33 for nursery
inspection was $35,007.12. In 1933-34 the Nursery Inspection
Department expended $30,940.30.
The purchaser of a plant is entitled to receive a plant that
is free of serious insects and diseases. The way to assure this
is by having the plants inspected and certified by a competent
inspector.
If a pest becomes established in a nursery and there are no
restrictions on the movement of nursery stock, the pest will
soon be distributed from one end of the state to the other.
Nursery inspection is a help to the nurseryman directly and
to the general horticulture of the state.
For the nurserymen who do a business in other states the
inspection service is absolutely necessary. Each and every state
requires inspection and certification of nursery stock as a con-
dition of entry into the state. Last year our nurserymen shipped
over four million -plants to points outside the state. At a low
valuation of 10 cents per plant, this meant an income of $400,000
to our nurserymen.
There are over eighteen hundred nurseries in the state that
must be kept under inspection.
Over four thousand acres of land are devoted to the growing
of nursery stock in the state. There are growing in nurseries
over thirty million plants.
In 1933-34 our citrus nurserymen moved (sold, traded, or
otherwise disposed of) over a million and a quarter citrus trees.
In 1932-33 our nurserymen made shipments of plants to
twenty-nine states and thirteen foreign countries. In 1933-34
shipments were made to twenty-seven states and twenty foreign







State Plant Board of Florida


countries. Without inspection and certification, these markets
would have been closed.
Florida produces over 50 per cent of the paper white and
Chinese sacred narcissus bulbs produced in the United States.
There is a federal regulation requiring the inspection and cer-
tification of narcissus bulbs before they can be shipped from
one state to another. In 1932-33 there were 100 narcissus grow-
ers in Florida who produced over eighty-seven million narcissus
bulbs. In 1933-34 fifty-nine growers produced approximately
ninety-seven million bulbs. Without adequate inspection and
certification, this business will be lost to our growers.
Sweet potato plant growers who desire to ship to points out-
side the state must have an inspection certificate showing the
plants to be apparently free of pests.
TRANSIT INSPECTION: Prevention of entry and spread of
serious plant pests is of vital importance to agriculture. Through
supervision of horticultural materials in transit this is accom-
plished. This supervision applies to interstate, intrastate and
international plant and plant product movement.
Domestic plant traffic is supervised by maintaining transit
inspection service at the rail gateways entering the state and by
destination inspection. Movement by water is "checked" at
Florida ports.
Foreign plant traffic is safeguarded by maintaining inspec-
tors at ports of entry who apply both state and Federal regula-
tions governing importation of plant material.
Florida is exposed to invasion by many major plant pests
from the tropical countries close to us. Indeed, under modern
transportation conditions distance is no longer a protective fac-
tor. The airplane and fast steamers are now eliminating the time
factor. Florida is now only a few hours frdm the West Indies,
Central America and South America.
The number of foreign vessels arriving at Florida ports and
inspected during tthe biennium is shown in the following table:
1932-33 1933-34
Foreign airplanes .................... 1313 Foreign airplanes ...........- .. 12fl0
Foreign ships .............. ........ 2060 Foreign ships ......................... 2165
Total ............ ............. ........ 3373 Total .................. .......... 3425
The total number of vessels, domestic and foreign, arriving
during the year ending June 30, 1933, was 6046; during the
year ending June 30, 1934, 5999.
Every passenger is a potential carrier of major plant pests.
Through the'two principal ports of entry in Florida-Key West







Tenth Biennial Report


and Miami-there flows a constant stream of humanity. Through
these portals 62,676 individuals from foreign countries entered
during the biennium. The total number of pieces of baggage
carried by these passengers was 141,757. The appended tabu-
lation shows graphically the volume of traffic through these
two ports:
PASSENGERS' BAGGAGE INSPECTION AT MIAMI AND KEY WEST
MIAMI
Airplanes 1932-1933 1933-1934
N o. airplanes .................................................................. 1,180 1,121
No. pieces baggage ..............................- ................... 17,758 20,864
N o. passengers ........................................ ..................... 9,429 10,928
Ships
No. foreign ships (direct) ............................................ 584 674
No. pieces baggage ....................... .............................. 16,754 21,697
No. passengers .....................- ..................................... 6,306 8,547
KEY WEST
Ships
No. foreign ships (direct) .......................................... 449 328
N o. pieces baggage ........................................................ 40,436 24,248
N o. passengers ............................................................... 17,748 9,718*
Total number of passengers (both ports) ................ 33,483 29,193
Total baggage (both ports) ....................................... 74,948 66,809
Reduction in number of passengers due to Cuban revolution.
Every piece of baggage was inspected to discover contraband
material and many times it was found. Frequently inspectors
intercepted material infested by various fruit flies, green scale,
blackfly and other important pests.
The development of air traffic presents one of the greatest
problems in protecting Florida's horticulture. The port of Miami
is one of the greatest international air ports in the world.
Through this port enter planes carrying passengers, baggage,
express and mail from all countries south of us. The rapidity
with which this traffic has built up and the prospective further
expansion presents a grave problem.
Air traffic through the West Palm Beach air port is much
less than at Miami. The Pan American Airways has opened
Tampa as an additional port for its West Indian planes.
There is given below a table showing the ship arrivals and
passenger traffic at the principal ports of the United States.
It will be noted from this that Miami ranks first in number of
foreign airplanes arriving and second in total number of ves-
sels and planes arriving. Our authority for this information is
the Annual Report of the Surgeon General of the United States
Public Health Service.







State Plant Board of Florida


FISCAL YEAR-1933


VESSELS ARRIVED FROM FOREIGN
PORTS:
New York, N. Y .................. 3,175
San Pedro, California........ 1,138
New Orleans, Louisiana.... 967
Boston, Mass ...................... 801
Marcus Hook (Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania) .................. 604
MIAMI, FLORIDA............ 571
Galves on, Texas................ 524
Angel Island, California
(San Francisco) ........... 504

PLANES ARRIVED FROM FOREIGN
PORTS:
MIAMI, FLORIDA............ 1,175
San Diego, California........ 1,149
Brownsville, Texas............. 437
San Juan, P. R................... 222

TOTAL NUMBER VESSELS AND
PLANES ARRIVED FROM
FOREIGN PORTS:
New York, N. Y.............. 3,175
MIAMI, FLORIDA........ 1,746
San Diego, California........ 1,539
San Pedro, California........ 1,138
New Orleans, Louisiana.... 967
Boston, Mass. .................... 801
Marcus Hook (Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania) .................... 604
Galveston, Texas.............. 524


PASSENGERS ARRIVED BY VESSEL:
New York, N. Y...................339,059
Boston, Mass. ...................... 32,708
Angel Island, California
(San Francisco)................ 26,092
San Pedro, California........ 19,994
MIAMI, FLORIDA-......... 11,093
San Diego, California........ 10,061
Key West, Florida.............. 9,794
New Orleans, Louisiana.... 8,018

PERSONS ARRIVED BY PLANE:
MIAMI, FLORIDA ..........13,719'a
San Diego, California........ 3,608'(b
Brownsville, Texas............ 2,816''
San Juan, P. R................... 2,124(b
<*' 9,731 passengers; 3,988 crew.
(b) Unable to separate passengers
and crew.

TOTAL NUMBER PASSENGERS
ARRIVED:
New York, N. Y.................339,059
Boston, Mass ................. 32,708
Angel Island, California
(San Francisco)................ 26,092
MIAMI, FLORIDA............ 20,824
San Pedro, California........ 19,994
San Diego, California........ 13,669
Key West, Florida.............. 9,808
New Orleans, Louisiana.... 8,018


Port inspection is maintained at the ports of Pensacola, Jack-
sonville, West Palm Beach, Miami, Key West and Tampa. Thir-
teen inspectors under the Quarantine Inspector are attached to
this department. The cost of operating the quarantine service
for the fiscal year 1932-33 was $48,346.79; for the fiscal year
1933-34 $41,222.27.
DEPARTMENTS OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY: The imposi-
tion of a quarantine on a nursery, the refusal of entry of nursery
stock or other plant material, decision as to procedure in hand-
ling any situation involving application of rules or regulations,
is a serious-an important-matter. In order that there may
be no unfairness to the interests involved and that administering
officers may act intelligently, examination of suspicious plant
material by trained specialists is necessary.
The Plant Board has employed two entomologists and utilizes
the services of the Pathologist of the Agricultural Experiment
Station in making examinations of infested and infected plants
and plant products. This service not only determines the con-






Tenth Biennial Report


edition existing but helps to build up the store of information
regarding plant pests.
During the year 1932-33 there were 4,646 specimens of plant
pests received from field inspectors, identified, classified and
recorded by the specialists. During the year 1933-34 the number
of specimens was 5,139.
The Plant Board, through the Department of Entomology,
produces and distributes a fungus which effects control of the
citrus whitefly. It also rears and distributes Vedalia, a preda-
tory insect which effects control of the cottony-cushion scale.
During the first year of the biennium the investigations of
grape pests and also fumigation were continued, but both of
these activities were taken over by the Agricultural Experi-
ment Station on July 1, 1933.
The cost to the state for entomological and pathological work
(not including fumigation and grape pest investigations) was
$8,263.31 for the fiscal year 1932-33; for the fiscal year 1933-34
it was $4,741.07.
APIARY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT: Production of honey in
Florida is a business in which about 5,000 citizens are engaged.
Honey is not the only source of income from beekeeping, for
there is a market for bees themselves. Also there is a demand
for queen bees and wax. The supplying of hives and other equip-
ment is an industry of no small size. It is conservatively esti-
mated that the apiaries in Florida contain 100,000 colonies and
that the income derived therefrom is at least a quarter million
dollars annually. The value of the capital investment in apiaries
has been placed at a half million dollars. It is probably greater
than that.
To protect the honey producing industry in Florida the legis-
lature of 1919, at the instance of beekeepers, passed what is
known as the Florida Bee Disease Law of 1919. There being
no other agency of a regulatory character available to carry out
the provisions of this law, the duty of so doing was placed
upon the State Plant Board.
The primary object of the law was to prevent the introduc-
tion, dissemination and establishment of diseases of bees. In
order to accomplish this, there was built up an inspection ser-
vice consisting of a chief inspector and a number of local or
part-time inspectors. The chief inspector is a trained bee spe-
cialist, while the local or part-time inspectors are experienced
practical beekeepers. The chief inspector not only engages in







State Plant Board of Florida


field work, supervising the activities of the local men, but ar-
ranges for and attends meetings of beekeepers for the purpose
of stimulating interest in better beekeeping methods and to edu-
cate apiarists in recognizing and handling the diseases of bees.
The disease of bees which occasions greatest loss and is hard-
est to control is that known as American foul brood. This disease
is not generally established in Florida as it is elsewhere. One
of the primary objects of apiary inspection in Florida is to
discover the presence of this disease and to eradicate it. Our
efforts have been attended with success so far as local eradication
is concerned. As a state-wide proposition, however, although
progress has been made, new foci of infection are from time to
time being found. It is only through continuous and repeated
inspection, with destruction of diseased colonies when found,
that we may hope to keep the disease under control.
For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1933, 42,307 colony in-
spections were made in 2,744 apiaries located in 52 counties.
Seventy-six colonies were found infected with American foul
brood in thirty-six apiaries. Twenty-three of these apiaries were
diseased the previous year. New infections were found in 13
apiaries during 1932-33. Six counties were found to have in-
fected colonies:
Dade Pinellas
Glades Sarasota
Lafayette Suwannee
For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1934, 43,877 colony inspec-
tions were made in 2305 apiaries located in 50 counties. One
hundred thirty-two colonies were found to be infected with Amer-
ican foul brood in 43 apiaries. Sixteen of these apiaries were
diseased the previous year. New infections were found in 27
apiaries. Seven counties were found to have infected colonies:
Dade Suwannee
Glades Columbia
Hillsborough Pinellas
Hendry
The amount expended in apiary inspection and bee disease
control work for the fiscal year 1932-33 was $10,985.65; for
the fiscal year 1933-34 $9,758.56.
RESEARCH WORK: Research work is not primarily a function
of the Plant Board organization, yet when certain vital infor-
mation necessary to the proper prosecution of the Board's
regulatory work is not available from other sources, or when
specifically directed by the legislature, at the behest of growers,







Tenth Biennial Report


the Board has engaged in investigations of a scientific nature.
Examples of this kind of work are the investigations in connec-
tion with citrus canker, coconut bud rot, celery insects, straw-
berry diseases, cotton insects, sweet potato weevil, fumigation
and grape pests. Valuable contributions have been made to the
store of knowledge in all of these efforts.
FUMIGATION INVESTIGATIONS: The Plant Board has for sev-
eral years past been engaged, in cooperation with the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station, in carrying on an intensive
investigation as to fumigation methods made use of as a means
of destroying insect life and thus preventing distribution of such
pests by means of affected nursery stock or other plant material.
A well equipped laboratory was provided for this purpose.
Research work on fumigation has covered a wide field and much
new information has been brought out. As a result, new fumi-
gation rooms for the ports have been developed and installed.
The construction and operation of these rooms is based pri-
marily on an application of the facts brought out in the course
of the research work.
New fumigation rooms have been installed at Key West and
Tampa, through which ports the bulk of fruit imports from the
tropics is made. These rooms are constructed in the manner
indicated by the experimental work as being most suitable and
have been found to be very satisfactory in the practical applica-
tion of cyanide fumigation as a safeguard against introduction
of plant pests.
Much information has been secured with respect to the fumi-
gation of nursery stock as a means of preventing spread of
pests. The continuance of the fumigation investigations was
placed by the last legislature where such research work properly
belongs: The Agricultural Experiment Station.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS
With all modesty the claim is made that the record of the
Plant Board is one of accomplishment-achievement. The his-
tory of the Board's activities since its creation in 1915 shows
a long list of definite and positive contributions to the welfare
and protection of Florida's agriculture.
Under the heading of "Research" mention has been made of
a number of investigations which have been carried on, which
have been productive of valuable information of both a scien-
tific and practical nature.






State Plant Board of Florida


In addition to the matters already cited, the Board may justly
point with pride to certain outstanding achievements. Space
will not permit of more than a passing reference to the fact
that through the Board's efforts (a) purchasers of nursery
stock have been protected, (b) nursery stock producers have
been assisted, (c) introduction and spread of major plant pests
has been prevented, (d) field inspection of groves, together
with eradication measures, has resulted in stamping out citrus
canker and Mediterranean fruit fly, and (e) bee diseases have
been controlled.
There are, however, several subjects deserving special, even
though brief, mention:
ERADICATION OF CITRUS CANKER: Citrus canker was first
noticed in Florida in 1912. By 1915 it had spread into 10
counties. Canker is a bacterial disease attacking all parts of the
tree. A cankered fruit is a cull fruit. The commercial pro-
duction of citrus fruits in Florida was jeopardized by this disease.
For three years growers tried without avail every known means
of control, expended some $85,000 from private funds, and, des-
perate, turned to burning infected trees as the only means
of preventing spread. The Plant Board was created to assist
growers in combating the disease. With the cooperation of the
Bureau of Plant Industry, United States Department of Agri-
culture, this disease has been eradicated. This is the first
time in history that a bacterial plant disease has been eradi-
cated. The cost of saving the $500,000,000 citrus industry was:
from state funds $1,264,366.17; from federal funds $1,070,-
590.55.
ERADICATION OF MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY: Mediterran-
ean fruit fly was first found April 6, 1929. A Federal quaran-
tine on interstate shipment of host fruits and vegetables became
effective May 1, 1929. This quarantine required the Plant Board
to adopt and enforce intrastate quarantine and control regula-
tions as a condition of interstate shipment of Florida fruits and
vegetables.
From the time of the imposition of the Federal quarantine
the Plant Board requested and obtained frequent modifications
which reacted to the advantage of growers and shippers.
On November 7, 1930, the Board petitioned the Secretary
of Agriculture to revoke the Federal quarantine. On Novem-
ber 30, 1930, the Secretary announced the revocation of the fruit







Tenth Biennial Report


fly quarantine. This action was based on the belief that the
fruit fly had been eradicated.
Florida growers were forced to comply with restrictive regu-
lations for a period of only 18 months. Contrast this with con-
ditions in Texas, where growers since 1927, on account of the
presence of the Mexican fruit fly, have operated under quaran-
tine restrictions and restricted markets.
CONTROL OF MOSAIC DISEASE: This disease, affecting sugar
cane, was discovered in Florida in 1919, when it was found at 15
points in 13 counties. The Board's efforts to eradicate it were
successful except in one locality, where local opposition, en-
couraged by county and state officials, made eradication im-
possible. The only salvation of the industry was the planting
of immune or resistant varieties of cane. The Board produced
and distributed, without cost to the farmer, 35 carloads of Cay-
ana 10 cane, which is now the variety most frequently grown
in the state.
CONTROL OF THE GREEN CITRUS APHID: This pest, first no-
ticed in the groves about 1924, caused citrus growers to turn
to the Plant Board for assistance. Valuable assistance was ren-
dered through the development of control measures, both
natural and artificial.
SWEET POTATO WEEVIL CONTROL: In cooperation with the
Bureau of Entomology, United States Department of Agricul-
ture, the Board endeavored to eradicate from the fields in Baker
County a destructive pest known as the sweet potato weevil.
Injury to the potatoes in the field amounted to 30 per cent and
over, while the injury to banked potatoes has been as high as
100 per cent. At no cost to the farmers this pest was eradicated
in Baker County. In other infested communities, where eradi-
cation was impractical, a method of control was worked out
whereby normal crops can be made even in the presence of the
weevil.
CELERY LEAF TYER CONTROL: Celery growers in Seminole
County, alarmed at the losses occasioned by attacks of the celery
leaf tyer, turned to the Plant Board for assistance. An ento-
mologist was stationed at Sanford and a method of control was
developed. Celery growers are now able to produce crops with-
out suffering considerable losses as a result of depredations by
this pest.
DEVELOPMENT OF SPRAY FORMULAS: Although it is not the
function of the Board to carry on experiments in the field of pest







State Plant Board of Florida


control by the development of new spray formulas, yet in the
past it has been necessary to do some experimental work. Em-
ployees of the Board were the first to use a drying oil as a
sticker for Bordeaux mixture. The use of a drying oil has since
been adopted by the federal government, and various state ex-
periment stations recommend its use. Employees of the Board
were also active in the development of a combination oil and
Bordeaux spray now commonly used by citrus growers.

SPECIAL ACTIVITIES
WEST INDIAN FRUIT FLY-KEY WEST
The most important activity in which the Board has engaged
during the biennium was in connection with the West Indian
fruit fly (Anastrepha) infestation at Key West.
In the last biennial report the Plant Commissioner reported
the discovery by Federal inspectors in November, 1930, of an
infestation of West Indian fruit fly at Key West. The meas-
ures which were then taken to prevent spread and to exert con-
trol were recited in detail. An intensive study of the insect was
undertaken to learn its biological behavior under the conditions
existing at Key West and the range of host fruits subject to
attack. This work was at first undertaken by this organization
assigning one of its assistant quarantine inspectors who had
entomological training to the task and providing the necessary
laboratory equipment for the purpose. In November, 1932, a
specialist of the United States Department of Agriculture re-
ported for duty at Key West and additional facilities for car-
rying on the scientific investigations were made available. Mr.
L. C. McAlister, the Federal entomologist, remained at Key
West until November of 1933, during which period much val-
uable information was accumulated. At the same time intensive
field observations were continued and additional information
secured. Also during this time the restrictive quarantine which
had been established was maintained to prevent spread of the
insect. In the laboratory numerous fruits (tropical or sub-
tropical) were found to be subject to infestation. In the field,
however, only three fruits-hog plum, guava, and Barbados
cherry-have been found infested. These three are regarded
as being the preferred or favored hosts. Repeated inspections
of fruit plantings on the Florida Keys and in Dade County have
failed to disclose evidence of infestation.







Tenth Biennial Report


Eradication Project
As a result of laboratory investigations at Key West, several
facts, of great value in an eradication campaign, were brought
to light. These include:
1. The determination that several species of Anastrepha (West Indian
fruit fly) occur on the island, (a) Anastrepha acidusa, (b) Anastre-
pha suspense and (c) an undetermined species. (Hog plums seem
to be the preferred hosts of Anastrepha acidusa; guavas seem to be
preferred by Anastrepha suspense.)
2. Establishment of the fact that in cages under laboratory conditions
some 34 different fruits were attacked by A. acidusa, and 11 by A.
suspense.
3. That a mixture of tartar emetic (antimony and potassium tartrate)
4 pounds, syrup 5 gallons, and water 100 gallons, is highly toxic
to the fruit flies in a comparatively short time.
On August 1, 1933, after consultation with and upon the ad-
vice of representatives of the Bureaus of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, United States Department of Agriculture, an eradi-
cation campaign was instituted by the Plant Board. This pro-
gram involved, in addition to continued inspectional and investi-
gational activities, the destruction of all fruits which had been
found in field inspection to be subject to attack (guavas, hog
plums, and Barbados cherries) and the repeated application to
host producing trees of a poison spray. In addition to guavas,
hog plums and Barbados cherry trees, all trees producing fruits
shown to be subject to attack in cage tests were included in the
spray program.
Number of Fruit Trees on Island
The number of field host trees growing at Key West is listed
below:
162 Barbados cherry trees
2507 guava bushes
272 hog plum trees
Removal of guavas, hog plums and Barbados cherries was
effected during August and the first few days of September,
1933. Collected fruits were disposed of by dumping in a concrete
vat and covering with lime and oil.
Spray Campaign
Tests with the view of determining the effectiveness of sev-
eral different materials were conducted in the laboratory. Tar-
tar emetic (antimony and potassium tartrate), nicotine sulphate
and copper carbonate were used in mixtures of syrup and water.
Tartar emetic proved to be the most effective. It was first used







State Plant Board of Florida


in the field at the rate of six pounds of tartar emetic, 5 gallons
of syrup and 100 gallons of water. As a result of experimental
work in the laboratory the amount was later reduced to four
pounds. This material costs around 32 cents a pound in large
amounts. It is necessary to use a good grade of syrup in order
to prevent staining of woodwork on houses, curtains and clothes
hanging on lines to dry. The grade used at Key West costs about
30 cents a gallon.
One Bean power sprayer and two Fitzhenry Guptill power
sprayers, the property of the federal government, were sent to
Key West. These, together with several knapsack sprayers,
were used. Later the knapsack sprayers were dispensed with.
With two power outfits, uninterrupted by adverse weather or
breakdowns, all the trees concerned could be sprayed in six days.
The program called for two applications a month. Under the
present arrangement, one machine is used continuously, the
time required to make one complete coverage being from twelve
to fourteen days. To date (June 30, 1934) 21 applications have
been made.
Infestations in the Field
The following table shows the number of infested properties
found by years, the host affected, as well as the number of adult
flies collected in traps.
Hog I Barbados Traps-
Year Plum Guava Cherry I Fig I Soil I Total Adults
1930............ 2 ............................. ........................ 2 0
1931......... 1 ..........-- ........ ... ............ 1 0
1932.......... 81 6 3 . ........... 90 0
1933..........--- 1 4 1 ............ 3 9 1
1934.......................... ...... 1? 22

Note: In 1933 soil sifted under trees-variety not stated-gave up
pupae on three different properties.
It will be noted that in 1934 22 adult fruit flies were captured
in traps. During previous years only a few traps were used,
while in 1934 a considerably greater number of traps, of a dif-
ferent and improved type, were placed in the field. This ac-
counts for the 22 adults collected.
During the fiscal year 1933-34 thousands of fruits were ex-
amined in the field and in the laboratory. On August 22, 1933,
2 Anastrepha acidusa and 1 Anastrepha suspense larvae were
recovered from guavas. On August 29, 1933, one Anastrepha
acidusa larva was collected on a pupation tray on which guavas






Tenth Biennial Report


had been placed on August 23. On September 18, 1933, one
Anastrepha acidusa larva was found in a hog plum fruit.
On February 5, 1934, two pupae were recovered from a pupa-
tion tray on which figs had been placed on January 30. One of
these pupae was sent to Washington for determination by ex-
perts attached to the Bureau of Entomology. The following
memorandum, prepared for Mr. Lee A. Strong, Chief of the
Bureau, was transmitted during the course of Mr. Strong's visit
to Florida early in March, 1934:
"Dr. Morrison reports on the specimen of pupa re-
ported to have been collected from fig and mentioned in
the attached letter from Dr. Montgomery:
"'Greene reports the specimen as Anastrepha sp.
(?); not a typical Anastrepha although he thinks it
might be. Benjamin also examined it and his report
is the same as Greene's although in different words.
Neither is absolutely certain that it belongs to the genus
Anastrepha.' "
Since last fall large numbers of fruits of all kinds have been
collected and placed on pupation trays in the laboratory. With
the exception of the fig mentioned above, no infestation has been
noted.
Traps
Immediately upon finding of infestation in November, 1930,
wire fly traps of the type used during the Mediterranean fruit
fly campaign were sent to Key West. These were baited with
various fruit juices and liquids, with negative results. In July,
1933, a small supply of glass (McPhail) traps was sent to Key
West by the Bureau of Entomology. These were baited with
the formula recommended by Mr. McPhail. This formula is as
follows:
Brown sugar ......................................... ...... 500 grams
Fresh orange juice ...................... .......... 350 c.c.
W ater to make ................................ .... ... 6 liters
This material was allowed to ferment for five days in a deep
bottle before being used.
On July 12, 1933, one male Anastrepha acidusa was captured
in a trap located at 708 Eaton Street. This was the first fruit
fly captured in a trap at Key West.
One hundred and ten additional traps were sent to Key West
on September 10, 1933, and on March 31, 1934, another hundred
were received. (These traps are the property of the Bureau of
Plant Quarantine, United States Department of Agriculture.)






State Plant Board of Florida


Since January, 1934, 22 adults have been collected from traps.
(See tabulation below.)
S Anastrepha Anastrepha Anastrepha
I acidusa suspense sp. T
Month I -- ----Total
Male I Female Male [ Female Male I Female I
January 0 0 0 0 0 2 2
February 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
March 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
April 0 0 3 11 1 0 15
May 0 0 0 2 0 0 2
June 0 0 1 1 0 0 2
Expenditures
Inspectors have been maintained continuously at Key West
since November, 1930 (with the exception of a few weeks during
the summer of 1931). From that time to September 30, 1933,
the sum of $26,062.72 was expended from state funds. In
August, 1933, arrangements were consummated whereby ap-
proximately $2,000 was set aside by Captain Wm. Demerritt,
Administrator at Key West for the Federal Emergency Relief
Administration, to be used for paying laborers assigned to the
State Plant Board and employed in removing fruit from the
trees, and on the spray crews.
On October 9, 1933, the State Plant Board adopted.resolutions
formally requesting of the Federal Public Works Administration
an allotment to supplement funds from state sources for carrying
on during the fiscal year the eradication campaign at Key West.
After many conferences between representatives of the State
Plant Board, the United States Department of Agriculture and
the Public Works Administrator, the sum of $36,000 was allotted
to the federal department of agriculture for use by the Bureau
of Entomology in the eradication campaign at Key West. This
allotment became effective on April 2, 1934. A tabulation show-
ing amounts expended by the several cooperating agencies at
Key West from November 11, 1930, to June 30, 1934, is shown
below. No special state appropriation has been made for carry-
ing forward the work at Key West-only through the curtail-
ment of other activities has the Board been enabled to continfie
the project.
TABLE OF EXPENDITURES FROM ALL SOURCES FROM NOVEMBER 11, 1930
TO JUNE 30, 1934
From State Funds ............................................. $41,697.32
From Emergency Relief Funds ................... ...... ............... 984.00
From Civil Works Administration Funds ...................................... 909.60
From Bureau of Entomology, United States Department of
Agriculture, Funds .. ....-............................................. 4,521.16
$48,112.08






Tenth Biennial Report


Cooperation Between State and Federal Government
Since the finding of fruit fly by federal inspectors at Key West
on November 11, 1930, the officials of the federal Department
of Agriculture have kept in close touch with the situation by
means of correspondence and conferences with the State Plant
Board, the Board's staff, and the field workers at Key West.
As previously stated, laboratory investigations were carried on
by the Bureau of Entomology from November, 1932 to November,
1933. Equipment in the form of two Fitzhenry Guptill power
sprayers mounted on Federal trucks and one Bean power sprayer,
complete with hose and nozzles, and several hundred glass fly
traps has been supplied by the federal department. Immediately
upon the allotment of $36,000 made by the Public Works Admin-
istration becoming available on April 2, 1934, twelve men en-
gaged in eradication work at Key West were transferred from
state to federal pay roll.
INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION OF IRISH POTATOES
During the past several years there has been an ever increas-
ing demand on the part of Irish potato growers for inspection
and certification of tubers. Certification as to freedom from
infestation by tuber moth and Colorado potato beetle is required
by some states as a condition of entry. In making these inspec-
tions the Plant Commissioner's office adopted the policy of mak-
ing field inspections without charge to growers.
A total of 233 car certificates or permits were issued during
the 1933-34 potato shipping season for shipment to states re-
quiring such certification. In connection with this 7,487 acres
of potatoes were inspected. The cost to the Board for this
service was $2,664.64. Nearly 400 man days were put in by
Plant Board employees.
Inspection and certification of produce as a preliminary to
shipment to other states is not primarily an activity of the Plant
Board. However, as this was necessary if shipments were to
be made, the Board performed this essential service, there being
no other agency available. The Board feels that there was
ample justification for the expenditure of funds in assisting
potato producers to secure an outlet for an appreciable portion
of their crop.
PINK BOLLWORM OF COTTON
The Plant Commissioner's report for the biennium ending June
30, 1932, contained reference to the finding in south Florida of






State Plant Board of Florida


the pink bollworm of cotton and that the Federal plant quarantine
organization had taken over the handling of the situation. The
Plant Commissioner now reports that inspectional and clean-up
work has been handled almost exclusively by the Federal organi-
zation, the State Plant Board rendering assistance from time
to time and cooperating with Federal authorities in every way
possible. The Federal forces have engaged in the effort to de-
stroy infested wild cotton growth in south Florida and have
also kept commercial cotton plantings under close observation.
The former activity, notwithstanding the difficulties involved,
has been attended with very encouraging results. The inspec-
tional work in the north Florida cotton producing area has dis-
closed several very light and very scattered infestations. No
heavy infestation has been found. In each instance appropriate
measures have been instituted to abate the infestation and to
prevent spread. The measures instituted to eradicate and pre-
vent spread of the pink bollworm in the north Florida area have
not materially affected the production or marketing of cotton.
It is hoped and expected that the work being done by the United
States Department of Agriculture will be successful.
MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
The Board has never expended more than the amounts appro-
priated by legislative action.
The Board has repeatedly, through careful expenditures of
public funds, operated on less than the amounts appropriated,
thereby returning to the state treasury unexpended funds. This
is a record of which the Board is exceedingly proud.
The Board has always been.extremely careful with regard to
expenditures from the Emergency Fund. Although this fund
of $50,000 has been provided by legislative action at each session
since and including that of 1923-that is, at six sessions-yet
on only three occasions has any portion been expended. A small
portion was used for coconut bud rot work. Again, a small
portion was used for citrus aphid work. The entire fund was
used but once, this during the Mediterranean fruit fly eradica-
tion campaign.
The Board has received international commendation for results
accomplished during the citrus canker and fruit fly eradication
campaigns.
The Board has also been complimented by having essential
parts of the Florida Plant Act and of the Board's plan of organi-
zation and operation adopted by other states.






Tenth Biennial Report


ENTRY OF CALIFORNIA ORANGES AND LEMONS

The Board, in line with the best quarantine thought, and, in
the opinion of the Board, in furtherance of the best interest ol
Florida, both present and future, amended its quarantine which
had for many years prohibited shipment of oranges and lemons
from California into Florida. In amending this rule the Board
did so in such manner as to allow such shipments under certain
restrictions and safeguards.

ESTIMATES

At the regular monthly meeting on October 15, 1934, the
Board approved a Report to The State Budget Commission cov-
ering the subject of estimates of amounts believed to be necessary
for operating expenses for the biennium beginning July 1, 1935.
The estimates were in the detailed form required by the Com-
mission. From this detailed budget report the following sum-
mary is made up:
SUMMARY OF ESTIMATES PER ANNUM


Salaries
Department or Division Per Annum
Office of the Board ................................$ 1,620
Plant Commissioner's Office --.............. 3,360
E ntom ology .............................................. 6,040
Quarantine ............................................ 34,060
West Indian Frui Fly ....................... 7,680
Apiary Inspection ....-............................. 5,880
Grove Inspection ................................... 67,540
Nursery Inspection ................................ 23,730
TOTAL ..................-.. ......................$149,910


Expenses
Per Annum
$ 1,200
2,400
450
9,000
15,250
4,120
20,000
8,300
$60,720


Total
Per Annum
$ 2,820
5,760
6,490
43,060
22,930
10,000
87.540
32,030
$210,630


Emergency Fund ......................--....-----------.. -- 50,000




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