• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Report of the division directo...
 Apiary inspection section
 Entomology section
 Nematology section
 Plant inspection section
 Plant pathology section
 Staff publications
 Staff personnel














Group Title: Biennial report of the Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture
Title: Biennial report for the period ...
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098573/00002
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report for the period ...
Series Title: 1960/1962: Bulletin of the Division of Plant Industry
Alternate Title: Biennial report
Division of Plant industry ... biennial report
Abbreviated Title: Bienn. rep.- Fla., Div. Plant Ind.
Physical Description: 2 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Division of Plant Industry
Publisher: Division of Plant industry
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1962/64
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Plant inspection -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Plant industry.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 24th (1960/62)-25th (1962/64).
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098573
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01939581
lccn - sc 78002097
issn - 0071-5948
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the period ...
Succeeded by: Division of Plant Industry biennial report

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Report of the division director
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Apiary inspection section
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Entomology section
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Nematology section
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Plant inspection section
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    Plant pathology section
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
    Staff publications
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
    Staff personnel
        Page 163
        Page 164
Full Text



Twenty-Fifth

BIENNIAL REPORT

July 1, 1962 June 30, 1964


MAY


Cowperthwaite Building, Winter Haven


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Doyle Conner, Commissioner








Twenty-Fifth

Biennial Report

July 1, 1962 June 30, 1964


February


1, 1965


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
DOYLE CONNER, Commissioner
DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY
HALWIN L. JONES, Director



Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
Florida Department of Agriculture
Division of Plant Industry
Post Office Drawer 1269
Gainesville, Florida 32601











FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
DOYLE CONNER, Commissioner




DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY


Plant Industry Technical Committee


Vernon Conner, Chairman ............-
Roy Vandegrift, Jr., Vice Chairman ......-..-....
Colin English, Sr._ ------- _---
W. R. "Bill" McMullen -- -------
N. Curtis Peterson, Jr.. --------.
Stuart Simpson- ---- -
Foster Shi Smith ----
Felix H. Uzzell ---
Halwin L. Jones, Secretary -------



Administrative Staff
Halwin L. Jones, Division Director --_..-.--
P. E. Frierson, Assistant Director ------_-....
V. W. Villeneuve, Fiscal Officer _----
R. E. Hancock, Information Officer ---_
H. A. Denmark, Chief, Entomology Section ...
G. G. Norman,
Chief, Methods Development Section.--.
P. M. Packard, Chief, Apiary Section --
C. P. Seymour, Chief, Plant Pathology Section-
C. E. Shepard, Chief, Plant Inspection Section-
(Unfilled), Chief, Nematology Section ..---...


Mount Dora
Canal Point
Tallahassee
-- Tampa
Lakeland
-Monticello
--- Starke
---Sebring
-Gainesville


-- Gainesville
--- Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
--- Gainesville

Winter Haven
Gainesville
--- Gainesville
--- Gainesville
Gainesville


The Division of Plant Industry Biennial Report is no
longer assigned a volume and number.













TABLE OF CONTENTS

P

REPORT OF THE DIVISION DIRECTOR ------

Fiscal Office--------------- ----- -------

Information and Education-------------------

APIARY INSPECTION SECTION --------------------------------

ENTOMOLOGY SECTION ------

NEMATOLOGY SECTION-- -----------------

PLANT INSPECTION SECTION ------------------------------

Citrus Budwood Registration Program

Fruit and Vegetable Certification __

Fruit Fly Detection Program ------

Grades and Standards Program ---

Grove Inspection and Citrus Survey -

Imported Fire Ant and White Fringed Beetle Programs -__----

Personnel Training Program ___ --

Port Inspection and Enforcement of Foreign Plant Quarantines ___

Spreading Decline ----------------------

Sweet Potato Weevil --------------------------------

Turfgrass Certification Program ____-_ ----------

PLANT PATHOLOGY SECTION -------------------------------

STAFF PUBLICATIONS --------------------------------------

STAFF PERSONNEL -------------------------------------------


age
5


95

96

101

104

105

108

109

111

121

121

124

160

163







Report of the Division Director
For Biennium Ending June 30, 1964

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
Gainesville, Florida
February 1, 1965
Honorable Doyle Conner, Commissioner
Florida Department of Agriculture
Tallahassee, Florida
SIR: I have the honor to present herewith my report for
the biennium ending June 30, 1964.
Respectfully,
HALWIN L. JONES, Director
Division of Plant Industry

REPORT OF THE DIVISION DIRECTOR
A commercial airliner crash on February 3, 1964, at the
Gainesville Municipal Airport claimed the life of Division Di-
rector William G. Cowperthwaite. He was appointed State Plant
Commissioner in 1957 and then director of the Division of Plant
Industry when the State Plant Board was reorganized under
the Florida Department of Agriculture in 1961. At the time of
his death, Dr. Cowperthwaite was enroute to Atlanta, Georgia,
to attend a meeting of the Southern Agricultural Workers
Association.
The Division of Plant Industry's Winter Haven office build-
ing and laboratory facilities, located on a 10-acre tract on US
Highway 17 (Lake Alfred Road) just north of the Winter
Haven city limits, were named in honor of Dr. Cowperthwaite
in a dedication ceremony on March 13, 1964.
Housed in the West Wing of the Cowperthwaite Building,
which was erected in 1958, are five administrative offices of the
Plant Inspection Section and a branch laboratory of the Plant
Pathology Section. An addition was completed in 1961 and the
wing now has approximately 4,000 square feet of floor space.
The administrative offices include Spreading Decline, Fruit Fly
Detection, Grove Inspection and Citrus Survey, Region III
Headquarters, and the Plant Inspector Training School.
Administrative offices of the Citrus Budwood Registration
Program were moved from downtown Winter Haven to the
Cowperthwaite Building when the East Wing was completed in
October 1963. Included in the 4,785 square feet of floor space is
5







6 Division of Plant Industry

an air-conditioned auditorium with a seating capacity of 75
persons.
Other facilities at the Cowperthwaite Building include a
greenhouse and a storage shed.
The Plant Industry Technical Committee membership at the
close of the biennium was as follows:
Term Expiration
Member Industry Represented Date
Vernon Conner Citrus 1-15-65
P. O. Box 183
Mount Dora. Florida
Colin English, Sr. Citizen-at-Large 1-15-65
Lewis State Bank Building
Tallahassee, Florida
W. R. "Bill" McMullen Citrus 1-15-65
3422 Jean Circle
Tampa, Florida
N. Curtis Peterson, Jr. Ornamental 1-15-66
225 New Auburndale Road Horticulture
Lakeland, Florida
Stuart Simpson Seed 1-15-66
P. O. Box 160
Monticello, Florida
Foster Shi Smith Forestry 1-15-65
905 West Madison Street
Starke, Florida
Felix H. Uzzell Apiary 1-15-66
Route 1, Box 57
Sebring, Florida
Roy Vandegrift, Jr. Vegetable 1-15-65
Star Route, Box 13-E
Canal Point, Florida

The Committee elected Mr. Conner Chairman and Mr. Van-
degrift Vice Chairman for the biennium.
The Apiary Inspection Section examined 336,052 colonies of
honeybees in 10,727 apiaries, found and destroyed by burning
3,160 American foulbrood infected colonies in 897 apiaries, is-
sued permits for 50,926 colonies of out-of-state bees to move into
Florida and 136 special moving permits for moving from point
to point within the state, issued 1,247 moving permits and 136
certificates of inspection to Florida beekeepers, and paid $22,720
to Florida beekeepers in compensation for bees and equipment
destroyed because of American foulbrood. Total operating cost
of the Apiary Section was 39.90 per colony inspection. This
was 1.3f per colony more than the amount for the 1960-62
biennium.







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


A revision of the Florida Bee Disease Law approved by the
1963 State Legislature requires beekeepers to identify each
apiary with the owner's name, address and telephone number.
The Entomology Section's general reference collection at
the end of the biennium contained approximately 266,500
pinned specimens, 7,300 vials of alcohol specimens, and 17,500
insect and mite slides. There were 22,867 identifications made
by the entomologists (an identification may consist of one or of
many specimens).
Fumigation tests for the camellia mining scale were con-
ducted at Largo, Pinellas County, and the results were encour-
aging. This scale was reported only in Pinellas and Hillsborough
Counties.
The pink citrus rust mite (Aculus pelekassi K.) has been
found in 20 counties and may prove to be more difficult to con-
trol than the citrus rust mite.
Insecticide tests on foliage plants were conducted in the
Jacksonville, Duval County, area. Little data for insect control
on foliage plants is available from the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations.
Cataloging of the Library is in its final stage.
Two 48-drawer insect cabinets were purchased with Flor-
ida State Museum funds.
A number of collection donations were received by the Flor-
ida State Collection of Arthropods.
The Nematology Section processed 9,402 soil samples at the
Gainesville Laboratory (diagnostic). This was an increase of 67
percent over the 1960-62 biennium. An additional 343 samples
were processed in cooperation with the Entomology and Plant
Pathology Sections.
An annual survey of caladiums was begun in July 1963. A
survey also was made of nematodes infesting cabbage palms in
the Everglades. Another survey was conducted to determine
distribution of the pseudo-root-knot nematode of turf.
A chart was formulated which enables plant specialists to
determine the number of samples to take from an area. Two
new soil sub-sampling tools, one for the greenhouse and one for
the field, were distributed to Division plant specialists.
An investigation of the relationship between root-knot
nematode and crown gall bacteria was initiated by Division
nematologists.
The amount of nursery stock in the state on June 30, 1964,
totaled 360,569,130 plants, an increase of 24,037,788 over






Division of Plant Industry


June 30, 1962. The number of nurseries under inspection de-
creased from 5,495 to 4,867 during the same period. This was
approximately the number of nurseries under inspection eight
years ago, but well below the peak of 5,513 reached in 1960-61.
The average number of inspections per nursery increased from
the 1960-62 figure of 2.48 to 2.84 during this biennium. A total
of 460.90 acres and 6,029,302 plants were quarantined in an
effort to protect the nursery industry from dangerous plant
pests.
Following a conference with Division officials, the Califor-
nia Department of Agriculture modified its corn regulations.
Future corn shipments to California are to be based on field-
treatment verification as opposed to the actual field inspections
required in the past. This modification was essential since the
increased use of parathion by corn growers not only had made
field inspections obsolete but was creating a health hazard for
Division inspectors.
An investigation by the Division's technical staff proved
that the root-knot nematode can be killed in caladium tubers
by hot water treating at 122 F for 30 minutes duration. This
discovery will open markets for the state's caladium growers
that were previously denied the outlets because of certification
restrictions.
Two major fruit fly eradication campaigns were brought to
a successful conclusion. Florida's third infestation of the Medi-
terranean fruit fly (medfly), June 8, 1962, to May 7, 1963, was
confined to Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach Counties and cost
the State and Federal governments approximately $1,000,000.
The fourth campaign, June 17, 1963, to November 26, 1963, was
confined to Dade County and cost about $120,000 in State and
Federal funds.
It is estimated that 9,000 acres of Florida citrus are in-
fested with burrowing nematode, the causal agent of spreading
decline. Buffers (fumigated soil strips) have been placed
around 6,615 acres. A total of 1,822 commercial groves have
been found infested with the burrowing nematode. Of these
properties, 881 have been pushed and treated and 581 have
been buffered. This leaves 360 infested groves that should be
pushed and treated or buffered.
Citrus nurseries throughout the state were hard hit by the
December 1962 freeze. The Budwood Office served as a clearing
house for information on citrus propagative material not ruined
by the freeze. To forestall large scale use of virus infected






Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


propagative material, a service was instituted to assure full
utilization of registered budwood supplies.
As of June 30, 1962, 93,989 buds from the Division's Bud-
wood Foundation Grove had been distributed to more than
100 persons seeking to establish their own scion plantings
of superior virus-free trees. Production of registered nursery
trees for the report period totaled 4,905,607, nearly 2,000,000
more than were grown in the preceding nine years.
Two important changes in the Budwood Registration pro-
gram were made. 1) Participants were allowed until February 1,
1964, to apply for registration of scion groves previously de-
clared eligible. Registration now must take place within six
months after eligibility is attained (normally two years from
planting). 2) Parent and scion trees that become infected with
tristeza remain in the program.
A fruit and tree damage survey was conducted December 26-
30, 1962, in cooperation with the United States Department of
Agriculture Statistical Reporting Service to determine the De-
cember 13 freeze damage to fruit and trees and to what extent
on a state-wide basis. Another survey was begun in July 1963
on all sample properties as well as all new properties for the
years 1961-62 and 1962-63 to determine the full extent of dam-
age from the freeze and to bring the current survey up to date.
A sum of $250,000 was appropriated by the 1963 State
Legislature for a cooperative Imported Fire Ant Control Pro-
gram between the State of Florida, the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture, and the individual landowner concerned.
The program was operated through a county fire ant commit-
tee which determined the areas to be treated with the funds
available for that particular area. A total of 93,115 acres has
been treated since the program was begun in the fall of 1963.
The material or bait used was mirex, a non-residual which con-
sists of a food material (soybean oil), a toxicant (mirex), and
a granular carrier (corncob grits) for the food material and
toxicant. Mirex can be used on any type land regardless of its
usage, and it is not hazardous to fish and wildlife.
White-fringed beetle quarantine boundaries in Leon, Gads-
den, and Liberty Counties were extended, following the discovery
of new beetle infestations by United States Department of Agri-
culture personnel.
The Division's 14-week Plant Inspector Training School
graduated 14 trainees (all college graduates) during the bien-
nium. The school, recognized by other state and federal agricul-






Division of Plant Industry


tural agencies as the most comprehensive in the country, offers a
curriculum that covers every facet of the Division's responsi-
bility.
A revised Grades and Standards for Nursery Plants, (Part
I), book was published and more than 10,000 copies distributed
to Florida residents in 1963. The manual has 126 pages with
nearly 300 illustrations explaining the grading of nursery
plants. Work has begun on Grades and Standards for Nursery
Plants, (Part II), which will deal with trees and palms. The
Division produced an 8-minute motion picture (sound and
color) on Grades and Standards. Other ways in which the pro-
gram was promoted included exhibits in several expositions, the
printing of a three-page folder and a 17 x 22 wall chart in color
explaining the program, the preparation of special articles to
newspapers and magazines, and the airing of a number of
Grades and Standards television and radio programs.
A new nematode pest of turf, Hysoperine grammis, was
discovered in a certified planting the latter part of the bien-
nium. A total of 5,403,380 square feet of turfgrass was moved
under the blue tag certification during the biennium as com-
pared to 1,283,038 square feet moved during 1960-62. This is
over a 300 percent increase and represents the largest volume
ever sold in the Turfgrass Certification Program's 7-year his-
tory.
Although the responsibility of inspection and certification of
citrus fruits not requiring fumigation was assumed by the
Division of Fruit and Vegetable Inspection on July 1, 1962, the
Division of Plant Industry was responsible for certification of
citrus fruits requiring fumigation and less-than-carload ship-
ments from points other than packing houses. The Division of
Plant Industry certified 3,926 standard boxes of fumigated
citrus and 158 boxes of unfumigated citrus to Arizona. Most of
the 30,000,000 pounds of citrus fruits imported from the Carib-
bean area and some South American countries following the
severe December 1962 freeze had to be fumigated and then cer-
tified by the Division of Plant Industry.
The Plant Pathology Section processed 7,377 plant specimens,
an increase of 43.1 percent over the 1960-62 biennium. Person-
nel at the Winter Haven laboratory indexed 10,616 citrus trees
for tristeza, an increase of 22.3 percent over the 1960-62
biennium.
The coconut malady (lethal yellowing) investigation in the
Key West area was given an added impetus with the addition of







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


an insect-proof screened building designed to assist the techni-
cal sections in the search for the causal agent. The building and
other assistance was provided by the U. S. Navy Bureau of
Yards and Docks in cooperation with the U. S. Naval Air Station
at Key West. Life history and vector studies of a whitefly,
Aleurodicus new species, were initiated by the Entomology
Section in connection with the lethal yellowing problem.
All news media-daily and weekly newspapers, wire serv-
ices, magazines, house organs, periodicals, special publications,
and radio and television stations-were utilized to disseminate
information pertaining to the Division's wide range of responsi-
bilities and its activities to protect Florida agriculture. The
Division's quarterly News Bulletin, a printed tabloid newspaper
with a controlled circulation of 8,000, carried changes in rules
and regulations, and articles prepared by the technical and
regulatory staff.
Publications prepared and published by the Division in-
cluded the Grades and Standards for Nursery Plants, ( art I) ;
a Grades and Standards for Nursery Plants folder; a Grove
Census and Citrus Survey folder; the Division's Twenty-Fourth
Biennial Report; and the monthly Tri-ology Technical Report.
Three major motion picture films, all in sound and color,
were produced. These were The Medfly in Florida; The Plight
of the Honeybee; and A Modern Nursery Rhyme. Work also
was begun on two films which are scheduled for completion
within the next biennium. News film clips were produced for
several television stations.
The Division placed exhibits in 27 shows, fairs and exposi-
tions. The displays ranged from a 6-square foot poster to 300-
square foot exposition booths. Among the subject areas depicted
were the medfly eradication programs, including a permanent
display in the Dade County Museum of Science and Natural
History; certified turfgrass; apiary inspection; grades and
standards for nursery plants; and the role played by the Di-
vision's plant specialists in Florida's agricultural industry.

FISCAL OFFICE
V. W. VILLENEUVE, Fiscal Officer

RESOURCES

A statement in regard to the funds available for the Di-
vision's use during 1962-63 and 1963-64 as appropriated by the








12 Division of Plant Industry


Legislature and released by the Budget Commission is as fol-
lows:

Table 1. Resources


Balance
Forward


Total
1962-63 1963-64 Biennium


General Revenue
General Activities
Salaries. ................
Other Personal Services...
Expenses................
Refunds...............
Operating Capital Outlay..
Refunds.. ...........
Apiarian Indemnities.....
Citrus Budwood Founda-
tion...................
Citrus Budwood Research
Building ...............

Total...............

Restricted-
Spreading Decline Eradica-
tion
Salaries................
Other Personal Services.
Expenses..............
Refunds.............
Operating Capital Outlay
Refunds.............

Total ........... .

Emergency Medfly Eradi-
cation (Lump Sum) .....


Emergency Medfly Trap-
ping Program
Salaries ..............
Other Personal Services.
Expenses.............
Refunds ............

Total.............


Imported Fire Ant Control
(Lump Sum)...........

Total General Revcnue
(Operating) ...........

Agency Fund
Nursery Inspection Fees
Receipts........... .. .

Grand Total-All Funds. .


$ 54,603 $
1,067
747

13

3,306

3 .


730,725
20,500
192,000
931
27,000
350
10,000


..... ... 56,000

$ 59,739 $1,037,506


$ 6,294
33
31,221

5,155


$ 42,703


$ 45,401
2,000
145,000
1,617
10,000
845

$ 204,863


$ 829,146 $1,614,474
8,500 30,06(i7
125,600 318,347
698 1,629
21, 860 48,873
.... . 350
7,500 20, 06

3

.......... 56,000

$ 993,304 $2,090,549


$ 48,470
2,000
241,420
4,159
8,250


$ 304,299


$ 100,165
4,033
417,641
5.776
23,405
845

$ 551,865


$......... $ 325,000 $ 100,000 $ 425,000


. .........




% . . . . .
. ... ..






$ 102,442



S 129,856

$ 232,298


$ 47, 160
2,000
65,840
32

$ 115.032


$ 35,700
1,000
63,300
4

$ 100,004


$ 82,860
3,000
129,140
36

$ 215,036


..... . 148,000 148,000


81.682,401 $1,645,607 $3,430,450


$ 82,645

$1,765,046


$ 85,234

$1,730,841


$ 297,735

$3,728,185







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


EXPENDITURES

Expenditures of the Division for each year of the biennium
are shown in Table 2 (see pages 14-15).



ESTIMATES

The Division Director presents herewith the estimates he
believes to be necessary to carry out the Division's activities in
a satisfactory manner during the current year 1964-65 and the
two years of biennium 1965-67. (See Table 3, pages 16-18.)



CAPITAL OUTLAY

Summary of Proposed Building and Improvements
for the 1965-71 Bienniums

Estimated
Project Cost

1. Headquarters Building, Laboratories and Greenhouses,
G ainesville ............... .. ............. ....... $998,300







Table 2. Expenditures


1962-63

General Revenue
General Activities
1. A dm inistrative ................................
2. Technical Committee...........................
3. E ntom ology.................................
4. Plant Pathology .............................
5. Nematology ................... ...............
6. Apiary Inspection ....... ................
7. General Expenses......... ...............
8. Citrus Crop Estimate ................. ......
9. Plant Inspection Nursery... ................
10. Plant Inspection Budwood ...................
11. Plant Inspection Medfly ........... ....
Total- General Activities ...................

Restricted
Spreading Decline Eradication ......... .. .....
Emergency Medfly Eradication....................
Emergency Medfly Trapping ....... . .....
Citrus Budwood Research Building ............... .
Apiarian Indemnities ............................
Total General Revenue (Operating).............. ....

Agency Fund
Nursery Inspection Fees............................
Total All Funds (Operating) ................ ........


Other
Salaries Personal
Services


$ 69,311

61,547
43,165
23,685
47,520

36,780
386,870
41,226
34,921
$ 745,025


$ 1,551

638
1,336
2,053
16,938
70


777
7,669
$ 31,032


Operating
Expenses Capital
Outlay


$ 11,784
935
8,921
9,657
2,100
13,656
41,285

72,078
15,637
14,078
$ 190,131


$ 5,419

4,491
5,516
410
5,601


1,495
4,239
229
8 27,400


Total


$ 88,065
935
75,597
59,674
28,248
83,715
41,355
36,780
460,443
61,879
56,897
S 993,588


$ 43,673 $ 1,904 $ 177,799 $ 14,809 $ 238,185
$......... $ 1,698 8 322,313 $ ......... $ 324,011
$ 39,571 $ 1.000 $ 65,425 $ ......... $ 105,996
$ ......... ..... . . ......... $ 18,059 $ 18,059
$......... $ ........ $ 11,356 $......... $ 11,356
S 828,269 $ 35,634 $ 767,024 $ 60,268 $1,691,195


$ 25,867 $ ......... S 61,722 $ 4,998 $ 92,587
$ 854,136 $ 35,634 $ 828,746 $ 65,266 $1,783,782




Table 2. Expenditures (Continued)


1963-64

General Revenue
General Activities
1. A dm inistrative ................................
2. Technical Committee. ................... . .
3. Entom ology.........................
4. Plant Pathology ........................ ...
5. N em atology ......... . ........
6. Apiary Inspection....... .. ..
7. General Expenses. ............... .. .
8. Citrus Crop Estimate.. ... . ..
9. Plant Inspection Nursery .. ............ . .
10. Plant Inspection Budwood ...
11. Plant Inspection Mcdfly ... ...
Total-General Activities ...

Restricted
Spreading Decline Eradication ...... . ..
Emergency Medfly Eradication ....
Emergency Medfly Trapping..............
Citrus Budwood Research Building ........... .
Apiarian Indemnities (Deficieney Fund included).. .
Imported Fire Ant Control ... . ... ..
Total General Revenue (Operating) .. ......... . ..

Agency Fund
Nursery Inspection Fees...... .. ...
Total All Funds (Operating) ....... ......

Total All Expenditures 1962-63 ...... .
Total All Expenditures 1963-64 ........
Grand Total (Biennium) ...........


Other
Salaries Personal
Services


70,052

62,448
54,830
33,851


251

3.177
953
734


Operating
Expenses Capital
Outlay


1,880
286
7,488
8,278
2,346


1.834

1,295
129)
335


Total


74.017
286
74,408
64,190
37,266


48, 1 ......... 14,61.1 83) 4,;367S
..... 500 30. 123 4, 774 44,397
50.010 50,010
407,334 618 10,319 660 418,931
40,963 13-1 8,975 1.276 51 ,648
41.236 333 14,090 4, 695 60,354
$ 809,641 $ 7,000 $ 107,399 $ 15.834 $ 939,874 "


$ 44,287 $ 1,500 $ 200,542 $ 7.563 $ 253,892


$ 29.946 $ 68 51.198 81,827
S.... . . . $ 37.939 $ 37. (39)
. $ ... . $ (10, .1 . .. $ 10. 1)8 o
8 12.732 8. 8. 52,280 $ 4S $ 65,060
8 86.965 $ 2,183 $ 314,218 $ 45,550 448,916


8 20,088 $.
$ 916,694 $


.. S 112:371
91,18:3 533,1)


$ 9,849 $ 142,311
$ 71,23:3 $1,531,101

. .. 1,783,782
..... . 1,531,101
.. . $3,314,883







Table 3. Estimates


Other
Salaries Personal
Services


Operating
Expenses Capital
Outlay


Operating Funds by Sections
A dm inistrative....................................
Technical Com m ittee ..............................
E ntom ology ......................................
Library..........................................
Plant Pathology...................................
Nematology ......................................
Apiary .......................................
General Expense.......... .......................
Citrus Crop Estimate................ ... .....
Plant Inspection Nursery ...........................
Plant Inspection Budwood ..........................
Plant Inspection Medfly ............ ...........

Total General Activities ......................

Restricted
Spreading Decline Eradication ......................

Emergency Medfly Trapping....................

Apiarian Indemnities .............................

Fire Ant Control .............. ............ ......

Total General Revenue ...............................

Agency Funds
Nursery Inspection Fees .............................

TOTAL-1964-65 .............................


8 70,036 $


71,150

57,816
36,399
53,040

53,250
429,575
44,718
49,980

$ 865,964


1


1

2

1



$ 8.


750 $ 2,740
500
,200 9,025
1,225
900 10,650
,200 2,980
19,500
,500 43,850

,200 38,850
750 15,650
.... 39,500

,500 $ 184,470


$ 2,018
1,900
2,900
3,550
380
100


2,300
5,500
10,500

$ 29,148


$ 51,220 $ 2,000 S 241,420 S 5,855

$ 21,960 $ ......... $ ......... .........

$ ......... $ ......... 7 ,500 $ .........

$ 23,559 $ 2,500 $ 100,450 $ 1,900

$ 962,703 $ 13,000 $ 533,840 $ 36,903


$ 34,312

$ 997,015


S. ........

$ 13,000


$ 98,610*

8 632,450


$ 6,010

$ 42,913


$ 75.544
500
83,275
4,125
72,916
40,959
72,640
46,350
53,250
471,925
66,618
99,980

$1,088,082


$ 300,495

$ 21,960

$ 7,500

$ 128,409

$1,546,446


$ 138,932

$1,685,378


* Includes refunds and service charges.


1964-65


Total




Table 3. Estimates (Continued)


1965-66

Operating Funds by Sections
Administrative ....................................
Technical Committee .............................
Entomology ................. ...................
Library............. ...... ..................
Plant Pathology.......... ....... ... . .......
N em atology ......................................
A p ia ry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .
General Expense..... ..
Citrus Crop Estimate ..............................
Plant Inspection ........ . . .. ...
Citrus Budwood Registration .. ..
Special Programs:
A dm inistrative ........ .......................
Fruit Fly Survey ............................ .
M ethods Development.. ... ..................

Total-General Activities .......... .. .

Restricted
Apiarian Indemnities ..... ........................

Spreading D decline ............................ ...

Total- Restricted ...........................

Total General Revenue.......... .............

A agency Funds....................................
Nursery Inspection Fees Trust Fund.................

Total All Funds .....................................
Less Lapse Factor...... ..........................


Other
Salaries Personal
Services


$ 90,240 $......... $ 16,000
...... .... . 1,000
96,870 1,500 15,600
.. .. . 2,650
78,964 1,500 13,850
46,485 1,200 6,900
60,450 .......... 22,350
... .. ,000 54,250
55,740 . .. .
133,080 1,000 74,700
47,250 750 17,900

19,500 .......... 2,850
81,780 .......... 43,300
... . ... . 15 ,600

$1,010,359 $ 11.950 $ 286,950


5. 3......

53,390

$ 53,390

$1,063,749


$ 44,965

$1,108,714
22,196

$1,086,518


$ . . . . .

1,500

$ 1,500

$ 13,450

$ . . . .

$ 13,450


$ 10,000

572,900

$ 582,900

$ 869,850


$ 24,753*

$ 894,603


* Includes refunds and service charges.


Operating
Expenses Capital
Outlay


$ 5,500

5,580
5,700
1,947
2,540
1,880


1,552
6,300


5,350
1,500

$ 37,849


$ . . . . .

22,050

$ 22,050

$ 59,899


$ 1,700

$ 61,599


Total


$ 111,740
1,000
119,550
8,350
96,261
57,125
84,680
60,250
55,740
510,332
72,200

22,350
130,430
17,100

$1,347,108


3 10,000

649,840

$ 659,840

$2,006,948


$ 69,418

$2,076,366
22,196

$2,054,170




Table 3. Estimates (Continued)

Other Operating
1966-67 Salaries Personal Expenses Capital Total
Services Outlay


Operating Funds by Sections
A dm inistrative ....................................
Technical Committee ..............................
Entom ology ......................................
Library .................... ..... .. ........
Plant Pathology .................. .................
Nematology ......................................
Apiary......................... .................
General Expense ..................................
Citrus Crop Estimate .................. ............
Plant Inspection .......................... .. .....
Citrus Budwood Registration .................. ....
Special Programs:
Adm inistrative .................................
Fruit Fly Survey ....................... .......
Method Development .................... ..........

Total-General Activities ....................

Restricted
Apiarian Indemnities ..............................
Spreading Decline ...................... .... .....

Total-Restricted ...........................

Total General Revenue................ ... .........

Agency Funds
Nursery Inspection Fees Trust Fund...............

T otal A ll Funds ......................................
Less Lapse Factor. ................................


Grand Total (Biennium)............................


$ 94,420

101,130

82,954
48,750
63,260

57,660
447,810
49,410

20,460
84,780


$1,050,634


$ ........
56,080

$ 56,0E0

$1,106,714


$ 46,460

$1,153,174
23,087

$1,130,087

$2,216,605


$ ........
1,500

1,500
1,200

6,000

1,000
750




$ 11,950


$ ..........
1,500

$ 1,500

$ 13,450


$ 11,400
1,000
15,100
2,450
18,800
7,200
23,975
55,400

62,850
16,700

2,900
43,200
15,750

$ 276,725


$ 10,000
571,700

$ 581,700

$ 858,425


$ 1,150

3,355
5,000
3,730
357
10,440


6,630
400


6,250


$ 37,312


$ . . . . .
11,350

$ 11,350

$ 48,662


$ 106,970
1,000
121,085
7,450
106,984
57,507
97,675
61,400
57,660
518,290
67,260

23,360
134,230
15,750

$1,376,621


$ 10,000
640,630

$ 650,630

$2,027,251


$.......... $ 34,425* $ 4,075 $ 84,960

$ 13,450 $ 892,850 $ 52,737 $2,112,211
S23,087

$2,089,124

$ 26,900 $1,787,453 $ 114,336 $4,143,294


* Includes refunds and service charges.







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


INFORMATION AND EDUCATION

R. E. HANCOCK, Information Officer
Many informational and educational services were offered to
the plant industry, State and Federal agencies, educational insti-
tutions, and to the general public.
Weekly and daily newspapers, wire services, periodicals,
house organs, and radio and television stations were supplied
with news releases pertaining to the Division's activities and
regulations as well as those regulations enforced by other
states and countries. News articles and photographs also were
made available to several publications having a nation-wide
circulation.
The Division's quarterly News Bulletin, a printed tabloid
newspaper with a controlled circulation of 8,000, carried arti-
cles dealing with the control, containment and eradication
programs of the Division; changes in State and Federal rules
and regulations; and articles prepared by the technical and
regulatory staff members. Copies of each issue were sent to all
registered nurserymen, stock dealers and agents, representatives
of the citrus and vegetable industries, libraries throughout the
world, State and Federal agencies, and a large number of citi-
zens who requested they be placed on the mailing list.
A house organ-the Reporter-was published monthly to
keep Division personnel informed on Department and Division
policies. It also contained announcements and items of interest
to the personnel.
Division personnel appeared frequently throughout the
state, speaking to civic clubs, trade organizations and related
industry groups. To help get their messages across, the speakers
used visual aid materials (including color and black and white
slides, sound motion pictures, charts, and photographs) pre-
pared by the Information and Education staff. The visual aids
also were used in the Division's in-service training program.
Editorial services were rendered to the Publications Com-
mittee in reviewing all manuscripts prepared by Division per-
sonnel. Assistance also was rendered in the preparation of the
Grades and Standards for Nursery Plants (Part I) special
publication; Grades and Standards for Nursery Plants wall
chart; Grades and Standards for Nursery Plants folder; Grove
Census and Citrus Survey leaflet; and the Twenty-Fourth Bi-
ennial Report of the Division.






Division of Plant Industry


An information office was staffed in Ft. Lauderdale during
the third Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) eradication program
and again in Miami during the fourth medfly battle. Liaison
was set up and established between newspapers and radio and
television stations in each area. The office also handled inquiries
from the general public.
Miscellaneous activities included attendance at joint State-
Federal conferences on the medfly campaigns, burrowing nem-
atode, Mexican fruit fly, citrus tree survey, and imported fire
ant; attendance at the regular meetings of the Division's
Publications Committee and section chiefs; conferences with
staff members to help with the preparation of articles and
manuscripts, letter writing, research on past projects, public
relations, and writing of speeches; pre-planning and program-
ming of the Address-O-Graph machines; coordination of all
Division printing jobs; and the rendering of assistance to the
Information Section of the Commissioner's Office in Tallahassee.

Exhibits

E. M. COLLINS, JR., Information Specialist

Exhibits, ranging from a 6-square foot poster to a 300-
square foot display, were placed in 27 shows, fairs, and exposi-
tions.
Nine of the exhibits were constructed to explain the Medi-
terranean fruit fly (medfly) eradication campaigns of 1962 and
1963. A permanent medfly exhibit was installed in two display
cases in the Dade County Museum of Science and Natural His-
tory at the request of Museum officials. One diorama has a mural
of an orange grove for the background and tells in detail the life
cycle of the medfly. The other case explains the aerial bait
spray program and points up the fact that, although the bait
spray is the fastest and most effective weapon against a medfly
infestation, only 0.3 pound of the actual insecticide (malath-
ion) is applied per acre.
A new turfgrass display, constructed of aluminum for light
weight and portability, consisted of three panels which em-
phasized certified turfgrass for homes, playgrounds and golf
courses. It was exhibited first in May 1963 at the Second Annual
Turfgrass Trade Show in Miami and later at five other exposi-
tions.
The first of two apiary exhibits had a panel display employ-







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


ing a continuous slide projector, a live healthy comb of bees
and a comb of brood infected with the bee disease, American
foulbrood. Photographs and charts also were used to empha-
size key points in the apiary program. The other apiary exhibit
employed three free-standing panels. The homosota panels were
later removed and replaced by plywood and the statistical
information was replaced by photographs. This exhibit was
shown five times during the biennium.
The 1964 Florida Citrus Exposition provided an opportunity
to emphasize the role played by the Division of Plant Industry's
plant specialist. Line drawings were combined with photo-
graphs in a flow of rectangles to give a complete picture of the
total man-the Plant Specialist.
Other programs, such as the Grades and Standards for
Nursery Plants and the various functions of the technical sec-
tions, were highlighted through displays.

Photography and Art
E. L. WELLS, Photographer
Routine requests were for black and white and for color
photographs of diseased leaves and plants, and close-ups of
insects and insect damage. The photographic laboratory proc-
essed 2,019 negatives, 148 rolls of black and white film-20 to
36 exposures each, and 8,223 prints ranging in size from
1"x 11/" to 16"x20". Seven hundred duplicate color slides
were prepared for the three technical sections, 269 20-exposure
rolls of color film were exposed and processed, and 140 sheets of
4" x 5" color film were used. The volume of black and white
and color photography was double that of the 1960-62 biennium.
Photographs were provided for the quarterly News Bulletin,
the monthly Tri-ology Technical Report, magazines, and news-
papers. Other photographs were requested by students working
on science projects in elementary and high schools. Photographs
also were prepared for the Grades and Standards for Nursery
Plants, (Part I), special publication and for a future publication
on trees and palms. Illustrations were provided for an Entomol-
ogy Section bulletin on scale insects and for a Nematology
Section bulletin on nursery sanitation scheduled to be pub-
lished in the next biennium. Color plates and black and white
plates were furnished for an Entomology Section publication,
Lepidoptera of Florida.






Division of Plant Industry


Division personnel were provided with color slides for illus-
trated talks on garden insects, scale insects, apiary inspection,
African violets, Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), imported fire
ant, lethal yellowing disease of coconut palms in Key West, bur-
rowing nematode barriers, camellia flower blight, orchid in-
sects, sanitation procedures for nurseries, evaluation of insecti-
cides for nursery use, and other subjects.
Photographic services were provided to the Florida State
Museum in Gainesville under an agreement to do its pho-
tography in return for use of the Museum's darkroom and
laboratory facilities. Exhibits were photographed for Museum
records, and a series of drawings to tell the history of the
Payne's Prairie Wildlife Refuge south of Gainesville was repro-
duced photographically for use on billboards on two major
highways.
A special project was launched to investigate the possibili-
ties of using infrared photography to detect the presence of
diseased citrus trees in Florida. Preliminary work using in-
frared film in aerial cameras in a small plane flying at 500 to
1900 feet showed that healthy trees appear light on infrared
sensitive film and diseased trees appear dark. Further investi-
gation will be carried on during the next biennium.
Three major films were completed, all in sound and color.
THE MEDFLY IN FLORIDA (15 minutes). The film tells
of the third invasion and eradication of the medfly and the
statewide fruit fly detection trap line.
THE PLIGHT OF THE HONEYBEE (5 minutes). This
film reveals how the Division's apiary inspectors provide con-
stant inspection of the thousands of colonies in Florida to pre-
vent the spread of bee diseases. Modern honey production meth-
ods, close-up pictures of the honeybee and destruction of
diseased colonies are blended together to make a fascinating
story for any audience, young or old.
A MODERN NURSERY RHYME (8 minutes). A non-
technical film, it is entertaining and informative, suitable for
garden clubs, ornamental nurserymen, and general audiences of
any age. The film was produced by the Division of Plant In-
dustry to illustrate the Grades and Standards for Nursery
Plants Program.
A 15-minute, sound, color film for the Plant Pathology Sec-
tion was begun. It will show the work of the Pathology Section
and the ways the pathologists serve Florida agriculture. A







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report 23

film on apiary inspection which will be longer and more de-
tailed than THE PLIGHT OF THE HONEYBEE also was
started.
Several short films on the medfly and the grades and stand-
ards program were made and released to television stations.
All scripts were written, directed and filmed by Division
personnel and were produced by the Division of Plant Industry.
In February 1964, the Division photographer attended the
Calvin Motion Picture Workshop in Kansas City, Missouri.
This was a one-week school in all phases of motion picture
production.
Cartoon drawings were provided for six Division exhibits,
the Reporter, the Director's Office, and for the Plant Inspection,
Plant Pathology, Nematology, and Entomology Sections.
Photographs and negatives were hand retouched when nec-
essary, large photographic murals were colored for exhibits and
displays, and signs, posters, and certificates were made.









Apiary Inspection Section


P. M. PACKARD, Chief Apiary Inspector

SUMMARY OF SECTION ACTIVITIES

In a review of the Florida honey industry's place in the
growing economy of the state, it is found that its approximate
300,000 colonies of honeybees continue to produce annually in
excess of 20,000,000 pounds of honey with a package retail value
estimated at $10,000,000. Florida honey has a wide distribution
across the nation and hundreds of barrels are shipped to Europe
each year.
Florida annually produces an estimated 98,000 queen bees
and 18,000 packages of bees. The total value of queens sold is
estimated at $125,000; package bee shipments gross $126,000.
Queens and package bees are chiefly utilized by beekeepers in
northern states to replace colony losses due to severe winters.
In addition to this, they are sent by airplane to countries in
Europe and South America which have undeveloped honey in-
dustries. Hundreds of colonies of honeybees are annually trans-
ported by boat to Andros Island in the Bahamas to act as
pollinators for the extensive vegetable crops grown there.
Thousands of colonies are used for pollination in Florida where
vegetable growers produce any type of cucurbit.
Apiary sites for honey production will continue to become
scarce as Florida continues to increase in population. New
subdivisions will continue to take up more land, and the grow-
ing cattle industry will need more and more pastures. As the
missile program expands, more areas will be eliminated from
use of the beekeeper. More land drainage is in prospect, which
will change the sources of nectar. Planned timber farming with
chemical undergrowth control will change the picture as far as
the production of gallberry honey is concerned. Limited access
highways, which require 40 acres to the mile, will consume
much land that is now used for honey production.
Florida now has over 60 commercial honey producers own-
ing and operating over 1,000 colonies each. These producers
have found it economically necessary to increase their number
of colonies. Their investment in trucks, extracting equipment
and other equipment, such as hive loaders capable of handling
more colonies at no great increase in overhead, made this in-







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


crease not only possible, but profitable. To operate in an efficient
and economical manner requires trained personnel, which means
permanent employment of help. Improved hybrid bees for
greater honey production have been and will continue to be one
of the major factors in the success of these large honey produc-
ing outfits. With the proper use of disease preventive chemicals
and efficient colony inspection for brood diseases, colony infec-
tion rate has remained low.

Disease Outlook
To lessen the frequency of infectious disease, it is necessary
to reduce contact between the host and the pathogen in as many
ways as possible. It should be realized, however, that it is
vastly more difficult to eradicate infectious disease than to con-
trol it, and eradication is rarely achieved. Unlike domestic ani-
mals and plants, bees cannot be kept and bred in isolation from
their natural habitat (the comb) and fellow creatures, and this
makes the problem of disease eradication most difficult. The
destruction of infected colonies and the use of preventive
chemicals certainly appear to be the best controls found yet;.
however, persistent use or over-use of drugs encourages the
increase of resistant strains of pathogens. It is becoming more
and more apparent that this is happening with colonies con-
tinuously treated with sulfathiazole. It appears that no single
drug or antibiotic gives continual protection, providing spores
are constantly in contact with any one chemical. Any condition
or disturbance of the colony that delays its normal development
will increase the spread of infection.
Inspectors continue to destroy infected colonies. While do-
ing so, they endeavor to enlighten all beekeepers in disease
recognition and acquaint them with chemical disease control,
including the benefits and the detriments. The chief activities
of the Section continue to be the never-ending task of brood
examination, destruction of infected colonies, disease education,
and distribution of information on chemical disease control.
Certainly, the combination of these activities will continue to
keep bee diseases at a low ebb.

Resume
The number of colonies examined during the biennium was
the largest during any corresponding period in the history of
apiary inspection service. The number of diseased colonies







Division of Plant Industry


eliminated by burning was the largest during any biennium
since apiary inspection was started in 1919.
During the biennium, apiary inspectors examined 336,052
colonies in 10,727 apiaries; 3,160 colonies in 897 apiaries were
found to be infected with American foulbrood; permits for
50,926 colonies of out-of-state bees to move into Florida and
136 special moving permits for moving from point to point
within the state were issued; 1,247 moving permits and 136
certificates of inspection were issued to Florida beekeepers. The
sum of $22,720 was paid to Florida beekeepers in compensa-
tion for bees and equipment destroyed because of American
foulbrood. The total operating cost of the Section was $134,-
217.19, or 39.90 per colony inspection.

1962-1963 1963-1964
Colonies inspected. ......................... 169,411 166,641
Apiaries inspected ........................ 5,497 5,230
Counties in which inspections were made..... 62 62
Apiaries infected with American foulbrood... 416 481
Colonies infected with American foulbrood.... 1,546 1,614
Infected colonies burned .................... 1,546 1,614
Apiaries with new infections of American
foulbrood .......... ....... ........ 287 310

Honey Certification Program
Apiary inspectors in the river area of northwest Florida
sampled 512 barrels of tupelo honey, delivering 136 samples to
the Department of Agriculture Food Laboratory for analysis
and certification. The samples were examined for flavor, color,
soluble solids, moisture, and pollen count. Samples meeting
standards set up on all five examinations were certified as
"Tupelo Honey."
Road Guard Report
A new monthly report from the Road Guard Stations to
the chief apiary inspector on bees and equipment passing
through the stations greatly increased the Apiary Section's
information on the movement of bees in and out of Florida. The
report brings out any illegal use of the three types of permits
issued by the Division.
Bee Disease Law
Due to a revision of the Florida Bee Disease Law, beekeepers
are now required to identify each apiary with the owner's







Tzwenty-Fifth Biennial Report 27

name, address, and telephone number. This measure was ap-
proved by the 1963 State Legislature.
Honey House Regulations
Commissioner of Agriculture Doyle E. Conner adopted a
rule pertaining to sanitary regulations governing the manu-
facturing, processing, or handling of honey. Food Inspectors of
the Florida Department of Agriculture use the regulations as a
guide in inspecting honey extracting and bottling plants.
Public Relations
The Division completed a 5-minute movie on apiary inspec-
tion service, which will be used as a public relations media to
inform the general public of the activities of the Apiary In-
spection Section and the value of the beekeeping industry,
which it strives to protect.








Division of Plant Industry


YEARLY SUMMARY OF APIARY INSPECTION WORK


Apiaries Colonies
Apiaries Colonies Infected Infected
Year Ending Inspected Inspected American American
Foulbrood Foulbrood
June 30, 1926.......... 676 16,756 5 22
June 30, 1927 .......... 796 23,791 6 34
June 30, 1928.......... 1,248 20,115 18 74
June 30, 1929 .......... 1,297 32,442 21 85
Jun, 30, 1930 .......... 2,273 44,645 53 182
June 30, 1931... ..... 22,374 45,238 37 11i
June 30, 1932 .......... 2,744 44,211 42 7-
June 30, 1933 .......... 2,219 42,307 38 76
June 30, 1934........... 2,305 43,877 71 132
June 30, 1935....... .. 2,445 49,379 78 167
June 30, 1936.......... 3,344 73,415 69 131
June 30, 1937.......... 3,544 72,795 32 98
June 30, 1938....... .. 3,451 64,668 38 173
June 30, 1939 .......... 3,371 70,655 56 416
June 30, 1940.......... 3,414 76,851 61 234
June 30, 1941.......... 3,711 81,950 80 371
June 30, 1942. ....... 3,671 83,354 106 698
June 30, 1943.......... 3,347 80,823 100 52-1
June 30, 1944.......... 2,646 73,649 106 456
June 30, 1945.......... 2,371 69,262 105 379
June 30, 1946.......... 2,265 71,161 138 959
June 30, 1947......... 2,464 87,674 104 683
June 30, 1948.......... 3,266 98,147 100 391
June 30, 1949........... 3,710 105,678 130 406
June 30, 1950.......... 3,082 105,296 175 369
June 30, 1951.......... 2,872 95,405 237 772
June 30, 1952.......... 2,836 88,206 232 578
June 30, 1953... ...... 3,259 92,267 449 1,366
June 30, 1954 .......... 5,102 135,168 683 2,158
June 30, 1955.......... 5,885 157,388 524 1,421
June 30, 1956........... 6,168 176,616 460 1,180
June 30, 1957.......... 5,813 162,885 490 1,121
June 30, 1958.......... 4,932 159,692 457 1,623
June 30, 1959 .......... 5,123 153,677 454 1,329
June 30, 1960 .......... 5,056 149,227 438 1,422
June 30, 1961.......... 4,991 152,288 319 1,271
June 30, 1962........... 5,693 173,538 341 1.053
June 30, 1963........... 5,497 169,411 416 1,546
June 30, 1964........... 5,230 166,641 481 1,614








Entomology Section

H. A. DENMARK, Chief Entomologist

The duties of the Entomology Section are (1) to provide an
arthropod identification service for the Division of Plant Indus-
try, for the United States Department of Agriculture in regard
to the insect pest survey, foreign pest detection, and all other
surveys excluding joint control or eradication programs (im-
ported fire ant, leafhoppers and planthoppers in connection
with the hoja blanca disease of rice, pink bollworm, sweetpotato
weevil, and white-fringed beetle) being conducted in the state;
(2) to conduct limited investigations of certain economic prob-
lems not being pursued by the Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Stations; (3) to assist in instruction of plant inspectors
in the detection of agricultural pests; (4) to build a general
collection of insects and related groups; and (5) to describe
new species found in the above surveys and evaluate existing
works. It is important to show relationships by placing species
in the correct genus and publishing the results in a scientific
journal. The identification services have been extended through
the various surveys to include all arthropods except aquatic
Crustacea which occur in Florida, other southeastern states, the
Bahama Islands, the West Indies, and coastal land areas
around the Gulf of Mexico.
Identifications of the various arthropod groups are made
by five full time entomologists. The entomologists and the
groups for which they are responsible are as follows:
G. W. Dekle: Scales, mealybugs, and all immature stages.
H. A. Denmark: Aphids, ants, mites, thrips, and ticks.
F. W. Mead: Adult Lepidoptera; Diptera, suborder Nematocera: ex-
amples-midges, sandflies, mosquitoes, craneflies, gall midges, etc.;
Hemiptera; Homoptera: Psyllidae, plus suborder Auchenorhyncha,
examples of which are leafhoppers, planthoppers, spittlebugs, tree-
hoppers, and cicadas.
H. V. Weems, Jr.: Adult higher Diptera (suborder Brachycera), white-
flies, Hymenoptera, Arachnida (except Acarina), and miscellaneous
smaller arthropod groups.
R. E. Woodruff: Adult Coleoptera and Orthroptera.
In addition to the five full-time entomologists, S. V. Fuller
curates the adult Lepidoptera half time.
The Florida State Collection of Arthropods consists of ap-
proximately 266,500 pinned and labeled specimens, housed in
950 insect boxes and 692 cabinet drawers; 17,500 slide mounts;






Division of Plant Industry


7,300 vials containing several thousand immature and adult
arthropods, housed in eight utility cabinets; several thousand
specimens stored in plastic envelopes; and an undetermined
quantity of surplus specimens housed in pillboxes. This report
does not include the arthropods in the University of Florida
collections, which were placed on an indefinite loan in 1959 to
the Entomology Section under the supervision of the Chief
Entomologist and curated by Dr. Weems. Mr. Denmark and Dr.
Weems serve as assistant curators in Arthropods and Mr. Wood-
ruff is a research associate with the Florida State Museum which
entails faculty status without pay on the staff of the University
of Florida.
Two 48-drawer insect cabinets were purchased with Florida
State Museum funds during this biennium.

DEPARTMENTAL DUTIES
of
H. A. DENMARK, Chief Entomologist
Mr. Denmark is responsible for the administration of the
Entomology Section, securing grants to aid in the investiga-
tions and publishing of the results in separates or scientific
journals, and promotion of the section's activities through the
media of pamphlets, slide talks, and movies.
Also, Mr. Denmark is responsible for the identification and
curating of aphids, ants, mites, thrips, and ticks.

NEW MITES TO FLORIDA
Aculus pelekassi Keifer
After the initial find of A. pelekassi by Dr. A. K. Burditt,
Jr., at Orlando, further surveys revealed it to be in the follow-
ing 20 counties: Alachua, Baker, Citrus, DeSoto, Hardee, Hen-
dry, Hernando, Hillsborough, Lake, Polk, Manatee, Marion,
Orange, Osceola, Pasco, Pinellas, Putnam, Sarasota, Seminole,
and Volusia. All citrus areas in the state, except the Indian
River area, are known to be infested. Infested nursery stock
must be sprayed and found clean of this mite before being sold.
Aceria neocynodonis Keifer
This eriophyid mite has only been found at Patrick Air
Force Base, Opa Locka, Cocoa, and Jacksonville in Florida. It







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


probably exists in other areas in Florida, especially in large
plantings of Bermuda grass.

Citrus bud mite, Aceria sheldoni (Ewing)
The citrus bud mite has been found in the Orlando area. It
was originally found in the Miami area in 1958 and in 1960 at
Indrio. Life history studies and control methods are being
conducted by the Humid Areas Citrus Insects Investigations
Laboratory at Orlando.


NEW SPECIES OF MITES

An eriophyid mite was collected by C. E. Bingaman at
Tampa, February 20, 1963, on Rhododendron. It was described
by H. H. Keifer on August 12, 1963, as Rhynacus tampae Keifer.
An eriophyid mite was collected by H. A. Denmark at
Gainesville, October 23, 1962, on Wistaria. It was described by
H. H. Keifer on August 12, 1963, as Aculus wistarifoliae Keifer.
Dr. L. C. Kuitert collected an eriophyid mite at Gainesville,
January 12, 1964, on Pinus sp. It was described by H. H. Keifer
on June 11, 1964, as Trisetacus floridanus Keifer.

Special Projects:
1. Population study of the litter infesting mites of the sand scrub areas
of Florida.
2. Collecting mites and information for future publications on mites of
Florida.
3. Evaluating light trap designs for catching insects.
4. The Phytoseiidae of Florida with Martin H. Muma and Donald De-
Leon.
5. The mites of Florida (long range).
6. Orchid mites found in greenhouses in Florida.
7. Dry Tortugas arthropod survey (with other Section entomologists).

Job Related Activities:
1. Program Chairman for the 45th Annual Meeting of the Florida
Entomological Society, August 1962.
2. Program Committee member for the Southeastern Branch of the
Entomological Society of America to be held in Little Rock, Arkansas
in January 1965.
3. Assistant Curator in Arthropods and in charge of the Arthropods,
Florida State Museum, University of Florida.
4. Auditing Committee member of Gamma Sigma Delta.






Division of Plant Industry


DEPARTMENTAL DUTIES
of
G. W. DEKLE, Entomologist
Mr. Dekle is responsible for the identification and curating
of all immature insects, scales, and mealybugs. He is also
responsible for any insecticidal recommendations made by the
Division of Plant Industry not available from the Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations.

CAMELLIA MINING SCALE
(PSEUDAONIDIA CLAVIGERA (CKLL.))
Control tests were established in St. Petersburg, Pinellas
County, in November 1962. Materials tested were Malathion +
oil, Cygon (dimethoate), Ethion + oil, and Ethion. Ethion + oil
appeared to give the best control. The tests were terminated
following the December freeze which killed many adult scale
insects. In September 1963, fumigation tests were conducted
at Largo for the control of camellia mining scale, Pseudaonidia
clavigera (Ckll.), infesting Camellia spp. The fumigated plants
were kept under observation for plant injury by the fumigant
and for live scales. Stem samples were collected and sent to
Gainesville to determine if live scales were present.
Methyl-bromide at a dosage of 2 pounds per 1,000 cubic feet
at 70-80 F for 21/2 hours was effective against all stages of
camellia mining scale. Leaf drop occurred on some plants fol-
lowing fumigation. Complete defoliation occurred to four
plants; two of the severely defoliated camellias were known in
the trade by the name "Mine-No-Yoke."
Assisting with the fumigation tests were L. B. Hill, regional
supervisor; C. E. Bingaman, and E. W. Miller, district in-
spectors.

A HAND-GRENADE SCALE (CEROCOCCUS SP.)
Control tests were conducted in October 1962, at a Miami
nursery to determine the effectiveness of Cygon (dimethoate)
43.5% spray against this new soft scale found in Florida. Cygon
was found extremely effective against the scale at a dosage of
1 pint Cygon to 100 gallons of water. Infested plants were
sprayed three times at an interval of 4 weeks.






Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


THE BROWN GARDEN SNAIL

In December 1963, a nursery in Bradenton received a ship-
ment of 277 Italian cypress, Cupressus sempervirens glauca,
from California infested with a snail that was identified as
Helix aspersa (Muller) by Dr. W. J. Clench, Museum of Com-
parative Zoology, Harvard University. The brown garden snail
is not known to be in Florida but is established in California,
Louisiana, and South Carolina. Dr. Clench considers the snail a
serious pest to vegetables and ornamental plants in Cali-
fornia.
The brown garden snail was introduced into the United
States from Europe. This species is the most widely eaten
European snail and has been introduced into nearly every coun-
try that Europeans have settled.
On January 28, 1964, the Italian cypress plants from Cali-
fornia, potted in gallon containers by the Florida nurseryman,
were moved and the soil surface in the storage block was
drenched with Zectran 25/ wettable powder at a dosage of 3
pounds to 100 gallons of water. The containers were then re-
placed in the treated block. Test plants were tagged and
drenched with the Zectran solution. The drenched plants were
examined on February 12 and again on February 25, and no
plant injury was observed. The plants were inspected for the
snail but none was found.
The 277 Italian cypress were fumigated on February 25 and
26, 1964, with methyl-bromide at 2 pounds per 1,000 cubic feet
for 2 hours at 80 F. The plants were examined at weekly inter-
vals by Charles Bickner, plant specialist, who found no injury
to the plants by the fumigation and no live snails. The plants
were released from quarantine.
The alert nursery manager who found this snail and called
the district plant inspector is to be commended. This action by
the nurseryman may have prevented the establishment of this
snail in Florida.


A NEW MEALYBUG TO FLORIDA

A mealybug, Rhizoecus americanus (Hambl.), was collected
at Fern Park by C. O. Youtsey from Dieffenbachia sp. on
March 6, 1964.






Division of Plant Industry


A LEPIDOPTEROUS LARVA ON PEACH
An unknown Pyralidae was collected on peach seedlings at
Pomona Park by A. E. Graham, plant specialist, on July 31,
1963 (Figs. 1 and 2). Adults failed to emerge from the larvae
collected.
Four larvae were introduced into the soil around a potted
peach seedling. The webbing of silk and sand is shown in Fig.
3. Ants invaded the potted peach seedling and may have de-
stroyed the pupae. No adults have been reared from collected
or caged specimens.


-7% -' a.

I 1A


Fig. 1.-Tubular webbing on main stem of peach seedling constructed by
lepidopterous larvae. One-fifth actual size.








Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


..

I''


-"




I-






~~r


r
-1


C

:SYi


0 .:rrr~~~~~~rrrrr~~~~~


Fig. 2.-Peach seedling with tubular web that extends underground placed
on wooden block for photographing. The web extends from 4 to 6 inches
under the ground. One-third actual size.


c,

rT~







Division of Plant Industry


Fig. 3 -Photo of potted seedling 1 week after larvae were introduced into
soil. Note how tubular webs almost encase seedling. Slightly enlarged.







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


INSECTICIDE STUDIES ON FOLIAGE PLANTS
The Division of Plant Industry and the Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station Entomology Department conducted
insecticide tests on 950 foliage plants donated by a Jacksonville
nursery (Figs. 4 and 5). Guthion, Dimethoate (Cygon), Di-
Syston, and Ethion + oil were materials included in the tests
on a variety of succulent plants. Four greenhouses were also
sprayed with Malathion at the recommended dosage of 3 pints
of 50% emulsifiable concentrate to 100 gallons of water for
Florida red scale, black thread scale, soft brown scale, hemi-
spherical scale, fern scale, tessellated scale, pyriform scale,
citrus mealybug, and aphids.
Results:-Guthion (2 pounds technical per gallon) at a
dosage of 1 quart to 100 gallons of water caused leaf injury to
bird nest fern, Asplenium nidus, and a fern, Archillea.
Dimethoate (Cygon) 43.5% emulsifiable concentrate at a
dosage of 1 pint to 100 gallons of water caused leaf injury to
Schefflera sp.; aluminum plant, Pilea sp.; a fern, Archillea sp.;
and Fittonia argyroneura.
Granular Di-Syston at a dosage of approximately 1 tea-
spoon to each 6-inch pot caused leaf injury to Schefflera sp.
and Coleus sp.
Ethion plus oil formulation at a dosage of 1 quart to 100
gallons of water caused leaf injury to Schefflera sp.; bird nest
fern, Asplenium nidus; grape ivy, Hedera sp.; and a fern,
Archillea sp.
Malathion 50% emulsifiable concentrate at a dosage of 3
pints to 100 gallons of water caused injury to Begonia sp.;
Kalanchoe sp.; maidenhair fern, Adiantum sp.; a fern, Dry-
opteris sp.; and rabbit foot fern, Davallia sp. The Malathion
50C emulsifiable concentrate was reduced to 1/2 pint to 100 gal-
lons of water to determine if the lower dosage would control
scale crawlers without injury to ferns and other succulent
plants. The lower dosage of Malathion has been applied at
two-week intervals for six applications and results look favor-
able. No plant injury has occurred at the lower dosage, and sat-
isfactory control has been obtained against hemispherical scale
crawlers.
The Division has received fine cooperation from the owner
of the Jacksonville nursery during this project, and also ex-
presses appreciation to R. L. King, Jr., plant specialist; L. W.






Division of Plant Industry


Taylor, inspector; and G. R. Barrett, inspector, who assisted in
setting up the test benches and in applying the spray.


Fig. 4.-Test plants arranged on benches by species.


Fig. 5.-View of plants used in tests.







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


CONTROL TESTS IN COOPERATION WITH
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
1. Camellia mining scale, Pseudaoidia clavigera (Ckll.), St. Petersburg,
November 1962.
2. A hand-grenade scale (Cerococcus sp.), Miami, November 1962.
3. Orchid scales and mites, Gainesville, November 1962.
4. Insecticide studies on foliage plants, Jacksonville, March 1964.
Special Projects:
1. Handbook of Armored Scale Insects of Florida.
2. Dying slash pines, McDill Air Base, Tampa, November 1962.
3. Orchid insects, Gainesville, June 30, 1962 through July 1, 1963.
4. Lepidopterous larvae on chrysanthemums at Punta Gorda.
5. American sawfly at Daytona Beach.
Job Related Activities:
1. Program Chairman of the Florida Entomological Society for the 46th
Annual meeting in September 1963.
2. President of the Florida Entomological Society in 1964.


PLASTIC EMBEDDING

A total of 1,540 plastic mounts have been made during this
biennium. State, Federal, and other cooperating agencies have
been issued 688 plastic mounted insect specimens during this
period.


DEPARTMENTAL DUTIES

of

F. W. MEAD, Entomologist

Mr. Mead is responsible for the identification and curating
of the adult Lepidoptera; Hemiptera; Diptera: Nematocera
(15 families of Lower Diptera) ; and the following families of
Homoptera: Psyllidae, Cicadidae, Cercopidae, Membracidae, Ci-
cadellidae, and several families of the Fulgoroidea. Beginning
in September 1963, he was responsible for the insect pest survey
that is a cooperative program of the Division of Plant Industry
and the United States Department of Agriculture. The entire
entomology staff of the Division of Plant Industry cooperates
with Mr. Mead in identifying arthropods in their groups and
assisting in special surveys.








Division of Plant Industry


EXHIBITS

Mr. Mead has prepared the following exhibits:

1. "The World United Against Malaria," featuring about
60 square feet of diagrams, pictures, literature, and world
health organization stamps, in the various aspects of malaria.
This exhibit was displayed at the annual meeting of the Florida
Entomological Society in Gainesville, for one month in the lobby
of the Florida State Museum, and for 2 weeks in the window of
the Florida National Bank at Gainesville.
2. A permanent display drawer of insects was prepared and
sent to the Winter Haven and Miami offices of the Division of
Plant Industry.

Special Projects:
1. Project member on a comprehensive survey of the terrestrial arthro-
pods of the Dry Tortugas Islands.
2. A taxonomic revision of the waxhopper genus Oliarus in the Western
Hemisphere (Homoptera: Cixiidae).
3. Studies on jumping plant lice in Florida, particularly the gallmaking
species (Homoptera: Psyllidae).
4. Examination of insects caught in various traps, with emphasis on
preservation and identification of selected specimens in assigned in-
sect orders. This activity includes the weekly specimen count of pre-
scribed species of economic moths for the Cooperative Economic Insect
Report of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Hyattsville, Mary-
land. Insects obtained from blacklight and other traps substantially
strengthen the reference collection and increase our knowledge of the
distribution of Florida's insect fauna.
5. Cooperation with Dr. Dale H. Habeck, University of Florida Experi-
ment Station, on studies of leafhoppers damaging leatherleaf fern.
6. Special attention such as collection, identification, and life history
data is being given to the leafhoppers, planthoppers, and such re-
lated forms which are known or potential vectors of viruses causing
plant diseases; for example, phony peach disease, Pierce's disease of
grapes, hoja blanca, and pseudo-curly top disease.
7. Systematic and photographic support of the special publication in
preparation by C. P. Kimball on the Lepidoptera of Florida.
8. Preparation of insect displays; for example, glass-topped boxes were
exhibited at the Florida Union Building, University of Florida, for
several weeks.
9. Exchanges of reference material to make the reference collection
more complete. This will materially aid in making a higher per-
centage of complete determinations and making these faster. It also
provides additional material for taxonomic research, display, and
teaching purposes.
10. Population trends of economic insects for reporting in the U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture weekly and annual insect survey reports for
the monthly Tri-ology publication of the Division of Plant Industry.
11. Preparation of summary sheets on insect pests cf major importance
to the work of the Division of Plant Industry.







Ttwenty-Fifth Biennial Report


Job Related Activities:
1. Small amounts of aid were given to graduate students, University of
Florida:
a. Reprints donated to William Bargren on Tabanidae.
b. Loan of German books and three articles on grass taxonomy to
Kenneth A. Noegel.
c. Loan of several "Proceedings" from California, New Jersey, and
Florida on mosquito association meetings. The proceedings not
available in the University Libraries. These were loaned to Arthur
Boike, graduate student working on mosquitoes. Mr. Boike also
used our reference collection for aid in determining mosquitoes
involved in his thesis work.
d. Identification and discussion of Cuerna costalis (F.), a sharp-
shooter, for Fred Johnson, entomology student, University of
Florida. This leafhopper species apparently was causing damage
to peanuts at the experimental farm.
2. Chairman, Auditing Committee, Florida Entomological Society, 1963.
3. Federal-State Survey Entomologist for Florida.


DEPARTMENTAL DUTIES

of

R. E. WOODRUFF, Entomologist

Mr. Woodruff is responsible for identifying and curating of
the Coleoptera and Orthoptera. From July 1962 through August
1963, he was responsible for the insect pest survey that is a
cooperative program of the Division of Plant Industry and the
U. S. Department of Agriculture. Mr. Mead was placed in
charge of this activity, and Mr. Woodruff continued working
for the Division on a half time basis while pursuing his grad-
uate studies toward his Ph.D. degree. During May and June
1964, he assisted Dr. F. S. Blanton in collecting Ceratopo-
gonidae in Mexico, Costa Rica, and Panama.

Special Projects:
1. Dry Tortugas arthropod survey (with other Section entomologists).
2. Identification of material for following special surveys: khapra
beetle, Japanese beetle, Cuban May beetle, etc.
3. Screening blacklight collections for detection and survey of family
Scarabaeidae; curating Coleoptera and Orthoptera.
4. Review of the genus Polyphylla in the Eastern United States (Scara-
baeidae).
5. Revision of the genus EuparixiL of the Western Hemisphere, with
description of a new species from leaf-cutting ant nests in Louisiana
(Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae); with O. L. Cartwright, U. S. National
Museum.







42 Division of Plant Industry

6. Scarabaeidae of Florida (long range project).
7. Identification of Coleoptera and Orthoptera from several hundred
armadillo stomachs.
8. Experimenting with E. L. Wells, Division of Plant Industry, on a
photographic process for research files similar to micro-cards, and
study of microcard system of species catalogue and reprint files.
9. Comparative morphology of female genitalia in family Scarabaeidae.
10. Study of fossil insects from Trinidad.
11. Preparation and sorting of material collected in Mexico.
Job Related Activities:
1. Member of the program committee, Florida Entomological Society,
for annual meeting in St. Petersburg, Florida, September 1963.
2. Research Associate, Florida State Museum.


DEPARTMENTAL DUTIES

of

R. E. WHITE, Entomologist
Dr. White replaced Mr. Woodruff, who was on a collecting-
study trip to Central America, for the period of May through
August 1964. His responsibilities are the same as those of Mr.
Woodruff.

Special Projects:
1. Two unsuccessful attempts made to collect live Tropisternus and
Enochrus (Hydrophilidae) for, respectively, Frank Young and Ralph
Gunderson.
2. Backlog of light trap and general collections examined for beetles to
add to collection.
3. Off duty collecting done mainly for Anobiidae; a number of species
have been collected which were not previously represented in collec-
tion.


DEPARTMENTAL DUTIES

of
H. V. WEEMS, JR., Entomologist
Dr. Weems is responsible for the identification of higher
Diptera (Suborder Brachycera), Hymenoptera (except Formi-
cidae), Neuroptera, Mecoptera, Dermaptera, Odonata, Trichop-
tera, all of the smaller orders of insects (except Thysanoptera),
and all of the miscellaneous arthropods other than insects
(except Acarina). He is head curator of the Florida State Col-







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


election of Arthropods of the Division of Plant Industry and the
arthropod portion of the University of Florida collections
housed in the Division of Plant Industry.
Continued progress was made during these years in the
development of a well balanced arthropod collection which in-
cludes substantial representation of the smaller orders of in-
sects and some of the small and relatively obscure groups of
arthropods other than insects. Emphasis is placed on arthro-
pods, excluding aquatic Crustacea, which occur in Florida, other
southeastern states, the Bahama Islands, the West Indies,
and the coastal land areas around the Gulf of Mexico. A special
effort is being made to obtain representatives of the principal
insect pests occurring in other parts of the world which con-
stitute a potential threat to Florida agriculture. Collections in
the groups on which members of the section are conducting
broad taxonomic studies are being developed on a world-wide
basis.
This collection, now officially known as The Florida State
Collection of Arthropods, constitutes the principal arthropod
collection in Florida. In conjunction with this collection, the
arthropod portion of the University of Florida collections, ad-
ministered by the Florida State Museum, has been placed on
indefinite loan to the Entomology Section, Division of Plant
Industry. The result of this cooperative effort is that taxonomic
specialists of the Florida Department of Agriculture and the
University of Florida are developing the portions of the collec-
tions in their respective groups.
In addition to several thousand specimens collected during
the year by staff members and by State and Federal inspectors,
the following contributions were received:

MAJOR COLLECTIONS INCORPORATED THIS BIENNIUM
*Dr. Franklin S. Blanton (Gainesville, Florida)
A world-wide collection of 7,826 pinned, labelled, and partly identified
Tephritidae (Diptera), developed by Dr. Blanton over much of his life-
time, was donated to the Florida Collection of Arthropods. This is one
of the most outstanding donations ever received. The cabinet and 84
Schmitt boxes which housed this collection also were donated by Dr.
Blanton. Added to the 6 cabinet drawers of identified fruit flies (Tephri-
tidae) already in the collection, this donation establishes the collection
here as one of the finest collections of tephritids in North America.
*Mr. Don Bryne (Tampa, Florida)
1 specimen of a scorpion, Vejovis carolinus (Harlem, Ga., 25 VII 62,

*Collaborators of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








Division of Plant Industry


George Jordan)-a species new to our collection; approximately 250
papered Coleoptera from India, including several species of Cicindelidae.
394 Lepidoptera and 41 Odonata taken by Mr. Bryne in Mexico during
an extended collecting trip in the summer of 1963; additional material
collected on this trip will be donated at a later date as it is processed.
*Mr. Byrd K. Dozier (Miami Springs, Florida)
Personal collection of Homoptera, mainly Membracidae, Cicadidae, and
Fulgoroidea-totaling 1,085 specimens, pinned, labelled, and mostly
identified, representing about 150 species. This is something of a synoptic
collection, and it contains some fine material.
*Mr. Harry 0. Hilton (Ft. Walton Beach, Florida)
130 adult Lepidoptera, consisting of 28 skippers, 22 butterflies, and 80
moths, all neatly spread and labelled. 140 specimens collected in north-
western Florida, consisted of 11 Coleoptera in alcohol and 129 pinned
and labelled specimens: 36 Coleoptera, 3 Hymenoptera, 6 Neuroptera;
1 Odonata, 4 Hemiptera, 5 Homoptera, 7 Diptera; 1 scorpion, 65 neatly
spread Lepidoptera, collected by Mr. Hilton in the Shalimar-Ocean City-
Ft. Walton Beach area. 720 Florida insects, mainly consisting of neatly
spread and labelled Lepidoptera collected by Mr. Hilton in northwest
Florida.
*Mr. John W. McReynolds (Nevada, Missouri)
268 pinned and labelled Missouri insects (141 Scarabaeidae and Tro-
gidae; 127 Diptera, including 17 Syrphidae) collected and donated by
Mr. McReynolds. 580 pinned and labelled insects, mostly Diptera and
Coleoptera, taken by Mr. McReynolds in Missouri and in foreign coun-
tries.
Mr. Frank W. Mead (Gainesville, Florida)
1,315 pinned insects collected in Florida, other southeastern states, and
Ohio by Mr. Mead. 553 pinned and labelled insects and 14 vials of mis-
cellaneous arthropods collected by Mr. Mead primarily in Florida and
Ohio on private time and at personal expense.
Dr. Ted B. Mitchell (Raleigh, North Carolina)
Valuable synoptic collection of bees in the families Halictidae, Melittidae,
Andrenidae, and Colletidae, selected to fill in gaps in the collection. The
gift consisted of 174 specimens, representing 132 species and subspecies,
79 of which were new to the collection. Other specimens represented the
opposite sex for species where the collection had one or more representa-
tives of one sex. 8 paratypes were included in the gift. The collection
now lacks representatives of only one genus, Dufourea (contains 3 east-
ern U. S. species), in the family Halictidae, and only one genus, Psaeny-
thia (contains one eastern U. S. species), in the family Andrenidae. The
collection has representatives of all genera occurring in the eastern
U. S. in the families Colletidae and Melittidae. Trades will be sought
for representatives of the two genera lacking.
*Mr. Dennis R. Paulson (Miami, Florida)
Several hundred arthropods collected in Florida, Central America and
the West Indies, comprising 33 envelopes of papered insects, mostly
beetles and butterflies; 24 bottles and vials containing hundreds of ar-
thropods; 65 pinned and labelled Coleoptera from Kenya, South Africa;
45 unpinned scarabaeid beetles from Oaxaca, Mexico; 1 butterfly and 2
papered myrmeleontids from the Dominican Republic; also several hun-
dred foreign and domestic arthropods preserved in alcohol and in
envelopes.
*Mr. William J. Platt, III (Gainesville, Florida)
822 pinned, labelled, and partially identified arthropods which Mr. Platt
collected in Florida, including his collection of 483 Lepidoptera which
won national 4-H Club honors.

*Collaborators of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


Mr. Joe Schuh (Klamath Falls, Oregon)
225 mounted Scarabaeidae; 250 Scarabaeidae from California and Ari-
zona; 150 Oniticellus californicus.
Dr. Carroll N. Smith (Gainesville, Florida)
During May 1964, the Florida State Collection of Arthropods was the
recipient of a significant collection of mosquitoes and other biting flies
collected in the southeastern United States, Canada, New Guinea, and
the Philippines. The collection was accumulated primarily by Dr. W. V.
King but includes a fair number of specimens collected by Dr. H. C.
Chapman. Total adult pinned specimens donated are 1,428 comprising
123 species and 11 subspecies. 3 boxes of larval slides number 359 speci-
mens and 40 species. Vials of larvae total 33, and pillboxes number 95
containing 16 species. This generous donation further establishes the
mosquito part of the state collection as one of the finest in the south-
eastern United States, second only to that of the U. S. Public Health
Laboratory in Atlanta, Ga. The collection was presented to the state by
Dr. Smith.
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, University of Florida (Homestead,
Florida)
The bulk of its insect collection was donated to the Florida State Collec-
tion of Arthropods, retaining only a small synoptic collection of insects
collected in the Homestead area and all of the Hemiptera, since Dr.
Baranowski is actively working on the Hemiptera. The collection con-
sisted of 1.345 pinned, labelled specimens representing 1,104 species, al-
most all identified by specialists. Special acknowledgement for this im-
portant donation is due the station entomologists, *Dr. D. O. Wolfen-
barger and *Dr. R. M. Baranowski.
*Dr. Thomas J. Walker, Jr. (Gainesville, Florida)
The C. C. Deonier Collection, totaling 4,536 pinned, labelled, and partly
determined specimens, was donated to the state collection by the Depart-
ment of Entomology, College of Agriculture, University of Florida, via
Dr. Walker, curator of the collections of that department and curator
of the Orthoptera portion of the state collection of arthropods. This col-
lection had been given to the University of Florida by Alfred Nelson
Davis, Director, Monroe County Anti-Mosquito District, Key West.
Dr. Howard V. Weems, Jr. (Gainesville, Florida)
449 pinned and labelled insects taken in Florida and North Carolina.
5,605 pinned, labelled insects, 89 envelopes of insects, and 109 vials of
arthropods collected primarily in Florida, North Carolina, Texas, New
Mexico, and Arizona, on private time and at personal expense.
Dr. Minter J. Westfall, Jr. (Gainesville, Florida)
36 envelopes containing 200 or more insects, mostly beetles and flies,
collected by Dr. Westfall and Dr. Lewis Berner in Florida, California,
and the West Indies. These specimens have been sorted and passed out to
staff members covering the various groups to be processed and added to
the collection. Also for the arthropod collection, 23 vials of millipedes
collected in Florida and North Carolina and 6 vials of miscellaneous ar-
thropods from Florida, Indiana, and Ecuador.
Mr. Robert E. Woodruff (Gainesville, Florida)
1,342 pinned insects unlabelledd) which were collected in Ohio, Kentucky,
Florida, and several other states on private time and at personal ex-
pense.
*Mr. Charles F. Zeiger (Jacksonville, Florida)
Set of Florida topographic maps (complete); 17 neatly spread adult
butterflies, representing 7 species, collected in and around Jacksonville.
Also, 1,792 pinned and labelled insects, primarily neatly spread Lepidop-
tera, collected mostly in Florida by Mr. Zeiger.


*Collaborators of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








Division of Plant Industry


It is significant to note that most of the major donations
received for the state collection during the past year have come
from persons who received official appointments from the Flor-
ida Department of Agriculture as Collaborators of the Florida
State Collection of Arthropods, a program started only a little
more than 2 years ago which has proved to be highly successful.
This program was initiated to further develop the state collec-
tion of Arthropoda which is being developed jointly by the
Florida State Museum and the Florida Department of Agricul-
ture.

OTHER CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STATE COLLECTION
OF ARTHROPODS
Mr. John F. Anderson (Gainesville, Florida)
50 vials containing several hundred miscellaneous arthropods from bur-
rows of the Florida pocket gopher. These include several rare species,
some of which are confined to this habitat.
Dr. W. H. Anderson (Washington, D. C.)
4 adults, 8 larvae of Agasicles sp. (Chrysomelidae), a South American
leaf beetle which feeds on alligator weed and is being introduced into
several southeastern states, including Florida, for control of alligator
weed.
*Mrs. Elisabeth C. Beck (Jacksonville, Florida)
1 slide mounted adult, with associated genitalia mounted on the same
slide, of each of 4 new species of Chironomidae described by Mrs. Beck.
Their paratypes are of Tanypus clavatus, Chironomus (Dicrotendipes)
lobus, Chironomus (Cryptochironomus) alatus, and Chironomus boydi.
*Mr. Bernard Benesh (Burryville, Tennessee)
124 Coleoptera (10 Lucanidae, representing 4 species; 7 Cerambycidae,
representing 3 species; 107 Scarabaeidae, representing 21 species), rep-
resenting a total of 28 species. Few, if any, species new to the collection
were included in this lot, but some of the species are rare in collections.
A second lot was received, consisting of 438 pinned and labelled Coleop-
tera from Tennessee, Alabama, Arizona, and some exotics. These in-
cluded several rare Scarabaeidae and Lucanidae new to the collection.
*Dr. F. C. Bishopp (Manhattan Beach, California, formerly of Fort Myers,
Florida)
Small unmounted assortment of arthropods.
Mr. B. D. Blair (Columbus, Ohio)
19 alfalfa weevils, Hypera postica (Gyll.)
Dr. H. R. Burke (College Station, Texas)
18 pinned and labelled specimens of the scorpion fly, Panorpa nuptialis
Gerst., collected in Texas. These were collected in response to a special
request for specimens of this strikingly marked species of Mecoptera.
Dr. B. D. Burks (Washington, D. C.)
Recently described a new species of eupelmid wasp, Phlebopenes hetricki,
from 6 specimens, 1 of which was collected by T. W. Boyd at Pensa-
cola, Florida, and sent to Dr. Burks by the Entomology Section. Dr.
Burks made a paratype of this specimen and returned it for the state
collection.

*Collaborators of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


Dr. George W. Byers (Lawrence, Kansas)
10 Mecoptera representing 7 species, 5 of which were new to the Florida
State Collection of Arthropods.
Dr. John S. Caldwell (Upper Key Largo, Florida)
9 planthoppers collected at Key Largo by Dr. Caldwell.
Dr. R. W. Dawson (Pullman and Seattle, Washington)
79 pinned and labelled Diptera and Coleoptera, consisting of 3 Scara-
baeidae, 10 bumble bees (representing 3 species, 1 of them new to the
collection), 16 determined deer flies (representing 5 species), 4 robber
flies (Cyrtopogon banksi, new to the collection), 13 undetermined Cono-
pidae, and 33 determined Syrphidae (10 species, all of which were al-
ready in the collection), and 24 pinned, labelled, and identified Diptera.
Dr. J. C. Dickinson (Gainesville, Florida)
A small collection of papered Lepidoptera, mostly large moths reared at
High Springs, Florida by Mrs. H. H. Simpson, Sr., was presented to the
state collection by Dr. Dickinson.
Dr. J. Dlabola (Prague, Czechoslovakia)
106 Homoptera, including 1 paratype (mostly leafhoppers and plant-
hoppers), representing 80 species, compliments of Dr. Dlabola, Research
Institute for Plant Protection, Prague.
Dr. H. R. Dodge (Seattle, Washington)
7 paratypes of Sarcophagidae, representing 5 species described recently
by Dr. Dodge.
Mr. Byrd K. Dozier (Miami Springs, Florida)
200 pinned, labelled insects (13 Hemiptera, 1 Homoptera, 7 Coleoptera,
1 Neuroptera, 58 Hymenoptera, and 120 Diptera) collected and donated
by Mr. Dozier. Also 198 pinned and labelled insects, mostly Diptera and
Hymenopter, almost all collected in Florida.
Dr. Howard E. Evans (Cambridge, Massachusetts)
21 Syrphidae, representing 11 species, collected in the United States
and Mexico, donated by Dr. Evans, Museum of Comparative Zoology at
Harvard University.
Dr. J. W. Evans (Sidney, Australia)
2 specimens of Peloridiidae (usually classified in Homoptera) from Dr.
Evans, Director, Australian Museum.
Prof. S. W. Frost (University Park, Pennsylvania)
11 Syrphidae collected in southern Florida by Prof. Frost, Frear Lab-
oratory, Department of Zoology and Entomology, Pennsylvania State
University, retained for services from Syrphidae identified for Prof.
Frost.
Dr. Willis J. Gertsch (New York, New York)
Representatives of 2 species of tailless whipscorpions new to the collec-
tion (1 specimen of the large Tarantula palmata Herbst and 2 speci-
mens of T. white Gervais) donated by Dr. Gertsch, American Museum
of Natural History.
Dr. Carter Gilbert (Gainesville, Florida)
8 Orthoptera, 1 Coleoptera, 2 Cicadidae, 3 Isoptera from Tortuguero,
Ccsta Rica.
Dr. Dale H. Habeck (Gainesville, Florida)
Approximately 100 Hawaiian waxhoppers (Homoptera: Cixiidae); 2
rarely collected Florida insects, a notonectid and a tachinid (reared).
Dr. Fred C. Harmston (Nevada, Missouri)
43 Utah Syrphidae donated to the Florida State Collection of Arthro-
pods.
Mr. Edward Hazard (Valdosta, Georgia)
15 light trap samples from several localities in Georgia, including sev-








Division of Plant Industry


eral hundred Scarabaeidae, collected and donated by Mr. Hazard, U. S.
Forest Service.
Dr. Jon Herring (Washington, D. C.)
2 kissing bugs, Triatoma spp. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), in exchange.
*Dr. L. A. Hetrick (Gainesville, Florida)
10 Florida specimens of the pine spittlebug; 1 tangle-veined fly, Neo-
rhynchocephalus violaceus Williston, collected in Gainesville by an ento-
mology student and donated by Dr. Hetrick.
Mrs. Shirley M. Hills (Pensacola, Florida)
10 Cerambycidae and Scarabaeidae representing rare species, collected
and donated by Mrs. Hills.
Dr. Rowland H. Hussey (Gainesville, Florida)
One determined lygaeid from Dr. Hussey, new to the collection.
Mr. Stanley G. Jewett, Jr. (Portland, Oregon)
44 vials containing 203 Plecoptera, representing 31 species new to the
collection.
Mr. Calvin M. Jones (Lincoln, Nebraska)
12 pinned and labelled Syrphidae and 1 female paratype of a deerfly,
Chrysops tidwelli Philip, taken in Escambia County, Fla., by Mr. Tid-
well, compliments of Mr. Jones, U. S. Department of Agriculture
Entomologist, located at the University of Nebraska. The tabanid, re-
cently described, is new to the collection.
Dr. George F. Knowlton (Univ. of Utah, Logan, Utah)
8 adult specimens of a scarabaeid beetle, Phyllophaga sp., unmounted,
collected at Logan, Utah.
Mr. Josef N. Knull (Columbus, Ohio)
25 Polyphylla sp. from Arizona and Utah and 13 Plusiotus gloriosa
from Texas, (via R. E. Woodruff) compliments of Mr. Knull, recently
retired curator of insects at Ohio State University; 19 Scarabaeidae
from Arizona were also received as a gift from Prof. Knull.
Dr. J. P. Kramer (Washington, D. C.)
28 waxhoppers (Homoptera: Cixiidae) and 6 delphacids (Delphacidae)
comprising 3 species and 3 paratypes, in exchange.
Mr. Noel Krauss (Honolulu, Hawaii)
14 Scarabaeidae representing 4 species of dung beetles from Hawaiian
Department of Agriculture. These beetles have been introduced into Ha-
waii for hornfly control.
Prof. Jean L. Laffoon (Iowa City, Iowa)
4 slide mounts of the short-nosed cattle louse, Haematopinus eurysternus
(Nitzsch) (Anoplura, Haematopinidae, 1 of the wrinkled sucking lice),
were received in answer to a special request to Prof. Laffoon at Iowa
State University.
Mr. Norman Marston (Lawrence, Kansas)
241 Bombyliidae representing 101 species, most of them new to the col-
lection, in exchange for a comparable amount of Syrphidae from Dr.
Weems' personal collection.
Mr. Alfred S. Mills (Miami, Florida)
14 species of insects unmountedd) intercepted in quarantine at Miami.
*Dr. Edward L. Mockford (Normal, Illinois)
Psocoptera: 3 vials of Embidopsocus laticeps Mockford (15 specimens,
including 9 female and 5 male paratypes), 1 vial of Belaphotroctes her-
mosus Mockford (2 female paratypes), 1 vial B. okalensis Mockford
(1 male and 2 female paratypes), gift from Dr. Mockford, Illinois State
Normal University.

"Collaborators of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods









Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


*Dr. Martin H. Muma (Lake Alfred, Florida)
120 vials containing several thousand miscellaneous arthropods from
Berlese funnel samples from Florida, 4 Scarabaeidae from British Hon-
duras, 82 vials and 11 jars of scorpions and scorpion relatives, including
several species of scorpions new to the collection, and 375 miscellaneous
entomological reprints and bulletins.
Dr. Chad M. Murvosh (Gainesville, Florida)
Small collection of 24 unprocessed insects collected on Grand Turk Is-
land, British West Indies, June 10, 1964, by Dr. Murvosh.
Dr. J. M. Ossorio (Sanford, Florida)
94 insects, consisting of 17 pinned Coleoptera and the following un-
pinned: 8 Coleoptera, 58 Diptera, 3 Hymenoptera, 3 Homoptera, 3 Hemi-
ptera, 1 Plecoptera, 1 Neuroptera, all collected by Dr. Ossorio in Mary-
land; 23 vials of miscellaneous beetles, 2 earwigs, and several Diptera
collected in Texas.
*Mr. John W. Patton (Tampa, Florida)
57 vials of insects, mainly Coleoptera; approximately 100 vials of mis-
cellaneous insects collected mostly in the vicinity of Tampa.
Mr. Gaston Paul (Key West, Florida)
32 adults of tropical cerambycid, Dendrobias mandibularis Serv., col-
lected in Key West.
Mr. Jerry A. Payne (Clemson, South Carolina)
4 Hemiptera, representing 4 species, 2 of which were new to the col-
lection, kept for services from 30 specimens identified by Mr. Mead for
Mr. Payne, Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Entomology
and Zoology, Clemson College.
Dr. C. B. Philip (Hamilton, Montana)
6 tabanid flies consisting of 2 females of Tabanus texanus Hine, and the
following paratypes: 1 female Chrysops macquarti Philip (univittatus
of authors, not Macquart), 1 female Tabanus nigrovittatus fulvilineis
Philip, 1 male Tabanus bimini Philip, and 1 female Tabanus cazieri
Philip. All of the species of Tabanus are new to the state collection.
Mr. Daniel Rabago (Fortin de Las Flores, Mexico)
21 moths and butterflies and 1 very strange-looking long-horned grass-
hopper, all collected at Fortin de Las Flores, Mexico. Choice specimens
selected from Mr. Rabago's collection by Dr. Weems included Dr.
Rabago's only specimen of each of 2 species.
Mr. David C. Rentz (San Francisco, California)
54 pinned Scarabaeidae, plus approximately 85 Scarabaeidae in alcohol,
received from Mr. Rentz, California Academy of Science, in exchange
for Florida Orthoptera.
Miss Louise M. Russell (Washington, D. C.)
5 jumping plant lice (Homoptera: Psyllidae) comprising 3 species not
known for the United States of America, but pests in other countries
(in exchange). Consisted of a citrus psylla, Spanioza erythreae, another
citrus psylla, Diaphorina citri, and an avocado psylla, Trioza anceps.
Dr. Herman A. Scullen (Corvallis, Oregon)
8 Cerceris (Sphecidae) representing both sexes of 4 species new to the
collection, from Dr. Scullen, Oregon State University.
Dr. W. E. Simonds (Sacramento, California)
4 Ceratophyus fischeri (Scarabaeidae) were received from Dr. Simonds,
California Department of Agriculture.
Dr. Elbert L. Sleeper (Long Beach, California)
Approximately 60 Polyphylla spp. (Scarabaeidae) in alcohol; 150 Poly-
phylla from California, from Dr. Sleeper, Long Beach City College.

*Collaborators of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods







Division of Plant Industry


Dr. William Spink (Baton Rouge, Louisiana)
13 specimens of the rice delphacid, Sogata orizicola Muir, compliments
of Dr. Spink, Department of Entomology, Louisiana State University.
Mr. Loren F. Steiner (Honolulu, Hawaii)
Several dozen adult specimens, some in alcohol and some stored dry in
pill boxes, of the braconid, Opius oophilus Fullaway, were received in
response to a request from the Entomology Section. This parasitic wasp
was introduced into Hawaii for the control of the fruit fly, and it has
become the most important parasite there of the oriental fruit fly.
Dr. Alan Stone (Washington, D. C.)
4 Diptera in response to a request for representatives of 4 families of
North American Diptera, which were unrepresented in the state collec-
tion. 1 specimen each of the following: Canaceidae (Canace snodgrassi
Coq.), Tanypezidae (Tanypeza luteipennis K. & S.), Tanyderidae (Pro-
toplasa fitchii O. S.), and Thaumaleidae (Thaumalea elmora Dyar and
Shannon).
*Mr. Dade W. Thornton (Miami, Florida)
Small assortment of insects collected in Panama, including 2 species of
grasshoppers; also 3 Panamanian fulgorids collected and donated by Mr.
Thornton.
Dr. E. L. Todd (Washington, D. C.)
4 moths, 2 fall armyworm moths, and 2 beet armyworm moths.
Dr. C. A. Triplehorn (Columbus, Ohio)
120 Coleoptera and Diptera, including several species of beetles new to
the state collection and the first representative of the dipterous families
Tethinidae and Trichoceridae.
Mrs. William W. Warner (Key West, Florida)
Several hundred arthropods, mostly collected in the Florida Keys by the
late William W. Warner, compliments of his wife.
Dr. Frank N. Young (Bloomington, Indiana)
17 Hydrophilidae and Haliplidae, including paratypes of 4 species.


COLLABORATORS OF THE FLORIDA STATE
COLLECTION OF ARTHROPODS

The following is a list of officially appointed Collaborators of
the Florida State Collection of Arthropods, effective May 1, 1963:
Dr. R. M. Baranowski, Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, Homestead,
Florida.
Mrs. Elisabeth C. Beck, Bureau of Entomology, Florida State Board of
Health, Jacksonville, Florida.
Mr. William M. Beck, Jr., Florida State Board of Health, Jacksonville,
Florida.
Mr. Bernard Benesh, Burrville, Tennessee.
Dr. Fred C. Bishopp, Fort Myers, Florida; Manhattan Beach, California.
Dr. Franklin S. Blanton, Department of Entomology, College of Agricul-
ture, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Mr. Don Bryne, Tampa, Florida.
Mr. Byrd K. Dozier, Miami Springs, Florida.

*Collaborators of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods








Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


Mr. William G. Genung, Everglades Experiment Station, Belle Glade,
Florida.
Commodore Vernon F. Grant, 307 Interbay Avenue, Warrington, Florida.
Dr. L. A. Hetrick, Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Mr. Harry 0. Hilton, Fort Walton Beach, Florida.
Dr. E. G. Kelsheimer, Gulf Coast Experiment Station, Bradenton, Florida.
Mr. C. P. Kimball, West Barnstable, Massachusetts; Sarasota, Florida.
Dr. L. C. Kuitert, Chairman, Entomology Department, Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Mr. John W. McReynolds, Nevada, Missouri.
Dr. Edward L. Mockford, Department of Biological Sciences, Illinois State
Normal University, Normal, Illinois.
Dr. Martin H. Muma, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Florida.
Mr. John W. Patton, Plant Quarantine Division, Agricultural Research
Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Tampa, Florida.
Mr. Dennis R. Paulson, Miami, Florida.
Mr. William J. Platt, III, Gainesville, Florida.
Mr. Carl E. Stegmaier, Jr., Hialeah, Florida.
Mr. William B. Tappan, North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy,
Florida.
Mr. Dade W. Thornton, Miami, Florida.
Dr. Thomas J. Walker, Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Dr. John W. Wilson, Entomologist in Charge, Central Florida Experiment
Station, Sanford, Florida.
Dr. D. O. Wolfenbarger, Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, Homestead,
Florida.
Mr. Charles F. Zeiger, Jacksonville, Florida.

Special Projects:
1. Project leader, comprehensive survey of the terrestrial arthropods of
the Dry Tortugas Islands.
2. Responsible for the insect vector phase of investigations of the lethal
yellows disease of coconut palms in the Key West-Stock Island area,
working as a member of a research team of Division of Plant Indus-
try entomologists, nematologists, plant pathologists, and survey spe-
cialists. Primary interest is centered on a whitefly, Aleurodicus new
species, near coccolobae Quaintance and Baker (soon to be described
by Miss Louise Russell), as the probable vector of the disease.
3. Coordinator of a leaf and stem miner project designed to determine
what species of Agromyzidae occur in Florida, what host or hosts
each attacks, what parts of the host are affected, something of the life
history and economic importance of each species, and what parasites
are associated with each species. Carl E. Stegmaier, Jr., U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture worker stationed in Miami, and entomolo-
gists at several of the University of Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Stations are cooperating on this study, with Kenneth A. Spencer
of London, England, identifying the Agromyzidae.
4. Taxonomic and ecological study of the scorpions, whipscorpions, mi-
crowhipscorpions, and windscorpions of Florida, in collaboration with








52 Division of Plant Industry

Dr. Martin H. Muma, University of Florida Citrus Experiment Sta-
tion, Lake Alfred. Dr. Muma has virtually finished the larger part of
the manuscript, and Dr. Weems must complete the portion on whip-
scorpions.
5. Coordinator of a program initiated in the spring of 1963 of officially
appointed Collaborators of the Florida State Collection of Arthro-
pods. Twenty-eight Collaborators have been appointed, including both
amateur and professional entomologists, and the contributions which
these specialists have made have been noteworthy. (See the list of
contributions received, and especially the list of major collections in-
corporated during this period.)
6. Editor of special series of publications on the arthropods of Florida,
other southeastern states, the West Indies (Bahama Islands, Greater
Antilles, and Lesser Antilles), and the coastal land areas around the
Gulf of Mexico. The first of this series, the Lepidoptera of Florida
by C. P. Kimball, should be released during the fall of 1964. A sec-
ond, the first of several bulletins based on a comprehensive survey of
the terrestrial arthropods of the Dry Tortugas Islands by a team of
staff entomologists, is in preparation. Commitments for additional
studies to be published in this series should be made with specialists
on several groups.
7. A taxonomic and ecological study of the Syrphidae (Diptera) of the
southern escarpments of the Appalachian Plateau, financed by a Na-
tional Science Foundation research grant administered by the High-
lands (North Carolina) Biological Station, was begun in the spring
of 1964. A ten-day trip was made to western North Carolina during
April, and a three-week trip to this area was begun on June 27, with
the Highlands Biological Station serving as base of operations.
8. Direction of work by Karl J. Stone on the further development of the
spider collection of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods. Plans
are being developed for Mr. Stone to collaborate on a major publica-
tion covering the spiders of Florida with Dr. Martin H. Muma serv-
ing as senior author.
9. Handling identifications in connection with a special survey for the
whitefly, Dialeurodes kirkaldyi (Kotinsky), which was discovered in
Florida in December 1962.
10. Exchanges of reference material to make the reference collection
more complete. A special effort is being made to obtain representatives
of the principal arthropod pests occurring in other parts of the world
which constitute a potential threat to Florida agriculture. This will
materially aid in making a higher percentage of complete and ac-
curate determinations and making these faster. It also provides ad-
ditional material for taxonomic research, display, and teaching pur-
poses.
11. Examination of samples taken from light traps and several kinds of
baited traps located in various parts of Florida. Valuable material
obtained from these traps is processed and added to the state
collection, and some specimens of special interest are noted in the
Tri-ology Technical Report.

Job Related Activities:
1. Member, State Committee for Public Information, Entomological
Society of America.
2. Member, Committee on the Common Names of Insects, Entomological
Society of America.
3. Assistant Curator in Arthropods, Florida State Museum, University
of Florida.







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


LIBRARY

MRS. MYRA E. HARSCHEID, Librarian

The Division of Plant Industry Library is a specialized collec-
tion of scientific information, chosen carefully to meet the
needs of the people it serves. While the collection is available
primarily for the use of all sections of Division personnel, it is
also open for public use. A strict circulation policy is applied to
users of the library other than Division employees, but all
library material is readily available for these users while in the
library area or for photoduplication.
One of the basic functions of this special library is service
to its users, and a well-organized collection plus a librarian who
is aware of research techniques and problems are two elements
necessary to supply this service. Mrs. Marguerite S. Batey, who
organized the Division of Plant Industry Library and served
as its Librarian from 1958 through 1963, believed firmly in this
policy. This policy continues to be strongly upheld.
A magazine subscription agency is now responsible for the
Division's subscriptions. Hours of record keeping are eliminated
by this arrangement.
The University of Florida libraries are available for Division
use at any time, and the staff is always cooperative.
The Publications Committee, formerly called the Review
Board, continues to review all publications of the Division. The
Committee consists of:

Mrs. J. Milner, Secretary of the Committee (through June 1963)
Mrs. G. A. Warren, Secretary of the Committee (from July 8, 1963)
Mrs. M. S. Batey (through July 1963)
Mrs. M. E. Harscheid (from September 16, 1963)
Mr. P. E. Frierson
Mr. H. L. Jones, Chairman (through February 13, 1964)
Mr. R. E. Hancock, Chairman (from February 14, 1964)
Mr. H. A. Denmark
Mr. R. P. Esser (through April 23, 1963)
Dr. K. R. Langdon (from April 24, 1963)
Mr. C. P. Seymour

A style manual for the Division publications has recently
been written by the committee members. This manual serves as
a guide for writing the various Division publications.
The library would like to acknowledge and express apprecia-
tion for gifts from the following:
Dr. J. Balogh (Budapest, Hungary)
1 book







Division of Plant Industry


California Fruit Growers Exchange
1 book
Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux
1 book
Dr. John H. Davis (Gainesville, Florida)
1 book
J. T. Griffiths (Winter Haven, Florida)
1 photoprint
Stanley V. Fuller (Cassadaga, Florida)
4 volumes
A. Johnston (F. A. O. Regional Office for Asia and the Far East)
Numerous papers on coconut diseases
Congressman D. R. (Billy) Matthews (Washington, D. C.)
2 books
National and University Institute of Agriculture (Rehovot, Israel)
1 out-of-print periodical
Ministry of Agriculture and Lands (Jamaica, British West Indies)
1 book
Biologische Bundesanstalt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft (Berlin,
Germany)
1 book
Karl J. Stone (Gainesville, Florida)
4 reprints

SUMMARY


A. SERVICES
Reference questions answered
Translations of material in foreign languages
Interlibrary loan requests filled
Publications mailed
Hours devoted to correction of papers, etc.
B. COLLECTION
Current size of library
Bound volumes (approx.) of which 2,983 have beer
Paper bulletin documents
Current periodicals received which includes:
82 paid subscriptions
116 gifts
35 exchanges
9 subscriptions through professional memberships
Added material
New subscriptions
New books, including 13 gifts
C. ADDED EQUIPMENT
Dictionary table
Steel book shelves
Periodicals checking file
Princeton magafiles


Cataloged


296
32
23
2,982
293


3,796
17,393
242


TRIPS AND MEETINGS

The Florida Entomological Society annual meeting was at-
tended August 30 through August 31, 1962, by Messrs. Dekle,







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


Denmark, Mead, and Dr. Weems at Gainesville, Florida. From
October 29 through October 31, Messrs. Denmark, Dekle, Wood-
ruff, and Dr. Weems participated in the Division of Plant
Industry annual meeting at Miami Beach. Messrs. Dekle, Den-
mark, and Woodruff attended the Florida Horticultural Society
annual meeting at Miami Beach, November 1 through November
2. The annual meeting of the Florida Department of Agriculture
in Tallahassee was attended by Mrs. Batey, Messrs. Dekle,
Denmark, Mead, Woodruff, and Dr. Weems. Mr. Woodruff
journeyed to Phoenix, Arizona, from December 2 through
December 7 to attend the Entomological Society of America
annual meeting and stopped by the Arizona State University,
Tempe, and the University of Arizona, Tucson, on his return
trip. December 3, Mr. Denmark attended the Better Fruits
Program meeting in Winter Haven.
The Insect Survey and Detection Reconaissance with Al
Pela, United States Department of Agriculture, Plant Pest Con-
trol meeting was attended by Mr. Woodruff in Gulfport, Missis-
sippi, from January 7 through January 11, 1963. The meeting
of State Entomologists and Pathologists in Orlando, January 23
and 24, was attended by Messrs. Denmark, Mead, and Dr.
Weems. Mr. Dekle journeyed to Jackson, Mississippi, for the
meeting of the Southeastern Branch of the Entomological Soci-
ety of America, January 30 and 31, 1963. The Division of Plant
Industry Regional meeting in Largo was attended by Mr. Den-
mark on April 10. Mr. Mead went to Jacksonville in May to
attend the Florida Anti-Mosquito Association annual meeting.
In July 1963, Mr. Woodruff was in Mexico on a collecting
trip with Mr. Don Bryne. He went to Mexico on June 8 and
returned July 14. Mr. Denmark and Dr. Weems collected in the
Florida Keys and the Dry Tortugas Islands from July 7 through
July 19, and Dr. Weems collected in Mexico and Cloudcroft,
New Mexico, from August 4 through September 19. From
August 20 through August 30, Mr. Mead journeyed to Washing-
ton, D. C., to attend the International Congress of Zoology
meeting, visited the U. S. National Museum, and made a short
stopover at the Entomology Department, North Carolina State
College at Raleigh on the return trip.
Mr. Denmark traveled to Fort Collins, Colorado, to attend
the First International Conference on Acarology at Colorado
State University from September 2 through September 7.
Messrs. Dekle, Mead, Woodruff, and Dr. Weems attended the






Division of Plant Industry


Florida Entomological Society annual meeting in St. Peters-
burg, September 12 and 13. The Florida Horticultural Society
meeting in Miami Beach was attended by Messrs. Denmark and
Dekle from November 4 through November 7. Mr. Dekle was
present at the Fifth Annual Orchid Growers Short Course at
Temple Terrace, November 16 and 17. He also attended the
annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America in St.
Louis, Missouri, from December 2 through December 5.
The Annual Florida Department of Agriculture meeting in
Tallahassee from December 4 through December 6 was attended
by Mr. Denmark. He also attended the Regional Inspectors
meeting at Winter Haven from January 21 through January
23, 1964; the Southeastern Branch of the Entomological Society
of America meeting in Asheville, North Carolina, from January
27 through January 29; the Florida Department of Agriculture
Supervisory Personnel meeting at Orlando on February 11; and
the Dixie African Violet Society meeting on March 21 at Miami.
From April 16 through April 26, Dr. Weems traveled to
Highlands (North Carolina) Biological Station to do some col-
lecting in that area and returned to the Station again on June
27. During May and June, Mr. Woodruff assisted Dr. F. S.
Blanton in collecting chironomids in Mexico. Messrs. Dekle,
Denmark, Mead, and Drs. Weems and White attended the State
Entomologists and Pathologists annual meeting from May 12
through May 13 at Quincy. On June 29 and 30, Mr. Denmark
traveled to Tallahassee to attend the Water Hyacinth Control
Society meeting.

TALKS
Mr. Mead gave a paper entitled "Aedes taeniorhynchus
(Wied.) and Aedes aegypti (L.) in the Dry Tortugas", and Mr.
Woodruff spoke on "The Dry Tortugas Arthropod Survey" at
the annual meeting of the Florida Entomological Society in
Gainesville on August 30, 1962. In November, Mr. Denmark
presented a paper to the Florida Horticultural Society annual
meeting in Miami Beach entitled "Aculus pelekassi Keifer,
Another Citrus Mite in Florida." Mr. Dekle spoke on "Morphol-
ogy of Some Armored Scale Insects" to the Orchid Society
meeting in Sarasota, November 6. On November 13, Dr. Weems
talked on "Mimicry in Syrphidae" to the Gainesville Entomo-
logical Society group. At the annual meeting of the Florida







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


Department of Agriculture in Tallahassee, Mr. Dekle gave a
paper on "Control Projects," Mr. Mead talked on "Notes on
'Jumping' Homoptera," and Dr. Weems spoke regarding "The
Florida State Collection of Arthropods and Facets of the Pro-
gram Relating to this Collection," on November 15.
Mr. Dekle gave two talks on August 13, 1963, to the Pinellas
County 4-H Club Short Course at Largo. They were entitled
"How to Collect and Preserve Insects" and "Entomology Op-
portunities." On August 22, he spoke to the Central Florida
Orchid Society at Winter Haven on "Insects," and at the
Eleventh Annual Turf-Grass Management Conference at the
University of Florida he presented "What is an Insect?". At
the Florida Entomological Society meeting in St. Petersburg,
September 12, Mr. Mead presented a paper on, "Notes on Sharp-
shooter Leafhoppers in Florida (Homoptera: Cicadellidae),"
and Dr. Weems presented commentary for slides, "Illustrated
Talk on the Cercropia Moth," in the absence of Harry 0. Hilton.
Early in October, Mr. Dekle presented a talk entitled, "Orchid
Insects," which included an exhibit of insects intercepted at
ports of entry, to the Gainesville Orchid Society. Later that
month, October 24, he spoke to the Garden Club at Macclenny
on "Insect Control," and on October 25, he told the Florida
State Prison Nursery School at Raiford about "Economic
Insects" and supplemented the talk with Kodachrome slides.
Mr. Denmark spoke to the Dixie African Violet Society in
Miami on March 21, 1964, about "Arthropod Pests of African
Violets." At the annual State Entomologists and Pathologists
meeting in Quincy, May 12 and 13, Dr. Weems presented a
paper entitled "Florida Agromyzidae." A paper entitled "Flor-
ida Department of Agriculture's Position on Parasites and
Predators Introduced into Florida for Biological Control" was
given to the Water Hyacinth Control Society meeting in Talla-
hassee on June 29 by Mr. Denmark.









Nematologv Section

R. P. ESSER AND K. R. LANGDON, Nematologists

SUMMARY OF SECTION ACTIVITIES

A) Diagnostic work: A total of 9,402 samples was processed
during the biennium (Table 1). This was an increase of 67%
over last year's sample total and a new record.

Table 1. Numbers of Samples Processed from Each Diagnostic Work Cate-
gory, Including Percent of the Total of Each Category
Number Samples Percent
Diagnostic Work Category Processed of Total
Reniform nematode program (Apopka Labora-
tory ) .................................. . 4 ,547 48 .4
Regulatory (Gainesville Laboratory) ............. 2,997 31.9
Diagnostic problems (sick or dying plants)
(Gainesville Laboratory) .................... 941 10
Experimental (Gainesville Laboratory).......... 597 6.3
Survey (Gainesville Laboratory) ................. 281 3.0
Cyst nematode program (Gainesville Laboratory) 39 .4
9,402 100


B) Cooperative diagnostic work: A total of 343 samples
was processed in cooperation with the sections of Entomology
and Plant Pathology (joint examination and diagnosis).
C) Nematode surveys: A yearly survey of Florida's 750
acres of caladiums was initiated in July 1963. A survey was
also made of nematodes infesting cabbage palms in the Florida
Everglades. A third survey was conducted to determine distri-
bution of the pseudo-root-knot nematode of turf.
D) Research summary: Work was continued on the lethal
yellowing problem. An experiment was initiated at Key West,
Florida, to prove or disprove nematodes as a causal agent or
vector of the malady. An investigation of the relationship be-
tween root-knot nematode and crown gall bacteria was also
initiated.
Four host testing programs were in progress during the bi-
ennium, one of which was completed.
Susceptibility of 21 species of Kalanchoe to root-knot nema-
tode was tested. This project is complete. The burrowing
nematode host testing program was continued during the bi-
ennium; 28 species or varieties of plants were tested, seven of
58







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


which were found to be susceptible to burrowing nematode.
Six plants were found negative hosts and 13 are still in test.
A chart was formulated to enable plant specialists to deter-
mine the number of samples to take from any given nursery
situation. Sansevieria plants were exposed to dry heat in an
attempt to control root-knot nematodes. The plants survived
treatment but sustained severe leaf damage. Biological control
observations were continued. Burrowing nematodes were seen
trapped and killed by fungus traps. Amoebae were seen attack-
ing and ingesting lesion nematodes. Much time was spent in the
study and formulation of sanitation procedures for nematode
control in Florida nurseries.
E) Miscellaneous activities: In June 1963, two new soil
subsampling tools, one for the greenhouse and one for field
(Fig. 1) use, were distributed to the inspection force. These
tools will decrease appreciably the time it takes to collect samples.
Outlook
The work load has increased considerably in the biennium,
and further increases are predicted. Consequently, less time is
being spent on investigations and information file expansion.
The greatest need in the future will be a permanent laboratory
technician within the section insuring maximum efficiency in
handling nematode samples.

PHYSICAL PLANT REMODELING
The lack of operational space over the past years was sub-
stantially alleviated by installation of pegboard in the labora-
tory. Subsequent custom-made shelving and pegboard fixtures
meet many of the space needs. Every inch of wall space now is
available for utilization as best fits current requirements. The
distinct advantage of pegboard remodeling is that the labora-
tory physical format is flexible in space and time.

PROGRAMS AND SURVEYS

SOYBEAN AND GOLDEN CYST NEMATODE SURVEY
F. S. DONALDSON, Nematologist
Since the amount of time spent in diagnostic work has in-
creased considerably, the time spent in examining soybean and
golden cyst nematode samples has decreased proportionally. A







Division of Plant Industry


Fig. 1.-New soil subsampling tool






Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


total of 39 samples was processed and examined during the
biennium. Heterodera cyperi, the nut grass cyst nematode,
(Fig. 2) was found in five of these samples. There are 90 samples
remaining to be processed in this program. Neither soybean
cyst nor golden nematode of potato has been found in Florida
to date.
The golden nematode, Heterodera rostochiensis, was inter-
cepted by USDA port inspectors at various ports of entry in
Florida 16 times during the biennium.
Species of cyst nematodes collected during the biennium are
presented in Table 2.


Fig. 2.-Heterodera cyperi embedded in a root of yellow nut grass (Cyperus
esculentus, L.).

RENIFORM NEMATODE PROGRAM:
MOBILE LABORATORY, APOPKA
J. B. MACGOWAN, Nematologist

The primary objective of the Reniform Nematode Survey
Program is and has been the evaluation of the nematode in-
festation of plants in the Apopka area bound for out-of-state


7.-~1.
41~L







62 Division of Plant Industry

shipment (Table 3). To meet this objective, a mobile laboratory
equipped to process large numbers of soil samples from the
Apopka area has been located by Lake Apopka.
The mobile laboratory is satisfactorily meeting many sec-
ondary objectives.

Among these are:
1) Sampling ornamental nurseries for burrowing nematode certification.
2) Sampling for citrus nursery site approval.
3) Examining gardenias and caladium bulbs whenever root-knot certifi-
cation is required or desired.
4) Real estate grove inspection. (One grove was inspected.)
5) Miscellaneous examinations when nurserymen have growing problems
where nematodes are suspected.
6) Assistance with sanitation and chemical control programs.
7) Accumulation of nematode distribution and host data.
8) Development of nematode subsampling tools.
Table 2 shows the increasing occurrence of Heterodera
cyperi in nursery field sites.

Table 2. Cyst Nematodes Found Associated with Various Nursery Plants
During the Biennium

Nursery Plant Locality Heterodera Species

Amaryllis sp. Orlando cyperi and sp.
Bradenton
Caladium sp. Lake Placid cyperi
Camellia japonica Glen St. Mary sp.
Brassica oleracea
var. capitata Sanford sp.
Gladiolus sp. Fort Myers cyperi
Delray Beach
Palatka
Livistona chinensis St. Petersburg sp.
Psidium cattleianum Boynton Beach n. sp. ?
Polystichum adiantiforme Sun City sp.
Sabal palmetto Immokalee sp.
Stenotaphrum secundatum Lakeland sp.
Zamia sp. Punta Gorda sp.
Mixed roots Gainesville sp.
Soil Fort Myers sp.

Table 3. Diagnostic Work Summary

Total samples processed ........................... ............. . 4,517
Total properties sampled ............................................. 140
Samples infested with burrowing nematod. ............................ 59
Samples infested with sting nematode .............. ............. 184
Samples infested with reniform nematode.............................. 2
Samples infested with meadow nematode (Pratylenchus zeac)............. 6(
Samples infested with citrus nematode ......................... ..... 140








Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


A long range program is being initiated to survey sys-
tematically each nursery in the Apopka area to compile infor-
mation on nematode occurrence and distribution in the area.


Table 4. Number of Plant Parasitic Genera Found
Among Properties Sampled


Number of Genera
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13


Frequency of Occurrence
5
18
14
16
11
11
17
13
14
7

11
3
4
1
2^


Table 5. Nematode Distribution and Abundance

Samples Positive
Nematode 1962 1964
Meloidogyne. .. . . . 1,457
Helicotylenchus .... . . .. 803
Criconemoides. ... ... .. 638
Trichodorus. .. ... ... 678
Pratylenchus .... ...... 607
Tylenchorhynchus ....... 294
Hoplolaimus ........... 343
Scutellonema ....323
Hemicycliophora ... .......... 223
Belonolaimus. ..... ..... .... 184
Hemicriconemoides ......... . 151
Xiphinema. .... . .. 171
Tylenchulus................ 112
Meloidodera. ......... . 104
Paratylenchus ............ 125
Radopholus.......... .... 59
Dolichodorus ....... 14
Trophotylenchulus.......... ...... 7
Aphelenchoides....... .... ... 5
Criconem a ................ ..... 5
Ditylenchus ....... ... . .. 26
Longidorus ......... ...... 1
Rotylenchulus. ................. 2















Table 6. Four-Year Summary of Nematode Samples That Passed or Failed the Nematode
Requirements of the Turf Certification Program

Grass Samples Passed Samples Failed Percent of Failures

Common Name Scientific Name 1960-1962 1962-1964 1960 1962 1962-1964 1960-1962 1962-1964

St. Augustine ...... Stenotaphrum secundatum ......... 543 435 46 133 7.8 23.4

Bermuda.......... Cynodon dactylon .............. 52 95 13 72 20.0 43.1

Zoisia..... ........ Zoisia sp............. .. 56 119 18 58 24.0 32.7

Centipede........... Eremochloa ophiuroides. .......... 94 41 12 15 11.3 26.7

Turf............. Inknown........ ....... 20 9 1 1 4.7 10.0
Total. ...... ...... . 765 699 90 279







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


Turf Certification Program
A total of 978 samples was examined for nematodes. (See
Table 6.) Of 978 samples, 279 or 29% of the total failed to
meet turf certification requirements.
Table 6 clearly shows an increase of failures in all species
of turf in this biennium.

Turf Cyst Nematode
This pest, first detected in the last biennium, is considered
the most serious economic threat to the turf industry (Figs.
3 and 4). It has not been found in any Florida turf nursery in
this biennium despite a careful examination of all turf samples.
Its distribution has increased considerably in the restricted
area where it was first detected (Table 7).


Fig. 3.-Healthy St. Augustine grass on the left, St. Augustine grass
infected with turf cyst nematode on the right.








66 Division of Plant Industry


































Fig. 4.-Turf cyst nematode females clustered about a St. Augustine grass
root.

The Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations have provided
most of the information on distribution of this pest and has set
up chemical experiments in an attempt to control it.

Table 7. Distribution of the Turf Cyst Nematode in Florida

Palm Beach County ........................... Lake Park
West Palm Beach
Lake Worth
Palm Springs
Lantana
Manalapan
Boynton Beach
Boca Raton

Broward County....................... .... Fort Lauderdale
Davie
Hollywood
Hallandale

Dade County ................. ........... Miami







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


A close watch will be kept on its occurrence in the next
biennium. It is hoped that time will permit a turf cyst nematode
survey in the next biennium.

Pseudo-Root-Knot Nematode of Turf
(Hypsoperine graminis)
In October 1963, this pest was found for the first time in a
Florida turf nursery. Sale of the infested turf was held up
pending evaluation of the pest. Within a few weeks, meetings
were held concerning the pest, rapid surveys were made, and
inquiries concerning the pest were sent to other states. The
following was found concerning the pseudo-root-knot nematode
of turf.
1) Its distribution in Florida was more widespread than
originally suspected (Table 8).
2) It was also found well established in Maryland and
Georgia. Since turf has been shipped to other states from Mary-
land, Georgia, and Florida, it can be assumed that this pest
exists in states where it is yet unreported. As a result of these
findings, the infested turf was released. Formulation of proce-
dures to regulate such occurrences in the future was also
instituted.
Table 8. Distribution of Pseudo-Root-Knot Nematode of Turf in Florida

County City Turf

Alachua Gainesville Cynodon dactylon
Alachua Micanopy Cynodon dactylon
Broward Deerfield Beach Cynodon dactylon
Broward Deerfield Beach Zoisia (Emerald)
Dade Miami Cynodon dactylon
Leon Tallahassee Cynodon dactylon
Palm Beach Belle Glade Cynodon dactylon
Palm Beach Delray Beach Zoisia sp.
Polk Lakeland Eremochloa ophiuroides
Polk Lakeland Stenotaphrum secundatum
Polk Winter Haven Stenotaphrum secundatum
Polk Winter Haven Paspalum notatum
Polk Winter Haven Digitaria sanquinalis
Polk Winter Haven Zoisia japonica
Polk Winter Haven Cynodon dactylon X
C. transvaalensis

Table 8 demonstrates a wide occurrence of this pest in Flor-
ida. Since this pest (Fig. 5) damages turf severely (Fig. 6),
efforts will be made to keep it under control as far as possible.






Division of Plant Industry


The Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations have initiated a
chemical control program against this pest.
A number of pseudo-root-knot nematode females from turf
in South Florida were found dead and filled with fungus
mycelium. Some degree of natural biological control is appar-
ently in effect against this pest.


1'

A


')


Fig. 5.-A pseudo-root-knot nematode female (A) inserted in a Bermuda
grass root. An unusually large egg mass (B) attached to the female.
Caladium Survey
In July 1963, an annual survey of the Florida caladium
acreage was initiated. This involved 750 acres of caladium per
year resulting in an increase of a maximum of 750 samples to
the work load each year.
In this biennium, 594 caladium samples were examined.
Nematodes found in these examinations are listed in Table 9.
Table 9 clearly indicates that of 14 plant parasitic nema-
todes found associated with caladium, only root-knot appears to
occur with any degree of regularity. Some caladium fields were
almost free of plant parasitic nematodes. Except for root-knot
nematodes, caladiums are relatively free of nematode pests.








Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report 69

























































infected
'n


Fig. 6.-Top: St. Augustine grass free of pseudo-root-knot nematode. Bot-
tom: St. Augustine grass infested with pseudo-root-knot nematode of turf,








70 Division of Plant Industry

Table 9. Nematodes Found Associated with
Caladium Soil and Root Samples


Nematodes
Meloidogyne (root-knot nematode)..........
Helicotylenchus (spiral nematode)...........
Heterodera (cyst nematode) ...............
Tylenchorhynchus (stunt nematode).........
Criconemoides (ring nematode) ..............
Scutellonema (spiral nematode) ............
Belonolaimus (sting nematode) .............
Hemicriconemoides (sheathoid nematode) ....
Trichodorus (stubby root nematode).........
Hemicycliophora (sheath nematode).........
Cacopaurus (sessile nematode) ..............
Hoplolaimus (lance nematode) ..............
Meloidodera (cystoid nematode) ............
Paratylenchus (pin nematode) ..............
Pratylenchus (lesion nematode) ..............


Times Found
197
30
20
20
15
3
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1


Percent of
Total Samples
33
5
3
3
2.5
5
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
16
16
.16
.16


Education


Three inspector trainee classes and two field schools, one in
Region III and the other in Region IV, were conducted during
the biennium.
Laboratory sessions from the Entomology, Biology, and the
Soils Department of the University of Florida were conducted
at the laboratory. Lectures were also given in the Soils and En-
tomology Departments of the University by R. P. Esser. Assist-
ance was given to a high school student, Mr. Dale Oates, of
Sebring, Florida, in a nematology project that won first place in
its division at a regional science fair. A student from Thailand,
Mr. Sawart Ratanaworabhan (sponsored by FAO), spent a week
in the laboratory learning about nematodes.


INVESTIGATIONS


LETHAL YELLOWING OF COCONUT

K. R. LANGDON, Nematologist

The Nematology Section is cooperating with the Plant
Pathology and Entomology Sections in a concentrated joint
effort to establish the cause of lethal yellowing of coconut in
Key West. Space for the experiment has been furnished by the
U. S. Navy at the Naval Base at Key West. An insect-proof







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


screened house has been constructed at Key West which houses
the experiment.
The structure consists of ten cubicles, each 10 ft. square.
Inside each cubicle are partially buried four 55-gallon drums in
which young, tall variety coconuts are planted, one per drum.
Four cubicles are used by Nematology and six by Pathology
and Entomology combined. Of the four cubicles used by Nema-
tology, one contains drums of steam sterilized Key West soil
with Rotylenchulus sp. added from the area of diseased trees.
Another contains the same type of soil with Xiphinema sp.
added. The third contains Key West soil naturally infested with
Rotylenchulus sp. The fourth cubicle contains check plants in
sterilized Key West soil with no insects, diseases, or nematodes
added. All planting and nematode inoculations have been com-
pleted. It is now a matter of waiting and checking results.
This experiment was designed to reveal the role of each of
these nematodes in the lethal yellowing disease.


ROOT-KNOT AND CROWN GALL ASSOCIATION

K. R. LANGDON, Nematologist

An experiment is in progress in which the causal relation-
ship between root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita in-
cognita) and crown gall bacteria (Agrobacterium tumefaciens)
can be studied. The objective is to learn whether the cases in
which the two are found together constitute a true complex or
if it is merely an incidental association.
Several plants are being tested. These include Begonia
coccinea 'Dielytra' and Ardesia crispa, both of which have been
found with this association. Also included are Rutgers tomato,
Kalanchoe rosei, and Okinawa peach. Other plants will be tested
later.
Data from this experiment will be useful in determining
control and experimental procedures to be used in the future.
Roses on which crown gall was a problem have been checked,
but to date no such association has been established.
One nursery was examined where crown gall was suspected
on red maple (Acer rubrum) and silver maple (Acer sacchari-
num). Both root-knot and crown gall were found on the silver
maple, but no causal relationship could be established. No crown
gall could be found on the red maple.






Division of Plant Industry


SAMPLE NUMBER DETERMINATION
K. R. LANGDON, Nematologist
During the biennium, Dr. Langdon was assigned the responsi-
bility of establishing some method of determining how many
soil samples should be taken from a given regulatory survey
situation for Nematology. This was done on a logarithmic pro-
gression basis allowing for more samples per unit area but
fewer total samples to be taken from small areas than from
large areas (Table 10).
A graduated scale of this nature was needed because a set
number of samples per unit area either would not give a satis-
factory sampling of small areas, or else if the number was in-
creased, then the number of samples from large acreages would
be prohibitive to process. The logarithmic progression over-
comes this objection by providing a satisfactory number of
samples from any sized area while keeping the total number of
samples within workable limits. Also, this system would be
equitable for all similar situations, which has not been the case
with the number of samples to be taken being left to the
discretion of each inspector.
This system is to serve as an aid and a guide for the in-
spectors to make their work somewhat easier and to enable them
to do a more satisfactory job of sampling.
The present status of this system is that of trial and evalua-
tion. Mimeographed copies of this procedure (Form N-50),
which contains a discussion and description of the system plus
tables and complete instructions for their use, are available
from the Nematology Section.

GRASS CYST NEMATODE HOST TESTING
K. R. LANGDON, Nematologist
The grass cyst nematode, Heterodera leuceilyma,* has been
found causing severe damage to several home lawns in South
Florida. Damage has been noted to date only on St. Augustine
grass, Stenotaphrum secundatum. The host range of this nema-
tode is unknown; therefore, this host test was set up to test a
number of grass species to learn if they are hosts.
Two soil boxes were set up on greenhouse benches, and St.
Augustine grass was planted in them. One box was infested by
Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin in Manuscript









Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


Table 10. Number of Samples to be Taken from Containers, Fields, or Beds


Number of
containers




Up to 25
25-62
62-125
125-200
200-300
300-430
430-560
560-740
740-900
900-1100
1100-1350
1350-1550
1550-1800
1800-2100
2100-2400
2400-2800
2800-3100
3100-3400
3400-3800
3800-4300
4300-4700
4700-5100
5100- 5600
5600-6000
6000-6500
6500-7000
7000-7600
7600-8200
8200-8800
8800-9400
9400-10,000
10,000-10,700 i
10,700-11,500
11,500-12,200
12.200-12,800
12,800-13,500
13,500-14,200
14,200-15,000
15,000-15,800
15,800-16,600
16.600-17,400
17,400-18,300
18,300-19,000
19,000-20,000
20,000-20,900
20.900-21.800
21,800-22,700
22.700-23. 600
23,600-24,500
Over 24,500


Square foot
area of field,
bed, etc.


Up to 10
10-66
66-270
270-700
700-1400
14(X)-2500
2500-3900
3900-5700
5700-8000
8000-11,000
11.000-15.000
15.000-18,500
18,500-23,000
23,000-28,000
28,000-34,000
34.000-41,000
41,000-49,000
49,000-58,000
58.000-66.000
66.000-76,000
76.000-89,000
89.000-100.000
100.000-115.000
115,000-126.000
126,000-142,000
142,000-160,000
160,000-176,000
176,000-195,000
195.000-215.000
215.000-235,000
235,000-260,000
260.000-280,000
280.000-310.000
310.000-340.000
340.000-360,000
360.000-390,000
390.000-420,000
420.000-150,000
450.000-40,000 .
490.000-520,000
520.000-560,000
560,000-600,000 .
600,000-640,000
640.000-680,000
680,000-720,000
720,000-760,000
760.000-800,000
800.000-850.000
850,000-900,000
900,000 950,000
950,000-2,000,000
Over 2,000,000


Length of
4-6 foot Approxi-
wide bed mate
in feet acres


. . . . . . . . .
31-13 .. ....
13-54 ..........
54-140 .. ........
140-280 .........
280-500 . . . . .
500-780 ..
780-1140 '/io
1140-1600 .........
. . . . . 4
. . . . . ./
. . . . .. . . .


. . . . . 1/
. . . . . .
. . . . . . . .

1




2-
.. . . . . .
'. . . . . .


. . . . .

. . . . .







. . . . . 5


('


8



.. .. .... 11
. . . .. 8





........ 12
. . . . 17




18
. . . . 1
. . . . 17
. . . . 138
. . . . 19


2. . . . -50
........ 22-50
........ Over 50


Number
of
samples


Treat as
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
Equal to
number of
acres


Approxi-
mate
number
of
samples
per acre

container















16

13

10
i .........



8

7

6

5




-I
4

4




3
3
3







1







Division of Plant Industry


placing 65 cysts around the roots of the grass (inoculum
furnished by Dr. V. G. Perry, Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta., Gainesville).
The other box was left nematode-free as a check.
Tifgreen (T328) Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon),
Emerald zoisia (Zoisia tenuifolia x Z. matrella), Zoisia japonica,
and centipede grass (Eremochloa ophiuroides) were also
planted in the boxes to be tested as possible hosts.
This is a continuing project, and as one species or variety is
checked, another will be planted in its place until such time as
the project is terminated. No results are available yet.


CITRUS NEMATODE

K. R. LANGDON, Nematologist

Citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) has recently
been found associated with two host plants which normally
would be considered unlikely hosts. R. P. Esser found abundant
citrus nematodes associated with cabbage palm (Sabal pal-
metto) in virgin areas of the Everglades. In June 1964, John
MacGowan found citrus nematodes on the roots of a grass
(Panicum sp.), the species of which is yet to be determined.
An attempt has been made to transfer the citrus nematode
from cabbage palm to sour orange (Citrus aurantium) seedlings
in the greenhouse. If they reproduce on citrus, then they will be
transferred from the sour orange to cabbage palm seedlings in
a reciprocal test.
The infested grass furnished by MacGowan is being main-
tained in pots in the greenhouse. Once the population has had a
chance to rebuild itself, further host tests will be conducted with
this population.


HYPSOPERINE HOST TESTING

K. R. LANGDON, Nematologist

Hypsoperine graminis, the pseudo-root-knot nematode of
turf, has been found in several turf nurseries as well as other
locations in Florida and also in Georgia and Maryland. It is a
very serious pest of turf, especially Bermuda grass and St.
Augustine grass. At present, little else is known about its host







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


range; consequently, a host testing program has been established
to determine more of its host range.
Two soil boxes in the greenhouse were planted with St.
Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), which is a host
of this nematode. One of the boxes was infested with H.
graminis by placing several egg masses around the roots of the
grass. The other was left non-infested as a check. Additional
grasses; centipede grass (Eremochloa ophiuroides), Tifgreen
(T-328) Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), Emerald zoisia
(Zoisia tenuifolia x Z. matrella), and Zoisia japonica, were
planted in these boxes for host testing.
This is a continuing project and, as one species or variety
test is completed, another will be planted in its place until the
project is terminated. No results are available at this time.


OTHER ACTIVITIES

K. R. LANGDON, Nematologist

Dr. Langdon has worked with growers on problems of nema-
tode control on gladiolus and other horticultural crops. Nema-
tode control recommendations have been given to all who have
requested them. Growers also have been advised on such things
as cultural practices, sanitation, and soil sterilization. Trips
have been made on various occasions to growing areas in order
to observe the problem situations first hand. This was done in
order to make better evaluations of the situations and to make
appropriate recommendations for cultural practices and control.
The above activities were in addition to the normal labora-
tory work of handling routine samples.


BURROWING NEMATODE HOST
TESTING PROGRAM

F. S. DONALDSON, Nematologist

At the request of inspectors and nurserymen, the suscepti-
bility of several ornamental species and varieties of plants to
the burrowing nematode was tested. A total of 28 hosts was
tested during the biennium (Table 11).
Plants were considered hosts if both larvae and adults of








76 Division of Plant Industry

Radopholus similis were dissected from the tissue after growing
in the presence of the nematode for 31/2 to 5 months. Root
incubations were an indication of the nematodes' affinity for the
host but were used only in conjunction with dissection. If no
burrowing nematodes could be dissected but were removed by
incubation, the host was labeled tentative and replanted in the
tanks again for retesting.

Table 11. Susceptability of 28 Species or Varieties of Plants to Burrowing
Nematode

Positive hosts (burrowing nematodes dissected from the plant tissue)
Scientific Name Common Name
Aechmea fulgens var. discolor x A. miniata ................ Bromeliad
Billbergia pyramidalis................................... "
Cenchrus echinatus ...................................... Sandspur
Kalanchoe pinnata ...................................... Air Plant
Neoregelia spectabilis x N. marmorata...................... Bromeliad
Vriesia barbilletii x V. carinata .......................... "
Saintpaulia ionantha .................................... African Violet
Negative hosts (no burrowing nematodes dissected from plant tissue)
Narcissus sp........................ ............... Narcissus
Codiaeum variegatum "General McArthur" ............... Croton
"Gloriosa"........................ "
"G loriosa"......................... "
"Neptune" .........................
"Barbara Burke"................... .
"Duke of Windsor".................. "

Hosts still under test
Begonia rex ............................ ............ Rex Begonia
Euphorbia pulcherrima ............................... Poinsettia
Gladiolus sp. "Wild Rose"............................... Gladiolus
""Spic and Span"............................ "
"V aleria" ...... ............................
""White Friendship"........................ "
"V an Zant"....... ....................... "
Codiaeum variegatum "Kentucky" .................... . Croton
Coleus sp. "Texas A & M ".............................. Coleus
""Lincoln" ................................... "
"Lange" ........................ ........... "
""Spotted Beauty" ............................
""Crimson Velvet"............................. "
Rubus cuneifolius ...................................... Blackberry
R. trivialis......................................... .............. Dewberry


HOT AIR TREATMENT OF SANSEVIERIA
TRIFASCIATA

F. S. DONALDSON, Nematologist

During August 1962, a hot air treatment of Sansevieria
trifasciata was initiated to test their ability to survive under a







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


gradient of heat for a specified interval. The temperature used
varied within a range of 47 to 53 C in an electrically operated
thermostatically controlled heat chamber. Times used were
20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 minutes. The temperatures used are
sufficient to kill plant parasitic nematodes in water during a
10-minute period. The heat treatment of plants must occur over
a sufficient time to allow the center of the root and stem to
reach the desired treatment temperature.
Three plants were used for each time interval totaling
24 plants used plus three check plants which were not treated.
The plant roots were free from soil when received and were
washed and placed in the heat chamber in a damp condition.
After being subject to heat for the allowed time, the plants were
placed in a moist chamber for 10-12 hours and then potted in
fumigated soil. They were then placed in the greenhouse and
watered daily for the duration of the test.
All the plants were checked during September and January,
and the condition of the leaves and general top condition was
noted. The last check made during January revealed 100%
survival of the treated plants, even for the plants treated 70
minutes. Throughout the test the leaves showed tip and margin
loss and shrinkage. In several instances, one or more leaves
died while adjacent leaves survived. Some of the leaves had
mushy, dead areas but still appeared to be growing. At the
conclusion of the observation, it was noted that new shoots
were being put out by some of the plants in all ranges of
time used. The check plants had none of the symptoms ob-
served on the treated plants.

Conclusions
The damage incurred by Sansevieria trifasciata subjected
to a temperature of 47-53 C for 20-70 minutes was not sufficient
to kill the roots or all the leaves, since 100% of the test plants
survived. New shoots were being put out by the treated plants
5 months after treatment. However, unless all new leaves were
grown, the plant would not meet market standards because the
majority of the leaves were damaged. If new leaves did develop,
the roots would likely be free of plant parasitic nematodes.
Further testing in the future should be attempted in order to
prove this assumption.







Division of Plant Industry


ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE HOST TEST FOR
KALANCHOE AND RELATED SPECIES
F. S. DONALDSON, Nematologist
Twenty-one species of Kalanchoe and three related species
were obtained from Dr. E. K. Sobers of the Pathology Section
to be treated as possible root-knot nematode hosts. A test was
also initiated to determine if the root-knot nematodes would
infect the plants in a soil box more readily than in pots.
Three plants, each grown from aboveground cuttings, were
planted in a large wooden box measuring 62 "x 57" x 10" deep
constructed on a greenhouse bench. Crushed rock was placed
in the bottom and covered with heat sterilized soil consisting of
2 parts sandy top-soil and 1 part peat. Three plants of the same
species planted in the soil box were also planted in 4-inch pots
in the same soil as used in the box.
Roots of Gardenia sp. heavily infected with Meloidogyne
incognita incognita, Chitwood 1949, were cut up and buried in
the soil box and in the individual pots. Roots were also blended
with a Waring blender, and the water from this blending was
poured into the pots to insure high numbers of nematodes. In
addition to the test plants in the soil box, tomato and okra were
planted to support populations of the nematodes. The plants
were watered daily until well established and then every other
day thereafter.
The project was started in January 1963, and the first checks
for root-knot were made in April. The plants from the soil box
were washed free of soil and inspected for root galls. The
plants were then placed in jars and incubated for 3 days. The
incubation washings were then placed on a baerman funnel and
later checked for root-knot nematodes. The soil in the pots was
placed directly on the baerman funnel and checked for the
presence of root-knot nematodes. The roots of the potted plants
were incubated and checked the same as the soil box plants.
Since root-knot nematodes were the only ones of concern in
this test, no other plant parasities found were listed. The results
showed that some of the plants had more knots and incubated
more nematodes. Some of the plants were labeled questionable
hosts when few or no root-knot nematodes were incubated and
few or no knots were seen on the roots. In some cases, small galls
were initiated by root-knot larvae, but the larvae apparently
failed to complete their life cycle due to resistance of the plant.






Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


Results
The following plants were indicated positive root-knot nema-
tode hosts by the tests: Kalanchoe verticillata, K. blossfeldiana
(yellow), K. pinnata, K. millotii, K. rosei, K. orgyalis, K.
crenata, K. tomentosa, K. laciniata, K. blossfeldiana 'Tom
Thumb', K. beauverdii, K. flammea, K. velutina, K. gastonis-
bonnierii, Sedum nussbaumerianum, Crassula lycopdioides, and
Echerveria carnicolor.
The following plants were labeled questionable hosts and
probably indicate some resistance: K. blossfeldiana (red), K.
daigremontiana, K. laxiflora, K. somaliensis, K. fedtschenkoi,
K. globosa, and K. fedtschenkoi 'Marginata.'
In all species tested, root-knot nematodes were found in the
box or pots in at least one, if not all, of the checks made. There
were 15 positive and 13 negative tests among potted plants
checked for knotting on the roots. There were 17 positive and
9 negative tests among the plants in the box checked for root-
knotting. Five of the species were negative for root-knot in the
pots but positive in the box tests. Two of the species found
negative in the box test were positive in the pot test. Ten of the
species were found positive in both the pot and box root-knot
tests.
Of the root incubations, there were 13 positive tests for the
pots, whereas, there were 21 positive tests for root-knot on the
box plants. (A positive occurs when one or more of the three
host plants incubated is positive for root-knot nematode.) The
results show that the soil box plants had a slightly higher per-
centage of positive tests than the potted plants in the root-
knotting checks and the nematode incubation checks.

SANITATION FOR NEMATODE CONTROL
IN FLORIDA NURSERIES
R. P. ESSER, Nematologist
This project was second in importance and time expended
only to diagnostic regulatory functions. Most of the time was
spent in collating sanitation data and preparing a publication
on sanitation for Florida nurserymen.
Trips were made to a number of nurseries and sanitation
conditions evaluated and in some cases photographed. Sanita-
tion recommendations were also made in several nurseries on
request.






Division of Plant Industry


BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

R. P. ESSER, Nematologist

Observations were continued during the biennium of inter-
actions between nematodes, other invertebrates, and fungi in
non-sterile water agar plates.

Amoebae
A larva of Pratylenchus scribneri and a larva of Helicoty-
lenchus multicinctus were seen completely within the pellicle of
a soil amoeba (Fig. 7). A population of amoebae was also ob-
served with fungus spores within their pellicles. The spores
were identified as Curvularia and Helminthosporium. About
40%-50% of a large population of amoebae contained 3-9
Curvularia spores each. Four of five amoebae contained spores
of Helminthosporium.
Nematode trapping fungi
a) Fungi with a sticky mycelium mechanism for trapping
nematodes were observed trapping burrowing, lesion, and root-
knot nematodes.


to the stylet of the captured nematode)





Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report 81


"I
Fig. 8.-A foliar nematode caught in a mycelial loop.
*' 'i.E
'." .a^ .. ^*


Fig. 9.-A dorylaim devouring a nematode egg.






Division of Plant Industry


b) Fungi with a mycelial loop mechanism for trapping
nematodes were seen trapping spiral, stubby-root, stunt, lance,
sting, ring, foliar (Fig. 8), and awl nematodes.
Information concerning biological control of plant parasitic
nematodes by fungi was very productive in this biennium.

Predacious Nematodes

Many observations were made of predation by nematodes
similar to those recorded in the last biennium (Fig. 9). New
observations included a larval ring nematode being devoured
by a dorylaim, and a mononch overpowering a dorylaim.


MEETINGS ATTENDED AND TALKS PRESENTED
DURING THE BIENNIUM
1) Two talks were presented by R. P. Esser at the Turf-Grass Manage-
ment Conference in Gainesville (1962).
2) A talk was presented by R. P. Esser at the Soil and Crop Science
Society of Florida meeting in Orlando. K. R. Langdon, F. S. Donaldson and
J. B. MacGowan also attended this meeting (1963).
3) A talk was presented by R. P. Esser at the Dixie African Violet
Convention in Miami (1964).
4) The Florida State Horticultural Society meeting in Miami was at-
tended by J. B. MacGowan (1962).
5) A talk about plant parasitic nematodes was presented on Channel 2,
Miami, by R. P. Esser (1964).







Plant Inspection Section

P. E. FRIERSON, Chief Plant Inspector
The 1962-64 biennial period provides data of an interesting
and important nature. First, it again proves that the nursery
industry of Florida can quickly recover from serious setbacks,
and secondly, it confirms the observation that the industry will
continue to grow in size without materially increasing the num-
ber of nurseries.
During the first half of this biennium, the state suffered a
near disastrous freeze, and the effects on the nursery industry
were vividly reflected in the statistics of that year's nursery
report. The statistics for the second half of the biennium,
however, show increases in nearly every category with the
noted exception of total number of nurseries. A definite leveling
off trend seems to have developed in regard to this category.
The amount of nursery stock in the state at the end of the
1961-62 period totaled 336,531,342 plants in comparison to the
360,569,130 recorded at the completion of this biennium. In
this category, increases will be noted among all three classifi-
cations, i.e., citrus, ornamental, and general plants (Table 1).
The number of nurseries under inspection, however, de-
creased from 5,495 to 4,867 during this same period. This is
approximately the number of nurseries under inspection 8 years
ago and well below the peak of 5,513 reached in 1960-61.
Although the average number of inspections per nursery
increased from 2.48 to 2.84 during the biennium, this figure is
still short of the 2.89 average recorded at the completion of the
1961-62 period. It is still a remarkable average, considering the
man hours expended during the biennium in combating two
separate Mediterranean fruit fly invasions.
A total of 460.90 acres and 6,029,302 plants were quaran-
tined during this period in an effort to protect the industry
from dangerous plant pests.
Two important changes in Division policy were recorded
during the biennium. Modification of California's corn regula-
tions was attained after conferring with officials of that state.
Certification of corn shipments to California in the future will
be based on field-treatment verification as opposed to the actual
field inspections required in the past. This change in procedure
was essential since the increased use of parathion by corn
growers had not only made field inspections obsolete but was
creating a hazard to Division inspectors.













Table 1. Approximate Acreage and Amount of Nursery Stock as Compared with the Two Previous Years

1961-1962 1962-1963 1963-1964
Kind of Stock
Acres Plants Acres Plants Acres Plants

Orange ...................................... 2.540.98 10,149,917 1,980.77 8,365,998 2,024.11 8,647,493
Grapefruit...................................... 154.24 416,049 122.13 1,277,028 116.65 429,250
Tangerine ...................................... 78.74 361,755 74.86 475,714 77.11 364,549
Tangelo....................................... 60.36 274,750 79.58 490,537 75.23 296,801
Satsuma ...................................... 27.23 83,906 20.97 72,995 26.76 100,642
Lemon.......................................... 20.59 158,026 19.46 257,866 12.47 122,553
Lim e........................................... 9.31 74,152 6.17 38,086 7.82 44,098
Miscellaneous Citrus............................. 49.11 747,658 91.61 1,572,978 69.73 827,695
Citrus Seedlings ............................... 905.30 21,181,910 998.89 15,718,096 1,536.52 29,332,060

Total Citrus......... .............. ... 3,845.86 33,448,123 3,394.45 28,269,298 3,946.40 40,265,141

Ornamental..................................... 11,107.62 301,266,236 10,880.08 295,819,646 10,928.43 318,083,011
General ........................................ 297.87 1,816,983 419.65 3,630,227 342.51 2,220,978

Total Non-Citrus......................... 11,405.49 303,083,219 11,299.73 299,449,873 11,270.94 320,303,989

Grand Total.............................. 15,251.35 336,531,342 14,694.18 327,719,171 15,217.34 360,569,130







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


Also, it was found through research during this period that
root-knot nematode could be killed in caladium tubers by hot
water treating at 122 F for 30 minutes duration. This discovery
will open markets for the caladium growers that were pre-
viously denied them because of certification restrictions. Many
of the state's bulb growers are now constructing their own
machines since this work has proven so successful.
The nursery inspection activities during the biennium can
best be summarized in Tables 1-7.

Table 2

1961-1962 1962-1963 1963-1964
Number of plant inspection districts. 40 41 41
Number of nurseries in state....... 5.495 4,910 4.867
Average number of inspections per
nursery................. ........ 2.89 2.48 2.84
Total number of inspections of nurs-
ery stock ....................... 21.423 17, 135 1).6(37
Total acreage of nurseries in the state 15,251.35 14.694.18 15.217.34
Total amount of nursery stock in the
state ....................... 336.531.342 327.71. 171 3(0.569. 130



Table 3. Number of Nurseries under Inspection by Type

Type 1962-1963 1963-1964,
Citrus ................... ................... ..... 1,096 1 081
Ornamental...... .. .. ........... 2.423 2,381
General .............. . .. .... . :37 36
Citrus and Ornamental ....... .. ... ..... . 33314
Citrus and General ...... ....... ..... ...... 28
Ornamental and General ..... ....... . 378 399
Citrus, Ornamental, and General .. . .. 618 628
Total ................................... 4.910 4.867



Table 4. Citrus Stock Movement as Compared with Two Previous Years

Variety 1961-1962 1962-1963 1963-1964
Orange......................... 2,444,735 1,334,855 1,998,074
Grapefruit.................... 94,497 67,717 124,450
Tangerine..................... 88,380 55,168 98,836
Tangelo. ... ......... ....... 101,156 65,780 168,505
Satsuma ....................... 10,038 9,367 10,887
Lemon ........ ......... . .. 40.276 23,238 121,881
Lime.............. ......... 19,642 6,783 8,953
Miscellaneous .. ...... ...... 177,573 95,692 20,526
Seedlings. .................... 2.475,484 1,546,241 6,029,725
Total ............ .... 5.451,781 3,204,841 8,581,837













Table 5. Miscellaneous Bulbs and Plants Inspected
(Not Included as Nursery Stock)

1962-1963 1963-1964
Variety Number Number Plants Number Number Plants
Farms Acreage or Bulbs Farms Acreage or Bulbs

Amaryllis .................................. 14 10.96 267,870 7 12.61 235,942
Caladium .................................. 47 796.02 52,978,041 51 687.60 48,716,756
Chrysanthemum ........................... 26 255.02 19,914,308 29 343.13 24,359,621
Easter Lily ................................. 8 50.01 1,935,150 10 54.76 1,913,500
Ferns ..................................... 54 600.43 87,294.364 53 631.85 144,740,840
Gladiolus ................................. 22 5,716.00 249,585,000 20 5,200.03 223,032,500
Hemerocallis ............................... 19 21.54 457,733 23 28.70 673,649
Narcissus .................................. 2 30.00 6,250,000 2 28.62 5,601,000
Miscellaneous Bulbs and Plants............... 24 79.12 7,955,870 39 82.54 12,270,910
Cabbage ................................... 5 118.60 52,776,350 6 91.00 50,850,000
Pepper...................................... 7 72.35 16,940,304 5 38.80 16,180,000
Tobacco ................................... 20 387.65 229,045,000 18 345.25 222,600,000
Tomato........................ .......... 35 1,294.95 207,919,873 33 1,291.73 392,907,500
C orn ...................................... 23 21,349.00 ................ 24 21,794.00 ........
Sod ............................. .......... 8 1,685 .50 ............... 10 1 ,555 .30 ........

Totals .............................. 314 32,467.15 933,319,863 330 32,185.92 1,144,082,218







TABLE 6

NUMBER OF NURSERIES UNDER INSPECTION

1954-55 to 1963-64


1954-55 1955-56 1956-57 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63 1963-64


6000




5000



4000


3000




2000




1000


U,
oo
-I
~



~
~

~
~
~
~



~



~


6000


5000




4000



3000 |.



2000




1000






TABLE 7
AVERAGE NUMBER OF INSPECTIONS

1954-55 to 1963-64


1954-55 1955-56 1956-57 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63 1


5.0

4.5

4.0


3.5

3.0


2.5


2.0

1.5


1.0


.5


4.0
S.

3.5

3.0

2.5 E


2.0

1.5


1.0


.5


2.84
















963-64
,-..
.**.; ,.;.
....
::.**

,:.:
,..- -


963-


-------- ------- ....... .... .. I *..... I I . ...-


5.0

4.5







TABLE 8
TOTAL NUMBER OF PLANTS UNDER INSPECTION MILLION
MILLION1954-55 to 1963-64
1954-55 to 1963-64 __| _
500


MILLION
500 -

450


400


350


300


250


200

150

100


50


1954-55 1955-56 1956-57 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63 1963-64


0
m


0 --
%0


o::oo-
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Division of Plant Industry


CITRUS BUDWOOD REGISTRATION
PROGRAM
G. G. NORMAN, Assistant Chief Plant Inspector
December 1962 will long be remembered for its devastating
freeze, the worst for two-thirds of a century. This event, more
than all other factors combined, dictated the range of Budwood
Program activities for the biennium. Certain effects of the cold
were immediate and far reaching; others were more gradual.
Adequate protective equipment, 1400 grove heaters, and
four wind machines, provided by the Florida Legislature, gave
Budwood Program personnel, with assistance from other Divi-
sion employees, means to prevent the loss of trees representing
10 years of intensive work as well as many thousands of dollars
spent in their selection and testing. Around the clock labor
brought the Division's two test plots and Foundation Grove
through with only minor losses.
Almost all citrus nurseries were hard hit; trees killed or
dead to the bank averaged 65% overall but often approached
100% in northern districts. Huge losses among grove plantings
under 8 years old created an additional shortage of trees.
Further aggravating this critical situation was the heavy dam-
age to scion groves, the State's principle source of true-to-type
virus-free budwood.
By Monday, following the coldest day, Thursday, December
13, emergency actions were underway at the Citrus Budwood
Registration Office to provide nurserymen and growers with a
clearing house for information on citrus propagative material
not ruined by the freeze.
Two complete tabulations, each with supplementary lists,
which presented information on available budwood, nursery
trees, seed and seedlings were distributed to all who requested
assistance in early 1963. During this period, nurserymen
brought many lots of seed from freeze-injured fruit to the Bud-
wood Office for viability tests. Nurserymen, including many that
were new in the business, and established growers, who do not
normally produce nursery stock, realized that badly needed
trees might be unavailable for several years. As a result, mil-
lions of seedlings were set in a drive for expanded tree produc-
tion anticipating an unprecedented demand. To forestall large
scale use of virus infected propagative material, a service was
instituted to assure full utilization of registered budwood sup-







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


plies. This material was catalogued by variety, location, and
amount so that specific needs could be met, often within the
interval of a telephone call. To date, 93,989 buds from the
Division's Budwood Foundation source trees have been distri-
buted to more than 100 persons seeking to establish their own
scion plantings of superior virus-free trees. Production of
registered nursery trees for the report period totaled 4,905,607,
nearly 2 million more than were grown in the preceding 9 years.
In October 1963, the Program's office was moved to a
spacious new wing adjoining other Division offices on the Lake
Alfred Road. On October 9, the new building was dedicated to
"service" for Florida Agriculture by Commissioner Conner in
ceremonies presided over by the late W. G. Cowperthwaite,
division director. Attending this dedication were representa-
tive groups from the Division's Technical Advisory Committee,
the Production Managers Association, Florida Citrus Nursery-
men's Association, United States Department of Agriculture,
and other Divisions of the Florida Department of Agriculture.
The physical move was accomplished by little loss of working
time, and full use of the building's facilities began without
delay. This installation was later named the Cowperthwaite
Building after the tragic death of the Division's director.

Program Changes
During the period, two important changes were effected.
1. Participants were allowed until February 1, 1964, to apply
for registration of scion groves previously declared eligi-
ble. Registration must now take place within 6 months
after eligibility is attained (normally 2 years from plant-
ing), or scion trees are no longer carried in the Program's
records. Currently, 16,438 registered and 23,366 non-
registered scion trees are in the Program.
2. Parent and scion trees that become infected with tristeza
remain in the Program. At the Program's inception,
planners recognized the inefficacy of controlling spread
of the insect vectored tristeza virus by means of bud-
wood; thus, registration for tristeza freedom was never
expressed or implied in Program policy. To avoid con-
tributing to natural spread, however, infected candidate
trees were rejected, and those that later became con-
taminated were eliminated. To implement this policy, the
Division has thus far initiated 24,665 tristeza tests. Re-







Division of Plant Industry


cently increased insect transmission of tristeza has been
detected in localities other than the heavily infected Lake
Apopka section of Lake and Orange Counties. Thirty-
seven thousand nursery trees were refused registration
in 1962 and 1963, when tristeza infection was discovered
in bud source trees. At the same time, absence of large
scale tree loss from tristeza in Florida and the desirability
of cold hardy citrus trees demonstrated by losses in two
major freezes only 5 years apart, led to an increased
demand for trees budded on the intolerant sour orange.

Exocortis Indexing

Interest also developed in the use of Poncirus trifoliata and
its hybrids as a rootstock for colder locations, and as a result
requests for exocortis-free budwood became numerous. At a
meeting of the Technical Advisory Committee of the Florida
State Horticultural Society's Committee for Citrus Budwood
Registration, exocortis indexing results were reviewed. It was
recommended that certain seedling line parents free of tristeza,
psorosis, and xyloporosis and displaying no visible signs of
exocortis on Poncirus trifoliata test trees be declared free of the
last named virus. Therefore, 38 parent trees of six varieties
were registered as exocortis free.
The indexing period prior to registering trees free from
exocortis virus is not designated. Reports from other parts of
the world indicate the time required from date of budding
Poncirus trifoliata rootstocks until the appearance of exocortis
symptoms may be from 6 to 10 years, possibly longer. Lack of
data from Florida dictated a cautious approach. Even now,
results relating to the time element are inconclusive in the
Division's test plots where the world's largest and most compre-
hensive indexing program for this virus is under way.
In one test block in which 620 candidate trees are being
indexed, 9% gave initial symptom expression between 7 and
8 years, and individual test trees began exhibiting symptoms in
the ninth year from budding.
Overall, after 81/2 years, 55% showed symptoms of exocortis.
Thirty-four percent of all trees tested were severely stunted,
46% were moderately stunted, 18% were normal, and 2% were
vigorous. Irregular stunting also occurred in seedling lines of
Florida Rough Lemon, Florida Sweet Seedling, and Valencia.







Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


The search for a more rapid yet reliable method for deter-
mining exocortis freedom or infection has been virtually world
wide among citrus research workers. A number of experimental
techniques have shown promise, and measures are under way
in the Citrus Budwood Registration Program which will test
their specificity under Florida conditions.


Foundation Grove

In the fall of 1963, systematic clonal evaluation of Founda-
tion Grove selections was instituted to begin development of
permanent cumulative information files on each tree. Hereto-
fore, the wide range of tree location geographically and di-
versity of factors affecting tree response prevented valid
comparisons of registered parent trees for genetic and horti-
cultural considerations.
At the Budwood Foundation Grove, propagations from out-
standing parent trees constitute a reserve supply of budwood,
and as they are growing on a single soil type, receive the same
care, and undergo the same conditions of weather, they provide
a suitable basis for critical comparison.
The record of response being made by every Foundation
Grove clone judged separately on each of five rootstocks,
Poncirus trifoliata, Sweet Lime, Cleopatra Mandarin, Florida
Rough Lemon, and Sour Orange includes:
1. Overall tree size and growth rate.
2. Appraisal of foliage and limb structure for evidence of
bud variation.
3. Fruit yield.
4. Comparison of fruit characters with those of the most
desirable commercial varietal type:
a. Fruit size and shape
b. Color and texture of peel
c. Quantity of juice
d. Solids and acid contents of juice
e. Seed content, placement, and type
f. Interior color and flavor
A record is kept of budwood removed from each tree as it
affects several factors mentioned above. Fifty-four new selec-
tions were added to the Foundation Grove in 1963.







94 Division of Plant Industry


Trips and Talks

The Florida Department of Agriculture was represented at
the Third Conference of the International Organization of Citrus
Virologists held in Brazil, September 16 through September 25,
1963, by the late Division Director W. G. Cowperthwaite and
G. G. Norman in charge of the Citrus Budwood Registration
Program. The itinerary included visits to Limeira Citrus Ex-
periment Station, the College of Agriculture of the University
of Sao Paulo, and the Instituto Agronomico at Campinas.
A paper entitled "Incidence of Exocortis in Florida Citrus
Varieties" was presented at the conference by G. G. Norman.


Table 1. Certification of Citrus Fruit

Standard Box Equivalent

1962-63 1963-64


Arizona Shipments
FUMIGATED
G rapefruit.................. ..............
T angels .................................
Tangerines ............................
Satsum as.................................

TOTALS ...... ...............................

California Shipments
FUMIGATED
G rapefruit................................
Tangelos ................................

T otals ....... ............ .........

WITHOUT FUMIGATION
Grapefruit .................... .........
L im es .....................................
Oranges ..................................
Tangelos.................................
T angerines ..............................
M ixed Citrus Fruit ........................

Totals.............................
TOTAL CALIFORNIA SHIPMENTS ..................


1400



1400



143
200

343


1863
316
309
38

2526



1500

1500


9 13
25
7 27
4 2
1
37 33


57

400


101

1601


GRAND TOTAL ARIZONA AND CALIFORNIA SHIP-
MENTS .................................. .. 1800 4127

FEES COLLECTED FOR ABOVE SHIPMENTS ......... $7.50 $27.50

FUMIGATION FEES FOR CITRUS IMPORTATIONS ....... ............. $1,237.50








Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


FRUIT AND VEGETABLE CERTIFICATION

Inspection and certification of citrus fruits not requiring
fumigation was taken over by the Division of Fruit and Vege-
table Inspection on July 1, 1962. Certification of citrus fruits
requiring fumigation and less-than-carload shipments from
points other than packing houses are still being handled by the
Division of Plant Industry. During the biennium, the Division
certified 3,926 and 1,843 standard boxes of fumigated citrus to
Arizona and California respectively. Also, 158 boxes of unfumi-
gated citrus were certified for California shipment during the
same period. A breakdown of the volume for the 2 years is
shown in Table 1.
Vegetable shipments to California (Table 2) totaled 117,112
bushels of cucumbers and 41,138 bushels of squash. The ship-
ments involved the fumigation and certification of 357 trucks
and 2 cars.
Due to the severe freeze of December 13, 1962, over 30,-
000,000 pounds of citrus fruits were imported from the Carib-
bean area and some Central American countries during the
second half of the biennium. (See Port Inspections report.)
Most of this fruit had to be fumigated, and $1,237.50 was
collected for these services.

Table 2. Certification of Vegetables
Bushels

1962-63 1963-64
Variety
Cucumbers ................................. 47,154 69,958
Squash ..................... .......... ...... 22,151 18,987
Totals. ................. ......... 69,305 88,945

Shipments by
Trucks ........................... ..... . 177 180
C ars ................. .... . ... 1 1
Totals................... ...... 178 181
FEES COLLECTED FOR ABOVE SHIPMENTS .......... $440.00 $455.00







Division of Plant Industry


FRUIT FLY DETECTION PROGRAM
C. POUCHER, Assistant Chief Plant Inspector
Two major fruit fly eradication campaigns have been
brought to a successful conclusion during this biennium. The
third infestation of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitus
capitata (Weid.)) was discovered in Miami on June 8, 1962.
The eradication campaign involved three counties: Dade,
Broward, and Palm Beach. A working force of approximately
100 men was required to eradicate the pest at an expenditure
of close to $1,000,000. An 11-month battle was ended with the
announcement on May 7, 1963, that Broward and Palm Beach
Counties had been released from quarantine. The quarantine
on Dade County had been lifted on October 23, 1962.
The fourth entrance of the fruit fly in the past 34 years
occurred on June 17, 1963. It was again discovered near the
Miami International Airport. This marked the third time in
the past 7 years that a fruit fly infestation had been detected
in Dade County. An all-out attack was launched immediately
against the pest. Trapping had been reduced prior to the detec-
tion of the fly as the third campaign was completed. Personnel
in the Miami area had been thoroughly trained and immediately
resumed duties and responsibilities directing the successful
eradication of the fourth infestation.
When the fruit fly was found in Miami on June 8, 1962,
941 traps were being tended in Dade County. After the eradica-
tion of the fruit fly, a greater trapping density was maintained.
When the pest was discovered the fourth time on June 17,
1963, 2,400 traps were being tended. This no doubt resulted in
the early detection of the infestation which greatly reduced the
cost of eradication and saved the State and Federal Govern-
ments considerable funds. The fourth campaign ended with the
lifting of the quarantine on Dade County on November 26, 1963.
On May 20, 1964, one adult male fruit fly was caught in a
trap near Pier 3 in Miami. A quickly called conference held
at the Division of Plant Industry office in Gainesville the after-
noon of May 20 was attended by State and Federal officials.
It was decided to delay aerial spray pending the discovery of
more flies. It is believed the single fly was an escapee from a
merchant vessel from Hawaii which had tied up at the dock on
May 18. However, fruit fly officials took no chances. Traps
were immediately increased from 20 to 100 per square mile






Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report


within 4 square miles of the fly find and from 20 to 60 per
square mile within a 21-square mile area adjacent to the 4-mile
area. As of June 30, 1964, no other flies had been trapped.
During November 1963, live Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha
ludens (Loew.)) larvae were found by U. S. Department of
Agriculture quarantine inspectors in fruit coming into Florida
from Mexico on merchant vessels. The fruit had been fumigated
in Mexico and immediately loaded into refrigerated vessels. The
temperature was maintained at 40 F. The low temperature prob-
ably resulted in the fumigation being less effective.
On December 6, 1963, the Division of Plant Industry Tech-
nical Committee adopted an emergency regulation authorizing
State inspectors to immediately confiscate citrus fruit found
infested with live Mexican fruit fly larvae or any other species
which might endanger the Florida citrus industry. The Divi-
sion of Plant Industry officials consider the Mexican fruit fly to
be more dangerous than the Mediterranean fruit fly because
the lure used in the detection of the Mexican fruit fly is less
effective than lure used for other flies. Thus, many more traps
would be required in order to define the infested area. This, in
all probability, would result in a larger infestation before being
detected.

SURVEY
Since the 1956 Mediterranean Fruit Fly Eradication Cam-
paign, the Division of Plant Industry and the U. S. Department
of Agriculture have maintained fruit fly traps throughout the
State with special emphasis directed to those areas most likely
to become infested. After the fruit fly was discovered on June
8, 1962, and again on June 17, 1963, combination traps were
discontinued in order to put full effort into eradicating the
invader. The Mediterranean fruit fly lure (Trimedlure) is 30%
to 35% more effective when used alone than when used in
combination with other lure. The following table shows the
number of traps being tended by county at the time the fruit fly
was discovered on June 8, 1962, and at the time the fourth
infestation was discovered on June 17, 1963.
In addition to the combination and Mediterranean fruit
fly traps, 300 Mexican fruit fly traps (McPhail) were being
tended around ports of entry. The fruit fly detection program
is constantly reviewed by the Division of Plant Industry and
U. S. Department of Agriculture Plant Pest Control officials.









98 Division of Plant Industry


After the quarantine was lifted on November 26, 1963, it was
decided to maintain a larger number of traps in Dade County.
The International Airport at Miami is one of the largest in the
nation. The quarantine inspectors regularly pick up live fruit
fly larvae in fruit confiscated from tourists. However, it is
humanly impossible to detect and destroy all non-certified hosts

Table 1


County

A lachua ......................
B ay . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
B revard ......................
Broward ...................
C harlotte.....................
C itrus..................... .
C lav .. .. .. .... .. .. ... .. .. .. .
C ollier .......................
D ade ........................
D e Soto ......................
D uval........................
Escam bia .................. .
F lagler .....................
F franklin .....................
G lades .......................
G u lf .........................
H ardee.................... .
H endry ....................
H ernando..................
H ighlands..................
H illsborough..................
Indian River...
L ake ........................
L ee .. . . . . . . . . . . .. ..
L evy .........................
M anatee ...................
M arion .......................
M martin .......................
M onroe ....................
N assau .................... .
O kaloosa...................
Okeechobee.................
O range......................
Osceola..... .................
Palm Beach................
P asco ..................... .
P inellas ....................
P olk ...................... .
Putnam ...................
Sarasota....................
Sem inole ...................
St. Johns.................. .
St. Lucie ...................
Sum ter.................... .
V olusia .................... .

Total.............. ..


June 8, 1962
Combination Traps


8,080


June 17, 1963
Combination Traps

37
0
303
1,351
60
72
66
64
2.400
200
455
18
24
0
29
0
300
43
108
300
1,146
216
509
234
12
500
235
80
64
46
18
42
958
82
881
393
519
901
148
373
165
131
220
100
220

14,043




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