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 Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Report of the division directo...
 Plant inspection section
 Apiary inspection section
 Entomology section
 Plant pathology section
 Nematology section
 Staff publications














Group Title: Biennial report of the Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture
Title: Biennial report for the period ...
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 Material Information
Title: Biennial report for the period ...
Series Title: 1960/1962: Bulletin of the Division of Plant Industry
Alternate Title: Biennial report
Division of Plant industry ... biennial report
Abbreviated Title: Bienn. rep.- Fla., Div. Plant Ind.
Physical Description: 2 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Division of Plant Industry
Publisher: Division of Plant industry
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1960/62
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Plant inspection -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Dept. of Agriculture, Division of Plant industry.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 24th (1960/62)-25th (1962/64).
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098573
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01939581
lccn - sc 78002097
issn - 0071-5948
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the period ...
Succeeded by: Division of Plant Industry biennial report

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Report of the division director
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Plant inspection section
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
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        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Apiary inspection section
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Entomology section
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
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        Page 82
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        Page 87
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        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Plant pathology section
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
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        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
    Nematology section
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
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        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
    Staff publications
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
Full Text
BULLETIN OF THE DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY
Volume I, Number 2 December 31, 1962

Twenty- Fourth

BIENNIAL REPORT
For the Period
July I, 1960-June 30, 1962


FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICU1
Doyle Conner, Commissioner







BULLETIN


of the
DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY


Volume I, Number 2


December 31, 1962


Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report

FOR THE PERIOD


July I, 1960-June 30, 1962




F ORI




OF





STATE OF FLORIDA
Department of Agriculture
Doyle Conner, Commissioner
Tallahassee


Division of Plant Industry


W. G. Cowperthwaite, Director


Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY
Florida Department of Agriculture
Gainesville, Florida









STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
DIVISION OF PLANT INDUSTRY

Technical Committee
Vernon Conner, Chairman ......--....... ..-- .......................- Mount Dora
Colin English, Sr ...---.. ----.. ...............................Tallahassee
W. R. "Bill" McMullen.....--------............---....................... Tampa
N. Curtis Peterson, Jr. ------................ --....................Lakeland
Stuart Simpson -..------. ---......... ....................Monticello
Foster Shi Smith---- ----- --.........................................Starke
Felix Uzzell-- ---..... --------~~...~.......... .---... ..................-....-Sebring
Roy Vandegrift, Jr........-------.............. ......................Canal Point
W. G. Cowperthwaite, Secretary......-.....................-Gainesville

Administrative Staff
W. G. Cowperthwaite, Division Director....-.....-...........Gainesville
H. L. Jones, Assistant Director..---- ---.......................... Gainesville
V. W. Villeneuve, Fiscal Accountant-----.........--..........Gainesville
H. A. Denmark, Chief, Entomology Section..-...........Gainesville
P. E. Frierson, Chief, Plant Inspection Section............Gainesville
P. M. Packard, Chief, Apiary Section..--................-......Gainesville
C. P. Seymour, Chief, Plant Pathology Section. ......Gainesville




The numbers of the Bulletin of the Division of Plant Indus-
try, Florida Department of Agriculture, are published at irreg-
ular intervals. Volumes contain about 600 pages and are not
necessarily completed in any one calendar year.




The Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agri-
( culture, was formerly the State Plant Board of Florida.














CONTENTS
Page

REPORT OF THE DIVISION DIRECTOR ..................... ........................................ 4

PLANT INSPECTION SECTION ..-............ ......- ..- ............. ...................... 22

N nursery Inspection ........... ........ ............... .............................. 22

Fruit Fly Detection Program .....---................. .. ................. 26

Spreading Decline Program .......-....-.. ........ .............................. 33

Citrus Budwood Registration Program ............................................ 40

Grove Inspection and Citrus Survey ............................................. 43

Imported Fire Ant and White-Fringed Beetle Program ...................... 47

Sweet Potato W eevil Program -........ --.... .......--. ....................--- 49

Personnel Training Program ......... ....... .............. ......... ............... 51

Tom ato W ilt Survey --........................................................ 55

Grades and Standards Program .............................................. 56

Turfgrass Certification Program ............................. ......................... 59

Fruit and Vegetable Certification ............................................... 62

Port Inspection and Enforcement of Foreign Plant Quarantines .... 64

APIARY INSPECTION SECTION .... ......................................... 66

E NTOMOLOGY SECTION -------- ...... ....... .............................................. 70

PLANT PATHOLOGY SECTION .------- ------ ----.........--- .............................. 97

NEMATOLOGY SECTION -...-.. --.-............. .-.............................-- 134

Section I. Gainesville Laboratory ..........-------.......................134

Section II. Winter Haven Laboratory ................. ... .................147

STAFF PUBLICATIONS ...-------- ---------........... .......................159









Report of the Division Director

For Biennium Ending June 30, 1962


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

Gainesville, Florida
December 17, 1962


Honorable Doyle Conner, Commissioner
Florida Department of Agriculture
Tallahassee, Florida


SIR:
Director,
June 30,


I have the honor to present herewith my report as
Division of Plant Industry, for the biennium ending
1962.
Respectfully,


W. G. COWPERTHWAITE, Director
Division of Plant Industry


REPORT OF THE DIVISION DIRECTOR
The activities and accomplishments of the Division of Plant
Industry for the biennium are presented here for the first time
since the Division assumed the duties of the State Plant Board
under the agricultural reorganizational act.
Following the reorganization, the Commissioner appointed
the members of the Plant Industry Technical Committee as pro-
vided by law for the purpose of advising, counseling and consult-
ing with the Commissioner and the Division Director. At the
close of the biennium the committee membership was as follows:


Industry Member and Address
Citrus Vernon Conner
P. 0. Box 183
Mount Dora, Florida
Citrus W. R. "Bill" McMullen
3422 Jean Circle
Tampa, Florida
Vegetable Roy Vandergrift, Jr.
Star Route, Box 13-E
Canal Point, Florida
Ornamental N. Curtis Peterson, Jr.
Horticulture 225 New Auburndale Road
Lakeland, Florida
Seed Stuart Simpson
P. 0. Box 160
Monticello. Florida


Term Nominating
Expires Organization
1-15-63 Florida Citrus Mu-
tual, Florida Citrus
Exchange
1-15-63 Florida Citrus Mu-
tual

1-15-63 Florida Fruit and
Vegetable Associa-
tion
1-15-64 Florida Nursery-
men and Growers
Association
1-15-64 Florida Seedsmen
and Garden Supply
Association







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


Term Nominating
Industry Member and Address Expires Organization
Forestry Foster Shi Smith 1-15-63 Florida Farm
905 West Madison Street Bureau
Starke, Florida
Citizen-at- Colin English, Sr. 1-15-63 Commissioner's
Large Lewis State Bank Building appointment
Tallahassee, Florida
Apiary Felix H. Uzzell 1-15-64 Florida State Bee-
Route 1, Box 57 keepers Association
Sebring, Florida
Mr. Vernon Conner was elected by the Committee to serve
as chairman for the first year and was re-elected to serve the
second year. Mr. Felix Bullard, Monticello, representing the seed
industry, resigned and was replaced by Mr. Stuart Simpson.
The Entomology Section identified a new mite to Florida
citrus, Aculus pelekassi K., which was found in three counties.
A lawn grass mite, Aceria neocynodonis K., was found on 50,000
acres of Bermuda grass at Patrick Air Force Base. Several
new scales and a mealybug were discovered for the first time in
Florida.
Surveys of the Cuban May beetle in Dade County show this
pest to be slowly spreading. It is a general feeder of ornamentals
and native plants.
During this biennium the Plant Pathology Section processed
5,156 samples; published sixteen scientific works by the techni-
cal staff in various scientific journals; prepared laboratory notes
for plant inspectors, nurserymen, and others upon request; re-
ported eight new diseases of ornamental plants; and continued
or initiated twenty-four investigational projects.
The Nematology Section processed a record 5,630 soil sam-
ples at the Gainesville Laboratory (diagnostic) during the bi-
ennium. To facilitate the diagnostic function, a new centrifuge
technique was adopted to process nematode samples. A new
tool was developed to take nematode samples.
A mobile nematology unit was established at Apopka to assist
the nurserymen in Florida's largest wholesale nursery area.
A total of 1,884 samples was diagnosed at this unit between
March 1, 1961 and June 30, 1962.
Potentially dangerous new nematode pests of Florida turf-
grass included a new species of root-knot nematode and a new
species of cyst nematode. Both have been shown to severely
damage Florida turf.
Considerable data was compiled on the unknown earthworm
malady problem. Liaison work was maintained with the worm







Division of Plant Industry


growers which resulted in the formation of a bait growers as-
sociation to combat the malady.
At the Winter Haven Laboratory a number of chemicals
were tested, few of which showed promise for nematode control.
During the biennium the Apiary Inspection Section inspected
325,826 colonies of bees in 10,684 apiaries; 2,324 colonies of
American foulbrood were found and destroyed in 660 apiaries;
permits for 53,383 colonies of out-of-state bees to move into
Florida and 169 special moving permits for movement from point
to point within the state were issued; and 1,100 moving permits
were issued to Florida beekeepers. Total cost of the Apiary
Section was approximately 38.60 per colony inspection. This
was 7.9 per colony less than the amount for the previous bi-
ennium.
The Plant Inspection Section inspected 33,459 nurseries for
an average of 3.03 inspections per active nursery as compared
to the 26,903 inspections and a 2.55 average for 1958-60. The
total number of plants under inspection decreased from
439,471,618 in 1958-60 to 336,531,342 in 1960-62.
On June 8, 1962, the Mediterranean fruit fly, one of the
world's most destructive pests of agriculture, was found in a
fruit fly trap in Dade County. On June 19 the State Cabinet
made an emergency appropriation of $200,000 to halt the new
outbreak and to match a like amount appropriated by the Fed-
eral government. On June 26 the State Cabinet released an
additional $125,000 to continue the fight against the pest.
The approach to the ultimate containment of the burrowing
nematode in commercial citrus areas was revised in July 1961
when the Division initiated the "buffer plan." This plan bas-
ically involves the establishment of a fumigated strip of soil
well in advance of the burrowing nematode infestation. The
buffer strips eventually will encircle burrowing nematode in-
fested groves in commercial citrus producing areas.
Eighty-six participants were enlisted into the Citrus Bud-
wood Registration Program during the biennium, bringing the
total number of voluntary cooperators to 353. The director of
the program, Gerald G. Norman, was selected for a technical
advisory post in Turkey with the United Nations.
The Grove Inspection and Citrus Survey Program, set up
on a five-year survey plan in September 1960, was approximately
40 per cent completed.
The Imported Fire Ant and White-Fringed Beetle Eradica-
tion Program was converted March 25, 1960 into a program for







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


the treatment of nurseries and environs, and for limited sup-
pression and control measures on incipient fire ant infestations.
A new insecticide, Mirex, will be tested in various parts of the
state during the next biennium.
A new grades and standards manual containing additional
specifications was being readied for the printer in June 1962.
Sod totaling 1,283,038 square feet moved under blue tag
certification during this biennium as compared to the 820,331
square feet moved during the past biennium. This increase
represents the largest volume ever handled under blue tag certi-
fication.
The "Lethal Yellows" disease of the coconut palm, Cocus
nucifera, continued to receive considerable attention from Di-
vision personnel during this biennium.
The Plant Industry Technical Committee, at a meeting on
March 30, 1961, recommended that the Commissioner of Agri-
culture, through the Division of Plant Industry, take the follow-
ing action in regard to this serious malady: (1) provide the
city of Key West, and other areas that might become infected
with lethal yellowing disease, sufficient DBCP to provide tem-
porary protection; (2) continue to provide technical assistance
to the city of Key West; (3) educate the public in the coconut-
growing sections of the state to the potential destructiveness of
lethal yellowing; (4) urge private, commercial, and municipal
nurseries to plant dwarf coconuts to be used for replanting pur-
poses should lethal yellowing spread from Key West; and (5)
import dwarf coconuts from Jamaica and distribute at cost to
interested groups or agencies.
During this biennium, 5,000 dwarf coconuts were imported
by the Division, and 3,000 were imported by the city of Key
West. An additional 41,300 dwarf coconuts were ordered by
the Division for distribution to cooperating nurseries.
Information and education services included the publishing
of a quarterly Bulletin with a controlled circulation of more than
8,000; news releases dealing with the control, containment, and
eradication programs of the Division; special articles to radio
and television stations, newspapers, periodicals, and house or-
gans; and the publishing of scientific works written and illus-
trated by staff members.
Exhibits, color movies, color slides, and black and white pho-
tographs produced by the staff aided immeasurably in keeping
the public informed about the Division's activities.








Division of Plant Industry


RESOURCES

A statement in regard to the funds available for the Divi-
sion's use during 1960-61 and 1961-62 as appropriated by the
Legislature and released by the Budget Commission, is as fol-
lows:

Table 1. Resources

Balance Total
Forward 1960-61 1961-62 Biennium


General Revenue
General Activities:
Salaries .............................. $
Other Personal Services....
Expenses .....................
Refunds ................
Operating Capital Outlay
Apiarian Indemnities --....
Special-
Purchase of Jeeps ........
Security Fence .................
Citrus
Budwood Foundation ....


66,243
102,674
2
3
10,000
730


$ 704,392
281,829
8,936
25,460
7,500


Total .....-----....................... $ 179,652 $1,028,117


Restricted:
Spreading Decline
Eradication
(Lump Sum 60-61) ......
Salaries ..........................--
Other Personal Services
Expenses ...................
Refunds .....----.....
Operating
Capital Outlay ..........


$ 830.015 $ 748.730


Total ...------........................ $ 830,015
Spreading Decline
Research and Study
(Lump Sum) ........... $ 27,821
Imported Fire Ant and
White-Fringed Beetle
(Lump Sum) .......... $ 185,354


$ 741,925
10,500
192,000
457
22,700
10,000



56,000
$1,033,582


$1,512,560
10,500
576,503
9,393
48,162
17,503
10,000
730*

56,000
$2,241,351



$1.578.745*


$ 46,922 46,922
479 479
145,000 145,000
565 565

7,500 7,500
$ 748,730 $ 200,466 $1,779,211


$ 27,821*


Total General Revenue
(Operating) .................. $1,222,842 $1,776,847 $1,234,048


Agency Fund
Nursery Inspection Fees
Receipts .--...........---- .. $ 89,715
Grand Total-All Funds .... $1,312,557


$ 77,828
$1,854,675


$ 88,141
$1,322,189


$ 185,354"

$4,233,737



$ 255,684
$4,489,421


* Unexpended balances reverted June 30, 1961.


--- ---






Recapitulation showing source and amount transferred from State Plant Board
of Florida to Florida State Department of Agriculture on January 15, 1961.

BALANCES TRANSFERRED
**


General Revenue
General Activities:
Salaries.......................... ............
Expenses....................................
Refunds..............................................
Operating Capital Outlay...................
Apiarian Indemnities...........................
Security Fence...... ............................
TOTAL.............................-


Balance Current
Forward Appropriations



$ 66,243.24 $358,016.00
100,564.60 167,329.00


2.18
3.75
730.28


4,845.00
493.25


Restricted:
Spreading Decline Eradication.......................... $770,667.79
Spreading Decline Research and Study.............. 17,421.18
Imported Fire Ant and White-Fringed Beetle .... .05
TOTAL -----...................... -


Agency
General Inspection Fund:
Nursery Inspection Fee-Control..................
TOTAL .................. ................


$ 89,240.50


TOTAL ALL ACTIVITIES.


Current
Releases


Total
Receipts For Period


$ 4,529.98 $428,789.22
6,410.74 274,304.34
$ 4,305.27 4,305.27
10,804.68 15,651.86
7,000.00 7,497.00
730.28
$731,277.97


$ 3,858.00 $774,525.79
49.48 17,470.66
.05
$791,996.95



$ 36,938.27 $126,178.77
$126,178.77


$1,649,453.69








Division of Plant Industry


EXPENDITURES
Expenditures of the Division for each year of the biennium
are shown in the following table:

Table 2. Expenditures

Operating
1960-61 Capital
Salaries Expenses Outlay Total


General Revenue
General Activities:
1. Administrative .....--.... $ 56,037
2. Technical Committee..
3. Entomology .................. 58,680
4. Plant Pathology .......... 53,553
5. Nematology ....--.........-- 12,864
6. Apiary Inspection ...... 43,812
7. General Expenses ......
8. Citrus Crop
Estimate Research .... 25,352
9. Plant Inspection
Nursery ........................ 376,302
10. Plant Inspection
Budwood ..................... 30,641
11. Plant Inspection
M edfly ......................... 27,250
Total-
General Activities $ 684,491
Restricted:
Spreading Decline
Eradication ....-.......... $ 27,775
Spreading Decline
Research and Study .. $ 6,853
Imported Fire Ant and
White-Fringed Beetle..
Apiarian Indemnities .....
Total General Revenue
(Operating) .................. $ 719,119
Agency Fund
Nursery Inspection Fees ........ $ 29,855
Total All Funds (Operating) $ 748,974


$ 9,493
136
14,259
9,722
3,145
16,467
43,637
14,557
86,644
12,897
29,436

$ 240,393


$ 100,742

$ 13,754

$ 7,999
$ 13,078

$ 375,966


$ 24,957
$ 400,923


2,210
3,039
997
2,446
1,980
439


67,740
136
75,978
64,272
18,455
62,259
44,076


39,909
5,127 468,073
1,976 45,514
7,361 64,047

$ 25,575 $ 950,459


$ 5,559 $ 134,076

$ 7,194 $ 27,801

$ 7,999
$ 13,078

$ 38,328 $1,133,413


$ 2,976
$ 41,304


$ 57,788
$1,191,201


Other Operating
1961-62 Personal Capital
Salaries Services Expenses Outlay Total


General Revenue
General Activities:
1. Administrative .. $ 64,592 $
2. Technical
Committee ..........
3. Entomology ........ 58,050


45 $ 9,842 $ 2,701 $ 77,180


216
96 9,111


216
4,426 71,683








Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report 11

Table 2. Expenditures-(Cont.)

Other Operating
1961-62 Personal Capital
Salaries Services Expenses Outlay Total


4. Plant Pathology..
5. Nematology ........
6. Apiary
Inspection ..........
7. General
Expenses ...........
8. Citrus Crop
Estimate
Research ..............
9. Plant Inspection
Nursery ............
10. Plant Inspection
Budwood ............
11. Plant Inspection
M edfly ................


Total-
General
Activities


42,367
17,975
45,023



31,940

363,290
34,410
29,671


........ $687,318


3,104 7,620 2,189 55,280
2,368 1,737 920 23,000


18,448

116 44,694


2,300
1,402


342 63,813

500 45,310

32,352


57,262 3,439 426,291


14,177


766 50,755


28,139 7,400 65,210


$ 9,431 $191,658 $ 22,683 $ 911,090


Restricted:
Spreading Decline
Eradication ........... $ 44,247
Apiarian Indemnities
Citrus Budwood
Foundation ..............
Total General Revenue
(Operating) .......... $731,565


$ 445 $107,012
$ 6,693


$ 9,876


Agency Fund
Nursery Inspection
Fees .-...................... $ 23,640
Total All Funds
(Operating) ............ $755,205 $ 9,876


$ 2,345 $ 154,049
$ 6,693


$ 55,996 $ 55,996

$305,363 $ 81,024 $1,127,828



$ 24,629 $ 583 $ 48,852


$329,992


Total All Expenditures 1960-61 ...........................


$ 81,607 $1,176,680
.................. $1,191,201


Total All Expenditures 1961-62 .............- ...........................
Grand Total (Biennium) .............................................


$1,176,680
$2,367,881


ESTIMATES

The Division Director presents herewith the estimates he
believes to be necessary to carry out the Division's activities in
a satisfactory manner during the current year 1962-63 and the
two years of biennium 1963-65.







Table 3. Estimates

Other Operating
1962-63 Personal Capital
Salaries Services Expenses Outlay Total


Operating Funds by Sections
Administrative ...--.... ........................
Technical Committee ...................... .............. ......
Entomology ......................................-...............
Plant Pathology ......-............---.......................
Nematology ------ .... ...............-----
A piary .............. ... ----..........................
General Expense --- ......- ....- ................
Citrus Crop Estimate Research ..........................-..................
Plant Inspection Nursery ................ .............. .............
Plant Inspection Budwood ....................................... ........
Plant Inspection Medfly .--... ........-....... ...............
Total- General Activities ............. - ---------........
Restricted:
Spreading Decline Eradication .................... ......................
Apiarian Indemnities ....................- ...-- ..................
Emergency Medfly Eradication (Lump Sum) .....................
Emergency Medfly Trapping ..................... ...... ..............
Total General Revenue -.........--- .................... .............
Agency Funds
Nursery Inspection Fees .......... ................... .. .............


Total 1962-63 ...............


$ 71,740
63,520
53,520
29,400
47,520
37,020
407,415
41,480
41,760
$ 793,375

$ 48,600




$ 47,160
$ 889,135


$ 30,840


........................... ......... $ 919,975


$ 6,500 $ 8,100
2,000
8,000
1,000 8,425
2,000 2,050
21,350
35,975
2,250 65,725
1,000 13,275
27,100
$ 12,750 $ 192,000

$ 2,000 $ 169,050
$ 10,000
$ 5,000 $ 320,000
$ 2,000 $ 65,840
$ 21,750 $ 756,890


$ 41,218
$ 21,750 $ 798,108


$ 650
4,950
3,900
480
9,500
1,000
1,570
4,950

$ 27,000

$ 10,000






$ 37,000


$ 5,000
$ 42,000


$ 86,990
2,000
76,470
66,845
33,930
78,370
36,975
37,020
476,960
60,705
68,860
$1,025,125

$ 229,650

$ 10,000
$ 325,000
$ 115,000
$1,704,775


$ 77,058
$1,781,833






Table 3. Estimates--(Cont.)

Other Operating
1963-64 Personal Capital
Salaries Services Expenses Outlay Total


Operating Funds by Sections
Adm inistrative ..................................
Technical Committee .......................
Entomology ..................................
Plant Pathology ...........................
N em atology ................ .... .........-
A piary ......-....... ............ ... ....... ....
General Expense ..........................
Citrus Crop Estimate Research -
Plant Inspection Nursery .....-.........
Plant Inspection Budwood ...........
Plant Inspection Medfly ................

Total-General Activities .....


........................ $ 88,032
.............. .......... 0 2
- -- - -. 70,428
...................... 56,901
-......-.....-..-.. .. 42,072
.- .-..-- ....... 53,820

50,520
.................... .. 424,005
........................ 43,077
........................ 84,315

.- ....... ...... ... $ 913,170


Apiarian Indem cities ......................... .........................................


Spreading Decline Eradication ............................

Total General Revenue .......................... .......

Agency Funds
Nursery Inspection Fees: Grades and Standards

Total All Funds ...............................................

Less: Lapse Factor ............... .............. ..


* Includes refunds and service charges


.. ........ ...... $ 49,445

.................... $ 962,615


$ 7,000 $ 10,700
2,000
11,450
1,250 11,450
2,000 2,600
25,300
500 42,750
1,000
2,500 72,050
1,000 22,270
2,500 55,850

$ 16,750 $ 257,420

$ 7,500

$ 2,000 $ 431,900

$ 18,750 $ 696,820


................... $ 32,103 *$ 44,980

...-...........- $ 994,718 $ 18,750 $ 741,800

.................... $ (18,263)

$ 976,455


$ 1,375
6,685
5,305
664
2,585

4,311
1,175
14,250

$ 36,350


$ 12,752

$ 49,102


$ 9,870

$ 58,972


$ 107,107
2,000
88,563
74,906
47,336
81,705
43,250
51,520
502,866
67,522
156,915 Z

$1,223,690

$ 7,500
$ 496,097

$1,727,287


$ 86,953

$1,814,240


$ (18,263)
$1,795,977
CO





Table 3. Estimates-(Cont.)

Other Operating
1964-65 Personal Capital
Salaries Services Expenses Outlay Total


Operating Funds by Sections
Adm inistrative .-...................------- ... ..................................
Technical Com m ittee .............................. ....... ........................
Entom ology .. ............................ ...................................
Plant Pathology ................................................................
Nematology ...-- ..-- ....-- ....... ........
Apiary ....... ....... .......................................
General Expense .................... ................................
Citrus Crop Estimate Research .................................................
Plant Inspection Nursery .... ................... .. ............
Plant Inspection Budwood -- -.. ..................... .................
Plant Inspection Medfly -......--..--.............-- --................
Total- General Activities ............................. ......
Apiarian Indemnities ------------.---...................
Spreading Decline Eradication ................ .............. ......
Total General Revenue .....--------............... .....---..........
Agency Funds
Nursery Inspection Fees: Grades and Standards ......................
Total A ll Funds ........... .......... ........ ...............................


$ 91,708
73,626
60,193
44,388
57,420
53,820
449,895
45,213
88,365
$ 964,628


$ 52,245
$1,016,873


$ 34,101
$1,050,974


Less: Lapse Factor .............................-........... ........... .. $ (19,273)

$1,031,701

Grand Total (Biennium) ..--- --..........- -----........................ $2,008,156
* Includes refunds and service charges


$ 7,000 $ 10,700
2,000
11,450
1,250 10,950
2,000 2,600
25,300
500 44,350
1,000
2,500 73,447
1,000 22,270
2,500 57,150
$ 16,750 $ 261,217
$ 7,500
$ 2,000 $ 466,467
$ 18,750 $ 735,184


$ 18,750


*$ 50,083
$ 785,267


$ 1,285
5,695
5,460
1,135
275
8,000
3,391
6,100
6,250
$ 37,591


$ 17,235
$ 54,826


$ 6,017
$ 60,843


$ 110,693
2,000
90,771
77,853
50,123
82,995
44,850
62,820
529,233
74,583
154,265
$1,280,186
$ 7,500
$ 537,947
$1,825,633


$ 90,201
$1,915,834


$ (19,273)
$1,896,561

$ 37,500 $1,527,067 $ 119,815 $3,692,538















CAPITAL OUTLAY

Summary of Proposed Building and Improvements for 1961-67

Estimated 0
Project Cost


1. H headquarters Building, Gainesville ................-....................... .. .. ................. -............... $443,000
2. Addition to Laboratory and Office Building, Winter Haven ....................................................... 56,000
3. Addition to Archer Road Laboratory, Gainesville .................. ......... ......... ........................... .....- 28,000

Total.....................$527,000.......................................................................................................................................................................... $527,000$527,000





'iL
tcJ1







Division of Plant Industry


NEWS REPORTING

JACK MATTHEWS, Information Specialist

News pertinent to Florida's horticultural and agricultural
interests was disseminated by the Division's information service
through all news channels and at every level.
The ground level was represented by the Division's own house
organ, the mimeographed Reporter, which was distributed to
all active and retired personnel and to a limited number of per-
sons who requested copies.
Items of particular interest to the nursery industry were
carried in the Division's News Bulletin, a printed tabloid news-
paper with a circulation of about 8,000. The mailing list for
this edition included all registered nurserymen, dealers and
agents, plus representatives of the citrus and vegetable indus-
tries, and a large number of subscribers who asked to be placed
on the list. This newspaper is sent free to any Florida resi-
dent upon request.
To reach other readers, the information service supplied
daily and weekly newspapers and the newspaper wire services
with releases dealing with Division activities and regulations as
well as regulations enforced by other states or countries. These
news mediums also used material gleaned from the News Bulle-
tin.
Additional material was supplied to magazines dealing with
horticultural and agricultural subjects. Several national publi-
cations carried news items and pictures secured from the News
Bulletin.
The information offices served as liaison between Division
sections and printing firms. One of the publications handled in
this way was the Tri-ology Technical Report, a collection of
information from the Pathology, Entomology, and Nematology
Sections which won considerable favor with readers.
Perhaps the biggest contribution of the information service
to Division activity is in supplying information to news mediums
during regulatory programs. Typical of this was the 1962 out-
break of the Mediterranean fruit fly in Miami. The first fly
was discovered on June 8 and personnel of the information
offices moved in immediately to provide an information center
for all news mediums in the metropolitan Miami area and in
the state. The information service was assisted immeasurably
in this task by other Division personnel. The eventual outcome






Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


of this campaign should emphasize the fact that the work of in-
formation and education in emergency or routine regulatory pro-
grams is of vital importance to the welfare and success of any
and all such programs.

INFORMATION AND EDUCATION

H. L. JONES, Assistant Director
When the push and treat spreading decline program was
initiated in 1955, the necessity for employing an information
specialist for the Division became certain. Newsmen in different
areas of the state strongly suggested the need and pointed out
how their newspapers could materially assist a program if they
were provided with facts by a person trained in the newspaper
field.
On October 17, 1955, Jack Matthews, a reporter on the Lake-
land Ledger and formerly in newspaper work in White Plains,
New York, was added to the Division's staff. Mr. Matthews'
service in the spreading decline program proved invaluable.
When the 1956 Mediterranean Fruit Fly Eradication Program
developed into such an extensive effort, involving so many peo-
ple and industries, directly and indirectly, regulatory officials
agreed that the program could not have been successful with-
out the aid rendered by state and federal information special-
ists. During the campaign, up-to-the-minute news of the erad-
ication efforts were given to newspapers, radio and television
stations, and to hundreds of inquiring residents many times
daily.
Never has a plant pest control program of such magnitude
moved as smoothly and with as little public opposition. By
reading the newspapers, listening to the radio, or watching tele-
vision, anyone was able to know what was going on. Information
and education became a permanent part of the Division of Plant
Industry.
Following the 1956-58 Medfly program, plans were made
to expand in the area of information. Ernest M. Collins, Jr.
was employed on March 1, 1958, to handle the many requests
for exhibits. On September 1, 1960, Edward L. Wells joined the
staff as photographer, and Jerry L. Messec, photographic tech-
nician, was transferred from the Plant Pathology Section to the
information and education group within the office of the Divi-
sion Director. Mrs. Karol Jackson was appointed as clerk-typist






Division of Plant Industry


in March 1962. In June 1962 Mr. Messec resigned to continue
post-graduate studies and Mrs. Mildred Eaddy was employed to
fill the photographic technician job.
The information and education services are supervised by
the assistant director of the Division.

EXHIBITS
ERNEST M. COLLINS, Information Specialist
The Division of Plant Industry is invited to participate in
numerous national, state, and local meetings by exhibiting its
various functions through the medium of displays.
A trailer formerly used as a nematology mobile laboratory
was converted into an exhibit trailer, housing special displays
of various programs carried out by the Division. The unit was
stationed in various parts of the state during the biennium, in-
cluding the State Flower Show at Sanford, local flower shows,
three high schools, the Junior Citrus Institute at Lake Placid,
and the DeSoto County Fair at Sebring. The World Conference
of Virologists, meeting in Florida, toured the trailer.
Various portable exhibits were used in this biennium. These
exhibits included one on grades and standards of nursery stock
stressing quality. The turfgrass display featured the process
used to certify grass under the Division's turfgrass program.
Early eradication methods and today's procedures were com-
pared in a display entitled, "Then and Now." Other smaller
displays included, "Grade These Plants," "The Imported Fire
Ant in Florida," and "Insects in Plastic."
Exhibits were put up at twelve society and trade show
meetings. Of this number two were national meetings, the
National Turf Conference at Miami Beach and the Entomologi-
cal Society of America meeting at Miami. Seven fairs and two
Farm-City Week Celebrations at Orlando requested Division
displays.
Emphasis was placed on the Florida Citrus Exposition at
Winter Haven as many of the Division's programs had a bear-
ing on the citrus industry. In 1961 the Division of Plant Indus-
try's Citrus Budwood Registration Program was emphasized in
an exhibit using black and white photographs, color slides, and
specimens of virus disorders. The Division of Plant Industry
and the Division of Fruit and Vegetable Inspection joined forces
for the exhibit in 1962 using the theme, "Assurance of Quality."







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


This booth depicted the various inspection duties of the two
divisions.
During this biennium many meetings, fairs, flower shows,
and schools throughout Florida requested the Division of Plant
Industry to display its services to the public. Thirty of these
requests were fulfilled.

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ART

EDWARD L. WELLS, Photographer

During the biennium all Division sections were furnished
with art work in the form of drawings, cartoons, illustrations
for publications, charts and illustrative maps for public presen-
tations, display posters, and other visual material for exhibits,
lectures, and public meetings.


_'__ -'


Effort to get the right picture is well depicted here. The Division pho-
tographer, with much assistance, is shooting an illustration with certified
turf as a background.

Color and black and white photographic services were pro-
vided for all sections and for organizations, newspapers, maga-
zines, and technical publications. Color slides were furnished






Division of Plant Industry


not only to illustrate talks by Division personnel but to provide
a visual record for future reference. Black and white photogra-
phy was provided to illustrate technical publications, newspaper
articles, public information exhibits and displays, and reference
material for Division files.
In addition to art work and still photography, four motion
pictures were completed during the biennium and released for
viewing. A movie on camellias and azaleas in Florida was par-
tially completed. All are sound, color, 16mm films produced,
written, directed, and filmed by Division personnel. A summary
of each completed movie follows:
INSECT LINE-UP-28 minutes, sound, color. This docu-
mentary film shows how the Entomology Section of the Divi-
sion of Plant Industry uses an outstanding collection of insects
to aid in the identification of plant pests which pose a threat
to Florida agriculture. The film includes the methods of col-
lecting, processing, preserving, and identifying and mounting
the arthropods housed in the collection. The case history of
a beetle found in Miami serves as an example of how the col-
lection helped in the discovery of one plant pest. Only mod-
erately technical, "Insect Line-Up" is suitable for garden clubs,
high school science groups, civic clubs, and the general public.

INSECT LINE-UP-131/2 minutes, sound, color. This film
is a shorter version of the 28-minute film. It is designed for
television or other program uses.

BETTER LAWN GRASSES-131/2 minutes, sound, color. De-
signed primarily for adult audiences with agricultural interests,
this film tells the story of the production of certified lawn grasses
in Florida. It portrays the cooperative efforts of the University
of Florida's Agricultural Experiment Stations and Agricultural
Extension Service, the Florida Turfgrass Association, and the
Division of Plant Industry in maintaining a source of disease-
free grass.

PROTECTION THROUGH DETECTION-131/2 minutes,
sound, color. This film tells the story of how state and federal
plant inspectors cooperate to prevent the introduction and dis-
semination of serious plant pests into Florida from other coun-
tries. Highlights of Florida's 1956 Mediterranean fruit fly
eradication campaign serve as an example of a pest that was
discovered and eradicated. A Cuban May beetle detected in







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report 21

Miami serves as an example of a pest that has entered Florida
and has not yet become a serious threat to Florida agriculture,
but is being kept under constant surveillance. This film is for
general public viewing, but is of special interest to science
classes, garden clubs, nurserymen, and farmers.
OUR CITRUS HERITAGE-15 minutes, sound, color. This
is the story of Florida's Citrus Budwood Registration Program
which provides virus-free citrus budwood to the citrus industry.
The film deals with a brief history of Florida's citrus industry
and scientific research in the citrus field. Electron-microscope
photographs of virus particles are shown, several citrus virus
diseases are described, and the budwood program procedures are
explained as the film reveals the ways in which the budwood
program eliminates disease and enhances citrus production.
"Our Citrus Heritage" was produced for viewing by persons
interested in citrus but possessing limited technical training.










Plant Inspection Section


PAUL E. FRIERSON, Chief Plant Inspector

In reviewing statistics of the 1960-62 biennial report, de-
creases will be noted in several nursery categories during the
second half of the biennium. This is in contrast to past years
where annual increases had become commonplace in most all
phases of nursery inspection work. However, figures for the
two-year period are favorable since they do show increases over
most of the figures for the previous biennium.
One exception noted is in the total number of plants being
grown under inspection. The amount of nursery stock in the
state at the end of the 1959-60 period totaled 439,471,618 plants
in comparison to the 336,531,342 plants recorded at the com-
pletion of this biennium. However, this tremendous reduction
can be traced directly to the steady decline in the production of
pine seedlings for reforestation in the state. During the two-
year period covered by this report, pine seedling production de-
clined by over 93,000,000 plants.
After reaching a peak of 5,513 active nurseries under inspec-
tion on June 30, 1961, the number dropped slightly to 5,495 on
June 30, 1962. This is the first such decrease since the 1955-56
period. In spite of this drop, 78 more nurseries were under in-
spection at the close of the biennium than were under inspection
on June 30, 1960.
Although the average number of inspections decreased con-
siderably during the biennium, from 3.19 to 2.89, the average
was only slightly lower than the 2.90 figure noted at the end
of the 1959-60 period. Circumstances responsible for this reduc-
tion include: The resignation and illnesses of several key field
personnel; special projects such as the camellia mining scale
survey, the Imported Fire Ant Program, and the Mediterranean
Fruit Fly Eradication Program, all of which required consider-
able time of the regular nursery inspector.
The nursery inspection activities during the biennium can
best be summarized in the following tables and charts.








Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


TABLE I

1959-1960 1960-1961 1961-1962


Number of Plant Inspection
Districts .... ....................--.... 41 39 40
Number of Nurseries in State .... 5,417 5,513 5,495
Average Number of Inspections
per Nursery .................................. 2.90 3.19 2.89
Total Number of Inspections
of Nursery Stock ........................ 20,536 24,109 21,423
Total Acreage of Nurseries
in the State ........................ ..... 9,745.93 12,196.78 15,251.35
Total Amount of Nursery
Stock in the State ................. 439,471,618 407,131,891 336,531,342


TABLE II
Number of Nurseries Under Inspection by Type

Type 1960-1961 1961-1962


Citrus .....................-- .......................--- .. ..-..... 1,428 1,333
Ornam ental ............................... .... ----------------.. 2,628 2,627
General .....-...-- ............ ........... --...... ...... .... ..- 26 23
Citrus and Ornamental .................. ..-...................--- 339 388
Citrus and General ................ ..... .. ...... .... ....... 23 20
Ornamental and General ................................. 464 460
Citrus, Ornamental, and General -- .... ....- 605 644


Total ..... ..... ----------....-.......... .....--...-- ... 5,513 5,495


TABLE III

Citrus Stock Movement, 1961-1962
As Compared with Two Previous Years

Variety 1959-1960 1960-1961 1961-1962


Orange ............................. 2,092,313 2,470,523 2,444,735
Grapefruit .................................- 136,381 137,691 94,497
Tangerine ........ ............. 231,117 31,877 88,380
Tangelo .......... .................. 69,137 112,144 101,156
Satsuma ...................................... 17,831 18,443 10,038
Lemon ..................................... 56,907 13,295 40,276
Lime .................. ............... 14,860 11,296 19,642
Miscellaneous ....................... 30,635 86,145 177,573
Seedlings ................... ........... 7,466,889 1,729,345 2,475,484


Total ............ ................. 10,116,070 4,610,759 5,451,781








24 Division of Plant Industry

TABLE IV

Approximate Acreage and Amount of Nursery Stock
June 30, 1962
As Compared with the Two Previous Years


Kind of 1959-1960 1960-1961 1961-1962
Stock 1
___S Acres Plants Acres Plants Acres Plants

Orange ....... 2,174.85 9,692,488 2,494.91 10,770,598 2,540.98 10,149,917
Grapefruit 159.31 634,513 163.53 581,560 154.24 416,049
Tangerine .... 92.92 416,604 75.67 309,003 78.74 361,755
Tangelo ........ 32.90 118,570 58.72 249,973 60.36 274,750
Satsuma ...... 28.08 83,174 27.69 103,304 27.23 83,906
Lemon .......... 18.75 192,731 30.81 170,132 20.59 158,026
Lime ............. 9.90 90,086 20.99 89,171 9.31 74,152
Miscellane-
ous Citrus 52.72 305,446 57.71 782,547 49.11 747,658
Citrus
Seedlings.. 876.96 17,528,410 959.80 16,150,164 905.30 21,181,910


Total Citrus.. 3,446.39 29,062,022 3,889.83 29,206,452 3,845.86 33,448,123


Ornamental. 6,061.25 409,423,090 7,786.04 374,661,937 11,107.62 301,266,236
General .... 238.29 986,506 520.91 3,263,502 297.87 1,816,983


Total Non-
Citrus ........ 6,299.54 410,409,596 8,306.95 377,925,439 11,405.49 303,083,219


Grand Total.. 9,745.93 439,471,618 12,196.78 407,131,891 15,251.35 336,531,342


NUMBER OF NURSERIES UNDER INSPECTION
1952-53 to 1961-62
60001- --16000


4000
oo


3000 -


2000 -


1000 -


1952-53 1953-54 1954-55 1955-56 1956-57 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60 1960-61 1961-62


5000


4000


3000 .


2000


1000












Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


AVERAGE NUMBER OF INSPECTIONS

1952-53 to 1961-62


5.0


4.5


S4.0


- 3.5


- 3:0


- 2.5


- 2.0


- 1.5


- 1.0


.5


1952-53 1953-54 1954-55 1955-56 1956-57 1957-58 1958-59 1959-o0 19w0-l 191i-1Z


TOTAL NUMBER OF PLAI~ S UNDER INSPECTION

1952-53 to 1961-62


Million

500


450


400


350


300


250


200


150


1CO


50


1952-53 1953-54 1954-55 1955-56 1956-57 1957 1958-59 1959-60 190-61 1961-62


Million

500 -


450 -


400 --


350 -


300 -


250 -


200 --


150 -


100 -


50 -







Division of Plant Industry


TABLE V
Miscellaneous Bulbs and Plants Inspected
(Not included as nursery stock)
July 1, 1960 to June 30, 1962

I 1960-1961 1961-1962
Variety No. Acre- No. Plants No. Acre- No. Plants
__Farms age [ or Bulbs Farms age or Bulbs
Amaryllis .. 11 61.21 1,943,468 14 19.85 1,209,338
Caladium ... 50 791.02 44,024,3961 43 602.22 38,699,381
Chrysanthe-
mum .......... 39 309.81 19,449,948 30 250.64 19,170,881
Easter Lily .. 13 58.53 2,736,175 13 46.54 2,400,500
Ferns ...... 68 719.39 96,705,479 73 747.58 135,132,083
Gladiolus --. 30 6,205.05 259,400,400 24 4,596.00 208,576,000
Hemerocallis.. 13 16.13 323,554 20 27.95 400,712
Narcissus .... 2 29.95 5,645,150 1 25.12 7,000,700
Misc. Bulbs
and Plants. 31 134.10 6,493,039 31 54.96 5,130,190
Cabbage ...... 8 102.55 19,056,006 3 71.07 29,037,000
Pepper ......... 15 88.88 19,121,000 3 24.03 6,710,000
Tobacco 27 591.60 402,830,000 23 356.10 291,315,000
Tomato ......... 52 1,642.30 275,319,135 30 1,184.76 200,213,000
Corn ......... 15 11,011.00 18 17,653.00
Sod 7 416.50 6 88.00

Totals ......... 381 22,178.02 1,153,047,750 332 25,747.82 944,994,785


FRUIT FLY DETECTION PROGRAM
July 1, 1960-June 30, 1962
CHARLES POUCHER, Assistant Chief Plant Inspector
Since the last Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata
(Wied.)) was eradicated in February 1958, the Division of Plant
Industry and the Plant Pest Control Division of the United
States Department of Agriculture have maintained a strong
trapping program in an effort to detect early infestations of
major fruit flies. The program proved its merit in 1962.
The Mediterranean fruit fly, one of the world's most destruc-
tive pests of agriculture, was found in a fruit fly trap in Dade
County on June 8, 1962. Positive identification of the fly by
H. A. Denmark, Chief Entomologist, Division of Plant Industry,
on June 13 marked the third time the Mediterranean fruit fly
had been detected in Florida. On June 20, 1962 the Mediterra-
nean fruit fly was discovered in Broward County near the Dade
County line.
On June 19, 1962, the State Cabinet made an emergency
appropriation of $200,000 to halt the new outbreak and to match







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


a like amount set up by the Federal government. On June 26,
1962, the State Cabinet released an additional $125,000 to con-
tinue the fight against the pest.
The first infestation in 1929 involved twenty counties and
was eradicated by late 1930 at a cost of $7,500,000. The 1956
infestation involved 28 south and central Florida counties and
was eradicated at a cost of approximately $11,000,000. It is
estimated by experts that it would cost Florida farmers
$20,000,000 a year to live with the pest.
Although its native home is Africa, the Mediterranean fruit
fly is a world traveler and is established in many foreign coun-
tries. The fly travels from country to country mainly in the
larval form in fruits carried by tourists.
The United States Department of Agriculture inspectors have
intercepted the Mediterranean fruit fly larva in fruit on numer-
ous occasions at ports of entry at sea and air terminals in Miami.
On one occasion 123 Mediterranean fruit fly larvae were de-
tected in coffee beans brought in by a tourist from Brazil. Quar-
antine inspectors have found and destroyed specimens in fruits
and plants in passenger baggage and in commercial shipment of
host products.
Regulatory
On June 15, 1962, a Mediterranean fruit fly quarantine was
established for the greater Miami area. The quarantine regu-
lates the movement of any articles related to fruit which might
attract the Mediterranean fruit fly. The following action was
taken to stop the flow of uncertified fruits and nursery stock
from the regulated area:
1. All bus lines, post offices, express agencies, airlines, and
freight companies were contacted and they agreed to accept
for shipment only host fruits from the non-regulated area
or host fruit which is certified. Outlets were contacted and
when required signed dealer-carrier agreements.
2. Buyers from major chain stores were contacted and requested
to buy only certified fruit. All wholesale and retail stores
handling host material within the regulated area were con-
tacted as rapidly as possible and signed dealer-carrier agree-
ments. Roadside fruit stands were contacted and required
to handle only certifiable host fruit.
3. The management of the Miami Farmers Market cooperated
to the extent of refusing to rent stall space to anyone not
handling certified fruit. One inspector was assigned to the







Division of Plant Industry


market to see that dealers in host fruits signed dealer-
carrier agreements when required and to prevent movement
of uncertified fruit sold from trucks, automobiles, carts, etc.
around the market.
4. Growers and packers in non-regulated areas were signed to
dealer-carrier agreements in order to properly certify the
movement of host fruit through the regulated area. The
County Agriculture Agent's office was most cooperative in
all phases of the program and one inspector was stationed
in the Agent's Homestead office to issue dealer-carrier agree-
ments and to work generally with growers in the free area.
5. Eight thousand warning leaflets were distributed to airlines,
bus, railway, and tour guide agencies for issuance to passen-
gers. It was estimated that 35,000 such leaflets would be
used per week. Five hundred warning posters were acquired
for use at air terminals and other travel agency depots.
6. Since the movement of nursery stock did not constitute as
much risk as the movement of fruit, all effort was concen-
trated on fruit movement and the handling of requests for
certification from nurserymen. As soon.as initial contracts






















Mangoes in the Medfly-infested area of Dade County received fumiga-
tion treatment in structures such as this to meet certification requirements
for shipping out of the area.







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


can be made with commercial fruit handlers, approximately
750 nurseries involved will receive immediate and concen-
trated attention, with emphasis on those within one-half
mile of infestations.
7. By June 30 four fumigation chambers within the regulated
area were approved and were handling the many hundreds of
requests for fumigation.
8. A tremendous administrative work load was involved in pro-
mulgating, revising, and reproducing regulations, authorized
treatments, dealer-carrier agreements, and instructions to
inspectors. The initial reproduction of basic instructions
and dealer-carrier agreements was made on June 16 and 17.
By June 18 all available stamp certificates were issued to
the most strategic locations.
9. The Grand Bahamas advised all importers from the Florida
area to have products certified. Inquiries were received from
points ranging from Homestead to West Palm Beach regard-
ing such products as green limes, grass sod, mango trees,
apples, and cut flowers.

Survey
Once positive identification was made many additional traps
were rushed to the Dade County area. Fifteen hundred traps
arrived immediately from the Division of Plant Industry Winter
Haven office. An additional 5,500 traps were sent from the
regional office of the Plant Pest Control Division of the United
States Department of Agriculture at Gulfport, Mississippi. Also,
an order was placed for 20,000 new traps. In any successful
control program, survey assumes a very important part; there-
fore, special emphasis was directed toward proper placing and
tending of traps. All traps were converted to Mediterranean
fruit fly lure (Trimedlure) as research has shown that this at-
tractant is more effective when used alone than when used in
combination with a lure that is attractive to other fruit flies.
The density of traps in the Dade and Broward areas was rap-
idly increased to approximately 40 per square mile. At the time
the first fruit fly was found in Dade County 941 traps were in op-
eration. Two weeks later a total of 3,000 traps were being tend-
ed. Traps throughout the remaining part of the state were in-
creased as quickly as new traps arrived and personnel became
available.








30 Division of Plant Industry


As of June 30, 1962, properties known to be infested with the
Mediterranean fruit fly totaled 41. Thirty-nine of the proper-
ties are in Dade County and 2 in Broward.


Number of Traps Tended in Florida at the Time the
Mediterranean Fruit Fly was Found in Dade County


County


Alachua ..........
Bay ...............
Brevard ..........
Broward .......
Charlotte ..
Citrus ...........--
Clay ...................
Collier .........-
Dade .............
DeSoto .............
Duval .- ............
Escambia ........
Flagler .......
Franklin ...........
Glades .............
Gulf .........--
Hardee ................
Hendry ............
Hernando ..........
Highlands ......
Hillsborough .....
Indian River ......
Lake ..................
Lee .................
Levy ..........---
Manatee .---
Marion ............
Martin .............
Monroe .......-
Nassau ---...
Okaloosa ----
Okeechobee .-....
Orange ..............
Osceola ...........
Palm Beach --
Pasco ...-...........
Pinellas ........
Polk ................
Putnam ......-
Sarasota ....-..
Seminole .........
St. Lucie ............
St. Johns ............
Sumter ............
Volusia ............-


45 Counties ....


Combination Traps Mexican Fruit Fly Total
in Field Traps in Field


7,981 459


48
18
153
312
47
69
66
48
942
143
359
24
10
10
29
3
198
29
78
213
723
122
426
177
5
394
192
67
44
43
24
22
584
87
307
318
346
736
65
316
153
118
135
87
150


8,440






Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


Control
Once positive identification was made of the Mediterranean
fruit fly, State and Federal governments began marshaling men
and equipment throughout Florida with war-time speed for a
fast blitz against the destructive insect. Fruit fly experts were
sent immediately to Miami and in a matter of hours plans had
been formulated and personnel had been made available for in-
tensifying the survey operation, starting a control program, and
regulating the movement of fruit and vegetables from the in-
fested zone.
By Sunday, June 17, aerial spraying commenced over the
Miami area. The spray mixture consisted of 1.2 pounds of 25%
wettable malathion, 1 pint of an approved enzymatic protein
hydrolysate and enough water to compose one gallon. This ma-
terial was distributed at the rate of one gallon per acre. A
small two-engine Beechcraft plane sprayed an area of approxi-
mately 250 acres as soon as possible after an infestation was
reported and within twenty-four hours a larger plane sprayed
approximately 3,000 acres around the infestation. The small
multi-engine plane also sprayed around any infestation where
rain washed material off exposed surfaces.










I I





Spray planes are readied for take-off at the Opa Locka Marine Air Base.

At the end of June, 61,858 acres in Dade County and 6,230
acres in Broward County were being sprayed a second time. A
minimum of 8 applications will be applied to all infestations after
the last fly find in that infested area.






Division of Plant Industry


Part of the control operation calls for stripping all fruit from
trees in the immediate area of a larva find. This fruit and fruit
collected from the area around known infestations was burned or
buried. Also an insecticide (granulated dieldrin) was applied
to the soil around the infestation to kill a percentage of the
larvae entering the soil to pupate and most of the adult flies
emerging from the soil.
Only a few years have passed since all the residential area
of Dade County was sprayed many times by planes. Yet Med-
iterranean fruit fly experts have been more than pleased with
the attitude of the public. The following article appeared in
the editorial section of a local newspaper on June 21, 1962.
"Living in a sub-tropical climate has its advantages:
sandy beaches, backyard barbecues, year-round blooms,
and no backaches from shoveling snow. But since too
much of a good thing is bad for character-building, there
are a few disadvantages, like capri pants on stout ladies
and the Mediterranean fruit fly
"During the last few days spray planes have been
zooming over the infested areas releasing clouds of mala-
thion mix. Experts have emphasized that the chemical
is harmless to humans and household pets, except fish
which may die if they get too large a dose.
"The greatest damage is to automobile finishes-and
the tempers of Dade residents.
"If promptly washed off, the spray causes no perma-
nent harm to cars. But tempers are something else. Be-
fore blowing our top over the noise of the low-flying planes
and the spray they emit, let's remember the patent phrase
of the dental profession: 'This is going to hurt a little
but it is for your own good.'
"Let's grit our teeth and bear with it. An ounce of
prevention may check the pest. A little inconvenience
now is better than having to submit to roadblocks, inter-
state citrus bans and daily large-scale spraying under a
widespread outbreak."







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


SPREADING DECLINE PROGRAM
July 1, 1960- June 30, 1962

CHARLES POUCHER, Assistant Chief Plant Inspector

The 1960-62 biennium began on a note of optimism and in-
tense activity as the citrus industry rallied around a full-scale
testing of the long awaited in-place treatment of spreading
decline. This treatment consisted of applying a liquid nema-
tocide (1, 2-dibromo-3-chloropropane or DBCP) in irrigation wa-
ter to the infested area. Cooperation by many growers who
formerly resisted the all-out approach of the push and treat pro-
gram revealed the deep-felt need for some new solution to the
problem. The push and treat program involved the destruction
of all infested trees and a safety margin of healthy trees and
the treating of the soil with 60 gallons per acre of a nematocide.
In spite of the promise shown by early research results, the in-
place treatment was discontinued almost completely by spring of
1961, following the rapid build-up of burrowing nematodes in
treated properties after 10 to 15 months of complete freedom
from the pest. In addition the lack of visual improvement in
tree condition failed to support the continued use of this ex-
pensive treatment.
Following this disappointment, the spring session of the
legislature, meeting under extremely low availability of funds,
resulted in less than two-thirds of the requested funds being
appropriated. This caused a rapid return to push and treat
activities by many of those growers using DBCP during the past
year. These heavy requests for push and treat exhausted last-
quarter funds, although all those that could be delimited in time
were pushed and treated.
Faced with only $600,000 to spend during the coming two
years, an entirely new approach to the problem was necessary.
Essentially the idea of area containment was expanded and im-
proved upon by making available a buffer plan. This plan basi-
cally involves the establishment of a fumigated strip of soil well
in advance of the spreading nematodes, the strip to be as wide
as practicable and maintained in a weed-free condition with the
soil being kept free of citrus roots over which the nematode prin-
cipally migrates from tree to tree. It was felt by encircling a
large number of decline areas and thereby limiting their spread







Division of Plant Industry


it would be more superior in terms of industry protection than
continuing along area push and treat activities in only a few lo-
cations. Furthermore, it was soon shown that being able to
give each grower his own choice of volunteering to cooperate,
and thus be protected, would encourage participation by the
largest possible group, the alternative being encirclement by
the buffer and remaining inside with the nematode for whatever
the future might bring.
Following an intense study of buffers installed by private
industry, a series of meetings were held with industry advisory
groups and the various research agencies. The results of these
meetings provided a buffer proposal that seemed to give a work-
able solution. The major problem was to contain decline areas
that are spreading at approximately 1,100 acres per year, while
volunteer participation was amounting to only 250 acres per
year. Those blocks previously pushed and treated by the Di-
vision were to be continued at state expense to allow those
growers to finish their clean-up. Further economies were
worked into the program by asking growers to push and treat
new areas at their own expense.
In order to bring this new buffer program to the growers as
quickly as possible, a series of talks were held starting in Alturas
on December 12, 1961. The interest shown by the attending
growers quickly revealed the need for this type of service. It
was felt that reaching the growers on an area basis would further
serve the purpose of allowing neighbors to listen to the same
information and thus cooperate better by hearing each others
questions and being aware of the need for cooperation, so that
area containment could result. Additional meetings were held
in Sebring, Babson Park, Clermont, Lake Alfred, and Orlando.
Each meeting was preceded by intensive advertising including
radio, newspaper, and a letter to each positive grove owner and
all adjacent grove owners. Many hours of research on these
various growers' lists were accomplished by United States De-
partment of Agriculture workers, and the full cooperation of
the Industry Spreading Decline Committee was given, particu-
larly by Chairman Clayton Logan. The assistance of the county
agents and many local public-spirited growers contributed to
the success of the program. Additional talks were made at the
annual meeting of the Florida Citrus Production Credit Associ-
ation at Orlando and at a meeting of the Advisory Board of







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report 35

Florida Citrus Mutual in Lakeland. The buffer talk was rewrit-
ten to include most of the first year's results and to apply the
principal on an industry basis for presentation at the Citrus In-
stitute at Camp Cloverleaf in Lake Placid on May 29, 1962.
A total of 513 acres were fumigated during this biennium.
This represents 77 new properties in addition to margins treated
in previously treated properties. The total treatment to date
is 5,793 acres as shown in the following table.

TOTAL NUMBER OF PROPERTIES TREATED SINCE JULY 1, 1955

County Properties Acres

Charlotte .............. ........... .......... ... ............. 1 40
DeSoto ........................................... ............. 1 7
Highlands ............................- ... ........- 126 1,321
Hillsborough ........ ............ ---- 7 122
Lake .........- ....-- 53 296
O range ...- ... ...... .......... ........................ 27 141
O sceola .. .......--- ..-- ............. ... ........ ...... .. 1 1
Pasco ....................... ----.......-... 3 20
Pinellas ............................ .- .... ...- .. ......- 2 10
Polk ..-...........- ..- .... ..- ...--.-. .....- 517 3,835

Total ...............................- ..-.. ..... -... 738 5,793


Margin inspections were continued and recurrence appeared
in approximately 33% of the properties. The actual number
of infested trees found was slightly over 3% of the total trees
inspected. This points out the need for improved survey tech-
niques, particularly where low populations of the burrowing nem-
atode are present. A total of 2,664 acres may be considered as
released for replanting. These properties have been pushed and
treated for at least two years and have had the equivalent of
at least two negative margin inspections.
Replanted trees in pushed and treated areas were sampled.
Approximately 102 properties representing 841 acres were found
negative. In these areas 100% of all replanted trees were
sampled. Sixty-eight properties totaling 760 acres were found
to contain at least one positive tree to as many as 69 positive
trees. However, most properties contained only 1 to 3 posi-
tive trees.
Trees pushed during this period consisted of 21,102 oranges,
6,307 grapefruit, and 1,811 others for a total of 29,220. Of the







Division of Plant Industry


above, 16,559 trees were pushed by the Division and 12,661 at
the grower's expense. Replants from pushed and treated areas
found infested were destroyed in clean-up efforts and totaled
4,716.
During this period 385 real estate inspections were made
involving 13,818 acres. Total fees collected amounted to
$21,681.50. The instructions for computing these fees were
changed to read $1.00 per acre of grove inspected with a $50.00
minimum.
Hot-water treatment was continued and 26,279 budded trees
and 32,138 seedlings were handled. This process involves im-
mersing the stock in water at 122 F. for 10 minutes and thus
destroys the burrowing nematodes in the feeder roots by heat.
A grand total of 759,789 trees have been treated since this ma-
chine has been available.
A total of 1,212 commercial groves were inspected. Of these
355 were found positive. Nurseries inspected totaled 482 with
55 positive finds. Of the nurseries inspected 342 were citrus
nurseries of which 23 were positive.
The following table indicates the total number of buffers in-
stalled by county and the number of properties protected.

Negative Positive Acreage of
County Buffers Lineal Properties Properties Positive
___Feet Protected Buffered Properties
Polk ............. 63 188,673 178 70 1,734
Highlands ....... 16 59,792 30 28 471
Orange .............. 6 18,830 11 8 173
Lake .................. 5 18,066 14 10 61
Hillsborough .... 3 11,690 12 5 92
Osceola ............ 2 10,350 4 3 82

Total ................ 9,5 307,401 249 124 2,613








Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report 37






NURSERY SITE APPROVALS
July 1, 1960 June 30, 1962


1960-61 1961-62 Biennium
County No. of No. of No. of No. of I No. of No. of
Owners Sites Owners Sites IOwners Sites

Alachua ................ 1 1 1 1 2 2
Baker ...................... 2 2 2 2
Brevard ................ 8 9 8 8 16 17
Broward ................ 1 1 6 7 7 8
Charlotte ................ 1 1 1 1 2 2
Citrus ...................... 1 1 1 1 2 2
Collier ................... 3 6 6 6 9 12
DeSoto ................ 23 25 21 22 44 47
Duval ..................... 1 1 1 1 2 2
Glades .................. 1 1 3 3 4 4
Hardee ............... 47 50 36 36 83 86
Hendry .................... 3 4 4 4 7 8
Hernando ............ 7 8 7 7 14 15
Highlands ............ 8 9 25 25 33 34
Hillsborough ........ 57 61 82 93 139 154
Indian River .......... 16 17 12 13 28 30
Jefferson .............. 1 1 1 1
Lake ........................ 47 54 32 40 79 94
Lee .......................... 1 1 5 5 6 6
Levy ........................ - 1 1 1 1
Manatee ...... 13 13 14 18 27 31
Marion .................... 9 9 13 13 22 22
Martin ................. 2 3 3 3 5 6
Okeechobee .........- 7 8 3 3 10 11
Orange ................. 14 16 15 18 29 34
Osceola ................ 5 5 4 4 9 9
Pasco ...................... 27 27 17 18 44 45
Pinellas ........... 1 1 1
Polk .................... 53 59 60 67 113 126
Putnam .........-...... 6 6 7 7 13 13
St. Johns ............... 1 1 1 1
St. Lucie ................ 23 23 17 17 40 40
Sarasota -.......-....... 4 4 4 4
Seminole ................ 7 7 3 3 10 10
Sumter .................... 3 3 3 3
Volusia .................... 16 19 7 7 23 26


TOTAL ............... 419 456 416 453 835 909











NEW BURROWING NEMATODE INSPECTIONS
July 1, 1960--June 30, 1962

n Nurseries Groves Others
County Citrus Ornamental Citrus and Orn. Total Total

Total Pos. Total I Pos. Total Pos. Insp. Pos. Insp. I Pos.
Alachua------------------------------------------- 5
Alachua ........................ ........ - 5 1 -
Baker ..--..-...--.... .......... ........- - 1 -
Brevard .....-...................-...... 17 2 11 5 -
Broward ........................................ - 4 1 1 1 2 -
Charlotte .....-......... ........... - 1 -- -
Citrus .......... .....~...........- 3 -
Clay .............................. ....... - 1 1 2 -
Dade ............................ .... .. 1 10 4 5 -- 1 -
DeSoto ........................................ 20 4 4 11 2 '*
Duval .......... ........-....... .........- - 9 3 -
Glades ................ .. 1 4
Hardee ....................................... 20 - 12 15 -
Hendry ................................... 6 1 6 1
Hernando ...................... ...... 8 4 -
Highlands ................................... 2 1 179 63 26 8
Hillsborough ............................ 28 2 4 1 2 47 13 99 6
Indian River ............................... 1 - 1 4 -
Jefferson ..................................... - 10 8 -
Lake ..... .............................. 46 6 2 7 210 48 66 4
Lee ........................................ ... - 1 ] 1 1














County



Leon .......................................
Manatee ......................... ..........
Marion .......................................
Martin ........................................
Okeechobee ...................................
Orange ........................... .........
Osceola .....................-.................
Palm Beach .................................
Pasco .... ....-...... ................
Pinellas ...................... .........
P olk ....................... .. ..... ...
Putnam ..............--- .............
St. Johns ........................................
St. Lucie .......................................
Sarasota ................... ............
Seminole ....... ......................
Sumter ..........--.......-...................
Volusia ................-.....---- .........


TOTAL -................... ...........


Nurseries


Citrus I Ornamental Citrus and Orn.
Citrus I Ornamental 1 Citrus and Orn.


Total | P


1
1
12

4
24
4

44
1
59
12
2
7
2
5
3
8


342


OS.



1

2
7




1


1


1



23


Total


107 1


Pos. I Total


I Groves


Total


Pos. I Insp. Pos. Insp.


2
4
6

70
14

4
3
637
1

2

3

1


1,212


Others


I Total


5
14
1
5
49
8
10
25
5
79
11

8

6
4
17


Pos.

-
-
?+
-
o
6 f
-^

tO
-->
r
14 t


1

-
o


355 1 505 43


I


Toa Po I oa






Division of Plant Industry


CITRUS BUDWOOD REGISTRATION PROGRAM

July 1, 1960-June 30, 1962
GERALD G. NORMAN, Assistant Chief Plant Inspector

Service
The trend noted in prior reports, i.e., growth and increased
participation, continued. Growth this biennium (86 new par-
ticipants) differs from the spectacular increase for the previous
two years; however, the 3,600,000 nursery trees, free of one
or more viruses, which were produced by the program's 353
voluntary co-operators presents a more accurate summary of
the program's status.
Conceived as a practicable means for improving the state's
citrus by helping Florida nurserymen grow more productive,
longer lived, and hardier trees, the program necessarily has many
long range goals and continuing service functions. Considered
worthy of note are some intermediate steps achieved or within
sight.
1. Regulation of a bud-transmitted citrus virus disease
(psorosis) for nine important commercial citrus varieties is
unique in the world. This achievement was made possible by:
the very large number of nurserymen and growers who had
belief in the program by joining it; by full utilization of the
Division's field force, numbering approximately 60 men, trained
by the Division to recognize virus-infected trees through visible
symptoms; and by the use of psorosis-free bud sources developed
through the program.
2. Development of xyloporosis-free bud sources, vital to
Orlando tangelo growers because of scion susceptibility, has re-
stored confidence in the value of this variety. Commercial in-
terest in sweet lime as a rootstock is apparent. The potential
value of this rootstock as a means of improving fruit quality on
much of Florida's excessively drained citrus land led to a dis-
astrous trial 25 years ago. This failure was the result of wide-
spread infection of Florida's budlines with this virus. Growers
now have available bud strains of practically all important com-
mercial varieties certified free of this disease.
3. An informed and progressive industry is re-evaluating
the trifoliate orange as a rootstock in its search for new citrus
lands. The superior fruit quality, tolerance to cold, to excess







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


water, to foot rot, and to tristeza, attributed to this rootstock
focuses attention on the indexing for exocortis virus being car-
ried on by this section. Trifoliate rootstock is being propa-
gated commercially for the first time in many years. Growers
are making experimental plantings in areas frozen in the past.
Should these plantings prove successful, trifoliate orange will
no doubt become an important rootstock in Florida.
4. Revitalization of an important and valuable portion of
the industry, Persian lime production, has been made through
painstaking inspection, selection, and re-selection of candidate
trees for freedom from genetic weakness inherent in the variety.
Improvement of this variety, a pollen-sterile triploid normally
unable to reproduce itself by seed, can be effectually done only
through this means.
5. The State's Budwood Foundation Grove now contains
158 old line clones representing our major commercial varieties,
each budded across five rootstocks. These serve as permanent
virus indicators, and provide an equitable basis for critical eval-
uation of fruit quality and yield. For comparison, 268 nucellar
seedlings of common commercial varieties are included. Realiza-
tion of the tremendous value of this planting to the industry as
a reserve bud source has produced steps for its protection against
extremes of weather. This equipment proved effective on two
occasions in December 1961.
6. The virus disease tristeza, discovered here in 1952 and
found present in all citrus-growing sections when a survey was
conducted by the Division of Plant Industry (then the State
Plant Board) in 1953, has long posed a threat to trees budded
on sour orange rootstock. Although registration of trees for
freedom from an insect-vectored disease is impracticable, every
effort has been made to delay spread of this disease by testing
bud source trees and refusing those found infected. Partici-
pants also avoid propagation of known infected material.
Re-testing of parent trees was begun in 1959 by selecting
heavily propagated trees in an area where natural spread was,
by then, known to occur. Since that date 105 parents, originally
negative, have become contaminated with this virus. This dis-
covery has led to a concerted effort to learn more about the distri-
bution of this disease. Laboratory and field personnel have col-
laborated with this section to establish parent infection dates
and detect areas of spread through voluminous testing of scion







Division of Plant Industry


and nursery trees. Re-testing of parents was also increased,
with the result that 10,400 tristeza tests, more than 21/2 times
the total for the preceding seven years, were initiated in the
period. Concurrently, much field work was done examining pos-
itive parent trees on sour orange and inspecting groves where
tristeza spread was reported or suspected. The more than 14,000
tristeza tests begun since 1953 probably represent the most
detailed long-term sampling for distribution of a virus ever
undertaken.
Co-Operation
1. Excellent co-operation and effective training were dis-
played when Division field personnel supplied the budwood office
with more than 70 clones of sour orange, 40 of which were differ-
ent from standard sour, and distinct from each other. This re-
quired only 60 days and is a remarkable achievement since these
men were working separately without any knowledge of the
material others were submitting. This accomplishment demon-
strates the tremendous potential of the Division's field force, the
high quality of its men, and the excellence of its training pro-
gram. The Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, has joined
the Division in a co-operative study of these clones. Each clone
will be tested for tristeza tolerance.


FlOPIDI DEPRNI 01 A69N U ihul U J


Florida's Budwood Registration Program has attracted interest from
all parts of the world. Here, a tour by members of the World Conference
of Citrus Virologists is in progress.







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


This is one of fourteen such co-operative projects in which
the budwood section is participating.
2. In November 1960 citrus virus disease workers over the
world gathered in Florida for the second meeting of the "Inter-
national Organization of Citrus Virologists." As joint host, the
Florida Citrus Budwood Registration Program arranged an all-
day field trip to test plot facilities and other outstanding points
of interest in the citrus belt. The remainder of the week-long
meeting was divided between Lake Alfred and Orlando, with
the Citrus Experiment Station and the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, as hosts.

Leadership
Long acclaimed as the world's largest and most compre-
hensive program, the Florida Citrus Budwood Registration Pro-
gram achieved added recognition through the selection of its di-
rector, Gerald G. Norman, for a technical advisory post with
the United Nations in strategic Turkey and Greece. The knowl-
edge gained first hand of citrus production and disease problems
in important Mediterranean citrus producing areas may prove
of great future value to our program.
Thirty-five representatives from foreign countries visited
budwood program facilities in the biennium. Special training
in citrus virus diseases, virus indexing, and budwood program
procedures was provided for agricultural representatives from
the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.


GROVE INSPECTION AND CITRUS SURVEY
July 1, 1960- June 30, 1962

C. E. SHEPARD, Assistant Chief Plant Inspector

The citrus industry in Florida, according to the 1954-1957
citrus survey, covers over 600,000 acres (43,484,800 trees), and
the crop is worth more than $300,000,000 annually to the grow-
ers. Grove inspection for the early detection of serious insects,
diseases and nematodes is one way to protect such a valuable
asset to the State of Florida.
Due to the disastrous freezes of the 1957-58 winter season,
together with the ever-expanding citrus industry, a citrus survey
has once again been incorporated in our grove inspection pro-







Division of Plant Industry


gram. This survey is being conducted with the cooperation of
the United States Department of Agriculture, Statistical Report-
ing Service, Orlando, Florida, which will tabulate all statistical
phases of the survey. The citrus survey is for the purpose of
recording major changes in the citrus tree census that have
occurred since the last survey was completed in 1957. This ad-
ditional information should be helpful to the industry since it
will aid in crop estimation and plant planning.
Since all citrus trees cannot be examined and enumerated in
one year, it has been decided to set up a five-year survey plan.
Each year's plan will entail the following procedures:
1. One-fifth of all the land sections in the state which contained
commercial citrus in the 1954-57 survey will be surveyed
each year.
2. Several hundred properties, randomly selected state-wide
from sections that contained commercial citrus in the 1954-
57 survey, will receive a detailed enumeration each year.
3. One-fifth of all sections in the state suitable for the planting
of citrus, which had no commercial citrus in the 1954-57 sur-
vey, will also be surveyed each year to determine if citrus
plantings have been made since the last survey.
4. Two percent of the remaining land sections, regardless of
soil type, topography, or geographical location which had no
citrus whatsoever in the 1954-57 survey will be surveyed
each year to insure thoroughness of the survey.
In conjunction with the citrus survey, tropical and subtrop-
ical fruits such as mango, avocado, and lychee, are being in-
spected for insects and diseases, and all commercial plantings
are being enumerated as to variety and age.
Survey work progressed at a more rapid rate in 1961-62 than
in 1960-61. The personnel were experienced and more familiar
with the districts to which they were assigned.
Sections assigned to be surveyed in 1961-62 would have been
completed on schedule had the survey not been abruptly stopped
on June 13, 1962. All crews were called to Miami at this time to
assist in the Mediterranean fruit fly eradication campaign. When
survey work stopped, less than two percent of assigned sections
remained to be worked. Due to the early detection of the Med-
iterranean fruit fly, it is hoped that the eradication campaign
will be of short duration and personnel will soon return to reg-
ular duties.





County All 0
1957


A lachua .. ......................... 38.3
Brevard ............ .. ... 736.0
Broward ................... ..- 295.0
Charlotte ............................. 49.2
Citrus .............. ............. 96.1
Collier ............................. .. 1.9
Dade .................... ........ 63.6
D eSoto .................................. 586.2
D uval .................................... 8.5
Flagler ................................. 5.0
Hardee ......... ............... 1,356.0
Hendry ....................... ..... 35.2
Hernando -...- ....- .. 464.4
Highlands ..- ... .. 1,159.7
Hillsborough .................. 2,006.4
Indian River ................. 430.6
Lake ..................................... 5,816.4
Lee ................................... 105.9
Manatee -............................. 396.0
M arion ..............- ......-.... ....- 997.7
Martin .......................... 101.2
Okeechobee ....................... 13.2
Orange ...............................- 4,232.4
Osceola --.............................. 740.0
Palm Beach ........................ 69.4
Pasco ....--...................- ....- 1,981.5
Pinellas ................................. 476.5
Polk -................. .......... ...... 5,758.1
Putnam ..........................-....- 316.7
Sarasota ................................ 121.7
Seminole ...-... .................... 887.8
Sum ter ..............................- .. 153.6
St. Johns ................................ 26.2
St. Lucie ....................... 951.4
Volusia ....-..........------...- 874.7

STATE TOTAL .............. 31,352.5


I .


22.4
893.3
209.1
44.1
114.0
1.3
21.6
561.8
4.0
5.4
2,246.7
78.5
784.6
1,634.5
3,427.0
525.1
6,607.7
93.6
483.4
1,343.8
270.0
20.5
4,047.0
1,108.7
66.9
2,001.9
448.1
6,982.7
356.5
108.9
1,169.1
235.7
16.8
1,190.1
819.8

37,944.6


1.5
305.2
45.6
8.8
8.0
0.5
30.6
100.2
0.2
0.1
74.6
7.0
35.9
312.0
252.0
756.8
1,106.4
44.7
186.7
55.7
10.1
2.3
321.8
56.2
24.7
203.6
495.1
1,934.1
17.3
35.0
82.9
5.3
1.4
813.1
67.0

7.402.4


0.6
360.8
66.0
6.0
4.3
0.4
5.4
82.3
0.1
0.0
48.1
1.7
16.7
158.4
231.3
813.4
1,072.7
19.1
160.8
22.6
11.9
2.0
219.2
40.9
23.2
125.7
404.7
1,565.6
16.2
29.7
71.1
5.6
0.7
730.8
44.4

6,362.4


1.7 1.2 0.0
71.4 88.6 13.6
10.7 9.4 3.5
8.3 8.7 23.2
8.7 13.6 1.1
0.3 0.2 0.1
18.5 8.6 528.4
24.4 21.2 10.8
1.6 0.7 0.1
1.3 1.3 0.0
41.8 100.8 10.2
1.6 0.6 1.1
70.5 67.8 0.7
121.6 155.7 60.7
136.1 212.2 63.6
72.5 97.8 6.5
849.7 1,090.3 52.9
8.1 6.8 17.8
49.9 64.7 20.0
43.7 37.3 6.7
16.0 37.1 5.7
1.3 1.5 0.3
616.2 576.1 26.9
85.2 68.0 2.3
16.4 17.7 3.2
115.8 140.3 33.3
59.4 56.9 10.2
517.4 604.3 284.5
37.9 37.1 5.1
6.4 6.2 0.3
132.6 148.5 12.3
10.8 5.7 0.9
1.7 3.3 0.1
222.3 281.9 3.4
133.9 99.3 4.6

3,515.7 4,071.4 1,214.1


|


*Mandarin
ranges All Grapefruit Hybrid I **Acid
1961 1957 1961 i 1957 1 1961 1957
INnmhPr of Trees in Thousands) I


* Temples, Tangerines, Tangelos. ** Limes, Lemons, and others.


& Misc. Total Trees


,


1961 I 1957


0.0 41.5
2.2 1,126.2
0.7 354.8
25.4 89.5
0.0 113.9
0.1 2.8
318.2 641.1
11.0 721.6
0.0 10.4
0.0 6.4
2.8 1,482.6
2.1 44.9
0.0 571.5
37.8 1,654.0
65.8 2,458.1
5.6 1,266.4
25.0 7,825.4
15.1 176.5
30.9 652.6
3.0 1,103.8
7.0 133.0
0.2 17.1
20.7 5,197.3
4.2 883.7
2.4 113.7
12.6 2,334.2
4.8 1,041.2
230.4 8,494.1
2.0 377.0
0.3 163.4
5.0 1,115.6
0.2 170.6
0.1 29.4
4.2 1,990.2
0.8 1,080.2

840.6 43,484.7


1961


24.2
1,344.9
285.2
84.2
131.9
2.0
353.8 1
676.3
4.8
6.7
2,398.4
82.9
869.1 S
1,986.4
3,936.3
1,441.9
8,795.7 bt
134.6 "
739.8
1,406.7 .
326.0
24.2
4,863.0
1,221.8
110.2
2,280.5
914.5
9,383.0
411.8
145.1
1,393.7
247.2
20.9
2,207.0
964.3

49,219.0












STATE TOTALS BY TYPE AND AGE GROUP

1961 -Age Group 1957 Census

Non- Total Con.
Type Bearing 5-9 10-14 15-24 25+ Total Trees
(Number of Trees in Thousands)
Early Orange ............... 3,731.6 971.9 498.5 1,749.3 1,848.6 8,799.9 6,715.5
Mid-season Orange ....... 2,880.2 611.6 677.6 1,390.0 3,511.6 9,071.0 7,490.8
Late Orange ................ 6,946.2 2,290.8 2,043.0 2,922.7 5,767.9 19,970.6 16,120.5
Unidentified Orange ....... 73.0 5.3 6.8 18.1 103.2 1,025.7
Seedy Grapefruit ............ 35.1 183.0 195.4 131.2 1,420.0 1,964.7 2,453.2
Seedless Grapefruit ....... 326.9 241.0 911.6 1,409.5 1,507.0 4,396.0 4,599.7
Unidentified Grapefruit 0.4 1.0 0.3 1.7 349.6
Tangerines* ................... 448.1 103.1 158.9 187.7 762.2 1,660.0 1,564.0
Temples ..........-... -- 351.6 442.0 704.4 345.9 53.4 1,897.3 1,592.1
Tangelos ......--....... 126.2 73.4 101.8 167.4 45.4 514.2 359.6
Acid Fruits** .......... 384.6 259.9 65.5 52.2 762.2 975.7
Miscellaneous*** .......... 9.3 9.7 2.3 41.7 15.2 78.2 238.4

Total ................................ 15,313.2 5,191.7 5,366.8 8,416.0 14,931.3 49,219.0 43,484.8

Includes Murcotts. ** Limes and Lemons. *** Kumquat, Limequat, Citron, Calamondin, Mixed.







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


No statistical data will be available for the 1961-62 survey
until the remaining two percent of assigned sections are com-
pleted.
The following tables give a comparison of the 1961 survey
against the 1957 survey totals.
Commercial citrus tree plantings in Florida now total more
than 49.2 million trees. This is a 13.5 percent increase over
the 43.5 million trees found by the tree census of 1957. This
increase in the total trees was accompanied by a big shift in types
with orange trees increasing sharply and grapefruit and lime
trees showing a decrease. The largest increase in orange trees
came with late (Valencia) type showing nearly 3.9 million or
23.9 percent more trees than in 1957. Temple orange trees in-
creased 19.2 percent, other early and mid-season type trees were
up 25.8 percent and 43.0 percent was added to the tangelo trees.
There was a decrease in all grapefruit trees of 14.1 percent.
Seedy type grapefruit trees led this downward trend with 20.0
percent fewer trees, while seedless type was showing only 4.4
percent below the count in 1957. Acid fruit trees have decreased
about two hundred thousand since the last count, due mostly to
a heavy reduction of lime trees in Dade County.
The heavy producing counties continue to lead the state in
overall expansion, with the exception of Orange and Pinellas
Counties. In most cases the counties hard hit by the 1957
freeze show a reduction in tree numbers.
The survey indicates that 30 percent of all trees were found
to be non-bearing which compares with 24 percent in the 1957
census. Some of this increase was due to the classification of
cold damaged trees by amount of bearing surface rather than
actual age.


IMPORTED FIRE ANT AND WHITE-FRINGED BEETLE
July 1, 1960-June 30, 1962

C. E. SHEPARD, Assistant Chief Plant Inspector

On March 25, 1960, the imported fire ant and white-fringed
beetle eradication programs converted into one for the treat-
ment of nurseries and environs and carrying out limited sup-
pression and control measures on incipient fire ant infestations.
Only 12,337 acres of farm land were treated during July, August,
and September of 1960.







Division of Plant Industry


All insecticide on hand as of September 30, 1960, has and is
being used on nurseries within the quarantine zones to assist
nurserymen to meet quarantine requirements for certification.
This policy will be maintained until the present supply of insecti-
cide is exhausted.
Regulatory activities on the programs are increasing. The
residual of the insecticides applied during former treatments
breaks down to the extent that both imported fire ants and white-
fringed beetles can re-establish themselves at points under reg-
ulation. Extension of quarantine boundaries has also increased
regulatory activities.
A bait for control of the imported fire ant has been developed
through a series of studies conducted by the Imported Fire Ant
Methods Improvement Laboratory, United States Department
of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service. The bait consists
of a food material, soybean oil, a toxicant, mirex, and a granular
carrier for the food material and toxicant, corncob grits.
The recommended application rate of the bait is ten pounds
per acre. At this rate, the actual amount of toxicant applied
per acre is 3.4 grams, or approximately one teaspoonful. After
application to the soil, it is usually considered that the bait will
not be effective after two to seven days, depending on weather
conditions.
County Agents in northwest Florida report great numbers of
complaints by farmers requesting assistance relative to relief
from imported fire ant infestations.
Based on these reports and the development of mirex bait,
Mr. H. L. Jones of the Division explained mirex bait at a meet-
ing of the County Agents in the West Florida Extension Service
District on April 18, 1962, at DeFuniak Springs, Florida. Mr.
Jones asked the agents in several of the most heavily infested
west Florida counties to set up blocks of approximately two
thousand acres each as a test demonstration of mirex bait.
Demonstration plots are now in the final stages of develop-
ment, and control treatments should be underway by late July
or August 1962.






Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


SWEET POTATO WEEVIL

July 1, 1960-June 30, 1962

C. E. SHEPARD, Assistant Chief Plant Inspector

The sweet potato weevil, the most important known insect
enemy of sweet potato, was discovered in southern Florida
eighty-four years ago. Over the years, its dissemination into
all counties of peninsular Florida has taken place, and in more
recent years it has been reported from all counties in west
Florida.
The weevil can be eradicated in many localities by using rec-
ommended cultural methods. It can be controlled very econom-
ically in the field and in storage by a combination of practices
plus the proper use of recommended insecticides.
Freezing and wet weather undoubtedly play an important
part in the mortality rate of the sweet potato weevil in north
Florida counties, keeping the insect under partial control.
Winter survival surveys by United States Department of
Agriculture Plant Pest Control Division personnel revealed that
freezes during January 1962 probably did more to eliminate field
infestations of sweet potato weevils than all the field work that
has been done in the past several years.
On February 7, 1962, Division personnel met with Plant
Pest Control Division of the Agricultural Research Service,
United States Department of Agriculture, in Pensacola, Florida,
to formulate a sweet potato weevil control program designed to
reduce the population of weevils that are over-wintering in stor-
age in areas adjacent to commercial producing areas in Florida,
Georgia, and Alabama.
It is believed that by taking advantage of the freezing
weather and adhering to the control program, populations in
general can be reduced to a very low point and many infestations
can be cleaned up entirely.
The services of two full-time and six temporary Division
employees were utilized for six weeks on this program.
A report on the progress of the work in north and west Florida
counties follows.








SWEET POTATO WEEVIL PROGRESS REPORT
February 1, 1962 June 30, 1962

SProperties I Bushels Sq. Feet Acres
County Total Having Sweet | Properties Dusted I Seedbeds Seedbeds Volunteers
Contacts Potatoes | Infested (Storage) | Dusted [ Dusted Treated


Baker ....................
B ay ......................
Calhoun .............
Columbia .........
Duval ...... ......
Escambia ............
Franklin ...........-
Gadsden ..........
Gulf ..................
Hamilton ..--.....
Holmes ..................
Jackson ...........
Jefferson .............
Lafayette ..............
Leon ......................
Liberty .................
Madison ..............
Nassau .................
Okaloosa .........
Santa Rosa ..........
Suwannee ..............
Taylor ....................
Wakulla ..............
Walton ..................
Washington ........


Total -................


486
473
922
1,826
315
2,255
479
3,411
149
65
1,959
3,835
1,200
94
1,276
924
1,276
579
1,055
2,272
565
45
455
1,426
1,168


407
59
571
6
56
112
20
2,450
248
151
925
2,160
1,170
54
991
574
732
332
395
125
17
96
296
1,243
137


4,760
792
1,413
14,560
6,240
2,224
0
34,945
860
18,385
6,012
51,909
14,011
20,175
11,845
1,743
7,681
12,020
5,160
4,176
4,126
89,947
1,164
9,480
7,956


28,510 2,543 844 13,327 3,448 331,584 24







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


PERSONNEL TRAINING PROGRAM

July 1, 1960-June 30, 1962
CHARLES POUCHER, Assistant Chief Plant Inspector

In 1958 the State Plant Board initiated a system for training
new employees. The training lasts for approximately four
months and covers all phases of regulatory, control, and survey
work connected with plant inspection. The primary function
of the school is the training of new employees and to keep the
regular employees up to date on new developments. The school
covers the following phases: Grove Inspection, Nursery Inspec-
tion, Citrus and Budwood Certification, Fruit Fly Trapping,
Spreading Decline, Turfgrass Certification, Imported Fire Ant,
and Grades and Standards Program.
Each separate phase of training is conducted by an instructor
that is thoroughly trained in that particular phase. Upon grad-
uation the trainees are assigned to districts and work directly
under one of our regular inspectors for an additional period of
time.
Since the start of the training school many of the trainees,
after completion of the course, have resigned and taken jobs
elsewhere at a higher salary. This training course is recognized
by other state and federal agricultural agencies as an outstand-
ing course and in some cases they have suggested to prospective
new employees that they go through the Division of Plant In-
dustry Training School and then apply for a position.
The following outline is a general description of the training
course as of May 1962.

Training Schedule for Plant Inspection Section Personnel
1. INITIAL TRAINING (1 day)
a. Orientation on Division of Plant Industry eradication
campaigns, organization, policies, etc.
b. Familiarization with Division and Rules and Regula-
tions.
c. Issue supplies, bulletins, etc.
d. Expense accounts, time reports, and leave requests.
e. Training course.
f. Retirement and insurance, workmen's compensation, and
accident reports.







Division of Plant Industry


g. Legal holidays.
h. Other agencies and their relationship to the Division.
i. Public relations.
j. Uniform.
k. Maintenance of Division vehicles and equipment.
2. INTRODUCTION TO NURSERY INSPECTION (2 weeks)
a. Purpose of nursery inspection.
b. The Florida nursery industry.
c. Division relations with the Florida Nurserymen and
Growers Association and the Florida Citrus Nursery-
men's Association and other organizations.
d. Regulations governing the movement of nursery stock.
e. Field identification of scale insects.
f. Plant identification and inventory classification.
g. How to inspect plants for insects and diseases.
h. Records and nursery classification.
i. Interstate and foreign plant regulations.
j. Propagation of ornamental nursery stock.
k. Violations of nursery regulations.
3. PATHOLOGY, ENTOMOLOGY, NEMATOLOGY, APIARY,
AND TURFGRASS (1 week)
a. Pathology.
1. Discussion of plant diseases and their control, includ-
ing nursery sanitation and mineral deficiencies.
2. Pathological procedures used in the laboratory.
3. Collecting and mailing of disease specimens.
b. Entomology
1. Discussion of insects and their control.
2. Insect survey and reports.
3. Handling of pesticides.
4. Collecting and mailing insect specimens.
5. The entomology library and insect collection.
c. Nematology
1. Nematodes and their characteristics.
2. Nematodes in the soil environment.
3. The intimate relationship between nematodes and
plants.
4. Pathological problems.
5. Nematode enemies.
6. Nursery sanitation.
7. The Heterodera cysts.
8. Laboratory procedures.







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


d. Apiary
1. The beekeeping industry.
2. The Florida bee disease law.
3. Insects and diseases that attact bees.
e. Turfgrass
1. Purpose and present status of program.
2. Insects, diseases, nematodes, and weeds and their
control.
3. Varieties of grass and means of identification.
4. Maintenance of turfgrasses.
5. Visit to the University of Florida turf plots.

4. FRUIT FLY TRAINING (3 days)
a. History of Mediterranean fruit fly eradication campaigns.
b. Identification of fruit flies.
c. Trap records.
d. Baiting, setting, and tending traps.

5. BURROWING NEMATODES (3 days)
a. Discussion of the Spreading Decline Program.
b. Burrowing nematode regulations.
c. History of push and treat program.
d. The buffer program.
e. Hot-water tank operation.
f. Sampling procedures and laboratory techniques.
g. Grove mapping.
h. Pushing and treating techniques.
i. Status of research.

6. SECOND PHASE NURSERY TRAINING (3 weeks)
a. General Nursery Training
1. Review of previous nursery inspection training.
2. Fees and special inspection charges.
3. Violations of nursery regulations.
b. Nursery Training-Apopka
1. Foliage plants.
2. Ferns.
3. Burrowing nematode certification of ornamental
nurseries.
4. Reniform nematode survey and extraction technique.
5. Turf sampling.
6. Problems encountered in random sampling of orna-
mental nurseries. (Does not include burrowing nema-
tode sampling.)







Division of Plant Industry


7. Soil sterilization.
c. Site Selection-Bulbs and Cut Flowers.
1. Detailed instructions on site selection and regulations,
sampling method, etc.
2. Cut flower inspection.
3. Bulb inspection.

7. NURSERY GRADES AND STANDARDS (3 days)
a. Purpose and present status of the program.
b. Grading procedure.
c. Handling of grading violations.

8. IMPORTED FIRE ANT (1 day)
a. History of the imported fire ant.
b. Present status of the program and future plans.
c. Regulations.
d. Survey, control, and regulatory procedures.
e. Precautions in handling insecticides.
9. PLANT INSPECTION FILING SYSTEM (1/2 day)

10. GROVE INSPECTION TRAINING (1 week)
a. Purpose and methods of grove inspection.
b. Varieties and rootstocks.
c. Legal descriptions.
d. Citrus survey maps and symbols.
e. Serious citrus insects, foreign and domestic, and control.
f. Minor citrus insects and their control.
g. Serious citrus diseases, foreign and domestic, and control.
h. Minor citrus diseases and control.
i. Water and freeze damage.
j. Packing house operation.
k. Minor element deficiency symptoms.
1. Concentrate and juice operation.
m. Gift fruit operation.
n. Nursery operation.
o. Production management.
p. Fumigation of fruit for out-of-state certification.
q. Citrus survey procedures and records.

11. FIRST PHASE BUDWOOD REGISTRATION (1 week)
a. Statement of policy.
b. Present status and aims of the program.
c. Nucellar seedlings.







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


d. Virus diseases and bud mutations.
e. Program records.
f. Tristeza tests in laboratory.
g. Field observations in Division of Plant Industry test
nursery.

12. NURSERY TRAINING IN MIAMI (2 weeks)
a. Tropical fruits.
b. Flowering trees.
c. Palms.
d. Orchids.
e. Tropical plants not abundant in northern part of state.
f. Postentry quarantine.
g. Handling of new and dangerous pests.
h. Visit to inspection house and Fairchild Gardens.

13. SECOND PHASE BUDWOOD (1 week)
a. Review of previous citrus budwood certification training.
b. Field training and records.

14. ON-THE-JOB TRAINING (2 weeks)
During the first two weeks after assignment to a permanent
headquarters, the trainee will be under the close supervision
of the district and/or regional inspector to help him become
proficient in his assigned duties.

TOMATO WILT SURVEY
In March 1960 a new disease, Fisarium wilt, Race 2 (Fu-
sarium oxysporum and lycopersici (Saccardo) Snyder and Han-
sen) was found attacking tomato plants on a large commercial
farm at Delray Beach in Palm Beach County.
Extensive survey efforts by Division inspectors revealed the
disease to be confined entirely to Palm Beach County (see chart
below).
Within Palm Beach County, 6 different properties involving
686 acres were eventually found infected. A spray program
embracing such areas as roadways, ditch banks, etc. was con-
ducted on the known infected properties so as to reduce the possi-
bility of spread. Later, however, the program was not consid-
ered feasible due to the number of properties involved and spray-
ing was discontinued after the first half of the biennium. Plans
were then formulated to enact some type of quarantine control.







Division of Plant Industry


Acres
County Number Number Acres Found
Growers Inspections Inspected Positive
Palm Beach .... 19 67 2,666.00 686*
Hendry ............ 15 20 2,252.00
Dade ............... 81 172 13,801.00
Broward ......... 4 13 337.00
Gadsden ............ 1 1 15.00 -
Marion ............. 23 23 468.60
Charlotte ......... ** ** **
Lee ............... ** ** **

Totals .............. 143 296 19,539.60 686

Six different properties involved.
** No records available for these counties.

Although the quarantine is not yet law, it has been approved
by the Division's Technical Committee and merely awaits the
Commissioner of Agriculture's signature.
The law reads: "Each and every plant, plant product, and
article infected with said disease is hereby declared to be a public
nuisance, and specifically the movement of tomato plants within
or from the described quarantine area is prohibited, except when
such plants are accompanied by a special permit issued by the
Division of Plant Industry."
The quarantine area (all in Palm Beach County) is as follows:
Starting at the crossroads of Highways 700 and 809, south along
Highway 809 to the intersection of Highways 809 and 806; west
along Highway 806 to the intersection of Highways 7 and 806;
north along Highway 7 to the SE corner of Section 13, Township
44 south, Range 41 east; west to the SE corner of Section 17,
Township 44 south, Range 41 east; north to Highway 700; east
along Highway 700 to the intersection of Highways 700 and 809.

GRADES AND STANDARDS PROGRAM

July 1, 1960- June 30, 1962

C. S. BUSH, Plant Supervising Inspector

Considerable research is necessary in order to write grade
specifications for any plant. All information available concern-
ing the habits, growth, and use must be considered. The quality
of a particular species and variety as grown by different nursery-
men throughout the state must be appraised. It is essential that
the grade be practicable and possible for anyone to attain with
time, attention, and knowledge.







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


Since the publication of Grades and Standards for Nursery
Plants, research has never ended. Additional grades have been
written for azaleas, camellias, roses, and arborescent philoden-
drons. The decision was reached that a completely revised edi-
tion be printed. This enlarged, revised edition has been com-
pleted and should be published in the near future. Trees and
palms will not be included, but will appear in a separate book at a
later date; however, much research has been accomplished.
Through assistance of Florida Nurserymen and Growers
Association Plant Grading Chairman Jay Blanchard's correspond-
ence with Washington and by constant personal contacts with
each of the Federal Housing Administration's district offices in
Florida, arrangements were made to have a training school for
Federal Housing Administration Inspectors and Zone Land
Planners. Classes were held in Jacksonville, Tampa, and Miami.
All Federal Housing Administration Inspectors were instructed
in the methods of how to grade and inspect landscaping material
with the aid of the grades and standards manual. A directive
was issued by the Director of the Administration that all plant
material for multiple rental units in Florida be specified Florida
No. 1 grade, or better. The specification of graded plants will
materially benefit the government, the public, and the ornamental
plant industry.
Every effort has been made to educate the public as to why
grades and standards are significant to buyers of ornamental
plants. Exhibits were shown at the following:
Metropolitan Flower Show, Miami
Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association Trade Show, West
Palm Beach
Central Florida Fair and Exposition, Orlando
Leon County Fair, Tallahassee
Manatee County Fair, Palmetto
Gainesville Flower Show, Gainesville
Sanford Flower Show, Sanford
Metropolitan Flower Show, Fort Lauderdale

The Grading Committee and other members of the Florida Nurs-
erymen and Growers Association expressed the opinion that these
were valuable, extremely worth-while, and a definite, needed
asset to the education of the public to the Grades and Standards
Program.
A 16-mm, sound moving picture in color is being prepared on
azaleas and camellias. This movie is approximately 85% com-
pleted, and it is hoped that it will be released late in the fall.
This will do much to increase the grades and standards being







Division of Plant Industry


used as many camellia and azalea growers have been awaiting
publication of these standards.


Quality is emphasized in this Division exhibit by utilizing an authentic,
artistic piece from the Ringling Art Museum and supporting it with "Fancy"
grade nursery stock.

Talks and lectures using movies or slides were an important
phase in promoting the use of graded plants. These were given
at:
Alabama Nurserymen's Short Course, Auburn University, Auburn,
Alabama
Adult Class in Horticulture, Fletcher High School, Jacksonville
Annual Meeting of the Home Demonstration Agents, Rainbow
Springs
Horticultural Spraymen's Association of Florida, Inc., Miami
Southern Association of Agricultural Workers, Jacksonville
Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association Lake Region Chap-
ter, Winter Haven
Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association Chapter, Fort Myers
Annual Lecture at the Ornamental Horticulture Class of Professor
John V. Watkins, University of Florida, Gainesville

A seminar was held for the personnel of the Corps of En-
gineers and others at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa, Florida.
Grades and standards for nursery stock were presented in co-
operation with the personnel from the Agricultural Extension
Service. The Corps of Engineers accepted Florida's ornamental
plant grades and will specify that they be used in the landscaping
of all government projects under their jurisdiction in Florida.







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


New employees go through training classes in each facet of
the Division of Plant Industry's activity. Four classes of trainees
attended grades and standards courses of three days each. In-
struction was given in the grading of ornamentals and all other
important aspects of the program.
One television appearance was made on Channel 10 as guest
of Mrs. Julia Morton of the University of Miami on the subject
of "The Grading of Roses."
A feature story entitled "Roses Do Grow Here" was written
for the Florida Living Magazine of the Miami Daily News.
During this report period considerable progress was accom-
plished. The new revised grades and standards manual contain-
ing additional specifications when published will offer a definite
impetus to the program. Many more nurseries who have ex-
pressed the desire to participate will become eligible. More nurs-
eries are appreciating the benefits and fewer are in opposition.
The technique and procedure for handling violations have been
completed. The industry is appreciative of our efforts in the
promotion, and when the supply of nursery stock is greater than
the demand, the use of grading in ornamental plants will take
a sharp incline.


TURFGRASS CERTIFICATION PROGRAM

July 1, 1960 June 30, 1962

J. K. CONDO, Plant Supervising Inspector

Probably the most significant achievement of the Florida
Turfgrass Certification Program during the biennium was the
additional introduction of three important educational aids which
should prove highly successful in selling the certification idea.
A fifteen-minute color movie, an exhibit, and a turf pamphlet, all
promoting turf certification, have been introduced since the last
biennium.
The film, entitled "Better Lawn Grasses," was completed in
March of 1961 and immediately made available for group show-
ings. Five copies of the film were printed and distributed as
follows:
Florida Turf Association-2 copies
Division of Plant Industry-2 copies
Florida Agricultural Extension Service-1 copy







Division of Plant Industry


The turf exhibit was constructed in May of 1961 and initially
viewed during that same month at the Florida Nurserymen and
Growers Association convention in Miami Beach. It proved so
popular at this meeting that during the next 12 months it was
exhibited on six different occasions involving the following
events: Nursery Grower's Short Course, Gainesville; Florida
Turfgrass Management Conference, Gainesville; North Florida
Fair, Tallahassee; Orlando Farm Week, Orlando; National Turf
Conference, Miami Beach; and The Turfgrass Trade Show, Miami
Beach.
The turf pamphlet entitled "Better Lawn Grasses Through
Turfgrass Certification" was printed during the second half of
the biennium by The Florida Turf Association. The idea and
design for the pamphlet resulted from the combined efforts of
the Division of Plant Industry, the University of Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Station, the Florida Agricultural Extension
Service, and the Florida Turf Association. The Division of Plant
Industry and the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station have both purchased 5,000 copies of the pamphlet for
distribution and it is hoped that the growers, dealers, and sup-
pliers will purchase quantities from the Florida Turf Associa-
tion. Besides praising the certification idea and comparing the
different certified grasses, the pamphlet provides sufficient space
for the grower, dealer, or supplier to print his name and address.
Other highlights for the biennium include the introduction
of two new varieties into the program making a total of 9 differ-
ent varieties now available to our certified growers. The new
varieties, Ormond and Everglades Bermuda, were released by
the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station in
Gainesville on September 6, 1961. The Gainesville station is
rapidly becoming one of the top turf research areas in the country
and from their research efforts should come new varieties of
grass that will greatly enhance the importance of turf certifica-
tion in Florida.
Facts and Figures
In Table I, a substantial decrease is noted in the average
number of inspections per active grower during the second half
of the biennium. In 1960-61 the average was 4.6 inspections,
while in 1961-62 the figure was 3.0. Heavy stock expansions
during the first half of the biennium which required extra in-
spections accounts for this difference.







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report

TABLE I


Summary of the Program's Inspection Work
(July 1, 1960 to June 30, 1962)

1960-61 1961-62


Number of active growers ........................--------------- 20 19
Number of inspections made for active growers ........ 92 57
Average number of inspections per active grower ........ 4.6 3.0
Number of new growers .-......---- --------......------....... 6 4
Number of growers marked out-of-business ............... 8 5
Number of inspections made for growers going
out-of-business .....---..........-...--------- ----- ----- 8 13
Average number of inspections made for growers
going out-of-business .-...... ...-- ......... ......... 1.0 2.6
Total number of growers under inspection during year.. 28 24
Total number of inspections for all growers ....-.......... 100 70


The amount of stock being grown under certification (Table
II) increased from 10,624,223 square feet in 1960-61 to 11,022,733
square feet in 1961-62, an increase of 398,510 square feet. This
increase (mainly involving the Bermuda varieties) was achieved
in spite of the out-of-business loss of 1,473,725 square feet of
Floratine and Emerald Zoysia during that period.

TABLE II

Amount and Kind of Stock Grown Under Certification Program
(July 1, 1960 to June 30, 1962)

1960-61 1961-62
Variety sq. ft. sq. ft.

Floratine St. Augustine ..-...--..--.....-........ ......... 9,126,069 8,309,534
Emerald Zoysia .................................... .... .. 1,113,406 468,614
Tifway Bermuda ......................-... ....... ..- 191,719 273,178
Tifgreen Bermuda .............................. ...- 133,747 603,922
Tifiawn Bermuda ................................... . 44,282 133,870
Tiffine Bermuda .............................---------- ..... 15,000 15,000
Everglades Bermuda --.......-..... -986,785
Ormond Bermuda ............... .......- ......---......- -221,830
Meyer Zoysia ........................... --- --- -----... .. 10,000

Total ......... ...... ... ..... ..... ...- --- ------ 10,624,223 11,022,733


In Table III, it will be noted that 1,074,040 square feet of sod
moved under blue tag certification during the second half of the







Division of Plant Industry


biennium in comparison to the 208,998 square feet moved during
the first half. This is an increase of 865,042 square feet and
represents the largest volume ever moved under blue tag certifi-
cation.

TABLE III
Amount of Stock Sold Under Blue Tag Certification
(July 1, 1960 to June 30, 1962)


Variety


Em erald Zoysia .......................... ......... ...
Tifgreen Bermuda .....................-...........
Floratine St. Augustine ........ .....................
Tiflawn Bermuda .-..--.......................... ..
Tifway Bermuda ............... .......... ........
Tiffine Berm uda ........................................
Ormond Bermuda ..........................
Everglades Bermuda ................................--


Total .................... ....... ... ...................


CERTIFICATION OF CITRUS FRUIT
July 1, 1960 June 30, 1962

Variety California Arizona
S1960-61 1961-62 1960-61 1961-62

Oranges ................................ 18,557 367,556 1 200
Tangelos ...................-......... 15,247 25,739 -
Tangerines ........................... 6,466 857
Grapefruit ............................ 167,977 256,808 122 200
Persian Limes .................. 12,041 18,303 558 1,272
Lemons ...................... ....... 1 -


Totals ........................- .. 220,289 669,263 681 1,672


Shipments by California Arizona
S1960-61 1961-62 1960-61 1961-62

Trucks ................ 506 1,488 2 6
Cars ............................ 8 32 -


Totals .............. ............. 514 I 1,520 2 6







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


EXPORT SHIPMENTS OF CITRUS FRUIT
July 1, 1960- June 30, 1962

Variety 1960-61 1961-62


Oranges .... ...... .... 58,967 147,213
Tangerines .--.-..- ..-.-.-......- .......----..- ..... 115 180
Tangelos ........ 483
Grapefruit ................ ...... ......- ... ......- . 215,127 421,9.56

Totals ............. ..-......... -.................. ....... 274,209 569,832


BILLING
July 1, 1960- June 30, 1962

1960-61 1961-62

FDA DPI FDA DPI

Citrus to California/Arizona
For Certification
and Fumigation .......... $1,622.50 $4,310.00
For Certification .............I. $ 25.00 $ 60.00
Citrus for Export
For Certification .............. 1,647.50 3,935.50
Vegetables to California
For Certification .............. 480.00 590.00

Totals ......................... .......... $3,270.00 $ 505.00 I $8,245.50 i $ 650.00


CERTIFICATION OF VEGETABLES
July 1, 1960 June 30. 1962

Variety I Bushels
S1960-61 1961-62

Cucumbers ---....................................... ... .......... 49,009 65,843
Squash -..-.....- ..... ................. ............... ......... ...... 28,598 31,368

Totals ................... ----............-..- ... --- 77,607 97,211

Shipments by 1960-61 1961-62

Trucks .................. --... ..... --. -------------- ------- 192 224
Cars ...........-.....-....- .......... ----. ---- ----- - .................- 12

Totals ................ --...................................... 192 236






Division of Plant Industry


PORT INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT OF
FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES
July 1, 1960- June 30, 1962
A resume of foreign plant quarantine work for the biennium
ending June 30, 1962, which in Florida is conducted by the United
States Department of Agriculture, is given below:
Planes and Vessels from Foreign Countries, Puerto Rico,
and the American Virgin Islands:
1960-61 1961-62
Total planes arriving.. ..................... .. 34,173 33,983
Total vessels arriving............................. 7,796 9,156
The number of passengers arriving on these planes and ves-
sels during 1960-61 was 805,202, carrying 2,122,259 pieces of
baggage; during 1961-62 passengers totaled 713,907, carrying
1,844,482 pieces of baggage.
Interceptions of plant material during 1960-61 were 23,918;
during 1961-62 the number was 27,865.
Plant material entering under permit (bulbs, plants, cut-
tings, scions, etc.) during 1960-61 amounted to 4,265,418, in-
cluding 1,420,033 aquatic plants from Ceylon, Cuba, and Peru;
seed, 1,403 pounds. During 1961-62 the plant material total was
354,666, including 87,245 aquatic plants from Peru and Ven-
ezuela; seed, in excess of 17,252 pounds.
Importations of fruit and vegetables from the Caribbean
area and some Central American countries are far below the
usual figure because under present conditions, Cuban imports,
usually the heaviest, are cut off.

Pests of Economic Importance Intercepted:
1960-61:
Fruit flies of various kinds were intercepted 96 times from 17
foreign countries, twice from Puerto Rico, and once from the
American Virgin Islands. This included six interceptions of the
Mediterranean fruit fly from five foreign countries. Infesta-
tions were found in 27 different kinds of fruit.
The pink bollworm was intercepted in cotton bolls from Haiti
and Trinidad; in cottonseed in packing material from Grand
Cayman; and twice in okra from Haiti.
The citrus blackfly, or spiny citrus whitefly, was intercepted
on bromeliads from Costa Rica; on orange leaf from Jamaica;
and three times on orchid plants from Honduras. The intercep-







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


tions on bromeliads and orchids refer to Miami Inspection House
records.
The khapra beetle was intercepted in rice in dry stores from
Thailand.
Cancrosis B, a type of citrus canker, was intercepted on grape-
fruit and lemon fruit from Argentina. The interception on
grapefruit was regarded as questionable.
Sweet orange scab was intercepted 41 times on various kinds
of citrus fruit from South American countries.
The golden nematode was intercepted three times in celery
root and soil from England.
Black spot of citrus, Phoma citricarpa McAlp., was inter-
cepted in orange fruit from South Africa twice, and twice from
China in dried orange peel.

1961-62:
Fruit flies of various kinds were intercepted 62 times from
20 foreign countries in 19 kinds of fruit. This included six in-
terceptions of the Mediterranean fruit fly from five foreign
countries.
The khapra beetle was intercepted once from Korea in debris
on the floor of a dry stores room.
The citrus blackfly, or spiny citrus whitefly, was intercepted
once on citrus leaves from Ecuador.
The pink bollworm of cotton was intercepted once in okra
from Haiti.
The bean pod borer was intercepted twice on beans and bean
pods from Puerto Rico and Surinam.
The sweet orange scab was intercepted 36 times from six
South American countries and Trinidad on various citrus fruits.
Cancrosis B was possibly intercepted on tangerines from
Argentina.
The golden nematode was intercepted 12 times from Argen-
tina and several European countries on celery roots, horseradish
roots, and soil combined with various vegetables and from a car.
Citrus canker was intercepted four times from Japan on vari-
ous citrus fruits.
The black spot of citrus was intercepted twice on sweet
oranges from Brazil and South Africa. Guignardia citricarpa
Kiely, the perfect stage of the black spot of citrus, was inter-
cepted seven times on oranges from Italy, South Africa, and
Brazil.









Apiary Inspection Section


PHILIP M. PACKARD, Chief Apiary Inspector

When viewing displays of honey on super market shelves,
the average shopper little realizes the magnitude of Florida's
apiary industry. Florida's 283,000 colonies of bees produced
almost 40,000,000 pounds of honey during the past two years.
This placed Florida third in the nation in honey production.
Inspection of these colonies of bees, plus over 50,000 colonies
which enter the state from other states each biennium, presents
a tremendous task for the Apiary Inspection Section.
The honeybee, like most other insects, is subject to diseases
which continually menace its survival. American foulbrood
(Bacillus larvae), European foulbrood (Bacillus pluton), Sac-
brood (a virus), Nosema apis (an intestinal parasite), and Sep-
ticemia (Bacillus apisepticus) continue to be the chief diseases.
The Apiary Inspection Section is chiefly concerned with
the control of American foulbrood. This spore-forming bac-
terium is very tenacious in character and has been known to lie
dormant for thirty-five years and then become active upon en-
tering the honeybee larva through food. There is need for con-
tinuous and conscientious inspection in order to keep the Bacillus
larvae rate of infection below one percent. This, in addition to
preventive chemical applications applied by the more progressive
beekeepers, will limit the outbreaks of American foulbrood. Many
successful honey producers are using chemicals, mainly sulfa-
thiazole and terramycin, with great success. Due to the use of
chemicals, outbreaks of disease in areas of previously high in-
fection are becoming less frequent. It is recommended that these
chemicals be given according to the state of the colonies, since
even small concentrations are toxic if consumed by a small num-
ber of larvae. Every precaution should be used in applying these
chemicals in an effort to keep surplus honey from becoming
adulterated. Isolated cases of Nosema apis and Septicemia were
reported to and investigated by the Florida Apiary Inspectors.
The Commissioner of Agriculture, the Director of the Divi-
sion of Plant Industry, and the Chief Apiary Inspector contacted
lawmakers in Washington in a concentrated effort to secure the
passage of House Bill 8050 and Senate Bill 2158, which broaden
the Honeybee Importation Act of 1922 to include all species of
Apis, in an effort to prevent the Acarine mite from entering






Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


the United States. This internal parasite has wreaked havoc
in the bee industries of Europe, India, and in parts of South
America.
During the biennium there were a few instances when col-
onies of bees coming into Florida from other states under the
certificate of the state of origin were required to be removed
from the state after the Apiary Inspectors found severe infec-
tions of American foulbrood. In two instances beekeepers, at-
tempting to bring colonies into Florida without proper permits
by traveling along isolated roads, were placed under bond and
required to remove the bees from the state. Road guard sta-
tions and the roving inspectors continue to check trucks loaded
with colonies of bees for proper entry permits.
The following changes in personnel were made: Mr. Edward
T. Willis, Apiary Inspector, resigned effective October 31, 1960;
Mr. Dan Barfield resigned November 15, 1960; and Mr. C. L. Dick-
inson resigned as of March 31, 1961. After 14 years in apiary
inspection work Mr. Russell A. Martin, Chief Apiary Inspector,
resigned effective April 14, 1961. Mr. Philip M. Packard was
appointed Chief Apiary Inspector on May 15, 1961. The fol-
lowing Apiary Inspectors were appointed: Mr. Owen C. Albritton
on November 1, 1960, and Mr. George C. Guilford on April 26,
1961. The following Apiary Inspectors are now assigned to the
districts shown below:
George C. Guilford District One
James C. Herndon District Two
Mark M. Bryant District Three
S. D. Harvey District Four
Leroy Putnal District Five
Owen Albritton District Six
Theodore Yeomans District Seven
Henry W. Russell District Eight

During the past fiscal year the inspection districts were re-
vised somewhat and the counties of Hamilton, Suwannee, and
Lafayette were added to District Two and Flagler to District
Five.
In addition to apiary inspection, the Commissioner of Agri-
culture during the past fiscal year requested the Apiary Inspec-
tors located in Districts One and Two to draw samples of Tupelo
honey to be delivered to the Food Laboratory for analysis and
certification. Under this program the inspectors sampled 444







Division of Plant Industry


barrels of honey and delivered 117 samples to the Food Lab-
oratory.
During the biennium there were 325,826 colony inspections
made in 10,684 apiaries; 2,324 colonies of American foulbrood
were found and destroyed in 660 apiaries; permits for 53,383
colonies of out-of-state bees to move into Florida and 169 special
moving permits for moving from point to point within the state
were issued; and 1,100 moving permits were issued to Florida
beekeepers. A total of $19,952.25 was paid to Florida beekeep-
ers in compensation for bees and equipment destroyed because
of American foulbrood. The total cost of the Apiary Inspection
Section was $125,745.77, or approximately 38.6 per colony
inspection, which was 7.9 per colony less than the previous
biennium.
SUMMARY


1960-1961 1961-1962

Number colonies inspected ................................ 152,288 173,538
Number apiaries inspected ............................... 4,991 5,693
Number counties in which inspections
w ere m ade .... ............................................. .... 62 60
Number apiaries infected with
American foulbrood .......................... 319 341
Number colonies infected with
American foulbrood ................. .............. 1,271 1,053
Number infected colonies burned ..................... 1,271 1,053
Number apiaries with new infections
of American foulbrood .................................. 209 239








Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


SUMMARY OF APIARY INSPECTION WORK SINCE THE
DEPARTMENT WAS CREATED IN JULY, 1919
Apiaries Colonies
Infected Infected
Year Ending Apiaries Colonies with with
Inspected Inspected American American
Foulbrood I Foulbrood


June 30, 1920............
June 30, 1921............
June 30, 1922............
June 30, 1923 ...........
June 30, 1924.........
June 30, 1925............
June 30, 1926............
June 30, 1927............
June 30, 1928............
June 30, 1929............
June 30, 1930............
June 30, 1931............
June 30, 1932............
June 30, 1933.....-....
June 30, 1934............
June 30, 1935 ............
June 30, 1936............
June 30, 1937--.......
June 30, 1938........
June 30, 1939............
June 30, 1940.... .. .
June 30, 1941...-..--
June 30, 1942............
June 30, 1943 ..........
June 30, 1944............
June 30, 1945............
June 30, 1946............
June 30, 1947............
June 30, 1948 ....-......
June 30, 1949............
June 30, 1950............
June 30, 1951............
June 30, 1952 ........
June 30, 1953............
June 30, 1954............
June 30, 1955............
June 30, 1956............
June 30, 1957............
June 30, 1958............
June 30, 1959............
June 30, 1960............
June 30, 1961 ..........
June 30, 1962.....-....


394
753
837
1,016
803
675
676
796
1,248
1,297
2,273
2,374
2,744
2,219
2,305
2,445
3,344
3,544
3,451
3,371
3,414
3,711
3,671
3,347
2,646
2,371
2,265
2,464
3,266
3,710
3,082
2,872
2,836
3,259
5,102
5,885
6,168
5,813
4,932
5,123
5,056
4,991
5,693


16,121
18,078
22,522
23,848
22,806
21,378
16,756
23,791
20,115
32,442
44,645
45,238
44,211
42,307
43,877
49,379
73,415
72,795
64,668
70,655
76,851
81,950
83,354
80,823
73,649
69,262
71,161
87,674
98,147
105,678
105,296
95,405
88,206
92,267
135,168
157,388
176,616
162,885
159,692
153,677
149,227
152,288
173,538


I I


on I


104
33
34
30
13
58
22
34
74
85
182
114
74
76
132
167
131
98
173
416
234
371
698
524
456
379
959
683
391
406
369
772
578
1,366
2,158
1,421
1,180
1,121
1,623
1,329
1,422
1,271
1,053










Entomology Section

H. A. DENMARK, Chief Entomologist
The duties of the Entomology Section are (1) to provide an
arthropod identification service for the Division of Plant In-
dustry, for the United States Department of Agriculture in re-
gard to the insect pest survey, foreign pest detection, and all
other surveys excluding joint control or eradication programs
(imported fire ant, leafhoppers and planthoppers in connection
with the hoja blanca disease of rice, pink bollworm, sweetpotato
weevil, and white-fringed beetle) being conducted in the state;
(2) to conduct limited investigations of certain economic prob-
lems not being pursued by the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Stations; (3) to assist in instruction of plant inspectors in the
detection of agricultural pests; (4) to build a general collection
of insects and related groups; and (5) to describe new species
found in the above surveys and evaluate existing works. It is
important to show relationships by placing the species in the
correct genus and publishing the results in a scientific journal.
The identification services have been extended through the vari-
ous surveys to include all arthropods except aquatic crustacea
which occur in Florida, other Southeastern States, the Bahama
Islands, the West Indies, and coastal land areas around the Gulf
of Mexico.
Identifications of the various arthropod groups are made by
five full-time entomologists. The entomologists and the groups
for which they are responsible are as follows:
G. W. Dekle: Scales, mealybugs, and all immature stages.
H. A. Denmark: Aphids, ants, mites, thrips, and ticks.
F. W. Mead: Adult Lepidoptera; Diptera, suborder Nematocera:
examples-midges, sandflies, mosquitoes, craneflies, gall midges,
etc.; Hemiptera; Homoptera: Psyllidae, plus suborder Auchenor-
hyncha, examples of which are leafhoppers, planthoppers, spittle-
bugs, treehoppers, and cicadas.
H. V. Weems, Jr.: Adult higher Diptera (suborder Brachycera), white-
flies, Hymenoptera, Arachnida (except Acarina), and miscellane-
ous smaller arthropod groups.
R. E. Woodruff: Adult Coleoptera and Orthoptera.
In addition to the five full-time entomologists, S. V. Fuller
curates the adult Lepidoptera half-time. L. J. Bottimer of Kerr-
ville, Texas, left the Entomology Section August 30, 1960, after
three months of work on the Bruchidae of Florida to be pub-
lished in the future. Frank W. Mead returned on September
1, 1960, as Entomologist after a two-year leave of absence.







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


The Florida State Collection of Arthropods consists of ap-
proximately 237,000 pinned and labeled specimens (including
15,000 Syrphidae and Conopidae in Dr. Weems' personal collec-
tion and 40,000 Scarabaeidae and Trogidae in Mr. Woodruff's
personal collection), housed in 950 insect boxes and 596 cabinet
drawers; 14,000 slide mounts; 3,500 vials containing several
thousand immature and adult arthropods, housed in 6 cabinets;
several thousand specimens stored in plastic envelopes; and an
undetermined quantity of surplus specimens housed in pillboxes.
This report does not include the arthropods in the University
of Florida collections, which were placed on an indefinite loan
in 1959 to the Entomology Section under the supervision of the
Chief Entomologist and curated by Dr. Weems. Mr. Denmark
and Dr. Weems have served as Associates in Arthropods with the
Florida State Museum which entails faculty status without pay
on the staff of the University of Florida since 1959. Mr. Wood-
ruff was appointed to an Associate position in 1962.
A second Zeiss phase-contrast compound microscope was pur-
chased to be used in identifying scale insects and a Bausch and
Lomb Dyna Zoom Compound microscope was purchased to be
used in identifying planthoppers and leafhoppers. Two 48-
drawer insect cabinets were purchased for the rapidly expand-
ing arthropod collection.

DEPARTMENTAL DUTIES
of
H. A. DENMARK, Chief Entomologist
Mr. Denmark is responsible for the administration of the
Entomology Section, securing grants to aid in the investigations
and publishing of the results in separates or scientific journals,
and promotion of the section's activities through the media of
pamphlets, slide talks, and movies.
Also, Mr. Denmark is responsible for the identification and
curating of the aphids, ants, mites, thrips, and ticks.

NEW MITES TO FLORIDA
Aculus pelekassi Keifer
In March and June 1961, collections of citrus rust mite,
Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm.), were taken by Dr. A. K. Bur-
ditt, Jr., on a calamondin tree and a variegated lemon tree at







Division of Plant Industry


the United States Department of Agriculture Horticultural Field
Station, 2120 Camden Road, Orlando. These mites were main-
tained on Murcott honey orange seedlings in cages in an air-
conditioned greenhouse at the Orlando Horticultural Field Sta-
tion through the spring of 1962.
During the late summer and fall of 1961, numerous off-color
"pink" mites were observed in the colony. Off-color mites in the
field have been observed and reported as diseased by Speare and
Others (1924) and other workers since then.1 Further studies
by Dr. Burditt showed that a colony of these mites would re-
produce pink mites. He also observed that leaf distortion re-
sulted from large populations of the pink citrus rust mites, but
not from similar populations of citrus rust mites. This mite
was identified by Mr. H. H. Keifer on March 28, 1962, as Aculus
pelekassi Keifer. Mr. Keifer described this mite in 1959 from
specimens infesting citrus sent to him earlier by Dr. C. D. Pele-
kassis from Greece.
A. pelekassi was found by Dr. Burditt on April 2 and by
Messrs. H. A. Denmark, G. W. Dekle, and L. W. Holley on April
3 at the United States Department of Agriculture Lake County
Foundation Planting. A spray program for the eradication of
this mite was recommended by Dr. Roger Johnson of the Uni-
versity of Florida Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred. A
combination spray of five pounds of wettable sulfur and one pint
of 25 per cent emulsifiable chlorobenzilate per 100 gallons of
water. Trees, and under the canopy of the trees, were sprayed
every seven days for three applications and once every 30 days
for three applications.
Surveys have been made by A. E. Graham in Region I;
L. W. Holley, W. P. Henderson, A. C. Crews, John R. Hey, H. M.
Van Pelt, R. J. Griffith, G. W. Dekle, and H. A. Denmark in
Region II; J. C. Denmark, G. P. Lamb, J. W. Shirah, V. K. Nor-
ton, and H. A. Denmark in Region III; E. W. Campbell and
C. F. Dowling, Jr. in Region IV; and L. B. Hill and J. C. Sellers
in Region V in groves planted in its entirety or in part contain-
ing trees from the Orlando Horticultural Field Station.
On June 27 specimens of the pink citrus rust mite were col-
lected on Parson Brown nursery stock by A. E. Graham at Elec-
tra. The leaves were badly distorted by this mite. Citrus rust
mite populations were very low during the spring of 1962. Due

1 Spears, A. T., and W. W. Others. 1924. Is there an entomogenous
fungus attacking the citrus rust mite in Florida. Science 60(1541): 41-42.







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


to the Medfly infestation, inspections for citrus rust mites in
most parts of the state were temporarily discontinued. Another
infestation was found at Macclenny after the close of this bi-
ennium by H. W. Collins, Jr. The known distribution of this
mite is Greece, Italy, Japan, Siam, and Sicily. It is considered
a serious pest in some of these countries.

Aceria neocynodonis Keifer

An eriophyid, Aceria neocynodonis Keifer, was found for
the first time in Florida on April 18, 1962, at Patrick Air Force
Base by R. Lagasse. This also constitutes the first record in
the eastern United States and it was previously recorded from
California, Nevada, and Arizona. In Florida it is known only
from Patrick Air Force Base (Cocoa Beach), but probably oc-
curs elsewhere. The species is a pest of Bermuda grass where
it feeds in the terminal leaf sheaths causing stunting-a witches-
broom effect-and general decline of the grass. In Arizona a
fungus, Helminthosporium, was always found associated with
heavy mite damage and probably contributed to the decline of
the grass. At Patrick Air Force Base it is causing considerable
damage to Bermuda grass in a 50,000-acre area. Dr. S. H. Kerr
of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, has
contacted the Florida golf course superintendents and asked
that they forward all samples of grass suspected of being in-
fested with mites to the Entomology Section of the Division of
Plant Industry for identification.

Special Projects:
1. Population study of the litter infesting mites of the sand scrub
areas of Florida.
2. Collecting mites and information for future publications on mites
of Florida.
3. Evaluating light trap designs for catching insects.
4. The Phytoseiidae of Florida with Martin H. Muma and D. DeLeon.
5. The mites of Florida (long range).
6. Identifying ants found in stomachs of the armadillo in Florida (in
connection with a graduate student at the University of Florida).
7. The synecological study of the effects of the imported fire ant,
Solenopsis saevissima (F. Smith), is being continued in cooperation
with the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station and the Florida
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission. The purpose of this proj-
ect is to secure reliable quantitative data on the effects of the import-
ed fire ant and the eradication and control program on the endemic
biota of the treated areas. These data are expected to be useful in
future eradication programs. The first in a series of reports has
been prepared by W. C. Rhoades, Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station, Quincy, on the alcohol pitfall as one method of measuring
the effects of insecticides on ground inhabiting arthropods.







Division of Plant Industry


DEPARTMENTAL DUTIES
of
G. W. DEKLE, Entomologist
Mr. Dekle is responsible for the identification and curating
of all immature insects, scales, and mealybugs. He is also re-
sponsible for any insecticidal recommendations made by the Di-
vision of Plant Industry not available from the Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Stations.

New Scale and Mealybug Insects to Florida
A mealybug, Eriococcus coccineus Cockerell
A mealybug was collected on cactus, Opuntia sp., in Winter
Garden by Plant Inspector R. J. Griffith. The infested cactus
was shipped into Florida from California. We have two previ-
ous records of this mealybug being collected in Florida. The
first record from Miami in 1957 was questioned; the second col-
lection was made by Plant Inspectors R. R. Snell and A. E. Gra-
ham at a nursery in Lakeland. This mealybug apparently is not
established in Florida and every effort should be made to keep
it out. The mealybug has been reported on cactus in Nebraska,
California, and Mexico.

A hand-grenade scale, Cerococcus sp.
A soft scale resembling a hand-grenade (Figs. 1 and 2) has
been collected in Miami on Hibiscus sp. and Acalypha sp. by
Assistant County Agent L. J. Daigle and Plant Inspector R. T.
McMillan. The scale represents a genus never before recorded
from Florida. Mounted slides are now being studied by Dr.
Harold Morrison, Specialist, U. S. National Museum, Washing-
ton, D. C. This insect is found on the trunk and stem of its
host. It has been found at only one location in Miami. The
economic importance of this scale is unknown; however, eco-
nomic species within the genus are known to occur in the United
States. One such species, Cerococcus quercus Comstock, attacks
hardwoods on the Pacific coast.

Diffinis scale, Aspidiotus (= Hemiberlesia) diffinis (Newstead)
This armored scale was collected by Plant Inspector A. E.
Graham on Mimosa sp. at Williston in December 1961. The







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report 75


Fig. 1.-A hand-grenade scale enlarged 12 times. Female on Hibiscus sp.



L. "3& -^l-^


Fig. 2.-A hand-grenade scale enlarged 12 times. Male on Hibiscus sp.


r;_
~L. X







Division of Plant Industry


scale is found on the bark of its host. The scale has been re-
ported from British Guiana, Canada, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico,
San Salvador, and the United States. Dr. Gordon F. Ferris (de-
ceased) considered the scale a native species of North America
even though it was first described from South America. He
identified the range as eastern United States through Mexico
into northern South America. Recorded hosts are: Celtis sp.,
Cornus sp., Fabena sp., Ficus carica, Jatropha sp., Liriodendron
tulipifera, Magnolia sp., Mammea sp., Psidium sp., Spondias sp.,
Tilia americana, and Ulmus sp. The economic importance of
this armored scale is unknown.

Camellia mining scale, Pseudaonidia clavigera (Cockerell)
Camellia mining scale (Fig. 3) was collected for the first
time in continental United States at St. Petersburg on Camellia
sasanqua by Assistant County Agent Gil M. Whitton, Jr. of
Pinellas County. Since the first collection it has now been found
at 71 locations on the Pinellas peninsular, all occurring in the
vicinity of St. Petersburg. In Florida it has been found on the
following hosts: custard apple (Annona sp.), Camellia japonica
L., C. sasanqua, coffee (Coffea sp.), Australian bush cherry (Eu-
genia paniculata Banks), Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.),
Ficus benjamin exotica, F. repens, a loquat (Fortunella sp.),
Gardenia sp., holly (Ilex americana), Jasminum sambac Ait.,
Ligustrum japonicum Thunb., a macadamia nut (Macadamia
sp.), punk tree (Melaleuca leucadendron L.), an olive (Osman-
thus sp.), a guava (Psidium sp.), cherry laurel (Prunus caro-
liniana (Mill.) Ait.), Pyracantha sp., an oak (Quercus sp.), an
azalea (Rhododendron sp.), Chinese box-orange (Severinia bux-
ifolia Ten.), Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, tea (Thea sinensis
L.), a glory-bush (Tibouchina sp.), Caesar's weed (Urena lo-
bata), Viburnum suspensum Ten., and Viburnum sp.
Mounted slide material of the above hosts has been placed in
The Florida State Collection of Arthropods in Gainesville. Also,
specimens are on file from the original collection at the U. S.
National Museum in Washington, D. C.
Camellia mining scale has frequently been intercepted from
Hawaii by plant quarantine inspectors at California ports of
entry. Other distribution records found in the literature include
Seychelles, Union of South Africa, Java, Japan, Canal Zone,
Tiwan, and Guam.






Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report





,L4
"- .ji^ ,


Fig. 3.-Camellia mining scale enlarged 15 times. Arrow indicates
where scale armor has been removed.


Fig. 4.-Plant Inspector C. E. Bingaman making observations on
damage to Camellia sasanqua by camellia mining scale.







78 Division of Plant Industry

The Plant Inspection Section conducted a preliminary survey
for camellia mining scale in Florida and also established spray
tests in Region V under the supervision of Lester B. Hill, Re-
gional Inspector, to evaluate the scalicides recommended by the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. Evaluation of spray
tests have not been completed at this time.
Field observations on this scale have revealed it to be bur-
rowing in habit (Fig. 4). The female buries herself completely
under the epidermal layer of the twigs, branches, and trunk of
the plant she infests. Except for the bronze color of the first
exuviae the armor is concealed beneath the epidermis.


1t


Fig. 5.-Terminal dieback-common on camellias infested with
camellia mining scale.








Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


The scale is about 2 mm in diameter, slightly convex, the
exuviae marginal or sub-marginal; this can be observed only
when viewing the scale from the underside of its armor. The
scale appears slightly raised or as a "blister" on the bark (Fig.
5). When the scale is removed from the host, a white circular
spot on the bark is visible to the unaided eye.
The scale may be confused with peony scale, Pseudaonidia
paeoniae (Cockerell); camphor scale, Pseudaonidia duplex
(Cockerell), and tesserata scale, Duplaspidiotus tesserata (de
Charmoy). The highly convex armor of the above scales sep-
arates them from camellia mining scale which has a slightly con-
vex covering.


Summary of camellia mining scale project:


Hours spent preparing slide mounts .......................
Number of slide mounts prepared (205 camellia mining;
Hours spent on identifications......................... ..
Number of identifications made........ --..-....................----
Man hours spent on survey in Region V 2.......................
Man hours spent surveying other regions.....................
Properties inspected in Region V for this scale...............
Residencies ................. .... ............ .....
N nurseries ---.. ........... -- ----------- --------- --------
Number properties found infested in Region V..................
Parks and residencies... ------.............. ......--..
Nurseries ............------ ....... ------ ------------
Number properties found infested in other regions .........
Man hours spent on spraying................. ..... .....
Properties sprayed ..........--------
Residencies ..........
N nurseries ............... ...- ......
Number host records for Florida.......................- .. .
Amount of spray concentrate used
Ethion.................. 7.
O il ....................................... ....--- ---- ....... 15
C ygon ............................................ ...... ---- .. ---- 2


...... .. 80
95 other)...... 300
.. 12
------...-..... .... 170
------ 2170
...........-.... 244

..... 245
1-- 75
-------- 170
----.....------ 56
.-... 46
-------- 10
........... .. 76
---- 21
......- 12
---.---- 9
- ---------- 27

/2 pints
quarts
pints


Longiloba scale, Chionaspis longiloba Cooley

Longiloba scale is the proposed common name for Chionaspis
longiloba Cooley. The armored scale has been collected on wil-
low, Salix sp., at Welaka, Putnam County, on May 6, 1961 by
G. W. Dekle and Orange Lake, Marion County, on December 15,
1961 by Plant Inspector A. E. Graham.
The female scale is oyster-shell shaped and about the same
color as the bark. The males are smaller than the females, white,

2 This does not represent time spent by inspectors while making routine
nursery inspections.
3 One nursery destroyed infested plants rather than have the plants
sprayed.






80 Division of Plant Industry

and tricarinate. The scale can be distinguished from other spe-
cies of Chionaspis on willow when slide mounts are prepared.

Coniferus scale, Diaspidiotus coniferarum (Cockerell)
Coniferus scale is the proposed common name for Diaspidio-
tus coniferarum (Cockerell). The female scale is found on the
bark of small stems. It is concolorous with the bark or slightly
grayish. The armor is circular and flat; the exuivae is sub-
central.
The scale was collected on red cedar, Juniperus virginiana
L., at McIntosh, Marion County, by Plant Inspector A. E. Gra-
ham on February 14, 1962. All previous collection records are
from western United States.
The scale is not of economic importance in Florida.
Slide mounts of new scales have been deposited in the United
States National Museum in Washington, D. C. and The Florida
State Collection of Arthropods.

Leatherleaf fern borer,
(Pyraustidae) : Ambia near fulvitinctalis Hamp.
Leatherleaf fern growers continue to be plagued by the larva
of a small moth that feeds within the main stem of the frond.
Infestations have been found at Crescent City, Jacksonville,
Maitland, Orlando, and Zellwood areas.
Investigations and observations have been continued on the
life history of the moth and also on control and phytotoxicity of
various insecticides in cooperation with Dr. L. C. Kuitert, En-
tomologist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gaines-
ville.
Adult moths have been reared and sent to Hahn W. Capps,
Lepidopterous Specialist at the United States National Museum,
Washington, D. C., for a more comprehensive study. Capps
found only one species involved; dimorphism was responsible for
the pale male and dark female color forms.
Early instar larvae have been collected in the midvein near
the apex of tender fronds. The tough mature frond is not sub-
ject to attack by the borer. The small larva apparently enters
the midvein at the base of a leaflet, boring downward into the
petiole as it feeds. The larval stage requires about five to six
weeks; the pupal stage requires about two to three weeks. The







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


larva cuts a small exit hole in the petiole about two to three
inches above ground level, then pupates inside the petiole about
one to two inches below the exit hole.
An experiment to evaluate several insecticidal materials for
controlling the leatherleaf fern borer were initiated at Zellwood
in the spring of 1962. The infestation was considered serious
although there is no accepted method for evaluating the damage
at this time. The treatments, formulations, dosages, and ratings
of effectiveness are given below:

Amount Amount Control
Treatment Active Ingredient per 100 gals. Rating

Endrin 18.6% 1.6 lbs. 1 quart Good
Thiodan 24% 2.0 lbs. 1 quart Good
Zectran 22.5% 2.0 lbs. 1 quart Phytotoxic
SD 4402 7.5 lbs. 1 pint Fair
Check-


Special Projects:
1. Progress is continuing on the Handbook of Armored Scale Insects
of Florida. The host list for most of the species found in Florida
is nearing completion and over half of the descriptions of species
found in Florida have been completed. During this study, a new
species Chionaspis longiloba Cooley was found in the state; also,
Phenacaspis natalensis Ckll. was clearly demonstrated to be a
synonym of P. cockerelli Cooley, based on the publication by the
late G. F. Ferris, "The Genus Phenacaspis Cooley and Cockerelli.
Part I," Microentomology 20 (3): 41-88, August 1955.
2. Identifications of immature insects found in stomach contents of
the armadillo in Florida (in connection with a graduate student at
the University of Florida).

Job Related Activities:
1. Mr. Dekle was appointed Chairman of the Exhibits Committee for
the national meeting of the Entomological Society of America held
in Miami in November 1961.

Plastic Embedding
Since March 1962 Division of Plant Industry Plant Inspectors
have been issued 130 Mediterranean fruit fly mounts and 626
plastic mounts of other insects of major importance to agricul-
ture for field identification. Cooperating agencies have been
issued 60 plastic Medfly mounts.
During the year, 511 specimens, representing 78 species,
were embedded for county agricultural agents in the Florida
Agricultural Extension Service's District II. Plastic supplies for
this project were provided by the counties requesting this service.







Division of Plant Industry


In the biennium, 3,828 specimens were embedded in plastic.
Errol Fielding resigned from the Division in February 1962. His
duties were assumed by Plant Inspector Don E. Stokes of Tampa,
who transferred to Gainesville for graduate work at the Univer-
sity of Florida.


DEPARTMENTAL DUTIES
of

F. W. MEAD, Entomologist
Mr. Mead is responsible for the identification and curating
of the adult Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, the suborders
Auchenorhyncha (planthoppers, leafhoppers, treehoppers, and
spittlebugs), and Nematocera (the lower Diptera). This past
biennium Mr. Mead returned from a leave of absence during
which he attended North Carolina State College. He has com-
pleted all requirements for the Ph.D. except the dissertation.

Special Projects:
1. Identification of leafhoppers is nearly completed in assisting Mr.
W. G. Genung of the Everglades Experiment Station at Belle
Glade on a project involving leafhoppers on five kinds of pasture
grasses at Belle Glade.
2. Systematic and photographic support of the special publication in
preparation by Mr. C. P. Kimball on The Lepidoptera of Florida.
3. Assistance has been given to experiment stations and field men on
the identification and available life history data in our files on
"sharpshooter" leafhoppers. These insects have been incriminated
as vectors of such diseases as phony peach and Pierce's disease of
grapes, and are currently of interest to research workers in Florida
as possible vectors in citrus diseases.
4. Preparation of insect displays for the Division of Plant Industry
regional offices.
5. Taxonomic revision of the genus Oliarus (Homoptera: Cixiidae)
in the Western Hemisphere.
6. Leafhoppers and planthoppers on the Bivans Arm turf plots in
Gainesville.
7. Identification of pertinent economic species of adult Lepidoptera
from regularly operated blacklight traps in Gainesville, Quincy,
and Monticello. The latter trap was discontinued in the summer
of 1961.
8. Occasional assistance to the Section on insect photography.
9. Special attention such as collection, identification, and life history
data is being given to the leafhoppers, planthoppers, and such re-
lated forms which are known or potential vectors of viruses caus-
ing plant diseases.
10. Exchanges of reference material to make the reference collection
more complete. This will materially aid in making a higher per-
centage of complete determinations and making these faster. It
also provides additional material for taxonomic research.







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


11. Collecting of auchenorhynchus Homoptera and literature thereon
for future publications, particularly in relation to the Florida
fauna.
12. Study of Metaphalara ilicis (Ashmead), a psyllid that makes galls
on yaupon, Ilex vomitoria. Cooperative project with Miss Louise
Russell of the United States National Museum.
13. Seasonal abundance of giant water bugs as discerned from light
trap captures from several localities in Florida.

Job Related Activities:
1. Mr. Mead served on the Photo Salon Committee of the Entomologi-
cal Society of America for the 1961 annual meeting at Miami.


DEPARTMENTAL DUTIES

of

R. E. WOODRUFF, Entomologist

Mr. Woodruff is responsible for identifying and curating of
the Coleoptera and Orthoptera. He is also responsible for the
insect pest survey that is a cooperative program of the Division
of Plant Industry and the United States Department of Agricul-
ture. The entire entomology staff of the Division of Plant In-
dustry cooperates with Mr. Woodruff in identifying arthropods
in their groups and assisting in special surveys.

Cuban May beetle, Phyllophaga bruneri Chapin
This Cuban species was first found in the United States at
Miami in June 1959. Since that time it has spread over ap-
proximately 20 square miles in Dade County, extending from
North Miami to Perrine. Delimiting surveys are being con-
ducted by using blacklight traps, and as many as 3,000 adults
have been taken in a single trap operated one night. There are
two population peaks during the year, indicating probable mul-
tiple generations. Adults have now been found every month,
but they are scarce in January, February, and March. Ten new
host plants were recorded during this biennium.
Preliminary insecticidal tests were conducted during 1960-61
with little success. In late 1961 insecticide tests were turned
over to the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion at Homestead under the direction of Dr. D. O. Wolfenbarger.
Tests and surveys are being conducted in the Miami area in order
to keep this foreign pest under surveillance.








Division of Plant Industry


Special Projects:
1. Improving economic insect survey techniques, cooperation, and
reporting.
2. Screening light trap samples from eight localities for detection,
especially for European chafer and Cuban May beetle.
3. Identification of stored grain beetles for khapra beetle survey
being conducted jointly by the Division of Plant Industry and the
United States Department of Agriculture.
4. Preparation of a catalogue of the Scarabaeidae of the United States
and Canada.
5. Compilation of seasonal data on the Scarabaeidae collected at a
blacklight at Gainesville.
6. Review of the species of Polyphylla in the eastern United States.
7. Notes on some foreign Coleoptera recently discovered in Florida.
8. Description of a new species of Phyllophaga from central Florida.
9. Review of the genus Euparixia, with description of a new species
from Louisiana.
10. Additional records of insects associated with the gopher tortoise
in Florida.
11. Description of a new species of Psammodius from North Carolina.
12. Notes on the distribution and ecology of some rare Florida Scar-
abaeidae.
13. Description of a long-horned beetle with three antennae.
14. Some interesting records of Florida Coleoptera (Chelonariidae,
Cicindelidae, etc.).
15. Description of two new species of Cyclocephala from Florida.
16. Some insects associated with the pitcher plant, Sarracenia minor,
in Florida.
17. Notes on the habits of Polyphylla pubescens Cartw., with descrip-
tion of the larva.
18. Phyllophaga (Cnemarachis) young Cartw. at Miami, with de-
scription of the larva.
19. Some arthropods from the nests of the pack rat, Neotoma floridana
small, at Key Largo.
20. Descriptions of the immature stages of Pyrophorus havaniensis,
a predator on white grubs in Miami.
21. Comparative morphology of female genitalia in the family Scara-
baeidae.
22. The Scarabaeidae of Florida (long range project).
23. Coleoptera found in stomachs of the armadillo in Florida (in con-
nection with a graduate student at the University of Florida).
24. Stridulation in beetles of the genus Trox (collaborating with Dr.
R. D. Alexander, University of Michigan).
25. Neoblatella detersa, a West Indian roach recently found in Miami
(in collaboration with Dr. A. B. Gurney, U. S. National Museum).
26. An interesting japygid from a Florida cave (in collaboration with
Dr. L. M. Smith, University of California).
27. Descriptions of the larvae of some North American Trox (in col-
laboration with Dr. P. O. Ritcher, Oregon State University).
28. Special study of biology, ecology, and control of Cuban May beetle
in Miami (with Plant Inspectors in that district).
29. A report on some fossil insects from Trinidad.







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


DEPARTMENTAL DUTIES
of

H. V. WEEMS, JR., Entomologist

Dr. Weems is responsible for the identification of higher
Diptera (Suborder Brachycera), Hymenoptera (except Formici-
dae), Neuroptera, Mecoptera, Dermaptera, Odonata, Trichoptera,
all of the smaller orders of insects (except Thysanoptera), and all
of the miscellaneous arthropods other than insects (except Ac-
arina). He is head curator of The Florida State Collection of
Arthropods of the Division of Plant Industry and the arthropod
portion of the University of Florida collections.
Continued progress was made during this biennium in the
development of a well balanced arthropod collection which in-
cludes substantial representation of the smaller orders of insects
and some of the small and relatively obscure groups of arthro-
pods other than insects. Emphasis is placed on arthropods, ex-
cluding aquatic Crustacea, which occur in Florida, other south-
eastern states, the Bahama Islands, the West Indies, and the
coastal land areas around the Gulf of Mexico. A special effort
is being made to obtain representatives of the principal insect
pests occurring in other parts of the world which constitute a
potential threat to Florida agriculture. Collections in the groups
on which members of the section are conducting broad taxonomic
studies are being developed on a world-wide basis.
This collection, now officially known as The Florida State
Collection of Arthropods, constitutes the principal arthropod col-
lection in Florida. In conjunction with this collection, the ar-
thropod portion of the University of Florida collections, admin-
istered by the Florida State Museum, has been placed on indefi-
nite loan to the Entomology Section, Division of Plant Industry.
The result of this cooperative effort is that taxonomic specialists
of the Florida Department of Agriculture and the University of
Florida are developing the portions of the collections in their
respective groups.
In addition to several thousand specimens collected during
the biennium by staff members and by State and Federal inspec-
tors, the following contributions were received:
Dr. and Mrs. Oliver Austin (Fla. State Museum)
Small assortment of insects collected in the Dry Tortugas Islands, mostly
Mallophaga collected on Bubulcus ibis.
Dr. Richard M. Baranowski (Univ. of Fla. Subtropical Exp. Sta.)
60 adult trypetid fruit flies, Anastrepha interrupt Stone; 63 larvae and







86 Division of Plant Industry

30 pupae of this species, reared from fruit of Schoepfia chrysophylloides;
small collection of miscellaneous arthropods collected by Dr. Baranowski
in Junk Hammock, Everglades National Park, using Berlese funnels.
Mr. William Beck, Jr., Biologist (Fla. State Board of Health, Jacksonville)
756 vials of Trichoptera, almost all immatures and many with their
larval cases, that he had collected in Florida, extreme southern Ala-
bama, and southern Georgia; 98 vials of Coleoptera, mostly water bee-
tles.
Mr. Charles A. Bennett (Miami, Fla.)
Small collection of unmounted insects collected at Blue Ridge, Ga. in
1961.
Dr. Lewis Berner (Univ. of Fla.)
Small collection of unmounted insects collected by Dr. Berner in Africa.
Dr. Frank S. Blanton (Univ. of Fla.)
Small collection of unmounted insects collected in a light trap by Dr.
Blanton in the Canal Zone, Panama.
Dr. Robert L. Blickle (Univ. of New Hampshire)
27 vials of Trichoptera (225 specimens representing 22 species and sub-
species of male Hydroptilidae); 10 adult male Strepsiptera (Triozocera
mexicana Pierce) ; 14 pinned, labeled and identified Tabanidae, including
our first male of Tabanus nudus McD., our first female of Tabanus
atratus fulvopilosus Johnson, our first females of Tabanus aurilimbus
Stone, and our first male and female of Tabanus viviax 0. S.; 10 page
list of Tabanidae collected in Florida by Dr. Blickle, giving full collec-
tion data.
Dr. Donald J. Borror (Ohio State Univ.)
17 Culicidae, representing 3 species; 5 Oliarus (Homoptera), represent-
ing 2 species; 2 Coniopterigidae (Neuroptera), representing 1 species.
Mr. Don Bryne (Tampa, Fla.)
Collection of a little more than 100 specimens of miscellaneous exotic
arthropods, mostly Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Scorpionida.
Mr. Horace R. Burke (Texas A. & M. College)
Paratypes of 7 species of Phyllophaga from Texas.
Dr. B. D. Burks (U. S. National Museum)
Last instar larva and an adult male and female of the seagrape saw-
fly, Sericocera krugii (Cresson), taken in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
Dr. George W. Byers (Univ. of Kansas)
Paratype in Delphacidae (Homoptera); one vial of the mosquito, Man-
sonia perturbans.
Mr. Kenneth J. Capelle (Sacramento, Calif.)
225 pinned and labeled Syrphidae.
Mr. Reuben Capelouto (Tallahassee, Fla.)
176 papered lots of beetles identified by Mr. C. A. Frost; 17 pinned
Buprestidae from Arizona collected and identified by Mr. Joe N. Knull.
Dr. Nell B. Causey (Fayetteville, Ark.)
Several vials of millipedes, including two species new to The Florida
State Collection of Arthropods.
Dr. Kenneth W. Cooper (Dartmouth Medical School)
2 specimens of a remarkable little colydiid beetle, wholly blind, recently
discovered in the USA, known but not common in Europe; 2 Byrrhidae,
the first representatives of this family of beetle for The Florida State
Collection of Arthropods; 7 adults of the curious little snow scorpionfly,
Boreus nivoriundus Fitch.
Dr. Frank C. Craighead (Homestead, Fla.)
Small assortment of unmounted flies, beetles, spiders, and other arthro-
pods, collected in the Everglades National Park.








Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


Dr. Ralph W. Dawson (Washington State Univ.)
16 Tabanidae, including our first female of Tabanus illotus 0. S. and
our first male of Tabanus superjumentarius Whitney; our first male
and female of Phyllophaga nitida LeConte; our first specimens of Bon-
bus rufocinctus prunellae Ckll. & Porter; 4 Syrphidae; 12 Scarabaeidae,
including 4 paratypes.
Dr. D. M. DeLong (Ohio State Univ.)
3 species of Graminella leafhoppers, comprising 3 species, one of them
a paratype, from Dr. DeLong's personal collection.
Mr. Byrd K. Dozier (Miami Springs, Fla.)
19 pinned and labeled grasshoppers, representing 10 species; 183 Cole-
optera, mostly Scarabaeidae; 5 Cicadas.
Mr. Martin Dickinson (Gainesville. Fla.)
476 unmounted arthropods collected on New Providence Island, British
West Indies, during summer of 1961.
Mr. Peter C. Drummond (Univ. of Fla.)
Representatives of 4 species of terrestrial Isopoda which occur in Flor-
ida. The Florida State Collection of Arthropods now contains repre-
sentatives of 22 of the 26 species of terrestrial Isopoda known to occur
in Florida.
Mr. Bernard Ebel (Southeastern Forest Exper. Station, USDA, Olustee,
Fla.)
8 Lepidopsallus australis Blatchley (Miridae) new to our collection.
Dr. George R. Ferguson (Scarsdale, N. Y.)
8 specimens of Cerceris (Sphecidae), representing several species.
Mr. William G. Genung (Univ. of Fla. Everglades Exp. Sta., Belle Glade)
518 pinned and labeled insects, mostly Coleoptera, representing about
100 species. This included Mr. Genung's personal collection of Ceram-
bycidae, built over a period of nearly 20 years; also, it included 92 Phyl-
lophaga, mostly specimens left in the station collection by Dr. Walter
H. Thames, which specimens Dr. Thames had received as a gift from
Mr. P. W. Fattig, late museum curator at Emory University.
Dr. William W. Gibson (Northeast Louisiana State College, Munroe, La.)
50 Louisiana Phyllophaga.
Mrs. Florence M. Grimshawe (Miami, Fla.)
2 males of Papilio aristodenms ponceanus Schaus.
Dr. Ashley B. Gurney (Smithsonian Institution)
12 specimens of Dermaptera, representing 7 species, 3 of which were
new to the Florida state collection, the others representing species of
which the Florida collection had only one or two specimens. The Florida
State Collection of Arthropods now contains representatives of 17 of
the 20 species of Dermaptera known to occur in North America north
of Mexico.
Dr. Fred C. Harmston (Greeley, Colo.)
189 Syrphidae, 50 Dolichopodidae, and 1 muscoid fly, pinned and labeled,
which Dr. Harmston had collected in Nebraska, Wyoming, Colorado,
Idaho, and Utah.
Dr. Emmett D. Harris (Univ. of Fla. Everglades Exp. Sta., Belle Glade)
47 unmounted elaterid beetles, samples taken from tanglefoot traps
operated over field test plots at the experiment station.
Mr. Jacques R. Helfer (Mendocino, Calif.)
201 western and southwestern United States Orthoptera, representing
85 species, most of which are new to the Florida state collection.
Dr. Lawrence A. Hetrick (Univ. of Fla.)
68 pinned, labeled, and identified Lepidoptera, representing 63 species:
3 adults of the maple callus borer, Sylvora acerni buscki Engel. (Aege-
riidae).







Division of Plant Industry


Mr. Calvin M. Jones (Lincoln, Nebraska)
7 pinned, labeled specimens of the face fly, Musca autumnalis DeGeer.
Dr. George F. Knowlton (Logan, Utah)
Many thousands of unmounted Utah insects collected during 1960-62;
67 slide mounts of aphids.
Prof. Joseph N. Knull (Ohio State Univ.)
234 pinned and labeled insects, mostly Coleoptera; 1,000 pinned, labeled,
and identified Homoptera, representing 14 species.
Dr. Louis C. Kuitert (Univ. of Fla.)
63 pinned, labeled, and identified Lepidoptera, representing 49 species,
from the collection of the Department of Entomology, Agricultural Ex-
periment Station, University of Florida.
Dr. James N. Layne (Univ. of Fla.)
Slide-mounted paratypes of 5 males and 5 females of the recently de-
scribed flea, Polygenis floridanus Johnson and Layne, an ectoparasite
of the Florida deer mouse.
Mr. Paul M. Marsh (Univ. of California, Davis, Calif.)
9 specimens of Cremnops (Braconidae), representing males and females
of 3 species, 2 of which were new to the Florida state collection.
Dr. Charles H. Martin (Oregon State College)
19 Asilidae, representing 11 species, 8 of these new to the Florida state
collection.
Mr. John W. McReynolds (Nevada, Mo.)
26 pinned Syrphidae collected by Mr. McReynolds in Missouri; small
collection of unmounted Coleoptera.
Dr. Charles D. Michener (Univ. of Kansas)
Male of Nomia melanderi melanderi Ckll., male and female of N. tetra-
zonata tetrazonata Ckll., and male of N. tetrazonata uvaldensis Ckll.
Mr. George W. Miskimen (U. S. Department of Agriculture Experiment
Station, Christiansted, St. Croix, Virgin Islands)
175 Coleoptera, mostly Cantharidae, from his personal collection.
Dr. Edward L. Mockford (Illinois State Normal Univ.)
56 vials of identified Psocoptera; these were collections made by Dr.
Mockford in northwestern Florida and southern Alabama and Georgia,
representing 26 species of psocids.
Dr. Roger A. Morse (Cornell Univ.)
602 pinned and labeled insects, mostly Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenop-
tera, Homoptera, and Hemiptera, collected by Dr. Morse in New York,
Vermont, and New Hampshire.
Mr. John A. Mulrennan (Disease Vector Control Center, U. S. Naval Air
Station, Alameda, Calif.)
Several thousand unmounted insects taken in traps in California and
Nevada; 30 pinned and labeled California insects, mostly Syrphidae;
4 species of California mosquitoes, males and females of each, two of
which are new to the Florida state collection.
Dr. Martin H. Muma (Univ. of Fla. Citrus Exp. Sta., Lake Alfred)
30 vials of miscellaneous arthropods collected in various parts of Flor-
ida by Dr. Muma, using Berlese funnels.
Mr. Kenneth A. Noegel (Univ. of Fla.).
32 pinned and labeled insects from Florida and Guatemala.
Dr. J. M. Osorio (former Dean of the College of Agriculture, Univ. of Ha-
vana, Cuba, and now at Central Fla. Exp. Station, Sanford)
Approximately 120 unmounted Phyllophaga.
Mr. Dennis Paulson (Univ. of Miami)
200 papered beetles from Morocco; 100 beetles from Florida and Africa;
2 African Hippoboscidae; 183 pinned insects from Morocco; small un-
mounted assortment of 40 insects collected on Dry Tortugas Islands.








Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


Mr. William J. Platt, III (Gainesville, Fla.)
Small collection of arthropods collected in Michigan during 1961.
Dr. George W. Rawson (New Smyrna Beach)
Small assortment of approximately 65 insects collected on Dry Tortugas
Islands by Dr. Rawson and the late Mr. William M. Davidson.
Mr. James A. G. Rehn (Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia)
3 specimens of Dermaptera representing two species; our second speci-
men of Carcinophora americana (Beauv.) and two specimens of Labia
pilicornis (Motsch.), which is new to the Florida state collection.
Mr. David W. Ribble (Univ. of Kansas)
Female Nomia melanderi melanderi Ckll.
Dr. William B. Robertson, Jr. (Everglades National Park)
Small assortment of arthropods collected in the Dry Tortugas Islands,
mostly Mallophaga collected on Bubulcus ibis.
Dr. Herbert H. Ross (Illinois State Natural History Survey)
2 female and 2 male paratypes of a sawfly, Neodiprion merkeli Ross,
These were deposited in The Florida State Collection of Arthropods in
accordance with instructions which Dr. Ross received from Mr. E. P.
Merkel, U. S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southeastern
Forest Experiment Station, Olustee, Fla., who submitted the series from
which Dr. Ross described the new species.
Dr. Evert I. Schlinger (Univ. of California, Riverside)
4 specimens of Acroceridae, each representing a species new to the
Florida state collection.
Mr. Allen G. Selhime (U. S. Department of Agriculture Laboratory, Orlando)
1 specimen of each of the following Coccinellidae: Catana parcesetosa,
Chilomenes sexmaculata, Drumus suturalis, and Stethorus sp. These
are species which Mr. Selhime introduced into Florida and released for
biological control purposes.
Dr. Henry K. Townes (Univ. of Michigan)
23 Mecoptera, representing 13 species.
Dr. C. A. Triplehorn (Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooster)
9 Tenebrionidae representing a species new to our collection; 139 pinned
and labeled Scarabaeidae, mostly from the southwestern U. S.; 1
Spilmyia kahli Snow (Syrphidae).
Dr. P. H. vanDoesburg, Jr. (Paramaribo, Surinam, Dutch Guiana)
35 pinned, labeled Syrphidae collected in Surinam.
Dr. Thomas J. Walker (Univ. of Fla.)
54 pinned and labeled Syrphidae.
Mr. Gilbert P. Waldbauer (Univ. of Illinois)
12 specimens of the rarely collected little syrphid fly, Mesograpta (Tox-
omerus) jussiaeae Vige.
Mr. William W. Warner (Key West, Fla.)
Small collection of unmounted arthropods collected in the Florida Keys
during 1960-62.
Dr. Howard V. Weems, Jr. (Fla. Dept. of Agriculture)
4,868 pinned insects and 179 vials containing several hundred arthropods,
collected mostly in western Florida and in western North Carolina dur-
ing 1960-61.
Dr. Minter J. Westfall, Jr. (Univ. of Fla.)
Small collection of unmounted insects collected by Dr. Westfall in
Jamaica and the western U. S.
Mr. Robert E. Woodruff (Fla. Dept. of Agriculture)
1,684 pinned insects and 19 vials containing several dozen arthropods,
mostly taken in Ohio, Alabama, and Florida during 1960-62.







Division of Plant Industry


Mr. Charles F. Zeiger (Jacksonville, Fla.)
A large handsome, well-preserved bald-faced hornet's nest taken near
Jacksonville; male and female Florida specimens of the spring azure,
Celastrina argiolus pseudargiolus (B. & L.), rarely taken in Florida.

In addition to specimen donations received during this period,
a card file on publications relating to the Order Embioptera,
alphabetically arranged by authors, was received through the
courtesy of the United States National Museum and the United
States Department of Agriculture. This duplicate set of the
National Museum's files was prepared under the direction of
Dr. R. H. Foote, with approval from Dr. J. Gates Clarke.
Special acknowledgment is due Mr. William J. Platt, III, who
prepared a substantial number of neatly spread exotic Lepidop-
tera from papered specimens in the state collection. Mr. Stanley
V. Fuller of Cassadaga, a part-time staff member of the Division,
prepared several thousand Lepidoptera and made material prog-
ress in curating the Lepidoptera collection.
During this biennium Dr. Weems made two collecting trips
to western North Carolina, taking and processing nearly 5,000
arthropods which were donated to the Florida state collection.
In collaboration with Dr. Willis W. Wirth, United States Na-
tional Museum, and Dr. Yale Sedman, Western Illinois Univer-
sity, work was completed on the Syrphidae portion of the Cata-
logue of North American Diptera North of Mexico, soon to be
published. He reviewed and partially edited several manuscripts
submitted for publication in The Florida Entomologist.

Special Projects:
1. Project Leader, comprehensive survey of the terrestrial arthropods
of the Dry Tortugas Islands.
2. Taxanomic and ecological study of the scorpions of Florida (in col-
laboration with Dr. Martin H. Muma, University of Florida Citrus
Experiment Station).
3. Preparation of summary sheets on insect pests of major importance
to Division of Plant Industry work.
4. Taxonomic and ecological studies on Diptera, Family Syrphidae.

Job Related Activities:
1. Editor of special series of publications on the arthropods of Florida,
other southeastern states, the Bahama Islands, and the West Indies.
2. Advisor on research projects of a University of Florida student,
William J. Platt, III, (ecology and taxonomy of Florida millipedes
and centipedes), and a high school student, Guery Platt, (ecology,
biology, and taxonomy of gall producing arthropods in Florida).
Guery Platt's exhibit of cynipid galls and the insects which were
reared from them, including the causal agents and their parasites,
won a first place award in the regional science fair held in Gaines-
ville during 1961.







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


Survey of the Terrestrial Arthropods of the Dry Tortugas Islands
A comprehensive survey of the terrestrial arthropods of the
Dry Tortugas Islands was initiated in May 1961, when the sur-
vey team of Harold A. Denmark, Frank W. Mead, Robert E.
Woodruff, and Howard V. Weems, Jr. spent four days collecting
on the Tortugas Islands, with base of operations at historic old
Fort Jefferson, Garden Key. Members of the survey team were
appointed Collaborators of the Everglades National Park in
connection with this project. Primary objectives of the survey
are to determine what species of terrestrial arthropods occur
on the Tortugas, learn something of their seasonal distribution
and abundance, determine something about the relationship of
each species to its macro- and micro-habitats, arrive at some con-
clusions as to the origins of the species of arthropods found, and
consider what opportunities the Tortugas present as "stepping
stones" to the United States for arthropod pests from Central
and South America. These might include fruit flies which attack
citrus and other fruit crops, yellow fever mosquitoes, ticks and
lice which transmit various diseases which are transported on
their bird hosts, and several species of beetles which attack tim-
ber, stored food products, and crops. Findings of the survey
should provide a sound basis for predicting the degree of likeli-
hood that foreign pests might reach the continental United States
by way of the Tortugas. All of the species which occur there
have originated elsewhere and have reached the Tortugas through
flight, by being transported in various ways by humans, by be-
ing blown there by hurricane winds, by floating on drifting debris,
by hitching rides on birds, or by various other ways.
A series of trips to the Tortugas was planned to extend over
three to four years. The second of these was made by Dr.
Weems and Mr. Woodruff, accompanied by a collaborating cole-
opterist, Mr. Byrd Dozier, from August 31 to September 4, 1961.
A third trip was made by Mr. Denmark and Mr. Mead, accom-
panied by a collaborating homopterist, Dr. John Caldwell, from
January 9 to 15, 1962. A fourth trip was made by Dr. Weems
and Mr. Woodruff from May 29 to June 12, 1962. The intro-
ductory bulletin on the Tortugas survey now in preparation will
cover a part of the results of these trips.
Special acknowledgment is due the United States Coast Guard
and the Everglades National Park Service for providing trans-
portation to the Tortugas Islands from Key West and return,
and for providing lodging, local boat transportation, and other
facilities during each visit.







Division of Plant Industry


LIBRARY
MARGUERITE S. BATEY, Librarian
Statistics show that the library is growing in size, services,
and importance to the Division of Plant Industry. Staff mem-
bers are making more use of our facilities. Other libraries have
requested material on interlibrary loan. More volumes have been
sent to the bindery and more have been acquired by purchase,
gift, and exchange. More reference questions have been an-
swered. Continued effort is being made to catalog the library.
Extensive bibliographic work has been accomplished, especially
in connection with the research being done on Diptera.
During the biennium a "Review Board" was formed for the
purpose of reviewing all publications of the Division. The Re-
view Board consists of:
Dr. D. B. Creager (through May 31, 1962)
Mr. C. P. Seymour (from June 1, 1962)
Dr. E. B. Sledge
Mr. H. A. Denmark
Mr. P. E. Frierson
Mr. H. L. Jones
Mrs. M. S. Batey
Definite forms of style and procedure were set up by the Board.
Miss Elita Lovejoy was appointed publications editor until her
retirement May 31, 1962. Mrs. Jenise Milner was transferred
from the Entomology Section to fill this position.
One of the most important purchases of the biennium was
the thirty volume reference on Coleoptera, Coleopterorum Cata-
logus. Another important addition to the library was the Insecta
and Arachnida Section of Zoological Record. A complete set
of this valuable reference is one of our aims. We acquired 31
volumes of this by exchange of duplicate journals which were
gifts. By special arrangement, the library was able to purchase
69 miscellaneous volumes on entomology from the Academy of
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. This included many rare and
out of print titles.
The library continues to circulate periodicals and announce-
ments of new publications to interested persons. Also, lists of
new Agricultural Experiment Station and United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture publications are circulated and ordered on
request. An extensive effort has been made to complete and
bind sets of periodicals. Approximately two-thirds of the library
has now been cataloged. During the biennium, 5,964 publica-







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


tions were mailed out and 157 letters pertaining to bulletins were
answered.
Approximately 149 hours were devoted to correction of pa-
pers and publications written by staff members. The facilities
provided by the University of Florida Libraries were used ex-
tensively.
The plans for the future include a completely cataloged li-
brary with the main emphasis on service for the staff members.
The library would like to acknowledge and express apprecia-
tion for gifts from the following:

W. O. Ballentine (Orlando, Fla.)
1 book
Connecticut State Library
1 book
Florida Turf-Grass Association
6 books
Congressman D. R. (Billy) Matthews (Washington, D. C.)
3 books; 2 complete sets of topographic maps
Lee Ling (Chief, Crop Production and Protection Division, Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy)
1 book
H. E. Woodcock (4140 Lovegrove Road, Jacksonville 11, Fla.)
1 book; numerous reprints and periodicals on Lepidoptera

Summary
A. SERVICES
Reference questions answered ........................... ..... ... .......... 323
Translations of material in foreign languages ............................. 9
Interlibrary loan requests filled ............................ ...... ---- 176
Publications mailed ...... .................. ..- .... .............- 5,964
Hours devoted to correction of papers, etc. ...................................--.. 149
B. COLLECTION
Current size library
Bound volumes (approx.) of which
2,420 have been cataloged ......................... ............ ........ 3,569
Paper bulletin documents ....-....- .....--... ........ .... ---. 16,807
Paper bound documents ............................ ..-....... -------....... 1,173
Current periodicals received, including 75 paid
subscriptions, 112 gifts, 28 exchanges ..-...--..-....----.--. ....--- 215
Added material
New subscriptions .............................-----............... 22
New books, including 15 gifts ..............................--.....---... 397
C. ADDED EQUIPMENT
V ertical file cabinet ....... ................................... ............................. 1
Electric eraser ..................------------- ----........ ............................ 1
K ik-step stools ...................................-.......... .....- 2
Library charging tray ....................................... -- -----. 1






Division of Plant Industry


TRIPS
Messrs. Denmark, Dekle, and Dr. Weems attended the En-
tomological Society of America annual meetings in Atlantic
City, N. J., from November 27-November 30, 1960. Mr. Den-
mark and Dr. Weems visited the Academy of Natural Sciences at
Philadelphia and the United States National Museum at Wash-
ington, D. C. while on this trip, and Mr. Dekle visited the Plant
Quarantine Division Training Center at New York City and the
United States National Museum at Washington, D. C.
Messrs. Denmark, Dekle, Woodruff, and Dr. Weems attended
the 43rd annual meeting of the Florida Entomological Society
in Jacksonville, Florida, September 8-9, 1960.
From December 5-8, 1960, Mr. Woodruff attended the For-
estry Insect Work Conference in Macon, Georgia. He was also
at the Insect Detection Conference held in Winter Haven, Flor-
ida, March 7-8, 1961.
Mr. Dekle went to Mobile, Alabama, in January 1961 to at-
tend the Southeastern Branch meeting of the Entomological
Society of America.
Mr. Denmark attended the Southeastern Regional Imported
Fire Ant Research Project meeting at Auburn, Alabama, April
18-19, 1961.
On July 25, 1961, Mr. Dekle attended the Duval County Chap-
ter of the Florida Nursery Growers Association in Jacksonville,
Florida.
The annual Citrus Growers Institute at Camp McQuarrie
was attended by Mr. Denmark on August 8, 1961. Mr. Denmark
also attended the Imported Fire Ant Committee meeting in
Quincy, Florida, on October 19.
Mr. Dekle journeyed to Fayetteville, Arkansas, October 26-
27, 1961, to attend the Sixth Southern Forest Insect Work Con-
ference.
The annual Division of Plant Industry meeting, held jointly
with the Florida Horticultural Society annual meeting in Miami
Beach was attended by Messrs. Denmark, Dekle, and Woodruff,
October 30-November 2, 1961. Mr. Denmark spoke before the
Future Farmers of America at the Plant City High School on
November 21.
The Entomological Society of America's annual meeting held
in Miami, Florida, November 27-30, 1961, was attended by
Messrs. Dekle, Denmark, Mead, Woodruff, and Dr. Weems.







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


Mr. Denmark and Mr. Woodruff attended the Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture annual meeting in Tallahassee, December
4-5, 1961.
From January 23-25, 1962, Messrs. Dekle, Denmark, Mead,
Woodruff, and Dr. Weems were present at the Florida Entom-
ologists and Nematologists Annual Conference at Ft. Pierce,
Florida.
Mr. Denmark traveled to Ithaca, New York, to attend a sym-
posium on acarology at Cornell University, March 26-29, 1962.
Mrs. Batey attended the Annual Special Libraries Association
Convention, held in Washington, D. C., May 27-31, 1962. The
program included tours of all the important libraries in the area.

TALKS
Mr. Woodruff gave a paper on "Ecological Notes on the Fam-
ily Scarabaeidae" and discussed the Economic Insect Survey on
a panel discussion at the Florida Entomological Society meeting
in Jacksonville, September 8-9, 1960. At the Insect Detection
Conference in Winter Haven, March 7-8, 1961, he talked on
"The Florida Insect Survey."
During the summer of 1960, Dr. Weems gave two illustrated
talks on arthropods as part of a lecture series presented by the
Florida State Museum at Gainesville. An invitational paper on
"Florida Entomological Society Member Cooperation in the Na-
tional Science Program for Young People" was given at the
annual meeting of the Florida Entomological Society in Jackson-
ville on September 9, 1960, by Dr. Weems.
Mr. Dekle presented three one-hour lectures for Dr. F. S.
Blanton's Technique Class in the Department of Entomology at
the University of Florida, entitled "Plastic Embedding Procedures
for Invertebrates" during October 1960. In November 1960 he
presented a paper "Arthropods Collected in Fir Bark Potting Me-
dia" at the Orchid Short Course held at the University of Flor-
ida. "Orchid Insects Associated with Potting Media" was the
title of a talk given by Mr. Dekle at the Gainesville Orchid So-
ciety meeting in January 1961. In April 1961 he presented three
one-hour lectures on orchid insects and control for Dr. T. J.
Sheehan's Orchid Culture Class in the Department of Horticul-
ture at the University of Florida. At the Duval County Chapter
of the Florida Nursery Growers Association in Jacksonville on
July 25, 1961, Mr. Dekle spoke on "Turf Grass Insects." On
October 26, 1961, at the Sixth Southern Forest Insect Work







Division of Plant Industry


Conference in Fayetteville, Arkansas, Mr. Dekle gave a paper
entitled "Improved Technique for Embedding Insects in Plastic."
Mr. Denmark presented an invitational paper at the En-
tomological Society of America annual meeting in Atlantic City,
New Jersey, November 29, 1960, on "Recent Progress and Needs
in the Documentation of Our Insect Fauna." On November 21,
1961, Mr. Denmark presented a talk to the Future Farmers of
America at Plant City High School in Plant City, Florida, en-
titled "Insect Identification and Control for Citrus." At the En-
tomological Society of America annual meeting at Miami, Novem-
ber 27, 1961, Mr. Denmark presented a paper entitled "Evalua-
tion of a Blacklight trap" and was co-author with Dr. Martin
H. Muma on a paper entitled, "Intraspecific Variation in the Fam-
ily Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata)."
Mr. Mead was co-author with William G. Genung on a paper
presented at the Entomological Society of America annual meet-
ing at Miami on November 28, 1961, entitled "Leafhopper Differ-
entials of Five Pasture Grasses in the Everglades (Homoptera:
Cicadellidae)."









Plant Pathology Section


CARTER P. SEYMOUR, Chief Plant Pathologist

Transition has been the order of the day for this twenty-
fourth biennium. The Plant Pathology Section, in spite of a
number of personnel changes, continued to serve in a creditable
manner the Division's inspectors, nurserymen, and others re-
questing help. At the close of this biennium the section views
the future with confidence and proposes to further improve its
services.
TRANSITION
The Plant Pathology Section was shocked with the loss of
Mr. Joseph H. Bolick, Plant Pathologist of the Gainesville Lab-
oratory. Mr. Bolick succumbed to a heart attack on August 17,
1961, at the age of 32. He received his B.S. degree from Clemson
University in 1953 and his M.S. degree from the University of
Florida in 1956. He joined the State Plant Board in 1957 and
had made many friends both in the organization and in the nurs-
ery industry. Mr. A. P. Martinez, Plant Pathologist, was absent
from the section for several months during this biennium. Dr.
D. B. Creager left the Division to join the faculty of Jacksonville
University, Jacksonville, Florida, as Professor of Botany. Dr.
E. K. Sobers came to the organization from Northwestern State
College in Natchitoches, Louisiana, where he had been on the
teaching staff for 2 years. Dr. Sobers received the Ph.D. degree
from Louisiana State University in 1958. Carter P. Seymour,
formerly Head of the Plant Pathology and Entomology Division,
Arkansas State Plant Board, replaced Dr. D. B. Creager as Chief
Plant Pathologist in February 1962.
Other changes in the section's supporting technicians and
clerical help are as follows: Early in the biennium Mrs. Enid
Matherly retired from the position of Laboratory Technician.
She was replaced by Mrs. Carolyn Taylor, who worked for three
months and was in turn replaced by Mr. Paul White who was
with the section for 8 months. Mr. White was replaced by Miss
Julia Benton who transferred from the Nematology Section where
she had been working as Laboratory Technician. Mr. Charles
Baum, the section's Nurseryman, accepted a position in June
1962 with the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station as Farm
Manager with the Horticulture Experimental Farm on the Mill-







Division of Plant Industry


hopper Road. Mr. Baum was replaced as Nurseryman by Mr.
John Perry, who has been an employee of the Division for a
number of years. Mrs. Nancy Duden, half-time secretary, left
the organization in August 1961, and was replaced by Mrs. Gail
Bronson.
The present staff of the Plant Pathology Section is divided
between the Gainesville Laboratory and the Winter Haven Lab-
oratory. The Gainesville Laboratory is staffed by a Chief Plant
Pathologist, who is responsible for administration of both lab-
oratories, two plant pathologists, one technician, one nursery-
man, one full-time secretary and one half-time secretary shared
with the Nematology Section, and one half-time custodian. The
Winter Haven Laboratory is staffed by a plant pathologist, one
assistant plant pathologist, one technician, and one secretary,
who is shared with the Plant Inspection Section.
The Plant Pathology Section continued to divide the work
load between the two laboratories, with the Winter Haven Lab-
oratory testing citrus trees for the presence of the virus tristeza
as a part of the Citrus Budwood Certification Program, as well
as checking all disease problems on citrus, nut and fruit crops,
orchids, and bromeliads. The Gainesville Laboratory handled
foliage plants, woody ornamentals, trees, turfgrass, bulb crops,
and other crops not specifically assigned.

SCOPE OF WORK
The Plant Pathology Section continued to act as a supporting
arm for the plant inspectors in the following activities: 1)
Conducted training classes for inspector candidates. In four
new classes the section's technical staff presented basic plant
pathology information to the candidates taking into considera-
tion their needs as future plant inspectors; 2) Initiated refresher
courses in plant pathology for plant inspectors on the job; 3)
Diagnosed disease specimens; 4) Worked in the nurseries pe-
riodically with the inspectors, particularly on special problems;
5) Initiated needed investigative work to make available infor-
mation for the nurserymen on both new and old problems; 6)
Made available, in a usable form, research information obtained
from publications distributed by other institutions; 7) The tech-
nical staff made talks to garden clubs, professional organizations,
and other interested groups over the state.
Some of the investigations undertaken by the Plant Path-
ology Section was in cooperation with the University of Flor-







Twenty-Fourth Biennial Report


ida. Valuable assistance was provided by the nursery industry
through their making available testing sites, materials, and
moral support.


The proper method of removing diseased tissue from plants is explained
by a Division plant pathologist to two inmates of the Raiford State Prison.
Division personnel participate regularly in the institution's vocational agri-
cultural program through classroom discussions, outdoor demonstrations
and laboratory investigations.

The section's personnel were particularly diligent in their
search for new diseases, especially those foreign pests that could
pose a threat to the agricultural industry of our state.
The services of the section were made available to all seg-
ments of Florida agriculture and to numerous individuals.

ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Specimens Processed.-There were 5,156 disease specimens
processed during the biennium, with 2,669 being checked during
the 1960-61 fiscal year and 2,487 in the 1961-62 period. The re-
duction in specimens during the last half of the biennium was due
to the transitions occurring in the section as only two patholo-
gists were handling specimens at times and to the detection of
Mediterranean fruit fly in Miami on June 8, 1962. There were




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