• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Report of state plant board
 Report of the plant commission...
 Appendix A: Rules and regulations...
 Appendix B: The quarterly bulletin,...














Title: Report for the biennial period ending ... and supplemental reports to ...
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098572/00002
 Material Information
Title: Report for the biennial period ending ... and supplemental reports to ...
Physical Description: 2 v. : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: State Plant Board of Florida
Publisher: The Board
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Gainesville
Publication Date: 1918/20
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Plants, Protection of -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Periodicals   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: State Plant Board of Florida.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 2nd (1916/18)-3rd (1918/20).
Numbering Peculiarities: Period year ending Apr. 30; supplemental reports to Sept. 30, 1918; to Oct. 31, 1920.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098572
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 13925270
lccn - sn 86033751
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending ... and supplemental reports to ...
Succeeded by: Report for the period ...

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Report of state plant board
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Report of the plant commissioner
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Appendix A: Rules and regulations of the state plant board in effect January 1, 1921
        Page A-i
        Page A-ii
        Page A-1
        Page A-2
        Page A-3
        Page A-4
        Page A-5
        Page A-6
        Page A-7
        Page A-8
        Page A-9
        Page A-10
        Page A-11
        Page A-12
        Page A-13
        Page A-14
        Page A-15
        Page A-16
        Page A-17
        Page A-18
        Page A-19
        Page A-20
        Page A-21
        Page A-22
        Page A-23
        Page A-24
        Page A-25
        Page A-26
        Page A-27
        Page A-28
        Page A-29
        Page A-30
        Page A-31
        Page A-32
        Page A-33
        Page A-34
        Page A-35
        Page A-36
        Page A-37
        Page A-38
        Page A-39
        Page A-40
        Page A-41
        Page A-42
        Page A-43
        Page A-44
        Page A-45
        Page A-46
        Page A-47
        Page A-48
        Page A-49
        Page A-50
        Page A-51
        Page A-52
        Page A-53
        Page A-54
        Page A-55
        Page A-56
        Page A-57
        Page A-58
        Page A-59
        Page A-60
        Page A-61
        Page A-62
        Page A-63
        Page A-64
        Page A-65
        Page A-66
        Page A-67
        Page A-68
        Page A-69
        Page A-70
        Page A-71
        Page A-72
    Appendix B: The quarterly bulletin, Vols. III and IV
        Page A-73
        Page A-74
        Page B-i
        Page B-ii
        Page B-iii
        Page B-iv
        Page B-1
        Page B-2
        Page B-3
        Page B-4
        Page B-5
        Page B-6
        Page B-7
        Page B-8
        Page B-9
        Page B-10
        Page B-11
        Page B-12
        Page B-13
        Page B-14
        Page B-15
        Page B-16
        Page B-17
        Page B-18
        Page B-19
        Page B-20
        Page B-21
        Page B-22
        Page B-23
        Page B-24
        Page B-25
        Page B-26
        Page B-27
        Page B-28
        Page B-29
        Page B-30
        Page B-31
        Page B-32
        Page B-33
        Page B-34
        Page B-35
        Page B-36
        Page B-37
        Page B-38
        Page B-39
        Page B-40
        Page B-41
        Page B-42
        Page B-43
        Page B-44
        Page B-45
        Page B-46
        Page B-47
        Page B-48
        Page B-49
        Page B-50
        Page B-51
        Page B-52
        Page B-53
        Page B-54
        Page B-55
        Page B-56
        Page B-57
        Page B-58
        Page B-59
        Page B-60
        Page B-61
        Page B-62
        Page B-63
        Page B-64
        Page B-65
        Page B-66
        Page B-67
        Page B-68
        Page B-69
        Page B-70
        Page B-71
        Page B-72
        Page B-73
        Page B-74
        Page B-75
        Page B-76
        Page B-77
        Page B-78
        Page B-79
        Page B-80
        Page B-81
        Page B-82
        Page B-83
        Page B-84
        Page B-85
        Page B-86
        Page B-87
        Page B-88
        Page B-89
        Page B-90
        Page B-91
        Page B-92
        Page B-93
        Page B-94
        Page B-95
        Page B-96
        Page B-97
        Page B-98
        Page B-99
        Page B-100
        Page B-101
        Page B-102
        Page B-103
        Page B-104
        Page B-105
        Page B-106
        Page B-107
        Page B-108
        Page B-109
        Page B-110
        Page B-111
        Page B-112
        Page B-113
        Page B-114
        Page B-115
        Page B-116
        Page B-117
        Page B-118
        Page B-119
        Page B-120
        Page B-121
        Page B-122
        Page B-123
        Page B-124
        Page B-125
        Page B-126
        Page B-127
        Page B-128
        Page B-129
        Page B-130
        Page B-131
        Page B-132
        Page B-133
        Page B-134
        Page B-135
        Page B-136
        Page C-i
        Page C-ii
        Page C-iii
        Page C-iv
        Page C-1
        Page C-2
        Page C-3
        Page C-4
        Page C-5
        Page C-6
        Page C-7
        Page C-8
        Page C-9
        Page C-10
        Page C-11
        Page C-12
        Page C-13
        Page C-14
        Page C-15
        Page C-16
        Page C-17
        Page C-18
        Page C-19
        Page C-20
        Page C-21
        Page C-22
        Page C-23
        Page C-24
        Page C-25
        Page C-26
        Page C-27
        Page C-28
        Page C-29
        Page C-30
        Page C-31
        Page C-32
        Page C-33
        Page C-34
        Page C-35
        Page C-36
        Page C-37
        Page C-38
        Page C-39
        Page C-40
        Page C-41
        Page C-42
        Page C-43
        Page C-44
        Page C-45
        Page C-46
        Page C-47
        Page C-48
        Page C-49
        Page C-50
        Page C-51
        Page C-52
        Page C-53
        Page C-54
        Page C-55
        Page C-56
        Page C-57
        Page C-58
        Page C-59
        Page C-60
        Page C-61
        Page C-62
        Page C-63
        Page C-64
        Page C-65
        Page C-66
        Page C-67
        Page C-68
        Page C-69
        Page C-70
        Page C-71
        Page C-72
        Page C-73
        Page C-74
        Page C-75
        Page C-76
        Page C-77
        Page C-78
        Page C-79
        Page C-80
        Page C-81
        Page C-82
        Page C-83
        Page C-84
        Page C-85
        Page C-86
        Page C-87
        Page C-88
        Page C-89
        Page C-90
        Page C-91
        Page C-92
        Page C-93
        Page C-94
        Page C-95
        Page C-96
        Page C-97
        Page C-98
        Page C-99
        Page C-100
        Page C-101
        Page C-102
        Page C-103
        Page C-104
        Page C-105
        Page C-106
        Page C-107
        Page C-108
        Page C-109
        Page C-110
        Page C-111
        Page C-112
        Page C-113
        Page C-114
        Page C-115
        Page C-116
        Page C-117
        Page C-118
        Page C-119
        Page C-120
Full Text




STATE PLANT BOARD
OF FLORIDA






REPORT FOR THE BIENNIAL PERIOD
ENDING APRIL 30, 1920

(Third Biennial Report)
AND

SUPPLEMENTAL REPORTS
To October 31, 1920




With Circular No. 40

AND

The Quarterly Bulletin
Vols. III and IV


eIBRARY
FLRI~A EXPERIMENT STATION
QAINBSVILLE, FLORiIDA


JANUARY, 1921





/O 2


AGRI-
CULTURAL
LIBRARY










STATE PLANT BOARD

of Florida

J. B. HODGES, Chairman ........ ............ _........ .Lk City
E. L. WARTMANN.......... . ...~ .. ....~...... ......Citraa
J. B. SUTTO N -------------- . ......... ._ _Tam p
HARRY B. MINIUM......------- -------- .. .........Jack~.~~~~~~Csonvill
W. W. FLOURNOY ....~~~... ....... ...... ......e~na Springs
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary.......... ~~.......... ....... ...alh se

STAFF

WILMoN NEWELL, Plant C'ommissioner ---- ...~~......... ... .Giesil
E. W. BERGER, Entomologist................~~. ...~~.......ansil
F. M. O'BYRNE, Nursery Inspector~~... ....................... .Ganvie
J. H. MONTGOMERY, Quarantin6 Inspector....................Gainesville
FRANK STIRLING, General Inspector, Dept. of Citrus
Canker Eradication..... ... ...Gainesville
MISS ETHEL MURRILL, Chief Clerk ---.~~....~~.................... .aievil















CONTENTS

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL........~.............. ... 5
REPORT OF STATE PLANT BOARD............. ........... 5
REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER.............. 9
RULES AND REGULATIONS...... .........----- 1
QUARANTINE DEPARTMENT .. ..........---------- 1
Co-operation with Federal Horticultural Board .......... .......-. 13
Co-operation with Customs Service..... .........~. ...... 15
Fiscal Year Ending April 30, 1919..... ...... -......--.. 16
Boll Weevil Quarantine................. ......- 17
Pink Bollworm Quarantine ........... .......------- 17
Sweet Potato Weevil Quarantines ............... ... 18
Black Fly Quarantine................. ....... 18
Fiscal Year Ending April 30, 1920..... ... ............. 19
Fumigation at Ports................... ........ 19
Pink Bollworm ..................... .......-..... .. -- 20
Inspections During Fiscal Year Ending April 30, 1919 .......... 21
Pests and Diseases Intercepted......... ----........ 21
Pests Intercepted in Mail Shipments ................ ...... 26
Inspections, Year Ending April 30, 1920. ................. ..-.. 27
Pests and Diseases Intercepted............ ..--....... 28
Pests Intercepted in Mail Shipments .. ........... ...... .... .... 35
NURSERY INSPECTION .............. -- ---- ----------- 37
Certificates Refused .......................... .... ---- ----- 38
Quarantines Imposed on Nurseries........ .............. .......... 39
Perm it-certificates ................ .... -------------- 40
Legal Actions .....~.............~.. .....-.....--- ----- -------. 41
Experiments in Control of Citrus Scab.._................ ..............-- 42
Cottony Cushion-Scale ............... .----.- .....- --------... 42
Inspections, Year Ending April 30, 1919.......................... .. ......... 43
Total Citrus Trees Sold by Florida Nurseries, 1918-'19.... ............ 44
Inspections, Year Ending April 30, 1920.................. ................. 45
Certificates Issued ...... ... .................--- 46
CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION........... .--....-------.--- 46
Year Ending April 30, 1919. ..... .......... .................. 47
Year Ending April 30, 1920...... ............................. 49
Grand Summary ................. ---------------...- 51
DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY............... ------- --........ 54
Identif ication of Insects .................. ................ 55
Whitefly Fungi ...................... ----.............. 55
Australian Lady-bird Beetle ................ ...........---.... 56
Insect Outbreaks .................. ---------------....- 57
Insect Collection ...... ......... .................... 57
Semi-Tropical Army Worm.................... ................ 58
DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY................... .....-------.. 58
SWEET POTATo WEEVIL ERADICATION..................... .. ........... 58










State Plant Board


Preventing Introduction and Spread......... ........... .... ...

Inspections for Plant Growers................. .. ......
Natural Barriers to Spread of Weevil... ............ ....... ..

Eradication Work in Baker County............ .......... .. ...

Fumigation of Sweet Potatoes, Baker County........ ...........
BANANA ROOT BORER ERADICATION................ ....

MosAlC DISEASE OF SUGAR CANE.................. ........

Counties and Properties Infected................. ......

Expenditures .........
THE BLACK FLY................... .... .-...-

THE PINK BOLLWORM........ ........-..-.-..---.-.-- ----. .--

EMERGENCY FUNDS NEEDED................. ........

THE BOLL WEEVIL................... -- --


.......... 59

.......... 61

.......... 62

.......... 63

.......... 65

.......-.. 66

.......... 67

.......... 68

....-..... 71

---------- 71

......... 73

..-----.. 74

---------- 74


.....

....

...

....

.....

.....

. ...

. ...

-...

-


BEE DISEASE ERADICATION.................... ........... 75

Summary of Inspection Work...................... ................ 77

BUILDING NEEDED .................... --....----------- 77

PUBLICATIONS ................ -----...---------- 78

Circulars ................ .................... 78

Quarterly Bulletin ................... .. ............. 78

Quarantine Notices ................ ................... 78
EMPLOYEES ........~........------------ ------- ----- --- ----------- 78

List of Employees, June 30, 1920................. . .............. 79

FINANCIAL REPORT ................. -- .... ---------- --- --..--- .... 80

SUPPLEMENTAL REPORT (May 1 to Oct. 31, 1920)....... ....... ................ 86

Rules and Regulations................ ............ 86

Quarantine Department ............... ...................... 86

Nursery Inspection ................. .. ................. 87

Citrus Canker Eradication ...................... ................. 87

Department of Entomology.................. ............... 88
Sweet Potato Weevil Eradication................. ................ 89

Mosaic Disease of- Sugar Cane................. ................. 89

The Black Fly.... ........... ...~................ 90

The Mexican Bean Beetle.................. ................. 91

Infested Area in Alabama................... ............... 92

Bee Disease Eradication............................................... 93

SUPPLEMENTAL FINANCIAL REPORT, May 1 to Oct. 31, 1920.................. 93

ESTIMATES ............... ................---- 96

APPENDIX A

RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE STATE PLANT BOARD IN EFFECT JAN-

UARY 1, 1921.

APPENDIX B

THE QUARTERLY BULLETIN, VOLS. III AND IV.






Third Biennial Report


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
January 10, 1921.
To His Excellency,
Cary2 A. Hardee,
Gover~nor of Florida.
SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the State Plant
Board of Florida for the biennium ending April 30, 1920. We
request that you submit same to the Legislature.
Respectfully,
STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA,
By J. B. HODGES,
Chairman. .



REPORT OF STATE PLANT BOARD
The work of the State Plant Board has been efficiently prose-
cuted during the past biennium along the same general lines
as heretofore. A number of new projects have been undertaken
by the organization, all with the one end, namely; the endeavor
to prevent the further dissemination of agricultural insect pests
.and diseases, and where practical, their eradication.

PERSONNEL OF THE BOARD
The terms of Messrs. E. L. Wartmann and T. B. King expired
May 31, 1919. Governor Catts reappointed Mr. Wartmann and
appointed Mr. J. B. Sutton, of Tampa, to succeed Mr. King as
South Florida's member. On July 6, 1919, Mr. Joe L. Earman
resigned to become President of the State Board of Health.
~Governor Catts appointed as his successor Mr. Harry B. Minium,
of Jacksonville, and Mr. J. B. Hodges was elected Chairman.
On October 23, 1919, Mr. John T. Diamond resigned and Mr.
W. W. Flournoy, of DeFuniak Springs, was appointed to succeed
him on January 20, 1920. On August 31, 1920, Bryan Mack
resigned as Secretary of the Board to enter business and was
succeeded by John T. Diamond.






State Plant Board


CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION

The campaign to eradicate citrus canker from the State has
been pushed vigorously during the biennium. Unfortunately the
last session of the Legislature deemed it necessary in the interest
of economy to cut quite severely the amount of appropriation
requested by the Board for canker eradication work. The re-
duced appropriation necessitated a very considerable cut in the
citrus grove inspection force, with the result that the reduced
force was able to inspect regularly a much smaller territory
around known centers of infection. Unfortunately this per-
mitted a hidden infection of canker, about a mile and a quarter
from the original canker infection at Boynton, to make con-
siderable progress before it was discovered. In July of 1920,
when the infection was finally detected, a total of 539 grove
trees were found to be infected with citrus canker. Besides
the original infection there were but two secondary infections,
consisting of two trees in each of the two groves. Fortunately
these groves were isolated. All citrus trees in these groves were
completely destroyed, except in one twelve acre grove of large
trees south of Boynton. In this grove all trees within a 60 foot
circle surrounding the infected trees were destroyed. The find-
ing of this infection fortunately does not threaten the successful
outcome of the canker eradication work. It does indicate the
necessity of continued and careful inspection of large areas
around each infection, and it will necessitate intensive inspection
in the Boynton section for two years more and perhaps for even
a longer period.
QUARANTINE DEPARTMENT
Prior to MVay, 1918, the work of inspecting nursery stock,
plants and other products likely to introduce insect pests and
diseases into Florida was handled by the Department of Port
and Railway Inspection under the direct supervision of the
Plant Commissioner. The more work of this kind done, the more
apparent became the great danger to which the State and the
entire South were exposed. During 1920 an average of 12 vessels
a day docked in Florida harbors, over half of them from foreign
ports. The number is increasing constantly. On May 10, 1918,
therefore, a new department was created called the Quarantine
Department, and Dr. J. H. Montgomery, former grove.super-
visor in the canker work, was elected to head the Department
with the title of "Quarantine Inspector." The protection given





Third Biennial Report


by this department is greatly needed. Already it has inter-
cepted a number of extremely injurious pests and diseases as
they were about to enter the state. Among others, interceptions
of the "Black Fly", "West Indian Fruit Fly" and "Sweet potato
scarabee" deserve special mention. Almost certainly some of
these pests would have become established in Florida had their
entrance not been intercepted.
The inspection of plant products entering the State by mail
is one branch of the Quarantine Department's work. Approxi-
mately 10% of the plants coming into our state by mail are
found to be infested with some pest. The need of such inspection
is therefore obvious.
To the Quarantine Department our agricultural interests must
look for protection from the black fly, West Indian fruit fly,
both right at our doors, and from the Mediterranean fruit fly
and other major pests from all parts of the world.

NURSERY INSPECTION
The Nursery Inspection work of the State Plant Board has
been continued during the biennium along the same broad lines
as heretofore. No law will accomplish its purpose unless en-
forced. During the biennium twelve different persons were
convicted and fined for violating the nursery inspection law.
In only one case was the defendant found not guilty.

BEE DISEASE ERADICATION
The last session of the Legislature made it incumbent upon
the State Plant Board to prevent, so far as possible, the intro-
duction and dissemination of bee diseases and to undertake their
eradication. The Plant Commissioner, together with a special
assistant, has been in direct charge of this work from the start
and remarkable progress has been made. The beekeeping in-
dustry has been greatly benefited and strengthened as a result
of this work.
Your Board would call attention to the need of a building
for the Plant Board, as conservatively set forth by the Plant
Commissioner.
Your Board has given the matter of the appropriations neces-
sary for the continuance of the Plant Board work careful con-
sideration. While appreciating the present desire for retrench-
ment, it realizes that an economy which forces the curtailment
of this very necessary work is not true economy but the greatest






State Plant Board


extravagance. It considers as conservative the Plant Commis-
sioner's estimate of $287,940.00 per annum as the sum needed to
properly continue the Board's work. Of this sum $35,000 is
provided by Chapter 6885, leaving $252,940.00 per annum to be
provided by special appropriations. Your Board also deemns as
highly important the establishment of the emergency fund of
$250,000.00 recommended by the Plant Commissioner, to be
used only in the event of the black fly, pink bollworm or Mexican
bean beetle getting into the State. All sound commercial con-
cerns have such an emergency or sinking fund to enable them
to deal with unexpected situations. A few thousand dollars
immediately available when disaster threatens may save a mil-
lion at a later date.
Detailed information concerning all of the Board's work will
be found in the Plant Commissioner's report which is trans-
mitted herewith.
STATE PLANT BOARD,
J. B. HODGES, Chair~man.







Third Biennial Report


REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER
FOR THE BIENNIUM ENDING APRIL 30, 1920
and
SUPPLEMENTAL REPORTS

Hon. J. B. Hodges, Chairman,
State Plant Board of Flor~ida.
SmR: I have the honor to submit below my report on the work
and activities of the several departments of the State Plant
Board's organization for the biennial period ending April 30,
1920, together with a supplementary report covering the period
from May 1, 1920, to October 31, 1920.
Respectfully,
WILMoN NEWELL,
Plant Commissioner.


During the period elapsing between the passage of the Florida
Plant Act of 1915, approved April 30, 1915, and the date of our
last report, October 31, 1918, the policies of the Board with ref-
erence to preventing the introduction and spread of seriously
injurious insects and plant diseases were well established, a
working organization perfected and the part taken by the Board
in protecting the development of the State's agricultural re-
sources clearly defined. During the past two years the major
lines of work have been continued without interruption. These
have included the continuation of the citrus canker eradication
work, the protection of the State against the introduction of
dangerous pests and diseases from the West Indies and foreign
countries by means of the plant quarantine service, nursery
inspection which insures the planting by farmers and horticul-
turists of trees and plants safe from dangerous pests, the pro-
duction and distribution of fungus cultures for control of the
white fly in citrus groves, the collection and distribution of bene-
ficial insects (lady-bird beetles), prevention of the spread of the
sweet potato weevil and the eradication of this pest in Baker
County, eradication of the banana root borer and an attempt to
eradicate the mosaic disease of sugar cane.







State Plant Board


The work of the biennium has not, however, been unattended
by difficulties. First and foremost is the fact that, while ma-
terials advanced severely in price and salaries in all technical
and commercial lines greatly increased, the financial resources
of the Board remained the same. The problem of securing neces-
sary disinfectants, stationery, tools, laboratory equipment, etc.,
has been met by judicious purchasing and the practice of rigid
economy. In the case of employees, however, the Board has not
been so fortunate. A large number of its most efficient and
highly trained men have left the Plant Board organization be-
cause of the Board's inability to pay salaries comparable with
what these employees could secure from other sources. The prob-
lem of retaining a sufficient number of trained men for even the
most important work has been acute and is still so.
The volume of commerce passing between Florida ports and
Cuba, The Bahamas, the West Indies and the Central and South
American countries has greatly increased during the past two
years, as has also the passenger traffic with these countries.
This has been accompanied by a correspondingly increased dan-
ger of serious pests being brought from these countries into
Florida and becoming established here. Notable among these
pests are the black fly and the West Indian fruit fly. To keep
'these out is one of the earnest endeavors of the Plant Board and
the number of competent inspectors which the Board is now able
to employ is not sufficient to accomplish this indefinitely.
In spite of these considerations it is a pleasure to report that
no instance has come to light, since the Board's establishment
in 1915, of any serious insect pest or plant disease being dis-
tributed upon trees or plants inspected and certified by the
Board's inspectors and, with but one exception, no serious pest
or disease is known to have found entry into the State and be-
come established during this period. The one exception is the
mosaic disease of sugar cane, discovered in 13 Florida counties
in the summer and autumn of 1919. This disease was introduced
through channels over which the Plant Board had no control. It
is more fully discussed in succeeding pages of this report.
By the provisions of Chapter 7938, approved June 9, 1919, the
State Plant Board is charged with the task of preventing and
eradicating infectious diseases of honey bees. This line of work
was promptly inaugurated on" July 1, 1919, and has been prose-
cuted as vigorously as the available appropriation permitted.






Third Biennial Report


No appropriations have been exceeded or deficits created in
any branch of the Board's work.
At various times during the biennium the Plant Commissioner
and his assistants have placed exhibits of injurious insects and
plant diseases at various district and county fairs throughout
the State. These exhibits served to familiarize growers and
farmers with the more dangerous pests and diseases occurring
in the State as well as with those knost likely to be introduced
through commercial channels. Attendants were in charge of
these exhibits to answer questions and to explain the operation
of the Florida Plant Act of 1915 and the rules and regulations
of the State Plant Board.
In co-operation with the University of Florida Agricultural
Extension Division and the United States Department of Agri-
culture, the Plant Commissioner and his staff, during February,
1919, conducted "Better Fruit Meetings" through the central
portion of the State, at which instruction was given in better
methods of fruit production, including the prevention and control
of injurious pests and diseases. Such meetings were held at
Leesburg, Winter Haven, Clearwater, Bradentown, Arcadia, Fort
Myers, Sebring, Fort Meade and Orlando. The total attendance
at these meetings was 3,090, and it was evident that much was
accomplished in the way of education as well as in securing more
thorough compliance with the Plant Act. Lack of time and funds
prevented this series of meetings being conducted in other por-
tions of the State.

RULES AND REGULATIONS

In carrying out the provisions and intent of the Florida Plant
Act of 1915, the Board has found it necessary to adopt certain
quarantine and other rules and regulations, authority for which
is conferred upon the Board by the Act itself.
The rules of the Board, up to and including Rule No. 38, were
mentioned in our last report. The following rules were adopted
between February 21, 1918, and April 30, 1920:
Rule 39A, prohibiting the movement of avocado nursery stock
from nurseries infected with avocado scab, except when properly
treated, adopted July 14, 1919.
Rule 39B, providing for the treatment of avocado nursery
stock in nurseries infected with avocado scab, adopted July 14,
1919.






State Plant Board


Rule 40A*, prohibiting the shipment into Florida of second-
hand beekeeping equipment, except under certain conditions as
to inspection and disinfection, adopted July 14, 1919.
Rule 40B*, placing under quarantine all apiaries and colonies
of honey bees found infected with infectious or contagious dis-
eases, adopted July 14, 1919.
Rule 40C*, prohibiting the exposure of honey, hives, combs,
or other material from infected apiaries in such manner as to
expose bees to danger of infection, adopted July 14, 1919.
Rule 40D,* prohibiting the sale or shipment of queen bees
except under certain conditions as to certification, adopted July
14, 1919.
Rule 41, prohibiting the shipment of sugar cane into Florida,
except under permit, in order to prevent further introductions
of the mosaic disease of sugar cane, adopted September 8, 1919.
Rule 42A, prohibiting the movement of sugar cane out of areas
defined in the Public Notices of the Board as areas infected with
the mosaic disease, adopted October 13, 1919.
Rule 42B, providing for the destruction of plants infected
with the mosaic disease of sugar cane, adopted October 13, 1919.
Rule 42C, establishing a zone about all fields infected with the
mosaic disease of sugar cane and regulating the planting of
sugar cane therein and the movement of sugar cane therefrom,
adopted October 13, 1919.
Rule 42D, prohibiting the planting of sugar cane in fields in-
fected with the mosaic disease until after the lapse of one year
from destruction of all infected plants, adopted October 13, 1919.
Rule 43, establishing a quarantine to prevent the introduction
of the European corn borer into Florida, adopted October 13,
1919.
Rule 44, establishing a quarantine to prevent the introduction
of the Japanese beetle into Florida, adopted October 13, 1919.
Rules 45A and 45B, establishing a quarantine to prevent intro-
duction of the pink bollworm of cotton into Florida, adopted
March 8, 1920.
Various Public Notices relative to injurious insects and plant
diseases have been issued from time to time by the Board as
required by the Florida Plant Act of 1915. These Public Notices,
together with the rules and regulations of the Board, will be
found printed in full in Circular No. 40, constituting "Appendix
A" of this report.
*Rules 40A, 40B, 400 and 40D were adopted in accordance with the authority conferred
on the Plant Board by Chapter 7938, approved June 9, 1919.







Third Biennial Report


QUARANTINE DEPARTMENT
Our last biennial report recounted the rapid growth and' de-
velopment of the plant quarantine service from 1915 to 1918
and its importance in preventing the introduction of new agri-
cultural pests into the State. Prior to May, 1918, personal
supervision to this branch of the work was given by the Plant
Commissioner, in addition to his other duties. However, in view
of the rapid expansion of this work and its increasing import-
ance the Board, on May 10, 1918, changed the name of this
department from that of "Port and Railway Inspection" to that
of "Quarantine Department" and at the same time elected to the
head of this Department as "Quarantine Inspector" Dr. J. H.
Montgomery, formerly Grove Supervisor in the canker eradica-
tion work of the' Board. Under Dr. Montgomery's direction the
plant quarantine work has been developed to a degree of ef-
ficiency not exceeded by any similar organization in the country.
Assistant Quarantine Inspectors of this Department are regu-
larly located at Pensacola, Jacksonville, Miami, Key West, Port
Tampa and West Palm Beach. These inspectors meet or board
all vessels arriving at these ports and examine passengers' bag-
gage, cargo, vessel and crew's quarters for plants and plant
products which are prohibited entry by the regulations of the
Federal Horticultural Board, United States Department of Agri-
culture, or by the rules of the State Plant Board of Florida, as
well as for any materials whatsoever which are infested or in-
fected with dangerous insect pests or plant diseases. In the case
of certain classes of commercial shipments, inspection of which
is made prohibitive by the bulk of the material, fumigation is
practiced in lieu of inspection, this fumigating being with
hydrocyanic-acid gas in specially constructed fumigating cham-
bers and being sufficient to destroy any insects which may be
contained in the materials. The inspection of materials arriving
from foreign countries is conducted in close co-operation with
the Federal Horticultural Board, our assistant quarantine in-
spectors holding appointments as "collaborators" of the Federal
Horticultural Board and having authority to enforce the federal
regulations, most of which are of prime importance from the
standpoint of protecting Florida's agricultural interests. In
this co-operation, however, the federal government pays but a
nominal salary to the inspectors, usually $1.00 per month, so
that practically the entire expense of the quarantine inspection
work falls upon the State Plant Board.







State Plant Board


The assistant quarantine' inspectors, in their capacity as agents
of the State Plant Board, examine large numbers of express and
freight shipments, both interstate and intrastate, the object of
this activity being to detect illegal shipments of nursery stock and
shipments of materials either infested with dangerous pests or
likely, from their nature, to introduce new insect pests or in-
jurious plant diseases into the State. Shipments of nursery
stock from other states are frequently found infested and their
delivery in Florida prevented. Shipments of weevil-infested
sweet potatoes from outside the State, as well as from sweet
potato weevil infested areas within the State, have frequently
been detected and either returned to the shippers or destroyed:
by this means the establishment of this destructive enemy of the
sweet potato crop has been prevented in many Florida localities
now free from the pest. These inspectors have also insured com-
pliance in large measure by transportation companies and ship-
pers with the various rules of the Board intended to prevent the
introduction of the gypsy and brown-tail moths, the Japanese
beetle, the European corn borer, the pink bollworm of cotton and
material likely to be infected with the mosaic disease of sugar
cane.
Under provision made by Act of Congress approved March 4,
1915, the State Plant Board has availed itself of the privilege of
inspecting shipments of plant products arriving by mail from-
other states and addressed to Florida postoffices.* The import-
ance of this work can hardly be overestimated, inasmuch as
failure to inspect parcel post shipments of plant products would
make it possible for unscrupulous shippers to avail themselves
of mail facilities for sending infested material into Florida, even
though barred from making such shipments by express or
freight. Facilities for terminal' inspection of mail shipments of
plants and plant products are maintained at Pensacola, Jackson-
ville, Gainesville, Tampa, Key West and West Palm Beach and
postmasters are required, under instructions from the Third
Assistant Postmaster* General, to send parcel post shipments of
certain plants and plant products to these post offices for iri-
spection by the assistant quarantine inspectors of the Plant
Board.
It is the policy of the Plant Board, in its quarantine work,
to administer the rules and regulations applying to nursery stock
*Inspection of plant products by mail from foreign countries is under the jurisdiction
of the Federal Horticultural Board.







Third Biennial Report


and other shipments in such a way.as to afford the least incon-
venience to the citizens of the State and at the same time render
as large a measure of protection to the agricultural and horti-
cultural interests as possible. When shipments are found in-
fested it is the practice, therefore, to: disinfect, fumigate or
otherwise treat them for the purpose of destroying the infesta-
tion whenever it is possible to do so and then permit their
delivery to the parties to whom addressed.
The success of the quarantine work is in large measure de-
pendent upon the active co-operation of transportation com-
panies and their agents, as well as the postmasters. This co-
operation has been most excellent. At the same time the mul-
tiplicity of duties confronting station and express agents and
postmasters results in their sometimes overlooking the require-
ments regarding inspection and certification of plants and plant
products and for this reason it was deemed advisable during
the season of 1918, to have a special representative of the Plant
Board call in person on the agents and postmasters in all prin-
cipal towns and cities of the State and assist them in becoming
familiar with their duties under the regulations referred to.
This plan was carried out and the increased co-operation which
resulted was highly gratifying as well as productive of valuable
results.
In the inspection work at the ports it is necessary for the
agents of the Plant Board to work in close harmony and co-
operation with the inspectors of the Customs Se'rvice. The
co-operation rendered by the Customs officials and employees
in this regard has been all that could be desired and special
thanks are due Hon. J. F. C. Griggs, Collector of Customs for
the Florida District, and the Special Deputy Collector, Mr.
Arthur G. Watson, Jr., for their good offices in making available-
facilities for the prompt and efficient inspection of plant and
fruit importations by the agents of the Federal Horticultural
Board and the State Plant Board of Florida.
Inasmuch as the inspectors in this Department are called upon
to inspect all vessels, together with baggage and commercial
shipments arriving by water, express, freight and also mail, the
amount of work confronting them is exceedingly large. At the
same time, they must have a broad knowledge of the insect pests
and plant diseases which are likely to be brought into Florida
through commercial channels, as well as a knowledge of trans-
portation methods and must, in addition, possess the tact and







State Plant Board


courtesy necessary for them to deal with the traveling public
without friction. All men engaged in this work have been
trained by the Plant Board with great pains, all of them having
served successively in the citrus canker eradication and nursery
inspection work before being placed on plant quarantine work.
Their services have thus become invaluable to the Board--and
equally desirable from the standpoint of various commercial
organizations and different branches of the United States gov-
ernment. In order to retain their services, in competition with
these other agencies, some of which are constantly bidding for
their services, it will be necessary in the near future to increase
their rate of compensation.
In the proper conduct of the quarantine work it is very es-
sential that insects discovered in shipments from other states
and from: foreign countries be promptly and accurately identi-
fled. In this work Dr. E. W. Berger, Entomologist, and Mr. Geo.
B. Merrill, Assistant Entomologist, respectively, of the Plant
Board staff, have rendered most excellent service.
The following summaries of the work of the Quarantine De-
partment for the two fiscal years covered by this report, will
serve to convey an idea of the immense amount of work accom-
plished, as well as the large number of serious pests prevehted
from establishing themselves in Florida.
FISCAL YEAR ENDING APRIL 30, 1919
During this period 3,485 vessels were boarded and inspected.
Of this number 1,724 were fro'n foreign ports.
The total number of packages coming under the observation
of the quarantine inspectors during the year, including those
arriving by water, express, mail, automobile, etc., was 69,985.
Of this number 7,135 were found to have been shipped in viola-
tion of regulations of either the State Plant Board or the F'ed-
eral Horticultural Board. 3,872* packages were found infested
or infected with dangerous pests or diseases but were capable
of being made safe by disinfection and were accordingly treated
and passed to their destination. 1,521 packages were found
to be infested or of such a dangerous nature that they could not
be disinfected and were returned to the shippers. 1,741 infested
or dangerous packages were, with consent of their owners, de-
stroyed in lieu of being returned.
During the year 6,001 packages containing plant material were
*The term "package" or "parcel" is used to designate any single container of plants or
plant products, such as a hamper, box, bag, crate, suit-case, etc.






Third Biennial Report


submitted by the postmasters of the State for inspection. Of
these, 5,338 were certified as being apparently free from dan-
gerous pests and diseases and were forwarded to their destina-
tion, 587 packages infested or infected were disinfected and
sent to destination and 31 were destroyed on account of being
infested or infected and incapable of disinfection.
In the course of the inspection work dangerous insects or plant
diseases were found in 116 shipments originating in ten different
foreign countries (Porto Rico included). Among these inter-
ceptions may be mentioned the black fly and the West Indian
fruit fly in material from Cuba, the sweet potato scarabee in
sweet potatoes from Porto Rico, the yam scale on yams from
Africa and gypsy moth egg-masses in a shipment of birch hoops
from New England.

BoLL WEEVIL QUARANTINE
Prior to the advent of the boll weevil in Florida the Plant
Board adopted, on December 13, 1915, a rule, No. 18, to prevent
the introduction into the State of this insect in shipments of
cotton seed, cotton seed hulls, etc. While this quarantine in no
way prevented the gradual advance of the weevil by annual
flights, it nevertheless operated to prevent cotton-growing sec-
tions from becoming infested in advance of the pest reaching
them through its annual migrations. By the fall of 1918 the
migratory movement of the pest had resulted in all cotton-
producing sections of Florida having become infested and on
November 11, 1918, Rule 18, having served its purpose, was
repealed by the Board.
PINK BOLLWORM QUARANTINE
Our last report called attention to the serious menace to the
cotton industry of the South by reason of the discovery of the
pink bollworm in Texas and to the fact that the State Plant
Board had, in order to afford protection against this pest reach-
ing Florida, adopted Rules 37A and 37B, prohibiting the ship-
ment of seed cotton, cotton seed and certain other products into
this State from points west of the Mississippi River. The at-
tempts, on the part of the Texas authorities and the Federal
Horticultural Board, to exterminate this pest in the infested
sections of Texas during 1917 and 1918 appeared to have met
with good success and the representations of the federal authori-
ties with reference to the reduced danger of the insect reaching





State Plant Board


Florida were such that the State Plant Board repealed Rules 37A
and 37B on November 11, 1918.*

SWEET POTATO QUARANTINES
The quarantine rules with reference to the movement of sweet
potatoes and sweet potato plants are intended to prevent the
further spread of this insect from areas within this State which
are infested, as well as to prevent additional introductions of
the weevil from without the State. Inspectors of the Quarantine
Department have on several occasions intercepted weevil-in-
fested potatoes and plants which were en route to localities free
from this pest; thus preventing its establishment in many new
areas. The work of the Plant Board with reference to the sweet
potato weevil is more fully discussed on pages 58 and 89.
BLACK FLY QUARANTINE
The black fly, or spiny citrus whitefly, continued to increase
in numbers and destructiveness in both Cuba and The Bahamas.
At the same time, both freight and passenger traffic with these
islands steadily increased. Investigations in Cuba by agents of
the Florida State Plant Board showed the steadily increasing
danger of the black fly being brought into Florida on leaves and
similar materials included with shipments of Cuban fruits.
Efforts were at first made, in co-operation with the Cuban De-
partment of Agriculture, to have shippers in Cuba discontinue
the practice of including these useless and unnecessary, but dan-
gerous, materials in their shipments of fruits and vegetables.
These efforts were unsuccessful and the Plant Board accordingly
issued instructions, at its meeting on July 12, 1918, to the Plant
Commissioner and his assistants to open and thoroughly inspect
all shipments of fruits and vegetables arriving from black-fly
infested countries and to refuse delivery in Florida of shipments
containing dangerous material of the character described. These
instructions became effective August 1, 1918, and their execution
involved an immense amount of work, inasmuch as several hun-
dred crates and barrels of fruit were arriving on each vessel
from Cuba. In order to unpack all crates, unwrap all fruits,
inspect and rewrap them and repack the crates within a reason-
able time after the arrival of the steamers, it was necessary to
utilize a large number of inspectors. For this purpose inspectors
from the Nursery Inspection and Canker Eradication Depart-
*See also page 20.






Third Biennial Report


ments were used, in addition to the available assistant quarantine
inspectors. The magnitude of the task can be appreciated from
the fact that during the height of the fruit shipping season
15,000 packages of fruit were thus opened and inspected at Key
West and Port Tampa during a period of six weeks (August 1
to September 11, 1918) Of this number 72 containers were
found to contain dangerous material and were refused delivery
in Florida.
A summary of the quarantine inspection work for the fiscal
year ending April 30, 1919, together with a list of the pests
intercepted and their origin will be found on page 21.
FISCAL YEAR ENDING APRIL 30, 1920
The work has been conducted along the same lines as during
the previous year.
In the autumn of 1919 West Palm Beach was designated by
the United States Treasury Department as a port of entry, due
to increased communication between the mainland and The Ba-
hamas. This necessitated the inauguration of port inspection
at West Palm Beach by the State Plant Board.
The volume of inspection work materially increased over the
preceding year. Inspectors of the Quarantine Department
boarded and inspected over 4,500 vessels arriving at Florida
ports, of which number 2,500 were from foreign countries. In
round numbers, 350,000 packages of plants and plant products
were handled by the inspectors, of which number 5,000 were
returned to the shippers and 2,400 destroyed because of being
infested or infected with dangerous pests. One hundred and
forty plant pests were discovered in materials being imported.
Many of these pests are unknown in the United States and the
ultimate saving to our citizens by preventing their establish-
ment here cannot be calculated. The pests referred to were
discovered in shipments from nineteen foreign countries or
possessions; namely, Argentina, Bermuda, Bahamas, Canary
Islands, Cuba, China, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, France,
Grand Cayman, Haiti, Isle of Pines, Japan, Jamaica, 1Vexico,
Nicaragua, Porto Rico, Panama and Spain.
FUMIGATION AT PORTS
During the fruit shipping season of the preceding year in-
spectors of the Board opened and inspected all offerings of fruits
and vegetables arriving from black-fly infested countries. This
method of preventing the importation of the black fly, though






State Plant Board


efficient, was almost prohibitive as to expense on account of the
large number of inspectors necessary. At its meeting June 9,
1919, the Board authorized the substitution of fumigation, where
necessary, for inspection. Consequently arrangements were
made with the transportation companies to supply tight re-
frigerator cars at Port Tampa and Key West and in these cars
the fruit shipments from Cuba, during the summer and fall of
1919, were fumigated with hydrocyanic-acid gas. Later, ar-
rangements were made with the officials of the P. & O. Steam-
ship Company, the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad and the Florida
East Coast Railroad whereby fumigating houses or chambers
were erected on the docks at Port Tampa and Key West*. Each
~of these houses has a capacity of 700 standard fruit crates
(equivalent to two carloads). In them all fruit shipments from
black-fly infested countries are fumigated immediately upon
being unloaded from the steamers. The arrangement has worked
well. Inspection is, however, continued as far as practicable and
when shipments are found to contain prohibited or dangerous
material their delivery in Florida is prohibited.
PINK BOLLWORM
In February, 1920, the pink bollworm was found to occur in
C~ameron, Calcasieu and Jefferson Davis Parishes in Louisiana
and it was learned that shipments of cotton seed had been made
from these parishes to various parts of the South, principally
to points in Louisiana and Texas. This situation possessed such
grave aspects that the Plant Board deemed it advisable to again
place restrictions on the shipment of cotton, cotton seed, etc.,
into the State and accordingly adopted, on March 8, 1920, Rules
45A and 45B.**
A large amount of work has also fallen to the Quarantine De-
partment in seeing that the rules and regulations for preventing
additional introductions of the mosaic disease of sugar cane and
for preventing the introduction of the gypsy and brown-tail
moths, citrus canker and other pests and diseases are complied
with.
Following is a summary of the quarantine inspection work
for the fiscal years ending April 30, 1919, and April 30, 1920,
,respectively, together with lists of the pests intercepted and
their origin: .
*The furnisating chamber at Key West was completed and placed in operation February
19, 1920, and the one at Port Tampa on June 16, 1920.
**See Appendix A (Circular No. 40), page 63.








Third Biennial Report 21


QUARANTINE INSPECTOR's SUMMARY

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING APRIL 30, 1919
SHIPS AND VESSELS INSPECTED:
From foreign ports ................ ............. ..............12
From U. S. ports other than Florida.......................... 757
From Florida ports..............,....... ...............10
Total ............................. ........... 3485
NUMBER OF PARCELS INSPECTED:
*May 1 to *Aug. 1 to
July 31. April 30.
Arriving by water: Shipments Parcels
Passed ............. ~...................... 2332 38645 40977
Treated and passed.............. 31 3027 3058
Returned to shipper............ 30 1221 1251
Contraband destroyed ........ 310 1194 1504
Total ...................... ............. 2703 44087 46790
SArriving by land:
Express, Freight, Wagon, etc.:
Passed .................................... 305 162101/ 165151/
Treated and passed.............. 6 221 227
Returned to shipper............ 52 193 245
Contraband destroyed ........ 12 194%/ 206%a
Total ...~................. ................ 375 16819 17194
Arriving by mail:
Passed .................... ...................... 5 5
Treated and passed........................ ................... 587
Returned to shipper........................ ............... 25
Contraband destroyed .................... ..... ................ 31
Total ............................ ........ ............ 6001
GRAND TOTAL OF PARCELS INSPECTED.....--................................. 69985
Number of parcels on hand, April 30, 1919, pending determination
as to final disposition....................... ...... .......... 5
TOTAL NUMBER OF PARCELS PASSED.......................... ......... .....250
TOTAL NUMBER OF PARCELS TREATED AND PASSED.................... 3872
TOTAL NUMBER OF PARCELS RETURNED To SHIPPER................ 1521
CONTRABAND DESTROYED ....................... --...-- -.. ........ 1741%'
TOTAL........ ----- .................-.- 69985


PESTS AND DISEASES INTERCEPTED

Shipments by all Means of Transportation except Parcel Post

I 1Number of
Insect or Disease Occurring on | From |Shipments
I ] Infested
Aphid .....~...............~........ Croton ~......................... Florida ................1 1
Aphid ............................1 Rose ............................. Connecticut ........ 1
Aphid .....~..............~....... Rose .... ..........~...........~..... Cuba ..~.................. 3
Aspidiotus sp. ..............l Cassava ........................ ]Cuba ................. 1
Aspidiotus sp. ..............l Globularia sp. ..............l Spain .................... 1
Aspidiotus sp. .............. Pecan ............................ IFlorida ................ 1
Aspidiotus orientalis
N ewst. .............Coconut .............Cuba ........... 8
*Beginning August 1, 1918, the system of reporting quantity of material inspected was
changed. Prior to that date shipments were reported. Inasmuch as a shipment might
consist of 1 or 100 parcels it was felt that this method of reporting did not truly represent
the work done. Therefore, after July 31, 1918, each package coming under the observation
of our inspectors was reported as inspected. This change necessitates the use of two
columns in the annual summary.










































































Il~~asetsachsets
|Florida .........
Georgia .........
New York .......
Cuba
|Florida .........
Jamaica
irginia ......_.


Number of
Shipments
Infested


State Plant Board


Insect or Disease


Aspidiotus orientalis
Newst. ........................
Aspidiotus orientalis
Newst. ........................
Aspidistra scale ..........
Aspidistra scale ..........
Aspidistra scale ..........
Aspidistra scale ..........
Bamboo scale ..............
Bephrata cubensis ......
Black scale ..................
Black scale ..................
Black scale ..................
Black thread scale......
Boisduval's scale ........
B orer ............ .
Cactus scale ................
Camphor thrips ..........
Carpophilus dimidli-
a ts sFab. ..................
Cerambycid beetle ......
Chmetopsis debilia
Loe w ....... ....
Chaff scale ..................
Chaff scale ..................
Chaff scale ..................
Chaff scale .. ....... ..
Chaff scale ..................
Cherry scale ..........._....
Cherry scale ................
Cigarette beetle ..........
Cigarette beetle ..........
Citrus scab ..................
Coconut mealy-bug......
Coffee-bean weevil ......
Coffee-bean weevil ......
Common mealy-bug......
Common mealy-bug.....
Common mealy-bug..... l
Common whitefly ....... I
Common whitefly ....... I
Common whitefly.....
Common whitefly ........
Conchaspis angraeen
Ckll. ...... :::::
Corn ear-worm .....
Cottony cochineal in-
sect ..... .. ......
Cottony cochineal in-
sect ........................... I
Crown gall --................
Crown gall ................. (
Crown gall .................
Crown gall ................
Dictyospermum scale..
Dictyospermum scale..
Dictyospermum scale.
Dictyospermum scale..
Dipterous larvae ........


Occurring on


From


Coconut ............. IFlorida .....__


Croton .............
F ern .. ... .... .....
Hibiscus ........................
Palm ..........................~...
Soursop ........................
Bamboo .......................:...
Soursop ........................
Citrus ............................
Grape ............................
Pittosporum nigri........
Palm ..............................
Palm ..............................
Sugar cane ..................
Cactus ............
Camphor ......................


Florida ......_
Georgia ....:__
Florida .....__
Jamaica
Cuba
Florida
Cuba
Cuba
Ohio
California ......_
Jamaica.
Cuba.
Cuba
Florida
Florida


Yam .............................. Africa ..........
Citrus ............................ Jamaica


B eet .. .... .. .... ..
Citrus ............................
Citrus ............................
Palm ..............................
Palm ..............................
Soursop ...................
Apple ..............
Plum .... ....... ...
Cassava ........................
Y am ... ..... ..... .
Citrus ............................ I
Avocado ........................
YaCoffee ............................ I

Yram ..............................

Grape js i ..................
Mintr ............................. I
Moon vine ....................

Jessamine ....................


Cuba
Florida
Spain ...........
Georgia .....:...
Louisiana ....._
Cuba ..........
South Crln..
Georgia ........
Cuba ..........
Africa
Alabama ........
Florida .....__
Brazil .........I
Africa
Florida
Florida
Texas .........
Alabama ......
Florida ..
Florida ......
Unknown


Acalypha .. ............ ICuba .....__
Corn .............................. C b

Cactus ..............Florida


Fig ................................
Geranium ......................
Hibiscus ........................
Peach ...
Rose...
Coconut ...........
Palm .. ...............
Palm ..............................
Rose ...
Beet ...












I I Number of
Insect or Disease Occurring on Fo hpet
I i IInfested


1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2


Unknown seeds ............
Boxwood ..........
Citrus ............................
Citrus ............................
Coconut ...........
Palm ........................;......
Palm ..................~............
R ose ....... .. .. ...
Rubber plant ................
Chrysanthemum ..........
Croton ............
Avocado .......~.................
Avocado ........................
Guava ..
Grape ..........~ ... .
Unknown ......................
Citrus .............. .
Grape ............. .
Grape .. ............. .
Geramium ....
B irch .... .... .... ..
Cof fee ............................
Palm .. .............-..
Pittosporum nigri........
Soursop ........................
Unknown plant ..........
Palm ..............................
Y am .. .... .. .. ....

B eet ... ... .....
Avocado ....... ................ I
Fern ............. .................
Palm ............. ......... ...... /

Y am ............
Tree gourd ~...............
Cotton .... .....
Cof fee ...... ..... ..
Grape ............................
Hibiscus ........................
,Soursop ........................
iB eet ....... .... .. ..
B eets ....... ......
Croton ...... .. ... .
Croton ........... .
Hibiscus ........................
Unknown plant ..........
Citrus ............................
Coleus ... ...........
Coleus .. .. ....... ..
Soursop ...........
Unknown plant ............
Acalypha ...... ...............
Citrus ...........~................
Mamey .......... ...............
G uava .... ..... .. ...
Apple ............................
Blackberry ..................
Figr ........................ .......


Third Biennial Report


Drug store beetle........
Florida red scale.... .. ..
Florida red scale..........
Florida red scale..........
Florida red scale..........
Florida red scale..........
Florida red scale..........
Florida red scale..........
Florida red scale..........
Florida wax scale........
Florida wax scale........
Florida whitefly .. .... .
Florida whitefly .. ... ..
Florida white ly ..........
Gloomy scale .. ...... ..
Gloomy scale ... ..... ..
Glover's ~scale ..............
Grape root-worm ........
Grape phylloxera ........
Greedy scale ... ...... ..
Gypsy moth ....... ..
Hemisphaerical scale
Hemisphaerical scale
Hemisphaerical scale
Hemisphaerical scale
Hemisphaerical scale
Hemipteron egg mass
Hemipteron nymph......
Hippelates pallidus
Loew ........ ...
Ivy Scale ......................
Ivy Scale ......................
Ivy Scale ......................
Laemophloeus pusil-
lus Sch. ...... ..
Latania scale ....... ......
Leaf-hopper .. .............
Leaf -miner .. ...
Lesser snow-scale ........
Lesser snow-scale ........
Lesser snow-scale ....
Lonchaea polita Say..
Long-tailed mealy-bug
Long-tailed mealy-bug
Long-tailed mealy-bug
Long-tailed mealv-bug
Long-tailed mealy-bug
Long scale ........... ........
Mealy-bug ....................
Mealy-bug ....................
Mealy-bug ....................
Mealy-bug ....................
Mining scale ................
Mining scale ................
Mining scale ....... ........
Mulberry whitefly........
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....


Spain ....................
Louisiana ............
Cuba ..........
Florida ........._.....
Florida ................
Florida .......
Unknown .....
Cuba ..........
Florida ................
Alabama .............
Florida .......
Cuba .........
1Florida .......
Florida .. .............
South Carolina....
South Carolina....
Spain ........._........
North Carolina....
New York .~...........
Florida ......~..........
Massachusetts ....
Cuba .........
iMassachusetts ....
iCalifornia ............
Cuba .........
Florida ........._.....
Florida ...............
Africa ..................

Cuba ....... ..
Cuba .........
Florida ................
Unknown ............

Africa .... ...
Cuba ..... ....
Spain ............. ....
Cuba ....................
Florida .......
Unknown _.....
Cuba .........
Cuba .........
Cuba ................
Florida .......
Pennsylvania ...
Florida ........
Florida .......
Florida .. ....
Maryland ............
O hio ..........
Cuba ...........
Georgia ................
Cuba .........
Cuba ..........
Cuba ....................
Florida ...............
Alabama ..............
North Carolina...
Alabama .... .. .






















































































_


State Plant Board


Number of
Shipments
Infested
12
6
1
3
1
1
1
5
6
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
10
8
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1


Occurring on


From

Florida .......
Georgia ........._._...
North Carolina....
South Carolina....
Texas ........
Alabama ........._....
Alabama ..............
Florida ...........~.....
Georgia .........__....
Mississippi .....~....
Alabama ........._....
Florida........
Florida ................
Georgia .........__....
Maine.........
M~aine ........
Maine ........
South Carolina....
Louisiana ............
Florida ........._._...
Georgia ................
Pennsylvania ......
Mexico ........._.......
Cuba .........
Florida ........

Cuba ..........
Spain ....................
Africa ..................
Cuba .........
Cuba ..........
Georgia ...............
Africa ................
Cuba ...... ..
Florida ........
Honduras ............
Florida ................
Florida ................
Cuba .. ........
Unknown .....
Florida ................
Florida .......
Florida ................
Georgia ................
Georgia ..~..............
Florida .......
British Honduras
Alabama ..............
Maine ........
Connecticut ........
Cuba .........
Honduras ............
Florida ................
Florida ................
Florida ................
Alabama ..............
Virginia ..............
Ohio ......................
Massachusetts ....


Insect or Disease

Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Noctuid moth ..............
Oyster-shell scale ........
Oyster-shell scale ........
Oyster-shell scale ........
Palm scale ....................
Peach-tree borer..........
Peach-tree borer..........
Peach-tree borer..........
Phyllocoptes sp. ..........
Pineapple mealy-bug ..
Pineapple scale ............
Pseuda;Lonidia tesse-
ratac Dec. ..................
Pseudoscorpion ..........
Pseudoscorpion .......-.-.
Psocid ............................
Purple mite ..................
Purple scale .. ...... ..
Purple scale .. ...... ..
Purple scale .. ...... ..
Purple scale .. ....... ..
Purple scale .. ...... ..
Pustule scale ... ...... ..
Pustule scale ................
Pustule scale ................
Putnam's Scale ............
Pyriform scale .... .... .
Red bay scale..... ..... ..
Red bay scale..... ..... ..
Red spider ....................
Red spider ....................
Rice weevil .. ....... ..
Rice weevil ..................
Rose~ scale ....................
Rose scale ....................
Rose slug ......................
Rufous scale ................
Rufous scale ................
Rufous scale ................
Rufous scale ................
Rufous scale ................
San Jose scale..............
San; Jose scale..............
San Jose scale..............
San: Jose scale..............


Fig ............~....................
Fig ............... .
Fig ............... .
Fig ................................
Grape ............................
Mulberry ......................
Peach ..... ..... .. ...
Peach ........ .... .

Peach ............................
Pecach ............................
Pecan ..
Pecn .............................
Plum ..............................
P l m .................
ose ...............................
Asrh ................................
Birc ...............................
Figm ...............................
Pealmc ...............
Peach ............................
Peach ............................

Cereus ........... ..
Pineapple ..
Palm .... ............. .

Acalypha ......................
Citrus .. ............. .
Yam ..
S our sop .. ...~....... .
Citrus ............................
Boxwood ...........
Citrus ............................
Citrus ............................
Citrus ............................
Citrus ............................
Holly ..............................
01eander............
Orchid .............
Plum ..............................
Honeysuckle ................
Jacob's ladder ..............
Magnolia ......................
Begonia ........... .
Pepper ..........................
Sweet potato ................
Y am .. ... ........ .
R ose .... ... .........
R ose ........ ........
R ose .. ... .. .. ... ...
Citrus ............................
Citrus ............................
Croton ..... ... ....
R ose .. ... .... ... ..
Unknown ......................
Apple ............................
Cherry ..........................
Currant ...........
Hydrangea ........














Insect or Disease


San Jose scale..............
San Jose scale..............
San Jose scale..............
San Jose scale..............
San Jose scale..............
San Jose scale..............
San Jose scale..............
San Jose scale..............
San Jose scale..............
San Jose seale..............
San Jose scale..............
San Jose scale..............
San Jose scale..............
San Jose scale..............
San Jose scale..............
San Jose scale..............
San Jose scale..............
San Jose scale... ..........
San Jose scale..............
Scurfy scale ................
Soft brown scale..........
Soft brown scale..........
Soft brown scale..........
Soft brown scale..........
Soft scale .......-............
S f clSoft scale ....................

Soursop mealy-bug....
Spider mite ..................
Spiny citrus whitefly..
Staphylinid beetle ......
Sweet potato scarabee
Sweet potato weevil....
Sweet potato weevil....
Sweet potato weevil.:...
Tent caterpillar ..........
Termites ..........
Thrips ........... ..
Thrips
Tortoise beetle ............
Tortoise beetle ............
Tyroglyphidae ......
Tussock moth _......
Walnut scale ... ...........
Walnut scale ... ........... .
Walnut scale ... ........... .
Walnut scale ... 1........ ..
Weevil larvae _......
West Indian fruit fly..
West Indian peach-
scale .......... ..
Whitefly ...........~.............
Whitefly ........................
Whitefly ........................
Whitefly ........................
Whitefly ........................
White peach-scale........
White peach-scale....
White peach-scale....


Third Biennial Report


|Number of
Occurring on From Shipments
Infested
Peach ............................ Alabama ......... 1
Peach ................~............I Florida ......... 3
Peach ............................ IGeorgia ................ 5
Peach ............................ Mississippi .......... 2
Peach ............................ Ohio ...................... 1
Peach ............................ Pennsylvania ...... 1
Peach ............................I North Carolina....l 1
Peach ............................I South Carolina....l 2
Peach ............................ IVirginia .............. 1
Plum ............................ Florida ................1 2
Plum ............................ Georgia ................ 4
Plum ............................ Mississippi ..........I 1
Plum ............................ INorth Carolina....l 1
Plum ............................ Ohio ............. ....... 1
Rose ....... ....................... Alabama ............. 1
Rose .............................. Florida ................ 1
Rose .............................. Georgia ................ 1
Rose .............................. ISouth Carolina....l 1
Rose .............................. Unknown ..~......... 1
Cherry .......................... Virginia .............. 1
Fern .............................. Massachusetts .... 1
01eander ........~............. I Florida ................ 1
Palm ...........................--- Florida ................ 2
Soursop .....................--- Cuba .................... 1
Beet ...........~................... Cuba ....................I 1
Herbaceous plants ...... New Jersey ........ 1
Palm .............................. Africa .................. 1
Soursop ................------. ICuba ................ ... 1
Croton ......................... IFlorida ................I 1
Citrus ....................------~ ICuba ....................I 1
Yam ....................... ---.. Span. Honduras..l 1
Sweet potato ....... .. ... IPorto Rico .......... 1
Sweet potato ....... .. --ICuba ....................I 5
Sweet potato ....... ..... Florida ................I 1
Sweet potato ........... :Texas ....................I 1
Birch ~....................... /Maine ..................] 1
Sweet potato ........ ..... -Florida ................ 1
Chrysanthemum ...--- ---West Virginia...... 1
Rose ................... ........ Connecticut ........ 1
Citrus ....------------- ..... -Cuba .................... 1
Guava ................. ........... Cuba .................... 1
Cassava ............. .......... ICuba .................... 1
Unknown plant ..---- ----- Massachusetts .... 1
Currant ........... ......... Miassachusetts .... 1
Peach ........... ............... ISouth Carolina.... 1
Pear ............. ...... ........ Florida ...............~ I 1
Plum ------------ ----- ------... Florida 1
Sweet potato ....- Cuba ...|:.I:I::: 1
Guava ..... ---Cuba ....................i 1

Persimmon ... ... ....... [Florida .......:........ I 1
Citrus ...----...... ..... ..... Alabama .............. 1
Citrus ...~........... ... ....... Fllorida ...... ......... 4
Jasmine ....... ...........~.. Florida ........I 1
Salvia ............... Ohio ...................... I 1
Unknown .. ........... Cuba ....................|I 1
Peach .........~..... IFlorida ............._ ) 3
Pecan ...... ......Florida ................| 2
Persimmon ......Florida ..............I 3











Number of
Insect or Disease Occurring on From Shipments
Infested
White peach-scale........ IPlum .............................. IFlorida ................ 1
Withertip .... ........... Citrus ............................ Cuba .................... 2
Withertip .... .......... Citrus ............................ Florida .............. 1
Woolly apple aphis...... Apple ............................ INorth Carolina.... 1
Woolly whitefly ... .... .Citrus ............................ ICuba .................... 1
Woolly whitefly ...^...... Guava .. .............. IFlorida ...~............. 1
Yam scale ...........Yam .. Africa ............... 2
Yam scale .......... Yam ........................ ISpan. Honduras.. 1


IN 1VAIL SHIPMENTS


Number of
Shipments
Infested
1
1
1

1
1

1
1
1
2
2
4
1
2
6
87
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
18
'3
6
2
2
2
1
2
1
10
1
4
1
2


Insect or Disease

Aphid ............................
Aphid ............................
Aphid ............................
Aspidiotus cocoti-pha-
gus Marl. ..................
Aspidiotus subsimzilis
var. anonse..
Aspridiotus sp. ..............
Aspidistra scale ..........
Bag-worm ....................
Chaff scale ..................
'Chaff scale ..~................
Common mealy-bug ....
Common mealy-bug ....
Common whitefly ........
Crown gall ..................
Crown gall ..................
Crown gall ................
Florida red scale..........
Florida red scale .........
Florida red scale..........
Ivy scale ......................
Latania scale .... .........
Latania scale .....
Lecanium corni ..........
Lesser snow-scale ........
Mining scale ........._......
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot...
Nematode root-knot ....


State Plant Board


Occurring on From

Herbaceous plant ........ Florida ...~........~.~..
Rose ............... ................ Pennsylvania ...~...
Rose ...............~................ Unknown ....

Coconut .............Cuba .........
Royal poinciana ......Cuba .........

Fig ................................I South Carolina....
Fern .............................. Ohio .... .................
Apple ............................ IAlabama ..............
Citrus ............................ Cuba .........
Citrus ............................ Florida ........~.......|
Coleus ...............Ohio ............. ..... .. I
Herbaceous plant .....Florida .......
Citrus ........................... Florida........
Chrysanthemum .......... Ohio .. ......... ..
Rose .............................. Ohio ..i. .........) I
Rose ........ .... South Carolina....|
Ivy ..... ... ... Florida ......
Mango ..........;. .. .... ...~. Florida ... .........~.. 1
,Oleander .....~..... .......... Florida ..~.............I
Palm .................. ..... ..... Illinois .. ...........
F ig ... .............Florida ......
Rose ....... ...................... Florida ..........
Cherry ..........................I Unknown ............
Royal poinciana .......... Cuba ..........
Pomegranate .............. Cuba ............ _....
Begonia ........................ Florida ........i
SBegonia ........................ Ohio ......................[
Begonia ......~................ Unknown ......... ..
Chrysanthemum .......... Ohio .......~......~....~..
Coleus ............................ Ohio ......................
Fig ................ ...........~..... Florida ...............
Fig ................................ Georgia ...............
Fig ................SuhCrln.
Geranium ...................... Ohio .....................
Grape ............................ Georgfia .._..........~..
Grape ............................ I owa .........
Hibiscus ........~........... .... IFlorida ... ...
Hibiscus ........................ IOhio ......................
Moon flower ................I Ohio ......................
Peach ......................~...... Florida ...............
Peach ............................I Georgia ...............
Raspberry ....................| Florida .......













Number of
Shipments
Infested


Insect or Disease


Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Purple scale ................
Purple scale .......
Palm scale ..............
Palmetto scale .....
Pustule scale ......
Pustule scale........
Putnam scale ..............
Putnam scale ..............
Red-necked cane-borer
Rose scale .........
Rose scale .........
Rose scale .. ...........
Rufous scale ................
San Jose scale..............
San Jose scale..............
San Jose scale..............
San Jose sae.......
Soft brown sae.....
Soft brown sae.....
Soft brown scale..........
Soft brown scale..........
W hitef ly .. .......... .....
W hitefly ............
Whitefly .. ....~...... .
Whitefly .. ...
White peach sae....


QUARANTINE INSPECTOR's SUMMARY

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING APRIL 30, 1920

SHIPS AND VESSELS INSPECTED:
From foreign ports.................. .............. ........ 2458
From U. S. ports other than Florida................ 1166
From Florida ports................ ...................... 880
Total ................~........... ............... 4504
NUMBER OF PARCELS INSPECTED:
Arriving by water:
Passed ........~............. ............... ....258
Treated and passed......................................39
Returned to shipper.................................... 1733
Contraband destroyed .................................. 1921
Total ..................................................... 322532%~
Arriving by land--Express, Freight, Wagon, etc.:
Passed .................... ..................... 7835%
Treated and passed...............~.............. ..... 130%1
Returned to shipper.................................. 3092%~
Contraband destroyed ..........~.................... 401%/
Total .................... .................. .11460%.
Arriving by mail:
Passed ........................ ................. 1899%~
Treated and passed....... ..._........................ 70
Returned to shipper.................................... 111


Third Biennial Report


Occurring on From i

Rose ................G o g a .
Rose ...............Ohio .............
Salvia ............................ Ohio .............
Violet ..............Ohio ............
Violet ............................I Unknown
Wistaria ...................... Ohio ............
Citrus ............................ Cuba
Citrus ............................ IFlorida
Palm ................Florida.
Palmetto ........~.............. Florida
Holly ............................ Florida
Oleander ........................ Florida ....._ .
Grape ............................ Unknown .......
Walnut .~........................ Georgia ......__
Blackberry .................. INew Jersey .....
Blackberry .............. California
Rose .............. ................ Alabama ......_
Rose ...............~.....~........ Rhode Island ....
Croton ... ...................... Cuba
Apple ............................ I ndiana ......__
Peach ............................ Florida
Peach ............................ ISouth Carolina..
Rose .............................. Unknown ......
Cape jasmine ............ IFlorida
Citrus ............................ Florida .........
Cut flowers .................. IFlorida .........
Ivy ......~.....~.~~..~~............ IFlorida
Citrus ....................... .... Cuba ...........
Citrus ............................ IFlorida .::::::::
Cut flowers ........ ......... loida n .
Unknown shrub .......... Wisconsin .. |.....
Unknown plant ............ Florida .. ........ I








28 State Plant Board


Contraband destroyed .................................. 22%
T otal ..............- -..... ............................... 2103
GRAND TOTAL OF PARGELS INSPECTED...................................... 336095%/
Number of parcels on hand April 30, 1920, pending determination
as to final disposition................. 63
TOTAL NUMBER OF PARCELS PASSED................................... 285518%~
TOTAL NUMBER OF PARCELS TREATED AND PASSED.............. 43295%
TOTAL NUMBER OF PARCELS RETURNED TO SHIPPER............ 4936%h
CONTRABAND DESTROYED ..............--. .... ...... .............. 2345%/
TOTAL .........--------------.. ..... ............ 336095$1

PESTS AND DISEASES INTERCEPTED

In Shipments by all Means of Transportatiion except Parcel Post
I I Number of
Insect or Disease Occurring on From ]Shipments
_I i _IInfested
American elm scale...... Elm .................I w .......... 1
Ants ............................- (Packing ............. Oklahoma ............ 1
Ants .............................. ISugar cane .. .... .....I Cuba ...............~..... 3
Aphids .. ...~.......--- Cedar ............................ Jaapan .......... 2
Aspidiotus sp. .............. Palm .~..........................-- ICuba .................... 1
Aspidiotus sp. (?)...... Spanish lime ................ Bahamas .............. 1
Aspidiotus destructor
Sign. .. ..-........-- Almond .......................... I~sle of Pines........ 1
Aspidiotus destructor
Sig n. .......................... Cast or bean .................. Cuba ........... 1
Aspidiotus destructor
Sign. .. ...... ....---- Palm ...........................-. Cuba .................... 32
Aspidiotus destructor
Sign. .......-...-- Palm .............................. I~sle of Pines........ 3
Aspidiotus destructor
Sig n. .......................... Palm ............................- IPorto Rico _............ 1
Aspidiotus destructor
Sign. ... ...---- Silk oak ........................ ICuba .... ...............I 1
Aspidliotus orientalis
Newst. .. asmine ........................ IFlorida ................ 1
Aspidiotus orientalis
Newst. ..Murraya exotica ... ...... Cuba .................... 1
Aspidiotus orientalis
Newst. ..........-- 01Oeander ...................... Florida ................ 1
Aspidiotus orientalis
Newst. ...... ....--- Palm ................C b .......... 50
Aspidiotus orientalis
Newst. ...................... IPalm ....Il fPns.... 1
Aspidiotus orientalis
Newst. ...........~...........I Palm ....N sa ........ 2
Aspidiotus orientalis
Newst. ............I Tabernmemontana sp. Florida ................ 1
Aspidiotus orientalis
Newst. ............. Unknown ............Florida ............... [ 1












Number of
Shipments
Infested





From


Insect or Disease Occurring on


Aspidistra scale .......... Palm ..............................
Aspidistra scale .......... Palm ..............................
Asterolecanium sp....... Palm .. ... ............
Asterolecanium sp....... Sapodilla ~. ....... .. .
Bamboo scale ..............I Bamboo ............
Bamboo scale ..............I Bamboo ...........
Beetle ............................ Packing ........................
Beetle ...............~............. Sweect potato ................
Beetle ............................ IUnknown bulb ......
Bephrat ecubensia .~..... Soursop ....~....................
Black fly (Aleurocan-
thus woglumi
Ashby) .........._.....Ctu .............
Black fly (Aleurocan-
thus woglumi
Ashby) ..................I Mango ..........................
Black fly (Aleurocan-
thus woglumi
Ashby) .........._...... JSpanish lime ................
Black scale........~.......~.....Amn ............
Black scale.................... ICitrus ............................
Black scale.................... IOleander ...,.......
Black scale.................... ISoursop ........................
Black scale..... .............. IUnknown seed pods ....
Black melanose ............ Citrus ............................
Black thread scale ...... Palm ....................~..........
Black weevil ................1 Corn ..............................
Blue mold .................... IYam ...............
Boisduval's scale ........ Corozo ............
Boisduval's scale ..~......Orchid ............
Boisduval's scale ........ Palm ........~......... ............
Boisduval's scale ........ Palm ................. ............
Bruchu~s sp. ............... IDivi Divi ......................
Cactus scale ..........~...... Cactus ............
Cardin's whitefly ........ Guava ............................
Chaff scale ................ ICitrus .......~.....................
Chaff scale ................ 1Citrus ............................
Chaff scale ..............~...... Citrus .. .....~........
Chaff scale ... ....~......~.....I Citrus ~.. ............ .
Chaff scale .................... ICroton.
Chaff scale .................... Mango ............ ..
Cherry scale ....~............ ICherry ..........................
Cherry scale ................ IPlum ..............................
Cherry scale ................I Plum .. .............. .
Cherry scale ................I Plum .. .............. .
Cherry scale .............. IQuince ......~......
Chionaspis sp. ... .~...Citrus ............................
Chrysomphalus sp. ...... Hemlock ........ ...............
Citrus scab ...........~....... Citrus .....~....... ................
Cladosporium carpo-
philum Thum. .......... Peach ......~...... .. .............
Coconut mealy-bug......] Palm .............. ...............
Coconut mealy-bug......l Soursop ...... ;...............
Coleopteron ........._....... Sugar cane .................
Common mealy-bug .... Mint ..............................
Common whitefly ........ Cape jasmine ........._....
Common whitefly ...~.... Citrus ................~...........
Common whitefly ....Jasmine ..~......................
Common whitefly ........ Jasmine ............


IJamaica .......

Panama ..............
Alabamas .... ........I
Cuba ............I
Florida ......_..
Oklahoma.
Florida ....I::::~
Cuba ...
Cuba .............


Cuba ....


Cuba ...


Bahamas .....I
IOklahoma ......
Cuba ...
Florida .
Nassall ........I
Jamaica ....._.
Cuba .~.........
Cuba j....:........
Cuba ;.............
Cuba ...
Tennessee .....I
Cuba ............I

Dominican uaasu;-Rep..

Cuba ...........
Cuba ............
Isle of Pines.....
Japan ..
Mexico .
Cuba .
Cuba ............
Florida
Florida

North Carolina...
Georgia ........._..
Cuba .......
New York ........
Cuba ....... ........

Tennessee ......_
Cuba .... ..
Nassau .
Cuba ...............
Cuba ...

Florida .
Florida ..
Georgia .............


Third Bienrnial Report











Number of
Shipments
Infested


SFrom ]


Insect or Disease Occurring on

Common whitefly ........ Jessamine ...
Common whitefly .... rvt.....
Common whitefly ........ Unknown plant ..........
Corn ear-worm ............ Sweet corn ........
Cottony cushion-scale.. Rose ..............................
Crown gal.. .....Peach .............
Crown gall..... .......... Peach ............................ (
Crown gall..... ......... IRaspberry .................. ..
Crown gall.................... Rose ..
Crown gall.................... Rose................
Crown gall... oe......................... Rs
Crown gall..... ......... Stephanotis sp. ............
Crown gall....................I Unknown ......................
Cyanophyllum scale .... Laurel .~.........................
Cyanophyllum scale Palm ..............................
Dermestid lanrva... ..... Unknown ...........
Dictyospermum scale.. Citrus ............................ I
Dictyospermum scale .. Palm ..............................
Dictyospermum scale .. Palm ..............................
Dictyospermum scale .. Palm ..............~................
Dictyospermum scale .. Palm ................~.............
Dictyospermum scale .. Palm ...............,...............
Dictyospermum scale .. Rose ...............
Dictyospermum scale .. Unknown seed pods....
Dinoderus minutus
Fabr. ... ......................I Sugar cane ..................
Dipolodia sp. .................. Palm ..............................
Diplodia sp. ..................] Palm ....................... ......
Diptera ............. Sugar cane ..................
Dipterous pupae .. ... ..Naarcissus ............ .........
Euonymus scale............j Euonymus ....................
Fire blight .................... IPear ..............
Florida red scale..........l Citrus ............................
Florida red scale..........l Citrus ..............~..............
Florida red scale..........l Palm ......~........................
Florida red scale..~........ Palm ..............................
Florida red scale..........l Poinsettia. .............~.......
Florida red scale..........l Rose ..............
Florida red scale..~.......l Rose...............
Florida wax-scale-i... Unknown ...............~.......
Florida whitefly............l Spanish lime .. ...._.
Glover's scale .............. Citrus .. ............. ..
Gray mold ....................j Lemon ............ ..
Greedy scale .. ......... Loquat .............~.......~.....
Hemichionaspis sp....... Bobug tree ....................
Hemichionaspis sp.......| Palm ... .... ...........
Hemichionaspis sp....... Tulip tree ......~................
Hemichionaspis sp....... Unknown leaf ..............
Hemichionaspis minor
Mask. ........................ Palm ......~........~................
Hemipteron .. .~...... I Unknown ......................
Hemisphaerical scale .. Bryophyllum sp. ....~....
Hemisphaerical scale .. Palm ...................~....~......
Hemisphaerical scale .. Sugar cane .........._....
Hymenopteron ....... Palm ..............................
Ivy scale .. ........... [Palm ..............................
Ivy scale .......... .............. Palm ......~........... .....~........
Ivy scale ...................... IPalm ......~.......................
Ivy scale ...:..........~........ Palm .......~.... ...~.............


Florida .
Alabam .
Florida .

Florida .....__

Georgia .........
Wisconsin
Florida .
New Jersey .....
South Carolina....
Florida .........
Georgia .........
Cuba
Florida.
Mexico.
Spain (?) ......:
Canary Islands....
Cuba ..-........
Florida .........
Nicaragua ......
Unknown
Cuba
Jamaica

Cuba ... ....~.... ..~.
Cuba
Isth. of Panama..
Cuba
France.
.Georgia .........
Louisiana .......
Cuba ... ... ....... ....
Florida .... .
Cuba
Wisconsin .......
Florida ...~.....
Cuba ...........
Florida
|Bermuda ........
Florida
JJapan ..........
Isle of Pines......
Florida.
Isle of Pines... ...l
Isth. of Panama..
Cuba ........ .
Cuba ........

Cuba ..........
Cuba ....................
Cuba ..........
Nassau ........
IFlorida
iCuba
Alabama ._......
Cuba
Florida
Georgia .........


State Plamt Board








Third Biennial Report 31


I I Number of
Insect or Disease Occurring oa I From 1Shipments
I I Infested
Iv y scale ............Pa lm ....... .................. ..--- I~ndiana ................ 1
Latania scale.....;........... Almond ......... .............. ICuba ........... 1
Latania scale................ Aralia ...........-.-I Cuba ........... 1
Latania scale...............( Fig ................. IMississippi .......... 1
Latania scale................( Grape ..........-.-..1Florida ........ 1
Latania scale................I Mango ..Cuba ....................\ 1
Latania scale................ Palm ..................---..~..... -Alabama ..............I 1
Latania scale................I Palm .. ... ..Cuba ...|........ 4
Latania scale................ Palm ...._ .......------Ilsth. of Panama..j 1
Latania scale.___.....~...... IPear ..........----- Louisiana ............( 1
Latania scale................ Pecan ... ......------Mississippi ..........| 1
Latania scale................I Plum .... Cua....................-- ub 1
Latania scale................I Plume cedar ................ ITexas 1
Latania scale. ...... .......I Rose ..................~.....-.-- ----Florida ......... 3
Latania scale................( Rose ... ... South Carolina.... 1
Latania scale................I Sapodilla ..Nassau .............1 .|:::::::: 1
Latania scale..... .... Soursop ..I Cuba ......... 1
Latania scale.......... Tabernaemontana sp... Florida ....... 1
Latania scale........~.......I Unknown seed pods.... Jamaica .. 1
Lecaniinae .................... [Citrus .......----......-------- Cuba ........ .........| 1
Lecaniodiaspis tessel-
latus Ckll. ................( Privet _............|Alabama ... 1
LecaniumL sp. ........I Cherry .................-.-.-..... California .......... 1
Lepidopterous larva.... Sugar cane ..................! Cuba ............ 1
Lepidopterous larva.... Yam ... .......................... Georgetown, G.C. i 1
Lepidosaphes sp.... ... ..Plum .. ......................-- Ohio .......... ...
Lepidosaphe's alba
Ckl1. ........... .-.Cassava .....................-. -Bahamas ... ........ | 1
Lesser snow scale........l Bryophyllum sp. .Cua........ ..... 1
Lesser snow scale........l Hibiscus ............ ICuba .. ..... ......... 1
Lesser snow scale........l Hibiscus ..........-- Florida ..... .......1 2
Lesser snow scale .......l Jasmine ........................ Florida .,.... .......1 1
Lesser snow scale........ Lime .............---Mexico ........ 1
Lesser snow scale...... .Palm ................Cuba ..........i 5
Lesser snow scale....... Palm .. ~......................------Haiti 1
Lesser snow scale........ Palm ..... -..........- I~sle of Pines........ 1
Lesser snow scale........ Palm ~~............. .. Nassau ..::: .. .. ..... I 1
Lesser snow scale........l Soursop .. Cuba ...... .. .. .....| 4
Long scale ....................I Citrus .........~ ... ..Mexico .... .. .......... 1
Long-tailed mealy-bug IUnknown ........... ICuba ._...... ........... I 1
Maggots ....... ................. Mango ............... Cuba .......... ......... / 1
Mango shield scale..... Mango ...........--- ICuba .. ................~ | 2
Mango shield scale......l Tabernaemontana sp.~. Cuba ................... 1
Mealy-bug .................... Banana ..Canar IIslands....| 1
Mealy-bug .. ............... Banana Cb .........I 2
Mealy-bug .. ............... Citrus --...........~ Cuba ........... ........ | 1
Mealy-bug .. ~..............] Croton ............. I Cuba ................1... 2
Mealy-bug ..... .......... IJasmine ............. Florida ................ 1
Mealy-bug .. ..... ......... Palm ............... Cuba ........... ........ I 1
Mealy-bug ..... ........... IStephanotis sp. ......... Florida ...... ......... 1
Mealy-bug ...... ..~....... ISugar cane Cb .................. Cb 3
Mealy-bug ....:I... ~....... Sweet potato .Nassau ......... 1
Mealy-bug ........ ........ Unknown .Calif ornia .......... 1
Mining scale ....~... .......I Australian pine .. ua.......... ........ 1
Mining scale ...... ......... iCanistel ............ ICuba ...........1
M ining scale ...... .........( Citrus ......... ...............I Cuba ..........] 2
Mining scale ...... .......... Soursop ............. Cuba ......... 2
Mining scale ...... .........) Tabernaemontana sp... Cuba ..... ..... 1
Mining scale ...... .......( Unknown ...... ... Bermuda ...~........~.. 1














Number of
Shipments
Infested


From

Cuba
Nassau .
Cuba.
Cuba
Nassau ......_
Alabama ......_
Florida
Georgia .....__
Mississippi .
South Carolina....
Tennessee .......
Texas
Florida
Florida
Georgia ......_
Texas
Unknown
Texas
Florida
Alabama ......_
Florida
Florida
Georgia ......_
Florida
Georgia ......_
New York ....._
Georgia ....._.
Mississippi ......
Georgia ....._.


I


State Plant Board


Insect or Disease

Mining scale~ ................
Mining scale ................
M ite .... ....... .. ..
Moth borer ..................
Moth borer ..................
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ..,.
Nematode root-knot ....
Odonaspis sp. ... .. .
Oyster shell scale........
Oyster shell scale........
Peach tree borer..........
Peach tree borer..........
Plum curculio ..............
Pseudaonidia tesserata
De Charm. ................
Peeudaonidia tesserata
De Charm. ................
Pseudischnespis ali-
enus Newst. ..............
Pseudischnaspis ali-
enus Newat. ...~...........
Pseudischnaspis a~li-
enus Newst. ..............
Pseudischnaspis ali-
enus Newst. ..............
Pseudischnaspis ali-
enus Newst. ..............
Pseudischnaspis ali-
enus Newst. ..............
Pseudischnaspis ali-
enus Newst ........
Pseudischnaspis a~li-
enus Newst. ..............
Pseudococcus bro-
meliae Bouche ..........
Pseudoperlatoria par-
latorioides Comst.....
Pseudoscorpion _..........
Pseudoscorpion _..........
Purple scale ..... ..........
Purple scale ..... ..........
Purple scale ...............
Purple scale ..............


Occurring on

Unknown ......................
Unknown ......................
Unknown .........~.............
Sugar cane ................
Sugar cane .....~.............
Fig ................................
Fig ................................
Fig ............... .
Fig ............... .
Fig ............... .
Fig ................................
Fig ............................~....
Ornamental .....~.............
Peach .......... ...
Peach .
Peach ..
Peach .. -- ...... ...
Plume cedar ...............
Poinsettia .........
Pomegranate.......
R ose ... .......... .
Unknown ....................~.
Unknown -- .........
A grass plant................
Fig .... ....... .....
Unknown .......... .
Peach ...
Peach .
Peach .


Vtine ......--------- Cuba

Unknown tree .............. Isle of Pines....

Caladium ........--............. Cuba ......_.

Chinaberry ----------.----_ Cuba .........~.

Guava ................~............ Cuba ....._ ..


Jasmine


----- ..... Cuba


Palm ................... .......... ICuba ...........

Rose ........................... Cuba .


R ose ......... ....

Unknown ..............

Banana ..........................

Unknown tree .............
P alm ...... ........
Y am ......... ......
Citrus ............................
C itrus .... .........
Citrus ............................
Citrus ............................


Florida

Cuba

Cuba

Nassau
Unknown
Georgetown, G.C.
Alabama ....._.
Argentina
Cuba
Florida .........









Third Biennial Report 33


SNumber of
Insect or Disease Occurring on From Shipments
Infested

Purple scale ................I Citrus .................~........... Isle of Pines......../ 4
Purple scale ................I Citrus ............................ Louisiana ........... 1
Purple scale ................I Citrus ............................ Nassau ................ 1
Purple scale ................I Citrus ...............Nicaragua .......... 1
Purple scale ................I Citrus ...................... ..... ISpain (?) ..........I 1
Purple scale .........Citrus ........................ 1Unknown ............|' 1
Purple scale ................ Murraya exotica ........ Cuba .................... 1
Pustule scale ................I Hibiscus ........................ ICuba ....... ... 1
Pustule scale ................ Jasmine ........................ Cuba ..... .. 1
Pustule scale ................I Oleander ...................... ICuba ..... .. 1
Pustule scale ................I Oleander ...................... Florida ...... ........ 2
Pustule scale ................I Stephanotis sp. ..........:.. Florida ................ 1
Pustule scale ................I Tasbernaemontana sp... Florida ........._.... 1
Pustule scale ................I Unknown ......................Cuba ........... 1
Putnam's scale ............ Cherry ..............North Carolina.... 1
Putnam's scale ............ Unknown ...................... INorth Carolina.... 1
Pyriform scale ............ Iscora .......~.........~........... IBermuda ............ 1
Red bay scale................ IHemlock ...................~..... IFlorida ................ 2
Rhyzoglyphus sp. ........ Narcissus .................~....I China .......... 1
Rhyzoglyphus sp. ........ Narcissus ...................... IFrance ................ 4
Rice weevil ..................1 Corn ..............~................ Nassau ......... 1
Rice weevil ..................I Unknown bulb ..~.......... Cuba ....................( 1
Rind disease ................I Sugar cane ..................I Cuba ........... 2
Rind disease .....~........... Sugar cane ......~............ Isle of Pines........ 1
Rose scale ....................I Berry ............................ New York ......... ..I 1
Rose scale ...........Blackberry ..................I Michigari ....... 1
Rose scale ....................I Raspberry (?) ............ North Carolina.... 1
Rose scale .................... Rhubus sp. ..................I Georgia ................1 1
Rose scale .................... IRhubus sp. ..................I Rhode Island........ 1
Rose scale .................... IRose ... .......................... IGeorgia ............_. 1
Rose scale .................... Rose ...............Ilios ................I 1
Rose scale ...........Rose .............................- IUnknown ............I 1
Rufous scale ................I Citrus ............................I Cuba .................... 6
Rufous scale ................) Citrus ............................ I~sle of Pines........ 1
Rufous scale ................I Citrus ...........~................. Mexico ................1 3
Rufous scale ................ 1Citrus ............................I Nassau ................ 1
Rufous scale ................I Citrus ............................ INicaragua .......... 1
Rufous scale ................1 Citrus ............................ IUnknown ........._. 1
Rufous scale ................I Coffee ............................ 1Cuba .................... 1
Rufous scale ................I Croton ........................-- Cuba .................... 2
Rufous scale ................I Jasmine ........................ ICuba .................... 1
Rufous scale ................I Oleander ......................I Florida .............. 1
Rufous scale ....~............ Palm .......................~....... Cuba .................... 3
Rufous scale ................1 Rose ......~....................... IFlorida ................1 1
Rufous scale ................1 Rose ........................~...... Nassau ................I 1
Rufous scale ................1 Soursop ...........~.-........... INassau ................I 1
Rufous scale ................I Spanish lime ..............~.. Florida ................1 2
Rufous scale ................I Tabernaemzontana sp... Cuba .......~.............I 1
Rufous scale ................I Tamarind .................... INassau ..~.............. 1
Rufous scale ................I Unknown ...................... INassau ................ 1
San Jose scale.............. IApple ............................ G~eorgia ................) 2
San Jose scale.............. JApple ............................ ISouth Carolina.... 2
San Jose scale.............. IApricot (?) ..................I Georgia ................ 1
San Jose scale.............. Black walnut ..............I Kentucky ............I 1
San Jose scale.............. ICherry .......................... Georgia ................I 1
San Jose scale.............. IGrape ............................ IFlorida ................1 2
San Jose scale.......~....... Grape ............................ IKentucky ............] 1
San Jose scale.............. IPeach ...............Alabama ..............I 1
San Jose scale.............. Peach ....... .................... Connecticut ........I 1





State Plant Board


From

Florida ................
Georgia ................
Illinois ........
Mississippi ..........
North Carolina....
Ohio ......................
South Carolina....
Unknown .....
Louisiana ............
Alabama .......
Florida .
Georgia .. .......
Mississippi .....
North Carolina....
Ohio .. ..~.......
Rhode Island ......
South Carolina....
Alabama ..............
Illinois .
Kentucky ...~.
Alabama ..............
Florida ........
South Carolina....
Cuba .........
Jamaica .....
Cuba ........
Mexico _.......

Cuba ... .....
Iowa .. ....
Florida
Haiti .......~.
Cuba .
Florida .
Cuba .....~...
Cuba .........
Bahamas .
Cuba .
Cuba .

Cuba .

Nassau .. ....
Porto Rico ..........
Cuba ..... ..
Cuba .
GeogetwnG.C.


Cuba .........

Ise of Pines........

Nassau .......

Panama ........
Massachusetts ....
Alabama ......
Bermuda......


Number of
Shipments
Infested
5
10
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
6
4
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
15
4
3
1
1
1
2
1

8

1

3

1
1
1
1


Insect or Disease Occurring on

San Jose scale.............. Peach ...
San Jose scale......~........ Peach ............. -
San Jose scale..............l Peach ............. ..
San Jose scale.............. IPeach ............. -
San Jose scale.............. Peach .. ............ ..
San Jose scale.............. IPeach ............. ..
San Jose scale.............. IPeach ............. -
San Jose scale.............. IPeach .. ......... .. .-
San Jose scale..............l Pear ................. ~............
San Jose scale.............. IPlum ..............................
San Jose scale.............. IPlum ...................--.-........
San Jose scale.............. IPlum .:...................-.........
San Jose scale.............. IPlum ....................-.-.......
San Jose scale..............l Plum .. ............. .
San Jose scale..............l Plum ..............................
San Jose scale.............. IPlum ..............................
San Jose scale.............. IPlum .~..........--......-----------
San Jose scale.............. IPrivet ....................~........
San Jose scale.............. IPrivet (?) ....................
San Jose scale.............. 1Privet ............................
San Jose scale..............Roe.............
San Jose scale.............. Rs ........-----.
San Jose scale..............l Unknown .........~.............
Sap beetle .................... Unknown .. ......... ..
Saprophytic fungus .... Citrus .. ............. -
Saprophytic fungus .... Mango ............ .
Snow scale .................... ICitrus .. ............. .
Soft brown scale.......... Anthurium .........
Soft brown scale..........l Citrus ............................
Soft brown scale..........l Citrus ............................
Soft brown scale..........l Loquat ..........................
Soft brown scale..........l Palm ........~..........------------
Soft brown scale..........l Papaya .................--........
'Soft brown scale..........l Satsuma ............~...........
Soft scale, A ................ Chrysanthemum ........--
Sugar cane mealy-bug ISugar cane ..................
Sugar cane moth borer ISugar cane ......~............
Sugar cane moth borer ISugar cane ......~............
Sugar cane moth borer IUnknown ..............--------
Sweet potato weevil.... Sweet potato ................
Sweet potato weevil.... Swest potato ................
Sweet potato weevil.... Sweet potato ................
Sweet potato weevil.... Sweet potato ................
Sweet potato weevil.... Sweet potato ........--......
Targionia sp. ..... ........ Tulip tree ....................
Targionia hartii Ckil. Yvam ..............................
Targionia hartii Ckll. IYam ..............................
Targionia hartii Ckl1. Yam ..............
Targionia sacchari
CklL. ...............~..........I Sugar cane .................
Targionia sacchari
Ckll. ............... Sugar cane ..................
Targionia sacchari
Ckll. .............. ISugar cane ................. .
Targionia succhari
Ckll. .. ............. ISugar cane ..................
71enebrio sp. .......... Straw ............................
Termite ............ ISweet potato ................
Tessellated scale ........ Unknown ............,.........











1 Number of
Insect or Disease Occurring on From Shipments
| Infested
Tetranychus sp. .......... Roe.............................. Florida ................I 1
Thielaviopsis para-
doxac (d. Seyn.)
V. Hohn. ..................I Sugar cane ..................I Cuba .................... 2
Thrips ............................ Palm ........ .......~.... .......... Cuba ............;........ 6
Thrips ............................ Palm ........ .......~.... ........... Nassau ................ 1
Thrips ............ ................ Pear .......... .................... Louisiana .......~.... j 1
Vinsonia stellifera
Wfestw. ........ .............. Palm .............. ................ Jamaica ....~...~....... 1
Vinsonia stellifera
Westw. ...................... Sapodilla ...................... Bahamas ............1 3
Weevils ........................ Corn .............................. Cuba ..............~.....I 1
Weevils ....................... ~Sweet potato ................ INassau ................ 2
West Indian red scale Palm .............................. IPanama ..............I 1
Whitefly ........................ IUnknown vine .............. Cuba ............. .......I 1
W hitefly ........................ Unknown ...................... Panama ..............I 1
White peach scale........ Fig ................................ IFlorida ................ 1
White peach scale........ Plum .............................. IFlorida .............. 1
White peach scale........ Plum .............................. IGeorgia ................1 3
White peach scale........l Unknown .... ..................( Florida ................I 1
Withertip ........._ ............Lime ................. ........~.... Alabama .............. 1
Withertip ...................... Lime .............................. Cuba ................... 2
W ithertip ...................... Lime ............................,. Mexico ................I 1
Woolly apple aphis...... Apple ............................ ISouth Carolina....l 1
Woolly whitefly ............ Citrus ............................ Cuba .................... 1
Worms .......................... Yam ..............................I Cuba .................... 1
Yam Weevil ................ Yam .............................. IJamaica ................I 1


IN IVAIL SHIPMENTS


Insect or Disease Occurring on From I NubroShipments
|Infested
Aphids .......................... JBougainvillea .............. Cuba .................... 1
Aphids .......... ........._...... Chrysanthemum .......... Ohio ........ .............. 1
Aphids .......................... Rose .............................. Cuba ........~............ 1
Aphids .......................... Rose .............................. New Jersey ........ 1
Aspidiotus sp. .............. Grape ............................ JCuba .................... 1
Aspidiotus sp. .............. Wild olive .................... Florida ................ 1
Aspidiotus destructor
Sign. ...............,........... Palm .............................. ICuba .................... 5
Aspidiotus orientalis
Newst. ... ................... Palm ......................... .....I Cuba ................ .... 1
Aspidiotus spinosus
Comst. ......~................ Camphor ..~.................... Florida ................I 1
Aspidiotus subsimilis
var. anonae .............. Vine .............................. ICuba ....................I 1
Aspidistra scale .......... Fern .............................. 1Florida ................ 2
Bamboo scale ..............I Bamboo ........................ Cuba ....................) 1
Black fly (Aleurocan-
thus woglumi
Ashby) ...................... Citrus ............................ JCuba .................... 1
Black scale ..................I Oleander ...................... IFlorida .............. 2
Black scale ..................I Poinsettia .................... IFlorida .............. 1
Boisduval's scale ........ Palm .............................. ICuba ........... 3
Bruchus sp. .................. Garbanzos .................... ICuba .................... 1
Chaff scale .................... ICitrus ...............Cuba ....................I 1
Cherry scale ................I Cherry ..............Kentucky ............| 1


Third Biennial Report












Number of
Shipments
Infested
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1

2

1'

1
2


I I


State Plant Board


Occurring on

Plum ..............................
Sugar cane ..................
R ose ..... ..... .. ..
Wandering Jew ..........
Citrus ............................
Coleus .... .... ....
Jasmine ........................
Jasmine ...........
Unknown ......................
R ose ....... .......
R ose ..............
Citrus ............................
R ose ... ...... .....
Wild olive ....................
Camellia japonica
R ose .. ... .........
Camphor ....... ......... ....
Citrus ...................~........
Oleander ..........
Cherry ..........................
Garbanzos .........
Palm ..............................
Unknown ......................
Oleander ..........
Palm .........................~.....
Unknown ......................
Yucca ............................
Loquat ..........................
Pink vine ......................
R ose .... ... ... .. ..
Saw grass ....................
Unknown shrub ..........
Hemp ............................
Hibiscus ........................
Hibiscus ........................
Palm ..............................
Croton ............
Unknown tree ..............
Croton .............
Jasmine ........................
Citrus ............................
Fig ................................
Fig ................................
Fig ................................
Grape ............................
Peach ....... .... .
Peach ............................
R ose ....... ........
R ose ... ... ... .......
Unknown ......................
Pecan ................... ........
Unknown ......................

Vine cuttings ..............

R ose ..............

Croton ...
Camellia japonica ......


Insect or Disease


Cherry scale ................
Click-beetle ........
Coconut nicaly-bug ....
Common mealy-bug ....
Common whitefly ........
Common whitefly ........
Common whitefly ........
Common whitefly ........
Common whitefly ........
Crown gall .. ...............
Crown gall ........ .........
Dictyospermum scale ..
Dictyospermum scale ..
Dipterous larva .. .... ..
European 'florinia .~. ...
Florida floirer thrips....
Florida red scale..........
Florida red scale..........
Florida red scale..........
Florida wax scale........
Flour moth ..................
Hemisphaerical scale ..
Hemisphaerical scale ..
Ivy scale .. ~......... .
Ivy scale ........................
Ivy scale ......................
Ivy scale ........................
Latania scale ..............
Latania scale ..............
Latania scale ..............
Latania scale ..............
Latania scale ..............
Lesser snow scale........
Lesser snow scale........
Lesser snow scale........
Lesser snow scale........
Long-tailed mealy-bug
Long-tailed mealy-bug
Mealy-bug ...........~.........
Mealy-bug ....................
Melanose ..........
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Obscure scale .....:.........
Obscure scale ..............
Pseudaonidia tesserata
De Charm. ................
Pseudischnaspie ali-
enus Newst. ..............
Pseudoparlatoria par-
latorioides Comst.....
Purple scale ................


From


Kentucky ............
Cuba .........
Cuba .........
Georgia ................
Florida........
Florida .......
Florida ................
Georgia ..........~......
Georgia ................
Georgia ................
Ohio ......................
Cuba .........
Cuba ....................
Florida _.......
Georgia ................
Florida .......
Florida ................
Cuba .........
Florida ................
Florida ...............
Cuba ..................
Bahamas .....
Cuba .........
Florida ..............
Florida .......
Georgia ................
Florida ........
Florida .......
Florida ..............
Florida ..............
Cuba .........
Florida .......
Florida ..............
Cuba .~............ ......
Florida ..............
Cuba .........
Cuba. ....................
Cuba..........
Florida ..............
Florida ........
Florida.........
Florida .......
Georg~ia ................
Unknown .....
Unknown ...........
Florida ................
Georgia ................
Florida ................
Illinois .......
California ..........
Georgia ................
Florida ...............

Cuba ..................

Cuba ....................

Cuba ..................
Georgia ...............




































Sweet potato ................) Cuba ..........
Century plant ..............I Florida ................
Citrus ............................ Florida ................
Ivy ................................ France .....
Palm ..............................I California ....
Sweet potato ................I Cuba ....................
Carnation ...................... New Jersey ........
W~ild olive .................. .. Florida .............. ..
Citrus ............................ Florida ...... .........(
Citrus ......~..................... Cuba ..........|


NURSERY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
The nursery inspection work of the State Plant Board is the
"second line of defense" against new horticultural pests which

may become introduced into Florida. Very few insect enemies
or diseases of fruit trees, even though they might escape the
vigilance of the quarantine inspectors and become established,
could be widely disseminated while an efficient nursery inspec-
tion system is in operation. Competent inspectors make period-
ical inspections of all commercial nurseries in the State. These
men have been carefully trained for this work by the Plant
Board. Positions in this department are filled by promotion
from the canker eradication force and all of the assistant nursery

inspectors are therefore experts in the detection of citrus canker
as well as being well trained in the recognition and detection of
all the common injurious insect pests and diseases of fruit trees.
The certification of nursery stock is so arranged that whenever
a nurseryman ships trees or plants he reports the shipment to
the Nursery Inspector, giving the date, name and address of
purchaser and number and kind of plants supplied. By this


Number of
Shipments
Infested
4
2
1
2
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2


Third Biennial Repor~t


Insect or Disease

Purple scale ................
Purple scale ................
Purple scale ................
Pustule scale ................
Pustule scale ................
Pustule scale ................
Putnam scale ................
Pyriform scale ............
Rice weevil ..~................
Rice weevil ..................
Rose scale ....................
Rose scale .......~.............
Rufous scale ................
Rufous scale ................
Rufous scale ................
San Jose scale..............
San Jose scale........;......
San Jose scale............
San Jose scale..............
Setomnorpha insectella
F ab. ...... .. ... .
Soft brown scale..........
Soft brown scale..........
Soft brown scale......
Soft brown scale..........
Sweet potato weevil....
Tetranychus sp. ..........
Weevil .........._._.........
Withertip ......................
Woolly whitefly ....


Occurring on

Citrus ............................
Citrus ............................
Unknown ......................
Fig ................,................
Mulberry ......................
Oleander ..........
Pecan ...... ...... .
Cape jasmine ..............
Corn ..............................
Garbanzos ....................
Rhubus sp. ....................
R ose .... ......... ..
Citrus ............................
Coffee ............................
Jasmine (?) ................
Peach .... ..... ... .
Peach .. .......... ..
Peach ............................
Plum ..............................


From

Cuba .........
Florida .......
Florida .......
Florida .......
Florida .......
Florida ........._.....
Florida ........._.....
Florida ........._.....
Cuba .........
Cuba .........
Georgia ........._.....
New Jersey ........
Cuba ...........
Cuba ...........
Florida .......
Arkansas .....
Florida .......
Unknown ............
Georgia ................






State Plant Board


means a complete record is kept in the Nursery Inspector's office
of all nursery stock moved from Florida nurseries. If a serious
pest or disease be discovered in a nursery it is thus possible to
immediately locate all trees and plants shipped from that nursery
for several years preceding. The Plant Board is thus in position
to promptly locate any trees or plants suspected of harboring
dangerous pests or diseases and can promptly inspect them and
apply eradicative measures if the situation calls for it.
The nursery inspection work of the Board, which has been
under the able supervision of Mr. F. M. O'Byrne since its in-
ception in 1915, is considered as being highly efficient. It com-
prises a number of unique features not previously employed,
many of which have been adopted by other states.
For purposes of nursery inspection the State is divided into
nursery inspection districts. In each district an assistant
nursery inspector is permanently located and devotes his entire
time to the inspection of nurseries in that district. Traveling
expenses are thus reduced to a minimum and much time is saved.
During the fiscal year ending April 30, 1919, there were
thirteen such districts. With the reduced appropriations made
by the last legislature, however, it became necessary, on July
1, 1919, to reduce the number of districts to nine and to cor-
respondingly decrease the number of assistant nursery inspec-
tors. This also Imade it necessary to discontinue the quarterly
inspection of "non-commercial" nurseries; namely, small nur-
series not claiming to propagate stock for general distribution
but constituting, nevertheless, an important factor in the possible
dissemination of dangerous diseases and insects, and to inspect
them but once a year.
The total number of nurseries inspected during the year ending
April 30, 1919, was 2,139; the number of inspections made, 5,273.
The total number of nurseries inspected during the year ending
April 30, 1920, was 2,119; total number of inspections, 4,641.
REFUSAL OF CERTIFICATION
Certification of a nursery may be refused for any one or more
of the following reasons: (1) discovery of a new or unknown
~pest or disease in the nursery, (2) the presence of any extremely
injurious pest, (3) the presence of a serious pest not generally
distributed in the State, (4) exposure of the nursery stock to a
very infectious disease or serious insect pest, (5) superabun-
dance of a common injurious pest, (6) hardened or neglected
condition of nursery stock making detection of disease difficult







Third Biennial Report


or impossible and (7) such abundance of weeds and briars in the
nursery as to make an efficient inspection impossible.
A nursery refused certification remains in that status until
the objectionable condition has been removed or remedied. Nur-
sery stock is not certified until, in the light of all available in-
formation, it is safe for the purchaser.
During the fiscal year ending April 30, 1919, nurseries were
refused certification as follows:
Reason Number of Refusals
Avocado scab ................ ............... 43
California red scale.................... .......... 33
Camphor thrips .................. . ........ 16
Foot-rot of citrus.................... ....... 9
San Jose scale.................~.......... ........ .. .. 37
Excessive infestation, whitefly and scale............................ 1,352
Other causes .................. ....... ... .. 90

Total refusals ............... .. ................ 1,580*

During the year ending April 30, 1920, the refusals to certify
nurseries were as follows:
Reason Number of refusals
Avocado scab ................ ...... .. ...... ....... 19
California red scale........................... .............. 22
Camphor thrips .................... .. ........... 8
Foot-rot of citrus.................. .................. ... 11
Excessive infestation, whitefly and scale.................. ...... 650
Other causes ................... ....... ... ...... ... 196
San Jose scale................. . ........ 16

Total refusals ............... ... ......------ 922

QUARANTINES ON NURSERIES
Nurseries are placed under quarantine when the stock in them
has been exposed to or infected with extremely dangerous insects,
pests or diseases, also in the case of refusals to certify when the
owner wilfully disregards the law or Board rules in a manner
calculated to jeopardize the horticultural interests of the State.
When a nursery is placed under quarantine all its certificate tags
are recalled and held in the Nursery Inspector's office until the
quarantine is raised. During the biennium quarantines, for
longer or shorter periods, have been imposed as follows:
Account nursery being in citrus canker zone or exposed to danger of
infection by canker............................ ............................. 94
O their causes ............................ ... ... ...................... 1
IVANNER OF HANDLING INFESTED OR INFECTED NURSERIES
Citrus nurseries infected with citrus canker have in most
instances been completely destroyed. Up to the present time
*This includes both commercial and non-commercial nurseries. Many of the latter are
practically abandoned, hence are refused certification each time they are inspected.






State Plant Board


no certificate has been issued to any citrus nursery in which
canker has ever been found. A citrus nursery is never certified
if there is any available information going to show the possibility
of its being infected, or developing infection, by citrus canker.
No nurseries have been found infected with this disease during
the biennium.
A citrus nursery located in areas infected with scaly bark is
certified only for delivery of trees within the scaly bark areas.
A number of infections by scaly bark have been found during the
biennium and while the nursery inspection is apparently respon-
sible for preventing entirely the dissemination of this disease on
nursery stock the fact remains that the spread of the disease
cannot be entirely prevented so long as picking crews go from
grove to grove and from one locality to another without precau-
tions being taken to disinfect their equipment. Most of the new
centers of infection discovered during the biennial period were
found to have been of long standing and evidently antedated the
beginning of Plant Board activities.
Where foot-rot is found in a nursery certification is refused.
The only use permitted made of nursery stock in such nurseries
is that of planting it in groves already infected with foot-rot, the
movement being made under personal supervision of an inspec-
tor. This is not encouraged.
In the case of San Jose scale infestation in non-citrus nur-
series certification is refused on the infested blocks until the
trees have been made apparently free from the pest under per-
sonal supervision of an inspector.
Shipment of camphor trees showing infestation by the cam-
phor thrips is not permitted. However, trees which are appar-
ently free from the insect are permitted shipment if selected
under the personal supervision of an inspector, trimmed to a
single stem and immersed, roots and all, in a standard insecticide
of double strength.
All avocado nurseries infected with scab are refused regular
or continuous certification. Such nurseries are allowed to sell
only trees which show no sign of the disease and which are
treated with a fungicide just before shipment.
PERMIT CERTIFICATES
Under the provisions of Section 8 of the Florida Plant Act the
State Plant Board requires that all nursery stock shipped into
Florida from other states be accompanied by the certificate of
inspection of the official inspector of the state in which it origi-







Third Biennial Relport


nates and also by the "permit certificate" issued by the Florida
Plant Board. The permit certificate is similar to other nursery
inspection certificates, except that it is limited in use to a period
of one year from date of issue. Permit certificates are issued
by the Nursery Inspector only after he has received a signed
copy of the certificate of inspection issued to the nursery in
question by the state inspector in the state where the nursery is
located and has also made such investigations regarding the
nursery and its surroundings as seem advisable to insure the
safety of that particular nursery from danger of infection by
injurious insects or diseases. Particular care is exercised in
the-issuance of permit certificates to nurseries located in or near
areas infested with any specially injurious pest, such as the Ori-
ental peach moth, Japanese beetle, European corn borer, Ar-
gentine ant, etc. In many cases permit certificates are refused
to nurseries so located.
During the fiscal year ending April 30, 1919, 17,589 permit
certificate tags were issued to 146 different nurseries.
During the year ending April 30, 1920, 26,093 such tags were
issued to 150 nurseries located outside the State of Florida.
The recipients of permit certificates are required to account
for their use in the same manner that Florida nurseries are
required to account for the certificate tags issued them; namely,
by filing with the Nursery Inspector invoices showing the name
and address of all Florida purchasers of the nursery stock, to-
gether with lists of the latter.
LEGAL AcTIONs
In order to secure compliance with the rules and regulations
of the Board, as well as compliance with the Plant Act, it is
sometimes necessary to institute legal proceedings against those
who persistently or intentionally commit violations. This course
is necessary to accomplish protection of the State's horticultural
interests against serious pests, as well as for preventing waste
of public funds, inasmuch as violations of the law undo much that
the Board accomplishes through the judicious use of appropria-
tions made for its purposes.
At the time of our last report there were two cases pending
for violation of the nursery inspection regulations. One of these
cases was dropped because the prosecuting attorney, in whose
hands the evidence was placed, failed to prosecute within a rea-
sonable time. In the other case the defendant pleaded guilty
and was fined.






State Plant Board


During the fiscal year ending April 30, 1919, information was
filed in the case of eight violations. In one of these cases the
defendant, upon conviction, was fined $50.00 and costs, the latter
amounting to $33.44. In two cases theldefendants pleaded guilty
and were fined. One case was dropped because of the removal
of the defendant from the State. Four cases were P'ending at
the end of the fiscal~year.
During ~the fiscal year ending April 30, 1920, the four cases
just referred to were -disposed of as follows: In one case con-
viction was not secured upon trial though all facts as to the
violation were fully substantiated, the defendants in two cases
plead guilty and were fined, and one defendant was tried and
found guilty.
During the year information was filed in the case of eleven
violations. In six of these cases the defendants plead guilty
and were fined. In one case defendant left the State before the
Case was called and one case was dropped on account of difficulty
in securing witnesses. Three cases are pending at Athe close
of the fiscal year.
EXPERIMENTS IN CONTROL OF CITRUs SCAB
In 1916 tl 9 Nursery Inspector, in co-operation with the Plant
Pathologist of the University of Florida Experiment Station,
undqrtook--a ,series of experiments to ascertain whether or not
citrus nursery stock can be raised and prepared for market prac-
tically free from the disease known as citrus scab. To this end
an experimental nursery of about 3,000 trees was established on
the grounds of the Experiment Station at Gainesville and as
soon as the trees~ were large enough spraying expel'irients with
variods fungicides were begun and carried through the years
1919 and 1920. The results have been entirely satisfactory. Scab
has been fully controlled' by the proper use of Bordeaux mixture
as well as by a certliin mixture of Bordeaux and oil emulsion, the
latter combination seSrving also as a good insecticide. In con-
nection with the experiments a very satisfactory type of nursery
sprayer was devised. A rather full i-eport on these experiments
is contemplated for publication in the near future.
CoTTONY CUSHIQN-SCALE
This insect is potentially very destructive to citrus trees, as!
well as to a great variety of other trees and plants. It is usually
held under a goodl degree of control by its introduced natural
enemy, the Australian ladybird beetle or Vedalia. At the same







Third Biennial Report


time, it is the part of wisdom to prevent its spread, as far is
practicable, to areas in the State not yet infested.
From 1915 until August 1, 1919, its distribution on nursery
stock was greatly retarded by the requirement that all host plants
of this insect, in nurseries located in territory where the cottony
cushion-scale occurred, be scrubbed with an insecticide, before
being shipped, under the personal supervision of an agent of the
Plant Board. For supervising this work the Board appointed
competent citizens, in various localities, as "packing-house in-
spectors." The time of these agents in supervising the cleaning
of nursery stock was paid for by the nurserymen but considerable
expense, mainly for clerical work, was involved on the part of
the Board. With reduced resources the Board was compelled to
discontinue this practice and on August 1, 1919, the employment
of packing-house inspectors was discontinued and thereafter the
treatment of host-plants of the cottony cushion-scale was made
obligatory upon the nurseryman himself, without supervision,
under the provisions of Rules 4J and 4K. As good results from
this plan as from the one formerly employed cannot reasonably
be expected, but no other course was open to the Board under
the circumstances.
Assistant Nursery Inspectors have co-operated with the Ento-
mological Department of the Plant Board in the collection of
Vedalia, or Australian ladybird beetles, for distribution to
growers for control of the cottony cushion-scale. During the
two-year period a total of 8,263 of these beneficial beetles have
been collected and furnished to the Entomologist for the purpose
stated.

INSPECTIONS
Year Ending April 30, 1919
Total number of nurseries inspected during year................................~....213
Total number of inspections made....................................... ..........5,2
The acreage in the 2,139 nurseries inspected was, on April
30, 1919, as follows:
Citrus .................... ... .. ..............191 .6 acres
Pecan ................... .... ............... 401.17
Avocado ............... ..................... 12.48 "
Peach ................. ................. 8.50
Strawberries .................... .................. 40.33"
Ornamental and General...................... ............... 242.52 "
Total .................... .................... 2,615.63 acres.
The amount of nursery stock (number of trees and pl~lnts) in
the 2,139 nurseries was, on April 30, 1919, as follows:









44 State Plant Board


Citrus--
Budded Grapefruit .................................... 1,705,342
Budded Oranges ..................... ................... 2,818,349
Other Budded Varieties............................ 269,142
Unbudded Seedlings ..........................~.. ..... 7,827,477

Total Citrus Stock............................. ............... 12,620,310
Citrus Stock Refused Certification (4-30-19)........ 1,585,644

Total 1Warketable Citrus Stock (4-30-19) ....................................11,03466

Pecan--
Budded or grafted.................................... 475,500
Unbudded seedlings .................................. 1,241,975

Total pecan stock.................... 1,717,475
Pecan stock refused certification (4-30-19) _.......... 149,800

Total marketable pecan stock................... ... .... ........... 1,567,675

Avocados--
Budded or grafted.................................... 52,520
Unbudded seedlings .................................. 100,950

Total avocado stock (4-30-19)............................... ..153,470
Avocado stock refused certification (4-30-19)....... 24,515
Total marketable avocado stock (4-30-19)................................. 128,955

Peach--
Budded or grafted............................ .......... 4,520
Unbudded seedlings ................................. 820

Total peach stock (4-30-19) ........................................ 5,340
Peach stock refused certification (4-30-19)............ 520

Total marketable peach stock (4-30-19) ...................... ............ 4,820

Strawberry--
Total strawberry stock (9-1-18).............. 2,960,450
Total strawberry stock refused certification
(9-1-18 *75,000

Total marketable strawberry stock (9-1-18).............................. 2,885,450

*The records of the Nursery Inspector are kept for the purpose of recording the move-
ment of nursery stock and the places where it is planted and not for statistical purposes.
However, as a matter of interest, these records show that while there were 11,034,666 "ceer-
tifiable" citrus trees in the nurseries on April 30, 1919, the actual sales by the nurseries
during the twelve months following amounted to 2,584,775 citrus trees, or approximately
281h per cent of the number in the nurseries at the beginning of the fiscal year. It would
not be safe to conclude, however, that any given year's planting would approximate this
percentage of the trees on hand in the nurseries.
The total of 2,584,775 citrus trees sold by the Florida nurserymen, including those
shipped to other states, were divided as follows:
O range .....................................-............ ........................ 5 9
G rapefruit ........................................... ... ....... ..... ..... .. ..... 460,614
Tangerine ........................................--..... ... ... ............. .... 133,639
Satsum a ......................................... ....... ....... ....... ........ 0,715
Budded and rough lemons........................ ... .......................... 372,414
L im e ......................................- --.. .. .. ..... ..... ....... ........ ... 11,677
O their citrus ............................-- ......- --... -----......-........... 97,421

T otal ..................-..-.-.. ......... ..... ... .. ...... .... ..... .... .. .2 584 7 5
*The number of trees sold during the fiscal year, 2,584,775, would be sufficient, if planted
25x25 feet, to plant 37,460 acres or, if spaced 30x30 feet, 53,849 acres.
**These figures correct September 1, 1918, as strawberry season is annual affair and
plants are all moved before April 80.








Third Biennial Report 45


General and Ornamental--
Total General and Ornamental (4-30-19) ................ 3,336,813
Refused certification (4-30-19).................-............... 82,829

Marketable general and ornamental stock................... 3,253,984
Total stock in Florida nurseries.... .......------- 20,793,858
Less stock ref used certif ication.. .. ... ...........------- 1,918,308

Total marketable stock in Florida nurseries (4-30-19).................. 18,875,550

Year Ending April 30, 1920
Total number of nurseries inspected during year.... ...l............. 2,119
Total number of inspections made .........-....----- 4,641
The acreage of the 2,119 nurseries inspected was, on April 30,
1920, as follows:
Citrus ................. -- -.............1,760.2 acres
Pecan ....... ...... . ................- - 300.25 "
Avocado .................. ------------ -- 14.75
Peach ..............------ 5.25 "
Strawberry .68.34 "
Ornamental and General.... ..............- 337.04

Total ............----- - ------ ...--- 2,485.88 acres.

The amount of nursery stock in the 2,119 nurseries was, on
April30, 1920, as follows:

Citrus--
Grapefruit Buds .~................... 843,945
Orange Buds .. ...............---- 1,774,597
Other Buds ..~.................. 335,804
Unbudded seedlings ............... .........-------. 7,197,636

Total Citrus Stock.................................. .......... 10,151,982
Citrus refused certification (4-30-20)...................... 1,227,607

Total marketable citrus stock (4-30-20)...................... ............ 8,924,375
Pecan--
Budded or grafted--not given.
Unbudded seedlings-not given.
Total pecan stock........................ ........... 877,400
Refused certification (4-30-20) ..................... ............ 72,250

Total marketable pecan stock (4-30-20)..................... ........... 805,150
Avocados--
Budded or grafted--not given.
Unbudded seedlings--not given.
Total avocado stock.................... ................ 102,595
Refused certification (4-30-20) .................................. 10,895

Total marketable avocado stock (4-30-20)................................. 91,700
Peach--
Budded or grafted--not given.
Unbudded seedlings--not given.
Total peach stock................................ ......... 260,109
Refused certification (4-30-20) ........................ ...... O


Total marketable peach stock......................... . ............


260,109








46 State Plant Board

Strawberry--
Total strawberry stock (9-1-19).................. '7,159,500
Total strawberry stock refused certification
(9 1 1 ) ................................ ............... ..

Total marketable strawberry stock (9-1-19) *.......................... 7,159,500
General and Ornamental--
Total general and ornamental ~stock (4-30-20)... 3,680,706
Refused certification (4-30-20) ....... .......................... 62,357

Total merchantable Gen. and Ornm. stock.....................~............ 3,618,349
Total stock in Florida nurseries.................................... 22,232,292
Less total stock refused certificattion............................. 1,373,109

Total marketable stock in Florida nurseries (4-30-20).................... 20,859,183
CERTIFICATES ISSUED
Certificate tags were issued as follows:
1918-'19
Number of Persons or
Kind of Tag Number Issued Firms Receiving Tags
Regular- tags .................. ....~............. 57,976 273
Package tags ............................. ........... 3,230 3,230
Stock dealer's tags.................................. 3,151 11
Scaly-bark tags .................... ... ............I 1,526 51
Florida permit-tags .............................. 17,589 140

Totals .................. ... ............... 83,472 3,711

1919-'20
Regular tags ..................... ............... 75,740 478
Package tags ..................... ..... .....~..... 1,165 776
Stock dealer's tagfs............;..... ............... 8,740 15
Scaly-bark tags ...................................... 1,698 71
Florida permit-tags .............................. 26,093 150

Totals .................. .. .... ........... 113,456 1,490

CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION
During the biennium the work of eradicating citrus canker
has progressed in a very satisfactory manner. The steadily
decreasing number of infections discovered, coupled with the
fact that several hundred formerly infected properties which
were relieved of all quarantine restrictions by the Plant Board
have shown no recurrence of the disease shows that the methods
employed have been successful. Owing to the insidious nature
of the disease and its ability to remain dormant and invisible
for months, more rapid progress in stamping it out could hardly
have been expected. While a few isolated infections may still
appear, it can truthfully be said that the citrus growers are not
now suffering any commercial loss by reason of the disease and
*These figures corr~et September 1, 1919, as strawberry season is annual affair and
plants are all moved before April 30.






Third Biennial Report


that the eradication work has effected the saving of millions of
dollars worth of property to the citrus growers of the State.
No remedy for citrus canker has ever been discovered and its
capabilities for destruction are as great today as they ever were:
hence it would be unwise to neglect adequate policing and in-
spection of the grove acreage of the State as a protection against
the possibility of hidden infections and against infections which
may occur as the result of smuggling of citrus trees into Florida
from other states and countries.
As heretofore,- the work has been carried on in close co-opera-
tion with the Bureau of Plant Industry. Dr. K. F. Kellerman,
Associate Chief of the Bureau, has taken an active interest in
the eradication work and has in many ways rendered valuable
assistance to the Board and to the citrus growers of the State.
The direction of the field force during the two-year period has
been in the hands of Mr. Frank Stirling, General Inspector, and
the work has been carried on vigorously, efficiently, and in an
economical manner.
For convenience the work done during the two fiscal years is
here treated separately:
Year Ending April 30, 1919
No new centers of infection, that is, new infected localities,
were found during the year.
As the work progressed the number of employees was steadily
decreased. There were 210 employees on May 1, 1918, and 156
at the end of the fiscal year on April 30, 1919.
With the reduced force the number of tree inspections made
during the year was also necessarily reduced. During the twelve
months 8,144,833 grove trees were inspected, as compared to
13,285,865 during the preceding year. The number of citrus
nursery trees inspected, in co-operatio~n with the Nursery
Inspection Department, was practicallysthe same as during the
previous year and was 51,057,362. Many of these trees were,
of course, inspected more than once: the figures given are the
total number of tree-inspections in each instance.
Close watch was kept over groves planted in 1913, 1914 and
1915, with trees from infected nurseries. All dormant infec-
tions in these groves have evidently come to light for no ad-
ditional cases of canker have been found in them during the year.
During the twelve months, 13 grove trees, in 6 different prop-
erties, were found .infected. Of these 6 properties, 4 had not







































13,712 |342,254
13,725 342,254


TABLE I

TABULATED REPORT OF THE CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION DEPARTMENT FOR THE YEAR ENDING APRam 30, 1919


I





I


4,856,106 1
4,463,078 3
5,018,350 0
4,655,810 0
4,071,145 0
4,726,415 0
4,681,327 0
3,465,853 0

3,914,191 0
3,039,212 0
3,422,652 1
4,743,223 1
51,057,362 4*


,


*Infections reported from 4 counties for the year 1918-1919. No newly infected county reported for the year 1918-1919. Total number of counties
infected to April 30, 1919, 22.
**Actual number of properties in which infected trees were found during year 1918-1919.


Number of trees ii-
spected for citrus
canker. (Many trees
were reinspected a
number of times. The
figures below include
such reinspections.)

Grove Nursery


Number of "exposed"
trees destroyed as
a precautionary
measure.



Grove Nursery


90 0
86 0
221 0
0 0
0 0
210 0
217 0
0 0

0 0
0 0
8 0 |
8 0
840 0

233,720 2,611,514
234,560 |2,611,514


Number of trees
found infected
and destroyed.


Grove


Nursery


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0


749,650
702,752
540,713
559,063
494,060
568,008
844,937
655,245

739,071
759,740
745,130
786,464
8,144,833 |


1918

June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
1919
Jan.
Feb.
March
April
Totals


1
3
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
1
6**

475
481


210
200
193
S190
186
179
168
166

165
158
157
156
for year


Prior to
May 1, 1918
GRAND TOTALs


43,377,987 |135,872,929
51,522,820 1186,930,291


. (
a F



C o o


.2


o


0
3
0
0
0
0 i

0

0
0
0
0
1
4




41


"a,



0

6
1

4
38
0
0

0
0
0
0
49

426
475






Third Biennial Report


previously shown infection. 840 grove trees were, with the
consent of their owners, destroyed during the year because of
having been exposed to infection.
The State Plant Board, during this period, declared as "no
longer danger centers" 49 properties which had previously been
infected. At the end of the year 475 previously infected prop-
erties had been declared to be no longer "danger centers" and
six properties were still regarded as "actively infected", that is,
likely to develop additional cases of canker.
From May 1, 1918, to June 30, 1919, expenditures in the
citrus canker eradication work amounted to $236,439.89, of
which amount $143,080.38 was paid out of federal funds by the
Bureau of Plant Industry and $93,359.51 by the State Plant
Board. These expenditures were as follows:
Bureau of Plant Industry State Plant Board
iMay, 1918 ............................$ 8,477.63 $ 9,071.84
June, 1918 .......................... 11,482.07 8,753.68
July, 1, 1918, to June 30,
1919, inclusive ................ 123,120.68 75,533.99*
$143,080.38 $93,359.51
T otal .................. .. ........... ............ ...................... $236,439.89
Other essential information concerning the canker eradication
work during the year will be found in Table I, compiled by Mr.
Stirling.
Year Ending April 30, 1920
Only two infected grove trees were found during the 12
months.** Both of these were in a locality where repeated in-
fections had occurred over a period of several years.
The Board continued to reduce the number of inspectors em-
ployed in this work, retaining only what was considered to be
sufficient to keep under adequate inspection all groves and areas
in which danger of infection was thought to exist and also to
re-survey all areas in which the disease had been found in pre-
vious years. The last named line of work was made possible
through the courtesy of Dr. K. F. Kel-lerman, the Bureau of
Plant Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, de-
fraying all of the expense connected with the re-survey. In May,
1919, the number of employees was 150; in April, 1920, 102.
During the fiscal year the Plant Board declared as no longer
*The Legislature of 1915 appropriated for canker eradication $125,000.00, available
April 30, 1915. The apPropriation made by the Legislature of 1917 became available July
1, 1917, and was for the biennial period ending June 30, 1919, hence statement of the
expenditures is here given to the close of the fiscal year on the latter date.
**In July, 1920, over two months after the close of the year covered by this report, a
canker infection involving several hundred trees was discovered in Palm Beach County.
See Supplemental Report, page 87.








TAlBLE II
TABULATED REPORT OF THE CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION DEPARTMENT FOR THIE YEAR ENDING APRIL 30, 1920


_


. I


703,841
331,399
276,928
267,561
482,827
577,078
515,990
472,133

725,564
584,140
600,159
530,621


*Infections reported from 1 county for the year 1919-1920. No newly infected county reported for the year 1919-1920. Total number of counties
infected to April 30, 1920, 22.
**Actual number of properties in which infected trees were found during year 1919-1920.


Number of trees in-
spected for citrus
canker. (Many trees
were reinspected a
number of times. The
figures below include
such reinspections.)-


Number of trees Number of "Lexposed" odr
found infected trees destroyed as a a
and destroyed. a precautionary a
measure. F



Grove .INursery Grove Nurer


Grove


Nursery


1919
May 150
June 144
July 108
Aug. 107
Sept. 110
Oct. 107
Nov. 106
Dec. 107
1920
Jan. 104
Feb. 103
March 102
April 102
Total for year
Prior to
May 1, 1919
GRAND TOTALS


4,685,261
3,961,767
1,739,138
2,890,954
3,452,696
2,586,570
3,868,362
3,035,355

2,012,054
2,329,911
3,526,305
3,319,808


1
0
0
1 .
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
O
1**

481 |
481 )


1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
2

13,725
13,727


309 2,000
0 0
0 0
129 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0

0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
438 2,000

234,560 2,611,514
234,998 |2,613,514


6,088,241

51,522,820
57,591,061


37,408,181

18s6,930,291
1194,338,472


0

342,254
342,254


.


o ~







Third Biennial Report


danger centers four properties in which canker had occurred
and on April 30, 1920, the Board had knowledge of but two
properties in the State that were considered as actively infected.

There was expended in the canker eradication work during the
State's fiscal year ending June 30, 1920, a total of $119,691.91,
of which amount $93,218.17 was by the Bureau of Plant Industry,
United States Department of Agriculture, and $26,473.74 by the
State Plant Board.
Other statistical information concerning the year's work of
canker eradication will be found in Table II.

SUMMARY
Following are the essential facts concerning the eradication
of citrus canker in Florida up to the close of the Plant Board
fiscal year, April 30, 1920:

Total number of properties found infected in the State.................. 481
Total number declared no longer danger centers..................... .. ......... 479
Number still classed as active infections, April 30, 1920.................... 2
Number of properties declared "clean"*....................................... 474
Number of properties still under partial or full quarantine, April
30, 1920 ................................................. .................... 7
Total number of grove trees found infected, May 1, 1914, to April
30, 1920 ......................................................... ............ 13,727
Total number of nursery trees found infected, May 1, 1914, to April
3 0, 19 20 ............................................. ... .. ... ... .... ...... 3 42,2 54
Total number of "Lexposed" grove trees destroyed, May 1, 1914, to
A pril 30, 1920............................... ..... ......... .............. 235,046
Total number of "exposed" nursery trees destroyed, May 1, 1914,
to A pril 30, 1920......................... ......... .. ..... ..........261 4

Amounts expended on canker eradication work in Florida:
From
Federal Funds State Funds Other Sources
Prior to April 30, 1918..............$638,200.06** $248,769.19 $85,019.62***
May 1, 1918, to
June 30, 1919$..... .......... 143,080.38 93,359.51
July 1, 1919, to
June 30, 1920$$............. 93,218.17 26,473.74

Totals.........................~.......874486 $368,602.44 $85,019.62
Grand total to June 30, 1920....................... ..................138106

The table on page 54 shows the number of infected grove trees
found in the State each month from the beginning of eradication
work in May, 1914, to April 30, 1920t-:
*Relieved of absolutely all restrictions on account of the previous occurrence of canker
therein.
**Does not include special salary increases provided by Acts of Congress.
**Includes donations and expenditures from private sources.
SSee page 49.
SSSee page 51.
tFor statement of infections May 1 to October 31, 1920, see Supplemental Report,
page 88.






































Fig. 1.--Diagram showing the number of canker-infect ed grove trees found in Florida
1914, to April 30, 1920.






















Heavy ine shw h nme finetdprpri delrdb the Pln Bord up to corsodigdtsa en
no loge dage centers. ti -








NUMBER OF GROVE TREES FOUND INFECTED WITH CANKER, PER MONTH,
SlNCE THE WORK BEGAN IN MAY OF 1914

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920
Jan. 306 Jan. 86 Jan. 14 Jan. O Jan. O Jan. O
Feb. 165 Feb. 211 Feb. 41 Feb. 1 Feb. O1 Feb. O
Mar. 444 Mar. 491 Mar. 9 Mar. 1 Mar. 1 Mar. O
Apr. 408 Apr. 4 p.19Ar p. 1Ar
May 108 May 1042 Ma 3May ay 8 52 r May 1 May r 1
June 160 June 772 June 450 June 45 June 10 June 0
July 275 July 651 July 349 July 39j July 01 July 0
Aug. 1313 Aug. 1345 Aug. 29Aug. 30 Aug. O Aug. 1
Sept. 7671 Sept. 618 Sept.12 Sept. 61 Sept. O Sept. O
Oct. 565 Oct. 214 Oct. 451 Oct. 2 Oct. O Oct. 0
Nov. 773 Nov. 494 Nov. 131 Nov. 1 Nov. Oi Nov. O
Dec. 366 Dec. 256 Dec. 271 Dec. 1 Dec. O Dec. O
T1. 4327 6715 22941 3721 15/ 4) 0
Total number infected grove trees, 6 years..................... ................ 13,727
Figure 1 shows, in graphic form, the information given in the
preceding table, namely, the number of canker-infected grove
trees found each month to April 30, 1920.
Figure 2 shows the number of canker-infected properties
found in the State up to April 30, 1920, and also the number of
these declared by the Board, from time to time, to be no longer
danger centers with reference to the disease.

DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY
The work of this Department has progressed very satisfac-
torily during the two year period under the direction of Dr.
E. W. Berger, Entomologist, assisted by Mr. George B. Merrill,
Assistant Entomologist. At certain times of the year, particu-
larly during the winter and spring months, additional help has
been necessary in connection with the preparation of whitefly
fungus. In this work Mr. E. K. Bynum assisted from January
25 to June 30, 1919, and Mr. John Schlobig from December,
1919, to June 1, 1920.
The principal lines of work carried on by this Department are:
(1) identifying and properly recording specimens of insects
found by the quarantine inspectors on plant importations or in
merchandise shipments, by the nursery inspectors in nurseries
of the State, and from other sources, (2) the production and
distribution of fungus cultures for control of whiteflies, (3)
distribution of the Vedalia, or Australian ladybird beetles, for
control of the cottony `cushion-scale, (4) making personal in-
vestigation of insect outbreaks under certain conditions and
(5) collecting and preserving insects, for means of reference,


State Plant Board






Third Biennial Report


which are of importance to the agricultural interests of the
State.
IDENTIFICATION OF INSECTS
In the inspection of nurseries and in connection with the
inspection of plants and plant products arriving from foreign
countries a great many insects are encountered. It is of the
utmost importance that these should be identified, that is, that
the Plant Board should learn what they are, whether they are
new to the State of Florida and whether of an injurious nature.
Only by such vigilance can the introduction or spread of new
pests be prevented. The assistant nursery inspectors and as-
sistant quarantine inspectors are of course familiar with most
of the common injurious insects known to occur in Florida, but
it is the new or unusual ones that are likely to prove most
serious in. future years. The identification of an insect is fre-
quently a task of considerable magnitude, requiring reference
to entomological descriptions, printed in various languages, ref-
erence to collections of classified insects and sometimes the
advice of specialists in certain groups of insects. As the Plant
Board has never had the available funds with which to purchase
a good entomological library or an extensive collection for ref-
erence purposes, the difficulty of making these identifications is
still further increased. Most of the identifications during the
biennium have been made by Mr. Merrill, practically all of his
time being required for this work. During the two-year period
4,443 identifications have been made, including several new and
dangerous pests intercepted from foreign countries. Careful
records are made of practically all specimens received and filed
for future use or reference. This entails considerable clerical
work but is necessary if the information accumulated is to be
kept available and of use to the State's interests in the future.
The Department has records available, filed by localities, host
plants, insect and by number, so that, on comparatively short
notice, a report can be supplied upon all the injurious insects
that have been received from any one locality or that affect any
particular plant or crop.
WHITEFLY FUNGI
Florida citrus growers have come to depend to a very' large
extent upon the red whitefly fungus, or red Aschersonia, for
control of the citrus whitefly. This fungus is in the nature of a
parasite which destroys the larvae or immature stages of the
whitefly. The fungus can be grown in artificial cultures which






State Plant Board


are supplied to the citrus growers and applied by the latter to
their groves by mixing in water and spraying. One "culture"
is sufficient to introduce the fungus in an acre of orange or
grapefruit trees of average size.
As no appropriations have been available to meet the expense
of preparing and supplying these cultures the Plant Board has
attempted to make the work self-supporting by charging the
growers, as nearly as possible, the actual cost of production.
The cultures have been sold at 75 cents each but the demand for
the cultures varies according to the abundance of the citrus
whitefly in different seasons and it is impossible to forecast the
number that will be called for. For lack of more suitable quar-
ters the preparation of the cultures has had to be in the attic of
Language Hall at the University, under conditions that are not
well suited to the work and which result in an abnormally large
number of cultures spoiling due to the high temperature during
the spring and summer months. Inasmuch as the Plant Board
cannot make this project self-supporting the furnishing of these
cultures to citrus growers will have to be discontinued unless
funds for the work are provided.
During the year 1918-1919 956 cultures of the red Ascher-
sonia were sold or distributed and during the year 1919-1920
a total of 1,332 were similarly disposed of.
Another fungus, the yellow Aschersonia, is effective in de-
stroying the cloudy-winged whitefly. Although more difficult
to grow under laboratory conditions than the red Aschersonia,
the Entomologist has, nevertheless, been able to produce good
cultures of it and during the two-year period 332 cultures of this
fungus have been sold or distributed.
Fungi which are effective against a number of other insects,
particularly some of the scale-insects, have also been discovered
and the Entomologist is investigating the possibility of utilizing
them on a large scale.
AUSTRALIAN LADYBIRD BEETLE
The' cottony cushion-scale, which occurs in several parts of
Florida, is potentially a very dangerous pest of citrus trees. It
can be controlled only by the Australian ladybird beetle, or Ve-
dalia, a small beetle which eats the scale. Without the latter
insect the cottony cushion-scale would do enormous damage as
its control by spraying is impractical. In localities infested by
the cottony cushion-scale the latter, through the activity of the
ladybird beetles, often becomes so reduced in numbers that the







Third Biennial Report


beetles become extinct, or nearly so. The cottony cushion-scale
then increases to destructive numbers, making the re-introduc-
tion of the ladybird beetle a necessity.
The Entomological Department has continued its work of
rearing and distributing these beetles to growers needing them.
It has been possible, by tedious work, to rear some of these
beetles in the laboratory. Others have been collected in parts
of the State where they occur, principally by the assistant
nursery inspectors. They are usually sent out in "colonies" of
from 10 to 12 beetles each. During the year ending April 30,
1919, 219 colonies were distributed, including a few colonies to
other southern states where the cottony cushion-scale had be-
come established. During the year ending April 30, 1920, 491
colonies were distributed and in March, 1920, 130 colonies of
the beetles were sent to the Secretary of Agriculture of Brazil
in the attempt to secure the establishment, of this beneficial
insect in that country.
INSECT OUTBREAKS
In the case of severe or unusual outbreaks of injurious insects
it is sometimes necessary that a personal investigation be made.
This is particularly desirable in the case of those outbreaks
where eradicative measures should be employed or where the
emergency demands that assistance be given truckers or growers
upon a large scale in order to secure united effort. It is also
desirable, for the knost efficient and practical results, for the
Plant Board to co-operate with and assist the Agricultural Ex-
tension Division of the University of Florida in the control of
injurious insects and more liberal provision for this work should
be made than heretofore.
INSECT COLLECTION
As already pointed out, the prompt recognition, or identifi-
cation, of insects is of .prime importance in the successful con-
duct of the nursery inspection and quarantine lines of work. In
the case of rare or new insects the identification cannot, in many
cases, be made by the Plant Board Entomologist because of lack
of an adequate insect collection for reference purposes. Under
these circumstances specialists in various parts of the country
have to be appealed to and it is sometimes many weeks or months
after a new insect is discovered or intercepted before we can
learn its exact nature. It is also true that most of the serious
insect pests now in the United States were firmly established






State Plant Board


before it was learned what they were. The prompt detection of
a new pest, in time to eradicate it, may easily be the means of
saving many millions of dollars. The Department of Ento-
mology is in need of facilities for acquiring a good reference
collection of insects and a good reference library as well as being
sorely in need of more commodious and suitable quarters in
which to carry on its work.

SEMI-TROPICAL ARMY WORM
During the summer and autumn months of 1918 the semi-
tropical army worm appeared in destructive numbers through
the central part of the State and threatened extensive damage to
the castor bean, cotton and sweet potato crops. The War De-
partment appealed to the Plant Board for assistance in the
emergency and the Entomologist, as well as inspectors from
other departments of the Plant Board, did excellent work in
assisting growers to check the pest. An account of this work
was given in our last report, pages 74-76.

DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY
Our last biennial report referred to the discontinuance of the
Tropical Laboratory, established in Dade County in 1915 for the
study of citrus canker, and to the resignation of Dr. R. A. Jehle,
Plant Pathologist of the Board.
Effective July 1, 1918, the Board appointed Professor H. E.
Stevens to the position of "Consulting Plant Pathologist" at a
salary of $400.00 per annum. This position was held by Pro-
fessor Stevens until his resignation on August 31, 1920, and in
this capacity he rendered able assistance to the Plant Board in
the identification of plant diseases and in giving advice con-
cerning the practical handling of plant disease problems.
Owing to lack of funds this position has not been filled and
the Plant Board has at present no active department of plant
pathology, although such a department is almost as desirable
from the standpoint of efficient quarantine and nursery inspec-
tion work as is a department of entomology.
SWEET POTATO WEEVIL
The sweet potato weevil is the most serious pest menacing the
sweet potato crop of Florida. It occurs in six of the southern
states: to a slight extent in Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi
and to a serious extent in Texas, Louisiana and parts of Florida.






Third Biennial Report


The Florida sweet potato crop of 1919 was 4,110,000 bushels,
of which 44 per cent, or 1,800,000 bushels, was grown for Inar-
ket. Estimates by the Bureau of Entomology, United States
Department of Agriculture, place the loss due to the sweet potato
weevil in 1917 at 20%6 of the crop in Texas, 12k in Louisiana
and 10% in Florida, the latter amounting to $400,000.00. In
view of the fact that the weevil occurs in only 14 Florida coun-
ties and that only 10 counties are extensively infested, the pest
is seen to be a very serious one. If the weevil were distributed
over the entire State the loss would be in excess of $1,000,000.00
annually. In 1919, 10 infested Florida counties* produced
314,542 bushels, or only about 71/zgg of the total crop of the
State.
The last session of the legislature made an appropriation, for
combating the sweet potato weevil, of $25,000; $15,000 of which
was for use during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1919, and
the remainder for use during the year ending June 30, 1920.
With this appropriation at its disposal the Plant Board has
conducted the work along three principal lines: (1) preventing
further introductions of the weevil from other states and foreign
countries and preventing its spread from infested parts of Flor-
ida to other parts, (2) inspecting farms and establishments
where sweet potato plants are propagated for distribution and
(3) continuing the work of eradicating the weevil in the infested
area of Baker County.
Investigations and scouting inspections have been continued
to determine whether any interior infestations occur other than
the one in Baker County. No new infested centers have been
found. The weevil, in general, is at present distributed along
the east coast from the northern part of Volusia County to
Key West and up the west coast from the latter point as far
as Tarpon Springs. In addition there is the ilifested area in
Baker County which extends across the St. Mary's River into
the southern part of Georgia. The present infested territory
is shown on the map, Figure 3.

PREVENTING INTRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION
OF THE WEEVIL
The Plant Board guards against the introduction of the weevil
from other states and countries by the enforcement of its Rule
32A which prohibits the shipment into Florida of sweet potato
*Baker, Brevard, Broward, Dade, Lee, Manatee, Monroe, Palm Beach, Pinellas and St.
Lucie.






State Plant Board


o*



Fig. 3.-Map of Florida showing areas at present known to be infested
by the sweet potato weevil.
and morning-glory plants and roots from areas infested by the
weevil. The shipment of sweet potato plants from supposedly
non-infested areas in other states is permitted only under cer-
tificate of inspection (Rule 32B).
The infested areas within the State of Florida are defined in
the Public Notices of the Board. Shipment of sweet potato
tubers out of these areas is prohibited unless the potatoes are
first fumigated under the personal supervision of a Plant Board






Third Biennial Report


agent, while the shipment of sweet potato plants out of these
areas. is prohibited unless they are first inspected and certified
by the Plant Board. During the three years in which these
regulations have been in force there has been, so far as known,
no increase in the territory occupied by the weevil.*
The assistant quarantine inspectors of the Board, stationed
at important junction points, are constantly on the lookout for
illegal shipments of sweet potato tubers and plants and on sev-
eral occasions have intercepted shipments of both plants and
potatoes that were heavily infested with the weevil, thus pre-
venting the establishment of the pest in the localities for which
these shipments were intended.
INSPECTIONS FOR PLANT GROWERS
Florida is able to produce sweet potato plants earlier in the
season than any other state and consequently there has been
built up a large business in growing early sweet potato plants
which are sold in the states further north. In recent years, also,
Florida farmers have come to depend largely upon the co~m-
mercial plant grower for their plants instead of bedding potatoes
and growing the plants themselves. While the Plant Board
regulations do not require the certification of sweet potato plants
except in counties where the weevil is known to occur, there
has been, nevertheless, an insistent demand from the commercial
growers for inspection service as certification as a condition for
shipment is now required by practically all the other southern
states.
During the early months of 1919 the inspectors of the Board
examined 360 plantings where sweet potato plants were being
grown for sale or shipment. Certificate tags, to the number of
56,124, were issued to 88 firms or individuals. Approximately
50 million plants were sold and shipped from the certified plant-
ings. This inspection service is effective in affording the fartner
protection against receiving weevil-infested plants. In several
instances the Plant Board inspectors have found commercial
beddings, in which plants were being grown for the express
purpose of distribution, infested with the weevil. Sale of plants
from such establishments has been prevented. The Board has
been extremely careful in the matter of certifying sweet potato
plants. In no case have certificates been issued covering plant-
*On July 5, 1920, a small infested area was found near Lilly in DeSoto County by In-
spector H. C. Artis and investigation showed the insect to have been brought to the com-
munity in sweet potato Plants moved in violation of the Board's regulations. See Supple-
mental Report, page 89.






State Plant Board


ings within 10 miles of known weevil infestation and the propa-
gation of sweet potato plants for sale, in areas where the weevil
is known to occur, is discouraged.
During the spring of 1920 certificates of inspection were
issued to 73 Florida growers of sweet potato plants. Later, a
circular letter was sent to these growers asking for information
as to the number of plants sold during the season. Replies were
received from only 43 but these replies showed sales of 43,-
615,000 sweet potato plants going to other states and 5,565,000
going to Florida farmers..
NATURAL BARRIERS To SPREAD OF WEEVIL
The sweet potato weevil finds conditions along the coast of
Florida very favorable to its rapid and continuous multiplica-
tion by reason of the seaside morning-glory* being one of its
favorite host plants. The weevils breed in abundance in the
stems of these rapidly growing plants. The prevalence of these
vines along the beaches has doubtless made possible the steady
advance of the insect northward from Key West (the probable
original point of introduction) along both the east and west
coasts. However, at a point just north of Tarpon Springs the
beach gives way to an expanse of tidal marsh in which the sea-
side morning-glory does not grow. The weevil is found in the
seaside morning-glory at all points along the beach of the west
coast as far north as this marsh, but has not been found on the
coast north of this point. On the east coast a somewhat similar
condition occurs at a point along the coast in the northern part
of Vrolusia County. Between Ormond and Summer Haven is a
stretch of twenty-six miles of beach in which the seaside morn-
ing-glory is very scarce. The reason for this is unknown as
conditions are apparently the same as at other points along the
coast. However, this stretch, practically devoid of morning-
glories, has proven a barrier to the northward movement of the
sweet potato weevil, just as has the tidal marsh on the west
coast. A survey of this stretch by Inspector K. E. Bragdon in
June, 1919, showed that the .morning-g~lory was becoming estab-
lished, small patches being found at some points while at other
places seedlings, as well as sprouts from fragments of root,
were coming up. To permit the morning-glories to occupy this
stretch of beach would be to afford the weevil an opportunity to
continue its northward progress into St. Johns and Duval Coun-
ties. Accordingly, between July 8 and 17, 1919, laborers, under
*Ipomoes pes-caprae and related species.






Third Biennial Report


the supervision of Mr. Bragdon, went carefully over this terri-
tory and removed all of the seaside morning-glories. It is pro-
posed to maintain this barrier as long as possible by keeping
these plants from becoming established.
ERADICATION WORK IN BAKER COUNTY
The area infested with the sweet potato weevil in Baker
County, discovered in 1916, is about 10 by 20 miles and extends
into the southern part of Charlton County, Georgia. As no other
infestation by the sweet potato weevil is known within a dis-
tance of 80 miles and as there are few, if any, morning-glory
plants in this area to serve the weevil as food, the opportunities
for eradication are excellent.
Our last biennial report described the co-operative arrange-
ments entered into between the State Plant Board and the Bu-
reau of Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture,
for undertaking an experiment in the eradication of the weevil
in this area and also of the establishment by the Bureau, in
April, 1918, of a special laboratory at Macclenny.
The active field work in Baker County has been conducted
during 1918 and 1919 by Mr. B. L. Boyden of the. Bureau of
Entomology. The first step in 1918 was to make a thorough
inspection of all farms in Baker County to determine what ones
were infested with the weevil. As a result of this survey the
weevil was found on 156 farms.
The measures of eradication, inaugurated in 1918 and con-
tinued to the present time, consist of field rotation in planting,
use of weevil-free plants, elimination of "hold-over" plantings,
thoroughness in harvesting, destruction of badly infested po-
tatoes at time of harvesting and fumigation of the remainder,
prevention of weevil damage in storage, disinfection of all stor-
age banks and bins, destruction of volunteer plants in spring
and the avoidance of extremely early planting. All of these
measures are applied without the farmer's acreage in sweet po-
tatoes being in any way curtailed or prohibited.
The use, by the farmers, of sweet potato slips entirely free
from weevil infestation, was considered of primary importance
in carrying out this program, and it was equally important that
no farmer in the infested area should use plants produced by
himself as such a course would only increase the number of
weevils. To meet this situation the State Plant Board, in the
winter of 1918-1919, made contracts with farmers in the in--
fested and adjoining territory, whereby the Board agreed to






State Plant Board


furnish them with weevil-free plants of the best varieties, free of
charge, the following spring. The farmer, on his part, agreed
to carry out on his farm the various other measures of eradica-
tion referred to above. Out of 292 farmers in the affected terri-
tory only one refused to agree to the terms of the proposed ar-
rangement. The following February the Plant Board, assisted
by officials of the University of Florida, established a sweet
potato plant propagating bed on the University grounds at




















Fig. 4I.--Propagating weevil-free sweet potato plants at Gainesville for
use in connection with eradication of sweet potato weevil in Baker County.
Gainesville, in which 800 bushels of various varieties of sweet
potatoes were bedded. From these beds, during April and May,
1919, 785,750 sweet potato slips were secured and sent to the
farmers in Baker County. The beds did not produce as many
plants as were needed to supply the farmers' wants for early
planting so the Board purchased, from propagators in weevil-
free sections of southern Florida, an additional 583,650 plants
with which to fill its contracts, making a total of 1,369,400 -sweet
potato plants furnished to the Baker County farmers. The net
cost to the Plant Board of furnishing these plants to the farmers
was $2,397.70. By their use the weevil was materially reduced
and the co-operation of the owners of the infested farms was
secured. A close inspection was made of all the infested farms,
by agents of the Bureau of Entomology, at the time of digging






Third Biennial Repor~t


in the fall of 1919 with the result that 42 per cent. of the
farms previously infested showed no weevils.
A similar program was followed out during 1920. Contracts
were again made, in the fall of 1919, with the farmers for
delivery of weevil-free plants to them in the spring of 1920. In
February, 1920, the Plant Board bedded at Gainesville 1,300
bushels of sweet potatoes. From these beds (see Figure 4)
1,055,710 plants were supplied to the Baker County farmers,
82,000 were furnished to the University of Florida Experiment
Station and 200,000 were used in a field planting by the Plant
Board, referred to below. The Board found it necessary to pur-
chase 81,000 plants additional, in the early part of the season, for
supplying the Baker County farmers. The net cost to the Plant
Board for the total of 1,418,710 plants used in Baker County,
supplied to the Experiment Station and kept for its own use
amounted to $3,316.08, or an average of $2.33 per thousand.
This figure is very close to that asked by commercial growers of
sweet potato plants. The plants in this instance, however, were
grown from carefully selected seed, true to name, and were al-
most totally free from disease of all kinds, all inferior and de-
caying potatoes having been rigidly discarded at the time of
bedding.
Potatoes for use in the seed beds were purchased during the
winter of 1919-1920 from farmers in various parts of the State.
Great difficulty was experienced in securing potatoes of the sev-
eral varieties desired by the Baker County farmers as well as
varieties that were pure. Considerable damage and loss was
experienced in the shipment of the potatoes from various points
to Gainesville and the percentage showing decay was abnormally
large. It was therefore decided to grow, during the season of
1920, a sufficient number of sweet potatoes at Gainesville to
meet all needs for bedding in the spring of 1921. Fifteen acres
of the various varieties have been planted out and are being
cared for by Plant Board employees.
FUMIGATION OF POTATOES IN BAKER COUNTY
The Plant Board regulations prohibit the shipment of sweet
potatoes out of the infested area unless fumigated to kill any
weevils in them. In order to make it possible for the farmers
in the infested area of Baker County to market their potatoes
without risk of establishing the weevil in other parts of the
State, the Board prepared a commnodious fumigating house at
Glen Saint Mary and' single fumigating rooms at Macclenny and






State Plant Board


Baxter. In these fumigating plants sweet potatoes intended for
shipment outside the quarantined area are fumigated by agents
of the Bureau of Entomology or of the State Plant Board and
then certified for shipment to any point in the State. The fumi-
gation is without expense to the owners of the potatoes. As the
Glen Saint Mary fumigating house has a capacity of 350 bushels
and the fumigating rooms at Macclenny and Baxter capacities
of 40 and 100 bushels respectively, all potatoes intended for
shipment are fumigated without delay. During the fall and
winter of 1918-1919 approximately 2,000 bushels were fumi-
gated for shipment outside the infested area and for use in
Baker County.
The results of the work during 1920 are given in the Supple-
mental Report, page 89.

BANANA ROOT BORER
This is a very severe insect pest of bananas and is also known
to attack sugar cane. Our last Report told of its discovery in a
number of banana plantings near Larkin, Dade County, in De-
cember, 1917, and of the effort made to eradicate it at that point.
Reference was also made to the discovery of the insect in Man-
atee County in March, 1918, this appearing to be the point where
the insect had become established several years previously.
In May and June, 1918, with some financial assistance from
the Federal Horticultural Board, United States Department of
Agriculture, the infested banana plantings in Manatee County,
comprising a total of 14,675 plants, were destroyed. This work
was done under the direction of Inspector Howard B. Swartsel
of the Plant Board. Inaqmuch as some insects were likely to
escape at the time the infested plants were destroyed, traps, in
the form of sections of non-infested banana trunks, were kept
in and around the premises for several months. These were ex-
amined frequently for weevils and were replaced at intervals
of two weeks with fresh traps. Mr. A. F. Collins, of Oneco,
was engaged to look after this important work and from June
1 to December 31, 1918, captured a total of 215 of the weevils.
At the same time Mr. Collins kept careful watch for all banana
sprouts in the formerly infested area and destroyed these as
fast as they appeared. During 1919 the trapping was continued
and between January and October 31 67 weevils were captured.
The trapping has been continued to the present time but no






Third Biennial Report


weevils have been found since October, 1919, indicating that the
eradication work has been successful.
By means of the records kept in the Nursery Inspection De-
partment of the Plant Board it was possible to promptly locate
all plantings of banana plants which had been sent out by the
south Florida nursery found infested with the banana root borer
in March of 1918. The owners of these plantings were written
to during the summer of 1918 and in all cases where they re-
ported the plants as dead or unhealthy in appearance an in-
spector was sent to examine them. By this means, one infesta-
tion, located in Polk County, was discovered. The infested
planting was promptly cleaned up.
Although it was thought, in the spring of 1918, that all in-
fested plantings at Larkin had been discovered and safely dis-
posed of, an infestation was found in "Niggertown" in May,
1919, by Inspector H. D. Bollinger at a point about one mile
from the properties found infested in Decemnber, 1917. Six
properties, containing about 300 banana plants, were found
infested. All these plants were promptly destroyed and the
usual methods employed to prevent escape of any of the insects.
In April, 1920, two small properties about one-half mile from
the former infested area were found to be infested and immedi-
ately cleaned up.
Owing to the infestations in Manatee County and at Larkin
having been of several years standing it is not impossible that
isolated infestations, which originated from these, may yet be
found. However, the situation is in as good shape as possible
for no infestations by the insect are known to occur in the State
at present.

MOSAIC DISEASE OF SUGAR CANE
Mosaic is a disease of sugar cane which is prevalent in Java,
Hawaii, Argentina and Porto Rico, in all of which countries
losses are sustained by the sugar planters by reason of the dis-
ease. In Porto Rico the loss is estimated to be from 30 to 40
per cent.
The presence of the disease in growing sugar cane is mani-
fested by a peculiar striping or mottling of the leaves: hence
the name "mosaic". During the first season of infection the
growth of the cane is not greatly affected but with the continued
use of infected canes for planting purposes the nodes or sections
of the cane stalk become shorter and the plants become greatly






68 State Plant Boar~d

dwarfed, resulting in the tonnage being greatly reduced. A
peculiarity of the disease is that when infected canes are used
for planting they always give rise to infected plants, namely,
the canes cannot recover from the disease and it is transmitted
from one year's crop to the next as long as infected cane is used
for planting. Not only can the disease become established in a
field through the use of diseased cane for planting, but there is
also a gradual spread, or secondary dissemination, during the
growing months, from all infected canes or fields.
In August, 1919, the Bureau of Plant Industry, United States
Department of Agriculture, advised the Plant Commissioner
that the mosaic disease had been discovered in parts of the
United States. Investigation had shown that the disease had
been present for a number of seasons in the Audubon Park
Experiment Station at New Orleans without its presence being
.suspected and that from this station seed cane had been dis-
tributed to various parts of Louisiana and to other southern
states, thereby spreading the disease. A shipment of seed cane
from Audubon Park to Cairo, Georgia, established the disease
at the latter point and from Cairo diseased cane was sent to
other parts of Georgia and to a number of planters in Florida.
Lists of the shipments made into Florida from both Louisiana
and Georgia were supplied by the Bureau of Plant Industry and
steps were immediately taken to investigate the cane plantings
of all parties to whom such shipments had been made. These
inspections, made jointly by agents of the Bureau of Plant In-
dustry and inspectors of the State Plant Board, revealed the
presence of the disease at 15 Florida points, located in 13 coun-
ties. These infections were as follows:
Number of
County Locality properties
infected
Franklin .......... . ..................... Apalachicola ................... .. .......... 3
DeSoto .................. ................... Cleveland ................. .. .... ............ 1
DeSoto ..................... .................. Punta Gorda ..................... ... .......... 2
Escambia ................. ..~.........------. M uskogee ................. .. .................. 1
Gadsden ................... ... ....~...........-. Chattahoochee ... ................ ........... 2
J ac kson ................ ............. ........... Marian na .................... .......:............ 4 2
Lake ........~........... ...............-----.. Beresford .................... ........... .. .. 1
Leon .....~............ ...... ------.-- --. Tallahassee ...............~.. ........~......... 2
Liberty ... ............------- Bristol ................ .................... 40
M anatee ...~......~......---- Gillette ........ .... 1
Orange ........ .....-------- Orlando ............... ................... 1
Palm Beach ........- ------- Canal Point ..... .............. ................. 5
Polk ... .................. Lake Myrtle ._................... ........... 1
Polk .. ................- -. W inter Haven .............. .. .............. 1
Volusia ... ..~......- -------- De Land ......... .......... .. .. ....... 1

Total properties infected.................... ...------ ----- 104






Third B~iennial Report


After consultation with representatives of the United States
Department of Agriculture it was felt that prompt inauguration
of a campaign of eradication would be likely td result 3satisfac-
torily and that the continued development of the sugar midi syrup
industries of the State should not be handicapped by thd' erstab-
lishment and spread of this disease if it could be prevented. The
United States Department of Agriculture had no funds at its
disposal with which to assist in the actual eradication and con-
trol work and this the Plant Board had to undertake without
financial assistance. Such an emergency had not, of course, been
foreseen by the last session of the legislature and no appro-
priations were specifically available for meeting the situation.
Most of the appropriations made by the last legislature were also
restricted in their use to certain specific purposes and hence
could not be used, even in part, for dealing with the mosaic
cane disease. It was possible, however, under the terms of the
appropriation Act, for the Board to use for this work approxi-
mately $5,000 of the fund appropriated "for the purpose of
edmbating the sweet potato weevil and other plant pests and
diseases" and also a portion of the continuing appropriation
("General Fund") made by the terms of the Florida Plant Act
of 1915. As subsequent developments clearly showed, these re-
soulrces were inadequate for handling the situation. Neverthe-
less a great deal was accomplished in actual eradication and a
great deal more in checking the spread of the disease, as Is
shown below.
The Board, at its meeting September 8, 1919, issued a public
notice listing the Florida counties in which the mosaic disease
had been found and, at the same time, adopted rulles (41, 42A,
42B, 42C and 42D) for preventing further Introductions of the
disease, preventing spread from the properties already infected
and providing for eradication of the disease in the affected prop-
erties.
The attempt was made to secure the complete destruction, by
the end of the season, of all sugar cane in the affected fields.
Where only a few plants were diseased, these were usually
pulled up and burned, but in the case of fields of a-ffected cane
the owners were induced to grind up all of the cane and manua-
facture it for syrup, saving none of it for seed purposes and
destroying all the cane stubble after harvesting the cane. There
were very few owners of infected fields who did not cheerfully
comply with the Board's request in this matter and the diseased






State Plant Boara


fields in all .of peninsular Florida were cleaned up promptly
except at Canal Point in Palm Beach County. At this point the
infected fields aggregated 28 acres, the cane was exceedingly
rank and badly lodged so that the grinding of this cane and the
subsequent rooting out of the stubble was not completed until
March, 1920.
At Chattahoochee, Bristol and Apalachicola the co-operation,
of the farmers was readily secured and the desired measures put
into effect. There was opposition to the work on the part of one
or two individuals at Bris~tol. At Marianna, out of forty-two
owners of infected farms, all disposed of their affected cane as
requested by the Board except eight owners who refused to
comply, insisting upon retaining infected cane for planting in
1920. The Plant Board agents took no forcible measures to
bring about the destruction of the infected cane but on the con-
trary used, during a period of two months, every effort to secure
the co-operation of these eight farmers, asking nothing of them
except that they grind up all cane from the infected fields and
afterwards plow up the stubble. Failing to secure this co-
operation, the Plant Commissioner and Quarantine Inspector
appealed to the local officials of the law in Jackson County for
assistance. This assistance was refused and as it was evident
that the Board could not secure wilful compliance with its rules
under these conditions, or even enforce them by due process of
law, there remained no course except to abandon the attempt to
eradicate the disease in Jackson County.
During the spring and summer of 1920, the formerly infected
fields in the peninsular section of the State were visited and
examined at frequent intervals by Inspectors J. L. Lazonby and
J. H. Henderson, in connection with their inspections for the
sweet potato weevil. Up to the present time no more infections
of mosaic have been found in Central or South Florida.
The co-operation received in southern Florida was in marked
contrast to the attitude of the planters and officials in Jackson
County, as a number of interests donated funds, in the spring of
1920, for carrying on the inspection and eradication work, par-
ticularly in Palm Beach County. These donations amounted
to $1,350.00.*
The expenditures by the Plant Board on eradication of the
mosaic disease, during the year ending April 30, 1920, were as
follows :
*None of this money was expended by the Board prior to April 30, 1920, hence ex-
penditures from this source are not shown in the table on the following page.








i I I ITotal
Month West Central Palm Beach Miscell. During
Florida Florida County Month
1919
Aug. $ 65.54 ................ ............ 1$ 65.54
Sept. ......... 122.93 122.98
Oct. $ 264.05 187.38 $ 187.50 $ 75.06 713.99
Nov. 493.49 209.22 763.31 13.41 1,479.43
Dec. 461.48 184.20 802.24 5.38 1,453.30
1920
Jan. 399.51 ................ 572.18 28.67 1,000.36
Feb. 1' 283.35 ................ 334.64 7.21 625.20
Mar. ................ 234.60 415.25 36.23 686.08
Apr. ........... ..... ................I 531.471 .60 532.07
Totals | $1,001.881 | 1,003.871 $3,606.59 | $166.56 | $6,678.90
Of the total amount expended, $6,678.90, the sum of $4,835.55
was paid out of the Plant Act Special Fund, appropriation for
combating the sweet potato weevil and other plant pests and
diseases, and the sum of $1,843.35 out of the Plant Act General
Fund.
A further report on this work from April 30, 1920, to October
31, 1920, is contained in the Supplemental Report, page 89.
The situation with reference to this disease is such; that
eradication from all sections of the State appears to be feasible
and desirable and that such eradication can be accomplished at
a total cost which will probably be not greater than the future
annual loss from the disease if the latter is permitted to be-
come thoroughly established.
THE BLACK FLY
The occurrence of the black fly* in Cuba, Jamaica and The
Bahamas has continued to be a constant menace to the horti-
cultural interests of Florida. Every effort has been made by
the assistant quarantine inspectors at the various ports to keep
the pest from gaining entrance in shipments of fruits and vege-
tables and in the baggage and belongings of passengers arriving
from the black fly infested countries. At the same time the
imminent risk of the pest being introduced is emphasized by
the' fact that the black fly has actually been intercepted at our
ports on ten different occasions.
Despite the assistance rendered by the Florida Plant Board
to the Cuban Department of Agriculture in the early part of
1918, as explained in our last report, page 72, the black fly has
continued to ~extend its range in ~Havana Province and has be-
come firmly established at many points in Oriente Province.
*Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby.


Third Biennial Report






State Pla~nt $oard :


At the same time, freight and, passeiig~ triiffic 4ith'C~uba and
The Balha~mas has steadily increased,
Earnest efforts were made in 1917 and 1918 to induce shippers
of fruits and' vegetables from Cuba to desist from the practice
of including leaves, tai~gs, vines and other unnecessary and dan-
gerous materials in thLeir shipments to Florida.. These efforts
proving ineffective, the Plant Board at its meeting July 12, 1918,
instructed the Plant Commissioner to prohibit' delivery in Flor-
idaE of all pacckages of fruit arriving from Cuba in which leaves
and foliage were included. This order became effective August
1, 1918. As had been the prIactice previously, the Plant Board
inspectors undertook to make a thorough inspection of all con-
tainers of fruits and vegetables and from August 1 to th~e end
of thre fruit shipping season inspected 16,834, packages of fruits
and vegetables, Of~ this number, 81 were found to contain
dangerous material and their delivery in Florida was prohibited.
The cost of thus inspecting thousands of crates of fruit was
found to be poroirb~itive and on June 9, 1919, the Plant Board
adopted the following resolution:.

"On account of the prevalence in Cuba, The Bahamas, Jamaica,
the P'a~nama Canal Zone, the Philippine Islands, I-ndia, Geylon and
elsewhere,. of the spiny citrus white fly or 'b-leek fly' (Aleurocan-
thus woglumi Ashby). which insect is not known to be present in
Florida, the Plant Commissioner is directed, in accordance with
Rules 26A. and 26B, to refuse delivery i~nto the State of Florida of
all shipments of fruits and vegetables originating in the above-
enumerated countries or localities, or in any other country or lo-
cality where the spiny citrus wh~itefly is now established or may
hereafter be determined to be present, when such shipments have
included with them leaves, twigs or branches of trees or plants or
other materal's which are lIk~ely, in the judgment of the P~ant
Commissioner, or hris authorized representatives to carry inlfestau-
tion and introduce the insect into the State: provided, that the
Plant Commissioner may authorize the admission of fruits and
vegetabks4 originating in countries or places known to> be infested
with the black fly, when such fruits or vegetables have been sub-
jected to satisfactory fumigation by hydroeyanic-acid gas, such
famrigaties havsing been given by or under the supervision of an
agent of the Board. The Platnt Commissioner is authorized to surb-
stitute fumigation for inspection or to require both fumigation and
inspectiew of fruits anrd vegetables shipped from, black fty infesited
countries or places and provided, further, that fruit and vegetables
subjected to fumigation are to be so finnigat~ed at the risk of the
owner or the shipp~er of same,"

Immediately following the above order of the Board', arrange-
ments were made with the transportation companies to place
tight refrigerator cars at our disposal at P'ort Tampa and' Key
West, these cars to be used as chambers in which to fumigate
the fruits and vegetables arriving from~r Owba anrrd! oter West







Third Biennial1 Report


Indian ports. As soon thereafter as possible arrangements w~nere
made whereby the transportation companies would erect tight
fa~migarting rooms on the docks at both KLey West and Port
Tampa.*
At Miami the shipmrents of fruit and vegetables from the
Bahamtss have thu3s far been small enough so they could be
thnoroupghl inspected but with anly material increase in the bulk
of these shipments, making inspection imnpractical, fumigation
will be required.
The establishment of the black fly in Florida would doubtless
call for as energetic steps for itfg. eradication as were employed
in the ease of citrus canker and the depresfsion of real estate
values, due to its appearance in the State, would represent heavy
losses. It sis, highly desirable that the State Plant Board be
provided with funds which will be available for meeting such a
contingency.
THE PINK BOLLWORMI~
Our last report (pages 53 and 73) gave an account of the
establishment of this insect, .believed to be fully as destructive
to cotton as the boll weevil, in Texas and of the efforts of the
Federal Horticultural Board and the State of Texas to eradi-
cate it.
The Texas situation has continued to~ be serious and the pest
is not yet eradicated. On the contrary, infestations by the pest
were discovered, in February, 1920, in the three southwestern
parishes of Louisiana; namely, Caleasieu, Cameron and Jefferson
Davis. The infestation in Carreron Parish was particularly
heavy and the damage to the cotton crop had' been so severe
that many farmers had left the community. A conference of
cotton growers, members of the New Orleans Cotton Exchange,
members of the Federal Horticultural Board and state officials
of the various southern states, was held at New Orleans, March
5, 1920, to consider means for dealing with the situation. At
this conference the Florida Plant Board was represented.
Quarantines have been established by the Plant Board from
time to time, as the situation appeared to justify it, to prevent
the introduction of this pest into Florida, particularly in ship-
ments of low-grade cottons and in cotton seed. Inspections have
also been made by Plant Board inspectors of cottori fields in
parts of Florida where suspicious shipments had been received
*The fumigating chamber at Port Tampa was completed and placed in operation June
16, 1920, and the one at Key West on February 19, 1920.






State Plant Board


ivithout, however, any evidences of the pink bollworm being
found.
On August 1, 1920, Federal Horticultural Board Rule 46,
regulating interstate shipments of products likely to disseminate
the liink bollworm, became effective, and by order of the Plant
Board the provisions of this rule are now enforced in the case of
interstate shipments of cotton and similar products into Florida,
in lieu of Rules 45A and 45B, previously adopted by the Board
for accomplishing the~ same purpose.
The establishment of the pink bollworm in Florida, bringing
as it would heavy damage in addition to that now experienced
from the boll weevil, would undoubtedly bring Florida's cotton
growing industry to an end. The Plant Board should be pro-
vided with funds for use in eradicating this pest should it appear
in the State.

EMERGENCY FUNDS NEEDED
The State of Florida is at present threatened with the intro-
duction of three very serious insect pests: the black flyr, a de-
structive enemy of citrus fruits, mangoes, guavas~ and many
other plants, from Cuba, the Bahamas and the West Indie$; the
pink bollworyn of cotton, now occurring in Texas and Louisiana,
and the Mexican bean beetle*, .which has recently .been dis-
covered in twelve Alabama counties and which destroys` from
30 to 100 per cent of the pen and bean crops.
The appropriations usually made by the legislature do not
provide the State Plant Board with funds which can be used to
meet such emergencies as would be occasioned by the appearance
of any one of these destructive pests in Florida, and the Board
would therefore be helpless to deal with such a situation.
The Plant Commissioner recommends that the State Plant
Board request of the next session of the legislature, through
His Excellency, the Governor, an appropriation of not less than
$250,000.00, same to become available only and in event~ one or
more of these pests become established in the State.

THE BOLL WEEVIL
The destructiveness of the boll weevil to the Florida cotton
crop is well known. Not only have the farmers suffered heavy
losses in the production of short staple cotton, but the long staple
cotton industry has largely shifted from Florida and Georgia to
*See Supplemental Report, page 91.






Third Biennial Report


Arizona and California, in which states the boll weevil does not
occur.
A vast amount of knowledge regarding the boll weevil has
been acedmnulated during the past twenty years through inves-
tigations made by state and federal experts, but in spite of this
no really satisfactory means of control has yet been devised.
All of the accumulated information is, however, useful as the
basis upon which to pursue further investigations looking to a
practical control of the pest. Expert ents made within the
past few years by the Plant Commissioner and others have
strongly indicated the probability of satisfactory control mea-
sures being perfected along lines not heretofore followed and it
appears desirable that such work should be undertaken by the
State Plant Board with funds provided therefore by the legis-
lature.

BEE DISEASE ERADICATION
By the provisions of Chapter 7938, Approved June 9, 1919,
it is made incumbent upon the State Plant Board to prevent, as
far as possible, the introduction into the State of contagious and
infectious diseases of honey bees, to prevent their spread within
the State and to eradicate them. To these ends the Act re-
ferred to authorizes the Board to make and enforce rules and
regulations having the force and effect of law.
Honey bees are subject to a number of diseases, two of which,
"American foul brood" and "European foul brood", are exceed-
ingly virulent and destructive. American foul brood, particu-
larly, if allowed to run its course, always destroys the colony of
bees infected with it.
Florida is very favorably situated with reference to bee-keep-
ing enterprises. The long season, coupled with a great variety
of honey-producing plants, many of which are heavy yielders of
the choicest honey, affords opportunity for the production of
large and profitable honey crops. The early season also makes
it possible to rear bees and ship them to northern states at a
good profit. Potentially, Florida possesses the natural facilities
for becoming the greatest honey and bee producing state of the
Union. The beekeeping industry of the State is, in fact, already
a very important one but cannot continue its ~development unless
adequate protection is given against bee diseases. These dis-
eases are, fortunately, less prevalent in Florida than in mnost
other states and there is no reason why, with a reasonable ex-






State Plycnt Boar~d


penditure, the State cannot be cleared of them entirely and kept
free indefinitely.
The last legislature appropriated, for carrying out the pro-
visions of Chapter 7938, the sum of $5,000 per annum for the
two years, commencing July 1, 1919. At its first meeting after
this appropriation became available the Plant Board adopted a
number of rules and regulations* for carrying out the purposes
of the Act and also elected Mr. C. E. Bartholomew, of Orlando,
asi assistant to the Plant Commnissioner in the bee disease eradi-
eation work.
Inspections of apiaries were commenced in Calhoun and Lib-
erty Counties by the Plant Commissioner and Mr, Bartholomew
during the latter part of July, 1919, and when the work in this
section was well under way Mr. C, F. Glenn, of Wewabitchka,
was appointed (August 11, 1919) as District Apiary Inspector
to continue the work.
The work of inspection was extended to other counties as
rapidly as possible, preference being given to those counties in
which the presence of bee disease was known or suspected and
where the spicultural investments were of prime importance.
On September 9, 1919, Mr. J. P. Anthony of Apalachicola was
appointed District Apiary Inspector for Franklin County, on
February 1, 1920, Mr. Wm. H. Henderson of Clearwater as Dis-
trict Apiary Inspector for Pinellas County, and on March 8,
1920, Mr. C. M. Biorseth of Sarasota as District Apiary In-
spector for Manatee County.
Effective January 9, 1920, Mr. C. E. Bartholomewv resigned
to enter commercial beekeeping work on the lower East Coast.
He was succeeded on March 1, 1920, by Mr. Charles A. Reese,
formerly in charge of bee disease eradication work for the West
Virginia Department of Agriculture.
The District Apiary Inspectors receive a compensation of
$5.00 per day for the time actually devoted by them to inspection
and eradication work. They receive such assistance from the
Plant Commissioner and his assistant as circumstances may
require.
No expenditures have been made out of this appropriation for
office equipment, stenographer's `services, etc., and the appro-
priation has been applied as economically as possible with a view
to securing the maximum of actual results in eradicating bee
*Rules 40A, 40B, 400 and 40D. These and other rules pertaining to the bee disease
eradication work will be found in Appendix A (Circular No. 40) of this report.






Third Biennial Repo0rt


diseases. The assistant quarantine inspectors of the Plant
Board have been active in detecting and intercepting illegal and
diseased shipments of bees, this work also being done without
any charge against the appropriation for the bee disease work.
At the same time it has not been possible to extend the eradi-
cation work to sections of the State other than those mentioned
above and there are many important beekeeping counties in
which no work has yet been done. The appropriation of
$5,000.00 per annum naturally was only sufficient for a prelimi-
nary investigation and from the information secured during -the
first year of the work it is self-evident that the work should not
only be continued but should be adequately provided for to the
end that the beekeeping industry of Florida may become of para-
mount importance.
During the year's inspection work, ending June 30, 1920, 104
cases of American foul brood were loca-ted. These were dis-
tributed by counties as follows: Calhoun, 22; Franklin, 3; L~ib-
erty, 17; Manatee, 1, and Pinellas, 61.
The amount of inspection work done during the. year ending
June 30, 1920, is shown by the following summary:
Number of apiaries inspected......................... ....... ...... ... 66
Number of apiaries infected with American foul brood..............~........... 37
Number of colonies inspected....................................................1 ,0
Number of colonies infected with American foul brood................ ........... 108
Number of colonies destroyed, American foul brood.................... ........... 1103
Number of colonies treated, American foul brood..................... .............. O
Number of colonies infected with European foul brood............................ 5
Number of colonies treated, European foul brood...............~...... ........... 5
Number of colonies infected with sachrood....................... .. ........... 638

BUILDING NEEDED
In 1915 the University of Florida very graciously accommos-
dated the State Plant Board with quarters in Language Hall at
the University. Since that time the work of the State Plant
Board has expanded greatly and at the present time the offices,
laboratories and equipment of the Board occupy two basement
rooms, seven rooms on the second floor and all of the attic of
Language Hall. In the meantime the University has grown to
the point where it is in need of the space occupied by the Plant
Board. Coupled to this is the fact that the present i'lant Board
quarters are not in' all respects ample or satisfactory for its
work.
The Plant Commissioner accordingly recommends that a suit-
able building be provided for the use of the Plant Board, in order
that its various lines of work may be properly provided for and






State Plant Board


in order that the University may be relieved of the expense and
inconvenience of furnishing quarters for it.
PUBLICATIONS
Circulars of the Plant Board, in relatively small editions, con-
taining the rules of the Board as adopted or amended from time
to time, have been published as necessary during the biennium.
Circulars Nos. 31 to 38,' inclusive, were published during the
period ending -June 30, 1920. Circular 39 was published Au-
gust 15, 1920, and Circular 40, containing a revision of all rules
to date of its publication, was issued in December, 1920. A copy
of the latter, as "Appendix A", is attached to this report.
The publication of The Quarterly Bulletin of the Plant Board,
devoted to the practical control and eradication of injurious in-
sects and plant diseases in Florida, has been continued. Volumes
III and IV of this publication are attached, as "Appendix B", to
this report.
Quarantine Notices, containing only such regulations of the
Board as are of concern to shippers and transportation com-
panies, are issued from time to time. Through this publication
the co-operation of transportation companies is largely insured
in compliance with the various quarantine regulations. It is the
policy of the Board to furnish to each transportation company
operating in Florida, without charge, sufficient copies of these
notices for all agents. During the biennium Quarantine Notices
Nos. 13 to 20, inclusive, have been issued.
Timely articles on various subjects have been furnished fromn
time to time to the Agricultural News Service of the University
and also direct to the press of the State.
EMPLOYEES
During the past two years the employees of the Board have
been exceptionally loyal, industrious and efficient. Promotions
are made entirely on the basis of efficiency and merit and a
strict adherence to this policy has resulted in the employees of
the Board constantly seeking to improve their work and to in-
crease their. knowledge of the lines of work in which the Board
is engaged.
Careful records are kept in the Plant Commissioner's office
regarding each employee, his length of service, salary, efficiency,
etc. Space does not permit of giving such details in this report,
hence we give here only the names of employees in service at the
end of the State's fiscal year, June 30, 1920.








Third Biennial Report 79


LIsT or EMPLOYEES, JUNE 30, 1920

STATE PLANT BOARD
Bryan Mack.................... ... ......................Sertr
J. G. Kellum................. ...... .....................Auio
Miss Mai~guerite Hitch.....................................Stenoraphe

PLANT COMMISSIONER'S OFFICE
Wilmon Newell................ ......................Pln Commissioner
J. C. Goodwin..................... .. .... ............Che Clerk
Miss Ethel Murrill.......~............. .... .. ............. _.tnorpe
Miss Elita Lovejoy ... .......... ...Steogrphe
Miss Eva C. Means .. ....Filing.......--- Clerk
Henry Lloyd (Col.) ............................ ----------....Jaio
Bee Disease Eradication
C. A. Reese..................Asst. to Plant Commzissioner, Bee Disease .Eradication
C. F. Glenn....................... ....... .....-............Dsrc Apiary Inspector
J. P. Anthony.............. .....Disric Apiary Inspector
W. H. Henderson.... ..... District....... Apiary Inspector
C. M. Biorseth...................... ... .....................Dtrc Apiary Inspector

Cane Disease Survey
J. L. Lazonby................. ....................Inpco

DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY
E. W. Berger.... ...Entomologist........
G. B. Merrill........................ .................. .................... .......A assistant Enztomologist
Mrs. G. E. McLendon................. .....................Segrhr

QUARANTINE DEPARTMENT
J. H. Montgoniery.................... .. ...............Qaatn Inspector
A. C. Brown......... ............... ............................A assistant Quarantine Inspector
U. C. Zelut...............................................Asitn Quarantine Inspector
R. A. Knight... ................Asisan Quarantine. Inspector
R. D. Potter....: ........................................Asitn Quarantine Inspector
Harold M~owry............................................Asitn Quarantine Inspector
L. R. Warner....:.... ............... ... ............ ........... .....Assistant Quarantine Inspector
T. J. Baker.................... ..... ............................ .......Assistant Quarantine Inspector
Wm. V. Millington.....................:.................sitn Quarantine Inspector
W. N. Hull.... .................Deut Inspector

Sweet Potato Weevil Eradication
J. H. Henderson................ ..... ......................Inpco
John Schlobig .. .....Inspector.......;..:.
W. E. Stone..... ............ .....Inpco

NURSERY INSPECTION DEPARTMENT
F. M. O'Byrne.... ...............Nurer Inspector
J. Chaf~in................................ ............... ........ .............Assistant Nursery Inspector
W. C. Nanney.................~.................,...........Asitt Nursery Inspector
C. E. Whittington.........................................Asitn Nursery Inspector'
S. B. Walker.........~.............. ........ ............ ............Assistant -Nursery Inspector
M. R. Brown................. ..... ............. ..................... ..ssistacnt Nursery Inspector
P. F. Robertson.................. ................ ......................Assistant Nursery Inspector
J. V. Gist.... .......... .................................. ......Assistant Nursery Inspector
H. W. Fogg.................... .................................. ...1..Asit Nursery Inspector
C. A. Bass....................... .............. ...........................Inpco
J ames Kerr ........................................ ......................... I pco
O. T. Stone............................................... .........noc Clerk







State P~lantBoard


Miss L. McIlvaine.... _....Stenographer....
Miss Janette Roux... _..........~...Stenoraphe
Miss Etta V. Means............................................Seorp r

CANKER ERADICATION DEPA9RTMENTN
Fra9nk Stirling .. ...... General---------- Inspector
H. E. Stevens... .........---..Cnsutin Plant Pathologist
Miss Louise Ellis................ ......... ... -...: Stenographer


District Inspectorrs
A. L. Swanson


C. F. Smith


Assistant District Inspectors
H. D. Bollinger Chas. M. Brown
John Eiland I. L. McClanahan
H. C. Artis

Inspectors


Arthnr Adama
B. F. Adams
A. L. Beaty
R. F. Bosse
G. F. Burden
R. A. Cash
F. M, Cellon
D. S, Conor
P. E. Culley
SW. R. Curry
H. J. Dillingham l
Z. V. Dyson
W. F. Eberhardt
H. D). Eikenherry
J. W. Freeman
H. H. Frierson
C. E. Hall
H. S. Hawkins
R. C. Henderson
George Janes
A. P. Johnson


E. L. Kelly
Merton LeRoy
RI. W. Lindner
A. S. McLendon
J. F. Marsh
B.E. Melendy
A. R. Oakley
H. C. Parham
Bradley Park
T. R. Robinson
J. L. Shelton
I. M. Shriner
H. D. Smith
L. S. Smith
C. R. Stokes
G. E. Tedder
H5. L. Ulmer
J. E. Ulmer
G. W. Wade
H. S. Witt


FINANCIAL REPORT

FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDING AramL 30, 1919

Tallahassee, Fla., August 1, 1919.

To t~z State Plant Board of Florida:
Gentlemen: I have the honor to submit the following report
of the finances of the Board for the period ;beginning May 1,
1918, and ending April 30, 1919, the fiscal year for the Plant
Board. However, I have included in the Special Citrus Canker
Eradication Fund, expenditures for May and June of 1919.








Third Bie iraial Report 81


Sexwr~xRY

Total Resources

Plant Act General Fund.... ...........$...... 35,000.00
Plant Act Special Fund for Eradication of Citrus
Canker, etc. .~.................... ................ ............. 178,369.10
Donations and Incidental Collections Fund................ -8,468.89 $221,837.99


Total Expenditures
Plant Act General Fund......~.................................... $ 34,999.34
Unexpended Balance of General Fund Reverting.... .66
Plant Act Special Fund for Eradication of Citrus
Canker, ete ..................................... ...... I....... 41,949.12
Donations and Inei~den~tntnt altntnts~s~ Collectionrs Fund................ 6,211.15 $183,160.27f

Unexpended Balances ................... ................ $ 38,677.72


ITEMIZED EXFPUENDTSE BY FUNDS

GENERAL FUND

Resources

General Appropriation for fiscal year ending April 30, 1919...... $35,000.00

Expendituress

For Salaries ...~................~... ...................~.......$ 23,556.25
For Office Supplies.......l............. ..... .............. 1,540.38
For Traveling Expenses..................... ............. 5,936.51
For Print~in Bulletins...................... .. ........ 1,368,93
For General Supplies........................ ............ 1,509.26
For Miscellaneous Expenses.................... ... .......... 1,088.01 34,999.34*

Unexpended balance, May 1, 1919, which reverts to Gen-
eral Revenae ...................-..~............ ................. $ .66

Bra'''~~~~~''''cIAL FUND

Resources
Untexpgended: BaLance~ after paying expenses for April, 1918.. $ 28,369.10
Special Appropriation for Citrus Canker Eradication, etc.,
avaikable July 1918............................. ................... 150,000.00

Total Resources .................... ................ $178,369.10

*The disbursement of the General' Fund for the fiscal year ending April SO, 1919, classi-
fled by depanrtmeants rather than by items, was as follows:
Plant Board; expenses.......................................... .............. 1,198.03
Secretary's Office (Tallahassee)....................... ................... 1,060.12
Plant Commissioner's OtFice (Gainesville)............ .................... 3,722.01
Department; of Entomology.............................................. 6,606.05
Nursery Inspection ......................................................... 6,W(84@8
Quarantine hospection ......................................... ............ 14,046.06
Sweet Potate Weevil Eradication......................... ............... ,068
Unexpendbd balance reverting ......................... ................... .g6
Total................... ... .................... $ 35,000.00
--Plant Commissioner.







82 State Plant Board


Expenditures
For Salaries ...................................................$ 83,845.27
For Office Supplies ...................... 6,650.54
For Traveling Expenses ..................... 44,934.33
For Printing Bulletins ........................................... 3,831.00
For General Supplies......~............... 2,088.70
For Miscellaneous Expenses.................. .599.28 $141,949.12**

Unexpended Balance after paying June, 1919, bills.. $ 36,419.98

DONATIONS AND INCIDENTAL COLLECTIONS FUND


Resources

Unexpended Balance after paying April, 1918, expenses............
Donations and Incidental Collections from April 30, 1918, to
A pril 30, 1919.............. ................... ........... .... ........

Total Resources .......... ..........

Expenditures


$ 2,391.68

6,077.21

$ 8,468.89


For
For
For
For
For
For


Salaries ..................... .... .. . ............ 4,265.39
Office Supplies.................- 2.62
Traveling Expenses.................. 42.97
Printing Bulletins.................- 21.60
General Supplies.................. 1,649.77
Miscellaneous Expenses.................. 228.80 6,211.

Unexpended Balance after paying April, 1919, bills............ $ 2,257.
Respectfully submitted,
BRYAN IVACK,
Secretary.


15

74


FINANCIAL REPORT

Fox FISCAL YEAR ENDING APRIL 30, 1920

Tallahassee, Fla., August 1, 1920.

To the State Plant Board of Florida:
Gentlemen: I have the honor to submit the following report
on the finances of the Board for the period beginning May 1,
1919, and ending April 30, 1920:
**This sum was expended for the following purposes:
Citrus Canker Eradication..................................................... 93 59 1
Nursery Inspection ...........................-..........----........................ 25,633.66
Arm y Wl orm Control............................................................. 1,882.41
Banana Root Borer Eradication................................................ 109.75
Sweet Potato W~eevil Eradication............................................... 626.96
Quarantine W~ork and Inspection............................................... 13,961.86
Plant Board Expenses.......................................................... 1,649.36
Secretary's Office ......................................... ....................... 615.80
Plant Commissioner's Office......................... ....................... .... 1,837.28
Entomological Department ...................... .................. .............. 2,273.03
Total................-.- ....................... $141,949.12
--Plant Commissioner.





















$173,061.28


96,976.63

$ 76,084.65


$35,000.00


Third Biennial Report


SUMMARY

Total Resources
Plant Act General Fund..................... .................... 35,000.00
Citrus Canker Eradication Fund.................................. 66,419.98
Nursery Inspection Fund......................................... 20,000.00
Quarantine Inspection Fund...................... ................. 25,000.00
Sweet Potato Weevil Eradication Fund............. 15,000.00
Bee Disease Eradication Fund...................... ............... 5,000.00
Donations and Incidental Collections Fund................ 6,641.30



Total Expenditures
Plant Act General Fund........................................... 34,999.84
Unexpended Balance of General Fund Reverting.... .16
Citrus Canker Eradication Fund................... 20,129.93
Nursery Inspection Fund........................ ............... 9,665.58
Quarantine Inspection Fund...................................... 16,653.52
Sweet Potato Weevil Eradication Fund...................... 10,316.73
Bee Disease Eradication Fund..................................... 2,852.22
Donations and Incidental Collections Fund................ 2,358.65


Unexpended Balance after April, 1920, bills had been paid



ITEMIZED EXPENDITURES BY FUNDS


GENERAL FUND

Resources

General Appropriation for fiscal year ending April 30, 1920....

Expenditures
For Salaries .................. ......... -----......$ 21,054.85
For Office Supplies.................. 2,271.77
For Traveling Expenses.................. 8,971.38
For Printing Bulletins ................. 1,827.68
For General Supplies.................. 705.78
For Miscellaneous Expenses................... 168.38

Unexpended Balance, after paying April, 1920, bills..........


34,999.84*

$ .16


*The disbursement of the General Fund for the fiscal year ending April 30, 1920,
classified by departments and projects rather than by items, wnas as follows:
Plant Board, expenses................ ..---. 861.36
Secretary's Office .. ..........-.--- 1,073.90
Plant Commissioner's Office..... ............. 10,600.99
Department of Entomology..... ............. 5,152.75
Nursery Inspection ...6,996.34
Quarantine Inspection 469.78
Banana Root Borer Eradication.................. 213.00
Boll W eevil Investigations................................................... 1,035.00
Mosaic Cane Disease Eradication............................................... 1,843.35
Sweet Potato Weevil Eradication............................................... 2,734.73
M miscellaneous W ork .............................-------- ----- ----------- -..-. 118.69
Unexpended Balance reverting.................................................. .16

Total..................-... ............ $ 35,000.00








M Stakse Plan~Pt Borar


CITRUS CANKEk E~iAIciCATION FUND

fRe~sou~rces,

Unexpended 1Bejati o~f 1917 Special Fund.................................. $ 96,419.983
Appropriation by 1919 Legislature................... ............ 30,000.00

Total Resources ...........~..... ................... $ 66,419.983

Expenditures'
For Salaries .............. .. .. .................... 12,946.75
For Office Supplies............... ....~....~......~.... 732.41
For Traveling Expenses..........~........... ............ 5,857.60
For Printing Bulletins................... .... ........... 273.00
For General Supplies..........~.........~... .......... 303.17
For Miscellraneous Expenses.................. .. ...~........ 17.00 20,129.93

Unexpended Balance after paying April, 1920, bills.......... $ 46,290.05


NURSERY INSPECTION FUNiD

Resources

Appropriation by 1919 Legislature............................. .... $ 20,000.00

Expenditures
For Salaries .. ..........~. ...... ......~....... 4,268.43
For Office Supplies... ............. .... ............... 244.90
For Traveling Expenses .......... ......... . ................ 4,977.93
For Printing Bulletins.............. ..... ......... 170.57
For General Supplies................ .... ......~. 3.75 9,665.58

Unexpended Balance after paying April, 1920, bills............ $ 10,334.42


QUARANTINE INSPECTION FUND

Resources

Appropriation by 1919 Legislature.................. ............... $ 25,000.00

Expenditures
For Salaries ...........~................~............. 11,999.27
For Office Supplies.................... ........... 435.79
For TIrave~lig Eap~en~ses. ..... ... ........ ..... 3',847.51
For Printing Bulletins.................. 511.~0
For Genralf Supplies~........~.................... 554.14
For Misc~ellaneousl Ex~pensess................ 105.79 16,653.52

Unexapeded Balance after paying April, 1920, bills............ $ 8,346.48

gWEET POTATO WEEVIL ERADICATEION FUND

Resources

Appropriation by 1919 Legislature................. .................. $ 15,000.00







Third Biennial Report 85


Expenditures
For Salaries ................. ....................$. 4,850.26
For Office Supplies................~.... ...... .... 52.96
For Traveling Expenses..........~....................... 2,998.40
For Printing Bulletins. .................. .......... 15.00
For General Supplies.................. ............. 2,251.17
For Miscellaneous Expenses...~................ .......... 148.94 10,316.73

Unexpended Balance after paying April, 1920, bills............ $ 4,683.27

BEE DISEASE ERADICATION FUND

Resources
Appropriation by 1919 Legislature..................... ............ $ 5,000.00

Expenditures
For Salaries ................. ......................$ 1,931.82
For Office Supplies..................... ........... 100.38
For Traveling Expenses................ ............ 722.06
For Printing Bulletins.................. ............. 58.62
For General Supplies....~............... ............ 39.34 2,852.22

Unexpended Balance after paying April, 1920, bills............ $ 2,147.78

DONATIONS AND INCIDENTAL COLLECTIONS FUND

Resources
Unexpended Balance after paying April, 1919, bills.................. $ 2,257.74
Donations and Incidental Collections from April 30, 1919, to
April 30, 1920..... ~.... ...... ....... .... .............. .. 4,383.56

Total Resources ................. .............. $... 6,641.30

Expenditures
For Sglaries ............... .... ...............$ 1,395.93
For Office Supplies..................... . .......... 97.83
For Traveling Expenses................ ..................~ 103.39
For General Supplies................ .. ~... .. ............ 595.01
For Miscellaneous Expenses..._.... .....~.... ............. 166.49 2,358.65

Unexpended Balance after paying April, 1920, bills............ $ 4,282.65





State Plant Board


SUPPLEMENTAL REPORT
MAY 1 TO OCTOBER 31, 1920
During this period the work of the Board has been continued
along the lines described in the preceding pages. In this sup-
plementary report, however, detailed descriptions of the Board's
work will not be given, but only ~such facts and developments
during this period as are of primary importance.
RULES AND REGULATIONS
On August 9, 1920, the Board suspended the operation of
Rules 45A and 45B (pink bollworm quarantine rules) and in-
structed the Plant Commissioner and his assistants to enforce,
in lieu thereof, the provisions of Federal Horticultural Board
Quarantine No. 46, which became effective August 1, 1920.
Quarantine 46 regulates the interstate shipment of cotton, cotton
seed, hulls and other materials likely to disseminate the pink
bollworm.
SRule 46 of the State Plant Board, excluding guavas, mangoes,
Cuban plums and Surinam cherries from Florida, to prevent the
introduction of the West Indian fruit-fly, was adopted September
13, 1920.
QUARANTINE DEPARTMENT
One of the striking developments during this period was the
interception of seven shipments of fruit from Cuba infested with
larvae of the West Indian fruit-fly, Anastrepha fraterculus
Wied. This pest is very destructive to guavas and mangoes in
Cuba and there is every reason for believing that it would be
equally destructive in Florida if established here. As the larvae
are always contained within the fruit their presence cannot be
with certainty detected on inspection except by cutting open all
the fruits. This would, self-evidently, render them unsaleable.
The only way in which to prevent the introduction of this pest
therefore appeared to lay in excluding the fruits subject to its
attacks. Accordingly the Board, on September 13, adopted
Rule 46, which prohibits the importation of guavas, mangoes,
Cuban plums and Surinamn cherries into Florida.
The inspection work done by this Department during the
period from May 1 to October 31 is shown by the following
summary :








Third Biennial Report 87


REPORT ON INSPECTIONS AND INTERCEPTIONS, ALL PORTS AND
STATIONS, FOR THE PERIOD 1VAY 1 To OCTOBER 31, 1920
SHIPS INSPECTED:
From foreign ports.................................. .............. 1,401
From U. S. ports other than Florida...................... 739
From Florida ports..................... .. ........... 258

Total........................................ 2,398
NUMBER OF PARCELS INSPECTED:
Arriving by water:
Passed ...................... ................. 12 2, 92 3
Treated and passed..................... .............. 44,147
Returned to shipper.................... ............. 1,157%
Contraband destroyed ................ .. ....~.......... 602

Total.................................. ................... 168,829% ~
Arriving by land, express, freight, wagon, etc:
Passed .................. ... ......................... 7,444%
Treated and passed..................... ............ 128
Returned to shipper.................. ............. 89
Contraband destroyed ................. ......... ........ 74%$

Total.................. .............. 7,736
Arriving by mail:
Passed ..................... 536
Treated and passed........................ .......... .... 14
Returned to shipper........................ ......... 38
Contraband destroyed .................. ............... 10

Total................................... .... 598
GRAND TOTAL OF PARCELS INSPECTED.............................. ....... 177,163%~
Number of parcels on hand pending determina-
tion as to final disposition................................ 36
Total Parcels Passed .. ~.................. ... ..... ..... 130,903%~
Total Parcels Treated and Passed................................... 44,289
Total Parcels Returned to Shipper.................................. 1,284%
Contraband destroyed ..................... .............-- 686%$
Grand Total ..............------ 177,163%f~

NURSERY INSPECTION

The nursery inspection work has been conducted without in-
terruption along the lines described in the main body of our
report.
A list of the Florida nurserymen holding valid certificates was
published in the Board's Quarterly Bulletin for October, Vol.
V, No. 1.
CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION

During this period, no infections were found in sections or
localities not previously infected.
During July a severe canker infection was found in a some-
what isolated grove near Boynton, Palm Beach County. This
grove belonged to three different parties and contained a total
of 536 trees. The grove had not been inspected since June, 1918,






State Plant Board


as reduced appropriations after the latter date made it impos-
sible to keep under constant inspection any except the areas
considered most likely to develop infection. All trees in this
infected grove were immediately destroyed. Two other infec-
tions, traceable to this grove, were also found. A total of 539
infected grove trees were found in these properties (538 trees
in July and 1 in August).
During the other months of this period, namely, May, June,
September and October, no canker was found, although the in-
spection work was kept up to the maximum of efficiency.
The work done, together with the results accomplished, are
shown in the following table:





May588326 4,329,786 0 0 98
June 319,104 4,769,412 0 0 91
July 311,883 4,509,662 5 0 89
August 689,336 2,324,622 0 0 85
September 588,416 4,252,933 0 0 86
October 495,518 5,475,708 0 0 85
TOTAL 2,992,583 25,662,123 5 0

Grand Summary, Canker Eradication Work, October 31, 1920
Properties found infected May 1, 1914, to April 30, 1920.................... 481
Additional properties found infected between May 1 and October
31, 1920 _5
Total properties infected to October 31, 1920.... ................ 486
Properties declared no longer danger centers to October 31, 1920.... .... 479
SPFygperties still ~classed as "actively infected," October 31, 1920................ 7
DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY
During this~period 367 cultures of the red Aschersonia, or
whitefly' fungus, and 54 cultures of the yellow Aschersonia, or
~funguB for destroying the cloudy-winged whitefly, have been
distributed. The beneficial fungi appear to be more abundant in
the citrus groves this year than formerly; hence the demand
for- these culturesE has been comparatively light. A considerable
number of cultures prepared the past spring are still on hand
-andl~the .a~ttemijt w-il be made to carry them through to next
:summet in cold. storag~e. The. Entomologist has been able to
secu~nre good. catcheses! of the fungus when using cultures that
,haUd been kept iricOld storage fOr a yea~r.






Third Biennial Report


Experiments in testing new fungi for the control of certain
scale-insects have been continued.
During this period 1,164 Vedalia, or Australian ladybird
beetles, have been distributed, 967 insect specimens have been
received, identified and recorded and six species of scale-insects,
heretofore unknown in Florida, have been received from the
lower east coast and identified.
SWEET PoTATo WEEVIL ERADICATION
Inspection work has been continued throughout the peninsular
section of the State. One new infested locality, near Lily,
DeSoto County, was discovered by Inspector H. C. Artis on July
5th. The infested area is small, not far from the Gulf Coast
and does not materially extend the previously infested area.
This infestation was found to be due to the movement of sweet
potato plants by automobile from a weevil-infested point on the
coast in Manatee County.
The barrier strip between Ormond and Summer Haven, in
Volusia County, described in our main report, was gone over
under the direction of Mr. B. L. Boyden, of the Bureau of Ento-
mology, on June 1, July 22, and September 15, each time being
cleared of all seaside morning-glory plants that had appeared.'
The eradication work in Baker County has progressed most
satisfactorily under the field direction of agents of the Bureau
of Entomology and still further reduction in .the number of
infested farms by the coming winter is a certainty. In connec-
tion with this project the Plant Board expects to again supply
the farmers in the infested part of Baker County with weevil-
free sweet potato plants the coming spring. The field planting
of 15 acres at Gainesville, in which seed potatoes for next year's
plants are being grown, gives promise of yielding a very satis-
factory crop of choice potatoes of the several varieties and at a
cost to the Plant Board considerably below that of purchasing
the seed potatoes in the open market.
MOSAlc DISEASE OF SUGAR CANE
Quarantines to prevent the movement of sugar cane from the
infected counties have been continued in effect and while it is
certain that the disease is increasing steadily in certain western
Florida counties where the Board was unable last year ~to obtain
co-operation of the farmers in eradicating the disease, it is be-
lieved that the spread from these areas to other parts of the
State has been prevented.









Excellent co-operation in eradicating the disease in the penin-
sular portion of the State has been given the Board as hereto-
fore. The work has also been supported, morally and financially,
by the sugar companies having extensive investments in Ever-
glades sugar lands. Thus far this summer no infection of the
mosaic disease has been found at any point in the peninsula,
indicating that the eradicative measures employed last fall and
winter have been successful. At its meeting on October 11th the
Board raised the quarantine on sugar cane grown in Polk and
Orange Counties, believing the mosaic disease to be eradicated
in these counties, and it is believed that further inspections will
shortly warrant similar action in the case of certain other south
Florida counties.
During this period expenditures on the sugar cane mosaic
eradication work were as follows:

Month West Florida Central Fla.* Palm Beach
------~| County
May |........................ ........................ $661.40
June ........................ $515.51 271.10
July ....................-.... ........................ 34.40
August ........................ ........................ 110.00
September ....................---- ........................ 70.00
October .~.......... ............ ............
Totals ........................ $515.51 $1,146.90
Grand Total ................... ...................$1,6 2.4
Of the amount expended, $1,662.41, the sum of $515.51 was
out of the Plant Act Special Fund for the control of the sweet
potato weevil and other pests and diseases and the remainder,
$1,146.90, was met out of donations made by sugar-planting
companies, private individuals, etc.
THE BLACK FLY
Several interceptions of the black fly have been made at Port
Ta~mpa and Key West during this period in material arriving
from Cuba.
Fruit growers of the State have become very much concerned
over the danger of this pest being introduced into Florida and
on September 9 a meeting of growers was held at Orlando and
the situation thoroughly discussed. In view of the fact that
other southern states are not providing quarantine and inspec-
tion facilities, as is Florida, to keep this pest out of the South,
i't was felt that ~the3 matter is one~ which should receive recog-
*Exelusive of Palm Beach County.


State Plant Board






Third Biennial Report


nition by the federal government and that the latter should
inaugurate effective quarantine measures, effective at all ports.
Resolutions were accordingly adopted asking the Federal Hor-
ticultural Board to grant a hearing upon the question and a
committee of growers was appointed to take the matter up with
the Federal Horticultural Board. The hearing asked for has
been granted and will be held in Washington, D. C., on De-
cember 20th.
THE IVEXICAN BEAN BEETLE
In July, 1920, the Mexican bean beetle* was found to be pres-
ent in twelve counties in the north central part of Alabama, an
area having Birmingham as its approximate center. This insect
has been known to occur in New Mexico, Arizona and Colorado
for a number of years and has always been a very destructive
pest of peas and beans. It has not been found east of the Rocky
Mountains except in the case of the Alabama area referred to.
In this area the pest has proven very destructive, in many in-
stances during the summer of 1920 destroying from 60 to 100
per cent. of the snap bean and lima bean crops. Cowpeas were
also severely damaged.
It is conceivable that this pest may prove to be even more
destructive to the agricultural interests of the Gulf States than
the boll weevil. While the latter is destructive to the farmer's
principal cash crop, the Mexican bean beetle, on the other hand,
destroys food crops (peas and beans) grown for human con-
sumption and market, destroys one of the principal crops (cow-
peas) grown for forage and may prove a serious handicap in
the maintenance of soil fertility by depleting or destroying the
pea crops grown for turning under or for soil improvement.
Efforts were made to secure the passage of an appropriation
bill by the Legislature of Alabama, convened in special session
in September, 1920, providing $250,000.00 for eradication of
this pest from the infested Alabama area. This bill failed of
passage and the opportunity for stamping out the pest in that
State is probably past.
The insect is believed to have been brought to Alabama in
alfalfa hay from Colorado. It can be distributed in shipments
of hay and farm products, as well as in shipments of fresh
garden truck of various kinds. As will be seen by the accom-
panying map of Alabama (figure 5) the infested area in that
state is relatively large and the opportunities for the pest spread-
*Epilachnca corruptar Muls.







92 State Pkcnt Board


r' ~---;
L U eL J
;"'
:F-O r i ~iff 17 illl I
I -., ~-
t- iL;r Zr~ClyC .ry: I
~ I-~ -er; r
~L~ L
1Y ill.
I tl'l
L_~L~f;l lr r -
--
rj "-~ '~~
vl
L~i~rF".i;-i.
cl( j~Yf IZ1 r3.- ;~Lt~~ I
ZlcL -L~-F
-i ;I. r.
*I. -i. ir



~. elL~* i~i~jl:r
~7 11 ~Et~:iiL~f
- c iLr-
r*l~f~~dFI
C:l P
ir~rrrr
~ "
IL ~
PP-~
~~~ ~ Sc
r iyr7
;1 s UL''"-~;~r
s
'5. r f- VF
't'i r
~II r '
ulr- ~[ ~~- ?5-=-: '-
~, ~ -- c~i
.F -
'I 1W
r --- i
:~ -~v~ ~3
--;cS~.~~;'~?L; cc. .I
~c-
rP r r
C---~ !I ..~i- 4t
" i
17 it_ :.l-CLin -r
,-r
-F r -I---
f~1ZCLO~" _~ r' 'E~ l~e11_4~
F
-~___, ;
-7
c~t~
.:i". c ' re" -~ ~I j
r -
L?~C~~, ,iI~ ~--~t~T 1:
r; ri' ~~
..r '.F-l --- t-P 'r
-U
~:~C~FE* Y~y
- i~_; s
Y. :.Lr
~n6~f; "~~L~' I
t~~-- _.._. n~.;r.l--
~~i5~(~ r FL A.
Chr
r- t Fig. 5.--I\Iap of Alabama showing
r rshadetl) area infested with the Mex-
Ican bean beetle in October, 1920.
I~ourtesy 4labama State Board of
I Horticulture.)







Third Biennial Repovrt


ing to other states through commercial shipments are numerous.
Should the pest continue to be as destructive as it has been
during the past season in Alabama the losses occasioned by it
will be appalling. Florida would perhaps suffer more from the
establishment of the bean beetle within her borders than would
any other state, particularly on account of her extensive industry
of growing peas and snap beans for the fall and spring markets'
of the North and because of the great need for legumes in main-
taining the fertility of her sandy soils.
So serious would be the consequences of the establishment
of the bean beetle in Florida that the Plant Commissioner ear-
nestly recommends the appropriation of an adequate sum by the
legislature for emergency use in event the Mexican bean beetle,
pink bollworm or black fly makes its appearance in the State
(see page 74).
BEE DISEASE ERADICATION
This work has been continued in accordance with the plans
described in our main report. Between July 1 and October 31
7 colonies infected with American foul brood were discovered.
All of these were in Pinellas County. Following is a summary
of the apiary inspection work during this period:

SUMMARY OF APIARY INSPECTION WORK
July 1 to October 31, 1920
Number of apiaries inspected.... .............. 138
Number of apiaries infected with American foul brood............................ 7
Number of colonies inspected.... ....3,899.........
Number of colonies infected with American foul brood................ 7
Number of colonies destroyed, account American foul brood............ 7
Number of colonies infected with European foul brood................ O
Number of colonies infected with sacbrood.................... ............ 66

SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCIAL REPORT
MAY 1, 1920, To OCTOBER 31, 1920.

Tallahassee, Fla., November 1, 1920.
To the State Plant Board of Florida:
Gentlemen: I have the honor to submit the following report
on the finances of the Board from May 1, 1920, to the,close of
business on October 31, 1920.
Respectfully submitted,
J. T. DIAMOND,
Secretary.








94 State Plant Boardl


GENERAL FUND

Resources
General Appropriation for fiscal year ending April 30, 1921...... $ 35,000.00

Expenditures
For Salaries .. ....$................ 7,384.78
For Office Expenses.................... .............. 1,593.70
For Traveling Expenses ................... .. ............... 843.55
For Printing Bulletins...................... ............... 634.68
For General Supplies...................... ~... ...... ..... 29.83
For Miscellaneous Expenses..................................... 25.20

Total Expenditures ................ .................... $ 10,511.74

Balance Unexpended October 31, 1920..................... ................. $ 24,488.26


SPECIAL FUNDS

CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION

Resources
Unexpended Balance after paying expenses for April, 1920...... $ 46,290.05
Special Appropriation available July 1, 1920................................ 30,000.00

Total Resources ....................... ................... 76,290.05

Expenditures
For Salaries .. ....$................ 22,855.77
For Office Expenses ........................ ..... ........ 196.14
For Traveling Expenses..................... .............. 7,888.20
For Printing Bulletins .....................
For General Supplies.................. ................. 568.04
For Miscellaneous .................. .................. 533.61

Total Expenditures .....:................................... $ 32,041.76

Balance Unexpended October 31, 1920...................... .............. 44,248.29

NURSERY INSPECTION
Resources
Unexpended Balance after paying expenses for April, 1920...... $ 10,334.42
Special Appropriation available July 1, 1920................................ 20,000.00

Total Resources ................... ................... $ 30,334.42

Expenditures
Fo r Salaries ................. .. ..... ....................... ... 4, 80 3.2 2
For Office Supplies................................... ...... 286.31
For Traveling Expenses..................... .................. 7,756.04
For Printing BiLlletins ......................
For General Supplies................... 69.22
For Miscellaneous Expenses........... .... ....... 69.89

Total Expenditures .................... ................... $ 12,984.68

Balance Unexpended, October 31, 1920........... ........ ................... $ 17,349.74







Third Biennial Report 95

QUARANTINE INSPECTION
Resources

Unexpended Balance after paying expenses for April, 1920..... $ 8,346.48
Special Appropriation available July 1, 1920.................. 25,000.00
Total Resources ................. -...--- -- -- --------- 8------ 33,346.48

Expenditures
For Salaries ................. ------ -............. 8,691.00
For Office Expenses ................. 305.23
For Traveling Expenses.................. 2,104.83
For Printing Bulletins ...................--
For General Supplies................-- 814.82
For Miscellaneous Expenses..............-.. 5.20

Total Expenditures ..... ....................--------- $ 11,921.08

Balance Unexpended October 31, 1920..................... .. ............. $ 21,425.40

SWEET POTATO WEEVIL ERADICATION
Resources
Unexpended Balance after paying expenses for April, 1920...... $ 4,683.27
Special Appropriation available July 1, 1920.................. 10,000.00
Total Resources ................. ..... ................. 14,683.27

Expenditures
For Salaries ..................... ......... -- --- ---.....$- 3,462.27
For Office Expenses..................- ------- 6.66
For Traveling Expenses .............-------2,107.89
For Printing Bulletins ..............------
For General Supplies. ........------- 379.45
For Miscellaneous Expenses.......,.......... 36.08

Total Expenditures ..............-... --- ---........ $- 5,992.35

Balance Unexpended October 31, 1920 ..... .... ............... ...------ $ 8,690.92

BEE DISEASE ERADICATION
Resources
Balance Unexpended after paying expenses for April, 1920...... $ 2,147.78
Special Appropriation, available July 1, 1920.....:............ 5,000.00
Total Resources ...................... ------------.. $ 7,147.78
Expenditures
For Salaries .... ...$......-------- 2,086.48
For Office Supplies ..........------- 110.02
For Traveling Expenses ..........--.-------- 564.16
For Printing Bulletins ..........:-------- 42.75
For General Supplies ..........--------- 57.41
For Miscellaneous Expenses........--.------

Total Expenditures .................... .................- $ 2,860.82

Balance Unexpended October 31, 1920........................----- .......... 4,286.96






State P~lanat Board


..ESTIMATES
The following estimates on the amounts of money required
for carryi-ng out the duties imposed upon the State Plant Board
by the provisions of the Florida Plant Act of 1915 (Chapter
6885) and Chapter 7938, are made with due regard to past ex-
perience in dealing with the problems involved and to the wis-
dom of affording the State's varied agricultural interests ade-
quate protection against insect pests and plant diseases, some
of which may easily cause losses running into the millions of
dollars.
The Plant Board is now compelled to pay higher salaries than
ever before to the trained men necessary to efficiently conduct
its work. All supplies needed by the Board in its work are also
at a higher price than at any time past and while some reduc-
tion in this respect may be anticipated, it is not likely that rail-
way fares, freight and express rates, disinfectants, chemicals,
stationery, typewriters, etc., will be reduced to pre-war prices
during the coming biennium.
The various activities to which these estimates refer and the
necessity therefore are quite fully explained in the foregoing
pages of this report:

ESTIMATED EXPENSES PER ANNUM
For
Fiscal Years Ending June 30, 1922, and June 30, 1923.
Plant Board
Traveling expenses, postage, telegrams, stationery, etc., of
Board members* .....................$ 3,000.00
Secretary's Office
Salary of Secretary, Traveling Expenses, Stationery, Post-
age, etc. .$ 2,000.00
Plant Commissioner's Office
salaries, Plant Commissioner, Chief Clerk, Stenographers and
J anitor ................. ........:...... ....... 11, 76 0.0 0
Traveling Expenses, Postage, Telephone, Telegrams, Sta-
tionery, Office and Filing Furniture, Typewriter Main-
tenance, Express, Freight, Drayage, Publication of Circu-
lars and Quarterly Bulletin, Heat, Lights, Reference Pub-
lications, Mu~ltigraph Supplies, etc., per annum............ $ 6,380.00
Quarantine Department'
Salaries, Traveling Expenses, Port Expenses, Boat Hire,.
Quarantine Notices, etc., per annum~.............~. ..... $ 40,000.00
*Members of the Plant Board receive no salary.







Third Bien~nial Report


Nursery Inspection
Salaries, Traveling Expenses, Tags, Filing Furniture, Sta-
tionery, Postage, etc. ................................................... $ 40,000.00

Citrus Canker Eradication
Salaries, Traveling Expenses, Disinfectants, etc., for Eradica-
tion of Citrus Canker and Maintaining Grove Inspection
for Detection of Citrus Canker, Black Fly and Other Dan- -
gerous Pests and Diseases, per annum................... ............... $100,000.00
Parcel Post Plant Inspection
Salaries, Tags, Fumigating Materials, etc., for Inspecting and
Treating Shipments of Plants and Plant Products Ar-
riving in the State by Parcel Post, per annum...................... $ 4,800.00
Sweet Potato Weevil Eradication
Salaries, Traveling Expenses, Supplies, etc., for Completing
Eradication of Sweet Potato Weevil in Baker County,
Inspecting Sweet Potato Plant Nurseries and Inaugu-
rating Eradication Work in Other Infested Counties, per
annum .................. ... ....... .................... $ 20,000.00

Eradication, Mosaic Disease of Sugar Cane
For Completing Eradication of the Mosaic Disease in Palm
Beach County and in West Florida and for Preventing
Additional Introductions and Spread of the Disease, per
annum ............................ ...... ............... $ 15,000.00

Cotton Boll Weevil Investigations
For investigating and devising methods of controlling the
cotton boll weevil and applying same, per annum................ $ 10,000.00

Department of Entomology
Salaries of Entomologist, Assistant Entomologists, Stenog-
rapher, Filing Cases, Insect Cases, Stationery, etc., per
annum .............. . ...... ..... . ................. $ 15,000.00
Bee Disease Eradication
For Eradicating Contagious and Infectious Diseases of Honey
Bees in Accordance with the Requirements of Chapter
7938, Laws of Florida, per annum ................... .............. $ 20,000.00
Total Requirements, per annum.................... ................. $287,940.00
Less Continuing Appropriation, Provided by Chap-
ter 6885 .................... .. .. .. ............ 35,000.00

Special Appropriations Required, per annum......~.......... $252,940.00

In addition to the above the Plant Commissioner urgently
recommends the appropriation of not less than $250,000.00, as
an emergency appropriation to become available for the use of
the State Plant Board, only and in the event that the pink boll-
worm of cotton, the Mexican bean beetle or the black fly should
make its appearance in the State. Should any one of these pests






98 State Plant B~oard

succeed in obtaining a foothold in Florida the cost of eradication
would be increased to many hundreds of thousands of dollars if
the Board were obliged to defer action until the succeeding
session of the legislature.
It is also respectfully suggested that such amount as may
appear to be necessary for the purpose be appropriated for the
erection of a suitable building, on the grounds of the University
at Gainesville, for the accommodation of the~ Board's offices,
laboratories, etc.
Respectfully submitted,
WILMON NEWELL,
Gainesville, Fla., Plant Commissioner.
January 1, 1921.










University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs