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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Report of state plant board
 Report of the plant commission...
 Appendix A: Rules and regulations...
 Appendix B: The quarterly bulletin,...














Group Title: Report for the biennial period ending ... and supplemental reports to ...
Title: Report for the biennial period ending ... and supplemental reports to ... /
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098572/00001
 Material Information
Title: Report for the biennial period ending ... and supplemental reports to ... /
Physical Description: 2 v. : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: State Plant Board of Florida
Publisher: The Board
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Gainesville
Publication Date: 1916/18
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Plants, Protection of -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: State Plant Board of Florida.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 2nd (1916/18)-3rd (1918/20).
Numbering Peculiarities: Period year ending Apr. 30; supplemental reports to Sept. 30, 1918; to Oct. 31, 1920.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098572
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 13925270
lccn - sn 86033751
 Related Items
Preceded by: Report for the fiscal year ending ... and supplemental reports to ...
Succeeded by: Report for the period ...

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Report of state plant board
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Report of the plant commissioner
        Page 9
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    Appendix A: Rules and regulations of the state plant board in effect July 31, 1918
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    Appendix B: The quarterly bulletin, Vol. 1, Nos. 2-4 and Vol. II, Nos. 1-4, inclusive
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Full Text

STATE PLANT BOARD
OF FLORIDA






REPORT FOR THE BIENNIAL PERIOD
ENDING APRIL 30, 1918
(Second Biennial Report)

AND

SUPPLEMENTAL REPORTS
To September 30, 1918




With Circular 30


AND
The Quarterly Bulletin
Vol. I, Nos. 2-4, and Vol. II, Nos. 1-4






LIBRARY
FLORIDA EXPER~li'iNT STTATIOI
OAINESVILLE, FLORILA


JANUARY, 1919




/02
F641 12-
AGRI.
CULTURAL
LIBRARY






STATE PLANT BOARD
of Florida
JOE L. EARMAN, Chairman...--..--...---........--- .....----- -...Jacksonville
E. L. W ARTMANN----......................... ..-........ .. Citra
T. B. KING-..........................----. -- ......-.......... ..Arcadia
J. B. HODGES ...-...............---.....---- ........... .......... Lake City
J. T. DIAMOND--..........................------- ---...... Gonzales
BRYAN MACK, Secretary ....... ----.....................-- ....Tallahassee

STAFF
WILMON NEWELL, Plant Commissioner---....................Gainesville
E. W. BERGER, Entomologist...-......................................Gainesville
F. M. O'BYRNE, Nursery Inspector............--............-Gainesville
J. H. MONTGOMERY, Quarantine Inspector.....---...........Gainesville
FRANK STIRLING, General Inspector, Dept. of Citrus
Canker Eradication..............Gainesville
H. E. STEVENS, Consulting Plant Pathologist................Gainesville
J. C. GOODWIN, Chief Clerk......................-.......---....Gainesville









CONTENTS
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL................................... 5
REPORT OF STATE PLANT BOARD...................... .......... 5
PERSONNEL OF BOARD.............................. ............................ 5
ADVISORY COMMITTEE-- -- ---- ---...... .................. ... ............... 6
CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION --........ ....... ................... 6
OTHER IMPORTANT W ORK......... ...... .............-. ........ ....... 7
APPROPRIATIONS RECOMMENDED..........-............................ ................ 8
REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER...................... ....... 9
RULES AND REGULATIONS..................... ............ .. ......... 10
CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION-..---..-.. ----................-.......--...-....12
Year Ending April 30, 1917.................... ........... ....................12
Year Ending April 30, 1918.................................... .. .. ......15
Declaring Properties "Clean".................... -- ....-- ---.--.......15
Legal Actions............................-----------------...................17
Sum m ary ............................................................. 20
N URSERY INSPECTION................................... .................... ........... 21
Legal A ctions.... .....-- -- .... ... .................. .......... .......... 23
Summary of W ork Done....................... .......................... 23
Inspections ........................................ .............................24
Year Ending A pril 30, 1917................... ........... .....................24
Year Ending April 30, 1918........................ .... ................25
Certificates Issued.:....- - ---................-- ....--- -..........26
Certificates Refused 2..........-..---- ...................27
Quarantines .......................................---------------- .............27
DEPARTMENT OF PORT AND RAILWAY INSPECTION----.....---...................... 28
Inspections During the Fiscal Year Ending April 30, 1917............30
Principal Pests and Diseases Intercepted...................................30
Inspections During the Fiscal Year Ending April 30, 1918............33
Principal Pests and Diseases Intercepted............................. .33
Parcel Post Inspection.........--- .....-----. ..----------- ..........36
Inspections, Year Ending April 30, 1917----................................38
Principal Pests and Diseases Intercepted..........................39
Inspections, Year Ending April 30, 1918..................................39
Principal Pests and Diseases Intercepted-..........................40
NEEDED LEGISLATION--.... .....- ---------------.---......... ........-- 41
SWEET POTATO WEEVIL-- -------..........-..--- ------ ......-----..-----.............41
Federal Co-operation.......---------- .------ ....................43
Territory Infested .....-........------....... ............43
Host Plants................. ---------- ...................45
Plan of Campaign--------.. ----...........-------------- 45
Seriousness of Situation-.......------........... --------....----- ..............47
BANANA ROOT BORER...........--.-..-. ..----- .....................47
THE BLACK FLY ..... ........... ...... ..--------- -........... .....49
The Situation in Cuba- ............ ..---------.......... 49
BOLL WEEVIL QUARANTINE .....-----.. .........-------... ------.................. 52
PINK BOLLWORM QUARANTINE.....-- ------...... ------.------..... 53
OTHER QUARANTINES ................ ......... .. ... ............. ...................55




4 State Plant Board

DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY........................... ............................55
Red Whitefly Fungus ....................... ......... .............. .....55
Australian Lady-bird Beetles............ ....................56
Camphor Thrips................ .. .....................57
Identification of Insects-............................ .......................................57
Other W ork........................ ........ ................. ........ 58
DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY....................... ...........58
PUBLICATION S ............................................................... 61
Circulars ....... .. ... ........ ....... ................. .................. 61
The Quarterly Bulletin................... ......... ................. .....61
Port & Railway Circulars................................ ........... 62
EMPLOYEES ............. ............ ..... ................................62
Vacations ............. .-...... .............. ..........................62
Personnel ................................................ ........ 63
List of Employees, April 30, 1918.......................................63
SUPPLEMENTAL REPORT (May 1918 to Sept. 30, 1918).........................66
Citrus Canker Eradication.............................. 66
Grand Summary to Sept. 30, 1918.............................. ....67
Nursery Inspection ............................................ ..................67
Report of Inspections...................... .............................67
Certification Refusals........ ............................67
Quarantines ........................... .......... ......... 67
Inspection Certificates Issued..................... ........... 68
Quarantine Department........................................ 68
Interceptions ......................................................... 68
Inspections Made............................... ............69
Parcel Post Plant Inspection ....................................................69
Parcels Inspected............................... ...... ......................69
Sweet Potato W eevil........................... ..... ................69
Banana Root Borer......................... .....................71
Black Fly..................... ... ... .................... ..... 72
Pink Bollworm Quarantine.............................. ................ 73
Department of Entomology....................... .............................. 7
Department of Plant Pathology.....................................................73
Semi-tropical Army Worm...................... ..................74
FINANCIAL REPORT......................................................76
ESTIMATES ............ ... ... ......................................81
General Fund................. ...... ....... ........... 81
Citrus Canker Eradication....... ...........................84
APPENDIX A
RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE STATE PLANT BOARD IN EFFECT
JULY 31, 1918.
APPENDIX B
THE QUARTERLY BULLETIN, VOL. I, Nos. 2-4 AND VOL. II, Nos. 1-4,
INCLUSIVE.




Second Biennial Report


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
December 31, 1918.
To His Excellency,
Sidney J. Catts,
Governor of Florida.
SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the State Plant
Board of Florida for the biennium ending April 30, 1918, with
supplemental report to September 30, 1918. We request that you
submit same to the Legislature.
Respectfully,
STATE PLANT BOARD,
By JOE L. EARMAN,
Chairman.


REPORT OF STATE PLANT BOARD
The work of the State Plant Board has been vigorously pros-
ecuted during the past two years and we believe that the results
obtained fully justify the conclusion that the Board has rendered
services to the agricultural interests of Florida many times in
excess of the amounts expended. In its various lines of work
the Board has received unstinted co-operation and support from
those most affected by its activities and, on the other hand, has
been freely granted the counsel and advice of other agricultural
institutions, such as the University of Florida Experiment Sta-
tion, the State Department of Agriculture, the United States
Department of Agriculture and the Federal Horticultural Board.

PERSONNEL OF BOARD
The terms of Messrs. P. K. Yonge, F. E. Jennings and W. D.
Finlayson expired on July 2, 1917. Your Excellency appointed,
to succeed them as members of the Board, Mr. H. J. Brett, of
DeFuniak Springs, Mr. Joe L. Earman, of Jacksonville, and Mr.
J. B. Hodges, of Lake City. Mr. Brett was commissioned as a
member of the Board on July 8, Mr. Earman on July 2, and Mr.
Hodges on July 3, 1917. These gentlemen, together with the two
remaining members of the Board, Messrs. E. L. Wartmann, of
Citra, and T. B. King, of Arcadia, met at Jacksonville on July




State Plant Board


23, organized, and elected Mr. Earman as Chairman. At the
same meeting Mr. Bryan Mack, of Pensacola, was elected Secre-
tary, and Mr. J. G. Kellum, of Tallahassee, Auditor. Later in the
season Mr. Brett, on account of his duties as a member of the
Federal District Board of the Northern District of Florida,
found it necessary to resign from the Plant Board, his resigna-
tion having been submitted on September 11, 1917. Your Ex-
cellency appointed Mr. J. T. Diamond to succeed him and Mr.
Diamond was commissioned on September 12, 1917.
ADVISORY COMMITTEE
The Plant Board, when first organized on May 4, 1915, did
not find available a suitably qualified person for the position of
Plant Commissioner and therefore selected an "Advisory Com-
mittee", consisting of Messrs. L. S. Tenny of Orlando, W. J.
Krome of Homestead and P. H. Rolfs of Gainesville, this com-
mittee acting as Plant Commissioner until the election of Mr.
Wilmon Newell to the latter position in July, 1915. Following
the election of the Plant Commissioner, the Advisory Committee
continued to serve, assisting both the Board and the Commis-
sioner until the Board's work was thoroughly organized and a
force of inspectors assembled and trained for the work in hand.
The members of this Committee resigned August 14, 1916, after
having rendered, without compensation, most valuable service to
the Board and to the State of Florida.
CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION
The occurrence of citrus canker in Florida was without doubt
the immediate reason for the creation of the State Plant Board
by the Legislature, and the Board, immediately upon its organi-
zation in May, 1915, was confronted with the tremendous task
of bringing this disease under control and eradicating it. In
this work, conducted in co-operation with the Bureau of Plant
Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, very satis-
factory progress has been made. The speed with which the
disease has been reduced in the State is indicated by the number
of canker infected trees found during the different years. During
the year 1915, 6,715 infected trees were found and destroyed;
during the year 1916, 2,294 infected trees were found; while dur-
ing the calendar year 1917 only 372 were found in the entire
State. From January 1 to December 31, 1918, 15 infected trees
were found. This rate of decrease would indicate that, barring
unexpected developments, the disease will probably be eradicated




Second Biennial Report


from the State within the next two years if the present campaign
is conducted to its logical conclusion.

OTHER IMPORTANT WORK
The efforts of the Plant Board have not been confined by any
means to the eradication of citrus canker, but material service
has been rendered various agricultural industries in the State
in affording them protection from new pests and in controlling
many pests already present in different sections.
The banana root borer, an insect destructive to bananas and
sugar cane, has during the past year been discovered at three
points in the State, and in all three cases prompt eradication
measures were undertaken by the Plant Commissioner's forces.
in co-operation with the Federal Horticultural Board, and it
is believed that these outbreaks have been successfully stamped
out.
The sweet potato weevil has made the commercial production
of sweet potatoes impossible in several Florida counties. By
means of suitable quarantine measures the Plant Board is re-
stricting the further distribution of this pest, thus making
possible the continuation of sweet potato culture in the greater
portion of Florida.
Severe outbreaks of the semi-tropical army worm in July and
August, 1918, threatened to destroy several thousand acres of
castor beans being grown under contract for the Government.
Active work on the part of the Plant Board inspectors, in co-
operation with representatives of the United States Department
of Agriculture, resulted in this outbreak being promptly checked
and the damage by the pest reduced to a minimum, thus saving
for the use of the Bureau of Aircraft Production large quanti-
ties of castor beans which would otherwise have been destroyed.
The quarantine work carried on by the Plant Board at the
various ports and junction points in Florida is perhaps the most
important line of work in which the Board is engaged, and is
work which is absolutely essential to the future preservation of
many agricultural and horticultural crops in Florida. For ex-
ample, the quarantine work has thus far been fully effective in
keeping out of Florida the black fly, a pest of fruit trees which
occurs in Cuba, Jamaica, the Bahamas and the Panama Canal
Zone, and which, if introduced into the State, would require
probably as heavy expenditures for its eradication as has citrus
canker. Many very destructive pests and diseases are kept out





State Plant Board


of Florida through the efficient work of the Board's quarantine
inspectors. In this work the Federal Horticultural Board co-
operates, but the State Plant Board is called upon to defray all
expenses in connection therewith. The importance of the quar-
antine work is only fully understood when one realizes the extent
to which climatic conditions in Florida permit of the rapid
increase and destructiveness of a great variety of insect pests
and plant diseases.
The Plant Board has been fortunate in having inspectors and
employees who were devoted to the work in hand and who have
been exceedingly loyal to the State and its interests. Efficiency
has been the sole basis upon which employment has been granted,
and in no case has any position been filled for political reasons
or through personal favoritism.
The Plant Board has willingly given 75 of its trained em-
ployees for service in the Army and Navy of the United States,
and has fortunately been able to carry on its work in an efficient
manner without replacing these trained men with new and
inexperienced ones.
The work being conducted under direction of the Plant Board
is of the utmost importance to all agricultural industries in
Florida and results directly in substantial increase in many
food crops and will, with proper support, be in the future the
best safeguard possible for our various agricultural and horti-
cultural industries. This work is deserving of all needed support
in the form of appropriations from State funds.
Your Board has given careful consideration to the needs of the
agricultural industries of the State for protection and recom-
mends that the sum of $280,630.00 be appropriated for the work
of the Plant Board for the coming biennial period, this amount,
however, including the $35,000.00 annual continuing appropria-
tion already provided for by Chapter 6885, and being exclusive
of amounts required for completing the eradication of citrus
canker. The items comprised in this estimate are given on
pages 81-84.
For completing the canker eradication work and for such in-
spection of citrus groves as is necessary to prevent recurrences
of the disease, it is estimated that $125,000.00 will be required
during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1920, and $100,000.00 dur-
ing the year ending June 30, 1921, which amounts should be
provided, either by appropriation or special taxation.
Further details as to the work done by the Board during the
past two years will be found in the Plant Commissioner's report
which is transmitted herewith. JOE L. EARMAN,
Chairman.




Second Biennial Report 9


REPORT OF THE PLANT COMMISSIONER
FOR THE BIENNIUM ENDING APRIL 30, 1918
and
SUPPLEMENTAL REPORTS

Hon. Joe L. Earman, Chairman,
State Plant Board of Florida.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith my report on the
work of the various Departments of the State Plant Board's
organization for the two fiscal years ending April 30, 1918, to-
gether with a supplementary report covering the period from
May 1, 1918, to October 31, 1918.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Plant Commissioner.


It is a pleasure to report that, during the biennium, substan-
tial accomplishments have characterized all lines of work under
way or inaugurated by the State Plant Board in accordance with
the Florida Plant Act of 1915. The quarantine work at Florida
ports has prevented in many instances the introduction of
serious insect pests and diseases which are not known to occur
in Florida, while the parcel post inspection has prevented the
delivery to Florida citizens of many thousands of diseased food-
producing and ornamental plants. The progress made in the
eradication of citrus canker has been all that could be expected
by the most optimistic advocates of this work. The nursery
inspection work has been so efficient that no instance has yet
come to light of any serious insect pest or plant disease being
disseminated from Florida nurseries since the Plant Board com-
menced its activities. Much has been accomplished in checking
the spread of the sweet potato weevil and the Board has been
able to maintain, thus far at least, an impenetrable barrier to
the entrance of the black fly, a most serious insect pest occurring
in Cuba, Jamaica, The Bahamas and the Canal Zone.
On several occasions the organized inspection forces of the
Board have been able to give immediate assistance in times of
public necessity and have thus been enabled to save many thou-




State Plant Board


sands of dollars worth of property in ways not originally contem-
plated by the Plant Act.
The measures of success attained along these lines must be
credited to the broad views and conservative decisions of the
Board itself, full co-operation by Florida citizens, and the en-
thusiastic and loyal service of its employees.
However, the steady and uninterrupted prosecution of the
Board's work has not been without difficulties. Constantly in-
creasing salaries for skilled workers and technically trained
men have resulted in the Board losing many of its employees, and
in the case of many of those remaining, the Board has been
compelled, for the preservation of its work, to pay higher salaries
than formerly. This, coupled with the tremendously increased
cost of all materials and supplies necessary in its work, has
made it impossible for the Board to decrease its scale of expendi-
tures as rapidly as was hoped for. In no case, however, have
appropriations been exceeded or deficits created.
Increased shipping at Florida ports, coupled with necessary
precautions on the part of military and naval authorities, has
also greatly increased the difficulties attending our quarantine
work.
Military Service
In spite of the fact that the work of the Plant Board is one
directly instrumental in conserving and protecting important
food crops, it has given its employees ungrudgingly for service
in the Army, Navy and Aviation Section. Sixty-nine of its em-
ployees are now in such service. Their names will be found on
pages 159-160 of Appendix B of this report.
These men have not been replaced by new employees, but
those remaining have patriotically exerted every energy with
the result that both the scale and efficiency of the work have been
maintained and considerable economy effected at the same time.

RULES AND REGULATIONS
The primary purpose of the Plant Board is to prevent the
introduction and dissemination of injurious insects and plant
diseases and to effect the control and eradication of such. To
this end certain quarantine measures are necessary, authority
to make and enforce which is vested in the Board by the Plant
Act of 1915.
Rules 1 to 27, inclusive, adopted by the Board between May





Second Biennial Report


1, 1915, and October 31, 1916, were submitted with my last
report. Since that report the Board has made such amendments
to its existing rules as circumstances and experience made ad-
visable and in addition adopted new rules to meet new dangers or
new conditions.. These rules have been as follows:
Rule 28, prohibiting the importation into Florida from
Jamaica, of all pineapples and pineapple plants, to prevent the
introduction of the pineapple black weevil, and Rule 29, requiring
special treatment of nursery stock shipped from nurseries in
sections where the Dictyospermum scale is known to exist, were
adopted by the Board on January 8, 1917.
Rule 30, providing for the disposition of infested or infected
shipments of nursery stock, adopted February 12, 1917.
Rule 31, specifying the qualifications for inspectors of the
Plant Board, and requiring applicants to pass a satisfactory
examination prior to employment, adopted April 9, 1917.
Rule 32, regulating the shipment of sweet potato plants and
tubers into Florida, to prevent the further introduction of the
sweet potato weevil, adopted August 13, 1917.
Rule 33, prohibiting the shipment of sweet potato plants from
areas infested by the sweet potato weevil, and Rule 34, regulating
the shipment of sweet potato tubers from areas infested by this
weevil, in order to prevent its continued spread, were adopted
September 13, 1917. Rule 35, prohibiting the pasturing of live
stock in citrus canker infected properties, Was adopted on the
same date.
Rule 36, requiring the disinfection of field boxes by public
fruit packing houses, adopted October 8, 1917.
Rule 37, regulating the importation of cotton seed, cotton
waste, etc., in order to prevent the introduction into Florida
of the pink bollworm of cotton, adopted December 10, 1917.
Rule 38, requiring common carriers and their agents to hold
under quarantine prohibited shipments, etc., adopted February
21, 1918.
The above rules and all amendments to rules were published
in the "Circulars" of the Board, Nos. 18 to 29 of which, inclu-
sive, were published during the biennium.
All Rules and Public Notices of the Board, as in effect on




State Plant Board


April 30, 1918, will be found in "Appendix A" of this report,
which consists of Circular No. 30 (issued July 31, 1918).

CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION

The work of eradicating citrus canker has progressed very
satisfactorily during the biennium. As heretofore, the work
has been carried on in close co-operation with the Bureau of Plant
Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, under the
direction of the Plant Commissioner, ably assisted by the Gen-
eral Inspector, Mr. Frank Stirling.
For convenience, the work done during the two fiscal years
is here treated separately.

YEAR ENDING APRIL 30, 1917

During this period but one new center of infection (at Grove-
land, Lake County) was discovered.
The number of employees during the year remained practically
stationary, the lowest number being 342 in May of 1916, and the
largest number 418 in August and September of the same year.
Inspections during the year embraced 17,635,646 citrus trees
planted in grove formation and 51,882,397 in nursery formation.
Many of these trees were, of course, inspected more than once;
the figures given are the total number of tree-inspections.
The area inspected during the year embraced the greater por-
tion of what is generally regarded as the citrus-producing section
of the State and also extended to other portions of the State
where citrus is not produced in large quantity.
As has been the case at all times since inspection work was
undertaken, trees that had been planted from nurseries in which
citrus canker was afterwards found have been constantly under
close surveillance. It is gratifying to report that as a result
of this inspection of suspected shipments, the inspectors were
able to find but one infection which had previously been un-
known.
Reinspection work has been maintained continuously in prop-
erties known to have been infected and all grove properties ad-
jacent to infected areas have been kept under constant observa-
tion.
A "scout inspection", that is, inspection of citrus trees in




Second Biennial Report


sections not previously inspected, has been carried on as rapidly
as conditions in the infected centers permitted and substantial
progress has been made in scouting the citrus-producing areas of
the State.
During the fiscal year a total of 2,285 grove trees and 483
nursery trees were found infected with citrus canker. These
were located on a total of 142 properties in 13 counties. Of the
142 properties in which infected trees were found, 74 had not
previously shown infection.
During the year, also, the State Plant Board declared as being
"no longer danger centers" with reference to citrus canker, 213
properties previously infected. At the end of the fiscal year
there remained 146 properties classed as actively infected.
A full measure of co-operation was received from growers
generally. One substantial indication of this co-operation is
found in the fact that during the fiscal year owners of trees
which had been exposed to infection gave permission for the
destruction of 47,584 grove trees and 10,029 nursery trees.
There was expended in the canker eradication work in Florida
during the fiscal year a total of $405,390.10, of which amount
$393,994.85 was paid out of Federal funds by the Bureau of Plant
Industry and $11,395.25 by the State Plant Board. Expenditures
by months are shown in the following table:

Bur. of Plant Industry State Plant Bd.
May 1916..............................$ 25,473.80 $ 467.08
June ..-----...... 32,233.32 989.65
July .. ...........--.... 37,202.84 317.97
August .-...-- ....-- ... ......... 40,459.02 281.64
September .......-------... 41,818.31 427.88
October .....---.................-- ... 35,959.38 760.48
November ......---....................--- 34,463.36 397.60
December .................-------........ 33,751.29 535.73
January 1917.............................. 33,639.76 242.68
February .............................. 19,415.87 5,228.52
March .................----...--... 26,203.95 236.79
April ............. .. 33,373.95 1,509.23

$393,994.85 $11,395.25
Total................................... .......................... $405,390.10

Other essential facts concerning the canker eradication work
during the year are given in Table I, prepared by Mr. Frank
Stirling.








TABLE I
TABULATED REPORT OF THE CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION DEPARTMENT FOR THE YEAR ENDING APRIL 30, 1917
Prepared by Frank Stirling, General Inspector


Number of trees in-
spected for citrus
canker. (Many trees
were reinspected a
number of times. The
figures below include
such reinspections.)

Grove Nursery


1,317,262
1,716,502
1,489,849
1,866,807
1,819,692
1,378,269
1,472,639
1,362,610

1,396,031
878,166
1,176,830
1,760,989
17,635,646


2,439,000
3,307,182
7,303,059
2,139,361
2,153,961
1,813,733
5,077,603
5,756,225

4,095,851
5,791,637
5,884,266
6,120,519
51,882,397


Totals prior to May 1, 1916
Grand totals


.g



z.H !


39
53
42
51
44
35
28
12

11
5
5
24
142**1


Number
found i
and dest


Grove


338
450
349
219
124
451
131
27

14
4
9
169
2285


I 11247
I 13532


of trees
infected
royed.



Nursery


268
82
46
9
32
11
3
0

0
3
4
25
483 1


Number of "ex-
posed" trees de-
stroyed as a pre-
cautionary meas-
ure.


Grove Nursery


6361 0
2947 0
4848 0
4039 0
7335 0
5759 0
1236 0
4601 0

4278 10,000
1453 0
1327 4
3400 25
47584 10,029


p.



0s
| ,
pci
.05


oi ,
io j

Ila
'SQ)
|it .

23ao


0
0
19
2
1
164
6
5

8
4
2
2
213


$m
0
.-1
OS U2
1H
o2
'V2u

Z .


S341,770 | 59237 2,539,8341 382 1 97 [
342,253 106821 2,549,8631 456 1 310 1 146


*Infections reported from 13 counties for year 1916-17. One newly infected county reported for year 1916-17 (Lake).
infected to April 30, 1917, 22.
**Actual number of properties upon which infected trees were found during year 1916-17.


Total number of counties


1916
May
June
July
August
Sept.
October
Nov.
Dec.
1917
January
February
March
April
Totals




Second Biennial Report


YEAR ENDING APRIL 30, 1918

No new centers of infection were found during the year.
The number of employees engaged in the canker eradication
work steadily decreased during the year, the number being 334
in June, 1917, and 220 in April, 1918.
During the fiscal year 13,285,865 citrus trees in grove forma-
tion and 51,736,342 in nursery formation were inspected. The
inspection of trees previously shipped from nurseries under sus-
picion was continued during the year but no new centers of
infection were found.
Reinspection and scout inspection were continued as during
the preceding year and the first scout inspection completed in
several counties.
During the year 180 grove trees and 1 nursery tree were found
infected. These infected trees were found in 34 properties,
located in 7 counties. Of the 34 properties in which infections
occurred, 4 had not previously shown infection.
As a result of being in close proximity to infected properties
or consisting wholly or in part of trees shipped from infected
nurseries prior to the beginning of the eradication work a total
of 10,257 grove trees and 80,000 nursery trees were destroyed
during the year with the consent of the owners.
During the year 116 additional infected properties were de-
clared by the Board as being no longer danger centers with
reference to citrus canker infection.

DECLARING PROPERTIES "CLEAN"

Prior to October, 1917, the Board had taken no action with
reference to canker-infected properties other than to declare
them as being "no longer danger centers" with reference to
canker infection. This action, while releasing the property from
many phases of the quarantine and permitting the planting of
citrus on adjacent properties, did not remove all restrictions.
Work in the property, for example, was still required carried on
under certain precautions, and replanting of citrus thereon was
prohibited.
In October, 1917, the Board gave careful consideration to 76
properties, formerly infected, and concluded that all danger of
further infections in these properties was over. They were
accordingly declared "clean" by resolution of the Board, and all
restrictions of every character, due to past infections, were







TABLE II
TABULATED REPORT OF THE CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION DEPARTMENT FOR THE YEAR ENDING APRIL 30, 1918
Prepared by Frank Stirling, General Inspector

Number of trees in- 4 g4 .
S spected for citrus Q Number of "ex- o g -
canker. (Many trees g Number of trees posed" trees de-
) were reinspected a found infected stroyed as a pre-
c number of times. The as a pre-
S number of times. The and destroyed. cautionary meas-
figures below include o ure.
S such reinspections.) e 1

1 Grove Nursery Grove Nursery Grove Nursery .
___- I ___ ___ ______ __ __
1917
May 326 1,648,258 7,321,698 6 18 52 1 2142 0 2 7
June 334 1,067,557 5,115,519 5 16 45 0 2690 40,000 0 23
July 322 1,132,645 4,097,421 6 10 39 0 1241 25,000 1 0
August 316 724,548 3,350,419 7 17 30 0 486 0 1 0
Sept. 300 859,511 2,787,141 3 4 6 0 467 15,000 0 1
October 286 1,005,998 2,738,029 1 2 2 0 916 0 0 63
Nov. 269 1,189,627 3,983,727 1 1 1 0 30 0 0 6
Dec. 257 1,165,773 3,673,964 1 1 1 0 277 0 0 5
1918
January 246 1,374,947 4,407,137 0 0 0 0 1288 0 0 3
February 238 1,224,949 4,776,319 1 1 1 0 359 0 0 1
March 224 1,045,291 4,760,295 1 1 1 0 .343 0 0 0
April 220 846,761 4,724,673 1 2 2 0 18 0 0 7
Totals j 13,285,865 1 51,736,342 7* 34**| 180 1 1 1 10257 1 80,000 | 4 [ 116
Totals prior to May 1, 1917 22 __13532 342,253 1 223463 12,531,514 1 473 310
Grand totals 22 13712 342,254 | 233720 12,611,514 1 477 1 426
*Infections reported from 7 counties for the year 1917-18. No newly infected counties reported for the year 1917-18. Total number of counties
infected to April 30, 1918, 22.
**Actual number of properties upon which infected trees were found during year 1917-18.




Second Biennial Report


removed therefrom. Thus they were released for replanting to
citrus under normal conditions.
In November, 1917, 1 property was declared clean; in Decem-
ber, 1917, 5; in February, 1918, 9; and in March, 1918, 2, making
a total of 93 properties from which during the fiscal year abso-
lutely all restrictions were removed.
There was expended in the canker eradication work during the
year a total of $313,807.84, of which amount $187,776.24 was by
the Bureau of Plant Industry and $126,031.60 by the State Plant
Board. Expenditures by months are shown in the following
table:
Bur. of Plant Industry State Plant Bd.
May 1917..............................$ 28,541.00 $ 252.27
June ------.......... ..... 29,116.92 1,262.77
July ......--...................... 28,198.08 157.33
August .----.............-...... .. 26,943.31 123.27
September --....-........-....... 25,642.80 172.65
October .........-.....--......--. 23,681.53 1,866.52
November ...................---.... 41.30 28,635.62
December .............-- ... 1.00 25,115.19
January 1918.............................. 1.00 25,709.41
February ............... .......... -1.00 24,244.57
March ....--................----- 13,475.10 9,217.28
April ............................ 12,133.20 9,274.72
$187,776.24 $126,031.60
Total.......-.. ----............ ....- ... ... ........... .... ...... ............$......$313,807.84
Further details concerning the year's work will be found in
Table II. *
Figure 1 shows, in graphic form, the number of canker in-
fected trees found each month from May, 1914, to April 30, 1918.
Figure 2 shows the number of canker-infected properties
found in the State, and the number of such properties declared
no longer danger centers, at the end of each month, from May,
1914, to April 30, 1918.
LEGAL ACTIONS
At the time of my last report, November 30, 1916, warrants
had been issued charging four parties with planting citrus trees
in areas in which such planting was prohibited by rules of the
Board because of danger of infection by citrus canker. Two of
the parties thus charged afterwards plead guilty and fines were
imposed. The two remaining cases were nolprossed.
During the biennium it has not been necessary to bring
either civil or criminal actions in connection with the work of
eradicating citrus canker, co-operation on the part of growers
having become practically universal.








1914 /195 /1916 1.917 ~1




1- - - - - -
//00




goo



-Soo _ -

o \_ -_ --_ -







Fig. 1. Diagram showing the number of canker-infected grove trees found in Florida each month from May 15
1914 (when eradication work was begun by the Florida Growers' and Shippers' League) to April 30, 1918.





1914 /9/5


Fig. 2. Comparison of infected properties and properties declared no longer danger centers in Florida at dif-
ferent dates. The upper line shows the total number of canker-infected properties found in the State up to the end
of any given month. The lower line shows the number of canker-infected properties declared by the Plant Board,
up to corresponding dates, as being no longer danger centers. Complete to April 30, 1918.




20 State Plant Board

Certain actions taken by the Board in connection with viola-
tion of the rules and regulations governing the movement of
nursery stock are treated of under the head of "Nursery Inspec-
tion" on a subsequent page of this report.

SUMMARY

Following are the essential facts concerning the eradication of
citrus canker in Florida up to the close of the fiscal year April
30, 1918:

Total number of properties found infected in State.......................... 477
Total number declared no longer danger centers.............................. 426
Number still classed as active infections on April 30, 1918.......... 51
Number of counties in which citrus canker has been found.......... 22
Total number of grove trees found infected, May 1, 1914, to
April 30, 1918. ...........................----------............ .......---.. 13,712
Total number of nursery trees found infected, May 1, 1914, to
April 30, 1918 .-...................................... .....-- -....-.....---- 342,254
Total number of "exposed" grove trees destroyed, May 1, 1914,
to April 30, 1918 ...............-----------------..-------........-------. 233,720
Total number of "exposed" nursery trees destroyed May 1, 1914,
to A pril 30, 1918 ....-------................................. .. ....................... ..2,611,514
Amounts expended on canker eradication work in Florida:
Prior to April 30, 1916:
Federal funds .............................-----...........$ 56,428.97
State funds ....---................... ....... ....---- ... 111,342.34
From other sources .......................................-- 85,019.62*
Total ........................................-------- --.............................. $252,790.93
May 1, 1916, to April 30, 1917 (see p. 13)...................-.......... 405,390.10t
May 1, 1917, to April 30, 1918 (see p. 17)............-------. 313,807.84$
Grand total to April 30, 1918...................................$971,988.87

The following table shows the number of infected grove trees
found in the State from the beginning of eradication work in
May, 1914, to April 30, 1918***:

1914 1915 1916 1917 1918

Jan ........ 306 Jan. .......... 86 Jan. ....... 14 Jan ........-- 0
Feb. ........ 165 Feb. ........ 21 Feb. ........ 4 Feb ........ 1
Mar. ........ 444 Mar. ........ 49 Mar. ........ 9 Mar ....- 1
Apr. ........ 408 Apr. ........ 49 Apr. ........ 169 Apr ........-- 2
May ........ 108 May ........1042 May ........ 338 May ........ 52
June ........ 160 June ........ 772 June ........ 450June ........ 45
July ........ 275 July ........ 651 July ........ 349July ........ 39
Aug. ........1313 Aug. ........1345 Aug. ........ 219 Aug. ....... 30
Sept. ........ 767 Sept. ........ 618 Sept. ........ 24 Sept. ....... 6
Oct. ........ t ..........214 Oct ........ 451 Oct. ........ 2
Nov. ........ 773 Nov ........494 Nov. ........ 131Nov. ........ 1
Dec ........ 366 Dec ....... 26 Dec. ........ 27Dec. ........ 1
*Includes donations and expenditures from private sources.
tDoes not include donations, private expenditures or special salary increases
provided by Acts of Congress.
$For statement of infections May 1-October 31, 1918, see supplemental report (p. 66).




Second Biennial Report


NURSERY INSPECTION
The work of the Nursery Inspection Department has, under
the efficient direction of Mr. F. M. O'Byrne, been continued
during the biennium along the broad lines originally planned.
The work of this Department is two-fold: to prevent the intro-
duction of injurious insects and diseases through nursery stock
shipped into the State, and to prevent the dissemination, on or
with nursery stock, of pests and diseases already existing within
the State. The success and value of the nursery inspection work
is determined by the extent to which these objects are attained
and it is worthy of note that no instance has yet come to light in
which citrus canker has been distributed on nursery stock since
the work of this Department was commenced.
For purposes of nursery inspection the State has been divided
into thirteen districts. An assistant nursery inspector is as-
signed to each district, with headquarters therein, and is held
responsible for the inspections and other official nursery inspec-
tion work in his district. County lines are not considered in
forming these districts, the territory in each district being de-
termined by the location of nurseries, available roads and other
conditions permitting the most economical management of the
work.
Fourteen assistant nursery inspectors are constantly employed,
one in each of the thirteen districts and the remaining one
assigned to office work, special investigations and emergency
inspections. A list of the assistant nursery inspectors on duty
April 30, 1918, will be found under the head of "Employees".
Certification may be refused a nursery for any of the following
reasons:
Discovery of a new insect pest or disease in the nursery.
Superabundance of any common insect pest or disease.
Presence of an extremely injurious pest or disease.
Exposure of the stock to a highly infectious disease or danger-
ous insect pest.
Presence in the nursery of a serious pest not generally dis-
tributed in the State.
Condition of nursery stock such as to prevent a reliable inspec-
tion being made.
Quarantines are imposed upon nurseries when they have be-
come infected with or exposed to extremely dangerous insects,
pests, or diseases and, in some cases, when the nurseryman does





State Plant Board


not comply with the regulations of the Board in a manner insur-
ing safety to his customers. A nursery refused certification or
quarantined remains in that status until the dangerous condi-
tion has been removed or remedied. In no case is stock certified
unless, in the light of all available information, it is safe for
distribution and planting.
Nurseries found, upon inspection, to be in a satisfactory con-
dition are certified by the Nursery Inspection Department as
being apparently free from especially injurious insect pests and
plant diseases. The Florida Plant Act requires that any nursery
stock moved from the property on which grown shall have a
copy of such certificate attached and anyone owning stock which
has been certified may purchase certificate tags from the Nursery
Inspector at the actual cost of printing. Printing of certificates
by any person other than the Nursery Inspector is prohibited
by law.
All certificate tags are serially numbered and the user is
required to report the use of each tag by an invoice sent to the
Nursery Inspector, this invoice showing the name and address of
consignee, date of sale or shipment and the name and number of
the trees or plants moved under the tag. The value of such a
record has been repeatedly demonstrated. By means of these
records, for example, infestations of the banana root borer have
been located and the insect eradicated, and when a new avocado
disease was discovered in several commercial nurseries, ship-
ments from them were immediately followed up and inspected.
Had such records of nursery stock movements been in existence
at the time (1913-14) citrus canker was found in Florida, the
cost of the campaign against this disease would have been re-
duced by at least a quarter of a million dollars.
The assistant nursery inspectors have continued their co-
operation with the Department of Entomology in collecting colo-
nies of the Vedalia, or Australian lady-bird beetle, for distribu-
tion to groves or neighborhoods where cottony cushion-scale
occurs. During the biennium ending April 30, 1918, these in-
spectors collected a total of 2369 of these beneficial beetles and
turned them over to the Entomologist.
. As in previous years, all host plants of cottony cushion-scale
in nurseries located in territory infested by this pest, have been
required treated with a suitable insecticide, before shipment,
under the direction of an agent of the Plant Board. Agents
employed for this purpose are known as "packing-house inspec-





Second Biennial Report


tors" and are paid only for actual time employed. A sum equal
to their wages is collected by the Board from the nurserymen
for whom service is rendered. The Plant Board incurs no
expense by reason of their services. A list of the packing-house
inspectors holding appointments at the end of the biennial period
will be found under the head of "Employees".
The Nursery Inspector, in co-operation with the Plant Path-
ologist of the Experiment Station, has had under way for two
years a field experiment to determine how citrus scab can be
most effectively controlled under nursery conditions. While not
yet completed the experiment shows striking results in that trees
in the sprayed plots are now larger and more vigorous than
those not treated and have been, thus far, free from any scab
infection of importance.
LEGAL ACTIONS
At the time of our last report warrants had been issued charg-
ing two parties with having moved nursery stock without a
certificate of inspection attached, as required by the Plant Act.
In both cases further action was suspended during compliance
with the rules and regulations of the Board.
During the biennium, information has been filed against eight
parties for violating the nursery inspection regulations. In one
of these cases the grand jury failed to indict because it did not
believe the violation had been committed with criminal intent;
in one case prosecution was dropped on recommendation of the
prosecuting attorney on account of ignorance, poverty and phys-
ical condition of the defendant, and in four cases the defendants
plead guilty and were fined. Two cases are pending at the time
of this report.

SUMMARY OF WORK DONE
During the two years San Jose scale was found in nurseries
on 110 occasions. Shipments from infested blocks were in all
cases immediately prohibited and the infestation at once cleaned
up under the personal supervision of an assistant nursery in-
spector.
Camphor thrips was found in 10 nurseries and all shipments
of camphor trees therefrom were prepared under direct super-
vision of an inspector in such way as to eliminate danger of
their carrying the pest.
Foot-rot of citrus was found in 8 nurseries. Shipments there-




24 State Plant Board

from were prohibited until the disease had been apparently
eradicated from the nursery.
Scaly bark was discovered in localities in 9 counties not pre-
viously known to be infected. In all instances the conditions
clearly indicated that the disease had been introduced prior to
the creation of the Plant Board. These and other known infected
areas are described in the Public Notices of the Board with
reference to Scaly Bark areas (see Appendix A). Investigations
by the Nursery Inspector and his assistants have indicated that
Scaly Bark can be transmitted by means of seed from fruit
grown in infected groves.
Avocado scab was found in 13 nurseries. Certification was
refused in each case, but shipment of trees which were ap-
parently clean was permitted under package certificate after an
inspector had personally supervised the selection, treatment and
packing.
The banana root-borer was found in one nursery. All banana
plants in this and adjacent properties were promptly destroyed
with permission and approval of the owners and all other possible
steps taken to eradicate the pest.

INSPECTIONS
Year Ending April 30, 1917
Total number of nurseries inspected during year................----.................. 1503
Total number of inspections made..-.......--..----................----......... 3427
The acreage in the 1503 nurseries inspected was, on April 30,
1917, as follows:
Citrus ........................................................................ .................. 2,081.2 acres
Plum ........................--- ---------------- 2.75 "
Pecan ...................................... --------------- 489.25 "
Peach .......................................... -- .. 6.5
Ornamental and general .. --------------....................... 256.
Total ....-..................------.--------.--- 2,835.7
The amount of stock (number of trees or plants) in the 1503
nurseries on April 30, 1917, was as follows:
Citrus-
Budded grapefruit .......................-........... 1,744,147
Budded oranges ....----................---.................. 3,320,414
Other budded varieties ............................ 283,416
Unbudded seedlings ................---- ............... 12,896,089
Total citrus stock ......................... ................. 18,244,066
Citrus stock which could not be certified.................. 2,178,484
Total marketable citrus stock ...................................... ... 16,065,582




Second Biennial Report 25

Pecan-
Budded ..... ................ ..................... 346,211
Seedlings ......................---....... 4311919

Total pecan stock ...................... ................... 778,130
Pecan stock which could not be certified.................. 152,925

Total marketable pecan stock .................................... 625,205
Peach-
Budded ........................ ..... ...... 43,662
Seedlings .......... -...............-...- 54,763

Total peach' stock -------.................... ......----- 98,425
Peach stock which could not be certified.....-.....-.... 25,300

Total marketable peach stock ...................- ........ ... . 73,125
Plum-
Budded ............. .................. ... -- 10,600
Seedlings ................... .....---.... 10,580

Total plum stock ........................ ....... .... ... . 21,180
Plum stock which could not be certified ..........-...... 650

Total marketable plum stock ......................... ............ 20,530
General and Ornamental-
Total general and ornamental stock...... 6,484,336
Stock which could not be certified.......... 295,640

Marketable general and ornamental stock.............. 6,188,696

Total marketable stock ................ .. ....................... 22,973,138

Year Ending April 30, 1918
Total number of nurseries inspected during year.......---.......................... 2075
Total number of inspections made-................................. ........... 5780
The acreage in the nurseries under inspection was, on April
30, 1918, as follows:

Citrus ......----......---- ................- 2,191.1 acres
Plum .....--................... ....... ---- 5.9
Pecan ....... .....-- ................... ... .... 426.9
P each ......................... ............... 11.1
A avocado .............. . .. .............. ... ..... 15.25
Ornamental and general ................----..... .......... 306.

Total ... -.................... ... ..... .................. 2,950.25

The amount of stock in the nurseries on April 30, 1918, was
as follows:
Citrus-
Budded grapefruit .....................- ............ 1,374,378
Budded oranges ................. ...............- 2,311,534
Other budded varieties ...-........................ 480,610
Unbudded seedlings ................................ 11,061,622

Total citrus stock ....-................-...- -- ............ 15,228,144
Citrus stock refused certification ............................ 2,211,392

Total marketable citrus stock ............... ..................... 13,016,752




State Plant Board


Pecan-
Budded ......................... ......................... 766,050
Unbudded seedlings ...----............................. 892,900

Total pecan stock .........................................-- 1,658,950
Pecan stock refused certification .............................. 27,500

Total marketable pecan stock .........................................
Peach-
Budded ............. --------........................... 37,700
Unbudded seedlings ................................ 520

Total peach stock .....-........................... ........ 38,220
Peach stock refused certification .............................. 700

Total marketable peach stock .........................................
Plum-
Budded -........................ ..........-- ....... 11,313
Unbudded seedlings .................................. 16,000

Total plum stock .........................................-- 27,313
Plum stock refused certification .............................. 0

Total marketable plum stock .............................................
Avocados-
Budded .......... -................- -...- ..... ......... 64,784
Unbudded seedlings ................................ 129,566

Total avocado stock ......................................... 194,350
Avocado stock refused certification .......................... 78,700

Total marketable avocado stock ...........................................
General and Ornamental-
Total general and ornamental stock ........................ 4,764,457
Stock refused certification.......................- ................. 90,652


1,631,450







37,520







27,313







115,650


Marketable general and ornamental stock....................... 4,673,805
Total stock in Florida nurseries--.....................................21,911,434
Total stock refused certification........................-............... 2,408,944

Total marketable stock in Florida nurseries...................... 19,502,490

CERTIFICATES ISSUED

Certificate tags were issued as follows:

Form of Certificate Total No. tags issued during fiscal year
1916-17
Regular tags ................................. 81,100 to 351 nurseries and individuals
Stock dealers' tags .....------.....--- 8,300 to 27 "
Package tags .............----....................... 3,831 to 189 "
Scaly bark tags ..-...-.....................---- .. 9,950 to 122 "
Truckers' tags ............................-...... 6,700 to 76 "
Florida permit tags ...................---..... 35,012 to 185 "

Total ......................................144,893 950




Second Biennial Report 27

1917-18
Regular tags ......-----.................................. 55,576 to 329 nurseries and individuals
Package tags ...................................... 2,648 to 112
Stock dealers' tags .......................... 6,739 to 21
Scaly bark tags ...........-- ..-...........--.... 1,894 to 43
Florida permit tags ........................... -19,643 to 184 "
Truckers' tags ......................- ............ 94 to 6

Total ...................................... 86,594 695
Grand total of certificates issued for biennium.................................... 231,487

CERTIFICATES REFUSED
During the two fiscal years certificates were refused nurseries
as shown below:


Cause


Number of Occasions


1916-17
San Jose scale .................... .......-- --. .----.. --.......... 75
California red scale ........................ ........-............. 26
Camphor thrips ..---....................... ---------.......-....---. 9
Excessive whitefly and scale ........---.... --.... ...........-----... 568
Excessive citrus scab ....................-------- ----- ....-..- ...... 11
Scaly bark .............................................................. ......................... 13
Dictyospermum scale ............................ --------- -- ... --------- 40
Foot rot of citrus .. ................ ................- ........ ............. 16
Red banded thrips ....................----...... .. --- ......---- 1
Dieback of pecan ......-.......----.-....... ........................ 1

Total .............. ........................................ ... ...

1917-18
Avocado scab ......--- .....--......... .. ... ... .............. 52
San Jose scale .... .... .......-..... ... --...... ........... 35
California red scale ...... -................ ..........- ... 47
Cam phor thrips ............................................ ................ 11
Excessive whitefly and scale ..............~.......... ............ ........ 895
Excessive amount of citrus scab .-.............--...-- ..- ..--....... 1
Dictyospermum scale .............----.-.--....------- ..-...---.... 5
Foot rot of citrus ..............---------.......------..........- ..-- 10
Red banded thrips ................................... ............ ......... 3
Dieback of pecan ...........-.......--------.-.---...--...-.... 1
Other causes .......- ..-....----...- ------. ....... .... ............ 116

T otal ....................................................... ..............................


1184*


QUARANTINES

Quarantines were imposed upon nurseries as follows:
Cause Number of Occasions
1916-17
Citrus canker in nursery .............................................................. 0
Nursery in canker zone or being a "contact" property-----............. 122t
Other causes (pests of minor importance, etc.) ...........-........ 4
*This includes refusals for both commercial and non-commercial nurseries. Some
nurseries are practically abandoned and are refused four times a year, once for each
inspection made.
tExclusive of Dade County.




State Plant Board


1917-18
Citrus canker in nursery ..................................... ....... ..... 0
Nursery in canker zone or being a "contact" property-........... 221*
Other causes ................. ..... -...... .......... ...... 6

DEPARTMENT OF PORT AND RAILWAY INSPECTION
One of the principal objects in view in connection with the
passage of the Florida Plant Act was protection of the
State against the introduction of pests and diseases destructive
to crops and fruits. To accomplish this purpose is the object of
the Port and Railway Inspection Department of the Plant Board
and its work is second in importance to none. Since its incep-
tion this work has been under the direct personal supervision of
the Plant Commissioner.
During the past two years the Plant Board has become aware
of new and increasing dangers from outside sources and as a
result has added a considerable number of quarantine regula-
tions, all of which require close inspection work by the Board's
inspectors at all important ports of the State as well as at the
principal railway centers. During the biennium the Board has
greatly strengthened its quarantines against citrus canker and
the black fly and has inaugurated quarantine measures against
the pink bollworm of cotton. Other quarantines are mentioned
on page 55.
In this Department only men of long experience and possessed
of technical training can be utilized. All positions are filled by
promotion from the Nursery Inspection Department. Many and
frequent changes in the personnel of the inspection force have
taken place during the past two years. This has been due in
part to several of the men being called for military service; and
the increased amount of shipping coupled with precautions made
necessary on account of the war have made necessary the em-
ployment of more men in this work than formerly.
At the present time one Deputy Port and Railway Inspector
is stationed at Pensacola, three at Jacksonville, two at Tampa,
one at Miami, one at Key West and one at Gainesville, while two
additional deputy inspectors, with headquarters at Gainesville,
are assigned to special and emergency work.
Deputy inspectors board all vessels arriving at Florida ports
and examine cargo, baggage, hand parcels of passengers, and the
vessel itself for infected or contraband material. During the
*Dade County included.




Second Biennial Report


two years ending April 30, 1918, our inspectors boarded 7510
vessels, or an average of 313 per month. Shipments arriving on
these vessels, to the number of 2822, were inspected. During
the same period, 3705 express, freight and wagon shipments
were inspected.* The value of this work is shown by the fact
that out of the total of 6527 shipments examined, more than
one-half were found to be either affected with injurious insects
or diseases or were being shipped contrary to rules of the State
Plant Board or Federal Horticultural Board and were therefore
to be considered dangerous. All such shipments were either
destroyed, deported or treated and passed, this in itself a task
of magnitude.
All of the inspection work at the ports is done in cooperation
with the Federal Horticultural Board, the Deputy Port and
Railway Inspectors holding appointments as Collaborators of
the Federal Horticultural Board. All expense of this work must
be, however, borne by the State, the federal co-operation not
extending beyond the granting of authority to the inspectors to
enforce federal plant quarantine laws and rules.
In addition to inspection of vessels arriving at our ports,
inspectors in this Department frequently inspect material being
transported on river steamers, a vast amount of freight entering
the State and a very considerable percentage of the express ship-
ments from other states.
The tables following give all essential data regarding this
work, together with a list of the insects and diseases intercepted
and prevented from entering the State. A number of the inter-
ceptions made were of particular importance. For example,
the black fly was twice prevented from entering Florida, material
from the British West Indies infested with the sweet potato
scarabee and many West Indian shipments containing the sweet
potato weevil were stopped, as was also a shipment from India
bearing a new mango disease and a new mango leaf-infesting
insect. In a number of instances scale-insects which are of rare
occurrence or lacking in Florida were prevented from entering.
Sight should also not be lost of the fact that the existence of
plant quarantine rules and their enforcement in Florida has
prevented many shipments, now prohibited, that would other-
wise have been made into the State, many of which would doubt-
less have conveyed dangerous pests and diseases.
*A "shipment" in many cases consisted of many packages, crates or parcels: hence
the number of pieces inspected was much in excess of the number of shipments inspected.




30 State Plant Board

REPORT OF INSPECTIONS DURING THE FISCAL YEAR
ENDING APRIL 30, 1917
VESSELS INSPECTED:
From foreign ports ............. ............ .. 1240
From U. S. ports other than Florida .................................... 658
From Florida ports ................... ................ 1359
Total ..................... ....... ----- --...........
SHIPMENTS INSPECTED:
Arriving by water:
Passed .................. ..---211
Treated and passed ..................... .................. 54
Returned to shipper ......................-......... 111
Detained, subject to return by shipper ..................... 25
Contraband destroyed .........................--...............- 1018
Total ...................... ..................
Arriving by land-Express, freight, wagons, etc.:
Passed .................... ...................... 1103
Treated and passed................. ................ 188
Returned to shipper ................................ .- 87
Detained, subject to return by owner ........................ 144
Contraband destroyed ------------ ...............164
Total .......... ....... .............--.........

Total shipments inspected ...................-.....................
Principal Pests and Diseases Intercepted


Insect or disea

Aphis sp .........
Aspidiotus britan
Bamboo borer....-.
Birch scale .........
Black scale ........
Black scale .........
Black scale .........
Cactus scale .......
California red sc
Camphor thrips .
Chaff scale .........
Chaff scale .........
Chaff scale --.......
Chrysomphalus o
Chrysomphalus s
Cottony cushion-s
Cottony cushion-s
Cottony cushion-s
Crown gall .........
Crown gall .......--
Crown gall .........
Crown gall .........
Crown gall .........
Crown gall .........
Crown gall .........
Crown gall .........
Crown gall .........
Crown gall .........
Crown gall .........
Diaspis sp .........


Number of
se Occurring on From Shipments
Infested
........ Geranium ......--............ Florida .............- 1
nicus Laurel ...........--... Georgia ........ 1
...... Bamboo ........................ Louisiana .........- 2
........ Birch .....................--- Maine ............ 1
......... Hibiscus ................... .. Florida .............. 1
......... Jessamine .............. Florida .............. 1
......... Poinsettia ............ Florida .............- 1
......... Cactus .......................... Florida ............. 1
ale.... Oleander ................... Florida ........-...- 1
........ Camphor ................... Florida .............. 1
......... Citrus --...- ...- Florida .........-... 3
......... Palm ............ .. Georgia ........ 1
......... Unknown shrub .........Cuba ........... 1
leae.. Palm ..................... Georgia .... 1
p...... Rose ............... Virginia ......... 1
cale Citrus ........... .. Florida ............. 8
cale Coleus ..............- .. Florida .............. 2
cale Croton .................- Florida ............. 1
....... Grape ---.. ...... Florida .............. 1
......... Peach ........- ...... ..... Georgia .......... 2
......... Peach ..................... New York ........ 1
......... Peach ...........-..... Oklahoma .......... 1
......... Pear ----................. Missouri ............ 1
......... Rose ..---. ...- Florida -......-.... 1
......... Rose ......... .. Georgia .............. 2
.........Rose .............-...... New York ..-.... 1
.......Rose ............... Ohio ......--.......... 1
......... Rose ......... .. Pennsylvania .... 2
...... Rose .--.................... South Carolina 1
-.... Peach ............................ M issouri ............ 1


3257






1419





1686

3105




Second Biennial Report 31


Insect or disease

Diaspis sp ............ ....
Dictyospermum scale..
Dictyospermum scale-.
Dictyospermum scale..
Dictyospermum scale..
Fern scale ....................
Fiorinia fioriniae ........
Florida red scale..........
Florida red scale..........
Florida red scale..........
Florida red scale..........
Florida red scale..........
Florida wax-scale ......
Florida wax-scale ......
Florida wax-scale ......
Howard's scale ...........
Long scale ..................
Mango scale ................
M ealy-bug ....................
Mealy-bug ....................------
Mealy-bug ......----............
Mealy-bug ....................------
Mealy-bug .. ..------...
Mealy-bug .. ...------...
M elanose .....................
Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot
Nematode root-knot
Nematode root-knot
Nematode root-knot -

Nematode root-knot
Nematode root-knot .
Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot .
Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot ._
Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot
Nematode root-knot
Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot .
Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot .
Nematode root-knot


Number of
Occurring on From Shipments
Infested
Plum .............................. M issouri ............ 1
Citrus .......----......----......... New York ..... 2
Citrus ............................ Spain ..---......... 2
Plum --................---.....-.... New Jersey ...... 1
Palm ........................... Pennsylvania .... 1
Fern ---------............................ Georgia ............ 1
Camellia ............-- ....-.---- Maine .......... 1
Camphor ..------................... Florida .............. 2
Citrus ------.....................-- Florida ............. 3
Magnolia ....-------................. Florida .............. 1
Mango ...........-------............. Florida ........-.... 1
Palm ..........--------................. Florida .. ---............ 1
Citrus ..............---............. Florida .............. 1
Mango .........-------.............. Florida ............. 1
Pear .....-..................-..... Florida .............. 1
Gooseberry ...----............... Wisconsin .......... 1
Citrus ................-------........... Florida .............. 5
Mango ------ --................ Florida ............. 2
Citrus ........ .. Florida .............. 1
Citrus ........-------- New York ....-... 1
Coleus ....-----. ----.. Michigan .......... 1
Rose ...----- ---- --. Florida .............. 1
Sugar Apple ...... Cuba ..........-. 1
Unknown shrub ....-..... Cuba ........-------- 1
Citrus ..... ..-------- .. Florida ........-- ...- 2
Alamanda .----............... Florida ............. 1
Alamanda .................... Georgia ........... 1
Apple ................. ... North Carolina 1
Australian Silk Oak.... Florida -............- 1
Cassava ...----.................... Florida ............. 1
Cherry ...................... Georgia ........... 1
Chinese Medicine Florida ............. 1
Plant .-- ..
Chrysanthemum ......... Florida ...........-- 1
Fig ---- -----.......................... Florida ----..... 11
Fig ----------.............................. Georgia .......... 10
Fig --......... ........ .....- ..... North Carolina 1
Fig ............................... South Carolina 7
Fig -.................. Texas ................ 1
Grape ........--------.. Georgia ............. 2
Grape .----...-------.... New York ........ 1
Hibiscus ................... Florida ............ 5
Jessamine .................. Florida ............. 1
Laurel -----.................... I Georgia .......-.... 1
Mulberry .-----...........-....Florida- ............ 2
Papaya ----............--- .. Florida ---- 1
Peach ................... ....... Florida .............. 6
Peach .......................-- Georgia ............. 7
Peach ...................------... Missouri .......... 2
Peach ......................... Oklahom a .......... 1
Peach .--......---.--I... South Carolina 1
Pecan ..................-........ Florida ............. 1
Plum ...........-------............... Florida .............- 1
Plum ............................. I Oklahom a .....1.... 1
Plumbago -----............... Florida .........-... 3
Poinsettia ..-------. Florida ......... 1
Rose .............................I Georgia ............ 1
Rose ..............---------.............I South Carolina 1





32 State Plant Board


Insect or disease

Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot ..
Nematode root-knot ..
Oleander scale ............
Oyster-shell scale ........
Oyster-shell scale ........
Papaya fruit-fly ..........
Papaya fruit-fly ..........
Peach scale ..................
Peach tree borer ........
Peach tree borer .. .....
Peach tree borer ........
Peach tree borer .......
Phemopsis sp. ..............
Purple scale ................
Purple scale ................
Putnam's scale ...........
Putnam's scale ............
Red spider ...................
Rufus scale ..................
Rufus scale ..................
San Jose scale ..............
San Jose scale ..............
San Jose scale ..............
San Jose scale ............
San Jose scale ..............
San Jose scale.............
San Jose scale ..............
San Jose scale ..............
San Jose scale ..............
San Jose scale ..............
San Jose scale ..............
San Jose scale -...........
San Jose scale ..........
San Jose scale ..............
San Jose scale .............
San Jose scale ...........
San Jose scale ..............
San Jose scale ..............
San Jose scale ..............
San Jose scale.........
San Jose scale .......
San Jose scale ........
San Jose scale .........
San Jose scale .....
San Jose scale ..............
Snow scale ................
Snow scale .................
Snow scale .................
Snow scale ....-............
Soft brown scale ........
Soft brown scale ........
Soft brown scale ........
Strawberry leaf-roller
Sugar-cane borer ........
Turtle-back scale ........
Whitefly ....... ...........
W hitefly ........................


Occurring on

Rose ........................
Unknown shrub ..........
Unknown plant .........
Citrus ...........................
Birch .......................
Maple ............................
Papaya .........................
Papaya ..........................
Peach .........................
Peach ....................
Peach .........................
Peach .......................
Plum .............................
Mango ..........................
Citrus ...........................
Citrus ..........................
Peach .......................
Plum ..............................
Rose ..........................
Tamarind ....................
Unknown plant ..........
A pple ............................
Cherry ........................
Cherry .......................
Crataegus sp...............
Currant -...... .....
Mulberry ....................
Peach .......................
Peach .......................
Peach ..................
Peach ........ ...

Peach ................
Peach ....... ......
Peach .......... ......
Pear .......................

Plum ......................
Plum .............................
Plum ............ .....
P lum .................
P lum ..............................
Poplar ................
Prune .................
Rose .......................
Rose ...........................
Unknown shrub .......
Hibiscus .... ......
Soursop .......................
Soursop .......- -............
Unknown shrub ........
Citrus ......................
Hibiscus ..................
Laurel ......... ......
Strawberry .................
Sugar-cane ........ .....
Jessamine ....... ........
Avocado ........................
Citrus ............................


From

West Virginia .
Georgia .........
Florida ..............
New York ........
Maine ..........
Pennsylvania ....
Cuba ..............
Florida ...........
Florida .............
Georgia ............
Missouri .........
Tennessee ..........
South Carolina
India ...............
Cuba ...........
Florida ..............
Missouri ............
Missouri ............
Cuba ..-..........
Cuba .................
Cuba ....--...-..
Georgia ..............
Georgia .........
Kentucky .....
North Carolina
New Jersey ......
Florida ..............
Florida .....-........
Georgia ..............
Illinois ............
Indiana ............
Kentucky ..........
Missouri ...........
New Jersey ......
South Carolina
Florida .............
Indiana ..............
Florida .............
Georgia ...........
Illinois ..........
Missouri ..........
Georgia ...
Illinois ............
Florida ..-.........
Georgia .......
Georgia -- .....
Florida ............
Cuba .......- ...
Mexico ............
Florida ..............
Florida .........
Florida ............
Georgia ...........
Wisconsin ........
Cuba .....- ....
Florida ............
Florida ...........
Cuba ........ ..


Number of
Shipments
Infested
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
6
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
19
1
1
3
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
6
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
2
1
1
1
3
1
1
2
1
3
2





Second Biennial Report 33


i| Number
Insect or Disease I Occurring on From shipments
I infested
W hitefly ....................... Citrus ........... ......... Florida .............. 17
W hitefly .......................-- Coleus ........................ Florida ............. 1
W hitefly ...........-- ........... Guava ....................... Florida ............ 2
W hitefly ....................... Citrus .......................... Honduras ......... 1
W hitefly ..............-- .--. Jessamine .................... Florida ............. 4
W hitefly ....... ........ Jessamine .................... Georgia ............ 1
W hitefly ........................ Privit ............................ Florida ............. 1
W hitefly ....................... Privit ............................ Georgia ........... 1
W hitefly ..................... Hibiscus ........................ Florida .............. 3
Withertip .............. Citrus ............................ Cuba ................- 2
W ithertip ................... Citrus .......................... Florida .............. 1

REPORT OF INSPECTIONS DURING THE FISCAL YEAR
ENDING APRIL 30, 1918
VESSELS INSPECTED:
From foreign ports ............-------.... ...... ..... .. ..........--. 1777
From U. S. ports other than Florida .............. ....----.-- ..----. 982
From Florida ports ........... ............................................ 1494
T total .......................... .......... .... ..... .... ..... ................. 4253
SHIPMENTS INSPECTED:
Arriving by water:
Passed ........---------............... -------- ....--. 302
Treated and passed ............................................................... 22
Returned to shipper .............................. .. .................... 126
Detained, subject to return by shipper ............................. 6
Contraband destroyed .................... .....-.........- ... 947
Total ..-........ ... ---------------------...........--...--....... 1403
Arriving by land-Express, freight, wagons, etc.:
P assed .................................... ... ...........-.. ...................... 1077
Treated and passed .............................. ...... .............. 771/2
Returned to shipper .................................................---- 359
Detained, subject to return by shipper ....----............-................ 415
Contraband destroyed ................................. ... ............... 90
Total ......... .......................... ........... ...... ... .. ..........-- 2019

Total shipments inspected ................ ....-...---------- ............ 3422

Principal Pests and Diseases Intercepted

Number of
Insect or disease Occurring on From Shipments
Infested
Aphis sp. ........-........... Chrysanthemum ......... Cuba ................. 1
Aphis sp. ...................... Hibiscus ........................ Cuba .-........... 1
Aphis sp. .................... Rose .............................. New York ......... 1
Aspidiotus britannicus Cocoa palm .................. Florida ............. 1
Aspidiotus hederae .... Chinaberry ................. Florida .............. 1
Aspidiotus lataniae .... Chinaberry .................. Florida ............. 1
Aspidistra scale .......... Anthurium sp ......-.----Illinois .............. 1
Aspidistra scale .........Unknown plant .......... Illinois .............. 1
Bephrata cubensis ...... Soursop ....................... Cuba ..................
Black Scale ................ Eugenia malaccensis .- Cuba ................. 1
Black Scale .................. Gardenia ..................... Pennsylvania .... 1





34 State Plant Board

Number of
Insect or disease Occurring on From Shipments
I Infested
Black Scale ................. !Hoffmannia sp. ............ Illinois ............. 1
Black Scale ...........-.......Poinsettia .................... Cuba ..----....:......- 1
Black Scale .................. Sago palm .................... Cuba .................. 1
Boisduval's scale ........ Billbergia sp. .............. Illinois ............. 1
Boisduval's scale ........ Karatas princeps ........ Illinois .............. 1
Boisduval's scale ........ Palm .............................. New York .......... 1
Boisduval's scale ........ Unknown plant ............ Illinois ............ 1
Cactus scale ................ Cactus .......................... Cuba .............-.... 1
Camphor thrips .......... Camphor ...................... Florida ...-......... 1
Cherry scale ................ Peach ............................ South Carolina 1
Citrus scab .................. Citrus .---.......................... Spain ................ 1
Cloudy-winged white-
fly ...................----........... Citrus ............................ Cuba .................. 1
Corn weevil ..................Corn .............................. M exico ........... 1
Chaff scale .................. Citrus ............................ Cuba .................. 2
Citrus mealy-bug ........ Guava ............................ Florida ............. 1
Coccus sp .................... ------Miconia magnifica ...... Illinois .............. 1
Cocoanut mealy-bug ....Cassava ........................ Cuba .................. 1
Cocoanut mealy-bug.... Ochrocarpus africanus Cuba .................. 1
Cocoanut mealy-bug.... Palm .............................. Cuba ..... ----............. 1
Crown gall .................. Alva bush .................... North Carolina 1
Crown gall .................. Apple ...........................--------. Georgia .............. 2
Crown gall .................- Currant ......----.................. New York .......... 1
Crown gall .................. Peach .- ----........................... Georgia .............. 1
Crown gall ......----............ Peach ............................ South Carolina 1
Crown gall .................. Plum ..... ------......................... Ohio ................... 1
Crown gall --..................Raspberry .--........--.. New York .......... 1
Crown gall ................. Rose .............................. Cuba ................ 1
Crown gall .----................. Rose ............................. Florida .......... 2
Crown gall .................. Rose ..........-----.................... New York .......... 2
Crown gall ................-- Rubus sp. ...--------............ Iowa ...---..
Cyanophyllum scale .... Miconia magnifica ...... Illinois -........... 1
Cyanophyllum scale -..- Palm ............................ Connecticut ...... 1
Cyanophyllum scale .... Palm ............. ........ Cuba ----- 1
Cyanophyllum scale -... Palm ..............................-------New York ......... 1
Dictyospermum scale -. Acanthorhiza aculeata Illinois .......... 1
Dictyospermum scale .. Anthurium sp ......... Illinois .............. 1
Dictyospermum scale .. Bahia ............................. Cuba .................. 1
Dictyospermum scale Billbergia sp. .............. Illinois .......... 1
Dictyospermum scale .. Eugenia malaccensis .. Cuba ....----....------ 1
Dictyospermum scale .. Jessamine --......--- Cuba .................. 1
Dictyospermum scale -. Mango -----..---.--- Florida .......... 1
Dictyospermum scale .. Palm -.........---.......------. New York .......... 2
Dictyospermum scale .. Unknown plant .....-... Illinois ... 1
Florida red scale ....... Citrus .------......................... Cuba ------ 2
Florida red scale ........ Citrus ..........--.............-.. Florida ............. 1
Florida red scale ........ Cocoa palm ................. Florida .............. 1
Florida red scale ....... Ficus sp ---------... Florida ........... 1
Florida red scale ........ Ficus sp. ...--.. ....... Illinois .............. 1
Florida red scale .... Herbaceous plant ........ Florida .............. 1
Florida red scale ...... Palm ................-------..----- Connecticut ...... 1
Florida red scale ........ Palm --.......------..---.----.... Cuba ................. 1
Florida red scale ..... Palm .-......... --.-----.... --New York .......... 1
Florida red scale .-..... Rose .........---...--- ----- Cuba 1
Florida red scale ........ Rubber plant ................ Florida .............. 1
Florida wax-scale ...... Ivy ---.--- .. Georgia ............ 1
Greedy scale .......... .. Privet ------ Alabama 1.....
Greedy scale .............. Rose ..---... Florida 1............I 1





Second Biennial Report


Insect or disease Occurring on

Green shield-scale ...... Anthurium sp. ...........
Hairy root ......-.....-- ...... Euonymus ....................
Hemispherical scale .... Sago palm ....................
Ivy scale .-..........-.....- Ivy ----....-------... ------...
Latania scale .............. Pecan ......--------......................
Latania scale .........-.....Sapodilla ..................----
Latania scale .............. Unknown plant............
Lesser snow scale ...... Bahia ..............................----
Lesser snow scale ...... Cassava --...------..
Lesser snow scale ..... Mango ....---------...
Lesser snow scale ...... Palm ..........-..--------..
Long scale ...-----.... Citrus ................--- -------..
Long scale ......----.. Citrus .............-- --.------...
M ango scale ............... Mango .......................--
Mealy-bug .....--------- Metrosideros
floribunda ................
Mealy-bug .............-- ---- Miconia magnifica ......
Mealy-bug .....--------- Palm ....-- -...............
Mealy-bug .............. Palm ................-- ........----
Mealy-bug .-- ---- Rose ............-----....
Mealy-bug ------ Sago palm ....................
Melanose .-.........---------. Citrus .......----... ...--
M elanose ..........- --....... Citrus ............................---
Mining scale ................ Casuariva strict ........
Mining scale ...........--... Jacobina mohintli ........
Mulberry whitefly ...... Holly ...----.............------
Nematode root-knot .... Fig ........ .--- ....--------
Nematode root-knot ... Fig .--.............................
Nematode root-knot .... Fig ................................
Nematode root-knot .... Fig ...... -----
Nematode root-knot .... Fig .............................
Nematode root-knot .... Grape ..............
Nematode root-knot .. Hibiscus ........................
Nematode root-knot .... Japonica ........................
Nematode root-knot .... Mulberry ......................
Nematode root-knot ....Peach ...........................
Nematode root-knot .... Peach ............---...............
Nematode root-knot .... Peach ............................
Nematode root-knot ...Rose .............-------
Nematode root-knot .... Rose ..............................
Nematode root-knot Spirea ........................--
Oleander scale ............Brunfelsia ....................
Oleander scale Japonica ..............------........
Oleander scale --... ...... Lantana ......................
Oleander scale .---... Mammee apple ............
Oleander scale ............ Ochrocarpus africanus
Oleander scale ............ Palm ....................-------..
Oleander scale ............ Sago palm ....................
Orthezia insignis ........ Chrysanthemum ..........
Oyster-shell scale ........ Snowball ..------..--
Oyster-shell scale ....... Willow ..................--
Papaya fruit-fly .......... Papaya .........................
Peach borer ................ Peach ............................
Perforated palm scale Palm ..............................
Pineapple scale ............ Billbergia sp.............
Pineapple scale .-.......... Dracena ........................
Pineapple scale ............ Pineapple ......................
Purple scale ................ Citrus ... ------


From

Illinois ..............
Alabama ............
Cuba ......... ..
Georgia .............
Georgia ..............
Florida ..............
Cuba .---...............--
Cuba .............
Cuba .....--.--...
Florida .............
Cuba ............
Cuba ...........
Florida .. ..........
Cuba ..................

Pennsylvania ....
Illinois ..............
Connecticut ......
Florida ..............
Cuba ..................
Cuba ...........--
Cuba .................
Florida ..............
Cuba ........----.
Cuba ...........--
North Carolina
Alabama ............
Cuba ..........--.
Florida .........
Georgia ..........
South Carolina
Florida ........
Alabama ............
Georgia ---...-...
Iowa -----
Florida .........
Georgia ..............
South Carolina
Florida ...........
New York .........
Florida ............--
Cuba ...----.-..
Cuba
Cuba -----
Cuba .- .....---
Cuba .---- --
Cuba .......
Cuba ...----
Cuba .------
Pennsylvania -..-
New York ..........
Florida ..-.........-
Georgia .............
Connecticut ....
Illinois ..............
Illinois .-...
Cuba ....-
Cuba ---


Number of
Shipments
Infested
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
8
6
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6


.





State Plant Board


Insect or disease Occurring on

Purple scale ......-......- Citrus .......................
Purple scale ................ Mang ..............
Putnam's scale ......... Acer sp. ......................
Putnam's scale ............Apple .........................
Red bay scale ........... Unknown plant ...........
Rose scale .................... Raspberry ..................
Rose scale ......... ....... Rose ..............................
Rose scale .................. Rose .....................-
Rufous scale ................ Brunfelsia ...................
Rufous scale ................ Citrus ...........................
Rufous scale ................ Croton ........................
Rufous scale ................ Pandanus ......................
San Jose scale .............. Apple ............................
San Jose scale .............. Apple ............................
San Jose scale .............. Cherry ......................
San Jose scale ............. Cherry ..........................
San Jose scale .............. Cherry ........................
San Jose scale ............ Currant .....................
San Jose scale .............. Jasmine .......................
San Jose scale ............ Lilac .............................
San Jose scale .............. Peach ............................
San Jose scale .............. Peach ......................
San Jose scale .............. Peach .............. .........
San Jose scale ............ Peach ..........................
San Jose scale .............. Peach .. .............
San Jose scale ............ Peach ....................
San Jose scale ......-...... Peach .........................
San Jose scale ............. Peach .........................
San Jose scale .............. Pear ............ ..........
San Jose scale ............. Pear .... ....................
San Jose scale ............ Pecan .........................
San Jose scale ............. Persimmon .... ........
San Jose scale -........... Plum ................ ........
San Jose scale ............ Plum ...........................
San Jose scale ............. Plum .......................
San Jose scale ............ Plum .-...--..................
San Jose scale ............ Plum ..........................
San Jose scale .............. Plum .........................
San Jose scale .............. Rose ---... ......
San Jose scale .............. Rose ....... ......
San Jose scale ............. Unknown plant ..........
Snow scale ...... .......... Citrus ..........................
Soft brown scale ...... Acalypha ......................
Soft brown scale ....... Chrysanthemum ..........
Soft brown scale ....... Guava ...........................
Soft brown scale ........ Ivy ...........................
Soft brown scale ....... Lily ............................
Soft brown scale ... Maguey .........--.............
Soft brown scale ...... Pseuderanthemum ......
Soft scale ... .......... Ficus sp ......................
Soft scale ......--........... Pinanga sp. (Palm)....
Spiny citrus whitefly .. Citrus ............................
Sweet potato root
weevil ........................ Sweet potato ................
Sweet potato scarabee Sweet potato ................
Tree-hopper ................ Camphor ..................
Walnut scale ............... Cherry -........................
Walnut scale ................ Cherry ..........................


From

Florida ............
Florida .............
Ohio ..................
Ohio ...................__
Cuba .................
Iowa ..................
Mississippi ........
New York ..........
Cuba ..................
Cuba ................
Cuba ................
I Cuba ............
Cuba .................
Georgia .............
New York .........
Massachusetts
New York ..........
Georgia ..............
Massachusetts .-
Florida ..............
Origin unknown
Alabama ...........
Florida ..............
Georgia ............
Massachusetts ..
Michigan ..........
Ohio ...................
South Carolina
Tennessee .....-...
Georgia .............
South Carolina
Florida ..............
Georgia ..............
Florida ..............
Georgia ..............
Kentucky ..........
North Carolina
South Carolina
Pennsylvania ....
Florida ...........
Georgia ..............
North Carolina
Florida ..............
Florida ..............
Florida ..............
Florida .............
Georgia ..............
Florida ..............
Florida ..............
Cuba ............
Illinois ..............
Illinois ...........
Cuba ..................

Cuba ..................
St. Lucie, B.W.I.
Florida ..............
Indiana ..............
Massachusetts ..


Number of
Shipments
Infested
6
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
4
1
1
1
3
1
4
1
1
1
2
4
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

9
1
1
* 1
1




Second Biennial Report


SI F Number of
Insect or disease Occurring on j From Shipments
I or Infested
W alnut scale ........... Grape ........................... New York .......... 1
W alnut scale ................ Peach ........ .......... Florida .............. 1
W alnut scale ................ Peach ............................ Massachusetts .. 1
W alnut scale ................ Peach ............................ New York .......... 2
Walnut scale ................ Pear .......................... New York .......... 1
W alnut scale ............. Plum .............................. New York .......... 2
W alnut scale ................ Chinaberry .................. Florida .............. 1
W hitefly ........................ Citrus ............................ Alabama ............ 1
W hitefly .................... Citrus ............................ Cuba .................. 2
W hitefly ..................... Citrus ............................ Florida ............. 3
W hitefly ...................... Jasmine ........................ Florida ............. 3
W hitefly ...................... Jasmine ........................ Georgia .............. 1
Whitefly ...................... Jasmine ........................ South Carolina 1
W hitefly ....................... Privet ............................ Alabama ............ 1
Whitefly ....................... Privet .......................... South Carolina 1
W hite peach scale ......Bahia ............................ Cuba .................. 1
W ithertip .................. Citrus ...................... Florida .............. 1
W ooly apple aphis ...... Apple ............................ Georgia .............. 1


PARCEL POST INSPECTION

Within a few months after its organization the Plant Board
was able to practically put a stop to shipments of infested
material into the State by freight or express. However, the
mails still remained open to unscrupulous or careless people in
other states as an avenue through which diseased trees and plants
could be unloaded upon Florida citizens.
To meet this condition the Plant Board made application to
the Postoffice Department for the privilege of inspecting mail
shipments of plants and plant products, addressed to Florida
postoffices, under the provisions of the Act of Congress of March
4, 1915, and embodied in Section 4781/4, Postal Laws and Regu-
lations. After considerable preliminary correspondence, most
of which had to do with agreement on the classes of material to
be made subject to inspection, the Third Assistant Postmaster
General, on October 24, 1916, issued an order providing for the
inspection, by agents of the Plant Board, of all trees, plants,
shrubs, vines, cuttings and certain other plant materials con-
signed to Florida postoffices. Under this order parcel post
material subject to inspection was required sent to the post-
office at Gainesville for inspection. Later, arrangements were
made for similar inspections at the postoffices at Pensacola,
Jacksonville and Tampa and inspection facilities are maintained
at the four postoffices named at the present time. The orders,
rules, etc., of the Postoffice Department, authorizing such in-




State Plant Board


section, will be found in Appendix A (Circular 30, page 43) to
this report.
As soon as inspection of mail matter was commenced it was
found that large quantities of infested and diseased plants were
being shipped into the State. Between November 1, 1916, when
this inspection service was commenced, and April 30, 1917, 4138
mail shipments were inspected and of this number 579 were found
undeliverable on account of plants in the shipments being in-
fested or diseased. Also 72 parcels were treated and passed.
During the twelve months ending April 30, 1918, 5045 parcels
were similarly inspected, of which 266 were non-deliverable in
the condition in which they were received because of containing
dangerous insects or plant diseases. There were 220 treated
and passed and the remainder returned to senders or destroyed.
The inspection of mail shipments has prevented the delivery
to Florida citizens of many thousands of insect-ridden and
diseased plants and, in final results, has prevented losses running
into many thousands of dollars.
But one unfortunate feature has characterized this work and
that has been the failure on the part of many postmasters to do
their part by complying with the orders of the Postoffice De-
partment in this matter. Through their negligence or indif-
ference, many shipments have been delivered direct to Florida
citizens when these shipments should have first been sent by
the postmaster for inspection. As a partial remedy for this
condition, your Plant Commissioner recommends that sufficient
funds be made available for this work so that special representa-
tives of the Plant Board may be assigned to the duty of keeping
check on the postmasters who are negligent in this matter.
The following tables give the results of the parcel post in-
spection work for the biennium:

PARCEL POST PLANT INSPECTION

Fiscal Year Ending April 30, 1917
(Nov. 4, 1916, to April 30, 1917)
PARCELS INSPECTED:
Passed -------............ ...................... ..-- ................ 3487
Treated and passed -------....................-.................. 72
Returned to sender .--- ---................................... 552
Detained, subject to return ........................ .............................. 13
Infested or infected parcels destroyed ......-............................. 14
Total Parcels Inspected ---.......................... ................... 4138





Second Biennial Report

Principal Pests and Diseases Intercepted


Insect or Disease


Occurring on


Borer ........................... W alnut .........................
Chaff scale .................... Citrus ........................
Crown gall ................. Apple ............. ...........
Crown gall ................. Rose ............................
Dictyospermum scale .. Rubber ........................
Florida red scale ........ Citrus ..........................
Long scale .................... Citrus ...........................
Melanose ...................... Citrus .....................
Nematode root-knot ... Begonia .......................
Nematode root-knot .... Cissus discolora ..........
Nematode root-knot .... Coleus ...........................
Nematode root-knot .... Chrysanthemum ..........
Nematode root-knot .... Chrysanthemum ........
Nematode root-knot .... Cyclamen ......................
Nematode root-knot .... Daisy ........................
Nematode root-knot .... Fig ................................
Nematode root-knot .... Geranium .....................
Nematode root-knot .... Geranium ....................
Nematode root-knot .... Grape ......... ...... ........
Nematode root-knot .... Hibiscus .......................
Nematode root-knot .... Honeysuckle ................
Nematode root-knot .... Ivy ..............................
Nematode root-knot .... Lemon verbena ............
Nematode root-knot .... Primula obconica ........
Nematode root-knot .... Peach ........................
Nematode root-knot .... Peony ..........................
Nematode root-knot .... Rose ..........-..........
Nematode root-knot .... Rose .......................
Nematode root-knot .... Rose ......................
Nematode root-knot .... Rose ........................
Nematode root-knot .... Rose .......................
Nematode root-knot ... Rose ....................
Nematode root-knot .... Salvia ... --....... ..........
Nematode root-knot .... Tomato .......................
Nematode root-knot .... Tomato ...-.................
Nematode root-knot .... Violet .........................
Nematode root-knot .... Wistaria ................
Purple scale ................ Citrus ............- ...........
San Jose scale ............. Chinaberry ................
San Jose scale ........... Peach ......... .............
San Jose scale ............. Rose ......- ..............
W hitefly .................... Citrus ............................
Whitefly ..................... Citrus ........................


From

Georgia ..............
Ohio ..........- .....
Nebraska ........
Ohio ................
Ohio ..................
Florida .............
Florida ..............
Florida ..............
Ohio ..............
Ohio

Ohio ..............
Florida ...-.....
Ohio ................
Ohio ..............
Florida ...........
Florida ..............
Ohio .................
Tennessee .........
Ohio ....... .......
Ohio .................
Ohio ..................
Ohio .................
Ohio .................
Georgia ..............
Ohio ............-.....
Florida ..............
Georgia .............
Indiana ..........
Ohio ..................
Pennsylvania .-..
North Carolina
Ohio ................
Florida ...........
Georgia ........
Ohio ---------
Ohio ..............
Ohio ..................
Florida .............
Florida ..............
Illinois ..........
Florida .............
Florida .............
Ohio ..................


Fiscal Year Ending April 30, 1918

PARCELS INSPECTED:
Passed ... .......................................... .................. .. 4779
Treated and passed ............................... ................... 220
Returned to sender ................. ............ .............. 4
Detained, subject to return by sender ............................ .....- 27
Infested or infected parcels destroyed ...............................,..... 15
Total Parcels Inspected ..................................................... : 5045


Number
of parcels
infested
1
1
1
18
1
1
1
1
10
1
2
16
1
1
16
4
1
19
1
17
3
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
511
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
5
1
1
1
2
1




40 State Plant Board

Pests Intercepted
Number
Insect or Disease Occurring on From shipments
infested


Bruchus sp. ................
Citrus mealy-bug ........
Citrus mealy-bug ........
Crown gall ....................
Crown gall ....................
Crown gall ....................
Dictyospermum scale.
Florida red scale .......
Florida wax-scale ......
Ivy scale ....... .... .........
Lace bug ...................
Mealy-bug .................
Mealy-bug ....................
Mealy-bug .........-........
Mealy-bug ....................
Melanose .............
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Nematode root-knot ....
Oleander scale ............
Oyster-shell scale ........
Rose scale ......... ........
San Jose scale ............
San Jose scale ..............
San Jose scale .............
San Jose scale .............
San Jose scale ..............
San Jose scale ..............
Soft brown scale ........
Whitefly ............
W hitefly .............


Cow peas .....................
Citrus ........................
Coleus .... ..................
Peach .........................
Rose ................. ........
Rose ..........................
Palm ...........................
Palm ...... ..... ........
Ivy .. .................
Ivy ..................... ...
Rhododendron ..............
Coleus .......................
Hibiscus ........................
Rose .........................
Salvia ......................
Citrus .......................
Begonia ...... ..........
Begonia ........................
Canna ...........................
Chrysanthemum ..........
Clematis paniculata....
Coleus ...........................
Discorea ........................
Fig ...............................
Geranium ....................
Geranium ....................
Geranium ......................
Grape ...........................
Grape .........................
Hibiscus ........................
Kudzu vine....................
Lemon verbena .........
Lilac ..............................
Peach ........................
Petunia ........................
Plum .............................
Plumbago ....................
Rose .........................
Rose ..............................
Rose ..............................
Rose ..........................
Snowball ....................
Tomato ........................
Unknown plant .........
Unknown shrub ..........
W istaria ......................
Oleander .....................
W illow ..........................
Raspberry ................
Peach .. ....... .........
Peach ............................
Pear ... ........ .........
Plum ..............................
Plum .............................
Rose .. .......... .........
Ivy ..............................
Citrus .......................
Jasmine ........................


Florida ............. 1
Pennsylvania .... 1
Ohio .................. 6
Georgia .............. 1
Illinois .............. 1
Ohio .................. 13
New Jersey ...... 1
New Jersey ...... 1
New York ........ 1
New York ........ 1
Tennessee .......... 1
Ohio .................. 1
Ohio .................. 1
Ohio .................. 1
Ohio .................. 1
Florida .............. 1
Illinois .............. 1
Ohio ................. 6
New York ........ 1
Ohio .................. 10
New York ........ 1
Ohio .................. 4
Illinois .............. 1
Florida .............. 2
Florida .............. 1
New York ........ 1
Ohio .................. 27
Florida .............. 1
Pennsylvania .... 1
Ohio .................. 9
Ohio .................. 1
Ohio .................. 4
Ohio .................. 1
Florida .............. 1
Ohio .................. 2
Florida .............. 1
Ohio .................. 1
Florida .............. 1
Illinois .............. 1
New York ........ 1
Ohio ................. -150
Ohio .................. 1
Florida .............. 2
Kentucky .......... 1
South Carolina 1
Ohio .................. 1
Ohio .................. 1
New York ........ 1
Iowa .................. 1
Kentucky .......... 1
Ohio .................. 1
Ohio .................. 1
Florida .............. 1
Ohio .................. 1
South Carolina 1
New York ........ 1
Florida ............ 1
Florida ............ 1




Second Biennial Report


NEEDED LEGISLATION
While the Florida Plant Act of 1915 is very broad and while
its provisions cover practically all situations likely to arise in
connection with the Plant Board's work, experience has shown
the desirability of amendments in two respects.
Cases have occurred where there has been some question as to
the court in which criminal proceedings should be brought and
some prosecuting attorneys have taken advantage of this to
decline, or shift, the responsibility for making prosecutions.
Some difficulty has been experienced, particularly in the
quarantine work, with parties attempting, through threats and
abusive language, to intimidate the Plant Board's agents and
prevent their proper performance of duty. While the general
statutes afford relief in the case of actual assault upon the in-
spectors, an adequate remedy is not at hand for dealing with
attempts at intimidation.
Your Plant Commissioner accordingly recommends that legis-
lation be requested providing:
(1) That prosecutions for violation of provisions of the
Florida Plant Act of 1915, or for violation of the rules and
regulations of the Plant Board, may be made in any county
of the State affected by such violations, and
(2) A severe penalty for interfering with or intimidating any
agent of the State Plant Board when engaged in the discharge
of his official duties.

SWEET POTATO WEEVIL
In several counties of the State the sweet potato weevil has
caused the abandonment of commercial cultivation of the sweet
potato and has, in fact, made it well-nigh impossible for farm-
ers to produce enough potatoes for their own use. All counties
which are generally infested with this insect are importers,
rather than exporters, of sweet potatoes.
As the normal sweet potato crop of Florida is between three
and one-half and four million bushels annually*, and as the weevil
is readily carried to new localities in either tubers or plants,
the seriousness of the situation is at once apparent. Continued
spread of the pest will ultimately mean that but few sweet
potatoes will be grown in Florida.
The presence of this insect in southern Florida was known at
*The crop of 1915-16 was 3,859,107 bushels.




State Plant Board


the time the Plant Board was created in 1915, but the urgency
of the citrus canker situation, coupled with the necessity for
assembling and training a corps of inspectors, made it impos-
sible to give the weevil problem immediate attention.
As soon as the work of eradicating citrus canker was well
under way and it was seen that substantial headway was being
made against the disease, attention was given, as far as the
means of the Board permitted, to the sweet potato weevil situ-
ation.
Several reports of the insect's occurrence in Dade County
were received during 1916 and reference was found in publi-
cations of the U. S. Department of Agriculture to its occurrence
in Manatee County in earlier years.
In December, 1916, the entomologist of the Experiment Sta-
tion, Mr. J. R. Watson, received specimens of the weevil from
Mr. Wm. A. Dopson, of Sanderson, Baker County. Subsequent
investigation by Mr. K. E. Bragdon, inspector for the Plant
Board, showed the insect present in the neighborhood of San-
derson, Glen St. Mary and Macclenny, all in Baker County.
Growers reported that the insect had been present for about
three years. Damage to the sweet potato crop in 1916 was very
severe, 30% to 50% of the crop being in many instances de-
stroyed while still in the field and the remainder destroyed by
the weevils after digging and storing in houses or banks.
In June, 1917, the weevil was found in Broward and Palm
Beach Counties, in July and August in Lee, Monroe and St.
Lucie Counties, and in October in Volusia County.
In October, 1917, an isolated infestation was found at Citrus
Park, Hillsborough County, and as only a few farms were in-
fested, an attempt was immediately made by the Board, in co-
operation with the owners, to eradicate the pest at this point.
Subsequent investigation showed that the insect had been
brought to Citrus Park the year previous, in roots of the seaside
morning glory which were planted as ornamentals. It was found
that these morning glory roots had been taken from a point on
Tampa Bay where the morning glories were heavily infested
with the weevil.
As the insect was known to be generally distributed through
the West Indies and known to occur in Louisiana and Texas, the
Plant Board, on July 23, 1917, adopted Rule 32, prohibiting the
importation into Florida of sweet potato tubers and plants and
morning glory roots and plants (with certain exceptions in the




Second Biennial Report


case of new varieties for propagation), as a means of preventing
further introductions of the pest. At the same time a Public
Notice was issued by the Board, defining the areas in Florida
known to be infested and Rules 33 and 34, regulating the ship-
ment of sweet potato and morning glory tubers and plants out
of the infested areas, were adopted. These rules have been
found very effective in checking the spread of the weevil and
have been amended from time to time as occasion required. The
Public Notice and the Rules referred to will be found in Appendix
A (Circular 30) of this report. Similar rules and regulations
were shortly afterwards adopted by the States of Alabama,
Georgia and South Carolina.
In October, 1917, a rather full account of the sweet potato
weevil, and the measures to be used in reducing its damage, was
published in the Quarterly Bulletin of the Plant Board (see
Appendix B).
FEDERAL CO-OPERATION
On July 1, 1917, Dr. F. H. Chittenden, of the Bureau of Ento-
mology, U. S. Department of Agriculture, and your Plant Com-
missioner held a conference regarding the situation and the
conclusion reached that a campaign of control and eradication
was not only feasible and practical but would result in very
materially increasing the sweet potato crop of the Southern
States. The matter was accordingly placed before the Honorable
Secretary of Agriculture, with the result that $10,000 was set
aside out of the sum allotted for the suppression of insects in-
jurious to truck crops, available under the provisions of the
Food Production Act, approved August 10, 1917, this sum to be
used by the Bureau of Entomology in preliminary survey work
and demonstration methods in the states where the weevil oc-
curred. As a part of this program, Agent O. K. Courtney of the
Bureau was sent to Florida in January, 1918, to co-operate with
the Plant Board.
In April, 1918, additional funds having been made available
for the Bureau, a field laboratory was established at Macclenny,
Baker County, for the study of the weevil and for experiments
in improving the methods of control.

TERRITORY INFESTED
Through the fall, winter and spring months, inspections were
made by the Bureau agents and by the Plant Board inspectors,




State Plant Board


with the result that the weevil is now known to occur in Baker,
Volusia, Brevard, St. Lucie, Palm Beach, Broward, Dade, Mon-
roe, Lee, DeSoto, Manatee, Hillsborough and Pinellas Counties.
The infestations in nearly all cases were found to be of compara-
tively long standing. Parts of Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi
have also been found infested.


*0 "
-P e
..


Fig. 3. Map of Florida showing areas at present known to be infested
by the sweet potato weevil.




Second Biennial Report


HOST PLANTS
The sweet potato plant is a close relative of the morning
glory and it is therefore not surprising that the investigations
of the past few months have shown that the insect breeds readily
in the seaside morning glory (Ipomoea pes-caprae), a small blue-
flowered morning glory (I. trifida) and the moon-flower (Cal-
onyction aculeatum). In Mississippi it has also been found breed-
ing in a closely related plant, Ipomoea littoralis. The seaside
morning glory is of common occurrence along all of the sandy
sea beaches of Florida, while the moon-flower occurs both along
the coast and along lakes, canals, etc., in the interior.
This fact to some extent complicates the problems of control
and eradication, for the occurrence of morning glory plants in or
near infested fields must always be taken into consideration and
dealt with as circumstances may require. For the same reason,
all quarantines of the Plant Board applying to sweet potato
tubers and plants apply also to morning glory roots and plants.

PLAN OF CAMPAIGN

The campaign against the sweet potato weevil, as now being
carried on by the Bureau of Entomology and the State Plant
Board, consists of three essential parts: preventing further
spread of the weevil from areas already infested, control and
eventual eradication of the weevil in the isolated infested area
in Baker County and inspection of the plantings of growers who
distribute sweet potato plants.
Preventing further spread of the weevil is accomplished mainly
through the quarantine rules of the Plant Board, which prohibit
tubers being shipped out of infested areas without first being
fumigated, and the total prohibition of sweet potato plant ship-
ments from infested localities.
In Baker County efforts are being made to personally instruct
all farmers regarding the weevil and the measures by which
damage from the insect can be reduced. The measures advo-
cated at present consist of field rotation in planting, use of
weevil-free plants, elimination of "hold-over" plantings, destruc-
tion of morning glory vines as far as practicable, thoroughness
in harvesting, fumigation of harvested tubers, destruction of
badly infested tubers, prevention of weevil damage in storage,
destruction of volunteer plants in spring and avoidance of ex-
tremely early planting. It is hoped by these means to so greatly




State Plant Board


reduce the pest in Baker County that eventually eradication may
be reached. In the meantime production of sweet potatoes in
the infested area is being continued. The Baker County work
is in reality an experiment upon a rather large scale to deter-
mine whether the insect can be eradicated and the production of
sweet potatoes continued at the same time. The outcome of this
experiment will doubtless determine whether eradication of the
pest throughout the South generally should be undertaken.
Inspection of plantings in which sweet potato plants are grown
for market has not been mandatory upon the plant growers and
dealers but they have been quick to see the many advantages of
furnishing weevil-free plants to their customers. During 1917,
six growers applied for inspection and received certificates.
During the spring of 1918 there were very few extensive plant
growers in the State who did not request.inspection. During this
period 325 plantings were inspected, of which number 105 plant-
ings were certified. Thirteen plantings were refused certification
on account of the weevil being present in the plant beds or
occurring in dangerous proximity thereto. Certificate tags to
the number of 56,085 were issued for accompanying shipments
of sweet potato plants. The sweet potato plant business of Flor-
ida is an important industry. The plant growers not only furnish
many millions of plants to Florida farmers, but ship many mil-
lions more to states north of us where Florida-grown sweet
potato plants are much in demand for the production of early
crops. Sixty-six of the certified plant growers, during the sea-
son of 1918, made aggregate shipments of 34,940,200 sweet
potato plants to customers in other states and, during the same
season, sold 8,468,590 plants to Florida customers. The sweet
potato plant business brings into Florida each year a sum of
between $75,000.00 and $100,000.00. The continued shipment
of plants into other states is entirely dependent upon continued
close inspection, and certification, of the Florida plantings. In
connection with these inspections every assistance possible was
given the plant growers in keeping their plantings free from
other destructive insects and from injurious sweet potato dis-
eases.
The funds available to the Plant Board for this important
work have been, unfortunately, very limited and the work could
not have been carried on to the extent it has had it not been for
the assistance rendered by the U. S. Department of Agriculture.




Second Biennial Report


SERIOUSNESS OF SITUATION

Inasmuch as the sweet potato weevil threatens to destroy the
sweet potato growing industry of Florida, as well as the im-
portant industry of supplying many millions of sweet potato
plants to the growers of other states, the campaign against this
insect should be waged vigorously and upon a scale sufficiently
large to permit of rapid progress being made. The resources
available for this work thus far have permitted of little more
than the quarantine and inspection work to prevent further
spread. It has not been possible to take up control and eradica-
tion of the pest in but one of the thirteen Florida counties in
which it occurs. The sweet potato crop is one of the most im-
portant in Florida, particularly from the standpoint of the aver-
age farmer, and money cannot be expended to better advantage
than in controlling, subduing and eradicating the weevil. Your
Plant Commissioner urges that the great importance of this
matter be brought prominently to the attention of His Excel-
lency, the Governor, and to members of the Legislature.

BANANA ROOT BORER
Section 5 of the Plant Act requires the Plant Board to "list
the insect pests and diseases of which it shall find that the intro-
duction into, or the dissemination within, this State should be
prevented".
The Board, at its meeting on February 14, 1916, having
knowledge of the occurrence of a destructive banana pest in the
West Indies, known as the banana root borer*, by resolution,
declared this insect and all plants infested with it to be public
nuisances, though the insect was not at that time known to occur
within the State.
In December, 1917, a gentleman owning a banana planting
near Larkins, Dade County, noticed severe injury to his plants
and, finding an insect in the stems, took specimens of it to the
Plant Introduction Gardens at Miami. Here it was examined by
Mr. G. F. Moznette and by him sent to the Federal Horticultural
Board at Washington. Mr. E. R. Sasscer, Entomological In-
spector for the Horticultural Board on January 5, 1918, wrote the
Plant Commissioner that the specimens had been identified as
being the banana root borer.
Steps were immediately taken to determine the extent of the
*Cosmopolites sordidus.




* State Plant Board


infested area and between January 5th and 19th inspection was
made by Plant Board inspectors of 34 banana plantings, com-
prising 10,129 plants, in and around Larkins. Ten properties,
containing 977 plants, were found infested, the actual number
of infested plants being 367. The owners of these were only
too ready to co-operate in eradicating the pest and the eradication
work was immediately commenced. This consisted of uprooting
and burning all banana plants in the infested properties, the
plants being burned with the aid of large quantities of wood and
oil. As it was realized that some of the insects would remain in
the ground and others escape in the course of destroying the
infested plants, a plan for trapping any such was devised. This
consisted, at first, of planting young, healthy banana plants in
the properties following destruction of the infested plants. It
was found, however, that the young plants were not very at-
tractive to the adult weevils, and as a result of observations by
Mr. Paul M. Hoenshel, Assistant District Inspector, sections of
banana stems were tried. Non-infested stems were cut into
sections about a foot long and then split lengthwise and these
laid on the ground with the flat surface downward. These were
examined by the inspectors weekly and weevils found on or in
them were collected and killed. The traps themselves were re-
placed with new ones at intervals of two weeks to prevent the
possibility of any weevils maturing in them. This trapping was
continued as long as weevils were being captured.
Inquiry into the history of the infested plantings at Larkins
showed that the fields had been planted exclusively with plants
purchased from a north Florida nursery in the spring of 1914,
and that the latter nursery had, in turn, secured the plants from
a south Florida nursery. Inspections of the banana plants in the
latter nursery were made as soon (February, 1918) as this in-
formation was brought to light, but no specimens of the root
borer were found until March 18, 1918. As soon as this dis-
covery was made the owners of the nursery exerted every effort
to assist us in eradicating the pest from their premises by pro-
ceeding at once to destroy all banana plants under direction of
Plant Board inspectors. Traps to catch any weevils escaping
the general cleaning-up process are at present in use in this
property. A list of all parties to whom this nursery shipped
banana plants during the past four years has also been obtained
and investigations will be made to determine whether any of the
plantings made from these are infested.




Second Biennial Report


The investigations have recently brought to light an area of
infestation by this insect in Manatee County and at the expira-
tion of this report, April 30, 1918, the extent of this infested area
is as yet undetermined. (See Supplemental Report, p. 71.)
It is of the utmost importance that every occurrence of this
insect in Florida be located and the pest completely eradicated,
particularly as the insect also attacks sugar cane and it is not
impossible that its future presence in the State might seriously
interfere with the development of a large sugar and syrup pro-
ducing industry.

THE BLACK FLY
In our last report mention was made of the occurrence of the
black fly, or "spiny citrus whitefly" in The Bahamas, Jamaica and
Cuba and of the very destructive nature of this pest as de-
termined by our Dr. J. H. Montgomery on his trip of investiga-
tion to Nassau in May, 1916.
During the past two years the danger of this insect being
introduced into Florida has steadily increased although, fortu-
nately, our Port and Railway Inspection Department, operating
under the provisions of Rule 26, adopted by the Plant Board
June 5, 1916, and amended November 12, 1917, has apparently
been successful in thus far intercepting or preventing entry of
all infested shipments and the insect is not yet known to have
become established in the State.
The black fly must be regarded as a pest as much to be dreaded
as citrus canker and there can be little doubt but what, if it
becomes established in Florida, large sums of money will have
to be expended in its eradication. It does not, however, confine
its attacks to citrus trees but is also an enemy of the avocado,
guava, pomegranate, papaya, plantain and other fruits.
Because of the heavy commerce between Florida and Cuba the
black fly situation in the latter country is of great importance.
Havana is less than one day's journey by boat from Key West and
but two days' journey from Port Tampa.

THE SITUATION IN CUBA
Our first knowledge of the black fly occurring in Cuba was
contained in a letter from Prof. John R. Johnston, Chief of the
Comision de Sanidad Vegetal at Havana, dated May 31, 1916,
sent in reply to our inquiry, advising that the insect had been




State Plant Board


found near Guantanamo in August, 1915, and that a subsequent
survey had shown the infested area to be about two miles in
diameter, in which citrus, mango, coffee and guava were affected.
Efforts were made by the Cuban Government to eradicate this
outbreak but local disturbances of a revolutionary nature later
made necessary the abandonment of the work.
In December, 1916, the insect was found in the Vedado, a
suburb of Havana, and by the following spring had infested
many other suburbs of Havana and appeared at Hoyo Colorado,
a point in Havana Province about 60 miles distant from Havana.
In August, 1917, Mr. Harold Morrison, of the Federal Horti-
cultural Board, found the insect at both ends of the Panama
Canal Zone.
In October, 1917, your Plant Commissioner, acting under in-
structions of the Plant Board, proceeded to Havana for the pur-
pose of securing more information regarding the black fly,
urging greater activity in Cuba towards subduing the pest and
arranging for such co-operation with the Cuban Government as
would tend to reduce the chances of the black fly being brought
to Florida in shipments or by travelers. The writer held con-
ferences with Professor Johnston and his immediate superior,
Dr. Eugenio Agramonte, Secretary of Agriculture, Commerce
and Labor, under direction of whose department the fight against
the black fly was being carried on. The writer found the black
fly to be fully as serious as previous reports had indicated and
soon became convinced that the establishment of this pest in
Florida would be little short of a calamity. A careful study was
also made of the transportation system of Havana and vicinity
and its bearing upon the possibility of black flies being trans-
ported to Florida in cars or vessels.
On the writer's return to Florida he submitted to the Plant
Board a rather full report on his findings and the Board, on
November 12, 1917, made broad amendments to its Rule 26 for
the purpose of still further safeguarding the State against this
pest and, at the same time, specifying the procedure to be fol-
lowed if, at some future time, the insect should be found in Flor-
ida. This rule will be found in Appendix A (Circular 30) to this
report. Under this rule the importation into Florida of all
nursery stock, plants, foliage, etc., from black fly infested coun-
tries is prohibited and all fruits and vegetables arriving from
such countries, as well as the baggage of all passengers, undergo




Second Biennial Report


a rigid inspection at the ports of entry by inspectors of the
Plant Board.
In November, 1917, the Cuban Congress, at the direct request
of President Menocal, appropriated $50,000.00 for the fight
against the black fly. Under this appropriation and under
authority of the decrees issued by the President, the Office of
Plant Sanitation waged an active campaign against the pest in
Havana during the winter and spring months following. In this
work the advice and assistance of your Plant Commissioner and
his assistants was requested and, accordingly, General Inspector
Frank Stirling spent January 5 to 19, 1918, in Havana, acting
in an advisory capacity and giving Professor Johnston sugges-
tions based upon the Plant Board's experience in dealing with
the citrus canker situation in Florida, the two problems being
not unlike in many phases of the inspection and field work. At
this time the Office of Plant Sanitation expressed a desire to
avail itself of the services of two experienced inspectors from
Florida and accordingly Assistant Nursery Inspector L. Russell
Warner and Assistant District Inspector H. D. Bollinger were
granted leaves of absence by the Plant Board and entered the
employ of the Office of Plant Sanitation at Havana in February,
1918. At the present time both are still there, Mr. Bollinger
assisting in the organization and management of the field in-
spection work and Mr. Warner in the nursery inspection work.
From November, 1917, to April, 1918, a vigorous campaign
was waged against the black fly in Havana and its suburbs by the
Office of Plant Sanitation, and as a result of the spraying and
pruning of infested trees the insect was very materially reduced
in numbers. To a considerable extent, also, host plants of the
fly were removed from the railroad rights of way in the infested
district, thus reducing the chances of adult black flies being
transported to Florida in freight cars carried on the ferry to Key
West.
In the meantime, however, no steps of consequence were taken
to control the infestation at Guantanamo. The black fly ap-
peared at additional points in Havana Province, and was found
at twenty-three places in Santiago de Cuba Province, including
the city of Santiago de Cuba. The infestation in the latter city
is particularly severe.
On the whole, therefore, it cannot be said that the situation
is any less threatening, so far as the danger of introducing the
pest into Florida is concerned, than it was a year ago.




State Plant Board


The black fly has on two occasions been discovered by Plant
Board inspectors in material arriving from Cuba. On one
occasion a passenger from Havana was found, on her arrival
at Key West, to have a cluster of grapefruit, leaves and twigs in
which infested leaves were found. In the other case a commer-
cial shipment arriving at Port Tampa was found to contain
material infested with the black fly. These instances serve to
show the actual danger existing and it is safe to conclude that,
but for the vigilance of Plant Board inspectors, this dread pest
would already be established in Florida.

BOLL WEEVIL QUARANTINE
In our last report we called attention to the well-known fact
that the boll weevil has two methods of dissemination, one by
natural flight or migration and the other by transportation in
cotton seed, hulls, Spanish moss, etc. Migration or spread by
flight cannot be prevented and each year results in the insect
invading new territory. Distribution by means of cotton seed,
moss and certain other articles can be prevented by suitable
quarantine measures.
In the fall of 1915 the eastern limit of the boll weevil infested
area in Florida passed through Hamilton, Madison and Taylor
Counties. During the summer and autumn of 1916, the insect,
by means of its annual migratory flight, infested additional
territory to the east and south, the eastern limit of the infested
territory in November, 1916, running through Nassau, Duval,
Clay, Bradford and Levy Counties. Again in the summer and
fall of 1917, the weevil extended its range, the southern limit of
infestation in December, 1917, passing through Volusia, Lake,
Sumter and Citrus Counties.
The Plant Commissioner's staff has continued to enforce the
provisions of Rule 18 of the Plant Board, which prohibits the
shipment, from weevil-infested territory, of cotton seed, cotton
seed hulls, Spanish moss, corn in shuck, and certain other ma-
terials, to weevil-free areas except at such seasons and under
such conditions as permit of the shipments being made without
danger of transporting living boll weevils. Provision has been
made for the shipment of cotton seed for planting purposes, from
the weevil area to the weevil-free area, after such seed has been
fumigated by the Entomological Department of the Board.
During the season of 1917-18, the Entomologist fumigated a




Second Biennial Report


total of 2006 bushels of cotton seed which were sent to south
Florida for planting.
These precautions have undoubtedly prevented the weevil
establishing itself in many localities ahead of the advancing
line of migrating weevils, and such localities have enjoyed im-
munity from the pest for from one to three seasons longer than
would have been the case had such quarantine measures not been
in effect.

PINK BOLLWORM QUARANTINE
The pink bollworm, a destructive cotton insect, was apparently
introduced into Mexico in 1911 in a shipment of cotton seed
from Egypt to Monterey and was introduced into the Laguna
cotton growing region of Mexico the following year in shipments
of seed from the infested Monterey section. However, these
facts did not become known to the authorities in the United
States until in November, 1916.
In the meantime, during 1916, shipments of Mexican cotton
seed to the amount of more than 500 carloads had been sent to
cotton oil mills in Texas. As soon as the presence of the pink
bollworm in Mexico became known the. Federal Horticultural
Board, U. S. Department of Agriculture, prohibited the further
importation of Mexican seed, expedited the crushing of all
Mexican seed at the Texas mills and began active inspection
of cotton fields in the vicinity of all the mills which had received
seed from Mexico. These inspections brought to light two locali-
'ties. in Texas infested with the pink bollworm. One of these
was found at Hearne, in September, and the other at Beaumont
in October, 1917. All cotton plants in the infested fields and
those adjoining were uprooted and burned and all vestiges of
cotton destroyed. Over seven thousand acres were treated in
this way .
Later in 1917 infested areas were found on Galveston Bay
and Trinity Bay, south and southeast of,Houston, Texas. The
presence of the insect in this area is attributed to the fact that
in August, 1915, several thousand bales of Mexican cotton were
on the docks at Galveston when the.severe storm of that month
occurred and carried many of these bales to the mainland, broke
then pen and scattered the contents over many. thousands of
acres along Galveston and Trinity Bays. This cotton undoubtedly
contained much seed which in turn contained larvae of the pink
bollworm. ..




State Plant Board


A special act was passed by the Texas Legislature providing
for the destruction of all cotton in infested areas and prohibit-
ing the planting of cotton in such areas for a period of three
years. In co-operation with the Federal Horticultural Board, the
Texas State Department of Agriculture proceeded to destroy all
cotton in the infested area south of Houston. This area was
found to be about 50 miles wide by 150 miles long and covered
all or parts of seven counties. The actual cotton in this area in
1917 was 3,829 acres.
Realizing that the infestation in south Texas was severe and
widespread and knowing that cotton and seed had been shipped
out of the infested Texas area in 1915 and 1916, thus giving rise
to the possibility of centers of infestation as yet undiscovered,
the Plant Board, on December 10, 1917, adopted its Rule 37,
prohibiting the importation into Florida, from all states west of
the Mississippi River, of all cotton lint, linters, waste, waste
cotton and similar products.
The menace to the cotton industry was considered so serious
that a conference of the quarantine officials of the cotton grow-
ing states was held at Houston, Texas, on January 18, 19, 1918.
This conference was attended by your Plant Commissioner,
acting under instructions from your Board, and a full report
thereon submitted to the Plant Board on January 31, 1918.
The destructiveness of the pink bollworm to cotton under
conditions existing in the Southern States may be gathered
from the fact that in fifty pounds of mature bolls gathered at
Smith Point, Texas, 1300 living pink bollworms were found.
In this vicinity, in the fall of 1917, the insect destroyed forty
per cent of the cotton bolls.*
Whereas the boll weevil flourishes and reaches its maximum
of destructiveness in damp or rainy weather, the pink bollworm
increases most rapidly in dry seasons and therefore reaches
maximum destructiveness under those conditions which are un-
favorable to the boll weevil. There can be no doubt but what the
presence of both these destructive cotton pests in Florida would
make the production of cotton impossible. The quarantine
measures which the State Plant Board now has in effect for the
purpose of excluding the pink bollworm should by all means be
continued, particularly as co-operation of cotton planters, in the
infested area of southern Texas, with the State and Federal
*A comprehensive account of the pink bollworm, by W. D. Hunter, of the Federal
Horticultural Board, was published in the April, 1918, issue of the Plant Board's Quarterly
Bulletin. A copy of this will be found in "Appendix B" to this report.




Second Biennial Report


officials, has not been unanimous and it is not yet certain by
any means that the Texas outbreaks will be eradicated.

OTHER QUARANTINES
The Plant Commissioner has continued to enforce the various
quarantine measures adopted by the Board for the purpose of
preventing the introduction into Florida of the avocado weevil,
banana wilt disease, brown rot of lemons and oranges, gypsy
and brown-tail moths, citrus knot, cocoanut bud-rot, Mediter-
ranean fruit fly, Mexican orange maggot, pineapple black weevil,
West Indian sweet potato weevil, mango seed weevil and Argen-
tine ant. In addition the inspectors in the Port and Railway
work are ever on the alert for new or unknown insect pests which
may be contained in importations.

DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY
During the biennium the work of this Department has pro-
gressed very satisfactorily under the direction of Dr. E. W.
Berger, Entomologist.
One assistant entomologist has been provided for by the Board.
At the time of our last report this position was held by Mr. C.
E. Wilson. Later he was succeeded by Mr. F. F. Bibby. After
both Messrs. Wilson and Bibby entered the military service of
the United States, Mr. Geo. B. Merrill was detailed from the
Port and Railway Inspection Department to assist the Ento-
mologist.
The amount of work accomplished in this Department, with
a staff of but two men, is most creditable. The Department has
been, and is, prosecuting six important lines of work, namely,
growth and distribution of the red whitefly fungus for control
of the whitefly, distribution of Australian lady-bird beetles for
control of the cottony cushion-scale, investigations in the control
of the camphor thrips, identification of insects in connection
with the port and railway and nursery inspections and for grow-
ers, the giving of advice, through correspondence or personal
visits, for the control of insect outbreaks and the keeping of
records and specimens in connection with the distribution and
prevalence of injurious insects within the State.

RED WHITEFLY FUNGUS
This fungus disease attacks the larvae of the citrus white-
fly, destroying the latter. Its value is well-known to Florida




State Plant Board


citrus growers. Formerly the fungus was introduced in groves
by means of fungus-bearing leaves taken from groves where this
beneficial disease occurred. As this practice also involved the
danger of disseminating injurious diseases, such as scaly bark,
citrus canker, etc., the Plant Board in 1915 began advocating the
use of pure cultures of the fungus, prepared in the Entomolo-
gist's laboratory, in lieu of fungus-covered leaves. The demand
for these cultures, which are sold by the Plant "Board at a price
barely sufficient to cover the cost of the material used in their
preparation, has increased each year and has been greater than
the Department could supply with the facilities available.
During the fiscal year ending April 30, 1917, 328 of these
cultures, sufficient to inoculate the whitefly in 328 acres of
grove, were sold. During the fiscal year ending April 30, 1918,
757 of the cultures were sold.
Experiments have also been made by the Entomologist look-
ing to securing a higher percentage of "fruiting", or usable cul-
tures, through the control of temperature and other conditions.
Considerable progress has been made.
Another whitefly fungus, known as the yellow Aschersonia, is
useful in controlling the cloudy-winged whitefly and can also be
prepared in the form of laboratory cultures. A considerable
number of cultures of this fungus were also prepared by the
Entomologist and furnished to growers in sections where the
cloudy-winged whitefly is prevalent.

AUSTRALIAN LADY-BIRD BEETLES
The Vedalia, or Australian lady-bird beetle, is most efficient
in controlling the cottony cushion-scale. From time to time the
latter pest is found in new localities, making immediate intro-
duction of the lady-bird beetle imperative. In localities infested
with cottony cushion-scale the latter, through activities of the
lady-bird beetles, often become so reduced in numbers that the
beetles also become extinct, or nearly so, and in this case re-intro-
duction of the lady-bird beetles becomes necessary.
The Entomological Department has continued its work of col-
lecting colonies of the Vedalia and distributing them to growers.
A nominal charge of $1.00 per. colony of 12.to 15 beetles is made
to cover expense of collection and distribution. Prior to the
Plant Board engaging in this work, these beetles were not infre-
quently sold by private collectors at from $6.00 to $10.00 per
dozen.





Second Biennial Report


After considerable experimentation the Entomologist and his
assistants have found that, within certain limits, the lady-bird
beetles can be reared in the laboratory by feeding them upon
cottony cushion-scale. To accomplish this large supplies of the
scale must be collected and kept in cold storage over considerable
periods in order that a constant supply of food may be available
for the Vedalia larvae. It has also been found that, in the
temporary absence of scale, the young beetles can themselves be
placed in cold storage and their development arrested pending the
arrival of their next consignment of food. By following this
method, supplemented by collections of lady-bird beetles by rep-
resentatives of the Department and by assistant nursery inspec-
tors, the Department has been able to meet practically all
requests for the Vedalia.
During the fiscal year ending April 30, 1917, 72 colonies were
furnished to Florida growers and 100 colonies to the Cottony
Cushion-scale Commission of New Orleans, La., for control of
a severe outbreak of the cottony-cushion scale in that city.
During the second fiscal year, 193 colonies, comprising 2400
lady-bird beetles, were distributed in Florida.

CAMPHOR THRIPS
The experiments, intended to provide an efficient treatment
to free young camphor trees from, the camphor thrips, mentioned
in our last biennial report, were continued. Camphor trees
infested by the thrips, treated with various insecticides and
planted in isolated localities, did not afterwards show infestation.
However, the cold weather of February, 1917, severely injured
many of these trees, making interpretation of the results, so far
as effect of the insecticide on the trees was concerned, rather
difficult. However, the Entomologist has been able, from the
experience obtained, to develop a combined method of cutting
back and treating of infested trees which renders them free
from infestation. This method is now being used in camphor
tree nurseries for treatment, under supervision of the Nursery
Inspector, of infested trees prior to the latter being sold or
shipped.

IDENTIFICATION OF INSECTS
Both the nursery inspectors and those engaged in the inspec-
tion of plant importations encounter many insects which cannot
be identified except in the laboratory and by specialists. Such




State Plant Board


work falls to the lot of the Entomological Department and is of
the utmost importance, for upon its accuracy depends in large
degree the success of the Plant Board's nursery inspection and
quarantine work. Farmers and fruit growers also submit many
specimens, the identification of which is necessary in order that
owners of infested groves or crops may be advised as to the
proper measure for control.
During the first year of the biennial period 612 identifications
were made. These insects were from 119 host plants and came
from 128 different localities.
During the second year 2593 specimens of insects were re-
ceived at the Department, all of which were identified with the
exception of a few extremely rare or new species which were
referred to other specialists.

OTHER WORK
In connection with the Plant Board's quarantine to restrict
the spread of the cotton boll weevil, the Entomological Depart-
ment has fumigated cotton seed for planting in weevil-free sec-
tions of the State. During the year ending April 30, 1917, 1662
bushels were thus treated and during the second year 2006
bushels.
A large number of letters requesting advice regarding the
control of various injurious insects are answered by the Ento-
mologist and in the case of severe outbreaks of such pests per-
sonal aid and instruction is not infrequently given.
The Department is also engaged in keeping records regarding
the occurrence of insects in different parts of Florida, together
with specimens, these records forming a valuable and important
source of information in connection with many practical prob-
lems arising from time to time.
In view of the steady increase in the demands made upon this
Department and the necessity of still further enlarging the
facilities for supplying the red whitefly fungus and Australian
lady-bird beetles, your Plant Commissioner recommends that
an additional assistant be provided for the Entomologist at the
earliest date possible.

DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY
Our last report recounted the establishment, at Redland, Dade
County, in co-operation with the South Dade County Fruit
Growers' and Truckers' Association, of the "Tropical Labora-




Second Biennial Report


tory" for the purpose of making careful investigations of citrus
canker and methods for its cure or eradication. Work was con-
tinued at the laboratory under the direction of Dr. R. A. Jehle,
Assistant Plant Pathologist of the Board, until November, 1917,
at which time the laboratory was discontinued for reasons given
below.
The most careful investigations of the character and nature
of citrus canker, coupled with practical tests of various "reme-
dies" or "cires" proposed by others, showed conclusively that
there is no remedy for this disease other than prompt and com-
plete destruction of the infected trees, coupled with rigid dis-
infecting and antiseptic measures.
Extensive experiments were made by Doctor Jehle to ascer-
tain whether any non-citrus plants might be susceptible to citrus
canker. Practically all cultivated and native trees and orna-
mental plants commonly found in south Florida were subjected
to inoculation tests, this work being carried on in a well-
screened, locked cage specially built for the citrus canker experi-
ments.* Only one non-citrus plant, the so-called "wild lime",
Zanthoxylum fagara, was found susceptible to the disease. Pin-
prick inoculations in leaves of the wild lime resulted in typical
citrus canker spots being produced and bacteria from these
spots, in turn, produced typical citrus canker on grapefruit
leaves. However, the discovery of one non-citrus host plant of
the disease did not add any serious complication to the problem
of eradication. Upon this discovery being made, inspections by
the field force were extended to include all wild limes, but in no
case has citrus canker been found upon the wild lime growing
at large.
Very extensive experiments were made in the testing of vari-
ous disinfectants on the citrus canker organism. The object
of these was two-fold: first, to find a cheaper and better disin-
fectant for sterilization of clothing, tools, etc., and, secondly, to
prevent serious interruption of the canker eradication work in
case of any shortage, during the war, of the standard material,
corrosive sublimate, generally used for this purpose. These
experiments showed that a number of substitutes could be suc-
cessfully used, but that under ordinary conditions, all things
considered, the use of a corrosive sublimate solution, 1:1000, was
the most effective and economical.
*An illustration of this cage will be found in the Quarterly Bulletin, Vol. I. No. 2,
pp. 25 and 28, bound in Appendix B of this report.




State Plant Board


Much of Doctor Jehle's time was devoted to testing various
treatments and supposed "cures" for citrus canker, suggested
or proposed by various parties. Without exception, all such
methods or preparations were found worthless for the purpose
intended.
Not the least in importance of the work done at the labora-
tory was the making of laboratory examinations and tests of
canker infections found by the inspectors in their field work,
particularly in Dade County. In some few instances the identity
of doubtful infections could not be clearly established until after
such tests.
Under Doctor Jehle's authorship, an article on "Character-
istics of Citrus Canker and of the Causal Organism" was pub-
lished in the Quarterly Bulletin for January, 1917, and another
entitled "Effect of Disinfectants upon Bacterium citri" in the
Quarterly Bulletin for January, 1918. These articles will be
found in Appendix B of this report.
In October, 1917, it was decided to discontinue the work at
the laboratory. This conclusion was reached on several consid-
erations. In the first place it was evident that as much informa-
tion as possible, bearing upon the practical work of eradicating
citrus canker, had been secured. Secondly, as the disease was
apparently almost eradicated in south Dade County, it was
deemed unwise to continue keeping canker-infected trees in
existence, even in a screened cage. Finally, it was felt that the
funds required to maintain the laboratory could henceforth be
used to greater advantage in actual inspection and eradication
work. The water works, gas plant and two sterilizers at the
laboratory were transferred to the South Dade County Fruit
Growers' and Truckers' Association, the Association desiring to
keep sufficient permanent equipment so that local investigations
of various diseases could be made as occasion required. The
remaining laboratory equipment was shipped to Gainesville
where it is now in storage at the University.
In October, 1917, Doctor Jehle accepted a position with the
Bureau of Plant Industry, after having rendered faithful service
to the Plant Board during the continuation of the laboratory
investigations.
Since the discontinuance of the laboratory no plant patho-
logical work has been conducted by the Plant Board. During this
period, however, the Plant Commissioner and his staff have had
the benefit of the advice and counsel of Prof. P. H. Rolfs, Director,




Second Biennial Report


and Prof. H. E. Stevens, Plant Pathologist of the University
of Florida Experiment Station.

PUBLICATIONS

The State Plant Board issues three publications, the "Circu-
lars", The Quarterly Bulletin and "Port and Railway Inspection
Notices".
CIRCULARS
The Circulars of the Plant Board, published in relatively small
editions, give publicity, as required by law, to all rules, regula-
tions and public notices adopted or promulgated by the Board.
They are issued as necessary, and the frequency of their issue is
dependent entirely upon the necessity of the Board making
changes in its rules as the result of experience or the occurrence
of unusual conditions.
Since our last report, Circulars Nos. 18 to 30, inclusive, have
been issued. Circular 30, issued July 31, 1918, contains all
Rules and Public Notices of the Board as now in effect, together
with the Florida Plant Act of 1915. A copy of Circular 30, as
"Appendix A", is attached to this report.

THE QUARTERLY BULLETIN
Publication of The Quarterly Bulletin was commenced in
October, 1916, a copy of Vol. I, No. 1, having been submitted with
our last report. The Quarterly Bulletin has been issued regu-
larly during the biennium. It has been the object of the editors
to include in The Quarterly Bulletin only such articles as possess
a permanent value and can be used for distribution for many
years to come. During the biennium articles by competent
authorities have been published upon fumigating nursery stock,
citrus canker, the pineapple black weevil, sweet potato weevil,
Mediterranean fruit fly, Florida scale-insects, avocado weevil,
citrus blast, the pink bollworm and diseases of the sweet potato,
as well as regular quarterly reports on the citrus canker eradi-
cation work, port and railway inspection and parcel post inspec-
tion services. Vol. I, Nos. 2 to 4, and Vol. II, Nos. 1 to 4, will
be found in Appendix B to this report.
The Quarterly Bulletin is the only official publication in
Florida devoted exclusively to the prevention, control and eradi-
cation of injurious insects and plant diseases and has repeatedly




State Plant Board


proven its value to growers and farmers. Your Plant Commis-
sioner recommends that facilities be provided for its continued
publication and enlargement during the next two years.

PORT AND RAILWAY CIRCULARS

These circulars contain such sections of the Plant Act and
Rules of the Board as are of interest and importance to common
carriers, steamship companies and importers of plant products.
Such explanatory matter is included as will make clear the
application of various quarantine orders, etc., and the Board
rules are arranged according to subject. Editions are limited to
the number of copies required for distribution to common car-
riers and their agents and such importers as are affected by the
Board's rules.
Timely articles on various subjects have been furnished the
agricultural press of the State from time to time.

EMPLOYEES

Because of its co-operation with the Bureau of Plant Industry
and Federal Horticultural Board, the Plant Board must of neces-
sity have a large number of employees. It has also, with a few
exceptions, had to train its employees for the work which they
were to do. The maximum number of employees was reached in
August and September, 1916, when the fight on citrus canker
was at its most critical stage. During those months 418 em-
ployees were on the rolls. Since that time the force has gradu-
ally been reduced, there being 230 salaried employees on April
30, 1918.
Efficiency and fitness have been the sole qualifications for
employment by the Board. In no case have positions been filled
for personal or political reasons, and the employees now upon
the force are, without exception, experienced, efficient and thor-
oughly devoted to the interests of the public.
In reducing its force, the Plant Board has found it advisable
to retain in its service the most efficient employees, granting them
advances in salary commensurate with their value and ability.

VACATIONS
Vacations are granted to employees of the Board only upon
special Board action in each case. The amount of vacation time




Second Biennial Report 63

granted, from the creation of the Plant Board on May 4, 1915,
to April 30, 1918, has averaged 2.16 days per employee per year
of service.

PERSONNEL

In the Plant Commissioner's office complete records are kept
concerning each employee, his term of service, efficiency, salary,
etc. Space prevents publication of the names and terms of
service of all employees, hence we give here only the names of
the employees in service at the end of the fiscal year April 30,
1918:

EMPLOYEES, APRIL 30, 1918:
M ack, Bryan (Tallahassee) .............................. ................ .............. Secretary
Kellum, J. G. (Tallahassee) .................................................................... Auditor

PLANT COMMISSIONER'S OFFICE
Newell, W ilmon ........... ...... .........................................Plant Commissioner
Goodwin, J. C .............. ......-- --.................................. Chief Clerk
Stone, O. T. .--- ----------............. ........................ .... Office Assistant
Cornwell, Miss Madge E. .......... ....------- ........ .......Stenographer
Carlisle, Mrs. Kathleen R. ................................... ...... ....Stenographer
Murrill, Miss Ethel R .....---------- -- ................-- Stenographer
Carey, Mrs. Bertha A. .................... ...................... ............Stenographer
Means, Miss Eva C. .. ................................. ................... Filing Clerk
Lloyd, H enry (col.) .........................................................................Janitor

DEPARTMENT OF CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION
Stirling, Frank ........--- ---..............................-General Inspector
Montgomery, J. H. .. .......................................General Grove Supervisor
Holton, John C. .......................................... .........Assistant General Inspector
Hecker, Mrs. Lottie A. ................................... .... ................... Stenographer

District Inspectors
Bass, Milledge M. Heck, Joy Smith, Cleve F.
Campbell, M. G. Mears, John M. Swanson, A. L.
Daniel, L. A. Nieland, F. C. Wartmann, H. A.
Gist, J. V. Schlobig, John


Assistant District Inspectors
Artis, Harvey C. Dunaway, Wilbur E. Kerr, James
Benedict, Wm. L. Gaston, B. 0. Potter, E. R.
Carter, H. G. Goldberg, E. R. Tedder, Geo. E.
Hoenshel, Paul M.





64 State Plant Board


Foremen


Adams, Arthur
Adams, B. F.
Bateman, R. G.
Browne, C. E.
Burden, G. F.
Cash, R. P.
Cellon, F. M.
Culley, P. E.
Dillingham, H. J.
Eikenberry, H. D.
Eiland, John
Flowers, B. L.
Ford, Arthur E.
Gibson, P. B.


Alexander, David N.
Alexander, Guy T.
Baillie, Wm. J.
Baker, J. Otis
Baker, L. J.
Bass, Clarence A.
Beaty, Alwyn L.
Beville, Ulmont U.
Blackburn, Grover C.
Bosse, Rufus F.
Boyett, Marshal M.
Brown, Chas. M.
Brown, Merle R.
Brown, Ollie D.
Buff, Wm. D.
Butler, Lee
Carter, D. T.
Cash, R. A.
Clinger, John A.
Conner, Daniel S.
Curry, W. R.
Daughtrey, J. A.
Douglass, Elmer E.
Dukes, James R.
Dyson, Zeblon V.
Ellis, Thos. R.
Fish, Robert E.
Fitch, Samuel H.
Freeman, Jesse W.
Frierson, Ed.
Frierson, Hill H.
Fry, Benjamin B.
Fuller, Richard M.
Green, Joseph T.
Hall, Clayton E.
Hammell, David L.
Hansen, Hans W. A.
Harden, John C.


Gossman, Harvey L.
Gwynn, E. L.
Haywood, F. E.
Henderson, R. C.
Henderson, Wm. H.
Ingram, John W.
Johnson, August P.
Kelley, Emory L.
Laing, James D.
Liles, Edd.
Lindner, Ross W.
Ludlam, Jos. W.
McClanahan, S. L.
Mahan, Wm. D.
Mendel, James C.

Inspectors

Hawkins, H. S.
Hayman, Jas. T.
Henderson, J. Harvey
Holland, Edward Alton
Holland, James S.
Holland, Jos. W.
Hooker, A. S.
Irwin, Harry M.
Janes, George
Jenness, Walter E.
Kersey, Walter L.
Kinyoun, Gray
Lahrman, Walter 0.
Lamb, Kirkland S.
Lazonby, J. Lionel
Lee, Dock
Lee, Russell E.
LeRoy, Merton
Little, Arnaud R.
Lott, W. V.
McAllister, A. O.
McLendon, Albert S.
McLendon, John A.
McLendon, Henry L.
Mahan, Chas. R.
Marsh, James F.
Marshall, Galen G.
Melendy, B. E.
Merrill, Wm. H.
Milledge, Stanley
Morgan, Jas. R.
Nixon, Roy R.
Noxtine, H. A.
Oakley, Archie R.
Oliphant, Ross G.
O'Quinn, D. Henderson
Parham, Harry C.
Park, Bradley
Parker, Frank R.


Millington, Wm. V.
Nutting, Chas. T.
O'Shields, Odom S.
Raab, Albert G.
Reynolds, David N.
Reynolds, Roscoe
Richmond, Leon C.
Schumacher, Henry F.
Sheffield, C. P.
Stephens, Wm. L.
Strain, John G.
Thomas, Willious H.
Wade, Geo. W.
Witt, Henry S.


Perkin, Howard W.
Pinelli, John
Poucher, A.
Pryor, T. J.
Putnal, Bonnie W.
Robertson, Paul F.
Robinson, Vernon K.
Rodgers, Wm. B.
Ross, James B.
Royal, John W.
Rudesill, Dick
Scudder, Hamilton F.
Sealey, John
Shelton, J. L.
Shriner, Ike M.
Smith, Herman D.
Smith, Lonnie S.
Spiller, Wm. A.
Stephens, Robert C.
Stevenson, Elbert M.
Stevenson, Geo. A.
Stevenson, Richard D.
Stokes, Clifford
Strong. C. E.
Taylor, Jesse F.
Thomas, Paul
Thompson, Roy
Thomson, James
Thurmond, J. W.
Ulmer, Henry L.
Ulmer, Julius E.
Ulmer, Robert L.
Wahlberg, Emil
Walker, Shirley B.
Wallace, D. W.
Wells, Benjamin B.
Wilson, James H.
Wilson, Jos. H.




Second Biennial Report 65

DEPARTMENT OF NURSERY INSPECTION
O'Byrne, F. M. -----................................. ......-. Nursery Inspector
Baker, Geo. H ...............................................Assistant Nursery Inspector
Baker, Thos. J. .................--- ..-..................... Assistant Nursery Inspector
Chaffin, J ..........------......----...--..................... Assistant Nursery Inspector
Hall, James E. B ......................................-... Assistant Nursery Inspector
Knight, Robert A. ................... ..................... Assistant Nursery Inspector
Linger, Russell B. .-....-...-- ---.......... .............. ..Assistant Nursery Inspector
Mowry, Harold ........................................... Assistant Nursery Inspector
Nanney, W. C ....... ...........-.....................Assistant Nursery Inspector
Potter, Roscoe D. ....................... ................... Assistant Nursery Inspector
Swartsel, Howard B .........................................Assistant Nursery Inspector
Walker, Shirley B .. -------.................... ..........-Assistant Nursery Inspector
Wartmann, H. A. ..........................................Assistant Nursery Inspector
Whittington, C. E. .........................................Assistant Nursery Inspector
DaCosta, Miss Mary W ---..........-...........................- .. Stenographer
McIlvaine, Miss Lucretia ..--- ...-- ............... ............. Stenographer
Colson, Mrs. K. D. -...--...... ----------........................... Stenographer

Packing-house Inspectors*


Black, W. C.
Blackburn, G. W.
Bruyiere, J.
Cam, B. O.
Cartledge, E. V.
Cason, J. W.
Cobb, J. W.
Coile, J. G.
Collins, W. B.
Cox, S. C.
Dade, W. A.
DeLanoy, S. S.
Dowdell, Silas
Eastman, H. L.
Ellas, H. S.
Flint, J. H.
Flood, H. V.
Flowers, W. H.
Ford, George


Frese, J. A.
Gates, Josiah
Gillingham, H.
Hendrix, D. A.
Humbarger, John
Knowles, Austin
Layton, W. I.
Leisegang, Conrad
Liphard, F. C.
Little, F. D.
Luce, D. H.
McKnight, T. J.
McRee, J. N.
Millen, S. E.
Mulrennan, Joe
Newbank, Neil
Nighswanger, L. Z.
Oesterle, Chas.
Oliver, T. S.


Parker, Phil C.
Price, Jack
Pylant, S. Lee
Right, W. W.
Robertson, A. H.
Robles, J. H.
Rogers, O. H.
Roper, B. H.
Scorgie, L. A.
Sessions, E. R.
Shelton, J. S.
Smith, L. W.
Stoltz, F. W.
Thompson, J. N.
Thullbery, C. C.
Townsend, L. E.
Williams, Boyce
Wirt, T. E.
Young, A. I.


DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY
Berger, E. W .....--.............. ...... ... :................--..--. Entomologist
Merrill, Geo. B. .................................... ........ Acting Assistant Entomologist
Evans, Miss Ella M. .............. ......... .......................Stenographer

DEPARTMENT OF PORT AND RAILWAY INSPECTION
(Plant Commissioner in Charge)
Bragdon, K. E. -..: ............. .......... ...........Deputy Port and Railway Inspector
Gehry, Emil L. ..-....--..........- ..................Deputy Port and Railway Inspector
Graham, Erwin M ...................:...............Deputy Port and Railway Inspector
Hull, W. N. .......----..----.... ..................Deputy Port and Railway Inspector
Thompson, Troy .-....................... ............. Deputy Port and Railway Inspector
Zeluff, U. C. ...........................................Deputy Port and Railway Inspector

*"Packing-house inspectors" are employed to' supervise the fumigating, dipping,
scrubbing or other precautionary treatments prescribed for nursery stock packed by certain
nurseries, such as those occurring in cottony cushion-scale areas, and are paid. only for
time actually employed. The wages of the packing-house inspectors are charged to the
nurseries in which their work is performed. The Plant Board incurs no expense for their
services.




66 State Plant Board


SUPPLEMENTAL REPORT
May 1 to September 30, 1918

During this period the work of the Board has been continued
with little interruption along the same lines as heretofore. Some
decrease in the number of employees has taken place, due to
entrance of men into the Army and Navy and also due to the at-
tractive salaries available in other lines of work. Continued
progress in the canker eradication work has also permitted a
gradual decrease in the number of employees engaged in citrus
inspection work.
Among the most striking developments during this period has
been the discovery of additional infestations by the banana root-
borer and an unprecedented outbreak of the semi-tropical army
worm. More detailed reference is made to these below.

CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION

During this period, no infections were found in sections or
localities not previously infected.
During May one infection was found in one of the hitherto
infected properties and in June two new properties in previously
infected centers showed infection.
During the balance of this period, July, August and September,
no canker was found, although the inspection work was kept up
to the maximum of efficiency.
The work done, together with the results accomplished, are
shown in the following table:

O 0

z .
May .............. 749,650 4,856,106 0 0 210
June .............. 702,752 4,463,078 2 6 200
July .. 540,713 5,018,350 0 1 193
August .........1 559,063 4,655,810 0 0 190
September .. 494,060 4,071,145 0 4 186
Total ............| 3,046,238 123,064,489 | 2 ] 11 1




Second Biennial Report 67

Grand Summary, Canker Eradication Work, to Sept. 30, 1918
Properties found infected May 1, 1914, to April 30, 1918.................. 477
Additional properties found infected between May 1 and Sept.
30, 1918 ..................................................................... 2
Total properties infected to September 30, 1918 ................................ 479
Properties declared no longer danger centers to April 30, 1918.......... 426
Declared no longer danger centers between May 1 and Sept. 30, 1918 11
Total ...................... .................. ............. 437
Properties still classed as infected September 30, 1918 .................... 42

NURSERY INSPECTION

Regular inspections of the nurseries heretofore mentioned have
been continued and 81 additional nurseries were located and
inspected for the first time.

Tabulated Report of Inspections
Number of nurseries inspected from May 1, 1918, to Sept. 30, 1918..........1572
Total number of inspections made from May 1, to Sept. 30, 1918..............2319
Number of nurseries inspected for the first time, May 1 to Sept. 30,
1918 .... ............ ........................................................... 81

Certification Refusals

From May 1 to September 30, 1918, the total number of certi-
fication refusals, for the reasons indicated, was as follows:
Avocado scab .......... ......................... .......................... 28
San Jose scale ................ ................................................. 17
California red scale .... ............................................................ 34
Camphor thrips ................................................. 4
W hitefly and scale ....... ................................. .....................621
Excessive citrus scab .........------................... -.................... 0
Dictyospermum scale .... ----- ............................ .. ................... 1
Foot-rot of citrus .................... ....................... ... .......-- .................. 2
Red-banded thrips ................................................ 0
Dieback of pecan .............................................. .................... 0
Other causes ........- .... ----........................................ 55
Total ...................................................... ..........................762

Quarantines

Quarantines were imposed as follows:

Canker in nursery ....................................................... ............. ............... 0
Nursery in canker zone or a contact prpery .......................................... 56
Other causes ........................ ............................ .................................... . .......... 3
Total ...................... ................................ 59




State Plant Board


Inspection Certificates Issued
From May 1 to September 30, 1918, the number of inspection
certificates issued was as follows:
Kind of tag Number of tags issued
Regular tags ....................................14,851 to 85 firms and individuals
Package tags ........................ ........-- 223 20 "
Scaly-bark tags ..---....... ..............- 345 7 "
Stock-dealers' tags ------.............................. 1,100 3 "
Florida permit-tags .... ..................... 7,189 43 "
Total ................................... 23,708 158 "

QUARANTINE DEPARTMENT
This Department, as originally established by the Board, was
designated as the "Port and Railway Inspection Department".
During the past two years, however, much work other than actual
inspection at ports and railway centers has become necessary and
as this work involves quarantines to a greater or less extent such
work properly falls to the lot of this Department. For example,
the discovery of the banana root-borer in the State and the neces-
sity for its eradication, as well as the urgent necessity of
restricting the further spread of the sweet potato weevil through
quarantine and other measures, has added new duties to this
Department. The Board therefore felt that the former name of
the department did not adequately describe its functions and at
its meeting at St. Augustine on May 10, 1918, changed the name
to that of "Quarantine Department", at the same time electing
Dr. J. H. Montgomery, formerly General Grove Supervisor in the
canker eradication work, to the position of Quarantine Inspector
and Chief of the Department. By the same action, assistant
inspectors in this Department were designated as "Assistant
Quarantine Inspectors".
Since the conclusion of our report of April 30, 1918, we have
continued to strengthen and extend the work of the Quarantine
Department. This has been made necessary largely because of
certain activities on the part of the military and naval authori-
ties, the exact nature of which. it is not permissible to print
in this report.
Interceptions
Although injurious insects and diseases are intercepted every
day of the year by inspectors of the Quarantine Department,
some of the interceptions are worthy of special attention. One




Second Biennial Report


such was the interception at Key West of a shipment of guavas
from Cuba which were infested with the West Indian fruit-fly, a
pest which, in Cuba, does great injury to many of the fruits
which are grown on a commercial scale in Florida.
Two very recent interceptions have been made, the importance
of which justifies mention, despite they were made since the end
of the period (September 30th) covered by this supplemental
report.
On October 10th Assistant Quarantine Inspector Paul M.
Hoenshel at Jacksonville intercepted a shipment of sweet pota-
toes from Porto Rico which were infested with the sweet potato
scarabee. The establishment of this insect in Florida would
doubtless cause as much injury to the sweet potato industry as
the sweet potato weevil, which is already present in parts of the
State (see page 44).
On October 15th, Assistant Nursery Inspector Howard B.
Swartsel, while inspecting a carload of birch hoops in Manatee
County, which hoops had been shipped from Massachusetts,
found several egg-masses of the Gypsy moth. The latter is one of
the most destructive insect pests of fruit and forest trees in the
United States, and in New England, where large sums have been
spent in its control, it is referred to as the "billion dollar pest".
By this discovery Inspector Swartsel very likely prevented the
establishment of this insect in Florida.
Inspections Made
Following is a tabular statement of the inspection work by
the Quarantine Department from May 1 to September 30, 1918:
VESSELS INSPECTED:
From foreign ports ................................................. 703
From U. S. ports other than Florida ............................ 323
From Florida ports ................................. .... ... 471
Total ................................. ....... 1497
SHIPMENTS INSPECTED:
Arriving by water-
Passed ........................................................................ 11,833
Treated and passed .............................................. 100%
Returned to shipper .............................................. 143
Detained, subject to return by shipper ............. 0
Contraband destroyed .......................................... 786%
Total ......................... ............................. .... 12,863
: Arriving by land-Express, freight, wagons, etc.
Passed ........................... ...................... 1,336
Treated and passed ................................................ 127
Returned to shipper ......................- ........ ......:... 71 :
Detained, subject to return by shipper -.....-. 36- -
Contraband destroyed ..................................... 41
Total ................................................. .......... ..... 1611
Total shipments inspected ............................................................................ 14,474




State Plant Board


Parcel Post Plant Inspection
The inspection of plant products being sent by mail to Florida
postoffices has been continued in the manner outlined in our main
report (see page 37).
Owing to the lack of co-operation in turning over to the Plant
Board agents material subject to inspection and on account of
many postmasters not fully understanding the importance of
this inspection work it was decided in August, 1918, to have
Special Inspector Kirkland S. Lamb call in person upon post-
masters and secure their co-operation. Between August 17th
and September 30th, Mr. Lamb called upon and interviewed 120
postmasters, securing their promise of co-operation. During the
same period Mr. Lamb called upon 149 freight and express agents
in the towns visited, for the purpose of seeing that they under-
stood the various rules and regulations of the Board concerning
shipment of nursery stock, sweet potato plants, etc. The results
thus far obtained show that the plan of having an inspector
personally confer with postmasters and transportation agents
is productive of much good and is a practice for which provision
should be made during the next two years as indicated in our
main report (page 38).

Parcels Inspected
Following is a tabular statement of the parcel post packages
of plants and plant products inspected by the Board's agents
between May 1 and September 30:
PARCELS INSPECTED:
Passed -. --........................... ........... 831
Treated and passed ....... ................................ 43
Returned to sender ................................................ 0
Detained, subject to return by sender .................................... 7
Infested or infected parcels destroyed .................................. 6
Total parcels inspected ........ -................................ ...... 887
Sweet Potato Weevil
Additional infested points have been found in counties already
known to contain one or more infested localities. Inspectors of
the Plant Board and of the Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept.
of Agriculture, found infestations at Punta Rassa, Fort Myers
and Useppa Island in Lee County, at Deerfield in Broward
County, Delray in Palm Beach County, Rio, Oslo and Vero in St.
Lucie County, Tarpon Springs in Pinellas County and Ormond
Beach in Volusia County.




Second Biennial Report


The insect has also been found infesting two species of morn-
ing glories not heretofore found infested in Florida, namely,
Ipomoea pandurata and Ipomoea littoralis. The first-named
morning glory prefers high sandy land while the second grows
along the seacoast.
The Plant Board's efforts to prevent spread of the weevil from
the areas already infested, by means of suitable quarantines,
are being continued.

Banana Root Borer

Further investigation showed that the area in Manatee
County infested with this insect comprised 14 properties, in
addition to the one first found infested. There were on these
properties 14,675 banana plants, not including one banana field
of 11/2 acres of closely matted plants. Further spread of the
pest could be prevented only by the destruction of the infested
plantings. The necessary permission for this step was in all
cases secured from the owners, and Assistant Nursery Inspector
Howard B. Swartsel was detailed to supervise the task. On May
8, 1918, the assistance of the Federal Horticultural Board, U. S.
Department of Agriculture, was secured, the Board through its
Chairman, Mr. C. L. Marlatt, kindly offering to pay a part of
the cost of disposing of the infested plantings. During May and
June all the infested plantings were destroyed. During this
period the Federal Horticultural Board defrayed labor expenses
to the amount of $284.25. As soon as the infested plantings
were destroyed, "traps" for any remaining weevils were put into
use, as explained on p. 48 of the foregoing report. This trapping
is still being continued in the hope of getting absolutely all of the
banana root-borer weevils. This work is now being done by
Mr. A. F. Collins, a local grower.
Available funds have not yet permitted of a systematic inspec-
tion of all shipments of banana plants made from the south
Florida nursery which was found infested-with the banana root-
borer in March, 1918. In co-operation with the Federal Horticul-
tural Board, however, the owners of all these plantings have been
written to and in all cases where the owner reported his banana
plants as being unhealthy or having died an inspector was de-
tailed to make an inspection of them. Such inspections as have
been made have brought to light one infested property located in
Polk County. This infestation was found on September 16, 1918,




State Plant Board


by Assistant Nursery Inspector W. C. Nanney, With the owner's
consent all banana plants in this planting were destroyed at
once. Inspection of all nearby banana plantings did not reveal
infestation and led to the conclusion that the insect had not
spread from this one planting, which was made with banana
plants from the infested nursery referred to.

Black Fly

Mention was made in our main report (page 51) of Messrs.
L. Russell Warner and H. D. Bollinger having been employed
by the Office of Plant Sanitation in Havana to assist in control of
the black fly. Mr. Bollinger returned to Florida on June 1st and
Mr. Warner on August 1st. With their co-operation and assist-
ance the Office of Plant Sanitation made good progress, during
the late winter and spring months, in its fight on the pest in
Havana, greatly reducing the degree of infestation and reducing
correspondingly the chances of the insect being brought to
Florida on vessels from Havana.
Our efforts to prevent the introduction into this State of the
black fly have not been relaxed in any degree. On the contrary
the quarantine measures have been made more stringent. Re-
ports from our inspectors located at Key West and Tampa showed
that fruit shipments from Cuba frequently contained leaves and
other material likely to transmit the black fly. Efforts to have
the shippers abate this practice proving ineffective, the Plant
Board, at its meeting on July 12, 1918, instructed the Plant
Commissioner to order the deportation of all packages of fruit
arriving from Cuba containing leaves, twigs, etc. This order
became operative August 1st. Prior to this date the Cuban
Government was notified of the action of the Board and wide
publicity obtained.
The records of this department show that during the period
from May 1 to September 30, 1918, there arrived at Key West,
and Port Tampa from Cuba 42,834 packages of fruit. Of this
number 16,834 packages came in after the time when the Board's
order went into effect. The task of inspecting these packages
was one of magnitude but was accomplished. Due to publicity
given the order in Cuba shippers were more careful in preparing
shipments. Even so our inspectors detected the presence of
prohibited .material in 81.packages. of fruit. These .were
deported.





Second Biennial Report


Pink Bollworm Quarantine
Reports from the authorities in charge of the Pink Bollworm
eradication work in Texas have continued to show lack of full
co-operation of cotton growers in the infested area, as well as
failure on the part of the courts to enforce the Texas bollworm
law. These reports were of such a nature as to make inadvisable
any modification of the Plant Board's quarantine. On the con-
trary the need of greater precaution was evident and on May 10,
1918, the Board amended its Rule 37, dividing it into Rules 37A
and 37B and adding an additional safeguard by prohibiting the
shipment into Florida of cotton linters, cotton waste, samplings,
sweepings and damaged cotton from points east of the Missis-
sippi River except on permits of the Plant Commissioner, issued
after the receipt of satisfactory assurances as to the safety of
the shipments in question.
In applying these regulations the agents of the Board at
Jacksonville have on several occasions intercepted cotton ship-
ments coming from the vicinity of the infested Texas area. Such
shipments have been deported from Florida without delay.

DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY
The work of this Department has continued without interrup-
tion. During this period 901 cultures of the red whitefly fungus
have been distributed, as have also 193 cultures of the yellow
Aschersonia for the control of the woolly whitefly. In connection
with control of the cottony cushion-scale, 60 colonies of the
Australian lady-bird beetle have been distributed to growers.
Eight hundred and fifty-six specimens of insects, mostly inju-
rious, have also been received and identified.
The Entomologist rendered special and valuable service in
connection with the severe outbreaks of the semi-tropical army
worm during July. This outbreak is discussed more in detail
below.
DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY
In view of the need of technical advice and information
regarding various plant diseases on the part of its staff, the
Plant Board, at its meeting on May 10, 1918, elected Prof. H, E.
Stevens, Plant Pathologist of the University of Florida Experi-
ment Station, to the position of "Consulting Plant Pathologist"
of the Plant Board. Prof. Stevens' appointment to this position
became effective July 1, 1918, at a salary of $400.00 per annum.




State Plant Board


Prof. Stevens is called upon from time to time to identify speci-
mens of plant diseases taken in connection with the inspection
and quarantine work, answers inquiries from farmers and
growers concerning plant diseases, etc.

SEMI-TROPICAL ARMY WORM
The past spring a large acreage of castor beans was planted
in Florida, under Government contracts, for the purpose of sup-
plying beans from which castor oil could be made for aeroplane
motors.
The semi-tropical army worm is an insect which is found
every year in Florida, usually in such small numbers that it does
not attract attention. A few of these worms were reported about
the middle of June, by District Inspector A. L. Swanson, as
feeding on castor bean plants in Palm Beach County.
About the middle of July the pest appeared in very consider-
able numbers and by July 23rd the outbreak had assumed a
serious phase, particularly in St. Lucie, Palm Beach, Dade, Hills-
borough, Polk and DeSoto Counties.
On July 23rd the Plant Commissioner wired instructions to
the District Inspectors in the East Coast counties from Brevard
to Dade to place practically all citrus canker inspectors at work
assisting castor bean and cotton growers in combating the
worms. At about the same time telegrams were received from
the Miami Chamber of Commerce, contractors and others, asking
the Plant Board's assistance in the emergency.
On July 24th it became evident that the army worms were so
abundant in parts of Hillsborough, Polk and DeSoto Counties
that several thousand acres of castor beans there were threatened
with destruction. Accordingly inspectors in the employ of the
Plant Board in central and western Florida were also placed on
the army worm work.
The inspectors made personal visits to all castor bean growers
in the affected territory, inspected the castor bean fields and in
each instance called attention of the owner to the presence of
the pest in his field and advised him how to control it. In many
instances where the worms had, at the time of the inspector's
visit, reached sufficient size to do considerable damage, the inspec-
tors themselves sprayed the castor bean fields with powdered
arsenate of lead, using dust sprayers for the purpose, a supply
'of both being carried by the inspectors at all times.
The fight against the army worm was waged intensively until




Second Biennial Report


about August 12th, by which time the pest had been brought
under control and appreciable damage averted except in the case
of a few fields where the worms had practically destroyed all
foliage on the bean plants before the fields could be reached by
the inspectors.
In this work the Plant Board agents were assisted by agents
of the Bureau of Entomology and Bureau of Plant Industry,
U. S. Department of Agriculture, by the Government's castor
bean contractors and, in some instances, by the county demon-
stration agents. As soon as the seriousness of the situation
became apparent the Bureau of Aircraft Production at Wash-
ington was appealed to for supplies of powdered lead arsenate
with which to treat the infested fields. The Bureau purchased
5500 pounds of the poison and had it shipped to Florida for dis-
tribution under the Plant Commissioner's direction to castor
bean growers who needed it. For various reasons this material
did not arrive until the fight against the worms was practically
won and but a few hundred pounds were therefore actually
used.
In dealing with the emergency created by this outbreak of
the army worm the Plant Board was called upon to make rather
heavy expenditures. A total of $1,946.85* was expended by the
Board, covering traveling expenses of inspectors, telegrams,
emergency circulars, dusting machines, poison, etc. The large
quantity of castor beans saved from destruction, and therefore
made available for the use of the Government, more than justi-
fied the expenditure.
Writing under date of August 15, 1918, one of the Govern-
ment's castor bean contractors said:
"I cannot say with any degree of accuracy how many thousands of
dollars the State Plant Board has saved in the army worm fight. I would
say that you have certainly saved whatever our castor bean crop results
in at the end of the season."
Another contractor, under date of August 18th, wrote the
Plant Commissioner in part as follows:
"We wish to make acknowledgment to the State Plant Board of our
appreciation of the splendid work done and the great public service per-
formed during the past month by the inspectors of the Board in combating
the army worms. So far as the castor bean crop is concerned, its money
value is probably of smaller consequence than its military importance, and
for this reason the prompt and effective work of your inspectors in aiding
to save the crop has been of a value to the Nation of such importance as can
now only vaguely be guessed. It may be that in helping to save the castor
beans your men have done much to help win the war. That the army of
*Distributed as follows: Out of Plant Act General Fund; salaries $84.44. Out of
Special Fund; salaries, $262.22 and expenses, $1,600.19. Salaries of other inspectors on
army worm work were defrayed by the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.




76 State Plant Board

"minute men" of the Plant Board was thrown into action within a few
hours after the first appeal to you for aid, speaks volumes for the efficiency
of your organization and the fine sense of public duty and responsibility
held by the Plant Board."
The Chairman of the Plant Board and the Plant Commis-
sioner, respectively, were also in receipt of letters from the
Office of the Director of Aircraft Production, thanking the Board
for its activities in preventing damage to the Florida castor
bean crop.
Following the middle of August, damage by the semi-tropical
army worm was on the wane, due largely to the increase of
parasites with each succeeding generation of the worms.

FINANCIAL REPORT
Tallahassee, Florida, October 1, 1918.
To the State Plant Board of Florida:
Gentlemen: I have the honor to submit the following report
of the finances of the Board for the period beginning May 1, 1916,
and ending April 30, 1918. I am also submitting an additional
report for the period beginning May 1, 1918, and ending Sep-
tember 30, 1918, but this does not include expenditures for
September, approved at the October meeting of the Board:
SUMMARY
Resources
General appropriation for fiscal year. ending April
30, 1917 -.... ...........-- ............ .... $ 35,000.00
General appropriation for fiscal year ending April
30, 1918 ................................... 35,000.00
Balance Donations and Incidental Collections Fund
after paying bills for April, 1916............................ 2,632.64
Donations and Incidental Collections from April
30, 1916, to April 30, 1918 ........................ 11,066.44
Balance in Special Appropriation after paying ex-
penses. for April, 1916 ................................................ 16,007.95
Special Appropriations for Citrus Canker Eradica-
tion, etc ..--..................- ..................... 150,000.00
Total Resources ........................................... $249,707.03
Expenditures
For Salaries ............................... .. ...... ...... $156,758.74
For Office Supplies ... ....................... ........... 6,759.89
For Traveling Expenses ................. ................ 35,335.04
For Printing Bulletins ........................... 6,352.97
For General Supplies ........ ............................9,780.80
For Miscellaneous Expenses .................................... 3,901.31
Unexpended part of General Appropriation.......... 57.50
Total Expenditures ......... ............ ... ......................... $218,946.25
Balance after expenditures for April, 1918, are deducted........ $ 30,760.78





Second Biennial Report 77


ITEMIZED EXPENDITURES
GENERAL FUND

Resources

General Appropriation for fiscal year ending April
30, 1917 ................................ ....................... $ 35,000.00
General Appropriation for fiscal year ending April
30, 1918 .. -------..................................... 35,000.00

Total Resources ....................................... ................... $ 70,000.00


Expenditures

For Salaries ........................................... ...... .....$ 52,505.86
For Office Supplies ... .............................................. 4,540.68
For Traveling Expenses .............................................. 7,123.69
For Printing Bulletins ..........-.....---...... ..----......-.... -2,429.91
For General Supplies ...--......---.. .-- ------- 2,756.21
For Miscellaneous Expenses ..................................... 586.15
Refund of unexpended balance, 1917 ............................ 56.87
Refund of unexpended balance, 1918 .--...........---.... --.63

Total Expenditures ......................... ....... ------ $70,000.00*


*The disbursement of the General Fund for the fiscal year ending April 30, 1917,
classified by departments rather than by items, was as follows:
Plant Board, Expenses ..................................... ...........................................$ 87.81
Advisory Committee, Expenses ................................ .......................... ........... 56.60
Secretary's Office (Tallahassee) ..................................... .............................. 1213.93
Plant Commissioner's Office (Gainesville) ........................................................ 12165.13
Department of Entomology ........................................ 4560.67
Department of Nursery Inspection ............................................................ 7170.78
Department of Plant Pathology ...................... ............... 521.48
Department of Port & Railway Inspection ...................................................... 9166.73
Unexpended balance reverting ......... .............. .............. ............. 56.87
Total ...............................-......... ... ........ .... ................$ 35,000.00
Disbursement of the General Fund for the fiscal year ending April 30, 1918, by
departments, was as follows:
Plant Board, Expenses ...........................................................................$ 1040.02
Secretary's Office .. ............. ..... ........................................................................... 1502.62
Plant Commissioner's Office ........................................... ................................. 11514.56
Department of Entomology ...................................................... ..................................... 5380.61
Department of Nursery Inspection ..................... ................... 8640.25
Department of Port & Railway Inspection .................................................... 6921.31
Unexpended balance reverting ......................................................................... 63
Total ................. ............... ....... ........-.. ............ ................................$ 35,000.00
-Plant Commissioner.





78 State Plant Board

SPECIAL FUND

Resources

Amount unexpended after paying expenses for
April, 1916 .............-- ....-------- --------- ..--$ 16,007.95
Appropriation by Legislature for Citrus Canker
Eradication, etc., available July 1, 1917 ................ 150,000.00

Total Resources ............................------------.--- $166,007.95

Expenditures
For Salaries ..................-.......- .............--$ 96,918.57
For Office Supplies ...................-- ...... .. ....------- .. 2,159.05
For Traveling Expenses ....................... ...... ... ........ 27,974.46
For Printing Bulletins -..................................... 3,911.11
For General Supplies ..----------..............------.... 3,531.29
For Miscellaneous Expenses .....-................................ 3,144.37

Total Expenditures ....-........-.................... .. ---$137,638.85t

Unexpended balance after paying April, 1918,
expenses -----.......-- ...-----.. -----------------.--- --------- $ 28,369.10


DONATIONS AND INCIDENTAL COLLECTIONS

Resources


Unexpended balance after paying expenses for
April, 1916 ..............-..............---... -------.$ 2,632.64
Donations and Incidental Collections from April 80,
1916, to April 30, 1918 .............................................. 11,066.44

Total R sources ................................... ................... .. ......

Expenditures

For Salaries .- ................... ...... .......... ........ -$ 7,84.31
For Office Supplies .............-.....---- ..- .--......------60.16
For Traveling Expenses ...-...--.............. -------- 236.89
For Printing Bulletins ................ ........ .............. .. 11.95
For General Supplies ....................... ................... 3,493.30
For Miscellaneous Expenses ...-....---..-- ........----.. 170.79

Total Expenditures .................--... ---- --------.......

Balance unexpended after paying April, 1918,
expenses ............ ----...--..-- ---------------


$ 13,699.08


$ 11,307.40


$ 2,391.68


tThis sum, during the two fiscal years ending April 30, 1918, was expended for
the following purposes:
Citrus Canker Eradication ....................................... .... .............................$119,718.57
Nursery Inspection .................. .......... ................... 10,436.64
Plant Disease Investigations and Control ...........................................---.. 836.61
Quarantine Work and Inspection .....................................--- ...... 6,633.15
Preventing Spread of Sweet Potato Weevil .................................. ... 13.88
Total ............................................ ... .............................. $137,638.85
-Plant Commissioner.




Second Biennial Report 79

SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT, FROM APRIL 30, 1918,
TO SEPTEMBER 30, 1918

GENERAL FUND

Resources

General Appropriation for fiscal year ending April
30, 1919 .................................. ... ............$ 35,000.00

$ 35,000.00

Expenditures

For Salaries ..--....... ... -----...... -................ $ 4,141.78
For Office Expenses ..................... ......................... 495.81
For Traveling Expenses .......................... ........-- 431.00
For Printing Bulletins ................. .......... ... .... .... 151.30
For General Supplies .................................. ............ 908.35
For Miscellaneous Expenses ........................................ 28.14

Total Expenditures ........ .............. ............................... $ 6,156.38*

Balance unexpended September 30, 1918 ....................................... $ 28,843.62


SPECIAL FUND

Resources

Unexpended Balance after paying expenses for
April, 1918 ............................. .................. 28,369.10
Special Appropriation for Citrus Canker Eradica-
tion, etc., available July 1, 1918 .............................. 150,000.00

Total Resources ........................................ ........ ................... $178,369.10

Expenditures

For Salaries ...................... ..............$. 26,114.69
For Office Supplies ............................................ 3,683.21
For Traveling Expenses ...-................. ..................... 14,483.53
For Printing Bulletins ..................... ............. 907.17
For General Supplies .........._.........- ........... ...-- 1,486.35
For Miscellaneous Expenses ..................................... 211.96

Total Expenditures ................. ............................. $ 46,886.91t

Balance unexpended September 30, 1918 ........................................ $131,482.19


*Does not include expenses incurred during September, 1918, vouchers for which were
approved at the October meeting of the Board.
tBills for the month of September (which were approved by the Board at its
October meeting) not included.





80 State Plant Board

DONATIONS AND INCIDENTAL COLLECTIONS

Resources
Unexpended Balance after paying expenses for
A pril, 1918 ...................................................................$ 2,391.68
Receipts from April 30, 1918, to September 30,
1918 ............................ ..................--.....- 2,308.89*

Total Resources ........................... .................... $ 4,700.57


Expenditures
For Salaries ..................... .......... ....................$ 642.53
For Office Expenses ...............................-............. 1.02
For Traveling Expenses ..........-- ..-..-....... ------..--- 8.54
For Printing Bulletins .....-.......--------....-------... ----- 21.60
For General Supplies ............-...--..------......------- 195.00
For Miscellaneous Expenses ....................------.......... 4.38

Total Expenditures ..........................------ ..-.....-....-- $ 873.07f

Balance unexpended September 30, 1918 ...................................... $ 3,827.50
Total Balance Unexpended (September, 1918, bills outstanding and
awaiting approval at October meeting of Board), all funds, September
30, 1918:
General Fund ...................................... .. ....- $ 28,843.62
Special Fund ..............--- .....---..---...--- ..---..--. 131,482.19
Incidental Fund ........................----.-- ---------. 3,827.50
$164,153.31

Respectfully submitted,
BRYAN MACK,
Secretary.

*Does not include collections for the month of September. There were reported to
the Board at its October meeting.
tDoes not include bills for the month of September. These were approved by the
Board at its October meeting.




Second Biennial Report


ESTIMATES
The following estimates on the amounts of money required for
protecting the agricultural industries of Florida, through the
work of the State Plant Board in carrying out the provisions
of the Florida Plant Act of 1915, are based upon a careful study
of the enormous inroads made upon Florida crops and fruits by
injurious insects and plant diseases, as well as upon the urgent
necessity of protecting the State against invasion by several
very destructive pests in the countries and islands with which
commercial intercourse is either frequent or constant.
Full regard has been had to economy in the past work of the
Board, as well as in preparing estimates for future needs: it
being realized, however, that judicious expenditure of funds
for preventing crop losses brings a return to our citizens many
fold greater than the investment.
Owing to conditions prevailing during the past two years
the Board has been compelled to pay its employees higher salaries
than formerly. Prices of all supplies have greatly advanced and
all expenses in connection with the Board's work have shown
unavoidable increases. With full regard for these considerations
it is believed that the estimates here given are no more than is
necessary to afford adequate protection to the State's principal
agricultural industries.
The various activities to which these estimates refer and the
necessity therefore are quite fully explained in the foregoing pages
of this report.

GENERAL FUND
Estimated Expenses per Annum*
Plant Board
Traveling Expenses, Board Members .............................$ 1,200.00
Postage .................................................................................. 350.00
Telegrams and telephone messages .................................. 100.00
Stenographer, Chairman's Office ...................................... 1,200.00
Stationery and Filing Cases ....................................... 120.00
Total .......................................................... ....................$ 2,970.00
Secretary's Office
Salary, Secretary ......................................... ........... .$ 1,200.00
Traveling Expenses, Secretary ................ ..................... 300.00
Postage, Stationery and Telegrams ................................. 500.00
Total ................................................ ............................. .. 2,000.00
*See page 8.




82 State Plant Board

Plant Commissioner's Office
Salaries:
Plant Commissioner ..................--- ............--- -.. .......$ 4,500.00
1 Chief Clerk ....................-- ..-.. -- ........... ...... 1,800.00
1 Filing Clerk ............................----- ...........--- -... 900.00
4 Stenographers at $85.00 per month ..................... 4,080.00
1 Janitor at $40.00 per month .................................. 480.00
Total Salaries ...............................--.-- ................... $ 11,760.00
Traveling Expenses, Plant Commissioner .....................$ 400.00
Postage and Stamped Envelopes ..................................... 1,000.00
Telephone and Telegrams ......----.....................---.............. 140.00
Letterheads, Plain White Paper, Envelopes, etc .......... 240.00
Office Desks, Tables and Chairs ........................................ 40.00
Filing Furniture ..... ------............................ ................... -100.00
Filing Folders, Guide and Record Cards, Blank Books,
etc. ...................-----....... ----------........-...... 150.00
Typewriter Maintenance .... -----...............---- .........--. 350.00
Express, Drayage and Freight .....................................-.. 160.00
Multigraph Supplies and Maintenance ............................ 160.00
Publication of Quarterly Bulletin,* 4 issues, 10,000
copies per issue, @ $700 ................................................ 2,800.00
Postage on Quarterly Bulletin at second-class rate,
4 issues @ $18.00 per issue ...............----.................. .... 72.00
Publication of Plant Board "Circulars" containing
Rules, Regulations and Public Notices of the Board
as Adopted, 12 issues, 5000 copies each, at $30.00
per issue ...........-- ...-- ....... --------............ ..----..-- ----- $ 360.00
Electricity, 12 months at $8.00 per month ............... .... 96.00
Heatt, 4 months at $18.00 per month .............................. 72.00
Reference Books and Technical Publications ...........----. 240.00
$ 6,380.00
Total, Plant Commissioner's Office .............--.......--.....-.........--$ 18,140.00

Department of Nursery Inspection
Salaries:
Nursery Inspector (Chief of the Department) ......$ 2,500.00
14 Assistant Nursery Inspectors at $1800.00 per
annum ...........-............--..............--- ..-- --- ------------ 25,200.00
4 Stenographers at $85.00 per month ...................... 4,080.00
1 Invoice and Certificate Clerk .................................. 1,500.00
Total, Salaries ...................-......--.....-..........------- 33,280.00
Traveling Expenses:
Nursery Inspector .........----.................-- -- ....- $ 500.00
14 Assistant Nursery Inspectors at $100.00 per
month average .....-.............. .--- ..---- ....---... .... 16,800.00
$ 17,806,00
Postage ...........--........ ....-----..-- ---------...$ 900.00
Stationery .....--... -------------------........... ------------ 190.00
Telegrams .............---...............--.--..-..-. 80.00
Typewriter Maintenance, Filing Material and Record
Blanks .......... --------......... ......- ..... ....... 350.00
$ 1,520.00
Total, Department of Nursery Inspection ........................$ 52,100.00
*In lieu of all other expenses for publishing bulletins, except rules of the Board
as adopted, and official notices to transportation companies.
tPayable to the University of Florida.




Second Biennial Report 83

Quarantine Department
Salaries:
Quarantine Inspector (Chief of Department) ......$ 2,500.00
6 Asst. Quarantine Inspectors at $1800.00 per
annum ................................................. 10,800.00
4 Asst. Quarantine Inspectors at $1600.00 per
annum ......................... .......................... 6,400.00
1 Stenographer ............--------- -.................. ......... 1,200.00

Total, Salaries .......................... ............ ..... ....... $ 20,900.00
Traveling Expenses:
Quarantine Inspector ...-..---.....- ....- ........................... 650.00
3 Asst. Quarantine Inspectors at $600.00 per an-
num ...................... ......- ....-... ............. ...... 1,800.00

$ 2,450.00
Postage ................... .......- ......................................$.---- 600.00
Telegrams and Telephone Messages ................................ 140.00
Stationery, Record Cards, Filing Equipment, etc. ........ 350.00
Port Expenses (Boat Hire, Street Car Fare, Quaran-
tine Tags, Labor in Handling Shipments, etc.) .......... 690.00
Typewriter Maintenance .........-........----............--- .............. 100.00
Publication of Quarantine Inspection Notices, esti-
mated 5 issues of 5000 copies each, at $25.00 per
issue ..................................--......... ................... ....---..-- -.. 125.00
Express, Drayage and Freight ........................................ 30.00

$ 2,035.00
Total, Quarantine Department .----....................................$ 25,385.00

Parcels-Post Plant Inspection*

Salaries:
2 Deputy Inspectors at $1800.00 per annum ............$ 3,600.00
Traveling Expenses:
1 Deputy Inspector at $100.00 per month ............. 1,200.00
Disinfectants, Fumigating Material, Tags, etc. ............ 120.00
Drayage on Parcel Post Packages for Inspection, be-
tween postoffice and University at Gainesville, at
$5.00 per m onth ................... ....................... ......... 60.00

Total, Parcel Post Plant Inspection ....................................$ 4,980.00

Eradication of Sweet Potato Weevil

For preventing the spread of sweet potato weevil, control of
same in infested localities, and beginning of eradication work....$ 24,000.00

*Under an order issued by the Third Assistant Postmaster-General on October 24,
1916, all mail shipments of plants and plant products addressed for delivery at Florida
postoffices are required sent to Gainesville for inspection by the State Plant Board.
Subsequent to October 24, 1916, terminal inspection service was established at Jacksonville
Tampa and Pensacola, in addition to Gainesville.'




84 State Plant Board


Salaries: Department of Entomology
Entomologist (Chief of Department) ......................$
1 Assistant Entomologist ........................................
1 Assistant Entomologist .........................................
1 Stenographer at $85.00 per month ........................
L abor ...... .... ............................................


2,600.00
2,000.00
1,600.00
1,020.00
250.00


Traveling Expenses:
Entom ologist ..........................--- -........................ . $ 300.00
2 Assistant Entomologists ....................................... 800.00

Postage ................. -- ...-..........------........................-- $ 200.00
Laboratory Supplies .................. ........................... 550.00
Express, Freight and Drayage ......................................... 50.00
Reference Books and Publications .................................. 225.00
Furniture and Laboratory Equipment ............................ 310.00
Photographic Supplies .................................................... 75.00
Insect Cases, Labels and Record Files ........................... 100.00
Chemicals and Laboratory Reagents ................................ 85.00


Total, Department of Entomology ......................................

Salaries: Department of Plant Pathology
Consulting Plant Pathologist ....................................$ 400.00
Stationery and Laboratory Supplies .............................. 100.00
Photographic Equipment ................................................ 50.00
Postage ..................... .......--- ........... ..................... 25.00

Total, Department of Plant Pathology ..............................-


I


Summary
Plant Board Expenses ..................................................$. 2,970.00
Secretary's Office .................... ........... .................... 2,000.00
Plant Commissioner's Office ...................... --- ................... 18,140.00
Department of Nursery Inspection ............................... 52,100.00
Quarantine Department ...................................................... 25,385.00
Parcels-Post Plant Inspection .......................................... 4,980.00
Eradication of Sweet Potato Weevil ................................ 24,000.00
Department of Entomology .............................................. 10,165.00
Department of Plant Pathology ........................................ 575.00
Grand Total, General Fund, per Annum ............................$140,315.00

Citrus Canker Eradication*
For continuing the eradication of citrus canker and inspection of
citrus groves for the disease:
For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1920 ............................................. $125,000.00
For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1921 .............................................. 100,000.00
Total .................................... ......... ....................................... $225,000.00
Respectfully submitted,
WILMON NEWELL,
Gainesville, Fla., Plant Commissioner.
November 30, 1918.
*See page 8.


$ 7,470.00


$ 1,100.00







$ 1,595.00
$ 10,165.00






575.00

















APPENDIX A

RULES, REGULATIONS AND PUBLIC NOTICES OF THE
STATE PLANT BOARD OF FLORIDA
In Force and Effect on
July 31, 1918
(Circular No. 30)





State Plant Board
OF FLORIDA




CIRCULAR NO. 30




The Florida Plant Act of 1915
(Chapter 6885)

and
RULES AND REGULATIONS MADE PURSUANT
THERETO BY THE STATE PLANT BOARD OF
FLORIDA, AS IN EFFECT JULY 31, 1918


Orders and Regulations of the
POSTOFFICE DEPARTMENT
RELATIVE TO
PARCEL POST SHIPMENTS OF NURSERY STOCK, PLANTS AND
PLANT PRODUCTS ADDRESSED TO FLORIDA POSTOFFICES


Issued July 31, 1918.





















STATE PLANT BOARD
of Florida

JOE L. EARMAN, Chairman .....................................Jacksonville
ED. L. WARTMANN...............-.... ........ ..............---- Citra
T. B. KING-------.-- .......... ......-- -----... ---.......... Arcadia
J. B. HODGES.......................---. -------..........Lake City
J. T. DIAMOND...... .......--..... .----------- ..........- Milton
BRYAN MACK, Secretary...................................Tallahassee

Staff
WILMON NEWELL, Plant Commissioner....................-........-.............. Gainesville
E. W. BERGER, Entomologist........................... -----. ....... Gainesville
F. M. O'BYRNE, Nursery Inspector............................................Gainesville
FRANK STIRLING, General Inspector..........-........- -.........Gainesville
H. E. STEVENS, Consulting Plant Pathologist................................Gainesville
J. H. MONTGOMERY, Quarantine Inspector.....................................Gainesville
J. C. GOODWIN, Chief Clerk ............. ...... ................. ...............Gainesville








CONTENTS
Page
The Florida Plant Act of 1915.................................... . ........... ... ... 7
Rules and Regulations of the State Plant Board....................................-- 11
Public Notice, declaring certain insects and diseases to be public
nuisances ...... .. ..... .......-----........ ... 11
Avocado Weevil -.......--........... ..-................... 11
Banana Root Borer.................... ........... ....... 11
Banana W ilt Disease....................... ...................... 11
Brown Rot ................................ .......... 11
Brown-tail Moth ........-.............. .................... 11
Citrus Canker ............. .............. .............. 12
Citrus Knot .-..................................... ..- 13
Cocoanut Bud-rot..................... .................. 13
Cotton Square-Weevil........................... ............ 13
Gypsy Moth ....................................... .- .. .... . 13
M editerranean Fruit Fly....................... ........................ ......15
Mango Seed Weevil...................... ................... 16
Mexican Orange Maggot..........................--- ........ ...... 16
Pineapple Black W eevil............................ ............. ...... 16
Pink Bollworm .................... ...................... .- 16
Spiny Citrus White-fly.................. .................... 16
West Indian Sweet Potato Weevil.......................................... 16
Rule 1.
Providing for inspection of orchards, nurseries, etc............................ 17
Rule 2.
Prohibiting the movement of plants infected with citrus canker.......... 17
Rule 3.
Providing for the destruction of trees infected with citrus canker,etc. 17
Rule 4.
Prohibiting the movement of nursery stock without certification, etc. 17
Rule 4A.
Declaring certain insects, pests and diseases to be especially injur-
ious, etc ....... ....... ...---- .........-. ..----- 17
Rule 4B.
Regulating the conditions under which certificates of inspection may
be issued, etc...... -. ........- ........ -------................ 23
Rule 4C.
Requiring the complete covering of nursery stock shipments............. 24
Rule 4D.
Requiring the defoliation of certain classes of nursery stock........... 24
Rule 4E.
Requiring fumigation of all plants subject to attack by San Jose
scale .....................................------ 24
Rule 4F.
Conditions under which certificates may be revoked........................ 24
Rule 4G.
Providing for certain exceptions to the rule requiring certification
of nursery stock...................... ....-...... ................. 24
Rule 4H.
Conditions under which nursery inspection certificates may be
secured and used.-............-----. .------------ 24
Rule 5A.
Establishing a quarantine zone in every direction from any property
infected with citrus canker and defining the same.................. 25
Rule 5B.
Conditions under which citrus trees may be planted within one-half
mile of a canker-infected property............................. ... 25




4 STATE PLANT BOARD
Page
Rule 5C.
Prohibiting movement of citrus nursery stock from within one mile
of canker-infected property......................... .............................. 25
Rule 5D.
Movement of non-citrus from canker-infected property-prohibited 25
Rule 5E.
Planting of citrus in properties declared no longer danger centers
with reference to citrus canker-conditions of.............................. 25
Rule 5F.
Certification of nursery stock from nurseries entered by vehicles,
etc., from canker-infected property-prohibited........................... 25
Rule 6.
Providing for the issue of certificates of inspection and defining the
forms of certificate to be used............................................. ............. 26
Rule 7.
Providing for a review before the Plant Board of any rule, regula-
tion, etc., on request of the party affected-----...................................... 28
Rule 8.
Prohibiting cropping in properties infected with citrus canker.......... 29
Rule 9.
Regulating the manner of conducting work in properties infected
w ith citrus canker................................... .. ................................ ... 29
Rule 10.
Relative to the harvesting of fruit in properties infected with citrus
canker ............................--- ..-........ ---....... ----------..---. 29
Rule 11A.
Prohibiting the shipment into Florida of all citrus fruits from the
Gulf States ................................... ..... 30
Rule 11B.
Prohibiting the shipment into Florida of all citrus fruits from Cali-
fornia ..- -------..... --....--------------.-----. 30
Rule 11C.
Prohibiting the shipment into Florida of various and sundry fruits
from Mexico .... ---..--..... .-------.----.---.----. 30
Rule 11D.
Prohibiting importation into Florida of fruits, vegetables, plants,
etc., from countries where Mediterranean fruit fly exists, with
certain exceptions .............................................................................. 30
Rule 12.
Concerning the use of citrus leaves in disseminating beneficial fungi 30
Rule 13.
Requiring nurserymen to furnish lists of consignees, contents of
shipments, etc. ............... ............. ...... ...... 30
Rule 14.
Prohibiting the importation of banana plants, cocoanut plants and
cocoanuts in husk ................................................................................. 31
Public Notice.
Declaring certain areas in Florida to be infected with Scaly Bark.... 31
Rule 15.
Regulating the movement of nursery stock grown in Scaly Bark
areas ............... ............. .............. ..................... ........................... 33
Rule 16.
Requiring the posting of properties -infected with citrus canker........ 33
Rule 17.
Governing the importation of plants and plant products into Florida 33
Rule 18..
Boll Weevil quarantine-prohibiting the shipment of cotton seed,
hulls and certain other products into certain areas in Florida.... 34
Boll Weevil Infested Territory, defined................................ .... 34





CONTENTS 5
Page
Rule 19.
Prohibiting the shipment of all citrus trees and plants into areas
free from withertip--------------..-... --......------............. 34
Rule 20.
Providing for the inspection of plants in transit and treatment or
disposition of same when infected or infested or moved in viola-
tion of Board rules.................................... ...... 34
Rule 21.
Prohibiting the exchange or sale of trees or plants infested or in-
fected with especially injurious insects or diseases...................... 35
Rule 22A.
Requiring treatment of nursery stock before its shipment from areas
infested by the cottony cushion-scale................................................ 35
Rule 22B.
Nursery stock originating in cottony cushion-scale areas-must be
treated under supervision of inspector....---. .-----------...-- 35
Rule 23.
Specifying the conditions under which non-citrus nursery stock may
be shipped into Florida---..............................---- ----- ------.... 35
Rule 24.
Requiring nurserymen and others desiring inspection to file written
application therefore and providing penalty for failure to file
such application at proper time----......... ----........................... 35
Rule 25.
Prohibiting the shipment of citrus trees and plants, and parts
thereof, into Florida from all states and countries........................ 35
Rule 26A.
Importation of trees, plants, etc., from countries where Black Fly
occurs-prohibited .--...------- --------------...... 35
Rule 26B.
Disposition of material arriving in violation of Rule 26A.................... 36
Rule 26C.
Providing for inspections for Black Fly in Florida.............................. 36
Rule 26D.
Movement of trees or plants infested with Black Fly-prohibited 36
Rule 26E.
Prescribing treatment of trees, etc., found infested by Black Fly 36
Rule 26F.
S Every Black Fly infested property the center of a dangerous zone 36
Rule 26G.
Movement of plants, etc., within Black Fly danger zone-prohibited 37
Rule 26H.
Certification of nursery stock within one mile of Black Fly infested
property-prohibited .-......---.....-.---.-----------... 37
Rule 261.
Certification of nursery stock exposed to danger of Black Fly infes-
tation-prohibited ----------------------........ 37
L Rule 26J.
Regulating the manner of conducting work in properties infested
with, or exposed- to, Black Fly ------....................---...-... ........... 37
Rule 27.
Prohibiting the shipment into Florida of plants, etc., from the Gypsy
and Brown-tail moth areas of New England, except under cer-
tain conditions as to inspection and certification............................ 37
Rule 28.
Prohibiting the importation into Florida of all pineapples, pineapple
plants, slips, roots, etc., from Jamaica..- -----.......--..................... 37
Rule 29.
Requiring treatment of nursery stock prior to its shipment from
areas exposed to infestation by the Dictyospermum scale............ 38





6 STATE PLANT BOARD
Page
Rule 30.
Providing for the disposition of shipments of nursery stock, etc.,
found infested or infected with injurious insects or diseases...... 38
Rule 31.
Specifying the qualifications for inspectors, requiring an examina-
tion, etc. .----....................... --.... --- -- .. ................ 39
Public Notice.
Declaring certain areas in Florida to be infested with Sweet Potato
W eevil .......-- .......-------------------.............. ... .... .......... 39
Rule 32.
Prohibiting shipment into Florida of sweet potato tubers and plants,
except under certain conditions..............-----..------.............. 40
Rule 33.
Shipment and movement of sweet potato and morning glory plants
from areas infested by Sweet Potato Root Weevil-prohibited.. 40
Rule 34.
Movement of sweet potato tubers from areas infested by Sweet Po-
tato Root Weevil-prohibited except after fumigation................ 40
Rule 35.
Pasturing of live stock in canker-infected properties-prohibited.... 41
Rule 36.
Disinfection of field boxes in public packing houses-required.......... 41
Rule 37A.
Importation of cotton linters, sweepings, waste, etc., from west of
Mississippi River-prohibited .-............... ------..................---- 42
Rule 37B.
Importation of cotton linters, sweepings, waste, etc., from east of
Mississippi River-prohibited, except under certain conditions.. 42
Rule 38.
Common carriers and their agents, required to hold under quaran-
tine, and notify Plant Commissioner concerning all shipments
and arrivals as to which the requirements of Florida Plant Act *
and Rules of Plant Board have not been complied with.............. 42
Orders and Regulations of the Postoffice Department Relative to Parcel
Post Shipments of Nursery Stock, Plants, etc --------..................................... 43
Nursery stock .. -.......................- -...........--------------- ......... .. 43
Terminal inspection of plants, etc., addressed to Florida postoffices 43
Act of Congress, etc., providing for terminal inspection..................... 44
Summary of requirements, mail shipments -----..................... .. ...... 46
Mail shipments from foreign countries-prohibited.............................. 47
Nursery stock "-definition of .............................. ...... .--------- 47










FLORIDA PLANT ACT OF 1915
(Chapter 6885, Laws of Florida)

AN ACT to Prevent the Introduction Into and Dissemination Within This
State of Insect Pests and Diseases Injurious to Plants and Plant Products
of this State, to Create a State Plant Board, and to Prescribe Its Powers
and Duties, and Making an Appropriation for the Purpose of Carrying
Out the Provisions of Said Act.

BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF
FLORIDA:

Section 1. This Act shall be known by the short title of "The Florida
Plant Act of 1915."
Section 2. For the purpose of this Act, the following terms shall be con-
strued, respectively, to mean:
Insect Pests and Diseases.-Diseases and insect pests, injurious to
plants and plant products of this State, including any of the stages of devel-
opment of such diseases and insect pests.
Plants and Plant Products.-Trees, shrubs, vines, forage and cereal
plants, and all other plants; cuttings, grafts, scions, buds, and all other parts
of plants; and fruit, vegetables, roots, bulbs, seeds, wood, lumber, and all
other plant products.
Places.-Vessels, cars and other vehicles, buildings, docks, nurseries,
orchards and other premises, where plants and plant products are grown,
kept or handled.
Persons.-Individuals, associations, partnerships and corporations.
Words used in this Act shall be construed to import either the plural or
the singular, as the case demands.
Section 3.-There is hereby created and established a State Plant
Board, hereinafter called the Board. The said Board shall be composed of
five members who shall be the same persons who constitute the Board of
Control created and authorized by the provisions of Chapter 5384 of the
Laws of Florida, and all of the authority by this Act granted to the Board
herein created and all the duties required of said Board shall be exercised
and performed by the members of the Board of Control, acting as the State
Plant Board. A majority of the members of the Board shall constitute a
quorum for all purposes. The chairman of the Board shall be selected
annually by the members thereof. They shall be provided with a suitable
office or offices at the University of Florida where the meetings of the
Board may be held and its records shall be kept.
Section 4. For the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this Act,
the Board may employ, prescribe the duties of, and fix the compensation of,
such inspectors and other employees as it may require and incur such
expenses as may be necessary, within the limits of appropriations made by
law. It shall cooperate with other departments, boards and officers of this
State and of the United States as far as practicable.
Section 5. The Board shall keep itself informed as to known varieties
of insect pests and diseases, the origin, locality, nature and appearance
thereof, the manner in which they are disseminated, and approved methods
of treatment and eradication. The Board, in its rules and regulations made
pursuant to this Act, shall list the insect pests and diseases of which it
shall find that the introduction into, or the dissemination within, this State
should be prevented in order to safeguard the plants and plant products of
this State, together with the plants and plant products likely to become
infested or infected with such insect pests and diseases. Every such insect
7





8 STATE PLANT BOARD

pest and disease listed, and every plant and plant product infested therewith,
is hereby declared to be a public nuisance. Every person who has knowledge
of the presence of any insect pest or disease listed, as required by this Sec-
tion, in the rules and regulations made pursuant to this Act, in or upon
any place, shall immediately report the same to the Board or an inspector
thereof, giving such detailed information relative thereto as he may have.
Every person who deals in or engages in the sale of plants and plant pro-
ducts shall furnish to the Board or its inspectors, when requested, a state-
ment of the names and addresses of the persons from whom and the local-
ities where he purchased or obtained such plants and plant products.
Section 6. The Board shall, from time to time, make rules and regula-
tions for carrying out the provisions and requirements of this Act, including
rules and regulations under which its inspectors and other employees shall
(a) inspect places, plants and plant products, and things and substances
used or connected therewith, (b) investigate, control, eradicate and prevent
the dissemination of insect pests and diseases, and (c) supervise or cause
the treatment, cutting and destruction of plants and plant products infested
or infected therewith. The inspectors and employees employed by the Board
shall have authority to carry out and execute the regulations and orders of
the said Board and shall have authority under direction of the Board
to carry out the provisions of this Act.
Section 7. Whenever such inspection discloses that any places, or plants
or plant products, or things and substances used or connected therewith,
are infested or infected with any insect pest or disease listed as a public
nuisance, as required by Section 5, in the rules and regulations made pursu-
ant to this Act, written notice thereof shall be given the owner or other
person in possession or control of the place where found, and such owner or
other person shall proceed to control, eradicate or prevent the dissemination
of such insect pest or disease, and to remove, cut or destroy infested and
infected plants and plant products, or things and substances used or con-
nected therewith, within the time and in the manner prescribed by said
notice or the rules and regulations made pursuant to this Act. Whenever
such owner or other person cannot be found, or shall fail, neglect or refuse
to obey the requirements of said notice and the rules and regulations made
pursuant to this Act, such requirements shall be carried out by the inspec-
tors or other employees of the Board.
Section 8. It shall be unlawful for any person to bring or cause to be
brought into this State any plant or plant product listed, as required by
Section 5, in the rules and regulations made pursuant to this Act, unless
there be plainly and legibly marked thereon or affixed thereto, or on or to
the car or other vehicle carrying, or the bundle, package, or other container
of the same, in a conspicuous place, a statement or a tag or other device
showing the names and' addresses of the consignors or shippers and the
consignee or persons to whom shipped, the general nature and quantity of
the contents, and the name of the locality where grown, together with a
certificate of inspection of the proper official of the State, territory, district
or country from which it was brought or shipped, showing that such plant or
plant product was found or believed to be free from insect pests and dis-
eases, and any other information required by the Board.
Section 9. It shall be unlawful for any person to sell, give away, carry,
ship or deliver for carriage or shipment, within this State, any plants or
plant products listed, as required by Section five in the rules and regulations
made pursuant to this Act, unless such plants or plant products have been
officially inspected and a certificate issued by an inspector of the Board
stating that the said plants or plant products have been inspected and found
to be apparently free from insect pests and diseases, and any other facts
provided for in the rules and regulations made pursuant to this Act. For
the issuance of such certificate, the Board may require the payment of a
reasonable fee to cover the expense of such inspection and certification;
PROVIDED, however, that if such plants or plant products were brought




FLORIDA PLANT ACT OF 1915 9

into this State in compliance with the requirements of Section eight, the
certificate required by that section may be accepted in lieu of the inspection
and certificate required by this section in such cases as shall be provided
for in the rules and regulations made pursuant to this Act. If it shall be
found at any time that a certificate of inspection issued or accepted pursuant
to the provisions of this section, is being used in connection with plants and
plant products which are infested or infected with insect pests or diseases
listed as required by Section five in the rules and regulations made pursuant
to this Act, its further use may be prohibited, subject to such inspection and
other disposition of the plants and plant products involved as may be pro-
vided for by the Board. All moneys collected by the Board under this sec-
tion or under Section seven or fourteen shall be deposited in the State Treas-
ury to the credit of the general revenue fund receipts.
Section 10. Any person in this State, who receives from without
this State any plant or plant product as to which the requirements of Sec-
tion eight have not been complied with, or who receives any plant or plant
product, sold, given away, carried, shipped, or delivered for carriage or ship-
ment within this State as to which the requirements of Section nine have
not been complied with, shall immediately inform the Board or an inspector
thereof, and isolate and hold the said plant or plant product unopened or
unused, subject to such inspection and other disposition as may be provided
for by the Board.
Section 11. Whenever the Board shall find that there exists outside
of this State any insect pest or disease, and that, in order to safe-guard
plants and plant products in this State, its introduction into this State
should be prevented, the Board shall give public notice thereof,, specifying
the plants and plant products infested or infected or likely to become in-
fested or infected therewith, and the movement of such plants or plant
products into this State from the infested or infected locality designated in
said public notice, shall thereafter be prohibited until the Board shall find
that the danger of the introduction into this State of such insect pests or
diseases from such locality has ceased to exist, of which the Board shall
give public notice.
Section 12. Whenever the Board shall find there exists in this State,
or any part thereof, any insect pest or disease, and that its dissemination
should be controlled or prevented, the Board shall give public notice thereof,
specifying the plants and plant products infested or infected, or likely to
become infested or infected therewith, and the movement, planting or other
use of any such plant or plant product, or other thing or substance specified
in such notice as likely to carry and disseminate such insect pest or disease,
except under such conditions as shall be prescribed by the Board as to
inspection, treatment and disposition, shall be prohibited within such area
as may be designated in said public notice until the Board shall find that
the danger of the dissemination of such insect pest or disease has ceased
to exist, of which the Board shall give public notice.
Section 13. For the purpose of carrying out the provisions and require-
ments of this Act, and of the rules and regulations made, and notices given,
pursuant thereto, the Board and its inspectors and employees shall have
power to enter in or upon any place, and to open any bundle, package or
other container containing or thought to contain plants or plant products.
Section 14. Any person affected by any rule or regulation made, or
notice given, pursuant to this Act, may have a review thereof by the Board
for the purpose of having such rule, regulation or notice modified, suspended
or withdrawn. Such review shall be allowed and considered and the cost
thereof fixed, assessed, collected and paid in such manner and in accordance
with such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the Board.
Section 15. Any person who shall violate any provision or require-
ment of this Act, or of the rules and regulations made or of any notice
given pursuant thereto, or who shall forge, counterfeit, deface, destroy
or wrongfully use, any certificate provided for in this Act or in the rules
and regulations made pursuant thereto, shall be deemed guilty of a mis-




10 STATE PLANT BOARD

demeanor and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not
more than five hundred dollars, or by imprisonment for not more than six
months or by both such fine and imprisonment at the discretion of the
Court having jurisdiction. Said Plant Board shall have power and author-
ity to enforce its rules, ordinances and regulations in any court of com-
petent jurisdiction by civil, as well as criminal proceedings, and if the
remedy to be pursued be by writ of injunction, no court of this State shall
have right previous to a trial' upon the merits to set aside such a writ on
bond. It shall be the duty of the Attorney General and District Attorneys
to represent said Plant Board whenever called upon to do so. Said Plant
Board in the discharge of its duties and in the enforcement of the powers
herein delegated, may send for books and papers, administer oaths, hear
witnesses, etc., and to that end it is made the duty of the various sheriffs
throughout the State to serve all summons and other papers upon the re-
quest of said Plant Board.
Section 16. In construing and enforcing the provisions of this Act, the
act, omission or failure of any official, agent or other person acting for or
employed by any association, partnership or corporation within the scope
of his employment or office shall, in every case, also be deemed the act,
omission or failure of such association, partnership or corporation as well
as that of the person.
Section 17. That the Board or any of its inspectors or employees shall
be a proper party in any court of equity to effectively carry out any of the
provisions of this Act when an injunction would be a proper remedy.
'Section 18. This Act shall not be so construed or enforced as to con-
flict in any way with any Act of Congress regulating the movement of
plants or plant products in inter-state or foreign commerce.
Section 19. If any section or part of a section of this Act shall for any
cause be held unconstitutional, such fact shall not affect the remainder of
this Act.
Section 20. For the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this Act,
the sum of thirty-five thousand dollars per annum or as much thereof as
may be necessary is hereby appropriated out of any funds in the treasury
not otherwise appropriated, which said sum shall be placed to the credit of
the Board in the hands of the State Treasurer to be expended by the Board
in the manner as provided in Section 34 of Chapter 5384 of the Laws of
Florida, and the further sum of one hundred and twenty-five thousand
dollars is hereby appropriated out of the General Revenues to be set apart
as a specific fund to be known as the Plant Act Special Fund, which shall
be expended by the Board, first for the purpose of eradicating, preventing
and controlling citrus canker, and thereafter so much thereof as may be
necessary, may be applied by the Board to carrying out the general pur-
poses of this Act, but of the funds appropriated by this Act, -no more than
the sum of $125,000 shall be expended for the eradication of citrus canker.
Section 21. All Acts and parts of Acts inconsistent with the provis-
ions of this Act are hereby repealed; all that Chapter 6156, Laws of Florida,
1911, known as the State Nursery Inspection Law is hereby repealed.
Section 22. This Act shall take effect upon its passage and approval
by the Governor, or upon its becoming a law without his approval.
Approved by the Governor April 30, 1915.




RULES AND REGULATIONS


RULES AND REGULATIONS MADE BY THE STATE PLANT
BOARD PURSUANT TO THE FLORIDA PLANT ACT
OF 1915, IN EFFECT ON JUNE 30, 1918.

PUBLIC NOTICE.
Declaring Certain Insects and Diseases to be Public Nuisances.
*Under the provisions of the Florida Plant Act of 1915, Chapter 6885,
approved April 30, 1915, the State Plant Board of Florida, in accordance
with Section 5 of said Act, does declare the following insects and diseases,
and each and every plant and thing infested or infected therewith, to be
public nuisances:


Insect or Disease
Avocado Weevil
(Heilipus lauri Boh.).
Banana Root Borer
(Cosmopolites (Sphenophorus)
sordidus Germar).
Banana Wilt Disease, or "Panama
Disease" (Fusarium sp.).
Brown Rot
(Pythiacystis citrophora).
Brown-tail Moth
(Euproctis chrysorrhoea Linn).


Plants Likely to Become Infested
or Infected
Avocado.
Banana.
Sugar cane.
Banana.

Lemons.
Oranges.
Apple (Pyrus malus)t.
Apple, crab (Pyrus coronaria).
Apricot (Prunus armeniaca).
Ash, Black (Fraxinus nigra).
Ash, Blue (Fraxinus quadrangulata).
Ash, Red (Fraxinus pennsylvanica).
Ash, White (Fraxinus americana).
Barberry (Berberia vulgaris).
Basswood (Tilia americana).
Beach Plum (Prunus maritima).
Beech, American (Fagus grandifolia).
Birch, Black (Betula lenta).
Birch, Gray (B. populifolia).
Birch, Paper (B. papyrifera).
Birch, Yellow (Betula lutea).
Blackberry (Rubus villosus).
Boxelder (Acer negundo).
Cherry (Prunus avium).
Cherry, wild black (Prunus serotina).
Chestnut (Castanea dentata).
Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa).
Choke Cherry (Padus nana).
Crataegus, all species.
Creeper, Virginia
(Ampelopsis quinquefolia).
Currant (Ribes rubrum).
Elm, American (Ulmus americana).
Elm, Cork (U. racemosa).
Elm, English (U. campestris).
Elm, Scotch
Elm, Slippery (U. fulva).
Gooseberry (Ribes grossularia).
Grape (Vitis cordifolia).
Hophornbeam (Ostrya virgzniana).


*Adopted May 4, 1915. Amended Feb. 14, 1916, June 5, 1916, Aug. 14, 1916, Jan. 8,
1917, June 18, 1917, and Jan. 14, 1918.
tList from data furnished by the Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D. A.


11




12 STATE PLANT BOARD


Insect or Disease
























Citrus Canker
(Pseudomonas citri Hasse).


Plants Likely to Become Infested
or Infected
Hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana).
Maple, Cut-leafed.
Maple, Red.
Maple, sugar (Acer sqccharum).
Maple, sycamore
(Acer pseudo-platanus).
Maple, white (Acer dasycarpum).
Oaks (Quercus sp.)
Peach (Prunus persica).
Pear (Pyrus communis).
Pecan (Carya olivaeformis).
Plum (Prunus domestica.
Pyrus pinnatifida.
Quince (Cydonia vulgaris).
Quince, Japan (Cydonia japonica).
Raspberry (Rubus strigosus).
Rose (Rosa nitida).
Shadbush (Amelanchier canadensis).
Spiraea (Spiraea thunbergii).
Sumach, Mountain.
Sumach, Smooth.
Sumach, Stag-horn.
Walnut, black (Juglans nigra).
Weigela rose.
Willow, weeping (Salix babylonica).
Wistaria (Wistaria consequana).
Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana).
Citrus trees and plants, including the
following:
Bergamont (Citrus bergamia).
Includes various kinds of medicinal
citrus.
Bigarade orange (C. vulgaris).
Includes the bittersweet, sour and
others of this type.
Citron (C. Medica).
Includes various varieties of cit-
rons; also cedrat.
Grapefruit, or Pomelo (C. decumana).
Hybrids.
Includes the hybrids between var-
ous species of citrus-known un-
der different names, such as
Morton, Rusk, Citrange, Pomer-
ange, Tangelo, etc.
Kumquat (C. japonica).
Includes the various kinds of kum-
quats.
Lemon (C. limonia).
Includes various varieties of lem-
on, also rough lemon, everbear-
ing lemon, ponderosa lemon.
Lime (C. limetta).
Includes various varieties known
as Key lime, Mexican lime, West
Indian lime, etc.
Mandarin Orange (C. nobilis).
This includes all varieties of "kid
glove" oranges grown in Flor-
ida, such as Satsuma, Tanger-
ine, King, Oneco, etc.





RULES AND REGULATIONS


Insect or Disease











Citrus Knot
(Sphaeropsis tumefaciens).
Cocoanut Bud-rot
(Bacillus coli var.).
Cotton Square-weevil
(Anthonomus vestitus Boh.).
Gypsy Moth
(Porthetria dispar Linn.).


Plants Likely to Become Infested
or Infected
Otaheite (C. sinensis).
Pomelo-See Grapefruit.
Shaddock (C. decumana).
As separate from Pomelo. This in-
cludes several varieties.
Sweet Orange (C. aurantium).
This includes all round oranges
commonly grown for commercial
purposes in Florida.
Trifoliate Orange or "Citrus trifoli-
ata" (Poncirus trifoliata).
Wild Lime (Zanthoxylum fagara).
Citrus.

Cocoanut.

Cotton.

Alder, speckled (Alnus incana).*
Apple (Pyrus malus).
Ash, mountain (Pyrus americana).
Aspen, American
(Populus tremuloides).
Aspen, large-toothed
(Populus grandidentata).
Balm-of-Gilead
(Populus balsamifera).
Beech, American (Fagusgrandifolia).
Birch, gray (Betula populifolia).
Birch, paper (Betula papyrifera).
Birch, red (Betula nigra).
Boxelder (Acer negundo).
Barberry, European
(Berberis vulgaris).
Bayberry (Myrica carolinensis).
Birch, black (Betula lenta).
Birch, yellow (Betula lutea).
Blueberry, low (Vaccinium vacillans).
Blueberry, tall
(Vaccinium corymbosum).
Chestnut (Castanea dentata).
Cherry, sweet (Prunus avium).
Cherry, wild black (Prunus serotina).
Cherry, wild red (Padus virginiana).
Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa).
Choke cherry (Padus nana).
Cottonwood (Populus deltoides).
Cranberry, American
(Oxyococcus macrocarpus).
Elm, American (Ulmus americana).
Elm, European (Ulmus campestris).
Elm, slippery (Ulmus fulva).
Fern, sweet (Comptonia peregrina).
Gum, sweet, or red
(Liquidamber styraciflua).
Gum, black (Nyssa sylvatica).
Gale, sweet (Myrica gale).
Hawthorn (Crataegus sp.)


*List used through courtesy of the Federal Horticultural Board.





STATE PLANT BOARD


Plants Likely to Become Infested
Insect or Disease or Infected
Hazelnut (Corylus americana).
Hazelnut, beaked (Corylus rostrata).
Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis).
Hickory, bitternut
(Hickoria cardiformis).
Hickory, mockernut (Hickoria alba).
Hickory, pignut (Hickoria glabra).
Hickory, shagbark (Hickoria ovata).
Hornbeam, American
(Carpinus caroliniana).
Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana).
Larch, American (Larix laricina).
Larch, European (Larix decidua).
Linden, American (Tilea americana).
Linden, European (Tilea sp.).
Maple, Norway (Acer platanoides).
Maple, red or swamp (Acer rubrum).
Maple, silver (Acer saccharinum).
Maple, sugar (Acer saccharum).
Oak, black (Quercus velutina).
Oak, rock chestnut (Quercus prinus).
Oak, dwarf chestnut
(Quercus prinoides).
Oak, burr (Quercus macrocarpa).
Oak, pin (Quercus palustris).
Oak, post (Quercus stellata).
Oak, red (Quercus rubra).
Oak, scarlet (Quercus coccinea).
Oak, bear (Quercus ilicifolia).
Oak, shingle (Quercus imbricaria).
Oak, swamp white (Quercus bicolor).
Oak, white (Quercus alba).
Pecan (Carya olivaeformis).
Poplar, Lombardy (Populus nigra,
var. italica).
Pine, pitch (Pinus rigida).
Pine, red (Pinus resinosa).
Pine, Scotch (Pinus sylvestris).
Pine, western white
(Pinus monticola).
Pine, white (Pinus strobus).
Plum, beach (Prunus maritima).
Pear (Pyrus communis).
Poplar, silver (Populus alba).
Rose, pasture (Rosa virginiana).
Service-berry
(Amelanchier canadensis).
Sumac, mountain (Rhus copallina).
Sumac, scarlet (Rhus glabra).
Sumac, staghorn (Rhus hirta).
Spruce, black (Picea mariana).
Spruce, Norway (Picea abies).
Spruce, red (Picea rubens).
Spruce, white (Picea canadensis).
Sassafras (Sassafras sassafras).
Willow, white (Salix alba).
Willow, glaucous (Salix discolor).
Willow, sandbar (Salix interior).
Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana).




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