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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
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 Appendix A: Rules, regulations...
 Appendix B: The quarterly bulletin...






Title: Report for the fiscal year ending ... and supplemental reports to ...
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 Material Information
Title: Report for the fiscal year ending ... and supplemental reports to ...
Alternate Title: State Plant Board annual report
Physical Description: 1 v. : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: State Plant Board of Florida
Publisher: State Plant Board of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: January, 1917
Frequency: biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Plants, Protection of -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: Periodicals   ( lcsh )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1st (1914/16).
Numbering Peculiarities: Fiscal year ending Apr. 30; supplemental reports to Aug. 31.
Statement of Responsibility: State Plant Board of Florida.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098571
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 13925181
lccn - sn 86033750
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Report for the biennial period ending ... and supplemental reports to ...

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 5
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    Main
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    Appendix A: Rules, regulations and public notices of the state plant board of Florida
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    Appendix B: The quarterly bulletin of the state plant board of Florida (volume I, number 1)
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Full Text































With Circulars 10-17, and
The Quarterly Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 1











LIBRAKY
FLORII)4 EXPERI~1I":~r STATION
aAINESVILLE~, FLORIDA


JANUARY, 1917


STATE PLANT BOARD

OF FLORIDA








REPORT FOR THE FISCAL YEAR

ENDING APRIL 30, 1916


AND

SUPPLEMENTAL REPORTS TO

AUGUST 31, 191s




/02

~c~itlci
AGRI
CULTURAL
LIBRARy


STATE PLANT BOARD
Of Florida


.~_.._~.~~~..~~~.PenSacola
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.~....~~~~~~~Citra
..~~..~~~~~~.~~...~~~.Arcadia
~~~~~~~~~~~~...~...OId Town
.~~~~~~~~~..~.~~Jacksonville
.~~~.~__:~;~~~.~;Tallahassee


P. K. YONGE, Chui?mcm~~~~
E. L. WARTMANN~~~~~....~~.~~~~
T. B. KINc~....~~~~~~...~~~~~.~~~..----
W. D. FrNLAYsoN~...~~~~~~~.~....
F. E. JENNINCs~~~~.~~~~~..~.~.~~
J. G. KELLUM, Secl~eta)~l~~.


STAFF

WILMON NEWELL, Plant Commissione?.
E. W. BERGER, Entom010~list~~~..~~~~~~~~~~.~~~...
F. M. O'BYRNE, Nu?se?1/ Inspector~~~......~
R. A. JEHLE, ASSiStClnt Plant Pnthologist.
FRANI( STIF.TTNG, Ge72e)'cll I~ZS2)eCtOl'~~~.~~~.


~~~~.~~~~Gainesville
.~~~~..~~Gainesville
~~~~~~...Gainesville
....~..~~Homestead
.~...Gainesville










CONTENTS

LETTER OF TR~SS~IITT~L.. ........._ ............~~~~~~
REPORT OF STXTI: PI,.IST I3O;\RD...._
L REPORT OF rLi\ST CO~I~IISSIO~EI~ ........._ ........._ 7
ORG.ANIATIOS OI: THE: BOARD .......~....~.. ....................... .....__ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ 7
hD\~ISOR~ CO~I~IITTEE ...~.~........... .....
RULES ASD REGUL;ITIOSS .......... ......~.....~...... ...........~~~~~~~~~~~~ 8
~pril 30, 1915-r\pril 30, 1~16...~........... .................. ~~~.~.~..~ .~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 8
Xlay 1, 1916-0ct. 30, 1916 .........____ ........ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 9
OFFICISS AND LABORATORIES .................. ..............~.~.~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 9
TROPICAL LABORATOR~~........................ .........__ ~.~.~~. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 9
ERADICATION OF CITRUS CANKER .~.~..~...~.. ........._ .~~~....~.. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ....._ ~~~~10
April 30, 1915-April 30, 1916.. ......
hIay 1, 1916-Sept. 30, 1916 ... .......__ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~ ..11
TRAI~ISG OF ISSPECTORS......... ...........~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~
FIELD ORGANIZATION ................~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~
LOCATING THE CEhTTERS OF INFECTION .......~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~
QUARANTINES IN AND AROUND INFECTED PROFERTIES................~.....l'l
DISTRIUUTION OF THE DISEASE IN FLORIDA ...~~.....~~......~~.~~~~
April 30, 1915-April 30, 1916 ...........~.~..~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ __..._
~Iay 1, 1916-So\-. 30, 1916 ........._______ ~~~~ ~ ~ ___22
Gmnd Summnr), No\-. 30, 1916.~~....~.~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ _._23
LEGAL ACTIONS ..~..~.~..~~~.~~~~~~~ __........__
April 30, 19lj-hpril 30, 1916 ...... .~................ ... ....?7
hIay i, 1916-So\-. 30, 1916 ..........~~~~~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~?S
CO-OPERATION_ ..~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~
DEPARTZIEST OF SURSERY ISSPECTION....
INSPECTION ~OIil~ ........~~.~~~~~~~~~~ ~~
April 30, 1915-i\pril 30, 1916.....___
~lay 1, 1916-Aug. 31, 1916 .......~~~~~
~UARANTINES I~IFOSEL).~.. ~~~~~ 33
April 30, 191j-;\pril 30, 1')16 ...... ....33
~Iay 1, 1916-Xug. 31, 1916 ... .....3-1
INSPECTION CERTIFICATES ISSUED
r\pril 30, 191j-~pril 30, 1916..
Ncalllsn OF SHIP\IENTS~~~~~~~~~ ~~ 35
I\IISCELLINEoUs...~~~~ ~~~~~ 3;
._ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ .....~...36
DIIPAIIT~IENT OF PORT ~SD R~IL\\~XI~ ISSPECTIOS.~~~~~ ~...........~37
December 13, l~lj-Xpril 30, 1916...... .
Shils and \essrls inspected ~~ ~ ~~~~~
Shipments inspected............. ....~~~~~~ 39
List of Principal Pests and Diseases Intercepted ..~..~..L~ .-IO
hIny 1, 1')16-Sept. 30, 1916 .......~.~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Ships and vessels inspected.......... .......~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~40
Shipments inspected ................. __ ~ _
List of PrinciIal Pes!s and Diseases Intercepted...........~.............41
BOLL \\~I-E\IL XSD PISI; i~OLL-\T~OII\I C)[ T;\RANTISE..~..~..~~.......... ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~2
GYPS1- ~\~D BI1OW~S-TXIL ~IOTH QCARANTINE ....~..........~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~43
SUhl~l~R1~ ...~.. ~~~~~~~ .~~~~~~






4 State Plant Boa?d


DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY........ ...~~~.. ................. ........._ .~......~.. ........._45
RED WHITEFLY FUNGUS............... ........ ..........~~.~~......... .........___ .........___ ......~.46
AUSTRALIAN LADY-BIRD BEETLES............... ....... .~.~.........~. ~~~.~~~~ _~~~~~~. ...._...._47
CAMPHOR-THRIPS .~.......... ................ ............ ............ ........... ............ ..~~~.~. ..~~...~..~. ........ 48
INCIDENTAL WORK....~.......~........... ........ ..~......... ............ ........._ ........ ......~........ .~......49
DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY.........~~.................... 1
April 30, 1915-April 30, 1916.....__ ..............~.........................
May 1, 1916-Nov. 30, 1916.................................... ..~...~.............~~~~.... ~~~.~~~.~.~~~~51
CO-OPER19TION WITH FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS........~~..............~~~~.
THE BAH AMAS.... ................................ ....................~~. .~.......~~. ............. ........~~.. .......... 53
CUBA ............................... ........................................ ................ ......~.......54
ENDORSEMENTS OF THE PLANT BOARD'S U'ORK........................~~~~~~..... 55
RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL
SOCIETY, APRIL 26, 1916.............~.......... .......~~~.............................. 55
RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE MEMBERS OF THE FLORIDA CITRUS
SEMINAR, OCTOBER 18, 1916..........~..................... .......................................5
THE QUARTERLY BULLETIN..........~.... .~......................~...~~~......~.. ................ .........__57
EMPLOYEES ..~._~_....................... ...~......~...........~. .....~...._.~~~.... ..._.. .........____ ~.~.~.~...~...~~~.. 57
APPOINTMENTS EFFECTIVE APRIL 30, 1916.........................~..........
APPOINTMENTS EFFECTI\TE NOV. 30, 1916....._ .......... .~~.....~~. .....~............. ......60
FINANCIAL REPORT..~............................... ... .............~...~..~~~~~............... .......64
ESTIMATES..........~.................... ................... ....~...~~~ ...~.. ..66
GENERAL FUND, ESTIMATED EXPENSES PER ANNUM .............. ................... 67
Plant Board Expenses~. .................~.................. ............ ........._ ......~~..~. .~~........ 67
Secretary's Office......~....~~...............~..... ......................... .~~.~.........~ 67
Plant Commissioner's Off ice ........~.........~. .~~......... ....~~~. ........._ ~.~~~~~.......~. ....67
Department of Nursery Inspection ..........................~......~...... .~............ 68
Department of Port and Railway Inspection .....~~..... ..~~~~~~.~~.....................68
Parcel-post Plant Inspection .............~..........................
Department of Entomology..~......... ..~........ .........__ ..............~....~..~. ............69
Department of Plant Pathology ........._ .~~~~..~~~~~ ........._ ........._ ........._ ........69
Summary...................... ..........-_~......~- ..~.............. ...~~.. ........._ .................. .... ....70
CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION..~......... ....~.~. .........__ ..~~.~.~.... ........._ .........__ 70
GRAND SUMMARY ..~~..........~.................~ ~..................~.~~~................
APPENDIX A. Rules and Regulations of the State Plant Board ................... ......... 73
APPENDIX B. The Quarterty Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. I..~......~.. ..~......... ........ ........._139







Annual Repo?t, 1915


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

January 2nd, 1917.


To His Excellency,
SiclneU J. Catts,
Governol of Flolicln.

SIR: Herewith is submitted the report of the State Plant
Board for the year ending April 30th, 1916, and supplemental
report to August 31st, 1916. We request that you submit same
to the Legislature.
Respectfully,
STATE PLANT BOARD,
By P. K. YONGE,
Chairman.








REPORT OF STATE PLANT BOARD

The report of the Plant Commissioner, Wilmon Newell, which
is hereto attached and to which we invite your careful atten-
tion, covers so completely the work of the Plant Board that we
deem it unnecessary to refer to any part of it specifically,
except as to the matter of appropriations.

GENERAL WORK

We have given very careful consideration to this subject and
we are of the opinion that the amount estimated by the Com-
missioner as necessary for the general work of the Board is not
sufficient. The scope of the work contemplated by the Plant
Act is very broad and the necessity for developing the work,
especially the Department of Nursery Inspection and the De-
partment of Port and Railway Inspection, is urgent. We think
that $85,000.00 per annum will be necessary for this work.







Snte Plnlzt Bocrld


The additional amount over that suggested by the Plant Com-
missioner is for salaries and traveling expenses of the heads of
departments and for printing:~ As there is a continuing appro-
priation of 9;35,000.00 for this work,'we recommend that an
additional appropriation of $50,000.00 per annum for the next
bienniiim be made.

CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION

Citrus Canker is one of the most destructive plant diseases
known and is far the most serious menace to the Citrus Indus-
try of Florida that we have encountered. The disease destroys
the tree it attacks and is easily carried from the infected tree
to other trees. It is very difficult to eradicate for the following
reasons:
(1) The difficulty of detecting it in its early stages.
(2) A person, bird, insect or any other thing coming in
contact with the infection may disseminate it.
(3) It may lay dormant months, sometimes about two years,
before being discovered.
For these reasons a strict and long quarantine and frequent
inspections are necessary. Notwithstanding the seriousness of
the disease and the difficulty of its eradication much has been
accomplished towards this end and we believe it can be com-
pletely eradicated. In the light of our experience in this work
and from present indications we think it will take from two to
three years to eradicate it. In arriving at a conclusion as to
the probable cost we must carefully consider preseni conditions
and also the danger of further outbreaks of the disease. The
Plant Commissioner bases his opinion of what will be required
for the next two years on our experience and the cost for the
five months ending September 30th, 1916, and this method
appears to us to be a reasonable one. The amount expended
during this period was $179,671.51 and on this basis $431,211.50
per annum would be necessary. No doubt you will give the
subject mostcareful consideration and we hope you will find it
expedient to make the necessary appropriation to continue the
work of eradication to a successful conclusion.

STATE PLANT BOARD,
By P. K. YONGE,
C72ni7man.











Report lor the Fiscal Year Ending

April 30, 1916

And Supplemental Reports


Holt. P. K. Yolzye, Chni,nza12,
State Plant Bonld of Flo~idn.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith my report on the
work of the State Plant Board for the fiscal year ending April
30, 1916, and supplemental reports.
Respectfully,
WILMON NEWELL,
Plant Conzmissioner.


ORGANIZATION OF THE BOARD
The State Plant Board was created by an Act of the Legisla-
ture approved April 30, 1915, this Act being Chapter 6885 of
the Laws of Florida, and known by the short title of "The
Florida Plant Act of 1915 ". The Act provided that the State
Plant Board should consist of five members, being the same
persons who constitute the Board of Control.
The first meeting of the Board was held at Jacksonville on
May 4, 1915, and Mr. P. K. Yonge elected Chairman of the
Board. At this meeting it was decided that the place of the
chief executive officer should be filled temporarily by a special
committee, known as the "Advisory Committee", consisting of
Mr. P. H. Rolfs, Director of the Florida Experiment Station;
Mr. L. S. Tenny, Secretary-Manager of the Florida Growers'
and Shippers' League, and Mr. W. J. Krome, of Homestead,
Florida. The Advisory Committee was authorized to execute
all orders of the Board and to carry out its rules and regula-
tions. As an emergency existed at this time, due to the occur-
rence of citrus canker in certain parts of.the State, rules were
adopted by the Board, under the provisions of the Plant Act,
lookingto the eradication of the disease and to prevention of its
further spread.






State Plant Board


At the following meeting of the Board, held May 10, 1915, it
was decided that the chief executive officer of the Board should
be known as the Plant Commissioner" and that the work of
the Board should be divided into four departments, namely, the
Departments of Citrus Canker Eradication, Nursery Inspection,
Plant Pathology and Entomology. A fifth department, that of
Port and Railway Inspection, was subsequently provided for.
This division of the work has been found thoroughly practical
and under this plan has gone steadily forward. The work of
the respective departments is mentioned on subsequent pages.

ADYISORY COMMITTEE

From May 4, 1915, until August 14, 1916, when they re-
signed, the members of the Advisory Committee, serving with-
out remuneration, gave unstintingly of their time and efforts
in forwarding the work of the Board. Mr. Krome assumed full
charge of the canker eradication work in Dade County, Mr.
Tenny supervised the eradication work in the remainder of the
State and Mr. Rolfs supervised the work of nursery inspection.
A Plant Commissioner was elected by the Board at its meet-
ing on July 12 and commenced his duties on August 24, 1915.
Owing to the magnitude of the work confronting the Board the
members of the Committee continued to serve, acting in an
advisory capacity to both the Board and the Plant Commis-
sioner. The thanks of the entire State are due these gentlemen
for their services, so efficiently rendered, at a time when the
State's principal fruit industry was threatened by citrus canker,
the most destructive plant disease ever known in the history of
hodiculture.
RULES AND REGULATIONS

In accordance with the provisions of the Plant Act the Board
has from time to time adopted and published rules and regula-
tions for preventing the introduction of dangerous insect pests
and plant diseases into the State, for preventing the further dis-
semination of such as already occurred within the State and
for eradicating certain plant diseases of extremely dangerous
nature. These rules were published, as adopted, in the Circulars
of the Board.
April 30, 1915, to April 30, 1916
Circulars Nos. 1 to 9, inclusive, were published between May
i, 1915, and February, 1916. Circular No. 10, issued March






Annzlal Repolt, 1915


23, 1916, contained all rules adopted by the Board up to that
time, and Circular No. 11 contained additional regulations of
the Board adopted at its April meeting.
May 1, 1916, to October 31, 1916
During this period Circulars 12 to 16, inclusive, containing-
rules and regulations adopted at the May, June, July, August,
September and October meetings of the Board, were issued. In
addition, Circular No. 17, issued October 31st, contained an
Order issued by the Third Assistant Postmarster General on
October 24, 1916, providing for the inspection, by the Plant
Board, of mail shipments of plants and plant products arriving
at Florida post offices.
Circulars 10 to 17, inclusive, contain all rules, regulations,
and public notices of the Board in effe6t October 31, 1916.

OFFICES AND LABORATORIES

The Plant Act provides that the offices of the Plant Board
shall be located at the University of Florida at Gainesville.
Through the courtesy of the University officials, rooms were
assigned to the Plant Board on the second floor of Language
Hall and these were occupied in September of 1915. At the
present time four rooms are occupied by the Plant Commis-
sioner, his assistants, stenographers and clerks, one room by
the Nursery Inspection Department and one by the Department
of Entomology. In addition to these, storerooms and an en-
tomological laboratory have been established in the attic of
Language Hall and a special room for the inspection of plant
shipments, with facilities for fumigation, disinfection, etc., has
been equipped in the basement of the same building.
Even these facilities are very inadequate for handling the
executive work incident to the Board's working staff of upwards
of four hundred employees, correspondence with nurserymen,
fruit growers and farmers of the State and the laboratory in-
vestigation which is a necessary part of the eradication and
control work being conducted in connection with many pests.
and diseases in various parts of the State.

TROPICAL LABORATORY

The necessity for scientific studies of citrus canker as a
means of perfecting methods for facilitating its eradication, and
for the further purpose of finding, if possible, a remedy for the






State Plant Boald


disease, was recognized by the Board immediately upon its
organization.
The establishment of a-special laboratory for these investiga-
tions was made possible by the generosity and public spirit of
the South Dade County Fruit Growers' and Truckers' Associa-
tion. The Association erected at Redland, Dade County, a
capacious building to be used jointly as an auditorium and
laboratory. Practically one-half of this building was turned
over to the Plant Board for laboratory work, the only expense
to the Board being the equipment of the laboratory with the
necessary apparatus. Dr. R. A. Jehle was elected Assistant
Plant Pathologist to the Board on July 12, 1915, and, pending
completion and equipment of the laboratory, he devoted his time
to field investigations of citrus canker. The laboratory was
formally opened November 27, 1915. Investigations have been
steadily pursued since that time under Dr. Jehle's supervision.
Some valuable results have thus far been obtained, to which
reference is made on a subsequent page under the heading of
" Department of Plant Pathology"

ERADICATION OF CITRUS CANKER

The first case of citrus canker found in Florida was discov-
ered in Jefferson County on September 30, 1912, by the In-
spector of Nursery Stock, Dr. E. W. Berger. At that time the
disease was new and totally unknown. Specimens collected by
Dr. Berger at Monticello on September 30, 1912, were subse-
quently found to be identical with the disease which later came
to be known as "citrus canker". In July of 1913, the same
disease was found in a nursery in Dade County and though
every effort was made by the Inspector of Nursery Stock, under
existilig laws and with the limited resources at his command, to
prevent its spread, the disease appeared in some of the citrus
groves in that County in the spring of 1914.
The sudden appearance of a new and destructive disease was
unprecedented. Dr. Berger's keen realization of the possibili-
ties this disease possessed for creating havoc to the citrus in-
dustry and his activity in calling attention of the growers to it
was largely responsible for the prompt~ measures taken to sup-
press it. Nad as much as two more years passed without
adequate` legislation and appropriations for fighting the dis-
ease, citrus canker would without -do~t have secured such a
wide' distribution in the State as.to have made the cost of era-






Ain221al IZepo,t, ~9~5


dication run into the millions of dollars, if indeed it moulcl not
have been rendered impossible.
In May of 1914 the Florida Growers' and Shippers' League
realizing the gravity of the situation, contributed funds for a
preliminary investigation of the trouble and Mr. L. S. Tenny,
Secretary-Manager of the League, assumed personal charge of
the nrork. Mr. Frank Stirling nas employed at the expense of
the League to make a survey under direction of the Inspector of
Nursery Stock to determine the extent to which the disease
had spread. By June of 1914 the growers of Dade County
realized that a disease of extremely virulent nature had ap-
peared in many of their groves. Additional funds were appro-
propriated by the Growers' and Shippers' League and addi-
tional inspectors were employed to wage warfare on the dis-
ease. Attempts to control the disease by means of sprays and
by cutting out infected leaves, twigs and branches and treating
the remaining portions of the trees with disinfectants proved
ineffective. In July, 1914, the growers abandoned hope of
curing infected trees and adopted a campaign of eradication
consisting of the destruction of the infected trees by fire.
Additional contributions were made by the growers of Dade
County, these aggregating in the neighborhood of $30,000 up
to the time of passage of the Plant Act in April, 1915. The
Florida Growers' and Shippers' League expended $17,770.58;
citrus growers in other sections of the State, transportation
companies, marketing agencies, etc., contributed approximately
$30,000 more, and His Excellency, Governor Park Trammell.
contributed $1000 out of his contingent fund.
During the summerof 1914, the samedisease, though its
identity was unknown, was found to be destroying citrus plant-
ings on Santa Rosa Peninsula in Walton County. Here too, the
growers tried various remedial measures to no avail and, with-
out any knowledge of what was transpiring at the same time
in Dade County, employed Mr. Harold Mowry as inspector for
their Association and adopted the plan of destroying by fire
all infected- trees discovered..
By the end of 1914 the disease had also been found in Brow-
ard,:Brevard, 'Escambia,- Lee, Palm Beach, Pasco~and Pinellas
Counties, apparently in restricted areas.
The United States Department of Agriculture was constantly
in touch ~rith the situation in Florida and other Gulf States,
and as a result of information fumishecl to Congress by the






State Plant Board


Honorable Secretary of Agriculture that body made an appro-
priation of $35,000, available February 1, 1915, for the purpose
of investigating the possibility of eradicating the disease. Of
this sum, $24,254.53 was expended by the Bureau of Plant
Industry in Florida and the remainder in the other Gulf States.
The seriousness of this menace to the citrus industry of
Florida was generally recognized throughout the State when
the Legislature convened in the spring of 1915 and the neces-
sity of adequate legislation for dealing with the existing emerg-
ency, as well as the self-evident need for protection of the affri-
cultural and horticultural industries of the State against the
introduction of additional destructive pests and diseases, was
largely responsible for the passage of the Florida Plant Act.
This Act was approved April 30, 1915, and in addition to creat-
ing a State Plant Board and providing the legal facilities for
dealing with such situations, made available a continuing appro-
priation of $35,000 per annum for the work of the State Plant
Board and a special fund of $125,000 for the eradication of
citrus canker.

April 30, 1915, to April 30, 1916
Within four days after the approval of the Plant Act the
Plant Board organized and assumed charge of the canker eradi-
cation work throughout the State, as well as of the nursery
inspection work.
The Bureau of Plant Industry, United States Department of
Agriculture, co-operated in the canker eradication work until
June 30, 1-915, at which time the Congressional appropriation
of $35,000 became exhausted, the official expense of the work
being borne jointly by the Bureau and the State Plant Board
from May 1, 1915, to June 30, 1915.
The Florida Growers' and Shippers' League continued to take
an active part in the eradication work during 1915 and, subse-
quent to the passage of the Plant Act, expended $7,249.04 in
this work.
From July 1, 1915, until February 29, 1916, the State Plant
Board conducted the eradication work without assistance from
the Federal Government, defraying the expense thereof out of
the appropriations made by the Legislature in connection with
the passage of the Plant Act.
At a mass meeting of citrus growers held at Gainesville,.
Florida, October 6, 1915, a committee, consisting of Messrs..






Annual Repo?t, 1915


D. C. Gillett (Chairman), L. B. Skinner, J. H. Ross, L. D. Jones,
and Gee. S. McClure,`was appointed and instructed to place
before Congress the need of Federal aid in dealing with this
disease. Similar committees, appointed from Texas, Louisiana,
Mississippi and Alabama, in which States the disease was now
known to occur, co-operated with the Committee from Florida
in placing before Congress the seriousness of the situation.
Although the disease had not appeared in California or Ariz-
ona, the citrus growers and members of Congress realized the
importance of eradicating it and co-operated with the commit-
tees from the Gulf States in presenting the matter to Congress.
As a result of these representations and through the endorse-
ment of the Honorable Secretary of Agriculture, David F.
Houston, an appropriation of $300,000 for canker eradication
in the United States was included in the Urgent Deficiency Bill
approved February 28, 1916. Immediately upon this fund being
made available the Bureau of Plant Industry resumed active
co-operation with officials of the States in which canker oc-
curred, Florida included. An additional sum of $250,000 was
included by Congress in the Agricultural Bill, approved August
11, 1916.
Up to the end of February, 1916, there had been expended out
of the Plant Act Special Fund $108,415.36. During March and
April, 1916, the greater part of the expense of this work in
Florida was defrayed by the Bureau of Plant Industry out of
the Federal appropriation mentioned. During these two months
$32,751.13 was expended in the eradication work. Of this sum,
$576.69 was defrayed out of the Plant Act Special Fund and
$32,174.44 out of the Federal appropriation.
The following schedule shows the disbursements, by months,
out of the Plant Act Special Fund during the fiscal year:











Traveling Total for
Month Salaries Expensesl Supplies Month

June, 1915.....~lay, 1915 .. :::::::::::::::::::::: $~,as9.74 1$ 464.02 Y; 553.96~ 3,287,12
July, 1916............................. ; 11,437.69 1 1,299.73 810.73 1 13,548.15
August, 1915................... i 12,563.32 1,188.26 535.10 14,286.68
3eptember, 1913.............'.. 12,623.54 1 1,911.26 902.61 15,437.41
October, 1915 .........____ i 11,061.97 2,417.09 1,018.61 - 14,497.67
November, 1915 .................. 10,506.15 / 1,837.36 1 .939.74 13,283.25
December, 1915.................... 7,597.50 1,812.16 132.76 9,546.41
January, 1916..................... 7,698.18 1,685.35 346.76 9,730.29
February, 1916.................. 7,635.33 1,588.77 229.02 i 9,453.12
n4arch, 1916................... 30.00 135.13 215.33 380.46
April, 1916........... ........._ / 144.15 41.62 10.46 196.23
Total for fiscal~ year.................................... / ~108.992.05



May 1, 1916, to September 30, 1916

During this period the cost of the canker eradication work in
Florida was $179,671.51, of which sum $2,484.22 was defrayed
out of the Plant Act Special Fund and $177,187.29 by the
Bureau of Plant Industry out of the Federal appropriations.
It appears that, up to September 30, 1916, a total of at least
$432,462.44 was expended in the eradication of citrus canker in
Florida, the sources of this amount having been as follows:

Through the Inspector of Nursery Stock, prior to April 30, iYi6,
estimated':' ........................................ 1,3.?0.89
Contrihutions ~v growers and citizens of Dade County, 1914-
1915, estimated............................... 30,000.00
By Florida Growers' and Shippers' League, prior to April 30,
1915 ...........................~............ 17,770.58
By Florida Growers' and Shippers' League, subseequent to April
30, 1913 ........._ 7,24~.0~
Contributions by citrus erowels of I"lorida (exclusjve of Dade
Countg), transporta~ion companies, marketing agencies, etc.,
estimated ........................................ 30?000.00
Out of Governor's Contingent Fund, 1914-131.j~~~~~~~~~~~.............. 1,000.00
First Fedeial appropriation, Febr-Liary to June, 1915................... 24,254.53
Plant Act Special Fund, April 30, 1D15, to Febluarrr 29, 1916.. 108,415.36
Plant Act Special Fund, March 1, 1916, to April 30, 1916....._ 576.69
Plant Act Special Fund, i~ay i, 1916, to September 30, 1916.. 2,483.22
Federal appropriation, thlonfih Bureau of Plant Industry, March
1, to April 30, 1916....._ 32,174.44
Federal appropriation, through Bureau of Plant Industry, May
i, to September 30, 1916......................... 177,157.29

Total to September 30, 1916................................ .......$432,462.44



rIn coimection mith the general moik of insgecting nn~l quarantining
nu~`se~iea.


State Plant Boald






;1127211(11 aepO)'t, 19~5


TRAINING OF INSPECTORS

The necessity for employing only trained inspectors in the
campaign against citrus canker was self-evident from the t-;me
the disease was first discovered in Dade County. The inspec-
tion methods were largely developed by the growers of Dade
~bounty during 1914 when they were carrying on the work at
their own expense and the growers themselves were serving
as volunteer inspectors.
The readiness with which the disease was transmitted from
one citrus tree to another resulted in a practice of disinfecting
the hands by all parties who examined the infected trees. This
was followed shortly by disinfection of the workmen's clothing
by spraying it with a disinfecting solution. Following this it
was decided that still greater safety would be secured by wear-
ing a union overall suit and removing this entire suit and dis-
infecting it whenever the grower left a canker-infected prop-
erty. The use of the overall suit shortly led to the development
of a. one-piece inspection suit made of white cloth to cover the
entire clothing of the inspector. This suit, wom with leggings,
shoes asci a special hat, ail of which, together with the hands,
arms and faces of the inspectors, are disinfected when they
leave properties under inspection, has become the standard in-
spection outfit worn by all inspectors.
The men engaged in the eradication work in Dade County
in 1914 obtained a knowledge of citrus canker and the methods
of detecting it by actual experience, and these men became the
nucleus of the inspection force employed by the Growers' and
Shippers' League in 1914.
With the creation of the Plant Board, April 36, 1915, the in-
spection force which had been previously employed by the
Florida Growers' and Shippers' League was taken over in its
entirety. During the summer of 1915 additional inspectors
Mrere acquired and were, in all cases, trained by serving appren-
ticeships in the canker-infected properties under the tutorage of
men who had previously been thoroughly trained. These ap-
prenticeships nrere, in all cases, served by the prospective in-
spector at his own expense and the completion of a satisfactory
apprenticeship was a necessary prerequisite to his appointment
as an inspector. With the extension of the canker eradication
work into new territory and the imperative need of additional
inspectors in the spring of 1916, it was seen that there were not
sufficient facilities for training by the apprenticeship method






State Plant Board


the large number of inspectors that would be required. Ac-
cordingly, a so-called "citrus canker school" was established
at Gainesville. Applicants whose previous training, experience,
and moral character indicated that they possessed the qualifi-
cations necessary to the making of competent inspectors were
admitted to the two-weeks classes of instruction at their own
expense.
The first of these classes commenced on March 3rd and was
concluded on March 14th, 1916, twelve inspectors being trained.
A second class held from March 16th to April Ist, 1916, trained
13 inspectors. The third class, April 3rd to 15th, trained 12;
the fourth class, May Ist to 13th, trained 36 inspectors; and
the fifth class, June 6th to 17th, trained 65 inspectors, making
a total of 138 inspectors specially trained in these classes.
The course of training given these men consisted of lectures
covering all phases of citrus canker eradication work; the
methods of disinfecting employed under various conditions and
circumstances; the Florida Plant Act of 1915 and the rules and
regulations of the Plant Board relative to the work of inspectors
and quarantines; methods of differentiating citrus canker from
other diseases of citrus plants; the relation between the Fed-
eral Department of Agriculture and the State organization in
conducting the canker eradication work and numerous other
subjects vitally connected with the work of canker eradication.
The lectures were supplemented by actual field practice in the
inspection of citrus properties in the vicinity of Gainesville.
Each prospective inspector was required to pass an eyesight
test, as well as an examination at the end of his training course.
It was only by means of these classes of instruction that it
was possible to secure as many trained inspectors as were im-
peratively needed for the canker eradication work.
It is a pleasure to report that the men trained in these classes
have shown themselves as proficient as those who were trained
as apprentices in the field. While there is perhaps little choice
between the two methods of training, the greatest efficiency
would be attained if all inspectors were enabled to take the
course of training in addition to a field apprenticeship.

FIELD ORGANIZATION

In sections where a considerable number of inspectors are
employed the inspectors work in squads of four in charge of an
experienced foreman. The foreman is directly responsible to






Annzlnl Repo?t, 1915


the District Inspector, who may have charge of from five to
fifteen squads. The territory assigned to each District In-
spector is dependent upon conditions and the extent of infected
properties with which he has to deal. In some cases a district
consists of less than a county and in other cases it consists of
from two to three counties. The District Inspectors are directly
responsible to the Plant Commissioner. Only the most expe-
riencedl and tried men are assigned to detached duty.
In addition to the inspection force a limited number of em-
p:oyees are designated as Grove Supervisors. The principal
dut~r of the Grove Supervisor is to secure the co-operation of
the onners of canker-infected properties in so conducting the
work in their properties that danger of spreading the disease
nri!l be reduced to a minimum. In all cases, the men selected
for the position of Grove Supervisor are experienced citrus
growers who have received adequate training on the canker
inspection forces.

LOCATiNG THE CENTERS OF INFECTION

The introduction of citrus canker into Florida, as well as its
dissemination from one locality to another within the State, had
been through the medium of nursery stock shipments from in-
fected nurseries.
One of the first problems confronting the Plant Board was
to find out what nurseries were, or had been, infected, to what
points these nurseries had shipped citrus trees and whether
these trees had developed the infection after reaching the grow-
ers who received and planted them. It had been determined
by the former Inspector of Nursery Stock, Dr. E. T;V. Berger,
that four citrus nurseries within the State were infected and
that these nurseries had made shipments prior to the discovery
of canker in them. It was also found that an infected nursery
in another State had made citrus shipments into Florida. From
the nurseries themselves, from transportation companies and
from all possible sources, lists were obtained of these ship-
ments. It was found that a total of 3,131 shipments of dan-
gerous" citrus nursery stock, comprising a total of 338,512
trees, had been distributed in Florida by these nurseries. These
shipments had gone to 427 towns or villages in 51 counties of
the State. ~i'hen one considers that many shipments were to
dealers or agents who re-distributed the trees in small lots, that
growers frequently divided shipments with their friends or






State Plant Board


neighbors and that winter visitors to the State frequently or-
dered trees and presented them to relatives or friends, the mag-
nitude of the task involved in finding and inspecting these
338,512 trees can be appreciated. The task did not stop with
finding the trees and giving them one inspection, for, having
been exposed to the danger of infection, they were likely to be
carrying the disease in dormant form and might not develop it
in visible form until many months -afterwards. It was there-
fore considered necessary to make repeated inspections of these
trees for from one to three years after they were planted before
being assured of their safety. Several months of work and
heavy expense were involved in finding these trees and all of
them have not yet been found. However, the brst inspection of
those which could be located brought to light 62 centers of
infection distributed through 21 counties. Fifty-six, or 90 per
cent, of these infections were found on shipments made by one
nursery firm.
In this connection it should be remembered that all of these
shipments were made prior to the passage of the Plant Act.
No case of distribution of canker on shipments of citrus trees
made since the passage of the Plant Act has yet come to light.
In other words, the quarantines imposed by the Plant Board in
conjunction with infected properties seem to have effectually
closed Ishis avenue of dissemination.
When the dangerous nature of these "exposed" trees mias
fullgi realized through the finding of canker on an average of
one tree out of every one hundred and eight of them, it became
self-evident that the! interests of both grower and State would
best be served by their destruction, without waiting for the
disease to manifest itself. However, the Plant Act authorized
the forcible destruction of only such trees as actually showed
infection. No matter how complete the evidence that a tree had
been infected and would presently develop the disease it could
not legally be destroyed until it showed the canker lesions or
until its owner gave consent for its destruction.
An active campaign of education was accordingly launched
by means of which the owners of these trees were apprised of
their dangerous nature and their permission solicited for the
destruction of them. In this work, growers' associations, boards
of trade and individual growers of prominence gave their time
and efforts freely. The cost which either the State or the Gov-
ek-nment would incur by continuing the inspection of these trees






Annual Report, 1915


for from one to four years' time, before they could be consid-
ered as safe, was an added argument for their destruction.
Up to April 30, 1916, 146,753 of these dangerous trees (in-
eluding the ones which showed infection) were destroyed wit'n
the owners' consent. Between May 1 and November 30, 1916,
consent was secured for the destruction of 31,360 more, making
a total of 178,113, out of the total of 338,512, destroyed up to
November 30, 1916. There are, accordingly, 160,399 of these
trees, the location of which is known, which must still be con-
sidered as dangerous and the periodical inspection of which
must be continued for at least a year longer, unless the owners
will in the meantime consent to their destruction.

&UARANTINES IN AND AROUND INFECTED PROPERTIES

It was early recognized that some form of quarantine wouici
be necessary to prevent the spread of canker from infected
properties and as all primary infections had been found due to
shipments and movements of citrus trees which had been ex-
posd to infection, the plan of preventing the movement of nur-
sery stock from areas in which the disease occurred naturally
suggested itself. Prior to the passage of the Plant Act, the
Inspector of Nursery Stock had ~-ithheld inspection certificates
from all nurseries located in localities where the disease was
known to occur, thus establishing wliae mras virtually a local or
"' district quarantine.
At a conference of grove owners and members of the Board
at Redland, Dade County, on June 18, 1915, a plan of yuaran-
tining was arrived at which gave promise of preventing clis-
semination of the disease without the hardships attendant upon
quarantines applying to specified counties or districts consid-
erable areas of which were apparently free from the disease.
At this time the Board adopted, its Rule 5, which declareit every
property infected with citrus canker to be the center of an
infected and dangerous zone, this zone extending a mile in
every direction from the boundaries of the infected property
and within which center and zone all citrus trees and plants
were declared to be plants likely to carry and disseminate citrus
canker. The planting or movement of citrus trees and citrus
budwood within such zone was prohibited. Upon the adoption
of this rule local quarantines which had previously been im-
posed were repealed.
Rule 5 prevented the movement and distribution of nursery






State Plant Boalcl


stock which was located in dangerous proximity to canker in-
fctions, prevented the distribution of canker from one point to
another within the quarantined area on citrus trees and facili-
tated eradication by prohibiting the planting of any additional
host plants, namely, citrus trees, within the dangerous area.
Rule 5 effectually eliminated what had been, up to that time,
the greatest factor in distributing the disease, namely, the
movement of citrus trees which were actually infected but on
which, in the majority of instances, the disease had not devei-
oped to the point of being visible.
As the eradication work progressed it became evident that
the quarantine in the area extending one mile in every direc-
tion from an infected property could be modified when danger
of further outbreaks within that area had apparently ceased.
Owing to the length of time which canker could remain dor-
mant it was self-evident that the infected property would have
to be kept under inspection and close observation for several
months before the quarantine surrounding it could be lifted.
The condition of the trees in the property as to vigor anti
growth and the manner in which the property had been handled
by the owner were also found to be important factors bearing
on the probability of further outbreaks of the disease.
No quarantines of this character were raised by the Board
until its meeting on October 11, 1915. At this meeting careful
consideration was given by the Board to the records and history
of infected properties which had shown no canker infections
for periods varying from ten to sixteen months and in the
case of properties wherein the Board felt assured no further
cases of the disease would appear the quarantine was raised
in so far as it affected the surrounding properties to a distance
of one mile. As the ability of the canker bacteria to persist
and multiply in the soil had by this time been established, the
Board, when lifting these quarantines, specified that there should
be no further planting of citrus in the infected properties until
permission therefore had been granted by the Board." In other
words, the Board, when raising the quarantine surrounding an
infected property, did not declare that the disease had been
completely eradicated therefrom, but merely expressed the opin-
ion that the property was no longer a danger center" from
which outbreaks of canker were likely to occur.

*UD to the time of prinling this report such germission has not been
Grnnted bY the Board in any case.







A~znual Repo?t, 1915


DISTRIBUTION OF THE DISEASE IN FLORIDA


April 30, 1916, to April 30, 1916

At the time the Plant Act was approved, April 30, 1915,
citrus canker nas known to occur in the counties of Brevard,
Broward, Dade, Escambia, Jefferson, Lee, Palm Beach, Pasco,
Pinellas and Walton.
With the active inauguration of the Plant Board work infec-
tions previously existent were rapidly brought to light. During
May of 191~, the disease was found in DeSoto and Santa Rosa
Counties, during June inBaker County, during July in St.
Lucie County, during August in Marion County, during Sep-
tember in Hillsboro and Seminole Counties, during October in
Bay County and during December in Duval County. During
January canker nras found in Suwannee County, but during the
months of February, March and April, 1916, infections were
not found in ally additional counties.
In some of the counties mentioned only one infected property
was found, while in others the infected areas were more es-
tensive and of a very serious nature. All of these infected cen-
ters were found as a result of systematicall2r running down and
inspecting citrus nursery stock shipments which had been made
from canker-infecteci nurseries prior to the passage of the
Plant Act. Approximately ninety per cent of the primary
inflections were traced to shipments made by one nursery firm.
While the number of counties in which the disease had been
found was relatively large, an adequate idea as to the extent of
the infections can be had only by considering the number of
individual properties in which the infection was found. The
number of properties, in the entire State, known to be infected
on April 30, 1915, nas 243.
The number of additional infected properties discovered, as
well as the number of infected properties declared by the
Board to be no longer danger centers ", during the fiscal year,
is shown below:







*Ey yrlmar?-- infection ~' is meani thr first infec~ion or canker occurrina
in n localitT-. All ll'imar3 infecrions of cnnker thus far found in the Slnte
mele due to shilments of Ilul'serS stock from infecred nurseries.











Number
Number of properties infected properties
Month found infected* declared no longer
(( danger centers "
May, 1915..............~....~......~~........ 11
June, 1915 .........~.~~.~.........~~......~... / 17
July, 1915 .......................~......~..... 28
August, 1915...~.~.............~..~~..~.~... 33
September, 1915........~.~........~...... 17
October, 1915 ....................~......... 9 89
November, 1915 ....~...~..........~..~.. 6 1
December, 1915....................~...... / 7 5
January, 1916...............~...~.....~.... 3
February, 1916..........~..~............. O
March, 1916..................~...~.~I....... 7 2
April, 1916..........~.......~................ 1 1

Totals.. 139 97


Properties still classed as infected on April 30, 1916....................... 285
May 1, 1916, to November 30, 1916
During the months of May, June, July, August and September
no infections were found in counties not previously infected.
During October an infection of long standing was discovered
in Lake County. This infection was traced to two shipments
of citrus nursery stock from an Alabama nursery in the spring
of 1913" which had, fortunately, been planted in adjoining
properties. The number of properties found infected for the
first time and the number declared no longer danger centers "
during this period are shown below:
Number
Num"er of properties infected properties
IVlonth found infected declared no longer
(( danger centers "
nlay, 1916 ........................~~~~~ / 10
June, 1916.........................~~~~~ 1 9
July, 1916 ~.....................~~.~~~~~~~~ 9 18
August, 1916............................ 9 2
September, 1916....................... 'i 1
October, 1916 ........................... 11 163
November, 1916 ..................... i 5 1 6
Totals.............................. 60 190

*Namely, properties not previously known to be infected.
*The exact date of one of these shipments cannot be determined. It may
have been made in 1912.


State Plant Board


Summary, April 30, 1916
Properties infected April 30, 1915.........~..~~~~~..~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Found infected between April 30, 1915, and April 30, 1916..
Total properties infected to April 30, 1916................~~...~~~~~
Declared no longer danger centers "..~.................~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


213
..... 139







Annual Report, 1915


Grand Summary, November 30, 1916
Properties infected to April 30, 1916.~.................................. 382
Additional properties found infected between May 1, and Novem-
ber 30, 1916.....................~.............. 60

Total properties infected to November 30, 1916.................................... 442
Properties declared no longer danger centers to April 30, 1916.....~.. 97
Declared no longer danger centers between May i, and Novem-
ber 30, 1916.....~..~........................... 190
Total......~.........~.................. 287
Less properties showing subsequent infection~.............~...............~ 5*

No longer danger centers, November 30, 1916....~..~.......................-.--- 282

Properties still classed as infected on November 30, 1916................ 160

The following statement shows the total number of citrus
trees, both infected and exposed to infection, which have been
destroyed in the course of the canker eradication work up to
the present time. Trees which had been exposed to the infec-
tion, but which had not shown visible canker, were in all cases
destroyed by the owners or with their permission. The number
of nursery trees given includes seedlings and plants in seed beds.


Infected Trees i Exposed Trees
DestroJied Destroyed
Grove Nursery Grove Nursery
Period Trees Trees Trees Trees
Prior to ~pril 30, 191~.......... ~,6~0 320,306 16,327 3a4,200
Apr. 30, 191a, to Apr. 30, 1916 ~3,a95 21,364 42,910 1 2,18~,634
niaS i, 1916, to Nov.30, 1916 1,931 448 1 53,399 i 6,780
Total........................ 13,178 342,218 1 92,636 2,546,614


It is significant that the number of infected trees during the
above periods steadily decreased.
The progress made in eradication of the disease is also indi-
cated by a comparison of the number of infected properties on
April 30, 1915, and on April 30 and November 30, 1916. On
April 30, 1915, when the Plant Board came into existence, 243
infected properties were known, and many other infections were'
in existence but were as yet undiscovered. Despite the discovery
of 139 additional infected properties during the following
twelve months the number infected" at the end of the fiscal

*In three of the properties declared no longer danger centers, in T~hich
canker infection subsequently aDgeared, circumstances indicated infection
from outside sources; in the remaining ~~-o re-infection ~as undoubtedlS due
to hold-over dormant infections or ro soil infections in the progerties them-
selves.






State Plant Board


year, April 30, 1916, was but 285. From May 1 to November
30, 1916, the number of properties declared to be no longer
danger centers was nearly four times as great as the number of
newly infected properties found during the same period and on
the latter date the number of infected properties was bat
160. Stated in another way, eradication.of the disease is be-
lieved to be complete in 282, or 631~ per cent of the total 442
properties in which canker has been found up to the presene
time.
The progress in eradication is also indicated by Figure 1,
which shows the number of infected trees found in the State
each month from May, 1914, to date. Several factors have
operated to determine the number of infe'cteci trees found each
month. For example, the periods of growth which the citrus
trees usually undergo in midsummer and again in November
are favorable to a rapid spread of the disease. A reduction in
the number of inspectors employed has always been followed by
an increase in the number of infections. On the other hand,
the number of infections found during the periods of dormancy
are lower than during periods of growth and an increase in the
inspection force has always been followed by a decrease in the
number of infections, even in the midst of the growing periods.
Figure 2 shows the number of canker-infected properties
found in the State up to the end of any given month: likewise
the number of infected properties declared no longer danger
centers up to the corresponding date.
The preceding data, though greatly condensed, is sufficiently
convincing to Sustify the conclusion that the continuation of the
present campaign against citrus canker in Florida must inevit-
ably result in its eradication from the State. Final eradication
is assured if sufficient funds are constantly available so that the
work may continue without interruption, under efficient man-
agement and with such energy and speed as to prevent ally
material spread of the disease while, at the same time, the
remaining infections are being stamped out.

LEGAL ACTIONS
On account of the active co-operation of the citrus growers
and because of the practically universal support which the
Plant Board has received in its efforts to enforce the cyuarantine
measures necessary to the eradication of the disease, there has
been but little occasion for resort to the courts.






































Fir. i. Diagram showing~ t;he numlel of canltcl-inTccted Rl'ove t;lecs I'ollltl in Florida each month F1om. ~lay 1.5, 1914
(when eradication wolle W)LS i)effull by the I~lolitl:l Glowels';lnd Shilpols' I~cague) l;o Novernlcl RO, Inl(i.








































Pig. 2. Comparison of infected properties and properties declared no longer danger centers in Florida at different
dates. The light line shows the total number of canker-infected properties found in the State up to the end of any
given month. The heavy line shows the number of canker-infected properties declared by the Plant Board, up to cor-
responding dates, as being no longer danger centers. (When these two lines meet, in a diagram of this character, eradi-
cation of the disease from the State will have been completed.)







Annual Repo?t, 1915


APRIL 30, 1915, TO APRIL 30, 1916
Civil

During this period four owners of canker-infected properties
.sought by injunction to restrain the agents of the Plant Board
from destroying canker-infected trees in accordance with the
provisions of the Plant Act. The Circuit Court issued a pre-
liminary injunction in each of these cases. Upon hearing, these
injunctions were dissolved.
In another case the owner of a citrus grove requested an in-
junction restraining the inspectors of the Board from inspect-
ing his property for citrus canker, alleging that the Florida
Plant Act of 1915, authorizing such inspection, was unconsti-
tutional. The Circuit Court of Dade County held the Plant
Act to be constitutional and sustained a demurrer to such bill,
and upon an appeal, the Supreme Court affirmed the decision
of the Court below.
The State Plant Board sought by injunction to restrain the
owner of a canker-infected property from interfering with
agents of the Board in destroying canker-infected trees as pro-
videdl for by the Plant Act. A preliminary injunction was
issued, the terms of the injunction were alleged by the Board
to have been violated and the defendant cited for contempt.

C?imiizal

Warrants ~ere issued charging two owners of canker-infected
properties with refusing to destroy, or to permit destruction of,
canker-infected trees. At the end of the fiscal year one of these
cases was still pending. In the other case the defendant died
before being tried.
A warrant was issued charging the owner of a canker-in-
fected property with picking, packing and shipping citrus fruit
from said infected property in violation of the Plant Board
rules prescribing the sanitary precautions for handling of such
fruit. Preliminary hearing was indefinitely postponed upon
payment of costs by defendant and assurances being given of
future co-operation with the Plant Board.
A warrant was issued charging a nurseryman with removing
plants from a canker-infected property. Case pending at the
close of the fiscal year.
An owner of a canker-infected property planted citrus trees
therein in violation of Rule 5 of the Board. Upon information






State Plant Boa1d


being filed against this party he-plead guilty and was fined
$25.00 and costs.
Warrants were issued charging two owners of citrus prop-
erties with assault, arising out of the inspection of citrus.prop-
erties by agents of the Plant Board. One of these was noi-
prossed upon assurances of future co-operation with the Board;
the other was pending at the close of the fiscal year.

May 1, 1916, to Novmber 30, 1916
Civil

During this period but one.case was brought against the
Board. Certain nurserymen whose citrus nurseries were located
within one mile of property which the Plant Board had by
resolution declared to be canker-infected property and hence
under quarantine by the provision of Rule 5 of the Plant Board,
petitioned the lower court for a decree requiring the Board to
abolish its Rule 5 and to require said Board to permit the sale
and distribution of citrus nursery stock which, under its rules,
was declared to be exposed to danger of infection. To this the
attorneys for the Plant Board filed a demurrer. The lower
court overruled this demurrer, but the Supreme Court of the
State reversed the decision, sustaining this clemurrer. In its
decision the Supreme Court held that the bill of complaint failed
to show that the State Plant Board in making and enforcing
Rule 5 had exceeded its authority, and that therefore a court
of equity would not be warranted in requiring the Board to
abolish or modify its rule.m
C7iminccl

Warrants have been issued charging four parties with plant-
ing citrus trees in areas within which such planting was pro-
hibited by rules of the Plant Board because of danger of infec-
tion by citrus canker. These cases are pending at the time of
this report.
Warrants have been issued charging two parties with having
moved nursery stock without a certificate of inspection attached,
as required by the Plant Act. These cases are also pending.

GO-OPERATION

The Plant Board has received the unstinted co-operation and

*The cost to the Plant Board of defe~dina this case, incluning attornfys'
Lnd mitness fees, time of its emDloyees, tr~velina esgenses, etc., a~nounted to
~izss.sn.






Annual Repolt, 1915


support of the Florida Growers' and Shippers' League, the
Florida Citrus Exchange, marketing agencies and local growers'
associations.
The University of Florida Experiment Station, through its
Director, Prof. P. H. Rolfs, and several members of its stafi,
has rendered valuable aid. The assistance of Prof. H. E. Stev-
ens, Plant Pathologist of the Station, in furnishing to the Board
and its agents the results of his exhaustive investigations of
citrus canker is particularly worthy of mention.
Members of the Faculty of the University of Florida cheer-
fully contributed their services in the training of inspectors for
the canker eradication work. Through the courtesy of Presi-
dent A. A. ~Murphree, the Plant Commissioner and his assist-
ants have also been supplied with office and laboratory room
and their work facilitated in many ways.
During those periods in which the canker eradication work
has been conducted in intimate co-operation with the Bureau of
Plant Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, the
most harmonious relations have existed betmreen the Plant
Board staff and the officials of the Bureau. The latter have
been untiring in their efforts to facilitate in every way possible
a successful campaign against the disease in Florida. Special
mention should be made of the interest displayed in this woric
by the Honorable Secretary of Agriculture, David F. Houston,
and the active part taken by Dr. K. F. Kellerman, Assistant
Chief of the Bureau of Plant Industry.
Much of the success which may have been attained thus far
is in large measure due to the generous support and assistance
received from all quarters.


DEPARTMENT OF NURSERY INSPECTION

The nursery is a necessary feature in the horticultural indus-
tries, for it is the place in which trees are produced and grown
for planting in the groves and orchards. The nursery could
not be dispensed with in the development of any fruit industry
of commercial importance. However, the nursery, besides be-
ing the distributing center for trees and plants, is also the clis-
tributing center of all diseases and insect pests to which the
grove or orchard trees are subject. Healthy orchards can be
insured only by the use of healthy nursery stock, and the latter
cannot be insured save by a very efficient and painstaking in-






State Plant Boarcl


spe-,tion system which will not only detect dangerous diseases
and insects in the nursery, and prevent their distribution to
planters, but which will go even further and protect the nur-
series themselves against infestation from outside sources.
Such a system has been developed by the Plant Board and is
confidently believed to be at least the equal of any in the United
States.
Practically all of the pests which the pecan growers, peach
growers, citrus growers and other horticulturists are now com-
pelled to combat have been introduced into their plantings on
nursery stock in past years when adequate nursery inspection
was not provided by the State. As there are many destructive
diseases and insects--such as citrus canker, scaly bark, cottony
cushion-scale, Dictyospermum scale, California red scale, cam-
phor thrips, pecan die-back, etc.-that are not yet generally
distributed over the State and as the introduction of additional
dangerous enemies can be prevented only by an adequate inspec-
tion of both importations and nurseries, the importance of the
nursery inspection work of the Board is self-evident.
The first official inspection of nursery stock in Florida was
provided for by an Act of the Legislature approved May %3,
1911, the execution of this Act being placed in the hands of
the Board of Control. As but $3000.00 per annum was appro-
priated for this work, which sum had to, cover the salary, office
expenses and traveling expenses of the one inspector and as
the nurseries of Florida during this period contained not less
than twelve million trees, the inadequacy of the inspection ser-
vice at that time is self-evident. The Inspector of Nursery
Stock did the best he could with the facilities at his disposal,
but it was a physical impossibility for one man, regardless of
his efficiency or energy, to annually inspect more than a very
small per cent of twelve million trees.
This arrangement continued until the passage of the Florida
Plant Act of 1915, immediately following which the nursery
inspection work was taken over and entirely reorganized by
the Plant Board.
From April 30 to June 1, 1915, the former Inspector of Nur-
sery Stock, Dr. E. W. Berger, assisted by Prof. P. H. Rolfs of
the Advisory Committee, supervised the work of nursery in-
spection. On May 11, 1915, the Board elected Mr. F. M. O'Byrne
as Nursery Inspector and he assumed the duties of this position.
June 1, 1915.







Annual Repolt, 1915


Among the many striking results of the nursery inspection
work the following will serve as examples:
On three occasions citrus canker has been discovered in nur-
series by assistant inspectors and distribution of trees from
these nurseries prevented.
Scaly bark has been discovered in thirteen localities where it
was not previously known to exist, the Board being thereby
enabled to take steps for preventing its further dissemination
from these centers.
Camphor thrips was discovered in seven nurseries and its
distribution from these centers of infestation prevented,
The Dictyospermum scale* was discovered in Florida, and
nurseries so located as to be exposed to infestation by this new
pest were placed under quarantine,
Foot rot was discovered in three nurseries and these placed
under quarantine.

INSPECTION WORK

April 30, 1915, to April 30, 1916

During the fiscal year which ended April 30, 1916, 697 nur-
series were inspected. The total number of nursery inspections
made was 1,061, The acreage embraced in the 697 nurseries
was as follows:

Citrus ......... ........._______ ...1,851 acres
Pecan ........._ ~~~~ 4715/2 acres
Ornamental and generai..... .......... 521 acres
Total................... ........._____' Ci~1/2 acres
The amount of nursery stock (number of ~rees) in the 697
nurseries inspected was as follows:
Citlus--
BgJde"d grapefruit...........................1,8
EWded orang~e..........................~~~~3,0
Other budded varieties..............................1
Unbudded seedling~s..............................

Total citrus stock............................ 16,789,644:':
~nder cluarantine April 30, 1916 (fol vari-
ons reasons) ................................. iS4,016

RIarketable citlus stock April 30, 1916.... 15,97~:628
Pecan--
Budded ..................... ..........................1,'i81,32~
Seedlings ......................................1,

Total pecan stock.. ........._________ 3,~22.300
*I(noT\~n ro be, ill certam Euronean countries, Darticulally Spain, the most
destructive scale-insect aft`ectine: citrus trees.
*Dade County not included.







State Plnlzt Boalcl


Pecan stock under quarantine April 30,
1916 ........................................ 150,500

Marketable pecan stock............................... 3,371,800
Pea:h--
Budded ........................................ 102,680
Seedlinffs ........................................ 96,750

Total peach stock................................... 199,430
Under cjuarantine April 30, 1916.................. 12

Marketable peach stock......................... 199,418

Budded ........................................ 22,400
Seedlings ........................................ %5,550

Total................................... 47,950
Under quarantine April 30, 1916............... 000

Marketable plum stock.................................. 4'i,!150
General and Ornamental.............................. 2,15'i,'i93
Under quarantine April 30, 1916.................. 3,162

Marketable ........................................ 2,1.54,681
Total plants in nurseries recorded April 30, 1916 22,657,117
Total plants in nurseries under quarantine
April 30, 1916...................~................ 90'i,690

Total marketable stock in nurseries recorded
April 30, 1916.................................... 21,'i49,427

May 1, 1916, to August 31, 1916
During this period 922 inspections of nurseries were made.
A total of 333 nurseries, newly established or not previously
known to the Department, were placed under inspection. The
acreage in these 333 nurseries was as follows:
Citrus ...............~........................ acres
Pecan ........................................ 61/2 aC1.8S
Ornamental and general................................. 241/4 acres

Total................................... acres
The amount of nursery stock growing in these new" nur-
series was as shown below:
Citrus--
Budded grapefruit.............................. 125,657
Budded oranges................................. 253,071
Other budded varieties.............................. 65,530
Unbucided seedlinffs ................................1,409,18
Dade County citrus nursery stock"'.............2,037,008

Total.........~......................... 3,S30,4aS
Stock in new nurseries under quarantine
September 1, 1916.................................~.. 2,196,226

Marketable citrus stock in newly inspected
nurseries" ...................-.........--.-----..- 1,G84,223
*The inspection of citrus stocle in Dnde Counly is ullder Ihe direction of
the nade Count7 lranch of the Canker ~rndicntion Ueyartmenl.
**~t the Iresent ti~ne citrus nursei'y stocle in Dade Counly is peri~itled
moved under Inckage certificale oiily.








Annual Rel~oit, 1915


Pecan--
Budded ................. ......... 22,250
Unbudded .........____ ..... 19,250

Total pecan stock............................... 41,500
Under quarantine September 1, 19?G........ 000

3laarketable pecan stock in nelrl$ inspected
nurseries ........................................ 41,~00
General and ornamental............................. llG,85S
Under quarantine September 1, 1916.... I(jil09

Marketable general and ornamental stock in
newly inspected nurseries 1C0,~49
Total plaXts in new nurseries....... 4,038,806
Under quarantine September I, 191(i.. 2,21~?G34

Total mallietable stock in new nurseries
September 1, 1916............. 1,E"Bl'i2

QUARANTINES IMPOSED

The discovery of ally especially injurious.insect or disease in
a nursery is the occasion for placing that nursery under quar-
antine and preventing all movement of stock therefrom, The
quarantine may be of short or long duration, according to the
promptness with which the onrner of the nursery eradicates the
pest or disease in question or satisfactorily reduces the danger
of infestation to his plants. In no case is the quarantine lifted
until all the stock in the nursery is, in the light of all available
information, made safe from infection.


April 30, 1915, to April 30, 1916


During the fiscal year quarantines were imposed on 104
nurseries, the reasons therefore being stated below:


Piumher of
Quarantined on account of: nL~'Series quarantined
Canker in nursery 3
Located in quarantine zone............,..................... 1G"
Being contact properties**.......................... 4
San Jose scale.....~............................. 7
California red scale................................... 4
Camphor thrips~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~............... ..................... 'i
Excessive whitefly and scale................................ 03
Excessive citrus scab infection... ........._____ 1
S&aly bark ........................................ 1

Total................................... 104

*Three nurseries ~-ere Darrlv u~irhln the qunrmltined nren. Thr?- de-
stroyed all 8tocli n-i~hin the cluaran~inea ~one, maliiiig possible the release of
their re~~aining stock.
**;1 citrus lroDert?~ ~~hich has been entered b3~ geople, tenms, imglements,
or other things n~hich have greviously been in a canker-infected IroDert~~






State Plnnt IZon7cl


May 1, 1916, to August 31, 1916

During this period, quarantines were imposed as follows:
Number of
Quarantined on account of: nurseries quarantined
Canker in nursery~~~~~~~~~~~~~~...................
Located in quarantine zcne................................... 25
Being contact properties.............................. 4
San Jose scale................................... 8
California red scale................................... 6
Camphor thrips.................................. ........ 7
Excessive whitefly or scale............................... ... 137
Excessive scab infection............................... ... 4
Scaly bark ........................................ 2
Foot rot ............ .................. 3
Dictyospermum scalc................. 6
Total........................ ........._ 202

INSPECTION CERTIFICATES ISSUED

Upon the nursery passing a satisfactory inspection the owner
is supplied, upon request, with certificate tags permitting the
sale and shipment of stock from his nursery. The certificate
tags are serially numbered and the nurseryman is required to
account for each tag furnished him by mailing to the Nursery
Inspector a duplicate invoice listing the stock sold or shipped
under that tag, together with the name and location of the
party receiving same. The Department therefore has what is
presumably a complete record of all trees moved from one place
to another in the State. In case a dangerous disease, as for
example, citrus canker, is discovered in a nursery, the trees
i~~~ '.., Il shipped from that nursery can be located and in-
spected.
Incidentally, these records afford the most accurate statistics
ever compiled regarding the nursery industry of any State.

April 30, 1915, to April 30, 1916

During this period certificate tags were issued to 4-24 Florida
nurseries, 47 individuals, 12 nursery-stock dealers and to 67
nurseries located in other states. In other words, 550 ~firms
and individuals were authorized to market nursery stock, pre-
viously inspected and passed, in Florida.
The number of certificate tags issued is shown below:
Keg~ular taffs....................................
Stock-dealers' tag~s................................... 4,800
Package tags.................................... .... 5,571
Scaly-bayk tags.....__ .......................... 4,600
Florida permit tag-............... .................................. 17,090

Total tags .................................178,561






di~irr!nl Repo,t, ~91.rS


;LIay 1, 1916, to August 31, 1916

During this period, certificates were issued to 87 Florida
nurseries, 20 individuals, 1 nursery-stock dealer and 14 nur-
series in other states; total, 122, The number of certificate
tags issued was as follows:
Regular tags ...... ........ 36,~00
Stock-dealers' tags ... 1,100
Pacliage taps..:......... .. ..... ...... 791
Scaly-ba~k tags........ ........._ ......... ~,4~5
Floiida peimit taRs............... .........__ 2,007
Total .........____ .........___ ........ 4~,i53

NUMBER OF SHIPMENTS

The records of the Department afford the following inte~est-
ing data on the amount of nursery stock moved within, into and
out of Florida during the fiscal year nhich ended April 30, 1916:

Number of shipments nlade hy Florida nurseries...................~~~~~~~~~~~
Number of shipments made into Florida by nurseries in other States 5,400
Number of States into ~hich Flolida nurseries shipped..............~~~~~~ 48
Nualber of foreign countlies into ~hich Florida nurseries shipped.... 28
Number of shipments made bJ: Florida I~urseries into foreign countries 230
Number of States from mhich shipments ~vere made into Florida........ 88

R~ISCELLANEOUS

Experimental work is not contemplated by the Board except
where such work is necessary for the development or imp~-ove-
ment of methods for the control or eradication of plant diseases
or insect pests, the prosecution of experimental work, pe, se,
being considered within the province of the University of
Florida Experiment Station.
The advantage of citrus groners being provided with trees
practically free from citrus seals has made evident the desira-
bility of nurserymen being recluirecl to produce trees essentially
free from this disease. Before imposing this requiremen'i upon
the nurserymen, honever, it is necessary to demonstrate that a
satisfactory control of the disease on nursery stock is both pos-
sible and practicable. With this in viem the Nursery Inspection
Department established, during 1916, a citrus nursery of 3600
seedlings and commenced experimental spraying with various
fungicides. Severe drouth, immediately following the planting
of the seedlings, resulted in the loss of many of them, necessi-
tating replantings before the nursery could be made ready for
experimental work. The experiments are now under way and
give promise of yielding satisfactory results.






State Plant Boa1cl


The Department has co-operated with the Department of
Entomology in securing and furnishing to growers colonies of
the Australian lady-bird beetle for control of the cottony cush-
ion-scale. During the fiscal year ending April 30, 1916, assist-
ant nursery inspectors collected for this purpose 354 of the
lady-bird beetles, and between April 30 and August 31, 1916,
551, or a grand total of 905; a sufficient number to bring about
prompt control of the cottony cushion-scale in at least 1,003
acres of citrus groves.
The work of the Department has been presented to the public
through addresses before association meetings, the Citrus Semi-
nar, articles in the press of the State and by correspondence.
Not the least valuable of the services rendered by the Depart-
ment has been direct advice to nurserymen as to the particular
means by which they could prevent infection or infestation of
their nursery stock, thus protecting their investments as well as
those of their customers.

GRAND SUMMARY

The inspection work done by the Department, from the crea-
tion of the Plant Board, April 30, 1915, to August 31, 1916; as
well as the amount of marketable stock in the Florida nurseries
on August 31, 1916, is shown in the following summary cover-
ing the sixteen-months' period:
Total number of nurseries inspected............................... 1,030
Total number of inspections made.................................... 1,983
Total acreage of stock in nurseries listed.......... ......... 2,6193
Citrus nursery stock
Budded grapefrult..............................
Budded oranges.................................
Other budded varieties~..........................1,2(
Unbudded seedlings .................................f),404,
Dade County citrLis.................................

Total citrus nursery stock in State.................. 18,G10,09L
Citrus nursery stock under quarantine Au-
gust 31, 1916........~..........~................ 3,579,607
Marketable citri~s stock in Florida nul-
series 15,030,485
Total general and ornamental stock.................... 2,274,651
Under quarantine, August 31, 1916............. 72,954

Marketable g~eneral and ornamental stock.. 2,2'01,G97
Pecan buds ........................................
Pecan stock...................................

Total pecan stock...............~................... 3,563,800
Under quarantine, August 31, 1916.............. 422,805


Marketable pecan stock.


3,140,995







Annunl Reyo,t, 1915 37


Peach buds ........................................ 114,960
Peach stock ........................................ 96,7j0

Total peach stock .........__ .................. ....... 211,710
Under quarantine, August 31, 1916.............. 18,912

Marketable peach stock................................ 192,798
Plum buds ..............................~......... 22,408
Plum stock ........................................ 25,550

Total plum stock................................... 47,950
Under quarantine, August 31, 1916.............. 6,700

Marketable plum stock.................................. 41,250
Total plants in Florida nurseries.......................... 24,708,203
Under quarantine, August 31, 1916.............. 4,100,978

Marketable plants in Florida nurseries,
August 31, 1916.................................... a0,607,225

Certificate Tags Issued

Total Florida nurseries receiving tags.................................... 511
Individuals receiving tags.................................... 67
Stock dealers receiving tags............~....................... 13
Out-of-State nurseries receiving tags.................................... 81
Total................................... 672




DEPARTMENT OF PORT AND RAILWAY INSPECTION

Protection of the agricultural and horticultural industries
against the further introduction of destructive pests and dis-
eases was one of the principal objects of the Florida Plant Act
of 1915.
It is significant that citrus canker has not obtained a foot-
hold in California, where a horticultural quarantine service has
been maintained for thirty years. Canker-infected nur'sery stock
has been several times intercepted by the California quarantine
inspectors and the freedom of the California citrus industry
from canker thus far can be ascribed only to the success of that
State's quarantine inspection.
There had been expended in the campaign of eradicating
canker in Florida, up to September 30, 1916, approximately
$432,462.44* from all sources. This amount expended in pre-
venting the int?ocluction of this disease would have maintained
a system of efficient port and railway inspection for over 30
years.

'~eepagel~.






State Plnnt Bonltl


During the autumn months of 1915, an assistant nursery
inspector was detailed for short periods to examine incoming
shipments of nursery stock at jacksonville. This preliminary
inspection work revealed the fact that comparatively few of the
nurseries shipping stock into Florida from other states were
complying with the Florida Plant Act and many shipments vrreie
brazenly consigned to Florida points without even being acco~l-
paniecl by inspection certificates of any kind. Many of the:;e
shipments were found infested with injurious insects and dis-
eases.
The urgent necessity for organizing the Plant Board forces
in the fight against citrus canker during the summer of 191%
unavoidably delayed inauguration of the port and railway in-
spection work. This was commenced, however, by the appoint-
ment on December 13, 1915, of Mr. W. N. Hull as semi-volun-
teer deputy inspector at Miami. This was followed by the
appointment of deputy inspectors at Pensacola on January 1Ci,
1916; at Jacksonville and Tampa on January 24, 1916; and at
Key West on March 23, 1916. Most of these deputy inspectors
had received previous training both in the citrus canker eradi-
cation work and in the nursery inspection department, while
the remaining ones were selected on account of special fitness
due to their previous experience in similar lines of work.
Many shipments of plants infested with common, more or
less destructive, pests and diseases have been intercepted, and
much more material not actually showing infection, but con-
sidered dangerous because of its origin, has been prevente-l
delivery in the State.
On one occasion a shipment of citrus budwood, from a canker-
infected property in another State, was intercepted while on its
way to a Florida citrus nursery. It is not impossible that the
stoppage of this one shipment, by preventing subsequent ex-
penditures for stamping out canker outbreaks MThich might have
resulted had the shipment reached its destinati~n and infected
the nursery in question, saved the State more than the-entire
port and- railway inspection'work would cost for several years.
Upon insbuguration ofthe~ port and railway ingp'ection service
arrangements were made with the Federal Horticultural Board
of the United States Department of AgY"iculture whereby tl~e
deputyinspectors of'the State Plant Board received appoint-
ments as agents of the Horticultural Board with authority to
enforce all Federal rules and regulations relative to the import-







Alzzuul Repolt, 2915


ation of plants and plant products. While the State Plant
Board must necessarily assume the expense of all inspection,
the work is greatly facilitated by reason of the deputy inspec-
tofs being Federal appointees, particularly as this arrangement
makes possible a close co-operation between the inspectors and
the customs offcials at all the ports of entry. The customs in-
spectors have, without exception, rendered cheerful and valu-
able co-operation and assistance in the inspection of all import-
tations subject to the rules of the Federal I-Iorticultural Board.
It is a pleasure to report that the officials, as well as local
representatives, of the steamship and railway companies and of
the Southern Express Company have offered our inspectors
every facility for inspecting shipments and have in addition
been diligent in securing compliance, upon the part of their
employees and connections, with the regulations governing such
shipments. In the fen instances where shipments have been
moved in violation of some rule of the Board it has been found
that such movement was clue to misunderstanding or ignorance
of the requirements and steps have in all cases been promptly
taken to remedy any dangerous conditions which may have been
created by these violations.
The work accomplisheci by this Department is shomn by the
following summaries:

December 13, 1915, to April 30, 1916

Ships and vessels inspected:
From foreign ports................................... 1GG
From United States ports other than Florida................ 52
From Florida ports...................................

Total vessels inspected.................. ......................... 3'i0
Shipments inspected:
Xrliving by water:
Passed .................................. ................................ G7
Treated and pajsed.................................. G
Returned to shipper................................. 2
Contraband destroyed ........................................ 40
115
Arriving hy express or freight:
Passed ........................................ 319
Treated and passecl................................. 9
Returned to shipper................................. 1G
Detained, subject to return by owner........................... 1P
Contraband destroyed............................... 29

385

Total shipments inspected.............................. 530















Insect or Disease


May 1, 1916, to September 30, 1916

During this period the work of this Department was con-
tinued without interruption. A summary of the inspections is
here given:

Ships and vessels inspected:
From foreign ports~..... .......... 356
From United States ports other than Florida......................-- 172
From Florida ports......~.....................~.....- 429

Total vessels inspected.............................-- 957
Shipments inspected:
Arriving by water:
Passed ..........................-------------- 89
Treated and passed........~.......~......~......-.-- 17
Returned to shipper..........~..............~......- 23
Contraband destroyed......~............------------ 203


State Plant Board


Principal Pests and Diseases Intercepted


From Number of ship-
ments infested

Florida............. 3
Cuba................. i 2
Cuba................. 1
Florida............. I
Florida............. i 1
Florida......... i 1
Cuba.~................ i 1
Jamaica............ I
Illexico.....~........ 1
Guatemala....... 1
Cuba...........~...... 1
Mexico ....~......... 1 1
Cuba. 1
Illinois.........~...- 1
Tennessee......... i 1
Louisiana......... i 1
Cuba~.........~.~..... 5
North Carolina 1
Indiana....... 1
Florida.............. 2
Florida...........~.. 2
Florida.......~...... 1 1
Texas................ i 1
Georgia............. 1 4
Alabama........... 1
South Carolina 2

Georg~ia~Flovida .......... I :
Pennsylvania... 1 1
Iowa.......~.~~.....~. I 1
Cuba~................. 1 1
Florida.............. i 1


Occurring on


Citrus.....................
Citrus.....................
....... / Begonia...~.......~......
........ / Begonia..................
Citrus.....................
Citrus..........~..........
......~. i Hibiscus.................
Citrus.~~.......~.........~
......... I Oleander~......~........
~......~. 1 Oleander.~......~.......
:ale.. Citrus....~................
-ale.~ Citrus..~..................
Citrus.........~.......~...
Latania Palm........
......... / RaspberrJr..............
Palm.~.....~.~.............
Rose..............~.........
Elm.....~..~.~..............
Peach.....~..~.............
......... / Camphor........~.......
...~.... 1 Peach..............~.......
....~.... / Fig..........................
......... ) Fig...~.....~................
...~..... ( Fig.........................~
....~...~ I Fig..........................
Peach.......~......~..~....
Peach.~.~..................
.~....~. I Elderberry.........~...
......... 1 Elaeagn us.~......~.~...
......... / Blackberry.....~.......
Citrus.............~.......
Citrus................~....


Whitefly~........~........
Whitefly~.................
Whitefly....~............
Whitefly.................
Long scale....____..
Purple scale...........
Purple scale....___
Florida red scale...
San Jose scale.......
San Jose scale.......
Cottony cushion-sc
Cottony cushion-sc
Rufus scale......~.....
Latania scale.........
Diaspis sp............
Soft scale..~....~.......
R;ed spider.............
Elm tree borer......
Peach-borer..........
Camphor-thrips...
Root-knot..............
Root-knot..~...........
Root-knot..............
Root-knot..............
Root-knot..............
Root-knot.......'~....~
Root-knot.....~........
Root-knot.............~
Root-knot..............
Root-knot..............
Citrus scab.....___
Citrus scab......~....





Anlunl Repoit, 1915


Arriving by express or freight:
Passed ........................................
Treated and passed......~.............
Returned to shipper................................
Detained, subject to return by owner..
Contraband destroyed .............................


65
27
53
54


518

Total shipments inspected............................... 850
Principal Pests and Diseases Intercepted


Number of ship-
From ments infested


Insect or Disease i

Whitefly....................~....
~~hiteffy.......................
Whitefly.........................
Whitefly~~~~~~~~~~.............
Whitefly.........................
Whitefly.........................
Whitefly.........................
Long scale......................
Purple scale...................
Purple scale...................
Florida red scale...........
Chaff scale.....................
Chaff scale.....................
California black-scale..
California black-scale..
San Jose scale................
San Jose scale...............
Oyster-shell scale.........
Turtle-back scale.........
Florida wax-scale.........
Howard's scale.............
Snow scale.....................
Snow scale....................
Snow scale.....................
ChrzJsomphalzcs oleae...
Cottony cushion-scale..
Cottony cushion-scale..
Cottony cushion-scale..
Rufus scale....................
R'lealy-bug~~~~~~................
Mealy-bug......................
Mealy-bug.....................
Aphids...........................
Strawberry leaf-roller.
Red spider.....................
Papaya fruit-fly...........,
Papaya fruit-fly............
Root-knot..............~......~.
Root-knot..................~....
Root-knot.......................
Root-knot.~.....................
Root-knot..................~....
Root-knot..............~.......~
Root-knot........~..............
Root-knot............~..........
Crown gall.....................
Phomopsis sp..........~.....
Melanose........................


Occurring~ on


Citrus...T.......... ...
Jessamine...........
Privit...................
Hibiscus....... .......
Jessamine..........
Citrus........... .......
Citrus......... .........
Citrus.............
Citrus..................
Citrus..................
Mango................
Citrus..................
Shrub s................
Poinsettia...........
Jessamine.........
Pear................
Rose.....................
Maple.................
Jessamine...........
~ango................
Gooseberrg........
Hibiscus... ..........
Soursop..............
Soursop.............
Palm....................
Citru s..................
Citrus..................
Citrus.................
Cutting~...............
Coleus.................
Rose....................
Sugar Apple......
Geraniums..
Strawberry........
Rose....................
Papa3;a...............
Papaga..............
Poinsettia...........
iFig.................-..--
Austral'n Silk O:
Cassava..............
;Chrysanthemurr
Peach..................
Hibiscus.............
Jessamine..........
Peach..................
Manffo................
Citrus..........


Florida.............. ;
Florida..............
... Florida..........
Florida.............. i
... Georg~ia.............
Cuba..................
Honduras.........
Florida...........
Florida.............
Cuba..................
Florida............
Florida.............
.... Cuba............~.....
Florida..............
Florida...
Florida.~...........
Florida...........
Fennsylvania...
Florida.............
Florida...........
Wisconsin....
Florida.............
Cuba.................
3Iexico..............
GeorRia............
Cuba..................
Rlexico..............
I::: IFlorida......
Cuba..................
.... i\lichig~an..........
.... Florida............
... Cuba..................
Florida.......... ...
Wisconsin......... i
Cuba..................
.... ; Florida..............
.... Florida..............
Florida~.............
Flori~a..............
ak 1 Florida..............
.... Florida............
~... Florida............
Florida............
.... Florida..............
Florida..............
New York...~.....
.... India................. I
Florida..............







~State Plalzt Boa~cl


As the deputy port and railway inspectors also examine and
inspect shipments of trees and plants enroute from one point to
another within the State a check is secured upon the shipments
made by nurseries holding the certificates of the Plant Board.
Any misuse of these certificates is quickly detected. Many un-
certfied shipments, frequently infested, between points within
the State have been intercepted. Where such material is ap-
parently free of injurious pests and diseases and the evidence
at hand indicates that it has not been exposed to infection it is
passed and permitted to proceed to the consignee, while the
consignor, on the other hand, is courteously advised by mail as
to the rules of the Board requiring the certification of trees and
plants prior to their shipment.


BOLL WEEVIL AND PINK BOLL-WORM &UARANTIPJES

Enforcement of the Board's rules relative to the quarantine
on shipments likely to disseminate the cotton boil weevil comes
within the work of this Department.
Prior to the establishment of a Plant Board, the Board of
Control, through the Inspector of Nursery Stock, established a
quarantine on cotton seed, cotton seed hulls, and other products
likely to carry the cotton boil weevil from infested territory
into the portion of Florida not yet reached by this insect. This
quarantine, in an improved form, was continued by the State
Plant Board.
The boil weevil has two methods of distribution. One is by
annual migratory flight, by means of which the insect usually
advances from 30 to 40 miles into new territory. The other is
distribution in cotton seed, cotton seed hulls, Spanish moss and
certain other products shipped from the weevil-infested terri-
tory to other cotton-growing areas. While no human agency
can prevent the annual migration of the boil weevil into new
territory, it is gratifying to know that this pest has been pre-
vented, by means of the Plant Board's quarantines, from taking
advantage of express, railway and water shipments to increase
its range of destructiveness. While it is quite certain that all
the cotton-growing sections of Florida will eventually be in-
vaded by this insect, the Plant Board will continue to impose
all possible obstacles to the spread of the weevil, thus ~protect-
ing the cotton-growing sections not yet infested just as long as
possible.







A121nla2 Xepoit, 1925


The provisions of this quarantine are found in Rule No. 18
of the Board.
To prevent commercial interests from taking advantage of
the restricted movement of cotton seed and cotton seed hulls to
advance prices on these commodities the Board, in December,
1915, clevised.a plan by mrhich cotton oil mills located in n:ee~-il-
free territory could receive and mill cotton seed from \sree:ril-
infested sections m-i~hout danger of disseminating the boil
n-eevil, such milling being done under the inspection of Plant
Board inspectors.
At the close of the cotton-gro~-Sng season of 1915 the eastern
limit of the boil weevil-infested territory was in Hamilton,
Maclison, and Taylor Counties. During the late summer and
autumn of 1916 the nreevil, by means of its annual migratory
flight, occupied additional territory to the eastward, the eastern
limit of the infested territory in November, 1916, running
through the Counties of Nassau, Duval, Clay, Bradford, Alachua
and Levy. The exact limits of the infested territory~ere care-
fully determined by inspectors of the Plant Board, by means of
actual field examinations, as a basis upon which the quaran-
tined area was establish-ed.
As there are still several thousand acres of land normally
devoted to cotton-growing in the area not yet invaded by the
~eevil the wisdom of continuing the presenf quarantine is self-
evident.
The recent discovery of the pink boil-worm in Mexico has
caused considerable alarm among cotton growers throughout
the entire South. This pest, which evidently originated in
India, is much more destructive than the boil weevil, and there
is no reason for not supposing that its introduction into the
Gulf States would result in the practical ruin of the cotton in-
dustry. This insect is readily transmitted in shipments of cot-
ton seed from infested areas, and while.the United States De-
partment of Agriculture, through the Federal Horticultural
Board, is maintaining along the Mexican border an effective
quarantine against shipments of cotton seed from Mexico, the
deputy inspectors of the State Plant Board are keeping a rigid
watch for the arrival of any cotton seed from Mexican points
on steamers arriving at the ports of this State.

GYPSY AND BROWN-TAIL MOTH QUARAN~INE

The Gypsy moth and bromrn-tail moth, pests occurring in the






State Plant Boa?cl


New England States and against which a vigorous campaign is
being waged by the United States Department of Agriculture
as well as by the several States infested, are pests capable of
being introduced into Florida with commercial shipments of
various kinds. As these insects are very destructive in certain
European countries in which the climatic condittns are prac-
tically the same as those of Florida, there is no reason for not
supposing that they would be equally as destructive here.
Although all material likely to transmit these pests is care-
fully inspected by agents of the Department of Agriculture Tse-
fore it is allowed to leave the infested territory, it is deemed
advisable to take even further precautions against infested
material being shipped into Florida.
With the aid of the United States Department of Agriculture
a list has been compi~ed of the shipments of trees, boxbands
and similar materials made during the past few years from
New England points to Florida. During the summer of 1916,
Deputy Inspector George B. Merrill was detailed by the Plant
Commissioner to make inspe'ctions of the forest and ornamental
plants on all premises where such shipments had been received
or used. This work embraced the inspection of 43 premises,
located in or near 24 towns, in 17 Counties of the State. It is
a matter for congratulation that no evidences of either pest
were found by Mr. Merrill.

SUMMARY

The occurrence of the Morelos fruit worm and the pink boll-
worm of cotton in Mexico, the avocado weevil in Central Amer-
ica, the spiny citrus whitefly in Jamaica and the Bahamas, the
pineapple borer in Jamaica, the Gypsy and Brown-tail moths in
New England and the Mediterranean fruit fly in Bermuda, the
Azores, France, Spain, Hawaii and many other sub-tropical
countries, citrus canker in the other Gulf States and brown rot
of lemons and oranges in California, make it imperative that
the Port and Railway Inspection service not only be continued
but that it be made much more thorough than is possible with
the funds at present available.
Of the pests and diseases mentioned above, but one, citrus
canker, has thus far secured even a temporary foothold in
Florida. Introduction of any of the others would mean to the
State the same menace and the same expense for eradication
now being experienced in the case of citrus canker. Indeed,






Anr~bz~al Repolt, 1915


it is doubtful if some of the pests mentioned could be eradicated
at any cost, once they become established. The Mediterraneail
fruit fly, for example, has never been eradicated in any of the
countries where it has become established, despite appalling
expenditures and the most desperate efforts on the part of
governmental officials and experts.
An efficient quarantine service, to keep these destructive
agencies permanently out of our State, is therefore imperative
and funds thus expended nill constitute insurance of the most
valuable kind.




DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY

At its first meeting, the Plant Board elected Dr. E. W. Berger,
former Inspector of Nursery Stock, as Entomologist. As a
Nursery Inspector was not provided for at that time, it was
necessary for Dr. Berger, working in conjunction nith Prof.
P. H. Ro!fs of the Advisory Committee, to continue the nursery
inspection work until Mr. F. ~. O'Byrne assumed the duties of
Nursery Inspector on June i, 191.5. The Entomologist was
without regular assistance in his office, except for stenographic
help, until January 3, 1916. Upon the latter elate, Mr. A. C.
Mason, after election by the Board, assumed the duties of tem-
porary assistant to the Entomologist.
At the time of Dr. Berger's appointment, this Department,
li!ie all other Departments of the Plant Board, was without
ecluipment, the laboratory apparatus, collections, etc., which had
Iseen used by the Inspector of Nursery Stock having belonged to
the Florida Experiment Station or to himself. It was neces-
sary first of all to equip the Entomological Department with
microscopes, gl;lSSW;lre, scales, insecticides, etc., and to construct
an insectary and laboratory in the attic of Language Hall for
the carrying on of the principal work of this Department. A
general laboratory for identifying and preserving specimens,
and containing the office of the Entomologist, was equipped on
the second floor of Language Hall.
Three principal lines of work have been conducted by the
Entomological Department; namely, the growth and distribu-
tion to citrus growers of the red Aschersonia, or red whitefly
fungus, used for control of the whitefly; distribution of colonies
.of the Australian lady-bird beetle, for control of the cottony






Stnte Plalzt Boalcl


cushion-scale, and experiments made in the attempt to devise a
satisfactory treatment for camphor trees infested with the
camphor thrips.

RED WHITEFLY FUNGUS

For some years past citrus growers in Florida have been
accustomed to inoculate the whitefly larvae on the citrus trees
with this parasitic fungus by spraying the trees with water in
which had been mixed leaves from groves where the fungus
occurred. This method, while givjplg the desired results so far
as control of the whitefly is concerned, also incurred conside-
rablee risk of distributing any citrus diseases which occurred
on the trees from which the leaves were taken. The use of
citrus leaves in this manner in sections where citrus canker
occurred was seen to be particularly dangerous. It was, there-
fore, highly desirable that citrds growers be afforded a source
of supply for this fungus which was safe from contamination
by citrus canker, scaly bark, and other diseases.
Prof. H. S. Fawcet of the Florida Experiment Station had,
during the period from 1907 to 1911, devised a method of grow-
ing this fungus in pure cultures on a small scale, using pieces
of sterilized sweet potato in wide-mouthed bottles. During the
winter of 1915-16 the entomological laboratory was equipped
with a sterilizer and the necessary atomizers, glassware, etc.,
for producing this fungus. It was planned to prociuce a suffi-
cient number of cultures so that all fruit growers who desired
could secure them and the work was undertaken on a large
scale. From January to April, 1916, 276 cultures were pre-
pared and of this number 147 or 53 per cent produced spores
and developed into proper condition for use in the citrus groves.
These were distributed to groweus requesting them, at the
proper time, a nominal charge of 50 cents per culture being
made to coveP~he actual cost of material used in preparation of
each culture. As this was the first attempt ever made to pro-
duce this fungus in commercial quantities, some difficulties were
encountered in securing proper fruiting or production of spores.
However, the securing of 53 per cent of fruited cultures from
the total number inoculated appears to have been as great as
could have been expected in the absence of previous experience
on a large scale.
During the period from May 1 to August 31, 1916, 1,820 cul-
tures were inoculated. Of this number only 211 produced spores






A12112lal Repo,t, 1915


and were suitable for use in the field. It was found that during
the marm weather the fungus did not develop as well as during
the cooler ninter months, and after some experiment it was
found that by keeping the developing cultures in an ice-box or
placing them under buildings n-here the temperature was lower,
fruiting of the fungus was facilitated. There were accordingly
distributed by the Entomological Department up to August 31,
1916, a total of 358 cultures which were used bji the citrus
growers receiving them. As one culture is sufficient to inoculate
the ~vhitefly in one acre of citrus trees, the growers n'ere en-
abled by the use of this material to spray at least a correspond-
ing number of acres. Only a limited number of the growers
re:eiving this material reported upon its use, but out of those
~-~ich reported, over 50 per cent reported excellent results.
The value of this fungus for the control of the whitefly has
teen shown to Ice very great. The use of pure cultures by the
growers is not accompanied by the risk of introducing other
insects or diseases into their groves and the cost at nhich the
material can be prepared is merely nominal. It was impossible.
\tith the amount of material which the Department was able 91,
p~-oduce with its limited resources, to anynhere nearly supply
the demand of the citrus g~roners for this material. Plans are
being made to produce it upon a much larger scale during the
coming year in the hope that sufficient cultures call be furnished
for general use in all sections of the State where the whitefly
is known to occur.

I1USTRALIAN LADY-BIRD BEETLES

The Australian lady-bird beetle, or Vedalia, has been found
t'ully as effcient in controlling the cottony cushion-scale in
Florida as in California and other States where it has been
employed for this purpose. The control of this scale-insect,
bzought about by the lady-bird beetle, is pract:cally complete.
in fact, the lady-bird beetle destroys the scale so thoroughly
that the resulting scarcity of the latter results in a marked re-
duction or disappearance of the beetles because their food supply
is exhausted. This, in turn, is usually followed by an increase
of cottony cushion-scale. For this reason it becomes necessary
to "re-introcluce" the lady-bird beetle into cottony cushion-
scale areas from time to time. Attempts have been made by
the Entomological Department to raise the lady-bird beetles in
captivity in large cluantities so that a supply would always be






State Plant Boalcl


available. These experiments were not successful but it was
found possible to keep living lady-bird beetles in cold storage
for a considerable time and it was also found that supplies of
cottony cushion-scale, on which young Vedalia could be raised
to maturity, could also be kept in cold storage for a considerable
time.
In addition to the lady-bird beetles raised in the Department,
others were collected in different sections of the State under a
co-operative arrangement with the Nursery Inspection Depart-
ment, so that it has been possible, with few exceptions, to
promptly meet the requests of the growers in the cottony cush-
ion-scale areas. The fact that private parties have at various
times sold these lady-bird beetles at a price as high as $1.00
each shows the value which is attached to them by the growers.
It has been the practice of the Entomological Department to
charge for colonies of these beetles only the estimated actual
cost of rearing them or of collecting them in different sections
of the State and a uniform price of $1.00 for a colony of ten
beetles has been charged. Charging a nominal sum covering
the cost of furnishing these insects insures the supply being dis-
tributed only to those growers who are actually in need of them.

CAMPHOR-THRIPS
In certain sections of the State camphor trees have been sub-
ject for some years past to a severe infection which not only
marred their appearance but in many cases killed the trees.
Through investigations made by Prof. J. R. Watson, Entomol-
ogist of the Florida Experiment Station, it was found that this
infection was due to a minute insect described by him as the
camphor-thrips. The appearance of this pest in several nur-
series where camphor trees were grown made it advisable for
the Entomological Department of the Plant Board to determine.
if possible, whether any treatment could be applied to the in-
fected trees whereby they could be completely freed from the
insect and the resulting infection. During March, 1916, 300
infested camphor trees were secured, planted in separate lots
on the Univernity farm at Gainesville and treated with various
insecticides. At the time of writing this report, August 31,
1916, it is not considered that sufficient time has elapsed for
safe conclusions to be drawn as to the effectiveness of these
various treatments. However, one of the treatments, consisting
of a two per cent oil emulsion applied to the infested trees after






Annzlal Repo?t, ~915


they were severely cut back, gives promise of being both an
efficient and practical method for treating infested nursery
trees prior to shipment.

INCIDENTAL VVORK

The incidental work of the Entomologist and his assistant
consists of answering numerous inquiries from farmers and
fruit growers regarding injurious insects, the compilation of
special information required by other Departments of the Plant
Board concerning injurious insects and their habits, the prepa-
ration of special reports on insects both in Florida and in other
countries for the information of the Plant Board members and
the Plant Commissioner, and the preservation of specimens for
future reference and information. Careful records are also
kept as to the distribution of injurious insects in the State, as
this information has an important bearing upon the quarantine
measures adopted from time to time by the Board.
During the fiscal year which ended April 3U, 1916, the En-
tomologist delivered addresses on entomological subjects before
ten public meetings, and during the period from May 1 to
August 31, 1916, before seven meetings.
In co-operation with the College of Agriculture of the Uni-
versity, the Entomologist has constructed a substantial fumi-
gating box which is used jointly for experimental purposes and
for fumigating infested material which requires such treatment
before it can be safely delivered to Florida customers.
The Entomologist has also conducted experiments with a com-
bination spray of Bordeaux mixture and linseed oil which gives
promise of being a preparation which will combine both the
qualities of Bordeaux mixture and of a contact insecticide and
which will, at the same time, adhere to foliage and bark for
long periods of time. Further experiments with this and related
spraying preparations will be continued.





State Plalzt Boa~d


DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY

April 30, 1915, to April 30, 1916
While the object of this Department is to make such investi-
gations as will facilitate the control or eradication of various
diseases of fruit and crops, the critical condition brought about
by the occurrence of citrus canker demanded that all efforts be
concentrated on a study of this disease for the time being.
At its meeting on July 12, 1915, the Board elected Dr. R. A.
Jehle, of Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba, as Assistant Plant Path-
ologist. Dr. Jehle was assigned to duty in Dade County and
commenced his work on August 5, 1915.
As the laboratory building at Redland was then still in course
of construction by the South Dade Fruit Growers' and Truckers'
Association, Dr. Jehle took up studies of citrus canker under
field conditions, working in co-operation with the inspection
forces. Careful investigation was made of the agencies by
which citrus canker is disseminated as well as of the suscep-
tibility to the disease of different citrus host plants.
Upon completion of the laboratory building every effort was
made to equip the laboratory as quickly as possible. On account
of many needed supplies being of exclusive European manu-
facture much delay was experienced in securing them. A water-
supply plant and gas plant were also installed, and a doubly
screened, storm-proof cage constructed in which citrus canker
could be safely studied on its host plants, namely, growing citrus
plants. An instrument for registering the temperature and
humidity within the cage was installed, as were also instru-
ments for keeping accurate record of weather conditions
throughout the year.
The laboratory was formally opened on November 27, 1915,
even though all necessary equipment had not at that time been
installed.
It was necessary, first of all, to develop methods of preparing
cultural media upon which the organism" causing citrus canker
could be grown and studied, as well as to perfect methods of
inoculation, record-keeping, etc. ~d,
Among the first experiments undertaken were those in which
ripe citrus fruits, which had been picked, were inoculated with
citrus canker bacteria. In no case did such fruit develop canker
lesions, though grapefruit seedlings inoculated from the same
*Bacterium citri ("Pseudomonas citri") Hasse.





Allnzlal Repo?t, 1915


cultures developed the lesions in abundance. This result but
confirmed observations previously made in the field to the eaect
that mature picked fruit would not develop visible canker as
the result of contamination at the time of picking. Innumerable
cases of canker-infected fruit" have been found on canker-in-
fected trees but in such instances the lesions developed while
the fruit was immature and still attached to the tree. These
results do not indicate, ho~eief, that citrus fruits do not serve
as mechanical carriers of the organism or that fruit from
canker-infected properties can safely be marketed in citrus-
growing sections.
During this period experiments were commenced to determine
the effect of various disinfectants upon the canker organism.
Investigations were also begun with a view to determining
whether any remedy for citrus canker could be devised. Prac-
tically all of the commonly used fungicicies and disinfectants
have been investigated in this connection. However, it was
found that even substances which would kill the canker organ-
ism upon coming in contact with it would not serve as remedies
for they could not reach of affect those bacteria which were
already within the plant tissue. In like manner, substances
sufficiently caustic or penetrating to reach bacteria in the tis-
sues nere as destructi~-e to the trees as the citrus canker itself.
Not the least in importance of the work done at the labora-
tory has been the identification of numerous specimens and
verifying, by laboratoly methods, the diagnoses of infected
trees by the field inspection forces. Numerous specimens of
citrus canker, on various citrus host plants, have been pre-
served, after suitable disinfection, both as records of the infec-
tions themselves and for future study and reference.

~lay i, 1916, to November 30, 191G

During this period the inr-estigations already under way
were continued and additional lines of investigation inaug-
urated.
Observations of the disease on different host plants showed
them to be susceptible to the disease in the following order:
,pomelo (grapefruit), ponderosa lemon, key lime, Citrus trifo-
liata, sour orange, tangelo, sweet orange, ta~gerine, king orange,
mandarin-lime and kumquat. That is, the pomelo was found

*111 scine illst;\nces ru~h fiuir hn i:err ro bni!?- inreltp~l ~hat ii ~-ns
shriveled 311d ~.irtUBilr nullllllifiCd.





State Plant Board


most readily infected and subject to the greatest damage, while
the kumquat was least susceptible.
Tests of disinfectants showed that the canker bacteria a~e
killed by direct exposure to corrosive sublimate solution, at a
strength of 1 part to 1,000 parts of water, for a period of one
minute. As this disinfectant had been used for some months
previously in connection with the field work for disinfecting
inspection suits, implements, etc., it was gratifying to learn
that~ careful laboratory experiments confirmed previous opin-
ions as to its efficiency for these purposes. Five per cent car-
bolic acid and a two per cent formaldehyde solution were also
found to be effcient destroyers of the canker bacteria, as ~ras
also formaldehyde gas, produced by generating the gas from 10
cubic centimeters of formaldehyde and 5 grams of potassium
permanganate to each 13 cubic feet of space in the fumigating
chamber. Numerous other disinfectants were tested, the ma-
jority of them proving ineffective.
In studying the ecology of the disease it was found that it
was most severe and the incubation period shortest during
warm, moist weather. The disease was also found to develop
most rapidly on citrus trees in a vigorous growing condition."
All supposed canker cures submitted by parties not affili-
ated with the canker eradication work have been carefully
investigated. Those which have given even the slightest promise
of possible usefulness have been tested. In no case has any
supposed remedy submitted proved to possess any efficacy.
Experiments are under way in developing methods of satis-
factorily disinfecting non-citrus trees and plants grown in
canker-infected citrus properties. On account of the danger of
soil infection such plants may serve as mechanical carriers of
canker bacteria. The satisfactory conclusion of these experi-
ments will provide the means, in many instances at least, by
which non-citrus trees and plants, such as avocado, mango,

*At first sight it ~-ould nyDenr that trees which had heen exvosed to the
infection sliould be kept in as Ao~~mant a conditioir as possible, cultivntioii
and fertilizatioll iefiained from and prowth discourxaed in every way. How-
ever, esactly the reverse is tiue. If a tree hnN become infected ~vith the
opannisms they npgarently do not die, no matter how long Ihe tree is Bell
in a semi-dormant or neglected condition, hut Iersist until aclive growth
does occur, when the canker lesions become visible. IL is therefore desirable
thnt the infection be "brought out on infected trees as quickly as possible,
in order that the infected ones may be detected so that they will no longer
constitute sources of infection for other trees. The best results in the eradi-
cation worle have been secured hy giving the best of care and attention to
trees suspicioned of heing infected, thus developing, and removing, all infec-
tions present in the shortest time possible. So clearly is this recognized in
localities n'here canker has occuired that neglecled or abandoned citrus
gloves are loolied upon as public menaces.








d121211Cll Reyo,t, 1915


peach, pecan, etc., can be removed from canker-infected prop-
erties and safely used for planting purposes elsewhere.
The Assistant Plant Pathologist has prepared an article on
" Means of Identifying Citrus Canker," describing the appear-
ance of the disease and illustrated with both colored and half-
tone plates. This article mlas published in the "Quarterly
Bulletin of the Plant Board, Vol. i, No. 1, a copy of which
will be found in Appendix B.
The demand from citrus growers for complete and exhaus-
tive information regarding citrus canker has been insistent.
Dr. Jehle has accordingly prepared an extended treatise on the
history, economic importance and etiology of the disease, the
cultural characteristics and pathogenesis of the organism
causing it, the effects of various disinfectants and the bearing
of this information upon the practical work of eradicating the
disease. Space forbids the presentation of this article here but
it is planned to publish it in the Quarterly Bulletin of the
Board at an early elate.




GO-OPERATION WITH FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS

The proximity to Florida of many sub-tropical islands and
countries in which dangerous insects and diseases are likely to
occur renders it of the utmost importance that the Plant Board
should be fully informed regarding such pests as may be intro-
duced therefrom into Florida through commercial channels.

THE BAHAMAS

Persistent reports to the effect that citrus canker occurred in
The Bahamas, coupled ~-ith the fact that there is a constant
heavy travel and considerable commerce between The Bahamas
and Miami and Jacksonville, resulted in the Plant Board send-
ing Dr. J. H. Montgomery, of its canker eradication staff, to
Nassau in May, 1916, for the purpose of investigating these
rumors. Dr. Montgomery was most cordially received by His
Excellency, Sir William rlllarclyce, Governor of The Bahamas,
and also by the Acting Colonial Secretary, Honorable T. E. D.
Brace, and every facility placed at his command for investigat-
ing conditions in the islands.
Doctor Montgomery's ins~estigations did not reveal the pres-







State Plant Board


ence of citrus canker in The Bahamas but did bring to light the
existence there of a little-known but very destructive insect
known as the spiny citrus white fly". Many citrus trees had
died from its attacks, while many others had been cut down
by their owners after ineffectual efforts to control the pest.
The insect was also found to attack avocado, mango and other
trees.
As a result of this information the Plant Board was enabled
to take prompt measures in keeping this pest out of Florida.
It has since been learned that this pest occurs in Jamaica as
well as in a very limited area in Cuba. There can be little
doubt but what this insect, if once established in Florida, would
rival citrus canker in destructiveness, but unlike the latter dis-
ease would also attack a large variety of other trees and plantp.
Subsequent to Dr. Montgomery's visit to The Bahamas t~e
Colonial Legislature passed a Plant Protection Act, not unlike
the Florida Plant Act of 1915, and a systematic attempt is now
being made there to control the spiny citrus white fly.
CUBA
As early as 1914, those interested in canker eradication in
Florida established cordial relations with the Cuba Experiment
Station, furnishing the Plant Pathologist of the Station, Prof.
John R. Johnston, with information regarding citrus canker and
receiving in return information as to conditions in Cuba.
On July 3, 1916, the President of Cuba signed a decree cre-
ating the Comision de Sanidad Vegetal", or Commission of
Plant Sanitation. Under the direction of this Commission
active measures have been taken to repress the spiny citrus
white fly in the limited area in which it occurs and eradication
of the pest from Cuba is anticipated.
A survey of the citrus areas of Cuba has also been made with
the gratifying result that no citrus canker has been found.
The control or repression of dangerous insects and diseases in
adjacent countries affords a large degree of protection to
Florida by reducing the chances for these pests gaining a foot-
hold here. In like manner the Plant Board of Florida cannot
obtain an adequate knowledge of conditions in nearby countries
save through co-operation with the officials in charge of corre-
sponding work therein. It is hoped that the cordial co-opera-
tive relations already established with the government officials
of Cuba and The Bahamas can shortly be extended to other
governments in the West Indies and Central America.







A711zual Repo,t, 1915


ENDORSEMENTS OF THE PLANT BOARD'S WORK

The work being conducted by the Plant Board has been the
subject of many favorable comments in the press of the State
as well as in publications of other States, particularly California.
Hundreds of letters commending the Board on its activity in
not only waging an active eradication campaign against canker,
but against many other diseases and insects, are on file in the
Plant Commissioner's office at Gainesville.
Resolutions of similar tenor have been adopted by many fruit
growers' associations and meetings of various kinds. Special
mention should be made of resolutions adopted by the Florida
State Horticultural Society in April, 1916, and by a mass meet-
ing of citrus growers at Gainesville in October, 1916. These
resolutions were as follows:

RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE FLORIDA STATE HORTICULTURAL
SOCIETY AT ARCADIA, APRIL 26, 1916
The Committee on Resolutions presented the following:
'' ~r. Tenny: '~lr. Chairman, those of us who have been closely asso-
ciated with the demonstration work under the Plant Act have been im-
pressed with one thing, namely, that the only appropriation carried in the
Act itself is not going to be sufficient to carry the demonstration work of
the Plant Board as it should be carried in order to properly protect our
interests. When the sum of $35,000.00 was sugffested and when we went to
Tallahassee to ask for that sum we thought it would be ample, but the
development of the work has been so rapid and the fields of endeavor have
broadened so widely that the sum is really not over fifty per cent of what
we need to carry out our ordinary work that comes under the scope of the
Plant Act. This, you understand, is entirely aside from the citrus canker
work that we hope is more or less temporary, and is an annual appropria-
tion that will go on indefinitely. Therefore, in order to meet the situation,
we present the following revolution'
WHEREAS, the present annual State appropriation of $35,000.00 will
not furnish sufficient funds to do this, therefore, be it
RESOLVED, that the Florida State Horticultural Society, assembled in
annual session, recommend to the State Plant Board that in their estimate
to be prepared for and presented to the next session of our State Legis-
lature, they increase the amount estimated for the administration of the
Plant Act to a sum sufficient to carry out the provisions of this law in a
way that will protect the Agricultural and Horticultural interests of the
State."
(Resolution seconded and adopted.)
WHEREAS, the members of the Florida State Horticultural Society are
vitally interested in the welfare of the citrus industry, many of them
directly, by reason of their grove holdings, and others indirectly, by reason
of the importance of the industry in the development and prosperity of
Florida, and
WHEREAS, in the raising of funds for the eradication of citrus canker
by public subscription, in the work of securing the enactment by the
Florida Legislature of the law creating a State Plant Board and the
measure appropriating $125,000.00 for the fight on citrus canker and in
the campaign to secure aid from the Federal Government for the further
prosecution of the canker eradication work, the members of this society
have taken an active and influential part, and







State Plant Bonlcl


WHEREAS, it is now certain, that no living m'an or group of men can
accurately estimate the cost of carrying to a final conclusion this citrus
canker eradication work or definitely determine the period of its duration
and it is exceedingly probable that funds in addition to those now available
will be required to complete the conquest of the disease, and
WHEREAS, The State of Florida not only is required by the interests
of her most important single industry to stand behind the fight on citrus
canker until it has been entirely won, but also is under a moral obligation
to do so in order to justify the Federal Government for the aid it has
given and in extending further work as may be asked for, now therefore,
be it
RESOLVED, by the Florida State Horticultural Society in annual con-
vention assembled at Arcadia on April 26th, 1916, that we regard it as
incumbent on the next session of the State Legislature (provided citrus
canker has not been eradicated) to appropriate such additional sums for
citrus canker eradication as in the judgment of the State Plant Board may
be necessary and we as individuals pledge ourselves to request from all
candidates for members of the House of Representatives and State Senate
in our respective counties and districts pledges to support such appropria-
tions."
(Resolution seconded and adopted.)

RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE MEMBERS OF THE FLORIDA CITRUS
SEMINAR AT GAINESVILLE, OCTOBER 18, 1916

WHEREAS, the present annual State appropriation of $35,000.00 will
not furnish sufficient funds to carry out the terms of the Plant Act, there-
fore, be it
RESOLVED, that the Mass Meeting of citrus growers in attendance at
the Citrus Seminar at Gainesville, assembled in annual session, recommend
to the State Plant Board that in its estimate to be prepared for and pre-
sented to the next session of our State Leg~islature, they increase the
amount estimated for the administration of the Plant Act to a sum suffi-
cient to carry out the provisions of this law in a way that will fully pro-
tect the Agricultural and Horticultural interests of the State.
WHEREAS, the members in attendance at the Florida Citrus Seminar
are vitally interested in the welfare of the citrus industry, many of them
directly, by reason of their grove holdings, and others indirectly, by reason
of the importance of the industry in the development and prosperity of
Florida, and
WHEREAS, in the raising of funds for the eradication of citrus canker
by public subscription, in the work of securing the enactment by the
Florida Legislature of the law creating the State Plant Board and the
measure appropriating $125,000.00 for the fight on citrus canker and in
the campaign to secure aid from the Federal Government for the further
prosecution of canker eradication work, the members in attendance at this
Mass Meeting have always taken an active part and influential part, and
WHEREAS, it is now certain that no living man or group of men can
accurately estimate the cost of carrying to a successful conclusion this
citrus canker eradication work or definitely determine the period of its
duration and it is exceedingly probable that funds in addition to those now
available will be required to complete the conquest of this disease, and
WHEREAS, the State of Florida not only is required by the interests of
her most important single industry to stand by the fight on citrus canker
until it has been entirely won, but is also under moral obligation to do so
in order to justify the Federal Government for the aid it has given and in
extending further work as may be asked for, now therefore, be it
RESOLVED, by the Mass Meeting of citrus growers in annual convention
assembled at the Citrus Seminar at Gainesville on October 18th, 1916, that
we regard it as incumbent on the next session of the State Legislature
(provided citrus canker has not been eradicated) to appropriate such addi-
tional sums for citrus canker eradication as in the judgment of the State







Anlzzlal Repost, 1915


Plant Board may be necessary, and ~e as individuals pledg~e ourselves to
lecluest of all members of the House of Representatives and State Senate
in our respective Counties and Districts pledg~es to support such appro-
priations."

THE &UARTEI1LY BULLETIN

As a means of placing in the hands of the farmers and fruit
growers of the State information regarding various insects and
diseases against mhich the Plant Board is directing measures of
control or eradication, as nell as for making available to the
public the results of investigations being carried on, the Board
authorized the publication of The Quarterly Bulletin of the
State Plant Board of Florida "
The first issue, Volume i, No. i, was published in October,
1916, and was devoted mainly to descriptions of citrus canker.
A copy of this issue will be found in the appendix to this report.
Application for entry of The Bulletin as second-class mail mat-
ter at the post office at Gainesville has been made and approved.
Inasmuch as the Plant Board cannot avail itself of any frank-
ing privilege for the distribution of its publications by mail the
use of a regular publication, mailable at the second class rate
of postage, appears to be the most practical and economical way
of placing information in the hands of growers and other citi-
zens directly interested in the Board's nrork.


EMPLOYEES

Owing to the magnitude of the tasks in which it is engaged.
coupled with the active co-operation with the Bureau of Plant
Industry in the eradication of citrus canker and with the Fed-
eral Horticultural Board in the inspection of plant importa-
tions, the Board necessarily has a large number of employees.
Taking into consideration the fact that trained employees for
such work as the Board is doing are not regularly available, in
the sense that engineers, bookkeepers, chemists, physicians and
the like are available for meeting emergencies, and the fact
that the Board has itself had to train the great majority of its
employees for their particular duties, it is remarkable that so
efficient an organization has been gotten together in so short
a time.
Space forbids a presentation of data showing the periods dur-
ing which different employees have been engaged and as this
information is available in the Plant Commissioner's office at








State Plant Bonlcl


Gainesville we give here the names of only such employees as
were on duty at the close of the fiscal year.

E1CIPLOYEES WHOSE APPOINTZdENTS WERE EFFECTIVE ON
APRIL 30, 1916

Secretary's Office
Kellum, J. G., Sec~etury
Burch, F. A., Assistunt
Plant Commissioner's O~t~ice
Newell, Wilmon, Plant Conmissioner
Goodwin, J. C., Chief Clerk
Simmons, Mrs. L. A., Stenographer
Cornwell, Miss Madge E., Stenographer
Lampkin, Miss Isabel, StenogrcLphe~
Mabee, Miss Mildred, Office Assistant
Lloyd, Henry (col.), Jaldtor

Department of Citrus Canker Eradication"
(Plant Commissioner in Charge)
Stirling~, Frank, General Inspector
DISTRICT INSPECTORS


Clark, VirgilI.
Daniel, Leon A.
Gist, J. V.
Hainlin, Neal E.


Bollinffer, Harry D


Heck, Joy
Henry, A. M.
Horton, H. A.
Miller, J. A.


Nieland, F. C.
Schlobi~,John
Swanson, A. L.
Wilson, G. H.


ASSISTANT DISTRICT INSPECTORS
Campbell, Matthew G. Fletcher, J. M.
Goldberg~, Edward Robert


GROVE SUPERVISORS
Chandler, A. L.

FOREMEN OF INSPECTOR~
Gibsen, Pearl B.
Gossman, Harvey L.
Green, Joseph T.
Hig~ley, Albert W.
Hobsen, Robt. Leonard
Hoenshel, Paul 1Vi.
Holcomb, James M.
Holland, James S.
Ingram, John W.
Ingran;, Otis D.
Kelly, Emery L.
Kiner, James Otis
Laing, James David
Liles, Ed.
Little, F. L.
Mahan, William D.
Matthews, StanlBy F.


Bragdon, Kenneth E.
Montg~omery, J. H.

Adams, Arthur
Adams, Benj. Franklin
Albrecht, Chas. J.
Ayer, Aubrey E.
Barcus, George D.
Bateman, Raymond G.
Burden, G. F.
Carter, Howard G.
Cash, Richard P.
Chandler, Luther L.
Cox, Charles A.
Crum, Lemil Clarence
Dillingham, H. J.
Dixon, C. D.
Douglass, Elmer E.
Eikenberry, H. D.
Flowers, B. L.
:Gaston, B. O.


Grennell, Virgil M.
Thompson, Alpheus A.


McClanahan, Samuel L.
Mears, John M.
Potter, Edwd. Raymcnd
Raab, Albert G.
Rahn, W. J.
Reynolds, Roscoe
Richmond, Leon C.
Rowe, William L.
Schumacher, Henry E.
SealeyJohn
Sheffield, Chas. P.
Smith, Cleve F.
St6ne, O. T.
Strain, John G.
Tedder, Gee. E.
Wait, Stephen B.
Wilt, Henry S.
Woodberry, Edw. R.


*As the work of this Department is conducted in co-ogeration with the
Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Department of i~griculture, salaries of the
employees, with the exception of the Plant Commissioner, are defrayed out
of either State or Government funds, or both, as circumstances may require.









An~zuul Repolt, 1915


INSPECTORS

KinsonPaulF.
HoffmanPaulFrank
Holland, Chas. Hubert
Holland, Joseph W.
Hooker, Alphonse S.
Houston, ~Iills R.
Hunt, Chas. 1LI.
Ingraham, Charles F.
Ishmael, Joseph L.
Jenness, Waiter E.
Johnson, Aug~ust P.
Kelley, Huph L.
Iierr, James
I~inyoun, Grap
Iiirlipatrick, Lanrence L.
Iinighton, Harveg B.
Lasher, Abraham H.
Lasher, Leslie C.
LazonbyJ.Lionel
Lee, Dock
Lee, Henrr C.
Lent, Frie~drich
LeRoynIerton
Lindner, Ross W.
Linper, Russell B.
Little, Arnaud R.
Little, Leland S.
Lo~ver, ~~illiam D.
Ludlam, Joselh ~T~.
~;ahan, Charles R.
i\lars2l, Berr~- L.
~IcAllister, klonzo 0.
McCullough, James D.
nlclendon, Albert S.
nIcLendon, John A.

3Iillin~ton, m:m. ~'.
nIills, Steve T.
i\Ionple, Thos. ~I.
3Ioore, Joseph SP.
nIoore, Jules B.
i\Iurphy, NoahA.
r~anneg-, Wm. C.
r\Tiedernhoefer, Wm. F.
NoPwood, Jesse A.
Norwood, John N
Nutting, Chas. T.
Oliphant, Ross G.
O'Shields, Odom S.


Osteen, Ray J.
Owens, Thomas E.
Parham, Hosmer S.
Park, Bradlev
Parker, Frank R.
Pemberton, Redden H.
Peters, Ralph
Putnal, Bonnie W.
Rawls, John C.
Reese, Mitchell A.
Regnolds, David N.
Roberts, Frank Arthur
Roberts, Georg~e i,.
RoL-erts, Henry L.
Ro"erts, Leon F.
Roberts, Samuel F.
RobinsonTom
Robinson, Vernon It.
Rodg~ers, Wm. B.
Ross, George N.
Ross, James Brown
Sadler, Ralph T.
Simmons, James R.
SimondsJay
Smith, Lonllie S;
Snell, Robert L.
Stephens, Charlie S.
Stephens, n'illiam L.
Stevens, R. C.
Stevenson, Asbary C.
Stokes, Clifford
Strong, C. E.
Sturrup, Eric G.
Swartsel, Howard B.
Thomas, William H.
Tobias, Benj. B.
Ulmer, Julius E.
Vauphan, James D.
made, Georffe W.
m~allrer, George Samuel
Walton, William Karl
~artmann, Henrg A.
Wells, Benjamin B.
Wever, Ellison Gapers
Wiley, Talmage M.
Wilson, James H.
Wilson, Joseph H.
Wood, Clarence O.
Yetter, Morris D.


Albrecht, Alfred C.
Baker, Willie O.
Bass, Clarence A.
Bass, ~Iilledg~e 31.
Black, Alvin L.
Blackburn, Grover C.
Bosse, Rufus F.
Boyett, illarshal~l.
Browne, Clarence E.
BynumEliK.
Chandler, Stewart C.
Chubb, Leland i\I.
Clark, Brthur J.
Cling~er, John A.
Conner, Daniel S.
Crape, David
Crum, Westley A.
Culley, Percy Edward
Curry, W. R.
Cutts, William H.
Daniel, Basil E.
Davis, Robert H.
Dixon, Albert LeRue
Dubbin, James ;IlcC.
Dunaway, Wilbur E.
Eberhardt, Waiter F.
Edson, Ferry nI.
EilandJohn
Fish, Robert E.
Fitch, Samuel H.
Flora, Roy
Forbes, Tnialter R. T.
Ford, Arthur E.
Frierson, Hill H.
Fry, Benjamin B.
Fuchs, Flitz
Gaines, Gee. B. F.
Gearinff, Jesse
Gench, Carl
Gleg~,Geor~e
Graves, Thomas L.
Gwvnn. Eddie L.
Hail, James E. B.
Harter, W. W.
Hatfield, Jeptha C.
Haywood, Frank E.
Hearn, Bryant Eugene
Henderson, Francis M.
Henderson, William H.







State Plnnt Boald


Department of Nursery Inspection
F. M. O'Byrne, Nzlrsery Inspectol, in Charge
Harn, S. P., Assistant NzlrsenJ Inspector"'
Zeluff, U. C., Assistant NuserZl Inspecto,
Grimes, D. W., Assistant Nzlrse~~LJ Inspector
Chaffin, J., ASSiStCL7Lt Nzu-ser~ Inspecto?
Bibby, F. F., Assistant NuserzJ Inspector
DaCosta, Miss Mary W.,.'.' ~..~.~I:.~
rv'IcIlvaine, Miss Lucretia,.~!. ~ ~.. ~.,!;

Packing-House Inspectors'"*
alexander, G. T. Francis, H. H. Meares, A. L.
Baskin, J. D. Hinderliter, M. L. Meares, Georg~e TT'.
Bearss, W. O. I(ime, C. D. Miller, H. A.
Campbell, W. P. Lee, W. E. ~ilorrow, A. G.
Childs, J. E. LeGreid, W. C. Stoltz, F. W.
Davis, L. L. McCraney, D. Williams, Boyce

Department of Entomology
Dr. E. W. Berg~er, E1Lto?,zoloyist, in Charge
nlason, A. C., Assistcclzt Entollcologist
Evans, Miss Ella M.,';. ~.;:~ ,1~

Department of Port and Railway Inspection
(Plant Commissioner in Charge)
Hull, W. N., Depz~tzJ Polt and RailzucLzJ Inspectto'"
Brown, A. C., DepzrtzJ Po~rt and RailwazJ Inspector
Gehry, Emil L., Depllty Port and RcLilzucLJ Ilzspector
Merrill, Gee. B., DepzltzJ Port and RcLilwuy Ilzspector
Brown, Luther, Depalty Port and RailwcLzJ I1Lspector

Department of Plant Pathology
(Plant Commissioner in Charge)
Jehle, Dr. R. A., AssistcLlzt Plalzt Pnthologist

EMPLOYEES WHOSE APPOINTMENTS WERE EFFECTIVE ON
NOVEMBER 30, 1916

Secretary's Office
I(ellum, J. G., Secletal1J
Burch, F. A., AssistcLlt

'~s the inspection of citrus nurseries constitutes an imDortnnt Bart I11
the era(licalion of citrus cnnlier, salaries and esDenses of assistant nursery
insDectols nssig.ned to the insyeclion of citrus nurseries are deflnyed out of
eithei Planl- Boai:d or Bureau of Plant Industry funds, or bolh, as ciicum-
stances may require.
** Packing-house inspectors are e~~ployea to supervise the fumig~tiilg,
aipDing, scrubbing or other Drecautionary Irentments prescribed for nursei.y
stock packed by certain nurseries, such as those occurring in cottony cushion-
scale a~eas, etc., and are paid only for time actually e~~vloyed. The ~vaes
of the pncking-house inspectors are charges to the nurseries in which their
work is verfolmed. The Plant Board incurs no e~pense for their services.
*DeDuty Port and Railnay Inspectors of the State Plm~t Board are also
Collaborators of the Federal Horticultural Board, U. S. DeDal.tmenl of ~~1i-
culture, hut as such receive only a nominul salary of ~I.On Dbr month each.
No other eslense in connection with the port and rnilwny insDection work In
Florida is defrayed by the Federal Horticultural Board.






An7zunl Relu?t, 1915


Plant Commissioner's Office
Newell, Wilmon, Plalt Col,2l,~issiole,
Goodwin, J. C., ChieJ Clek
Simmons, Blrs. L. A., Stenoyccl:lle,
Cornwell, IVliss Madg~e E., Stel2oSllclphci
Lampkin, Miss Isabel, SteLoylclphe,
Carlisle, Pdrs. Kathleen R., Stellogaphel
Colson, Mrs. K. D., SteLog7ccphe,
m~allSn, 3liss Evlgn, Stelogiccpllel
i\4abee, ~liss ~lildred, Office Assistccllf
Llovd, Henry (col.), dcr,~ito,

Department of Citrus Canker Eradication
(Plant Commissioner in Cha~ae)
Sti~ling, Frank, Ge,2elccl Illspectol

DISTRICT INSPECTORS


Campbell, Matthew G.
Clark, VirpilI.
Daniel, Leon A.
Gist, J. V.
Hainlin, Neal E.


Heck, Joy
Horton, H. A.
nIeals, John r\I.


Nieland, F. C.
Schlobi~,John
Smith, Cleve F.
Swanson, A. L.
Wilson, G. H.


ASSISTANT DISTRICT INSPECT~ORS
Albrecht, Charles J. Carter, Ho~a~d G. Pottet, Ed~-d. Ragmond
Bass, Jlilled~e ~I. Fletcher, J. 31. Tedder, George E.
Bolling~e~, Harry D. Goldberg, Ed~vard Robt. TPartmalnl, Henry A.
Hoenshel, Paul nI.


GROVE SUPERVISORS
Grennell, VirgillU.
blontg`omery, J. H.


Bra~don, Kenneth E.



Adams, $rthur
Adams, Benj. FPanklin
A1tis, Halveg C.
Baliei, Thos. J.
Earber, Bascom D.
Barcus, George D.
Bateman, Raymond G.
Bearden, Cleveland C.
Browne, Clarence E.
Burden, G. F.
Cary, Chas. L.
Cash, Richard P.
Chandler, Luther L.
Cox, Charles A.
Crum, Lemil Clarence
Culley, Percy Edward
Dillinaham, H. J.
Dixon, C. D.
Douglass, Elmer E.
Eilienberry, H. D.
EilandJohn
Flowers, B. L.
Ford, Arthur E.
Fuchs, Fritz
Gaines, Gee. B. F.
Gaston, B. O.


ThomPson, Alpheus A.


FOREMEN OF INSPECTORS


Gibson, PearlB.
Gossman, Harver L.
GPaham, Er~in ~I.
Green, Joseph T.
Gwynn, Eddie L.
Harter, TV. W.
Haywood, Franle E.
Henderson, PLufus C.
Henderson, William H.
Hobson, Robt. Leonard
Holcomb, James nI.
Horton, Edward S.
Inaram, John W.
Ingram, Otis D.
Johnson, Au~ust P.
Kelly, Emery L.
Kerr, James
Laing~, James David
Liles, Ed.
Lindner, Ross TT'.
Lower, William D.
Ludlam, Joseph W.
nlahan, William D.
McClanahan, Howard S.
n4cClanahan, Samuel L.
nIendel, James C.
nIillin~ton, TT'm. V.


Nutting, Chas. T.
O'Neal, James R.
O'Shields, Odom S.
Parker, Frank R.
Raab, Albert G
Rah~, Wm. J.
Reynolds, David N.
Reynolds, Roscoe
It`ichmond, Leon C.
Ro~ers, Frazier
Schumacher, Henry E.
Scott, William J.
Shetfieltl, Chas. P.
Sloan, Gee. D.
Stephens, William L.
Stone, O. T.
Strain, John G.
Swartsel, Howarct B.
Thomas, William H.
'rhompson, Troy
;iaug~hn, Mollov C.
~;l~ade, George W.
Wait, Stephen B.
Warner. L. Russell
Willifold, Talmag~e Y.
Witt, Henry S.






State Plant Boa,cl


INSPECTORS


Albrecht, Alfred C.
Alexander, David H.
Alexander, Guy T.
Baillie, Wm. J., J1.
Baker, Byrd O.
Baker, George H.
Baker, J. Otis
Baker, L. J.
Baker, TiViilie O.
Ball, Joseph H.
Barnett, Harry B.
Bass, Clarence A.
Beaty, Alwyn L.
Benedict, William L.
Beville, Ulmont U.
Black, Alvin L.
Blacklsurn, Grover C.
Bosse, Rufus F.
Boyett, Rlarshal M.
Bradford, Horace
Branan, James Ruben
Brown, Charles M.
Brown, James B.
Brown, IMerle R.
Brown, Ollie D.
BuchananRex
Buff, William D.
Butts, John L.
Calcote, William H.
Camp, Paul Z.
Carlentel, Stanley D.
Cash, R. A.
Cellon, F. l\iI.
Chamberlin, Harly T.
Church, Harry W.
Cla~k, Arthur J.
Cling~er, John A.
Conner, ~aniel S.
Craft, F1ed L.
Crum, West!ey A.
Curry, W. R.
Cutts, William H.
Daniel, Easil F.
D~ughtuev, J. A., Jr.
Davis, Robert H
Diclcey, Ecl~wnrd It.
Dickson, Albelt n'I.
Dolsbin, James McC.
Donaldson, Wilson T.
Dukes, James R.
nulies, Redding A.
Dunawav, Wilbur E.
Dyson, Zebloa V.
Fberhardt, Waiter F.
Ellis, Thos. R.
Fish, Robert ~.
Fitch, Samuel H.
Fo~~, Harry W.
Folbes, Waiter R. T.
Freeman, Jesse W.
Frierson, Hill H.


Frierson, Ed.
Fry, Benj amin B
Fuller, Richard M.
Galcia, John R.
Gench, Carl
Grace, Don H.
Graves, Thomas L.
Gray, Charles F.
Hall, Clayton E.
Hall, Ja~nes E. S
Hammell, David i.
Hampson, Charles M.
Hansen, Hans W. A.
Harkins, D. L.
Harrison, Cyrus J
Henderson, Francis M.
Henderson, J. Harvey
Hoffman, Paul Frank
Holland, Eclward Alton
Holland, Joseph W.
Holton, John C.
Hood, Richard V.
Hoolrer, Alphonse S.
Howell, John F.
Hutchinson, D. O., Jr.
Ing~raham, Charles F.
Irwin, Harry M.
Ishmael, Joseph L.
r Jaclcson, Henr3r C.
JacBsonJames
Janes, George
Jenness, Waiter E.
IZeller, P. C.
Kersey, Waiter L.
I(nig~ht, Robert L.
I(in3Toun, Gray
Lahrman, Waiter O.
Lamls, I(irliland S.
Lasher, Abrahan H.
Lasher, Leslie C.
Lavrley, Karley H.
Lazonby, J. Iionel
Lee, node
Lee, Henrg C
Lee, J,-wis BI.
;; Lee, Russell E.
Lent, F1iedrich
LeRoy, 1LIerton
Levis, Norris It.
Light, L. S., Jr.
Lindley, I(ine'ston II.
Little, Amaud R.
Mahan, Charles R.
n'laloney, Clarence B.
nlarsh, Eeiry Ii.
1C~arsh, James F.
Marshall, Galen G.
nlaptin, Clarence W.
nlcbllisteu, Alonzo O.
McCullourh, James D.
McKay, Haden ill.


McLendon, John A.
iLIcMullen, Henry L.
i~elendy, B. E.
I~lelton, Willsurn P.

Miller, He~bert L.
illoore, John L.
Moore, Joseph W.
Moore, Jules B.
Morg~an, James Raiford
Mowry, Harold
Neal, Cecil G.
Niedernhoefer, Wm. F.
Nixon, Roy R.
Norwood, Jesse A.
Noxtine, H. A.
OakleJr, Archie R.
Oliphant, Ross G.
Parham, Harry C
Park, Bradleg
Pemberton, Henry F.
Pem)serton, Redden H.
Pinelli, Joe
Poos, Fred W., J1.
Potter, Roscoe D.
Pryer, T. J.
Pntnal, Bonnie W.
Rawls, Axon Badger
Reese, Mitchell A.
Roberts, Frank Arthur
Roberts, Gee. L.
Robelts, Samuel F.
Robertson, Paul F.
RobinsonTom
Robinsoa, Vernon It.
Rod~els, William B.
Ross, GeorRe T~.
Ross, James Brown
Regal, John W.
Rudesill, Dick
Sails, Kenneth T.
,ScuddelHamilton F.
SealeyJohn
Seeds, Harvey W.
Seitz, Harry G.
Shelton, J. L.
Sherman, Charles D.
Sherouse, L)ave T.
Shliner, Ike M.
Simmons, James n.
SimondsJay
Smith, Clyde
Smith, Herman n.
Smith, Joseplh G.
Smit;h, Lawrence O.
SmRh, Lonnie S.
SpillerWillinm i\.
Steil, Fred H.
Stephens, Charlie S.
Stevens, R. C.
Stevenson, Asbal~ C.






Annual Repolt, 1915


INSPECTORS (Continued)


Stevenson, Elbert RI.
Stevenson, George A.
Stevenson, Richard D.
Stokes, Clifford
Strong, C. E.
S~ann, Porter R.
Taglor, cTesse F.
Thomas, Paul
ThompsonRoy
ThomsonJames


TrSon, Harry D.
Uhner, Juiius E.
C~lmer, Robert L.
~~a uphan, James D.
~~etter, Paul
S~incent, Clarence A.
TS~alker, George Samuel
Walliep, Shirley B.
Wells, Eenjamia B.
Wells, Paul L.


Wever, Ellison Capeis
~T:hidden, 3larion T.
~hitehulst, Xndrelr X.
~iT'hitehulst, Linton L.
m'hittingtoa, C. E.
Wilder, H. S.
Wilson, James H.
Wilson, Joseph H.
Wood, Clarence O
mi~oodruff', Seth L.


Department of Nursery Inspection
F. 31. O'Byrne, ~~cri'se,U I12xpecto,', in Chai~e
Hain, S. P., dssisfn,2t Scsc,~ Iispeclo,
Zeluff, ~. C., ~ssistrllt ~~1().8(').U I,~specio,'
Chandler, Ste~-art C., dssis;ant ~~~cise,y Ilspcctol
Bibbr, F. F., i~ssiatant ~r!isci~ I,~s~ecio,
Nanney,'C~T. C~1 dXSiSia)lt SII)Sely Ilspecio,
Roberts, Leon F., dssistnlt ~~,c,sciU Iispectoi
Brnum, Eli I~., dssisloiit ~~n,sc,y Iispecto,
Ti~ilson, C. E., Assistcclt ~~~r,seil/ Ilsptcto,
Kirkpatrich-, L. L., dssistclli Slrsey Ilspcctoi
Hunt, Chas. 31., dssistnlt Snao~ ILspecto,
Carothers, =1. B., dssistnlt Siise,~ Iispecto,
LinRer,, R. B., dssistu,~t i~lr,sc,U Irspecto,
DaCosta, 1\Iiss ~Iary T~., Sfologupho
3IcIloaine, 3Iiss Lucretia, Stelogiaphe,


Packing-House Inspectors
Roper, B. H.
I~ime, C. n. Satilei, F. n'.
Lee, TT'. E. Scoigie, L. ?
Luce, D. H, Smith, L. ~~
~IcCollo~1, J. A. Stenart, J. T,.
nIcCrane!-, L). Stoltz, F. Tf.
3Lillen, S. E. Summerall, Peiig
3iillel, H. X. T~~te, I
Oeetelle, Chas. Tonnsend, I,. ~.
Parl~ei, P. C. Tullbel7-, C. C.
P~-lant, S. L. ~T~iiliams? Bo~-ce
Ro~els, O. H.
Department of EntomologS


Aligood, C. E.
Beaiss, TS'. O
Block, 55'. C
Bruviere. J.
Campbeli, W. P.
Coniad, Chas. A.
DeLanor. S. S.
Douyhertv, Lgnn
Enplish, BS
Francis, H. H.
Gantt, J. E.
Jenner, J. T.


1)1. E. ~. Eelger, Ei~lolroloyist, in Chalg~e
I\Iason, A. C.,;lssistccli Eltodi~oloyist
Evans, ~Iiss Elia 31., Slc,~oginpho
Department of Port and Railway Inspection
(Plant Commissioner in Charge)
Hall, TT~. N., ncpitiU Poit ((iid RaillcaU ILspccto,
B1olrn, A. C., nep~lt~ Pot (1,1:1 R~tilicrccy Ilspccto,
GehlS~ Emil L., Dcpctl! Po,i ccld Railzunll IILspectol
3Ielrill, George B., Uepllt~ Po,t crzn! Rrcilway Ilsspeclor
Bsown, Luta~er, DellrtU Pot ccncE Ra.ilzony IlzslectoP
Grimes, D. W., Del~lrty Pot nlzd nailway I~nspcctor
Staples, I., Depllt~ Inspeulor
Mitchell, Joseph, Uepztly Inspector
Department of Plant Pathology
(Plant Commissioner in Charge)
Jehle, nr. R. A., Assistccnt PI~oct Patholoyint
~IcKay, Haden ~~., Teli~poircly Assistal~t






StcLte Plnnt Boald


FINANCIAL REPORT

The following report on the finances of the Board is sub-
mitted by Mr. J. G. Kellum, Secretary:

TALLAHASSEE, FLA., Sept. 30, 1916.

State Plnnt Board.

GENTLEI~EN:--I have the honor to submit the following re-
port of the finances of the Board for the period beginning May
Ist, 1915, and ending Sept. 30th, 1916.

SUMMARY

Resozwces

General Appropriation for year ending April 30, 1916..835,000.00
General Appropriation for year ending April 30, 1917 35,000.00
Special Appropriation for the Eradication of Citrus
Canker ~~~~~..~................................
Donations and Incidental Collections............................. 5,369.27

Total................................--- ------------------------------ $200,369.27

Elepenclitules
For Salaries .............................~..........
For Office Supplies ............................~.....~..... 7,427.74
For Traveling Expenses ........................................ 20,718,60
For Printing Bulletins, etc....~................................ 2,241.24
For General Supplies ......~................................. 11,662.05
For Miscellaneous Expenses 2,513.56
Unexpended part of Appropriation for year ending
April 30, 1916.................................... .18

Total Expenditures.........................~.. $160,800.33

Balance September 30, 1916.................................... $ 39,568.94 "

ITEMIZED EXPENDITURES

Resou1ces. SpecicL1 Fu?2.cl
Appropriation .................~.........-------------
Expenclitures
For Salaries ..~..................................... 83,232.41
For Office Supplies .............~.......................... 323.63
For Traveling Expenses .........~.............................. 14,498.97
For Printing Bulletins .................................~...... 34.00
For General Supplies ........................................ 6,274.81
For Miscellaneous Expenses ........................................ 1,684.57

Total Expenditures............................ 111,045.39"

Balance Unexpended September 30, 1916........~............. $ 13,961.61
*Does not i~clude eipenses incurred during Segtember, 191G, vouchers for
nhich ~vere apDroved at the October Board meeting.







Annual Repo?t, 2915 Ci5


DONATIONS AND INCIDENTAL COLLECTIONS

Resozl,ces

Total Receipts from May i, 1915, to September i, 1916...........,.$ 5,369.27


Ezpenditules

For Salaries ................................:....... 1,045:,50
For Traveling Expenses ........................................ 76,5(i
For Printing ........................................ 1.'35
For General Supplies ............................ 1,530.p5

Total Expenditures to September 30, 1910.. 8,253.'i(i

Balance on Hand September 30, 191(i............................


GENERAL FUND

For Year Ending ~April 30th, 1916

Resou,ces

Appropriation ........................................ 36:000.00


Eli~penditzl,es hU Items

For Salaries ........................................ 18,014.74
Fdr Office Supplies ........................................ 6,50G.4'i
For Traveling Expenses .......................................: 5,12'L.07
For Printing Bulletins ..........................~....r...,...; 1,527.09
For General Supplies ........................................ 3,131.75
For: Miscellaneous Expenses ...............(.............. 607.70
Balance Unexpended for Expenses of Year. ............... .18

Total..............................,.... Y; :35,d00:00 ''"



For Year Ending April 30tb, 1917

R~soul~tes

Appropriation ......1.................I-.............. 35,000.00'


*T~e disbursement of the Genera~ Fund'-during Ihe fiscal j~enr endtnfi
Ayril 3q, 1916, declassified deyRrtments ~nther~thRn Iy ilqn~s. ~ng as, follon~g:
I'lnnt Board, Ij~xpenses............................. ~!1$.9$
hdvisory 'Committee, ExDensesl .......' ..'
Secretnry's OAice (Tallahassee)......... ...... 1,310.;1
I'lant Commissioner's Omce (Gnil!esvil~i~ ......... 13,finl.l~
Depurtment of ~ntomology .................. ............ 4,573.60
Degartment of Nursery InsDection ...... ...............-- 110,7O3.~$
Delarlll7ent of I'lant PatholoRy.............................. 2,1S9.42
neDxrtlnent of I'ort and Kailway Inslection........................... 1.4.78.85
Unexpenrled balnnce reverting ......................----------------- 1.S

ToT~1 ....................-------------------- gar,,noooo
--Planr Commissioner.






66 State Plant f3oard


Expenditures

For Salaries ........................................ 8,344.31
For Office Expenses ..............................~......... 507.64
For Traveling Expenses 1,022.00
For Printing Bulletins ........................................ 678.20
For General Supplies ........................................ 724.74
For Miscellaneous Expenses ....................................~... 221.29
Total Expenses to September 30, 1916....._ 11,498.18**

Balance Unexpended ........................................ 3 23,501.82
Respectfully submitted,
J. G. KELLUM, Secretary."


ESTIMATES

The following estimates on the appropriation required for the
general work of the Plant Board during each of the ensuing
fiscal years are based upon furnishing the farmers and fruit
growers of the State with that protection against injurious in-
sects and diseases contemplated by the Florida Plant Act of
1915 and which means to them countless thousands of dollars
saved from the ravages of these pests, as well as thousands
more from pests which are certain to enter Florida from other
States and countries should this protection not be afforded.
The continuing appropriation of $35,000.00 per annum, made
by the last Legislature for carrying out the general provisions
of the Plant Act, has been found totally inadequate for the pur-
pose. The reason for this lies largely in the fact that the doors
of Florida were wide open for years, with no protection being
afforded its agricultural industries, with the result that the agri-
cultural pests already introduced into the State annually levy a
toll of from 15 to 25 per cent on the general farm crops and
from 40 to 60 per cent on the fruit and truck crops.
Unfortunately practically all supplies used by the Plant Board
in its work, such as paper, stationery, laboratory equipment,
chemicals, disinfectants, etc., have greatly advanced in price

The disbursement of this item, by departments, was as follows:
Plant Boara. Expenses................................ 0.00
~dvisory Committee, Expenses...........................~~..~ 56.60
Secretary's Office ...................................~.... 412.45
Plant Commissioner's ORice.............................~~..~~ 4,222.69
Department of Entomology 1.427.47
Department of Nursery Inspection ........................................ .. 2,277.26
Department of Plant Psthology............................... .......... 521.48
Department of Port and Railway InsDection.............................. 2,580.23
Total. May i. to Sept. 80. 1916.................................... $11,498,18
--Plsnt Commissioner.







Annual Reit~ort, ~915


since the appropriation was made. The rapid upward tendency
of salaries being paid by commercial organizations has also
made it extremely difficult, and in many cases impossible, for
the Plant Board to retain efficient employees at the salaries
which its resources permit it to pay. Despite the increased cost
of supplies and of services the following estimates are based
upon actual experience during the past 18 months.

GENERAL FUND
Estimated Expenses Per Annum

PLANT BOARD
Traveling Expenses of Board Members............................$ 300.00
Postage and Telegrams, Board Members........................ 50.00

Total................................... $ 350.00

SECRETARY'S OFFICE
Salary of Secretary............................... 600.00
Salary of Assistant Secretary............................... 600.00
Postage and Stationery.............................~ 100.00

Total................................... 1,300.00

PLANT COMMISSIONER'S OFFICE
Salaries:
Plant Commissioner............................ 4,000.00
1 Chief Clerk ........................................ 1,600.00
1 Filing Clerk at $60.00 per month.......................... 720.00
2 Stenographers at $75.00 per month, each............ 1,800.00
2 Stenographers at $70.00 per month, each~.~......... 1,680.00
1 Janitor at $30.00 per month................................... 360.00

Total, Salaries ........................................ $10,060.00

Traveling Expenses, Plant Commissioner........................8 450.00
Postage and Stamped Envelopes...................~........... 1,050.00
Telephone and Telegrams............................... 108.00
Letterheads, Plain White Paper, Envelopes, etc............. 165.00
Off ice Desks, Tables and Chairs.................................. 115.00
Filing Furniture ............~........................... 140.00
Filing Folders, Guide and Record Cards, Blank
Books, etc. ........................................ 180.00
Typewriters and Typewriter Maintenance...................... 325.00
Repairs and Maintenance of Rooms Occupied at Uni-
versity of Florida, and Equipment of Storerooms
and Laboratory in Attic of Language Hall............ 75.00
Express, Drayage and Freight................................. 140.00
Multigraph Supplies and Maintenance..................~.......... 185.00
Publication of Quarterly Bulletin,* 4 Issues, 20,000
Copies Per Issue, at $800.00 Per Issue... ................. 3,200.00
Postage on Quarterly Bulletin at Second-Class Rate,
4 Issues at $18.00 Per Issue................................... 72.00

In lieu of all other expenses for publishing bulletins, except rules of the
Board as adopted, and official notices to transportation companies.







State Plant ~oard


Ilublidation'of Plant B~oard "Circulars!' Co~tainin~
~ Rules Reffulatio4s andP~blic. Notices.-of. the
Board as adopted, 12 issues, ~,040 Copies Each,
at:~~.OO 'Per I'ssue:...~..:.....:.....:...~...:.'.:...
1 eddressing ~Machine and. Accessories,........;..;..!..........i
Electricity,** 12 Months, ~t $5.00 Per Month,...............
Heat,*'* 4 iMonths, at $9.00 Per Month.-.1.....'.._..1~......:....
Reference.Booke. and agripaJtusal and Technical Pub-
lications***



Total, Plant Comm;ssioner's' Office::.....1..........


a12.00
~ 1,080.00
60.00
36.60

260.00


7,953.00


$18,013.00


DEPARTMENT OF NURSERY INSPECTION


Salaries:
Nursery Inspector (Chief of the Department).
12 Assistant Inspectors at $1,200.00........;.1.~~..
2 Stenographers at $75.00 Per Month.............
; 1 Stenographer at $70.00 Per Month.......~.........

Total. Salaries ......~I.,....._..;..........l.~....llr


$ 2,250.00
14,400.00
1,800.00
840,00

$19,290.00


Travelinff Espenses:
Nursery Inspector............................... 375.00`
12 Assistant Inspectors at $60 Per Month Average 8,640.00
Postage ........................................ 720.00
Stationery ........................................ 145,00
Telegrams ........................................ 90.00
Typewriters, Maintnance, OWce Furniture, Fil-
ing Material and Record Blanks................[... ~25.00


10,295.00

$e9,585.00


Tot~L1, Bepartment of Nursery Insp~ctibn


DEPABTMENT OF PORT AND RAILWAY iNSPECTION


Salaries:
Po;t and Railway Inspector (Chief of the De-
partment)
4 Deputy.!nspectors at $1,500.00.............;...~....,...
2 Deputy, Inspectors at $1,200.00........................,..
1 Deputy Inspector at$ 600.001..~....:........:..:~.......
2 Deputy Inspectors at $ 240.00....................~.....,.
1 Stenographer at $900.00.................................

Total,. Salaries................................

Traveling E~xpenses:
Port and Railway Inspectori.._................~.......,..
3 Deputy Inspectors at $600.00........:......,.~.........1...
Postage .......,.
Telegrams
Stationery .....................,.....;...........
Port Expenses (Boat Hire, Street Car Fare, Quarar;.-
tine Tags, Labor, etc.).........~~.........,..............


$ 2,000.00
6,000.00
2,400:00
600.00 ~
480.00
9~00.00

$12,380.00


$. 750.00
1,800.00.
150.00
40.00
65.00

250.00


**l)aynhle to the ~Tniversily of I~loridn.
'':~**mThe Plnnt Board funds hnve n~t heretofore dermit't~ed df the Durchase
of lefelence works, which nre urgently needed.








An~ztc~al Rrpolt, 1915


Publication of Port and Railway Inspection Notices,"
Estimated 5 Issues, of ,5,000 Copies Each, at
$21.50 Pet Issue................................... 107.50
Express, Drayaffe and Freiaht..................... ~6.00

Y.187.,i0

Total, Department of Port and Railway In-
spection..................... ...... ......................... $ l~,sc;7.~o

PARCELS-POST PLANT INSPECTION*

Salary, 1 Deputy Inspector............................... 1,200.00
Disinfectants, Fumigatinff Boxes, Tags, etc................... 400.00
Drayage on Parcel Post Packages for Inspection, Be-
tween Post Office and University at Gaines-
ville, at $15.00 Per Month................................... 180.00

Total, Parcels-Post Plant Inspection........ S 1,780.UO

DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY
Salaries:
Entomoloffist (Chief of the Depart~-Rent)..... .....$ ~,~00.00
I Assistant Entomoloaist....................... 1,e00.O0
Labor ........................................ 220,00

$ :Ivzo.oo
Traveling Expenses:
Entomologist ...........~............................ 400.00
Assistant Entomologist ................................... ..... ~50.00

750.00
Postage ................................... ................... ...~ 310.00
Laboratoiy Supplies .........__ ........._ 1G0.00
Express, Freight and Drayage... .................... 05.00
Reference Books ..................................... ........ 1G0.00
Furniture ........................................ ~00.00
Special Laboratory Equipment (Benches, Pots, Tubs,
etc.) X.5.00
Observation.Caffes for Life History Work. 150.00
Photographic Supplies................................ 1::0.90
InSed Cases, Labels and Recoid Files.... ......... 110.00
Chemical and Laboratoly ReaRents......... ............. .50.00

1,750.00

Total, Department of Entomoloffy................... 8: 6,420.00

DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY
Salaries:
Plant Pathologist (Chief of Department) 3,000.00
1 Assistant Plant Pathologist........................ 2,500.00

$ 5,500.00
Traveling Expenses:
Plant Pathologist .......................... .......9: 550.00
Assistant Plant Patholoffist............................. 240.00

'Under xn order issueA h?- the Third .Issislaiit T'ost master-c:rnelall
October ~L 191fi :111 nr~il shiyments of ylalrts n~id Il;iiit Iro~lucts :Irldlt~~srdl
for delivery nt Floi.idn Iost ofnces;lre reguiled ~enr to c:~rilleuvilla for 1I1
spectiorl by the State Plant ~oard.



































SUMMARY

Plant Board Expenses................................ 350.00
Secretary's Office ....~................................... 1,300,00
Plant Commissioner's Office.................................. 18,013.00
Department of Nursery Inspection............................~. 29,585.00
Department of Port and Railway Inspection..........~....... 15,567.50
Parcels-Post Plant Inspection. 1,780.00
Department of Entomoloay.............................. 6,420.00
Department of Plant Pathology.....~......................... 8,125.00

Grand Total, General Fund Per Annum.......... $ 81,140.50

CITRUS CANKER ERADICATION

The actual cost of conducting the canker eradication work in
Florida from May 1 to September 30, 1916, five months, was
$179,671,5r", or $35,934.30 per month, This was at the rate
of $431,211.60 per annum, but despite the practice of every pos-
sible economy that could be devised the number of men em-

*This amount was expended as follows:

Out of Plant Out of Federal Appropriations,
Act SDecial Fund by Bureau of Plant Industry
Month Tray. Tray. Totalfor
1916 Salaries IFxpense (SupDliesj Salaries Expenses ISugplies Month
May........ $35.00 $248.09 $183.99 819,281.05 $4.902.68 81.290.07 $25,940.88
June ......1 1.55.55 555.12 278.98 24,174.96 6,587.62 1,470.74 33,222.97
July .....~.. 102.50 141.48 73.99 27,107.05 8,478.96 1,616.83 37,520.81
August .. 101.67 42.72 137.25 27,852.45 8,686.97 3,919.60 40,740.66
Septemberi 260.33 71.56 95.99 27,919.88 9.517.53 4,380.90 42,246.19
Grand Total ..................................-----. 8179,671.51


State Plant Board


Equipment of Laboratory at Gainesville........................ 900.00
Postage .~..~.~..........~...~........~......... 125.00
Stationery ...................~.........~.......... 60.00
Reference Books and Publications ~.........~......................... 110.00
Photographic Equipment (Camera, Lenses, etc.).......... 140.00
Photographic Plates, Paper and Chemicals.................... 35.00




Tropical Laboratory, Redland, Dade County

Renewal of Glassware, Apparatus, etc...........................$ 125.00
1 Typewriter ............................~........~~. 100.00
Gasoline for Gas Plant................................... 80.00
Freight and Drayage~~~.....~~~~~~................... 60.00
Reference Books ........................................ 30,00
Repairs, Laboratory Building and Outdoor Equipment 30.00
Trees and Plants for Use in Experiments.................~.... 40.00


2,160.00


465.00

$ 8,125.00


Total, Department of Plant Pathology............







Annua2 Report, 19~5


ployed was not sufficient to secure the maximum efficiency and
speed in stamping out the various outbreaks. It is a certainty
that it will require a continuation of this work on at least as
extensive a scale as at present for two and one-half years to
come. Assuming that the Bureau of Plant Industry, United
States Department of Agriculture, will provide for the continu-
ation of this work from the time of this report until April 30,
19171 it is seen that sufficient funds for continuing the inspec-
tion and eradication work for two years from the latter date
must be available. Based upon the actual cost of conducting
this work during 1916 and without anticipating any unusual
developments or emergencies, the sum of $431,200.80 per an-
num, or $862,400.00 for the two-year period, will be required.
Assuming, again, that the Federal Government will co-operate
to the extent of paying one-half the cost of the eradication work
during the two-year period, through appropriations made by
Congress, a minimum of $431,200.00 must be made available
from other sources.
I therefore recommend that your honorable Board present to
His Excellency, the Governor of Florida, and to the members
of the Legislature, the advisability of appropriating not less
than $431,200.00 as a special fund with which to continue the
work of eradicating citrus canker.

GRAND SUMMARY OF FUNDS REQUIRED

General Fund, Fiscal Year ending April 30, 1918......$ 81,140.50
General Fund, Fiscal Year ending April 30, 1919~.~... 81,140.50
Special Fund for the Eradication of Citrus Canker~~ 431,200.00

Grand Total.......................~~~~.~......

Respectfully submitted,
WILMON NEWELL,
Plant Commissione?.
Gainesville, Fla.,
November 30, 1916.

































































































j I






; I_


















































I: ~)




















APPENDIX A



Rules, Regulations and Public Notices of the
State Plant Board of Florida


In force and effect on
October 31, 1916

















































Issued March 23, 1916


State Plant Board

OF FLORIDA






CIRCULAR NO. 10









THE FLORIDA PLANT ACT;~OF 1915
and

Rules and Regulations Made Pursuant Thereto by the State
Plant Board of Florida, Up to and Including
March 13, 1916


















STATE PLANT BOARD
Of Florida

P. It. YONGE, ChnirmcLrL..... .Pensacola
E. L. WARTMANN.... Citra
(r~ B. KING. ........~ .Arcadia
U'. D. FINLAYso~...... Town
F. E. JENNINGS. ....... - .Jacksonville
J. G. KELLUM, Secretal.~ ............. Tallahassee
Advisory Committee
LLOYD S. TENNY, Chailmalz....... O'l""do
W. J. KROME, Secreta?.ll. ........... .Homestead
p~ H. ROLFS. ....... Gainesville
Staff

WILMON NEWELL, Plant Conzmissioner. .................. Gainesville
E. W. BERGER, Elztomologist .................. - Gainesville
F. M. O'BYRNE, Nursery Inslector ................... ..Gainesviile
R. ~A,~6~RLE, ASSt. P2ant Pathologist. ................... .....Homestead
FRA~~Y~USTIRLING, General Inspector. ................... ...Gainesville













CONTENTS.

The Florida Plant Act of 1915 ................... ................... 5
Rules and Regulations of the State Plant Board. ................... .. 9
Public Notice, declaring certain insects and diseases to be public
nuisances ........ ................ ................ ....... 9
Mediterranean Fruit Fly. ................... ........., 9
Mexican Orange Maggot. ................... ........., 10
Gypsy Moth ................... ................... .... 10
Brown-tail Moth ................... ................... 12
Pink Bollworm ................... ................... 13
Cotton Square Weevil. ................... .............. 13
Mango Seed Weevil. ................... ................ 13
Avocado Weevil ................... ................... 13
Banana Root-borer ................... ................ 13
Citrus Canker ........................................ 13
Cocoanut Bud-rot ................... .................. 14
Brown Rot ................... ................... ..... 14
Banana Wilt Disease. ................... .............. 14
Rule 1.
Providing for inspection of orchards, nurseries, etc........... 14
Rule 2.
Prohibiting the movement of plants infected with citrus canker. 14
Rule 3.
Providing for the destruction of trees infected with citrus
canker, etc. ................... .................. ..... 14
Rule 4.
Prohibiting the movement of nursery stock ~ithout certifica-
tion, providing for the inspection and certification of nurs-
ery stock, declaring certain insects and diseases to~be
especially injurious, etc. ................... ........., 15
Rule 5.
Establishing a quarantine zone of one mile in every direction
from any property infected with citrus canker........... 19
Rule 6.
Providing for certificates of inspection, etc.. ................. 19
Rule 7.
Providing for a reliew before the Plant Board of any rule,
regulation, etc., on request of the party affected thereby. 22
Rule 8.
Prohibiting cropping in properties infected with citrus canker.. 22
Rule 9.
Regulatin~ the manner of conducting work in properties infect
ed witn c;,lns ccnker ................... ............... 23
Rule 10.
Relative to the harvesting of fruit in properties infected with
citrus canker ................... ................... .. 23
Rule 11.
Prohibiting the shipment into Florida of all citrus fruits from
the Gulf States, and from Mexico, and of all pldnts, fruits
and vegetables from the Bermudas. ................... .. 23
Rule 12.
Concerning the use of citrus leaves in disseminating beneficial
fungi .............. .......... ..........,....._ ..... 24









Rule 13.
Requiring nurserymen to furnish lists of consignees, contents
of shipments, etc. ................... .................. 24
Rule 14.
Prohibiting the importation of banana plants, cocoanut plants
and cocoanuts in husk. ................... ............. 24
Public Notices.
Declaring certain areas in Florida to be infected with Scaly
Bark ................... ................... .....24, 25
Rule 15.
Regulating the movement of nursery stock grown in Scaly Bark
areas .............. .................. ............... 25
,Rule 16.
Requiring the posting of properties infected with citrus canker. 25
Rule 17.
Governing the importation of plants and plant products into
Florida .................. .................. ......... 25
Rule 18.
Prohibiting the shipment of cotton seed, hulls and certain other
products, into certain areas in Florida. ................. 25
Public Notice
Declaring certain areas in Florida to be infected with Withertip. 26
Rule 19.
Prohibiting thk shipment of all citrus trees and plants into
areas free from Withertip. ................... .......... 26
Rule 20.
Providing for inspection of plants in transit, and treatment or
disposition of same ................... ................ 26
Rule 21.
Prohibiting the sale or exchange of trees or plants infested or
infected with especially injurious insects or diseases...... 27
Rule 22.
Requiring proper treatment of all nursery stock before its ship-
ment from areas infested Ijy the cottony-cushion scale.... 27











THE FLORIDA PLANT ACT OF 1915
(Chapter 6885, Laws of Florida)

AN ACT to Prevent the Introduction Into and Dissemination Within
this State of Insect Pests and Diseases Injurious to Plants and Plant Pro-
ducts of this State, to Create a State Plant Board, and to Prescribe its Pow-
ers and Duties, and Making an Appropriation for the Purpose of Carrying
out the Provisions of said Act.
BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF
FLORIDA :
Section i. This Act shall be known by the short title of "The Florida
Plant Act of 1915."
Section 2. For the purpose of this Act, the following terms shall be
construed, respectively, to mean:
Insect Pests and Diseases.--Diseases and insect pests, injurious to
plants and plant products of this State, including any of the stages of devel-
opment of such diseases and insect pests.
Plants and Plant Products.--Trees, shrubs, vines, forage and cereal
plants, and all other plants; cuttings, grafts, scions, buds, and all other parts
of plants; and fruit, vegetables, roots, bulbs, seeds, wood, lumber, and all
other plant products.
Places.--Vessels, cars and other vehicles, buildings, docks, nurseries,
orchards and other premises, where plants and plant products are grown,
kept or handled.
Persons.-Individuals, associations, partnerships and corporations.
Words used in this Act shall be construed to import either the plural or
the singular, as the case demands.
Section 3. There is hereby created and established a State Plant Board,
hereinafter called the Board. The said Board shall be composed of five
members who shall be the same persons who constitute the Board of Con-
trol created and authorized by the provisions of Chapter 5384 of the Laws of
Florida, and all of the authority by this Act granted to the Board herein
created and all the duties required of said Board shall be exercised and per-
formed by the members of the Board of Control, acting as the State Plant
Board. A majority of the members of the Board shall constitute a quorum
for all purposes. The Chairman of the Board shall be selected annually by
the members thereof. They shall be provided with a suitable office or offices
at the University of Florida where the meetings of the Board may be held
and its records shall be kept.
Section 4. For the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this Act,
the Board may employ, prescribe the duties of, and fix the compensation of,
such inspectors and other employees as it may require and incur such ex-
pt~nses as may be necessary, within the limits of appropriations made by
law. It shall co-operate with other departments, boards and officers of this
State and of the United States as far as practicable.
Section 5. The Board shall keep itself informed as to known varieties
of insect pests and diseases, the origin, locality, nature and appearance
thereof, the manner in which they are disseminated, and approved methods
of treatment and eradication. The Board, in its rules and regulations made
pursuant to this Act, shall list the insect pests and diseases of which it shall
find that the introduction into, or the dissemination within, this State should
be prevented in order to safe-guard the plants and plant products of this
State, together with the plants and plant products likely to become infested
or infected with' such insect pests and diseases. Every such insect pest and




6 THE FLORIDA PLANT ACT OF 1915


disease listed, and every plant and plant product infested therewith, is here-
b~. declared to be a public nuisance. Every person who has knowledge of
the presence of any insect pest or disease listed, as required by this section,
in the rules and regulations made pursuant to this Act, in or upon any
place, shall immediately report the same to the Board or an inspector there-
of, giving such detailed information relative thereto as he may have. Every
person who deals in or engages in the sale of plants and plant products
shall furnish to the Board or its inspectors, when requested, a statement of
the names and addresses of the persons from whom and the localities where
he purchased or obtained such plants and plant products.
Section 6. The Board shall, from time to time, make rules and regula-
tions for carrying out the provisions and requirements of this Act, including
rules and regulations under which its inspectors and other employees shall
(a) inspect places, plants and plant products, and things and substances
used or'connected therewith, (b) investigate, control, eradicate and prevent
the dissemination of insect pests and diseases, and (c) supervise or cause
the treatment, cutting and destruction of plants and plant products infested
or infected therewith. The inspectors and employees employed by the
Board shall have authority to carry out and execute the regulations and or-
ders of the said Board and shall have authority under direction of the Board
to carry out the provisions of this Act.
Section 7. Whenever such inspection discloses that any places, or
plants or plant products, or things and substances used or connected there-
with, are infested or infected with any insect pest or disease listed as a pub-
lic nuisance, as required by section five, in the rules and regulations made
pursuant to this Act, written notice thereof shall be given the owner or other
person in possession or control of the place where found, and such owner or
other person shall proceed to control, eradicate or prevent the dissemination
of such insect pest or'disease, and to remove, cut or destroy infested and
infected plants and plant products, or things and substances used or con-
nected therewith, within the time and in the manner prescribed by said no-
tice or the rules and regulati'ons made pursuant to this Act. Whenever
such owner or other person cannot be found, or shall fail, neglect or refuse
to obey the requirements of said notice and the rules and regulations made
pursuant to this Act, such requirements shall be carried out by the inspect-
ors or other employees of the Board.
Section 8. It shall be unlawful for any person to bring or cause to be
brought into this State any plant or plant product listed, as required by
section five, in the rules and regulations made pursuant to this Act, unless
there be plainly and legibly marked thereon or affixed thereto, or on or to
the car or other vehicle carrying, or the bundle, package, or other container
of the same, in a conspicuous place, a statement or a tag or other device
showing the names and addresses of the consignors or shippers and the
consignee or person to whom shipped, the general nature and quantity of
the contents, and the name of the locality where grown, together with a cer-
tificate of inspection of the proper official of the Statd, territory, district or
country from which it was brought or shipped, showing that such plant or
plant product was found or believed to be free from insect pests and dis-
eases, and any other information required by the Board.
Section 9. It shall be unlawful for any person to sell, give away, carry,
ship or deliver for carriage or shipment, within this State, any plants or
plant products listed, as required by section five in the rules and regulations
made pursuant to this Act, unless such plants or plant products have been
officially inspected and a certificate issued by an inspector of the Board
stating that the said plants or plant products have been inspected and found
to be apparently free from insect pests and diseases, and any other facts
provided for in the rules and regulations made pursuant to this Act. For
the issuance of such certificate, the Board may require the payment of a rea-
sonable fee to cover the expense of such inspection and certification; PRO-
VIDED, however, that if such plants or plant products were brought into




THE FLORIDA PLANT ACT OF 1915 7


this State in compliance with the requirements of section eight, the certifi-
cate required by that section may be accepted in lieu of the inspection and
certificate required by this section in such cases as shall be provided for in
the rules and regulations made pursuant to this Act. If it shall be found at
any time that a certificate of inspection issued or accepted pursuant to the
provisions of this section, is being used in connection with plants and plant
products which are infested or infected with insect pests or diseases listed
as required by section five in the rules and regulations made pursuant to this
Act, its further use may be prohibited, subject to such inspection and other
disposition of the plants and plant products involved as may be provided
for by the Board. All moneys collected by the Board under this section or
under section seven or fourteen shall be deposited in the State Treasury to
the credit of the general revenue fund receipts.
Section 10. Any person in this State, who receives from without this
statk any plant or plant product as to which the requirements of section
eight have not been complied with, or who receives any plant or plant pro-
duct, sold, given away, carried, shipped, or delivered for carriage or ship-
ment within this State as to which the requirements of section nine have not
been complied with, shall immediately inform the Board or an inspector
thereof, and isolate and hold the said plant or plant product unopened or
unused, subject to such inspection and other disposit~ion as may be pro-
vided for by the Board.
Section 11. Whenever the Board shall find that there exists outside of
this State any insect pest or disease, and that, in order to safe-guard plants
and plant products in this State, its introduction into this State should be
prevented, the Board shall give public notice thereof, specifying the plants
and plant products infested or infected or likely to become infested or in-
fected therewith, and the movement of such plants or plant products into
this State from the infested locality designated in said public notice, shall
thereafter be prohibited until the Board shall find that the danger of the in-
troduction into this State of such insect pests or diseases from Luch locality
has ceased to exist, of which the Board shall give public notice.
Section 12. Whenever the Board shall find there exists in this State, or
any part thereof, any insect pest or disease, and that its dissemination
should be controlled or prevented, the Board shall give public notice there-
of, specifying the plants and plant products infested or infected, or likely to
become infested or infected therewith, and the movement, planting or other
use of any such plant or plant product, or other thing or substance specified
in such notice as likely to carry and disseminate such insect pest or disease,
except under such conditions as shall be prescribed by the Board as to in-
spection, treatment and disposition, shall be prohibited within such area as
may be designated in said public notice until the Board shrll find that the
danger of the dissemination of such insect pest or disease ~s ceased to ex-
ist, of which the Board shall give public notice.
Section 18. For the purpose of carrying out the provisions and re-
quirements of this Act, and of the rules and regulations made, and notices
given, pursuant thereto, the Board and its inspectors and employees shall
have power to enter in or upon any place, and to open any bundle, package
or other container containing or thought to contain plants or plant products.
Section 14. Any person affected by any rule or regulations made, or
,notice given, pursuant to this Act, may have a review thereof by the Board
for the purpose of having such rule, regulation or notice modified, suspend-
~ or withdrawl~, ~uch review shall be allowed and considered and the cost
th~~i~d, assessed, i~o~l~ted and paid in such manner and in accordance
with such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the Board.
Section 15. Any person who shall violate any provisions or require-
ments of this Act, or of the rules and regulations made or of any notice
given pursuant thereto, or who shall forge, counterfeit, deface, destroy or
wrongfully use, any certificate provided for in this Act or in the rules and
regulations made pursuant thereto, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor




8 THE FLORIDA PLANT ACT OF 1915

and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not more than
live hundred dollars, or by imprisonment for not more than six months or
by both such fine and imprisonment at the discretion of the court having
jurisdiction. Said Plant Board shall have power and authority to enforce
its rules, ordinances and regulations in any court of competent jurisdiction
by civil, as well as criminal proceedings, and if the remedy to be pursued be
by writ of injunction, no court of this State shall have right previous to a
trial upon the merits to set aside such writ on bond. It shall be the duty
of the Attorney General and District Attorneys to represent said Plant
Board whenever called upon to do so. Said Plant Board in the discharge of
its duties and in the enforcement of the powers herein delegated, may send
for books and papers, administer oaths, hear witnesses, etc., and to that end
it is made the duty of the various sheriffs throughout the State to serve all
summons and other papers upon the request of said Plant Board.
Section 16. In construing and enforcing the provisions of this Act, the
act, omission or failure of any official, agent or other person acting for or
employed by any association, partnership or cdrporation within the scope of
his employment or office shall, in every case, also be deemed the act, omis-
sion or failure of such association, partnership or corporation as well as that
of the person.
Section 17. That the Board or any of its inspectors or employees shall
be a proper party in any court of equity to effectively carry out any of the
provisions of this Act when an injunction would be a proper remedy.
Section 18. This Act shall not be so construed or enforced as to con-
flict in any way.with any Act of Congress regulating the movement of plants
or plant products in inter-state or foreign commerce.
Section 19. If any section or part of a section of this Act shall for any
cause be held unconstitutional, such fact shall not affect the remainder of
this Act.
Section 20. For the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this Act,
the sum of tllirty-five thousand dollars per annum or as much thereof as may
be necessary is hereby appropriated out of any funds in the treasury not
ot~erwise appropriated, which said sum shall be placed to the credit of the
Board in the hands of the State Treasurer to be expended by the Board in
the manner as provided in Section 34 of Chapter 5384 of the Laws of Florida,
and the further sum of One Hundred and Twenty-five Thousand Dollars is
hereby appropriated out of the General Revenues to be set apart as a speci-
fic fund to be known as the Plant Act special fund, which shall be expended
by the Board, first, for the purpose of eradicating, preventing and controll-
ing citrus canker, and thereafter so much thereof as may be necessary, may
be applied by the Board to carryipg out the general purposes of this Act, but
of the funds aRpropriated by this Act, no more than the sum of $125,000
shall be expend~l~ for the eradication of citrus canker.
Section 21. All Acts and parts of Acts inconsistent with the provisions
of this Act are hereby repealed; all that Chapter 6156 Laws of Florida, 1911,
known as the State Nursery Inspection Law is hereby repealed.
SectionZe. ThisAct shalltake effect upon its passage and approval by
the Governor, or upon its becoming a law without his approval.
Approved by the Governor April 30, 1915.





RULES SND REGULATIONS


RULES AND REGULATIONS MADE BY THE STATE PLANT

BOARD PURSUANT TO THE FLORIDA

PLANT ACT OF 1915

*Under the provisions of the Florida Plant Act of 1915, Chapter 8885,
approved April 80, 1915, the State Plant Board of Florida, in accordance
with Section 5 of said Act, does declare the following insects and diseases,
and each and every plant and thing infested or infected therewith, to be
public nuisances:


Insect
Mediterrankan Fruit Fly
(Ceratitis capitata)


Plants Likely to Become Infested.
Almond (Amygdalus communists
Amatungula
(Carissa bispinosa) (G. arduina).
Apple
(Malus sylvestris) (PJrus malus).
Apricot (Prunus armeniaca).
Avocado
(Persea americana) (P. gratissima).
Banana (Musa sapientium).
Barbados gooseberry
(Pereskia aculeata).
Barbary Fig (Opuntia uulgaris).
Bean (Phaseolus uulgaris).
Belladonna' (Atropa belladonna).
Ca7-ica auercifolia.
Carambola (Averrhoa carambola).
Cayenne or Surinam cherry
(Eugenia uniflora) (E. nzichelii).
Cerbera thevetia (Thevetia neriifolia).
Cherimoya (Annona cherisnolia).
Chinese inkberry (Cestrum spp.).
Chrysobalalzzcs elli~ticus.
Citron (Citrus medical.
Cocoa-plum (Ch?ysobala~zus icaco).
Coffee (Co~ea arabica).
Eggplant (Solanum melongena).
Elengi tree (Mimusops elengi).
Fig (Ficus carica).
Granadilla
(PassifEora qzcadrnngularis).
Grape (Vitis vinifera .').
Grapefruit
(Citrus grazdis) (C. decumana).
Grumixiama or Brasilian cherry
(Eugenia dombeyi) (E. b?-asiliensis).
Guava (Psidiunz guajava).
Japanese persimmon
(Diospyros kaki).
Jerusalem cherry
(Solanzcm calosicastrum).
I(afir-plum (Harloephyllum caffium).
Kei apple
~ovycclis caffTa) (Aberia caffra).
Kumquat (Ii~ortunella japonica)
(Citrus japonica).


+ Adobted May 4. 1916. Amended Feb. 14. 1916.
i List used through courtesp of the Federal Rortieultural Board.






STATE PLANT BOARD


Plants Likely to Become Infested.

Lelrion (Citrus limonia)
(C. mediea var. limon).
Lime
(Citrus aurantifolia) (C. limettcq).
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica).
Malay apple (Caryophyllus malac-
censis). (Eugenia malaecensis).
Mammee apple (Mammea americana).
Mandarin orange
(Citrus nobilis delicious).
Mango (Mangifera bdiica).
Medlar (I~espilus germanica)
(Pyrus germanica).
Natal plum (C~^issa grandifEora).
Noronhia emal-ginata.
Orange jessamine
(Chalcas exotica) (Mu?raya
exotica).
Papaya (Carica papaya).
Passion flower (Passiflora caerulea).
Peach (Amygdalus persica)
(Prunus persica).
Pineapple (Ananas sativus).
Prickly pear (Opuntia tuna).
Quince (Cydonia oblonga).
(Pyrus c2/donia).
Red peppers (Capsicum spp.)
Rose apples (Caryophyllus jambos).
(Eugenia jambos).
Round Kamani Mastwood
(Calophyllum inophyllum).
Sapodilla, Chide (Achras saIoota).
Sour cherry (Prunus celasus).
Sour or Seville Orange
(Gitrus au~a~ztium).
Soursop (Annona m~icata).
Squash, pumpkin, gourd
(6ucurbita spp).
Starapple (Chrzjsophyllum cainito).
Strawberry guava
(Psidium cattleyanum).
Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).
Winged kamani (Terminalia catap~a).
Guava (Psidium guajava). *
Mango (Mangifera intEica).
Orange
(Citrus sinensis and C. aurantium).
Peach (Amygdalus persica).
Plum (Prunus spp~.
Sapodilla (Achras saioota).
Sweet lime (C. limetta).
Alder, speckled (Alnus incana) t.
Apple (Pyrus malus).
A.sh, mountain (Pyrus americana).


Insect


Mexican Orange Maggot, or More-
los Fruit Worm
(Anccstrepha (Trypeta) ludens).


Gypay Moth


(Porthetria dispar).


C List used through court~esr of the Federal Horticultural Board.
t List taken from Bulletin No. 250. U. S. Dept. of Apr. by F. H. Mosher.





RULES AND REGULATIONS


insect Plants Likely to Become infested.

Aspen, American
(Populus tremuloides).
Aspen, large-toothed
(Popzt2rts grandidentata).
Balm-of-Gilead
(Populzts bnlsamifera).
Beech, American (Fngzts gla~difolia).
Birch, gray (BetltIn popltbi~olia).
Birch, papef (Ectltla papy7ifera).
Eirch, red (Cetllu Iligla).
Bell elder (nce, negrzclrdo).
Earberry, European
(Relhelis vzLlgaris).
Bayberry (~I117.iC(L ca~'olinensis).
Birch, black ~Betztln lezta).
Birch, yelloR (Eetzcla. popzLlifo2ia).
Blueberry, low (Vncci,~iILm vncil~ans).
Blueberry, tall
(Vncci~zizcna cor~nzbosum).
Chestnut (Castn,2ecL de,2tnta).
Cherry, sweet (PI.I!?1ICS avizlm).
Cherry, ~ild black
(P~.1(172(S serotina).
Cherry, wild red (P?'IL~1ZLS vilginiana).
Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa).
Chokecherry (Pad~rs ?znna).
Cottonwood (Populus deltoides).
Cranberry, American
(OxJococeus macrocarpus).
Elm, American (Ulmus americana).
Elm, European (UlmzLs cnmnestris).
Elm, slippery (Ulmus fulva).
Fern, sweet (Conptonia peregrina).
Gum, sweet, or red
(Lig2cidamber styraciua).
Gum, black (Nzjssa s~lvatica).
Gale, sweet (Mylica gale).
Hawthorn (G~ataegus sp.).
Hazelnut (Corylus ame?icana).
Hazelnut, Beaked (CorZlluS rostrata).
Hemlock (Tstcga canadensis).
Hickory, bitternut
(Hickolin ccrcliformis).
Hickorv mockernut (HicX~orin alba).
Hickory; pignut (Hickolin glabra).
Hickory, shagbark (Hicl;orin ovata).
Hornbeam, American
(Cnrpin~Ls caroliniana).
Hophornbeam (Ostryn virginiana).
Larch, American (La?iz laricina).
Larch, European (Lariz decidua).
Linden, American (Tilea americana).
Linden, European (Tilea sp.).
Maple, Norway (Acer plantanoides).
Maple, red or swamp (Acer rubrunc).
Maple, silver (Acer saccharinum).
Maple, sugar (Acer saccharum).
Oak, black (Quercus velutina).
Oak, rock chestnut (Quercus printus).

































































~


STATE PLANT BOARD


Insect


Plants Likely to Become Infested.

Oak, dwarf chestnut
(Quercus prinoides).
Oak, burr (Quercus macrocarpa).
Oak, pin (Quercus palustris).
Oak, post (Quercus stellata).
Oak, red (Quercus rubra).
Oak, scarlet (Quercus coccinea).
Oak, bear (Quercus ibicifolia).
Oak, shin~le (Quercus imbricaria).
Oak, swamp white (Quercus bicolor).
Oak, white (Quercus alba).
Poplar, Lombardy (Popu2us nigra).
Pine, pitch (Pinus rigida).
Pine, red (Pinus resinosa).
Pine, Scotch (Pinus sy2vestris).
Pine, western white
(Pinus monticola).
Pine, white (Pinus strobus).
Plum, beach (Prunus maritime).
Pear (Pyrus communis).
Poplar, silver (Populus alba).
Rose, pasture (Rosa virgilriana).
Service-berry
(Amelanchier calzadeasis).
Sumac, mountain (Rhus copallina).
Sumac, scarlet (Rhus glabra).
Sumac, staghorn (Rhus hirta).
Spruce, black (Picea mariana).
Spruce, Norway (Picea abies).
Spruce, red (Picea rubens).
Spruce, white (Picea canadensis).
Sassafras (Sassafras sassaf?-as).
Willow, white (Saliz alba).
Willow, fflaucous (Salix discolor).
Willow, sandbar (Salix interior).
Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana).
Apple (P~TUS malus)"
Apple, crab (Pyrus coronaria).
Apricot (Prunus armeniaca).
Ash, Black (Frazinus Izigra).
Ash, Blue (Frazinus quadralzgulata).
Ash, Red (Frazinus pennsylvanica).
Ash, White (Fraainus americana).
Barberry (Berberia'uulgaTis).
Basswood (Tilia americana).
Beach Plum (Prunus maritime).
Beech, American (Fagus grandifolia).
Birch, Black.
Birch, Gray.
Birch, Paper.
Birch, Yellow.
Blackberry (Rubus villosus).
Box Elder (Acer negundo).
Cherry (Prunus avium).
Cherry wild black (Prunus serotina).
Chest~;t (Castanea dentata).
Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa).


Brown-tail Yoth
(Ezb~vroctis chrdsorrhaccr).


List from data furnished bJr the Bureau of Entomolow, U. S. D. A.






RULES AND REGULATIONS


Plants Likely to Become Infested.

Choke Cherry (Padus nana).
Crataegus, all species.
Creeper, Virginia
(Ampelopsis quinqzlefolia).
Currant (Ribes Iz~brum).
Elm, American (Ulmlts nnericana).
Elm, Cork.
Elm, English.
Elm, Scotch.
Elm, Slippery.
Gooseberry (Ribes g?oss~tla,-ia).
Grape (Vitis cordifolia).
Hophornbeam (Ostryia virginiana).
Hornbeam (Garpinus ca~oliniana).
Maple, Cut-leafed.
Maple, Red.
Maple, sugar (Acer saccharinum).
Maple, sycamore
(Acer pseudo-platanus).
Maple, white (Acer dasycwpzcm).
Oaks (Q2cel-cus sp.).
Peach (P~unus persica).
Pear (P1/TPLS communis).
Plum (P4zcnus domesticn).
Pll?`l~s pinnatifida.
Quince (Cydonia vztlgaris).
Quince, Japan (Cydonia japonica).
Raspberry (RZLbZLS StriSOSUS).
Rose (Rosa nitida).
Shadbush (Amelanchier canadensis).
Spiraea (Spilaea thunbegii).
Sumach, Mountain.
Sumach, Smooth.
Sumach, Stag-horn.
Walnut, black (J1Lglans Izigra).
Weigela rosea.
Willow, weeping (Saliz babyloniea).
Wistaria (~Vistaria consepuana).
Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana).
Cotton.

Cotton.

Mango fruit and seed.

Avocados.

Banana, sugar cane.



Plants Likely to Become Infected.

Citrus trees and plants, including the
following :
Bergamont (Citl.US be?gccmia).
Includes various kinds of medicinal
citrus.


Insect


Pink Bollworm
(Gelechia gossypiella).
Cotton Square Weevil
(Anthonomus uestitus).
Mango Seed Weevil
(C?~yptorhynchus mangife?~a).
Avocado Weevil
(Heiliious lauri).
Banana Root Borer
(Gosmopolites sordidus).


Disease.


Citrus Canker
(Pseudomonas citril






STATE PLANT BOARD


Disease Plants Likely to Become Infected.
Bigarade orange (C. uulgaris).
Includes the bittersweet, sour and
others of this type.
Citron (C. Medical.
Includes various varieties of Cit-
rons; also Cedrat.
Grapefruit, or Pomelo (G. decumctna).
Hybrids.
Includes the hybrids between vari-
ous species of citrus--known un-
der different names such as Mor-
ton, Rusk, Citrange, Pomerange,
Tangelo, etc.
Kumquat (C. japonica).
Includes the various kinds of kum-
quats.
Lemon (C. limonia).
Includes various varieties of lemon,
also rough lemon, everbearing
lemon, ponderosa lemon.
Lime (C. limetta).
Includes various varieties known as
Key lime, Mexican lime, West
India lime, etc.
Mandarin Orange (C. ?zobilis).
This includes all varieties of "kid
glove" oranges grown in Florida,
such as Satsuma, Tangerine,
King, Oneco, etc.
Otaheite (C. sinensis).
Pomelo--See Grapefruit.
Shaddock (C. decumana).
As separate from Pomelo. This in-
cludes several varieties.
Sweet Orange (C. aurantium).
This includes all round oranges
commonly grown for commercial
purposes in Florida.
Trifoliate Orange or 'LCit~-us trifoli-
(Lt(L)) (PO1ZCL;'I.US tlifoliata).
Cocoanut Bud-Rot Cocoanut.
(BacilEus coli, var.)
Brown Rot Lemons, oranges.
(Pythiacllstis cit?-ophora)
Banana Wilt Disease, or Panama Banana.
Disease. (Fusarium sp.).
Rule i"'. Inspectors employed by the Plant Board shall examine citrus
plants and plant products in nurseries, orchards and other properties within
the State of Florida, in order to determine whether these plants or plant
products are infected with citrus canker, and shall report their findings to
the Plant Board.
Rule 2Y. The planting, transplanting or otherwise moving of any plants
\rrhich are infected with citrus canker, or which, in the opinion of an in-
spector of the Plant Board, are likely to carry canker infections, is pro-
hibited.
Rule 3t. All plants found to be infected with citrus canker shall be

Adopted May 4. 1915.
t Adopted May 4. 1916. Amended June 19, 1915.






RULES AND REGULATIONS


elltirely destroyed by burning, and without being cut, or otherwise handled
or moved. Further, the ground shall be thoroughly burned for a distance of
three feet beyond the utmost spread of the branches of the infected plant;
provided, however, that the Plant Pathologist, acting under the direction
of the Plant Commissioner, may carry on such experiments with infected
trees as the Plant Commissioner may deem advisable, as looking toward the
control and cure of citrus canker. Said experiments shall be conducted un-
der such conditions as will not endanger healthy trees by the spread of cit-
rus canker.
Rule 4*. The movement of all trees and plants commonly known as
Ilursery stock, including bud~-ood and scions, which do not hare attached
thereto a proper certificate tag issue'd by the State Plant Board, is hereby
prohibited; and further, all rules and regulations for the inspection and
certification of nurseries, and for the establishment of quarantines, as set
forth in Circulars i, 3 and 7 of the Office of Inspector of Nursery Stock, are
hereby declared to be in force under the Florida Plant Act of 191Fj, in so far
as they do not conflict with said Act.
The following insect pests and diseases are hereby declared to be espe-
cially injurious and are declared to be insect pests and diseases which should
be controlled and their dissemination prevented, within the intent and mean-
ing of Section 12 of the Florida Plant Act of 19153


Insect Pest or Disease

Camphor Thrips
(C?yptothrips fEoidezsis).
Pear Thrips (Euthriios p2/ri).
Red-banded Thrips
(Helioth.lils rzcbloci~ztzLs).
Cloudy-winged White-fly
(Alty~odes nubifera).
White-fly (Ale2/rodes flolidensis).
White-winged TYhite-fly
(AleUrodes citril.















Wooly White-fly
(AleUodes howaldii).
PnlnleUodes pe?seae.
California Red Scale
(Chysomphalus au?antii).
Chaff Scale
(Pallato?ia pergandii).
Citricola Scale (Coccus citrieola).


Plants Likely to Become Infested or
Infected.
Camphor.

Pear.
Avocado, Guava, Mango.

Citrus, Indian laurel, Ficus nitida.

Avocado, Guava.
Blackberrv Boston ivy, Button bush
(Ce),hnjnzthlts occide,~talis), Cape
jessamine (Ga1denia), Cherry
laurel, Chinaberry, Citrus, Coffee,
English Ivy, Ficus sp., Green ash,
Honeysuckle, Japonica (Cnmellia
japonica), aessamine (Jasminum
sp., Mexican orange (ChoisZla
telnnta), Oleander, Osage orange
(il8acl~cln azL?a~ztinca), Persimmon
(Japanese and native), Pomegran-
ate, Portugal cherry, Prickly ash,
Smilax, Scrub palmetto, Tree-of-
Heaven, Trumpet flower (Teeoma
radicans), Vib~c?nlcm nzldum, Water
oak, Wild olive.
Citrus.

Avocado, Citrus, Pel-sia caolinensis.
Citrus, Rose.

Citrus, Camellia, Cocus plumosa.

Citrus, Elm, Nightshade,
Pomegranate, Walnut.


Adopted May 4. 1915. Amended Feb. 14. 1916. and March 18. 1916.






STATE PLANT BOARD


Insect Pest or Disease


Citrus Mealy-bug
(Pseudococcus citril.














Cottony-cushion Scale
(Icerya purchase).















Florida, Red Scale
(Ch7llsomphalus aonidum).










Florida wax-scale
(Ceroplastes floridensis).




Long Scale
(Lepidosaphes gloverii).
Mango Scale
(Protopulvbzaria psidii).


Plants Likely to Become Infested or
Infected.

Begonia, Bignonia sp., Bottle Bush
(Callistemon lancceoaatus), Bouvar-
dia sp., Ceanothus integerrimus,
Citrus, Coleus, Coffee, Cotton, Cro-
ton, Cyperus alternifolius, English
ivy, Ferns (Filica2es), Fuchsia,
Guadalupe Island Palm (Erythea
edulis), Habrothamnus, Ipgmea,
Lea?-ii, Oleander, Peony, Poinsettia
(Euphorbia pulcherrimma), Pine-
apple, Pumpkin, Purple Passion
Flower (Passiflora violacea), Sola-
num douglasii, Solanum jasmi-
noides, Strelitzia gigantea, St7e-
litzia regina, Tobacco,
Variegated Wandering Jew.
Acacias, Ambrosia, Apple, Apricot,
Australian pine, Banyan, Careless
weed, Castor Bean, Chenopodium,
Citrus, Cocoanut palm, Coleus,
Dwarf flowering almond, Fig, Gold-
enrod, Grape, Gumbo limbo, Locust,
Magnolia, Mulberry, Myrtle, Nettle,
Nightshade, Peach, Pecan, Pepper,
Pine, Pomegranate, Potato, Purs-
lane, Quince, Rosa de Montana,
Rose-fferanium, Roses, Royal Poin-
ciana, Sapodilla, Sheperd's needle,
Spanish Lime, Spanish Mulberry,
Spearmint (Melicoeca bijuga),
Stone-crop (Sidum sp.), Sunflower,
Sweet gum, Verbena, Ve?onica,
Walnut, White Oak, Willow.
Aspidistra lurida, Auracaria bid-
welli, Australian oak (Grevillea
ro~usta), Banana, Begonia mag-
nifica, Camphor-tree, Cinnamon,
Citrus, Cocoanut, Coffee, Dictyo-
sloermum albzLnz, Eucalyptus, Ficus
elastica, Fieus nitida, Guava, Ilen:
latifolia, Ilex lurida, Japonica,
Mammee apple (Mammea Ameri-
cana), Mango, Oleander, Palms,
Pandanus, Rhododendron arboreum,
Rose.
Andronzeda, Anona retieula, Alzthzr-
rium, Cinnamon, Citrus, EuolzJmus
japonicus, Fig, Guava,, Ilex glabra,
Lignum-vitae, Mango, MyrUe, Ole-
ander, Pomegranate, Quince, Red
Bay, Tea.
Citrus, Maalzolia f~scatn, Palms.

Citrus, Fifft Guava, Henna Bush, Lo-
quat, Mango, Mastic, Omelet tree
(Blighia sapoda), Sapodilla, Satin-
leaf, Star-apple, Wild Rubber.






RBLES.AND REGULATIONS


Plants Likely to Become Infested or
Infected.
Apple, Ash, Beech, Bladdernut, Cher-
ry, Currant, Hackberry, Linden,
Maple, Oak, Osage orange, Peach,
Pear, Pecan, Plum, Quince, Snow-
ball, Willow.
Banksia ilztegrifolia, Celcidiph~llum
japonicum, Citrus, Croton, Eleag-
nus, Fig, Ilea cornzcta, Oak, Olive,
Pomadelris apefal~z, Taxzcs eus-
pidata.
Avocado, Cape Jasmine, English ivy,
Guava, Rhyncospermum.
Acacia, Aetinidia, Alder, Almond,
American linden, Apple, Apricot,
Ash, Black walnut, Carolina pop-
lar, Ctctalpa speciosa, Cedar, Chest-
nut, Citrus trifoliata, Cotoneaster,
Crab-apple, Crataegus, Currant,
Cut-leaved birch, Dogwood, Elm,
English walnut, English willow,
Eucalyptus cor2/nocalyz, Euonymus,
European linden, Golden-leaved
poplar, Golden willow, Gooseberry,
Hawthorn, Huckleberry, Japan
plum, Japanese quince, Japan wal-
nut, Juneberry, Laurel, Laurel-
leaved willow, Lemon, Lime, Lom-
bardy poplar, Lonicera zylosteum,
Maple, Milkweed, Orange, Osage
orange, Prunus Avium, Peach, Pear,
Pecan, Persimmon, Poplar, Prunus
domestica, Plum, Prunus pissardi,
Prunus maritime, Ptelea trifoliata,
Quince, Raspberry, Rose, Snowball,
Spiraea, Spruce, Strawberry, Su-
mac, S~mphorica~ipzcs racemosus,
Weeping willow.
Abutilon, Morus nig~a, Box, Camellia,
Cinnamon, Citrus, Clematis flant-
mula, Convolvulus tricolor, Cycas
revoluta, Holly,.Ivy, Jasmine, Lau-
rel, Mimosa, Myrtle, Oleander,
Phlox.
Citrus, Euonymus latifolius, Osman-
thus, Palms.
Apple, Apricot, Cherry, Japan plum,
Locust, Maple, Peach, Pear, Pecan,
Walnut.
Citrus, Date-palm, Zizyphus pinna-
christi.
Sugar cane.

Sugar cane.

Hickory, Pecan.


Insect Pest or Disease


Putnam Scale
(Aspidiotus ancylus).



Purple Scale
(Lepidosnlohes beckii).



Pyriform Scale
(Protopulvinaria pldriformis).
San Jose Scale
(Aspidiotus perniciosus).


Soft Brown Scale
(Coccus


hesperidum).


Snow Scale
(Chiona8pis citril.
Walnut Scale
(Aspidiotus juglans-regiae).

Zizyphus Scale
(Parlatmia ziz~hus).
Cane Leaf-hopper
(Perkinsiella sacchaaicida).
Cane Sharpshooter
(Deliohax saccharivora).
Pecan Budworm
(Proteopteryz deludana).






STATE PLANT BOARD


Disease.

Pecan Case-bearer
(Acrobasis nebulella).
Pecan-tree Borer (Sesia scitula).

Blue-ffreen Citrus Beetles (Pach-
IlccezLs opalzls, P. distans, P. litzts,
and P. nzztrescens).
Boil Weevil
(Alzthonomus gl-undis).
Pecan Girdler
(Oncideres cingulatn).
Red and Black Citrus Weevil
(PiaepoLles rubra vittatus).
Striped Citrus Weevil
(ninllepes spellglerii).
Argentine Ant
(I?ldonzyl-mes hzcmilis).
Blight (EacillzLs amylovo?-us).
Bundle Blight
(PsezLdomonas uasczllarum).
Crown Gall
(Psaudonzonas tumefaciens).
Anthracnose
(Gleospo~ium musarum).
Chestnut Bark Disease
(Endothin pnaasitiea).
Citrus Scab
(Cladosporizsm citril.
Dieback
(Botl-~ospheaelia berengeriana).
Foot Rot (F~sM~ium limolzis).
Gray Fungus Gummosis
(Boyt?ytis uulg~is).
Leaf Blotch (Cercospora fusca).
Little Peach.
Melanose (Phomopsis cit?-i).
Nursery Blight
(PhJllostietn ca?llae).
Peach Rosette.
Peach Yellows.
Pecan Rosette.
Pecan Scab
(Fzcsicladium e~usum).
Powdery scab.
Rot (Diplodia natalensis).
Scab (Actinonryces chromogenus).
Scaly Bark
(Gladospo~ium herbnircm var.
citricolum).
Stem-end Rot (Phomopsis citril.
Withertip
(Colletotrichum gloeosporioides).


Plants Likely to Become Infested.

Hickory, Pecan, Walnut, Wild Crab
(Crataegus).
Chestnut, Dogwood, Hickory, Oak,
Pecan.
Citrus.


Cotton.

Hicltory, Pecan, Persimmon, Rose,
Walnut.
Citrus.

Citrus.

Fig, Orange.

Apple, Loquat, Pear.
Sugar cane.

Apple, Grape, Oleander, Peach, Pear,
Plum, Rose.
Banana.

Chestnut.

Citrus.

Pecan.

Citrus.
Lemon.

Pecan.
Peach.
Citrus.
Pecan.

Peach.
Peach.
Pecan.
Pecan.

Irish potato.
Citrus.
Irish potato.
Citrus.


Citrus.
Avocado, Citrus, Mango.






RULES AND REGULATIONS


Disease Plants Likely to Become Infested.

Root Knot Asparagus, Banana, Bean, Beet, Cab-
(Heterode,n radicicola). bage, Cantaloupe, Careless weed,
Carrot, Catalpa, Cauliflower, Cel-
ery, Cotton, Cowpeas (most), Cu-
cumber, Eggplant, Pig, Grapes told
world), Irish potato, Japanese per-
simmon, I(ale, Lettuce, Mulberry,
Mustard, Okra, Peach, Peanut,
Peas, Pecan, Papaya, Pepper, Pine-
apple, Pokeweed, Quince, Radish,
Rape, Soy bean, Squash, Sweet po-
tato, Sugar cane, Tobacco, Violet,
Watermelon.
Purple Mite Citrus.
(Tet?cLlzychlLs mlltilcLsiuidis).
Six-spotted Mite Citrus.
(Tet?atychzLs sezntaculatus).

Rule 5*. Every grove, nursery or separate plant situated in the State
of Florida which has been found to be infected with citrus canker is hereby
declared to be the center of an infected and dangerous zone, which zone shall
extend for a mile in every direction from said center and within which cen-
ter and zone all citrus trees or citrus nursery stock are declared to be plants
likely to carry and disseminate citrus canker. The planting or movement
of citrus plants within such zone is hereby prohibited and the movement of
non-citrus nursery stock from any point located within one-quarter of a
mile of such center of infection is prohibited, until such time as in the judg-
ment of the Board such dangerous conditions may have ceased to exist.
No certificate shall be issued for the movement of nursery stock from a
nursery outside of such zone in which vehicles, teams, laborers or other per-
sons, nursery implements or other things enter, that likewise enter or are
used in any nursery or grove infected with citrus canker.

Rule 61-. The Nursery Inspector shall be required to have prepared
and shall arrange that any person entitled thereto may secure, under such
conditions as the Nursery Inspector may name, certificates in proper form
and serially numbered, to be affixed to any nursery stock the movement of
which is permissible under the provisions of the Florida Plant Act of 1915.
The Nursery Inspector shall be further required to keep in his office
exact records covering the issuance of all such certificates and the move-
ment of nursery stock for which such certificates have been used, and the
persons by whom such certificates have been secured shall be required to
provide the Nursery Inspector, at any time and in such manner as he may
designate, with the information necessary for the keeping of such records.
The Nursery Inspector shall have authority to call for the return of any
unused certificates at his discretion.
The cost of printing such certificates shall be paid by the nurseryman
to whom furnished and in case any certificates are recalled before used the
cost thereof shall be refunded to the nurseryman.
The forms of certificates to be issued to cover the movement of nursery
stock shall be as follows:


* AdoptedJunelB,1Blj. AmendedJan;lOlS1B.
; Adopted June 19, 1916. Amended Nov. 8, 1915, and Feb. 14, 1916.





STATE PLANT BDARD


FORM NO. i. (Serial Number)
Issued ................, 191....
FLORIDA STATE PLANT BOARD
Of~ice of Nursery Inspector,
Gainesville, Fla.
NURSERY CERTIFICATE.
The undersigned hereby certifies that the. ................... ......
nursery stock, in the nurseries of. ................... ..................
located at. ................... ..t Florida, has been thoroughly inspected.
The stock, premises and adjacent properties have been found to be appar-
ently free from especially injurious insect pests and diseases. The owner
has affr6ed to completely defoliate (when possible) and to fumigate prop-
erly with hydrocyanic-acid gast or to otherwise treat as directed, all stock
sold or moved under this certificate, as provided in the Rules and Reffula-
tions.
A complete list of plants transported under this tag with the name and
address of the consignee is on file in the office of the Nursery Inspector at
Gainesville, Florida.
The use of this certificate tag upon nursery stock which has not been
inspected by a duly appointed nursery inspector of the Plant Board is a vio-
lation of the law and will be prosecuted.
Approved:

Plant Commissioner. Nursery Inspector.

FORM NO. 2. (Serial Number)
Issued. ..............., 191....
FLORIDA STATE PLANT BOARD
Office of Nursery Inspector,
Gainesville, Fla.
NURSERY DEALER'S CERTIFICATE
The nndersigned hereby certifies that the nursery stock sold by......
................... .....of. ................... ...., Florida, is appar-
ently free from injurious insect pests and diseases, and that the same may
be transported under the provisions of the Florida Plant Act of 1915.
The undersigned further declares that. ................... ........
has furnished him with names and addresses of the persons from whom and
the localities where he purchased or obtained the nursery stock sold under
this certificate.
A. complete list of the plants transported under this tag with the name
and address of the consignee is on file in the office of the Nursery Inspector
at Gainesville, Florida.
Approved:
'""""""""""""'
Plant Commissioner. Nursery Inspector.

FORM NO. 3. (Serial Number)
FLORIDA STATE PLANT BOARD
Office of Nursery Inspector,
Gainesville, Fla.
PACKAGE CERTIFICATE
................... ., Fla.,........19....
This is to certify that the contents of this package from..............
of. ................... ..., F':orida, addressed to. .........,.,.,., ...
of .................., State of .........,.,.,., have been carefully in-
~pected and found to be apparently free from especially injurious insect
pests and diseases and may be sold and transported under the provisions of
the Florida Plant Act of 1915.





RULES API'D REGULATIONS 21


The o.wner has agreed to defoliate (when possible), and to properly
disinfect as directed by the Inspector, the contents of this package.
A complete list of the plants transported under this tag with the name
and address of the consignee is on file in the office of the Nursery Inspector
at Gainesville, Florida.
The use of this certificate tag upon nursery stock \vhich has not been
inspected by a duly appointed nursery inspector of the Plant Board is a
\iolation of the law and will be prosecuted.

Nursery Inspector.

Inspector.

FORM NO. 4. (Serial Number)
Issued ................, 191....
FLORIDA STATE PLANT BOARD
Office of Nursery Inspector,
Gainesville, Fla.
NURSERY CERTIFICATE
The undersigned hereby certifies that the. ................... ......
nursery stock in the nurseries of................... ........., .located
at. ................... ........., Florida, has been thoroughly inspected.
The stock, premises and adjacent properties have been found to be ap-
parently free from especially injurious insect pests and diseases, but are
located in scaly-bark territory. The owner has agreed to completely de-
foliate (when possible) and to fumigate with hydrocyanic-acid gas, or to
otherwise treat as directed, all stock sold or moved under this certificate, as
provided in the Rules and Regulations.
A complete list of all plants transported under this tag, with the name
and address of the consignee, is on file in the office of the Nursery Inspector
at Gainesville, Fla.
The use of this certificate tag upon nursery stock which has not been
inspected by a duly appointed nursery inspector of the Plant Board is a
violation of the law and will be prosecuted.
Approved :
:""'
Plant Commissioner. Nursery Inspector.

The reverse side of the above tag to read as follows:
"Important. Read Carefully.
"This shipment is from a nursery located in Scaly Bark territory. It
may be moved to any point in the following defined areas: Pinellas County;
the area bounded on the east by the Indian River, on the west by the St.
Johns River, on the north by the northern boundary of the town of Cocoa
and on the South by the southern boundary of the town of Bonaventure;
the area bounded on the east by the Banana River, on the west by the In-
dian River, on the north by Banana Creek, and on the south by the southern
boundary of the town of Georgiana (meaning Fairyland Grove); the area
extending three miles in all directions from the Station of Knights in Hills-
~oro County, and the property of the Allapatahatchee Fruit and Vegetable
Co., occupying the El/z of the NEYa, the SWY4 of the NEl/a, the SY2 of
the NWYa of the NEY4, and the N1~ of the SE1/4 Of Sec. 27, Township 35
South, Range 39 East. It will be a violation of the law to plant these trees
in any other section of the State. Railroad and ezpress agents shall not
accept shipments bearing this tag for points not located in the above-named
areas."

The words "SCALY BARK" shall be printed in red letters directly over
the wording on this side of the tag.





22 STATE PLANT BOARD


FORM NO. 5. (Serial Number)
FLORIDA STATE PLANT BOARD
Office of Plant Commissioner,
Gainesville, Fla.
PORT AND RAILWAY INSPECTION CERTIFICATE
.................., Fla.,........19....
This is to certify that the undersigned has this day inspected the con-
tents of this package from ................... ...,............... .....,
consigned to......... ..............., State of........
and has found them apparently free from especially injurious insects, pests
and diseases. No plants or plant products were found therein, the impor-
tation of which is prohibited by the Rules of the State Plant Board of Flor-
ida under the Florida Plant Act of 1915.
All persons are warned, under penalty of the law, not to use this cer-
tificate tag upon any shipment, or upon any plants or plant products, other
than those described and inspected as above.
Authorized :

Plant Commissioner. Deputy Port and Railway
Inspector.

Rule 7". Any person affected by any rule or regulation made or notice
given pursuant to the Florida Plant Act of 1915, may have a review thereof,
for the purpose of having such rule, regulation or notice modified, suspended
or withdrawn, by filing a written request with the Chairman of the State
Plant Board, stating the particular rule, regulation or notice regarding
which action is desired and setting forth the objections to the enforcement of
said rule, regulation or notice.
At the time of filing said written request the person asking for such re-
view shall deposit a certified check for one hundred and fifty dollars ($150)
with the Chairman of the Board or, in case the destruction of property is in-
volved, with the agent of the Board responsible for the carrying out of the
provisions of the Florida Plant Act of 1915 in the locality in which the prop-
erty affected is located. Said sum of $150 is to be applied towards defray-
ing the expenses of a special meeting of the Board, providing the Chairman
considers the exigencies of the case require action before the next regular
meeting.
In case such special meeting is called the Secretary of the Board shall
present an account of the expenses incuri~ed for holding said meeting and if
these expenses are less than $150 the balance shall be returned to the per-
son requesting the review.
On such review all facts and representations offered on behalf of the
applicant or on behalf of the Board may be presented to the Board in the
form of affidavits.
The operation or enforcement of any rule or regulation made or notice
given by the Board is not to be held in abeyance pending a review thereof
but is to remain in full force and effect until modified, suspended or with-
drawn by action of the Board. Providing that where the enforcement of a
rule requires the destruction of the property of the party making the appeal
to the Board in the manner aforesaid and the said sum of $150 to cover costs
having been deposited with an agent of the Board, such destruction shall be
suspended until the party shall have had the opportunity of being heard on
his appeal; provided that the party thus appealing complies with the in-
structions of the agent of the Board to the end that no especially injurious
insect pest or disease shall be disseminated.
Rule 8t. The planting, cultivating or harvesting of any truck or field
crop in a grove or nursery which is, has been, or shall become infected with

Adopted June 19, 1916.
t AdoDted July 12, 1915.




RULES AND REGULATIONS 23


citrus canker, is hereby prohibited until such time as the Plant Commis-
sioner may deem such procedure unlikely to spread citrus canker.
Rule 9*. Hereafter, work in properties infected with citrus canker
shall be carried on by the owner or his employees, under the general super-
vision of agents of the Plant Board, appointed especially for this purpose.
Said agents shall have authority such that in case the work in infected prop-
erties is being carried on in such manner as to make likely the spread or
dissemination of citrus canker, whether within the affected property or other
properties, they may so restrict the manner of carrying on such work as to
prevent as far as possible the spread of the disease.
Rule 10t. The harvesting of citrus fruits from any grove which is,
has been or shall become infected with citrus canker is hereby prohibited
except when such harvesting shall be carried on under the immediate su-
pervision of an agent of the Plant Board whose wages shall be paid by the
owner of the huit, at the time it is picked. Said agent of the Board shall
be authorized to prescribe such precautions in connection with the harvest-
ing of such fruit and the hauling or otherwise moving thereof as shall, as
far as possible, render unlikely the further dissemination of citrus canker.
The packing of citrus fruit from such an infected property shall be car-
ried on only under the immediate supervision of an agent of the Board
whose wages shall be paid by the person operating the packing house at
vihich the fruit is prepared for shipment, or in case such fruit is not pre-
pared for shipment in a packing house, by the person owning the fruit at
the time it is packed. Said agent shall be authorized to prescribe such pre-
cautions in connection with the packing and otherwise handling of such fruit
for shipment as shall, as far as possible, render unlikely the further dissemi-
nation of citrus canker.
The shipment of citrus fruit consigned to any point in the State of Flor-
ida from such an infected grove or from any packing house in which the
fruit from such an infected grove has been prepared for shipment, is hereby
prohibited.
The shipment of citrus fruit in bulk or otherwise than wrapped and
packed in standard crates from such infected property or from any packing
house in which fruit from an infected property is prepared for shipment is
hereby prohibited, and the acceptance thereof for transportation by a com-
mon carrier is likewise prohibited.
Provided that this rule shall not apply to such properties as have been
declared by the Board as no longer infected with citrus canker.
Rule 11$. The shipment, transportation or carrying of any and all
citrus fruits, either by common carriers, dining or buffet cars, railway news
companies or individuals, into the State of Florida from the States of Geor-
gia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana or Texas, which states have consider-
able areas infected with citrus canker, is hereby prohibited; provided, that
this regulation shall not be construed as preventing through shipments of
Arizona or California fruits consigned to Florida points when in original
shipping cases and readily identified as such.
The importation of citrus fruits into the State of Florida from Mexico,
in which country the Morelos fruit worm or orange maggot is known to oc-
cur, is hereby prohibited and such importations arriving at any port, rail-
way station or other place in the State of Florida, or found in the waters
adjacent thereto, shall be subject to immediate confiscation by agents of the
Plant Board.
The importation into the State of Florida of any and all fruits, vegeta-
bles, plants or parts of plants from the Bermudas, wherein the Mediterra-
nean fruit fly is known to exist, is hereby prohibited and such importations
arriving at any port, railway station or other place in'the State of Florida,

r Adopted July 12, 1915.
Adopted August 9. 1915.
Adapted August 9, 1915. Amended December 18, 1915.





STATE PLANT BOARD


or found within the waters adjacent thereto, shall be subject to immediate
confiscation by agents of the Plant Board.
Rule 12*. On account of the danger of further spreading citrus
canker the practice of using the leaves, twigs or branches of citrus trees
and the products obtained therefrom for the purpose of disseminating the
fungi used for the control of the white fly and citrus scale insects is hereby
restricted to the use of such material as may be obtained from trees located
outside the limits of any area declared by the Board to be dangerous on
account of the prevalence of citrus canker therein and the picking, shipping
ox using of leaves, twigs or branches taken from trees located within such
dangerous area is hereby prohibited.
Rule 13*. The owners, officers and employees of any nursery which
may be found at any time to be infested or infected with any especially in-
jurious insect pest or disease, or which has heretofore been so infested or
infected, shall, on demand of the Plant Commissioner, furnish a list of all
shipments and sales of nursery stock from said nursery from any date set
by the Plant Commissioner up to and including the date of such demand.
Said list shall show the names and addresses of all purchasers, the names
and addresses of all consignees and a complete description of the stock in-
cluded in each and every shipment.
Rule 14*. The importation into the State of Florida of banana plants
or bulbs and the importation of cocoanut trees, plants or nuts is hereby pro-
hibited. Providing that this rule does not apply to the importation of cocoa-
nuts with the husks removed and not to be used for planting.

PUBLIC NOTICE Zy
Declaring Certain Areas Infected With the Disease Known as Scaly Bark.
Under the provisions of the Florida Plant Act of 1915, Chaper 6885
of the Laws of Florida, the State Plant Board in session at Gainesville, Fla.,
this Ilth day of October, 1915, and in accordance with Section 12 of said
Act, does declare the disease known as Scaly Bark (CladospolizLm he?burum,
var, citlicolum) to be a disease, the dissemination of which should be con-
trolled, and hereby declares the following areas to be areas in which citrus
trees are likely to be infected with said disease: Pinellas County; the area
bounded on the east by the Indian River, on the west by the St. Johns River,
on the north by the northern boundary of the town of Cocoa and on the
south by the southern boundary of the town of Bonaventure; the area bound-
ed on the east by the Banana River, on the west by the Indian River, on the
north by the northern boundary of the town of Indianola and on the south
by the southern boundary of the town of Georffiana (meaning Fairyland
Grove), and the area extending three miles in all directions from the Sta-
tion of Knights in Hillsboro County, and the property of the Allapatahatchee
Fruit and Vegetable Company, occupying the El/z of the NE1/4, the SWI/~
of the NE1/4, the Sl/z of the NW1/4 Of the NEl/a, and the Nl/z of the SEl/s
of Sec. 27, Township 35 South, Range 39 East.
14, 1916.

PUBLIC NOTICE $
Declaring a Certain Area Infected With the Disease Known as Scaly Bark.
Under the provisions of the Florida Plant Act of 1915, Chapter 6885
of the Laws of Florida, the State Plant Board in session at ~acksonvi~le,
Fla., this 14th day of February, 1916, and in accordance with Section 12 of
said Act, does declare, and give public notice thereof, that the following
area is an area in which citrus trees are likely to be infected with the disease
known as Scaly Bark~ (Cladospo~ium herbarum, var, citricolum): the area
bounded on the south by the northern boundary of the town of Indianola, on
Adopted september 18, 1915.
Adopted Oct. 11. 1S1B. Publ;shed Oct. 16, 1916. Amended Jan. iO. 1916, and Feb.
14, 1916.
~ Adopted February 14. 1916.





RULES AND REGULATIONS


the east by the Banana River, on the north by Banana Creek, and on the
west by the Indian River; and the area bounded on the south by the northern
boundary of the town of Cocoa, on the east by the Indian River, on the
north by the southern boundary of the Delespine Grant, and on the west by .
the St. Johns River, both of said areas being located wholly within the
County of Brevard, State of Florida.
PUBLIC NOTICE
Declaring a Certain Area Infected With the Disease Known as Scaly Bark.
Under the provisions of the Florida Plant Act' of 1915, Chapter 6885
of the Laws of Florida, the State Plant Board in session at Tallahassee,
Fla., this 13th day of March, 1916, and in accordance with Section 12
of said Act, does declare, and give public notice thereof, that the following
area is an area in which citrus trees are likely to be infected with the dis-
ease known as Scaly Bark (Cladospoliunz ILe~balzLn, var. citl-icolum):that
portion of Lake County, Florida, bounded on the north by Dead River and
Lake Harris, on the west and south by Lake Harris and on the east by the
eastern boundary line of Range 25 East.
Rule 15"". The movement of citrus trees, or parts thereof, from the
areas designated in the Public Notices by the State Plant Board as areas
in which citrus trees are likely to be infected with Scaly Bark, into all parts
of the State of Florida other than those specified as infected areas, is here-
by prohibited.
This rule shall not apply to the movement of citrus fruits that are in-
tended as food products.
Rule 16t. Every grove, field, nursery or other property in which has
been found any disease or insect pest which has been declared a public nuis-
ance by the State Plant Board under the provisions of the Plant Act of 1915,
shall be conspicuously posted with signs warning all parties against tres-
passing, said signs to read as follows: "No Trespassing. By Order of The
State Plant Board." The words "NO TRESPASSING" to be in letters no
less than four inches in height and the words "State Plant Board" to be in
letters not less than two and one-half inches in height, such letters to be of
prominent bold-faced type, easily read. The mutilatlon, defacing, remov-
ing or destroying of such signs by any parties whomsoever is hereby pro-
hibited. Provided that the posting of such notices shall not be required in
the case of any property which has been declared by the State Plant Board
to be no longer a danger center.
Rule 178. The introduction into the State of Florida through the
ports thereof of plants, fruits, vegetables or other material that is likely to
introduce insect pests or diseases especially injurious to the agricultural and
horticultural interests of the State is hereby prohibited; provided, however,
that plants, parts of plants, fruits or vegetables, the importation of w~,ich
into the State has not been specifically prohibited, and which shall be found
upon inspection by a properly appointed agent of the Plant Board to be ap-
parently free from such especially injurious insect pests and diseases shall
be permitted to enter the State and be transported, sold, or exchanged with-
in the State.
Rule 18~. To prevent the introduction of the cotton boil weevil into the
non-infested territory in the State of Florida, from any region in Florida or
from other states or territories in which the boil weevil is known to exist, the
shipment or transportation of the following articles from boil weevil infested
territory, into non-infested territory in the State of Florida, is hereby pro-
hibited: seed cotton, cotton, cotton seed, cotton seed hulls, seed cotton sacks
(used), cotton picker's sacks (used), Spanish moss, corn in shuck, living
Adopted March 13, 1916.
1 Adopted October 11, 1915.
t AdoptedNov.8,191S. AmendedFeb.l4,1S1G.
~ Adopted Nov. 8, 1916. Amended Dec. 13, 1915.
f Adopted December 13, 1915.






STATE PLANT BOARD


boil weevils in any stage, cotton plants or parts of cotton plants (baled cot-
ton, cotton seed meal, cotton seed cake and cotton seed oil excepted) and
shipments of household goods or other commodities containing any of the
foregoing; provided, that this restriction shall not apply to shipments of cot-
ton seed hulls between January Ist and August Ist of each year, or to corn
in shuck between July Ist and September 30th of each year; and provided,
further, that shipments of cotton seed for planting purposes may be made
when such shipments are accompanied by the certificate of a State or Gov-
ernment entomologist stating that such seed has been fumigated in a man-
ner to kill any boil weevils that may be contained therein; and provided,
further, that permits may be issued by the Plant Commissioner for ship-
ment of cotton seed from boil weevil infested sections to cotton oil mills lo-
cated in the non-infested section for crushing purposes only, under such
precautions and safeguards as he may specify.
.Shipment of household goods originating in any boil weevil infested
territory of the State of Florida, or in any other state or territory, when
shipped into the non-infested portion of Florida, shall be accompanied by
an affidavit showing that said shipments do not contain any of the articles
above listed and the shipment of which into the non-infested portion of
Florida is prohibited.
The keeping or having in possession of any living boil weevils, or any
eggs, living larvae or living pupae of said insect, in the non-infested portion
of the State of Florida, is hereby prohibited.
The Plant Commissioner shall, from time to time, publish and define
the territory in the State of Florida which is considered to be boil weevil in-
fested territory and which is defined as such within the meaning of this
regulation.
All rules and regulations of the Plant Board in conflict with this rule
are hereby rescinded.
BOLL WEEVIL INFESTED TERRITORY IN FLORIDA--DEFINED.
In accordance with the foregoing Rule No. 18 the Plant Commissioner
has defined, and does hereby define, as a result of inspections made by the
Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture, the Counties of
Hamilton, Madison and Taylor and all counties west thereof, in the State
of Florida, as being boil weevil infested territory within the meaning of
said rule.
PUBLIC NOTICE
Declaring Certain Areas to Be Infected With Withertip.
Under the provisions of the Florida Plant Act of 1915, Chapter 6885
of the Laws of Florida, the State Plant Board, in session at Jacksonville,
Florida, this 14th day of February, 1916, and in accordance with Section
12 of said Act, does declare the disease known as Withertip (Colletotrichuna
gloesporiodes) to be a disease, the dissemination of which should be con-
trolled, and hereby declares, that while this disease is generally distributed
throughout the State, the following areas are areas in which this disease
is not known to exist; the area bounded on the south by the waters of the
Bay of Florida, on the west by the Gulf of Mexico, on the north by White
Water Bay and its tributaries, and on the east by the eastern boundary-
line of Monroe County.
Rule 19t. The movement of citrus trees, or parts thereof, into the
areas designated in the public notices by the State Plant Board, as areas
in which withertip is not known to exist, is hereby prohibited.
Rule 20t. Any and all plants or plant products subject to the pro-
visions of the Florida Plant Act of 1915, whether in transit or in the hands
of possessor, may be held for inspection regardless of whether they are cer-
tified or not, and if such plants or plant products are found to have been
moved or transported in violation of the rules or regulations of the Plant
r Adopted FebruarJT 14, 1916.
Adopted February 14, 1916.




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